... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blind and disabled individuals eligible in December... Mandatory Coverage of the Aged, Blind, and Disabled § 435.133 Blind and disabled individuals eligible in... December 1973 as blind or disabled individuals, whether or not they were receiving cash assistance in...
... and your benefit rate will be $30 a month. (b) If you are a disabled child under age 18 and do not... payable if you received benefits as a child under § 416.1165(i), your benefit will be the amount payable... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of benefits; eligible individual is...
Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zirkel, Perry A.
Specific learning disability (SLD), although moderately declining in recent years, continues to be the largest of the eligibility classifications under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; NCES, 2012). The recognition of response to intervention (RTI) in the 2004 amendments of the IDEA as an approach for identifying students with…
Frick, Marty; And Others
Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for…
... those disabling effects as physical or mental disabilities. (b) Commencing date. The eligible spouse or... eligibility due to physical or mental disability. 21.3047 Section 21.3047 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... period of eligibility due to physical or mental disability. (a) General. (1) An eligible spouse or...
... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal...
... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal...
... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal...
... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... Corporation (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual...
.... The Railroad Retirement Act provides two types of disability annuities for employees who have been... part 220 of this chapter, is eligible for a disability annuity if he or she: (1) Has not attained... part 220 of this chapter, is eligible for a disability annuity if he or she: (1) Is under retirement...
... COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Payment of Claims § 104.51 Payments to eligible individuals. Not later than 20 days... compensation due a claimant under the Fund, the Special Master shall authorize payment to such claimant of the...
Shannon, Robin Adair; Yonkaitis, Catherine Falusi
This is the second of two articles outlining the professional school nurse's role in the special education process for students with disabilities. The Individuals with Disabilities in Education Improvement Act of 2004 mandates the special education process: identification, full and individual evaluation, eligibility determination, and development of the individual education program (IEP), including special education placement. Part 1 focused on the importance of the school nurse's role in student identification, response to intervention, and the full and individual evaluation. Part 2 highlights the school nurse's vital and unique contribution to the subsequent special education steps of eligibility determination, IEP development, and special education services placement and minutes.
Hatice Yildirim Sari
Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150
Lustig, Daniel C.; Zanskas, Stephen
Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the work value preferences of individuals with disabilities with the work value preferences for a sample of individuals without disabilities. Methods: The preferred work values of a sample of vocational rehabilitation consumers were compared to workers employed in a Southeastern university.…
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 111 [USCBP-2008-0059; CBP Dec. 10-28] RIN 1651-AA74 Customs Broker License Examination Individual Eligibility Requirements AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Final rule...
Louwerse, Ilse; Huysmans, Maaike A; van Rijssen, H Jolanda; van der Beek, Allard J; Anema, Johannes R
Today, work disability is one of the greatest social and labour market challenges for policy makers in most OECD countries, where on average, about 6% of the working-age population relies on disability benefits. Understanding of factors associated with long-term work disability may be helpful to identify groups of individuals at risk for disability benefit entitlement or continuing eligibility, and to develop effective interventions for these groups. The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the main diagnoses of workers who qualify for disability benefits and how these diagnoses differ in age, gender and education. Using a five-year follow-up, we examined the duration of disability benefits and how durations differ among individuals with various characteristics. We performed a cohort study of 31,733 individuals receiving disability benefits from the Dutch Social Security Institute (SSI) with a five-year follow-up. Data were collected from SSI databases. Information about disorders was assessed by an insurance physician upon benefit application. These data were used to test for significant relationships among socio-demographics, main diagnoses and comorbidity, and disability benefit entitlement and continuing eligibility. Mental disorders were the most frequent diagnosis for individuals claiming work disability. Diagnoses differed among age groups and education categories. Mental disorders were the main diagnosis for work disability for younger and more highly educated individuals, and physical disorders (generally musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and cancer) were the main diagnosis for older and less educated individuals. In 82% of the claims, the duration of disability benefit was five years or more after approval. Outflow was lowest for individuals with (multiple) mental disorders and those with comorbidity of mental and physical disorders, and highest for individuals with (multiple) physical disorders. The main diagnosis for persons entitled to
Haydon-Laurelut, Mark Andrew
Knowledge about disabled people has and continues to be dominated by the medical and allied professions and inevitably this provides only one story of disabled life: a story of a problem seeking solutions (Grue, 2015). The rehabilitative professions write most of what is read and written about disability. As a family therapist I wondered how family therapy might be constructing disability? If, as Michalko (2012) has noted, medicine finds a home in all kinds of places to what extent has it mad...
Despite the important role that leisure time plays in individuals' health, wellness and quality of life, the disability studies addressing leisure remain extremely limited. Examine how people with disabilities allocate their time to leisure activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using data at an individual level from the Time Use Survey for Spain in 2002-2003 and the social model of disability as a framework, we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on three aggregate categories (active, passive and social activities) for non-disabled, non-limited disabled and limited disabled individuals. Individuals who are limited in their daily activities are more likely to allocate their time to passive leisure (e.g., reading, television, video, and radio) and less likely to spend their time in social entertainment (e.g., theater, culture, and social events) as compared to non-disabled individuals. In addition, we find significant differences in minutes per day spent on leisure activities by gender, age, marital status and number of children. Accessible facilities and leisure installations as well as actions aimed at combating barriers and discrimination practices are needed to encourage participation in physical activity and social entertainment of people with disabilities. It is necessary to define, adapt and implement specific leisure activities that allow people with disabilities to fully participate in these activities and increase their levels of social integration and life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Human Development Institute, 2016
This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. It is hoped that it is also useful for families, as well as service coordinators and providers who directly assist families and individuals with developmental disabilities. The focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read…
Patel, Meera; Rose, John
The aim of the study was to investigate attitudes held by a British student population towards individuals with an intellectual disability. Students participated in focus groups addressing their attitudes, behaviours and perceptions of individuals with an intellectual disability. Thematic analysis was the method used to identify emergent themes.…
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs..., and Enrollment § 422.52 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals. (a) General rule. In order to elect a specialized MA plan for a special needs individual (Special Needs MA plan, or...
Shakeri, M T; Vafaee, A; Esmaeily, H; Shafiei, N; Bazargani, R; Khayamy, ME
Background Donor recruitment and retention are significant problems in blood collection agencies around the world. The Aim of this study was to determine the causes of lack of interest to blood donation in eligible individuals in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Methods This was a descriptive study. Cases were 1130 non-donor individuals. Participants were selected from eligible individuals in different regions of Mashhad. In this study, surveys included information about age groups, gender, resid...
... permitted by law, to ensure the retention of those who are injured on the job. Agencies shall work to... retention of these individuals. My Administration is committed to increasing the number of individuals with... statistics on the hiring of individuals with disabilities. Sec. 3. Increasing Agencies' Retention and Return...
Biddle, Nicholas; Crawford, Heather
To develop projections of the size of the Australian population aged 65 years and over eligible for disability support through the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) for the decade following its introduction, to support planning and costing of the scheme. We estimate disability and mortality transition probabilities and develop projections of the NDIS-eligible, ageing population from 2017 to 2026. An estimated 8000 men and 10 200 women aged 65 years and over will be eligible for support through the NDIS in 2017 (the scheme's first full year), increasing to 48 800 men and 56 900 women in 2026. Growth in the NDIS-eligible, ageing population has implications for relative budget allocations between the NDIS and the aged-care system, and projections of the size of this population are useful for calculating the overall cost of the NDIS. © 2017 AJA Inc.
... residency requirement, provided the individual is present in the State; (ii) Type of disability; (iii) Age... the most significant disabilities will be selected first for the provision of vocational... in the definition of “individual with a significant disability” in section 7(21)(A) of the Act and...
Werner, Shirli; Araten-Bergman, Tal
Introduction: People with disabilities often identify professionals' stigmatic views as significant barriers to accessing mainstream services. This study aimed to examine differences in stigmatic attitudes held by social workers toward individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), mental illness (MI), or dual diagnosis (DD) of ID and MI.…
The United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule amending Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations to provide a process for removal of certain identified individuals who are found not to be eligible as family members from FEHB enrollments. This process would apply to individuals for whom there is a failure to provide adequate documentation of eligibility when requested. This action also amends Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations to allow certain eligible family members to be removed from existing self and family or self plus one enrollments.
Raver, Sharon A; Michalek, Anne P M; Gillespie, Amy M
Caregivers of individuals with disabilities can experience stress as they manage caregiving responsibilities while they attempt to balance family, work, and the satisfaction of their personal goals. In this pilot study, 31 caregivers of individuals with a variety of disabilities completed a quantitative-qualitative survey. A statistically significant relationship was found between the age and severity of disability of the family member receiving care, the length of time care had been provided, the educational level and the relationship of the caregiver to the family member and reported feelings of optimism, humbleness, quality of family relationships, financial concerns, loss of control, and hope. When life goals were probed, the most common reported were achieving financial stability, having a strong, healthy family, and experiencing happiness. The implications for supporting caregivers and their families are discussed.
S. Garcia Mandico (Silvia); M.P. García-Gómez (Pilar); A.C. Gielen (Anne); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen)
markdownabstractThe trends in the composition of the disability insurance (DI) program show the strong increase in the incidence of mental disorders in its rolls over the past decade. In fact, the OECD reports that the share of individuals with mental health conditions represents one third of all DI
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Parts 27, 37, and 38 [Docket No. OST-2006-23985] RIN 2105-AD54 Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting and Extension of...
Full Text Available The low level of physical fitness of intellectually disabled individuals is most often the result of a sedentary lifestyle and the lack of the possibility for these individuals to take part in various forms of physical activity, and as a consequence these individuals are often unable to take part in any form of planned physical activities, are unable to adequately perform everyday activities and have limited abilities for performing workrelated duties. Regular physical activity can have a preventive effect, can reduce health risks and prevent the onset of various illnesses, as well as to promote an active lifestyle and increase physical and work capacities among the members of this particular population. Sport can play an important role in the life of individuals with intellectual disability as it represents a good basis for the development of physical and cognitive abilities. Team sports, which include interaction among a large number of people, a decision-making processes in a variety of situations and the understanding of the game itself in its constituent parts can be used as an effective and practical treatment of individuals with intellectual disability.
Shakeri, M T; Vafaee, A; Esmaeily, H; Shafiei, N; Bazargani, R; Khayamy, Me
Donor recruitment and retention are significant problems in blood collection agencies around the world. The Aim of this study was to determine the causes of lack of interest to blood donation in eligible individu-als in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. This was a descriptive study. Cases were 1130 non-donor individuals. Participants were selected from eligible individuals in different regions of Mashhad. In this study, surveys included information about age groups, gender, residence area, marriage, education; living situation and job as background variables. Less than 30% of the cases had enough knowledge about blood donation. There was a significant rela-tionship between location, age, education, occupation and social status with knowledge of blood donation, but there was not a correlation between gender and marital status. There are some factors which affect the decision for blood donation. There is a need to change the negative attitude by increasing the knowledge considering the individual and the social status.
... type of substantial gainful activity. (b) Childhood disability benefits. An individual who has attained... Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.467 Nonpayment of benefits; individual entitled to disability insurance benefits... definition of disability for disability insurance benefits purposes based on statutory blindness, as defined...
Borji , Rihab; Zghal , Firas; Zarrouk , Nidhal; Martin , Vincent; Sahli , Sonia; Rebai , Haithem
International audience; Purpose: This study aimed to explore neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) after exhausting submaximal contraction.Methods: Ten men with ID were compared to 10 men without ID. The evaluation of neuromuscular function consisted in brief (3 s) isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) of the knee extension superimposed with electrical nerve stimulation before, immediately after, and during 33 min after an exhaus...
Human Development Institute, 2013
This updated manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. It is hoped that it is also useful for families, as well as service coordinators and providers who directly assist families and individuals with developmental disabilities. The main focus of this manual is to provide…
Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael
Despite policies advocating the social inclusion of persons with disabilities in all settings that are a part of everyday life within society, individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are usually excluded from service in the military. This study examined the meaning of service in the military for individuals with ID from the perspective of various stakeholder groups. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with ID, 36 relatives, and 28 commanders. The recent model for social inclusion developed by Simplican et al. (2015) served as the basis for analyses. Findings suggest a successful social inclusion process for individuals with ID, which resulted in them feeling as an integral part and as contributing members of the military unit and of society at large. Social inclusion in the military was described with reference to two overlapping and interacting domains of interpersonal relationships and community participation. The interaction between interpersonal relationships within the military and community participation has led to positive outcomes for soldiers with ID. Recommendations are provided for the continued inclusion of individuals with ID in the military and in other everyday settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... seeking to employ individuals with disabilities. (5) In the case of any small business enterprise operated..., including enterprises established under the Randolph-Sheppard program, management services and supervision... and improve small business enterprises operated by individuals with significant disabilities...
Thanassoulis, George; Williams, Ken; Altobelli, Kathleen Kimler; Pencina, Michael J; Cannon, Christopher P; Sniderman, Allan D
Current guidelines recommend statins in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease on the basis of predicted cardiovascular risk without directly considering the expected benefits of statin therapy based on the available randomized, controlled trial evidence. We included 2134 participants representing 71.8 million American residents potentially eligible for statins in primary prevention from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005 to 2010. We compared statin eligibilities using 2 separate approaches: a 10-year risk-based approach (≥7.5% 10-year risk) and an individualized benefit approach (ie, based on predicted absolute risk reduction over 10 years [ARR10] ≥2.3% from randomized, controlled trial data). A risk-based approach led to the eligibility of 15.0 million (95% confidence interval, 12.7-17.3 million) Americans, whereas a benefit-based approach identified 24.6 million (95% confidence interval, 21.0-28.1 million). The corresponding numbers needed to treat over 10 years were 21 (range, 9-44) and 25 (range, 9-44). The benefit-based approach identified 9.5 million lower-risk (statin treatment who had the same or greater expected benefit from statins (≥2.3% ARR10) compared with higher-risk individuals. This lower-risk/acceptable-benefit group includes younger individuals (mean age, 55.2 versus 62.5 years; PStatin treatment in this group would be expected to prevent an additional 266 508 cardiovascular events over 10 years. An individualized statin benefit approach can identify lower-risk individuals who have equal or greater expected benefit from statins in primary prevention compared with higher-risk individuals. This approach may help develop guideline recommendations that better identify individuals who meaningfully benefit from statin therapy. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
... university affiliated programs or for projects of national significance grants must also contain an assurance... DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM § 1385.4 Rights of individuals with developmental disabilities. (a) Section 110 of the Act, Rights...
Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to elicit salient beliefs among pre-Medicare eligible individuals regarding (1 the outcomes associated with enrolling in the Medicare Part D program; (2 those referents who might influence participants' decisions about enrolling in the Part D program; and (3 the perceived barriers and facilitators facing those considering enrolling in the Part D program. Methods: Focused interviews were used for collecting data. A sample of 10 persons between 62 and 64 years of age not otherwise enrolled in the Medicare program was recruited. Interviews were audio taped and field notes were taken concurrently. Audio recordings were reviewed to amend field notes until obtaining a thorough reflection of interviews. Field notes were analyzed to elicit a group of beliefs, which were coded into perceived outcomes, the relevant others who might influence Medicare Part D enrollment decisions and perceived facilitators and impediments. By extracting those most frequently mentioned beliefs, modal salient sets of behavioral beliefs, relevant referents, and control beliefs were identified. Results: Analyses showed that (1 most pre-Medicare eligible believed that Medicare Part D could "provide drug coverage", "save money on medications", and "provide financial and health security in later life". However, "monthly premiums", "the formulary with limited drug coverage" and "the complexity of Medicare Part D" were perceived as major disadvantages; (2 immediate family members are most likely to influence pre-Medicare eligible's decisions about Medicare Part D enrollment; and (3 internet and mailing educational brochures are considered to be most useful resources for Medicare Part D enrollment. Major barriers to enrollment included the complexity and inadequacy of insurance plan information. Conclusion: There are multiple factors related to decision-making surrounding the Medicare Part D enrollment. These factors include the advantages
Bengtsson, Steen; Gupta, Nabanita Datta
The literature on disability has suggested that an educated individual with a disability is more likely to better cope with her/his disability than those without education. However, few published studies explore whether the relationship between education and ability to cope with a disability...... is anything more than an association. Using data on disability and accommodation from a large Danish survey from 2012–13 and exploiting a major Danish schooling reform as a natural experiment, we identified a potential causal effect of education on both economic (holding a job) as well as social (cultural...... with a disability indeed had higher levels of both economic and social coping. To some extent, having more knowledge of public support systems and higher motivation explained the better coping among the group of individuals with disabilities who were educated. Our results indicated, however, that a large part...
Lawler, James; Iturralde, Val; Goldstein, Allan; Joseph, Anthony
College curricula of engineering and information systems do not afford frequent engagement with individuals with disabilities. The authors of this research study analyzed the benefits of disability films for a community film festival of largely engineering and information systems students and individuals with developmental and intellectual…
Aim of the study. To evaluate the benefits of recreational activities, their organisation and realization for individuals with physical disabilities. Objectives. 1. To determine the accessibility and organisation of health promotion through recreational activities for individuals with physical disabilities. 2. To evaluate how economical-financial, informational, physical and psychosocial factors influence physically disabled people’s health promotion through recreational activities....
Sigmon, Scott B.
This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.
Smith, Matthew J.; Ginger, Emily J.; Wright, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.; Fleming, Michael F.
Services are available to help support existing employment for individual with psychiatric disabilities; however, there is a gap in services targeting job interview skills that can help obtain employment. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to VR-JIT (n=25) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n=12) groups. VR-JIT consisted of 10 hours of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic online training. Participants attended 95% of lab-based training sessions and found VR-JIT easy-to-use and felt prepared for future interviews. The VR-JIT group improved their job interview role-play performance (pinterview skills and self-confidence. Future research may help clarify whether this intervention is efficacious in community-based settings. PMID:25099298
... PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Options for Coverage as Categorically... institutions. The agency may provide Medicaid to any group or groups of individuals specified in § 436.201(a...
Darling, Joseph A; Circo, Deborah K
This quantitative study assessed whether presentation of preferred items and activities during multiple periods of the day (and over multiple days) increased indices of happiness (over time/sustained) in individuals with PMD. A multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to measure changes in indices of happiness of the participants. Participants were recruited from an adult day activity program specializing in providing assistance to individuals with disabilities. For Mary, baseline indices of happiness were 26.67% of intervals, increasing 6.76% during intervention to 33.43%. For Caleb, baseline indices of happiness were 20.84% of intervals, increasing 6.34% during intervention to 27.18%. For Mark, baseline indices of happiness were 40.00% of intervals, increasing 12.75% during intervention to 52.75%. Overall interobserver agreement was 82.8%, with interobserver agreement observations occurring during 63.04% of the observations. The results of the investigation demonstrated that presenting preferred items and activities increased the indices of happiness compared to baseline rates of indices of happiness. Results may have been more robust if the participants were assessed for overall responsiveness patterns prior to the initiation of measurement of indices of happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hilgenkamp, Thessa Irena Maria; Baynard, Tracy
Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have very low physical activity and low peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ), potentially explained by physiologically lower peak heart rates (HR peak ). The present authors performed a retrospective analysis of a large data set of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 100), with Down syndrome (DS) (n = 48) and without intellectual disability (n = 224) using multiple linear regression analyses, to determine if individuals with intellectual disability exhibit lower HR peak and VO 2peak than individuals without intellectual disability, controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Individuals with intellectual disability on average have significantly lower HR peak and VO 2peak than individuals without intellectual disability, even when controlling VO 2peak for the lower HR peak . This study suggests potential physiological differences in individuals with intellectual disability and warrants further investigation to determine their relevance to physical activity promotion and exercise testing in individuals with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lawson, Janelle E; Cruz, Rebecca A; Knollman, Gregory A
Providing equal-status contact between those with and without disabilities can improve attitudes and reduce discrimination toward individuals with disabilities. This study investigated community service learning as a means by which to provide college students with equal-status contact with individuals with disabilities and increase their positive attitudes toward those with disabilities. A total of 166 college students in one university in the United States enrolled in an Introduction to Disability course received content on disability in society and participated in community service involving 20h of direct contact with individuals with disabilities. Findings indicated that college students who had prior contact with individuals with disabilities had more positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities than college students who did not have prior contact at the start of the course. For the college students who did not have any prior contact, their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities became significantly more positive at the end of the community service learning course. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Matthew J; Ginger, Emily J; Wright, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Boteler Humm, Laura; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D; Fleming, Michael F
Services are available to help support existing employment for individuals with psychiatric disabilities; however, there is a gap in services targeting job interview skills that can help obtain employment. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to VR-JIT (n = 25) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 12) groups. VR-JIT consisted of 10 hours of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic online training. The participants attended 95% of laboratory-based training sessions and found VR-JIT easy to use and felt prepared for future interviews. The VR-JIT group improved their job interview role-play performance (p ≤ 0.05) and self-confidence (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and follow-up as compared with the TAU group. VR-JIT performance scores increased over time (R = 0.65). VR-JIT demonstrated initial feasibility and efficacy at improving job interview skills and self-confidence. Future research may help clarify whether this intervention is efficacious in community-based settings.
Arvio, Maria; Salokivi, Tommi; Bjelogrlic-Laakso, Nina
We aimed to ascertain the average age at death (AD) in the intellectual disability population for each gender and compare them to those of the general population during 1970-2012. By analysing medical records, we calculated the ADs of all deceased clients (N = 1236) of two district organizations responsible for intellectual disability services. Statistics Finland's database generated data regarding ADs of all inhabitants who had died after having resided in same district. During the follow-up, average ADs for the intellectual disability population and general population increased, and simultaneously the AD difference between these populations decreased. In the 2000s, the AD difference between the intellectual disability population and the whole population was 22 years for men (95% CI: -24 to -20) and 30 years for women (95% CI: -33 to -27). In 2000s, the mean AD of those with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability (IQ 50-69) for women and men was 56 (SD17) and 54 (SD18), and those with severe to profound intellectual disability (IQ<50), 44 (SD23) and 43 (SD21). Intellectual disability is still a considerable risk factor for early death. Among the intellectual disability population, unlike in general population, the lifespans of women and men are equal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Naruse, Takashi; Sakai, Mahiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Nagata, Satoko
Understanding causes of disability among elderly individuals is an important public health issue, particularly because of the increasing rate of disabled elderly individuals and the social costs in a rapidly aging society. Accordingly, we aimed to describe the diseases that precede disability and investigate the types of diseases that are related to severe disability among Japanese elderly individuals aged over 75 years. Using claim data from the latter-stage elderly healthcare system and long-term care insurance system, we identified 76,265 elderly individuals over 75 years old who did not qualify as disabled on April 1, 2011. Among them, 3,715 elderly individuals who had been newly qualified as disabled between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012 were selected. Disease codes from the medical claim data in the 6 months prior to disability were collected. All descriptions were developed separately for six groups divided by gender and disability level (low, middle, and high). The results of the ordinal logistic analysis including sex and age revealed that men tended to have significantly higher levels of disability (β = 0.417, p disability level groups. In low-level disability groups, cancer in men (12.8%) and arthropathy and fracture in women (11.9% and 13.5%, respectively) were as common as cerebrovascular disorder (12.2% and 9.7%, in men and women, respectively). Stroke was the most common disease for all genders and disability levels. The diseases preceding low-level disability differed by gender. This study demonstrated the need to consider arthropathy and fracture as well as CVD in order to prevent disability.
Vall Castelló, Judit
Policymakers and organizations representing people with disabilities have highlighted the importance of promoting the employment prospects of disabled individuals as a determinant to ensure their broader integration into the society. Policy reforms that attempt to incentivise disabled individuals to work typically involve reduced financial punishments for earning above a predetermined threshold (substantial gainful activity). This paper exploits a Spanish reform that entirely eliminated any disincentives for disabled individuals to work. Partially disabled individuals in Spain are subject to income taxation in all regions except in the province of Bizkaia. Before 2007, partially disabled individuals in Bizkaia were exempt from income taxation if they did not work. In December 2006, a new law was passed in Bizkaia that distinguished between individuals aged 55 or younger, who were no longer tax-exempt, and those who were older than 55 years, who continued to be tax-exempt if they did not work. I exploit this change in the legislation and employ both a difference-in-difference strategy comparing the employment outcomes of disabled young men across provinces and time as well as a triple difference model with disabled men older than 55 years, who are unaffected by the policy. My results show that the reform increased the probability of working by 6.5 percentage points for disabled men aged 55 or younger. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... provide a written communication to the railroad setting forth the reasons for the delay and an estimate of... speculation, stereotypes, or generalizations about individuals with disabilities or their mobility devices..., not on mere speculation, stereotypes, or generalizations about individuals with disabilities or about...
McEachern, Adriana G.
Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…
James, Jessica S.
Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…
The article presents results of a study on the correlation between value preferences and attitudes towards individuals with a disability. Five hundred and eighty respondents took part in the research, among them 300 special needs teachers (SNT) and 280 general teachers (GT). Attitudes towards Individuals with a Disability Scale and Brzozowski's…
Harvey, Philip D.; Heaton, Robert K.; Carpenter, William T.; Green, Michael F.; Gold, James M.; Schoenbaum, Michael
Background The Social Security Administration (SSA) is considering whether schizophrenia may warrant inclusion in their new “Compassionate Allowance” process, which aims to identify diseases and other medical conditions that invariably quality for Social Security disability benefits and require no more than minimal objective medical information. This paper summarizes evidence on the empirical association between schizophrenia and vocational disability. A companion paper examines the reliability and validity of schizophrenia diagnosis which is critically relevant for granting a long-term disability on the basis of current diagnosis. Methods This is a selective literature review and synthesis, based on a work plan developed in a meeting of experts convened by the National Institute of Mental Health and the SSA. This review of the prevalence of disability is focused on the criteria for receipt of disability compensation for psychotic disorders currently employed by the SSA. Results Disability in multiple functional domains is detected in nearly every person with schizophrenia. Clinical remission is much more common than functional recovery, but most patients experience occasional relapses even with treatment adherence, and remissions do not predict functional recovery. Under SSA’s current disability determination process, approximately 80% of SSDI/SSI applications in SSA’s diagnostic category of “Schizophrenia/Paranoid Functional Disorders” are allowed, compared to around half of SSDI/SSI applications overall. Moreover, the allowance rate is even higher among applicants with schizophrenia. Many unsuccessful applicants are not denied, but rather simply are unable to manage the process of appeal after initial denials. Discussion Research evidence suggests that disability applicants with a valid diagnosis of schizophrenia have significant impairment across multiple dimensions of functioning, and will typically remain impaired for the duration of normal
Darzi, Andrea J; Officer, Alana; Abualghaib, Ola; Akl, Elie A
The World Health Organization (WHO) was tasked with developing health system guidelines for the implementation of rehabilitation services. Stakeholders' perceptions are an essential factor to take into account in the guideline development process. The aim of this study was to assess stakeholders' perceived feasibility and acceptability of eighteen rehabilitation services and the values they attach to ten rehabilitation outcomes. We disseminated an online self-administered questionnaire through a number of international and regional organizations from the different WHO regions. Eligible individuals included persons with disability, caregivers of persons with disability, health professionals, administrators and policy makers. The answer options consisted of a 9-point Likert scale. Two hundred fifty three stakeholders participated. The majority of participants were health professional (64 %). In terms of outcomes, 'Increasing access' and 'Optimizing utilization' were the top service outcomes rated as critical (i.e., 7, 8 or 9 on the Likert scale) by >70 % of respondents. 'Fewer hospital admissions', 'Decreased burden of care' and 'Increasing longevity' were the services rated as least critical (57 %, 63 % and 58 % respectively). In terms of services, 'Community based rehabilitation' and 'Home based rehabilitation' were found to be both definitely feasible and acceptable (75 % and 74 % respectively). 'Integrated and decentralized rehabilitation services' was found to be less feasible than acceptable according to stakeholders (61 % and 71 % respectively). As for 'Task shifting', most stakeholders did not appear to find task shifting as either definitely feasible or definitely acceptable (63 % and 64 % respectively). The majority of stakeholder's perceived 'Increasing access' and 'Optimizing utilization' as most critical amongst rehabilitation outcomes. The feasibility of the 'Integrated and decentralized rehabilitation services' was perceived to be less than their
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aged, blind, and disabled individuals in States... Coverage of the Aged, Blind, and Disabled § 435.230 Aged, blind, and disabled individuals in States that... for aged, blind, and disabled SSI recipients using more restrictive requirements than those used under...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. 37.123... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.123 ADA... complementary paratransit service shall provide the service to the ADA paratransit eligible individuals...
3 ABSTRACT Name: Conditions for sports activities in selected organisations for disabled individuals in the town of Teplice. Aim of the work: Monitoring sports activities as a socialisation factor for integration and socialisation of individuals with disabilities caused by poliomyelitis in the selected town of Teplice. Another objective was to describe conditions of sports activities and to determine opinions of handicapped individuals on attendance at sports groups in selected centres as wel...
Erickson, William A.; von Schrader, Sarah; Bruyère, M.; VanLooy, Sara A.; Matteson, S.
Purpose: To determine what disability-inclusive policies and practices employers have in place and examine the relationship between these practices and the actual recruitment and hiring of persons with disabilities. Method: A survey 675 of human resources professionals who were members of the Society for Human Resource Management. Results: After…
...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of... Medicaid plan covered this optional group; or (3) He would have been eligible for cash assistance if he... optional group. (b) The individual would currently be eligible for cash assistance except that the increase...
Chiba, Yoichi; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Yoshida, Futoshi; Keino, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Mariko; Ikari, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Shikako; Hosokawa, Masanori
Our aim was to identify risk factors for falling and establish a method to assess risk for falls in adults with intellectual disabilities. In a cross-sectional survey of 144 Japanese adults, we found that age, presence of epilepsy, and presence of paretic conditions were independent risk factors. The Tinetti balance and gait instrument was…
Grimaldi, Caroline; Goette, Tanya
This study examined the role of the Internet and its usage on the level of perceived independence among people with physical disabilities. Discusses independence, perceived control, psychological self-reliance, adaptive technology, hypotheses tested, and future directions. A copy of one of the questionnaires used is appended. (Author/LRW)
Walker, Zachary; Vasquez, Eleazar; Wienke, Wilfred
The purpose of this research study was to explore the efficacy of role-playing and coaching in mixed-reality environments for the acquisition and generalization of social skills leading to successful job interview performance. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, five young adults with intellectual disability practiced…
Arvio, Maria; Salokivi, Tommi; Bjelogrlic-Laakso, Nina
Background: We aimed to ascertain the average age at death (AD) in the intellectual disability population for each gender and compare them to those of the general population during 1970-2012. Methods: By analysing medical records, we calculated the ADs of all deceased clients (N = 1236) of two district organizations responsible for intellectual…
Bonner, Vint K. H.
Employability skills are important for employment access, success, and excellence, regardless of disability status. Importantly, employability skills are essential to the employment success of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Unfortunately, there are differences between the employability skills valued by employers, and the employability…
Braam, Wiebe; Smits, Marcel G.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.
Recent meta-analyses on melatonin has raised doubts as to whether melatonin is effective in treating sleep problems in people without intellectual disabilities. This is in contrast to results of several trials on melatonin in treating sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disabilities. To investigate the efficacy of melatonin in treating…
Aleman, Steven R.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authorizes several programs to support and improve the education of children with disabilities. The grants to States, preschool, and infants and toddlers programs are formula grant programs that fund special education services. The discretionary grant programs fund research, demonstrations,…
Sullivan, Amanda L.; Bal, Aydin
We examined the risk of disability identification associated with individual and school variables. The sample included 18,000 students in 39 schools of an urban K-12 school system. Descriptive analysis showed racial minority risk varied across 7 disability categories, with males and students from low-income backgrounds at highest risk in most…
Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.
We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…
... simultaneously in section 502(e) private sector training activities operated by one grantee and a community... EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Private Sector Training Projects Under Section 502(e) of the OAA § 641.670 May an eligible individual be enrolled simultaneously in section 502(e) private sector training activities operated by one...
Tse, M My; Kwan, R Yc; Lau, J L
The increasing longevity of people with intellectual disability is testimony to the positive developments occurring in medical intervention. Nonetheless, early-onset age-related issues and concerns cause deterioration of their overall wellbeing. This paper aimed to explore the issues and concerns about individuals with intellectual disability as they age. Articles that discussed people older than 30 years with an intellectual disability and those that identified ageing health issues and concerns were included. Only studies reported in English from 1996 to 2016 were included. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct using the terms 'intellectual disability', 'ageing', 'cognitive impairment', 'health', and 'screening'. Apart from the early onset of age-related health problems, dementia is more likely to develop by the age of 40 years in individuals with intellectual disability. Geriatric services to people with intellectual disability, however, are only available for those aged 60 years and older. Cognitive instruments used for the general population are not suitable for people with intellectual disability because of floor effects. In Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities is the only validated instrument for people with intellectual disability. The use of appropriate measurement tools to monitor the progression of age-related conditions in individuals with intellectual disability is of great value. Longitudinal assessment of cognition and function in people with intellectual disability is vital to enable early detection of significant deterioration. This allows for therapeutic intervention before substantial damage to the brain occurs such as dementia that hastens cognitive and functional decline.
Park, Yujeong; Seo, Dong Gi; Park, Jaekook; Bettini, Elizabeth; Smith, Jamie
This study aims to explore the influences of personal, vocational, and job environment related factors that are associated with job satisfaction of individuals with disabilities in South Korea. Data for wage-based working employees from a nationwide survey were obtained, which resulted in a total number of 417 participants. The six hypotheses and mediation effects of personal and work related environmental factors were tested using the structural equation modeling drawn from existing research evidence. Results revealed that (a) life satisfaction and job related environments directly influenced job satisfaction; (b) the relationship between personal experience and job satisfaction was mediated by life satisfaction for both mild/moderate and severe/profound disabilities group; and (c) the mediating role of job environment between vocational preparedness and job satisfaction was only observed for individuals with mild/moderate disabilities. Summary of findings and implications for future research and practices are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael
Identity development among individuals with disabilities may depend on their being included in central institutions in society. The centrality of the military in Israeli society makes it a highly important setting for inclusion and identity development. We examined the self-identity of young adults with intellectual disabilities who serve in the "Equal in Uniform" project. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with intellectual disabilities. Findings showed that military service helped develop the identity of soldiers, which enhanced their self-efficacy. Participants described their participation in the military as an opportunity to take an active part in socially valued roles. Findings are discussed with reference to the effect of the project on the self-identity of individuals with intellectual disabilities. The meaning of successfully serving in socially valued roles for self-efficacy is discussed. Implications for rehabilitation Completing socially valued roles leads to greater self-efficacy, enhanced self-esteem and greater psychological well-being among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities within a central community setting (specifically the military) allows them to deal with issues of identity development, as it does for other young people without intellectual disabilities. Receiving ongoing positive input from others for one's abilities and success is a conducive factor in positive identity formation.
Burke, Meghan M; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Urbano, Richard; Hodapp, Robert M
With the growing life expectancy for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, siblings will increasingly assume responsibility for the care of their brother or sister with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Using a 163-item survey completed by 757 siblings, the authors identified factors related to future caregiving expectations. Siblings expected to assume greater caregiving responsibility for their brother or sister with disabilities if they were female, had closer relationships with and lived closer to their brother or sister with intellectual and developmental disabilities, and were the lone sibling without a disability. Siblings who expected to assume higher levels of caregiving had parents who were currently more able to care for their brother or sister with disabilities. With a better understanding of who intends to fulfill future caregiving roles, support can be provided to these siblings.
Jones, Sara K.
This article explores trends in research since the 1975 passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), notes gaps in the literature, and offers suggestions for future directions music education researchers could take in exploring the needs and experiences of music teachers…
Park, Jiyoon; Bouck, Emily
Although there are many secondary data analyses of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS-2) to investigate post-school outcome for students with disabilities, there has been a lack of research with in-school service predictors and post-school outcome for students with specific disability categories. This study was a secondary data analysis of NLTS-2 to investigate the relationship between current employment status and in-school services for individuals with intellectual disability. Statistical methods such as descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze NLTS-2 data set. The main findings included that in-school services were correlated with current employment status, and that primary disability (i.e., mild intellectual disability and moderate/severe intellectual disability) was associated with current employment status. In-school services are critical in predicting current employment for individuals with intellectual disability. Also, data suggest additional research is needed to investigate various in-school services and variables that could predict employment differences between individuals with mild and moderate/severe intellectual disability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Over the last 15 years, since introductionof the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA(Commonwealth Government of Australia,1992, there has been much discussionabout the extent and nature of buildingaccess for the disabled, particularly inresponse to proposed revisions to theBuilding Code of Australia (BCA and theintroduction of a Premises Standardcovering building access. Much of theargument which contributed to the twoyear delay in submitting a final version ofthese documents for government approvalrelated to the extent of access provisionsand the burden of cost. The final versionsubmitted to government by the AustralianBuilding Codes Board (ABCB (notreleased publicly appears to still containinconsistencies between the DDA and theBCA in several areas such as wayfindingand egress.In the debate preceding submission of thefinal version there appears to have beenlittle reference to access requirements forindividuals with intellectual disability (ID.This may be due to a general lack ofresearch on the topic. Consequently, thispaper uses a combination of theknowledge gained from a limited numberof previous wayfinding studies, literaturedescribing general problems faced bythose with ID and the author’s personalexperience observing others with ID tocreate a list of probable difficulties andsuggested solutions. The paperconcludes with a discussion about theassociated cost implications and benefitsin providing the required access.
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations.
Brady, Nancy C.; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista
The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People with Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities. PMID:26914467
Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A
This article describes the relationship between expressive communication impairments and common challenging behaviors in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. The communication challenges of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder/Intellectual Disability are described and several evidence-based intervention strategies are proposed to support communication so as to decrease challenging behaviors. Recommendations for practice are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Devshi, Rajal; Shaw, Sarah; Elliott-King, Jordan; Hogervorst, Eef; Hiremath, Avinash; Velayudhan, Latha; Kumar, Satheesh; Baillon, Sarah; Bandelow, Stephan
A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.
Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L
Over the last decade the UK Government has made proposals to empower individuals with learning disabilities. Strategies have been implemented to reduce institutionalisation and social segregation. Consequently, some learning disability services are being phased out and the focus of care has moved away from institutions and into the community and family domain. Focusing on discourse as a site for social action and identity construction, we used critical discursive psychology to examine focus group discussions between family carers about facilitating the independence of adult family members with learning disabilities. Unlike official UK Government and learning disability services' constructions of empowerment policy, we found that parents invoked empowerment talk: (1) as a resource to construct the facilitation of independence as an abstract, irresponsible, politically correct professional trend; (2) dilemmatically with meritocratic or practical arguments to undermine notions of facilitating choices; and (3) as a resource to construct new service developments as contrary to the preferences of people with learning disabilities. Parents also described individuals with learning disabilities as unable to cope, and drew stark contrasts between their practice and those of service-professionals when expressing concerns about empowerment. We discuss possible implications of such discourses and contrasts on opportunities for empowering individuals with learning disabilities. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many hours must a work-eligible individual participate for the family to count in the numerator of the overall rate? 261.31 Section 261.31 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.31 How many hours must a work-eligible individual...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Process. 37.125... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.125 ADA... § 37.121 of this part shall establish a process for determining ADA paratransit eligibility. (a) The...
... a special income level. 435.236 Section 435.236 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... in institutions who are eligible under a special income level. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid... not institutionalized; but (2) Have income below a level specified in the plan under § 435.722. (See...
... THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Financial..., nursing facilities, and intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded who would not be eligible... (hospital, nursing facility, or intermediate level care for the mentally retarded), or by other factors...
... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), no new or proposed revised collections of... as to preclude use of the arms at or above the elbows; or (v) Any other injury identified as eligible... deny the housing unit acquired by this benefit, to any person because of race, color, religion, sex...
Participation in social networking sites has considerable potential to leverage the individual's social capital, including persons with intellectual disabilities, whose real-world social networks are fairly limited. This study aimed to understand how individuals with intellectual disabilities use Facebook to access social capital benefits, if at all. Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with 20 adult Facebook users with intellectual disabilities. The online participation enhanced their bonding social capital as well as contributed to their psychological well-being through increasing their online visibility, popularity and sense of belonging. At the same time, they experienced stress and frustration due to usage difficulties, which prevented them from enhancing their bridging social capital. Participation in social networking sites may also leverage bridging social capital of persons with intellectual disabilities, but they need a more accessible platform and ongoing support to ensure safe and fruitful participation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Hall, Allison Cohen; Quinlan, Jerrilyn; Jockell, Catherine
As individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities become more engaged in community employment, it will be critical to consider how their employment experience changes as they age. Similar to other seniors, individuals will need to consider whether they want to maintain their employment, reduce their work commitment, or retire…
Steinberg, Marc L.; Heimlich, Laura; Williams, Jill M.
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although few tobacco control efforts target individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities, this population may be especially vulnerable to the deleterious effects of tobacco use and dependence. Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities…
Morash-Macneil, Virginia; Johnson, Friggita; Ryan, Joseph B.
Research has shown that assistive technology (AT) can help support employment skills for individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The authors of this review examined the effectiveness of various types of AT support for individuals with ID in the workplace with a focus on the participant's independent ability to demonstrate a specific…
Roelofs, R. L.; Visser, E. M.; Berger, H. J. C.; Prins, J. B.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H. M. J.; Teunisse, J. P.
Background: Executive functioning (EF) is important for adequate behavioural functioning and crucial for explaining symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with normal intelligence, but is scarcely studied in individuals with ASD and intellectual disabilities (ID). We therefore study EF in an ID population by comparing…
Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O
We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.
... Disabilities Act, or individuals with disabilities who are eligible for the vocational rehabilitation program... vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs, or other programs serving transition-age youth with disabilities. (b... preference, or invitational through a notice in the Federal Register. The effect of each type of priority...
This article evaluates three early intervention approaches--applied behavior analysis, TEAACH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children), a structured classroom-based program, and relationship therapy/"floor time"--to identify which aspects of each approach complement individual learning styles…
Panicker, Anuja S; Ramesh, Sonali
The psychological status of caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric illness (PI) is important for effective management. The aim of this study was to examine the psychological status and its relationship with coping styles among these caregivers. Caregivers (N = 80) of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 40) and PI (n = 40) were administered a socio-demographic questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and COPE Inventory. Caregivers experienced depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. These symptoms were found to be significantly higher among caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability than those with PI. The most common coping style used was religious coping. Use of positive reinterpretation and growth was associated with lower levels of depression and stress symptoms. Caregivers' mental health plays an important role in the quality of care delivery and outcome. Use of appropriate coping styles can reduce the impact of these symptoms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Exploring the life stories of leaders in the self-advocacy movement can expand our knowledge about leadership development of individuals with developmental disabilities. A better understanding of this process may assist with supporting the movement and leadership development of youth with disabilities. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 leaders in the self-advocacy movement within the USA in order to explore their life stories. Purposeful sampling contributed to a diverse sample of leaders. A grounded theory approach led to the identification of major themes and factors associated with their leadership development. Four major themes emerged: (1) disability oppression and resistance; (2) environmental supports and relationships; (3) leadership skills; and (4) advanced leadership opportunities. Findings have conceptual and practical relevance for future interventions and research. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Stephens, Dawn L; Collins, Michael D; Dodder, Richard A
Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make employment more successful [McConkey, R. & Mezza F. (2001). Employment aspirations of people with learning disabilities attending day centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(4), 309-318; Stevens, G. (2002). Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in south east UK. Disability and Society, 17(7), 779-796; Capella, M., Roessler, R., & Hemmeria, K. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23; Ingraham, K., Rahimi, M., Tsang, H., Chan, F., & Oulvey, E. (2001). Work support groups in state vocational rehabilitation agency settings: a case study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 5(1), 6-21; Gosling, V. & Cotterill, L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people with learning difficulties? Disability and Society, 15(7), 1001-1018; Neitupski, J. & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2000). A systematic process for carving supported employment positions for people with severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 12(2), 103-119]. While research has accumulated that has examined predictors of successful employment, this research assessed longitudinal outcomes of employment. Data were obtained from an existing data set of all known persons receiving services from the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (N=2760). Results indicated that as people moved to employment, scores on adaptive skills increased, that as people moved
Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P
To emphasise the oral health needs of older individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, the impact on the individual's general health and the role that can be played by nurses. All too often an examination and consideration of the oral health condition of this patient population by nurses/physicians is cursory at best. The increasing retention of the dentition into later years of life provides both the favourable abilities for eating, speech and self esteem, but also the potential for local and general health concerns. Discursive paper. Based on the findings from dental examination of thousands of international athletes in the Special Olympic Games and clinical experiences in academic and private practice settings for care of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, a discursive listing was developed for use in a preliminary examination of the oral cavity. A nurse can play a critical role in the examination, preventive services and referrals for dental care for older individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The specific oral health needs of older individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities should be an integral component of the preventive and general health care provided by nurses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P
The ADA Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct is an expression of the obligation occurring between the profession and society to meet the oral health needs of the public. At a time of economic concerns for the profession, suggestions are made to bring together the ethics of the profession and the need to expand services to underserved populations, including individuals with disabilities and the poor. The profession's effort to secure economic support for such an effort is possible with increased legislative awareness of the magnitude of the problem. To this end, the number of individuals with disabilities was developed for each Congressional district in New York State in an effort to challenge members of Congress to recognize the need in terms of their constituents, rather than in terms of the tens of millions with disabilities in the United States-which become "just numbers," not actual people.
Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To systematically summarize the randomized trial evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT in patients with depression in receipt of disability benefits in comparison to those not receiving disability benefits.All relevant RCTs from a database of randomized controlled and comparative studies examining the effects of psychotherapy for adult depression (http://www.evidencebasedpsychotherapies.org, electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCINFO, AMED, CINAHL and CENTRAL to June 2011, and bibliographies of all relevant articles. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: Adult patients with major depression, randomly assigned to CBT versus minimal/no treatment or care-as-usual.Three teams of reviewers, independently and in duplicate, completed title and abstract screening, full text review and data extraction. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to summarize data.Of 92 eligible trials, 70 provided author contact information; of these 56 (80% were successfully contacted to establish if they captured receipt of benefits as a baseline characteristic; 8 recorded benefit status, and 3 enrolled some patients in receipt of benefits, of which 2 provided individual patient data. Including both patients receiving and not receiving disability benefits, 2 trials (227 patients suggested a possible reduction in depression with CBT, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, mean difference [MD] (95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.61 (-5.28, 0.07, p = 0.06; minimally important difference of 5. The effect appeared larger, though not significantly, in those in receipt of benefits (34 patients versus not receiving benefits (193 patients; MD (95% CI = -4.46 (-12.21, 3.30, p = 0.26.Our data does not support the hypothesis that CBT has smaller effects in depressed patients receiving disability benefits versus other patients. Given that the confidence interval is wide, a
Root, Jenny; Saunders, Alicia; Spooner, Fred; Brosh, Chelsi
The ability to solve mathematical problems related to purchasing and personal finance is important in promoting skill generalization and increasing independence for individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities (IDs). Using a multiple probe across participant design, this study investigated the effects of modified schema-based instruction…
McMorris, Carly A.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Cappelletti, Gabriella; Lunsky, Yona
Carers of individuals with an intellectual disability are often responsible for managing their children's psychiatric crises when they arise. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of families using crisis and short-term transitional supports from the perspectives of families and of crisis and transitional support staff. Three…
Aleman, Steven R.
This report provides a review of programs authorized under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and an overview of potential reauthorization issues, as the second session of the 103rd Congress considers revisions to these programs. The Infants and Toddlers Program (Part H of IDEA) provides formula grants to participating States…
Favazza, Paddy C.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Meyer, Lori E.; Yu, SeonYeong; Mouzourou, Chryso
UNICEF's new Millennium Development Goals and Beyond (2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/) focus on the needs of the largest marginalised minority, individuals with disabilities, challenging us to examine issues related to exclusion and develop strategies for making an authentic sense of belonging and high-quality early childhood education a…
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Technology and Media Services for Individuals With Disabilities--Stepping-Up Technology Implementation Correction In notice document 2012-12278 appearing on pages 29989 through 29995 in the issue of Monday, May 21, 2012 make the following correction...
Lang, Russell; White, Pamela J.; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Kang, Soyeon; Aquilar, Jeannie; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert
We reviewed studies involving the treatment of bruxism (i.e., teeth clenching or teeth grinding) in individuals with developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) procedures…
Munde, V.S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.; Nakken, H.
In the support of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), assessing the level of alertness is a recurring issue for parents and other direct support persons. Although observations show clear advantages above and beyond other assessment methods, there are problems
Carlin, Michael; Toglia, Michael P.; Belmonte, Colleen; DiMeglio, Chiara
In the present study the effects of visual, auditory, and audio-visual presentation formats on memory for thematically constructed lists were assessed in individuals with intellectual disability and mental age-matched children. The auditory recognition test included target items, unrelated foils, and two types of semantic lures: critical related…
Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Rolider, Natalie U.
The purpose of the current study was to critically examine the existing literature on the treatment of pica displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for empirically supported treatments as described by Divisions 12 and 16 of APA, and adapted for studies employing single-case designs were used to review this body of…
Vermeer, Adri; Lijnse, Margot; Lindhout, Marleen
The results of a study examining the psychometric quality of a pictorial scale to measure perceived physical competence, perceived cognitive competence and perceived social acceptance by peers and caregivers in individuals with intellectual disabilities are reported. The scale was administered twice to 100 subjects. The stability of the scale…
Colwell, Cynthia M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of disability simulations on the attitudes of individuals who will be working with children with special needs in music settings and to compare these attitudes between student music therapists and pre-service music educators. Each participant completed a questionnaire on the first day of class…
Lustig, Daniel C.; Zanskas, Stephen
Although research supports a relationship between work and psychological factors, one area not studied is the relationship between preferred career value and psychological factors. This study investigated the relationship between preferred career values and psychological problems for individuals with disabilities. Career values have been shown to…
Sinclair, James; Unruh, Deanne; Lindstrom, Lauren; Scanlon, David
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) experience multiple barriers that may prevent them from understanding and exploring their own sexuality. These barriers prevent them from achieving the same autonomy and quality of life as their peers. This research synthesis focuses on 13 articles published between 2000 and 2013…
This manuscript provides a review of housing and independent living options for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD). While there has certainly been an increased emphasis on community integration and inclusion for people with I/DD, barriers to delivering housing supports and services in natural, integrated settings…
Amado, Angela Novak; Stancliffe, Roger J.; McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip
As more individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities are physically included in community life, in schools, neighborhoods, jobs, recreation, and congregations, the challenge of going beyond physical inclusion to true social inclusion becomes more apparent. This article summarizes the status of the research about community participation…
Cox, Alison D.; Dube, Charmayne; Temple, Beverley
Many individuals with intellectual disability engage in challenging behaviour. This can significantly limit quality of life and also negatively impact caregivers (e.g., direct care staff, family caregivers and teachers). Fortunately, efficacious staff training may alleviate some negative side effects of client challenging behaviour. Currently, a…
Shepherd, Terry L.
Weekly television series have more influence on American society than any other form of media, and with many of these series available on DVDs, television series are readily accessible to most consumers. Studying television series provides a unique perspective on society's view of individuals with disabilities and influences how teachers and peers…
Kim, Jemma; Kimm, Christina H.
This study employs a meta-analysis of single-subject design research to investigate the efficacy of mobile device-based interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to further examine possible variables that may moderate the intervention outcomes. A total of 23 studies, 78 participants, and 140 observed cases that met the…
Cook, Erin E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Werth, Jilynn M.; Allen, Kathleen P.
A sample of 124 service providers (e.g. mental health professionals, educators, administrators) completed a survey about bullying of individuals with disabilities and the use and perceived effectiveness of resources and strategies to address bullying. Providing support and performing an action in response to bullying were reported to be used more…
Lin, E.; Balogh, R.; Cobigo, V.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Wilton, A. S.; Lunsky, Y.
Background: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high rates of physical and mental health problems; yet their health care is often inadequate. Information about their characteristics and health services needs is critical for planning efficient and equitable services. A logical source of such information is…
Bexkens, A.; Ruzzano, L.; Collot D'Escury-Koenigs, A.M.L.; van der Molen, M.W.; Huizenga, H.M.
Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are characterised by inhibition deficits; however, the magnitude of these deficits is still subject to debate. This meta-analytic study therefore has two aims: first to assess the magnitude of inhibition deficits in ID, and second to
McClinton, Shane; Weber, Carolyn F; Heiderscheit, Bryan
Lack of response to plantar heel pain (PHP) treatment may be related to unmanaged low back pain (LBP) and low back dysfunction, but a relationship between LBP and PHP has not been established. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of LBP among individuals with and without PHP and to assess the association between low back disability and foot/ankle function. A cross-sectional study compared the prevalence and likelihood of LBP in individuals with (n=27) and without (n=27) PHP matched to age, sex, BMI, foot posture, and foot mobility. In individuals with PHP, correlations were examined between foot/ankle function using the foot and ankle ability measure (FAAM), low back disability using the Oswestry low back disability questionnaire (OSW), duration of PHP symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and age. A greater percentage of individuals with PHP had LBP (74% versus 37% of controls, odds ratio=5.2, P=0.009) and higher levels of low back disability (17% higher OSW score than controls, PPHP, FAAM scores were correlated with OSW scores (ρ=-0.463, P=0.015), but not with duration of PHP symptoms, BMI, or age (P>0.150). Individuals with PHP had a greater prevalence of LBP and higher low back disability that was correlated to reduced foot and ankle function. Treatment to address both local and proximal impairments, including impairments related to LBP, may be warranted to improve the management of PHP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haymes, Linda K; Storey, Keith; Maldonado, Ana; Post, Michal; Montgomery, Joyce
Individuals with intellectual disabilities often have special healthcare concerns such as diabetes, kidney disease, severe allergies, progressive illnesses, respiratory weaknesses, and obesity. Smart technology can be an asset for individuals with intellectual disabilities for better managing their healthcare needs. A critical review of the literature related to applied behavior analysis, smart technology, and health needs of individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. This discussion paper describes factors that contribute to the successful use of smart technology for the health issues of individuals with intellectual disabilities. We see key components in developing appropriate access and use of smart technology for the health of people with intellectual disabilities being: (a) systematic instructional methods for consistent and accurate use of the technology, (b) modifying the current technology for people with intellectual disabilities, (c) guidelines for implementation, and (d) resources for getting the technology.
Chen, Karen B.; Savage, Anne B.; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Sesto, Mary E.
Touch technology is becoming more prevalent as functionality improves and cost decreases. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to users with diverse abilities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of button and gap size on performance by individuals with varied motor abilities. Participants with (n=38) and without (n=15) a motor control disability completed a digit entry task. Button size ranged from 10 to 30 mm and gap size was either 1 or 3 mm. Results indicated that as button size increased, there was a decrease in misses, errors, and time to complete tasks. Performance for the non-disabled group plateaued at button size 20mm, with minimal, if any gains observed with larger button sizes. In comparison, the disabled group’s performance continued to improve as button size increased. Gap size did not affect user performance. These results may help to improve accessibility of touch technology. PMID:23021630
Lipkin, Paul H; Okamoto, Jeffrey
The pediatric health care provider has a critical role in supporting the health and well-being of children and adolescents in all settings, including early intervention (EI), preschool, and school environments. It is estimated that 15% of children in the United States have a disability. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act entitles every affected child in the United States from infancy to young adulthood to a free appropriate public education through EI and special education services. These services bolster development and learning of children with various disabilities. This clinical report provides the pediatric health care provider with a summary of key components of the most recent version of this law. Guidance is also provided to ensure that every child in need receives the EI and special education services to which he or she is entitled. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Erdoğan; Bülent; Gökhan; Serkan Tevabil
It is considered that whether disabled individuals have low or high self- esteem Serkan T. AKA3 affects their interactions with the other individuals and how they cope with the challenges they come across in a society. Therefore, it is great significance to study the factors that are effective in boosting the self-esteem of such individuals. Bülent TATLISU2 The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of sporting habits and different variables on the self-esteem level of ...
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issues of social support of individuals with disabilities and describes its role in the development and maintenance of subjective well-being of persons in situations of disability. A special external resource for overcoming unfavorable developmental conditions, social support is interlocked in a continuous relationship with psychological resources of personality. One of its distinctive features is that it implies the subject's activity aimed at overcoming difficult life situation on his/her own. When the person's bodily resources are insufficient (as it happens in situations of physical disabilities, the role of macro- and microsocial resources in supporting his/her well-being naturally increases. However, when both social and bodily resources are scarce, it is the individual's personality that stands in the gap. The research described in the paper explored the relationship between microsocial resources (support of family and friends, satisfaction with this support and psychological resources of resistance and self-regulation of personality. The sample consisted of 210 subjects (48 students with disabilities, 162 healthy subjects. The outcomes revealed certain differences between the subsamples with low and high rates of social support which suggest that the subjects' perceptions and evaluations of the support contribute to their psychological resources of coping and self-regulation, activating and/or reinforcing the existing potential of their personalities.
Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall A; Tsang, Hector W H; Shi, Kan; Corrigan, Patrick W
Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with disabilities can jeopardize such individuals' well-being and recovery through denial of employment and community isolation. By shaping social norms that define group membership, the construct of individualism may partially explain differences in stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. Further, widespread globalization has brought intensely individualistic social practices to certain segments of non-Western cultures. This paper examines whether the construct of individualism can help to explain cross-cultural differences in stigmatizing attitudes observed between American and Chinese employers. Employers (N = 879) from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago provided information on their attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities, and path analyses were conducted to examine potential mediating relationships. Path analyses indicated that vertical individualism, along with perceived responsibility for acquiring a condition, partially mediated the relationship between culture and employers' negative attitudes about job candidates with disabilities. These results suggested that greater espousal of competitive and individualist values may drive stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall A.; Tsang, Hector W.H.; Shi, Kan; Corrigan, Patrick W.
Purpose Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with disabilities can jeopardize such individuals' well-being and recovery through denial of employment and community isolation. By shaping social norms that define group membership, the construct of individualism may partially explain differences in stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. Further, widespread globalization has brought intensely individualistic social practices to certain segments of non-Western cultures. This paper examines whether the construct of individualism can help to explain cross-cultural differences in stigmatizing attitudes observed between American and Chinese employers. Design Employers (N = 879) from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago provided information on their attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities, and Path Analyses were conducted to examine potential mediating relationships. Results Path analyses indicated that vertical individualism, along with perceived responsibility for acquiring a condition, partially mediated the relationship between culture and employers' negative attitudes about job candidates with disabilities. Conclusion These results suggested that greater espousal of competitive and individualist values may drive stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. PMID:21171794
Nemutandani, M S; Adedoja, D; Nevhuhlwi, D
To determine the prevalence of dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe districts. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from January to June 2012 among disabled individuals receiving special care in four specialised schools of Vhembe District. The research protocol had been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Limpopo, Polokwane Campus. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participants and from the respective school principals. Oral health examinations took place at the school under natural light, with participants seated on an ordinary chair/wheelchair. Dental caries examinations were carried out, using a mirror and wooden spatula in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria and methods. Decayed, missing and filled primary and permanent teeth (dmft, DMFT) were recorded. All disabled individuals who were available during a screening period, were included. Those who were not available, as well as those whose health conditions could be compromised by dental examinations, were excluded. The number of decayed teeth ranged from 0-7 in children below 6 years, 0-12 in children below 11 years; and 0-17 among young adults. The mean decay scores and the numbers of missing teeth increased with age. Only 3 (0.04%) individuals had dental fillings. The mean dmft score of children under 6 years was 5.51 (+/- 2.1), ranging from zero to 8. The mean DMFT's of the 11-18 and 19 years and older groups were 7.38 (+/- 3.22) and 10.24 (+/- 2.97) respectively. Disabled individuals exhibited higher caries prevalence and unmet dental needs than the same age general population in Limpopo. Preventive measures and dental treatment should be considered urgent requirements at special needs schools in the Vhembe District.
Park, Jung Min; Oh, Ukchan; Roh, Beop-Rae; Moon, Yeongmin
This longitudinal study examines to what extent the risk of mortality-all-cause, natural death, suicide, and unintentional injury mortality-differs by types and severity of disabilities as well as disability status. Data were the National Sample Cohort of 1,025,340 individuals in South Korea followed from 2002 to 2013. Cox regression with time-variant variables was used to estimate the hazard ratio of mortality by disability. Individuals with disabilities had a higher risk of mortality compared to those without (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.80-1.88 for natural death; HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.64-2.03 for suicide; HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.38-1.71 for unintentional injury). All types of disability were associated with an increased risk of natural death. Individuals with mental disability were the highest risk group for suicide (HR 7.14, 95% CI 5.31-9.60). People defined as having severe disability had an elevated risk for all categories of mortality. Disabilities are important markers of high risk of mortality. Findings call for actions to reduce mortality risk of people with disabilities, including preventing suicidal behaviors of those with mental disability.
Burke, Meghan M; Lee, Chung Eun; Arnold, Catherine K; Owen, Aleksa
Adult siblings of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) report struggling to navigate the adult disability service delivery system and collaborate with professionals. To date, though, it is unclear how professionals encourage sibling involvement and, accordingly, the facilitators and challenges in working with siblings. For this study, 290 professionals participated in a national web-based survey; participants answered three open-ended questions about ways to involve siblings, positive experiences with siblings, and challenges in working with siblings. Professionals reported person-level and systems-level supports to encourage sibling involvement. Also, professionals reported enjoying working with cohesive families of individuals with IDD and witnessing the benefits that siblings bring to their brothers and sisters with IDD. Challenges in working with siblings included: lack of sibling involvement, systemic barriers, and caregiving burden. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many hours must work-eligible individuals participate for the family to count in the numerator of the two-parent rate? 261.32 Section 261.32 Public... What Are the Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.32 How many hours must work-eligible...
Leung, Willie; Siebert, Erin A; Yun, Joonkoo
Multiple studies have reported differing physical activity levels for individuals with intellectual disabilities when using accelerometers. One of the potential reasons for these differences may be due to how researchers measure physical activity. Currently there is a lack of understanding on measurement protocol of accelerometers. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the current practice of using accelerometers to measure physical activity levels among individuals with intellectual disabilities. A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases including Medline (1998-2015), Sport Discus (1992-2015), Web of Science (1965-2015), and Academic Research Premier (2004-2015). Seventeen articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. There is a lack of consistent research protocols for measuring physical activity levels with accelerometers. Issues with the amount of time participants wore the accelerometer was a challenge for multiple studies. Studies that employed external strategies to maximize wear time had higher compliance rates. There is a need to establish and standardize specific accelerometer protocols for measuring physical activity levels of individuals with intellectual disabilities for higher quality and more comparable data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Junhyoung; Schilling, Mary Lou; Kim, May; Han, Areum
There is a dearth of literature that explores the relationships among leisure satisfaction, acceptance of disability, social relationships, and life satisfaction among adults with intellectual disability from Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to examine how leisure satisfaction, disability acceptance, and social relationships are…
Marrocco, Anna; Krouse, Helene J
Individuals with disabilities have been identified as a population with a significantly lower usage of preventive services. Nurse practitioners (NPs) provide a key access point in the healthcare delivery system for preventive services for vulnerable populations such as those with disabilities. It is essential to understand existing barriers that prohibit access to effective preventive care for this vulnerable population. Systematic search and review of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, and government reports and World Health Organizations reports. Twenty-six articles were included in the review. This literature review confirmed previous notions that people with disabilities are receiving much fewer preventive services than the general population. The studies reviewed identified four major barriers that contributed to the lack of preventive care. These barriers included physical environment and system, transportation, provider knowledge and attitude, and financial. Recognition of the obstacles that this subpopulation faces in accessing preventive care services is the first step to effectively remedying this problem. Preventive services have been identified as one of the cornerstones to improving health and quality of life. By understanding the circumstances that restrict those with disabilities from accessing preventive services, NPs can provide meaningful and effective solutions. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…
Alexander C Phillips
Full Text Available To investigate, using accelerometers, the levels of physical activity being undertaken by individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.One hundred and fifty two individuals with intellectual disabilities aged 12-70 years from East and South-East England. Physical activity levels in counts per minute (counts/min, steps per day (steps/day, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA measured with a uni-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M for seven days.No individuals with intellectual disabilities met current physical activity recommendations. Males were more active than females. There was a trend for physical activity to decline and sedentary behaviour to increase with age, and for those with more severe levels of intellectual disability to be more sedentary and less physically active, however any relationship was not significant when adjusted for confounding variables. Participants with Down's syndrome engaged in significantly less physical activity than those with intellectual disabilities without Down's syndrome and levels of activity declined significantly with age.Individuals with intellectual disabilities, especially those with Down's syndrome may be at risk of developing diseases associated with physical inactivity. There is a need for well-designed, accessible, preventive health promotion strategies and interventions designed to raise the levels of physical activity for individuals with intellectual disabilities. We propose that there are physiological reasons why individuals with Down's syndrome have particularly low levels of physical activity that also decline markedly with age.
Nazarov, Zafar E.; Erickson, William A.; Bruyère, Susanne M.
Objective: It is useful to examine workplace factors influencing employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities and the interplay of disability, employment-related, and employer characteristics to inform rehabilitation practice. Design: A number of large national survey and administrative data sets provide information on employers and can…
Moore, Eric J; Schelling, Amy
Postsecondary education (PSE) programs for individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have emerged exponentially in the United States over the last decade. Research regarding these postsecondary programs has largely been descriptive, and thus, there exists a need for qualitative, outcome-based research. In this comparative case report, graduates from two types of PSE programs for individuals with IDs are surveyed regarding employment outcomes and other personal developments. The results from each postsecondary program are compared with one another and also with a comparison group of individuals with IDs who did not attend a postsecondary program (utilizing the 2009 National Longitudinal Transition Study 2). This case demonstrates significant positive employment outcomes for individuals with IDs who attend postsecondary programs compared to those who do not attend such programs and highlights similarities and differences regarding outcomes of the two program types under consideration. © The Author(s) 2015.
Terrill, Alexandra L; Müller, Rachel; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ipsen, Catherine; Ravesloot, Craig
To determine how age and distress are associated in individuals with disabilities, and how happiness and its components (meaning, pleasure, and engagement) mediate or moderate this relationship. These were cross-sectional analyses of survey data from 508 community-dwelling adults with a variety of self-reported health conditions and functional disabilities. Measures included the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire and items from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System. Greater distress was associated with lower global happiness in both mediation and moderation models. The mediation model showed that middle-aged participants (age: 45-64) scored lowest in global happiness, and the effect of age on distress was partially mediated by happiness. None of the happiness components mediated the relationship of age on distress. The moderation model showed a significant interaction effect for age and global happiness on distress, where younger participants low on happiness were significantly more distressed. Of the three happiness components, only meaning was significantly associated with distress. There was a significant interaction between age and meaning, where participants who were younger and scored low on the meaning scale reported significantly higher distress. Findings from this study lay groundwork for the development of clinical interventions to address distress in individuals with functional disabilities. Middle-aged and younger people with disabilities may be particularly affected by lower levels of happiness and might benefit from psychological interventions that focus on increasing overall well-being and providing meaning and purpose in life. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Quach, Emma D; O'Connor, Darlene Dee; McGaffigan, Erin
Nationwide people with disabilities are self-directing their long-term care supports through individual budgets. Because these individuals may rely on a "support broker" to assist them in making and executing decisions regarding their budgets, the interactions between the participant and the support broker can influence participant autonomy. Massachusetts piloted a program for 14 participants to receive individual budgets for home and community-based services. Central to this pilot were the participant-designated support brokers, including home care case managers and peer advocates. Analysis of data on participants and support brokers indicated that the support brokers struggled with when, how, and how much to assist participants to self-direct. Case managers or other providers assuming the support broker's role will need proper training if they are to respond skillfully to challenging situations self-direction may bring.
Full Text Available Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in individuals with ID. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of intellectual disability who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in individuals with ID. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs of children
Full Text Available For adults with disabilities who are experiencing homelessness, chances of being approved for Social Security disability benefits are very low without assistance. Assisting with the SSI/SSDI application process can be challenging for case managers who lack capacity and expertise. Training caseworkers to document disability and submit complete, high-quality applications using the SSI/SSDI Outreach, Access and Recovery (SOAR model improves efficiency and outcomes. Nationally, 65% of applications using the SOAR model are approved, with decisions received in an average of 81 days in 2015. The SOAR Online Course was created to expand training opportunities for individuals to learn how to effectively assist with SSI/SSDI applications for individuals experiencing or at risk for homelessness. From October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015, 1049 individuals from 49 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico successfully completed the SOAR online course. The course is a unique public health training model, in that it incorporates a realistic and multimodal practice SSI/SSDI application with comprehensive feedback provided by experts. Local SOAR leaders around the county are trained to facilitate and guide groups through the course. This study evaluated data on online course usage, user experience, and the translation from learning to practice for online course trainees. We found that successful course completions were most concentrated in areas that had local SOAR Leaders, trainees through the online course had higher data entry rates about case outcomes in the SOAR Online Application Tracking (OAT system, and that trainees reported a high satisfaction rate with the course and comprehensive feedback. The evaluation found that key success factors for online training models include the integration of a practice case component (or other generative learning activity, support from local facilitators, and feedback and technical assistance for trainees.
de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J; Van Lang, Natasja D J; de With, S A Jytte; Minderaa, Ruud B; Stahl, Sherin S; Anderson, George M
The rooting reflex has long been studied by neurologists and developmentalists and is defined as an orientation toward tactile stimulation in the perioral region or visual stimulation near the face. Nearly, all previous reports of the visual rooting reflex (VRR) concern its presence in adults with neurological dysfunction. Previously, the VRR was reported to be present in a majority of individuals with autism and absent in control subjects. In the present larger study, we examined the presence of the VRR in 155 individuals with ASD and co-occurring Intellectual Disability (ASD + ID: autism, N = 60; Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD_NOS), N = 95) and in a contrast group of 65 individuals with ID only. The VRR was present significantly more often in the ASD + ID (43.9%) group than in the ID-only group (24.6%; χ(1)(2)= 7.19; P = 0.007). Individuals with autism displayed a VRR more often (55.0%) than individuals with PDD-NOS (36.8%; χ(1)(2)= 4.92; P = 0.026) and individuals with ID only (24.6%; χ(1)(2)= 12.09; P = 0.001). A positive VRR was associated with lower IQ and adaptive functioning; in the ASD + ID group, ADI-R/ADOS domain scores were significantly higher in the VRR-positive subgroup. The results replicate and extend the finding of an increased occurrence of the VRR in autism. Although some association with IQ was observed, the VRR occurred substantially more often in the autism group compared with an intellectually disabled group, indicating some degree of specificity. Additional studies of infants and children with typical development, ASD and ID are needed to determine the utility of the VRR in ASD risk assessment and to elucidate possible specific behavioral associations. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Norlin, D; Broberg, M
Research on parents of children with intellectual disability (ID) has identified a range of risk and protective factors for parental well-being. In family research, the association between marital quality and depression is a vital field of investigation. Still little research has addressed how aspects of the couple relationship affect the adaptation of parents of children with ID. The present study examined predictive links between couple relationship factors (marital quality and coparenting quality) and individual well-being. Data were obtained through self-report questionnaires completed by parents of children with ID (mothers, n = 58; and fathers, n = 46) and control children (mothers, n = 178; and fathers, n = 141). To test the hypothesis that couple relationship factors predicted individual well-being, multiple regression analyses were performed controlling for the following risk factors identified by previous research: child self-injury/stereotypic behaviour, parenting stress, and economic risk. Marital quality predicted concurrent well-being, and coparenting quality predicted prospective well-being. Mothers of children with ID reported lower well-being than other parents. There is a continued need for investigation of the details of the links between couple relationship and individual well-being in parents of children with ID. Couple relationship factors should be given consideration in clinical interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
van den Berg-Emons, Rita J; L'Ortye, Annemiek A; Buffart, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Nooijen, Carla F; Bergen, Michael P; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes B
To determine the criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) by means of daily physical activity levels measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor in a large group of persons with a physical disability. Cross-sectional. Participants' home environment. Ambulatory and nonambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, meningomyelocele, or spinal cord injury (N=124). Not applicable. Self-reported physical activity level measured by using the PASIPD, a 2-day recall questionnaire, was correlated to objectively measured physical activity level measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor. Significant Spearman correlation coefficients between the PASIPD and activity monitor outcome measures ranged from .22 to .37. The PASIPD overestimated the duration of physical activity measured by using the activity monitor (mean ± SD, 3.9±2.9 vs 1.5±0.9h/d; PPASIPD correlated poorly with objective measurements using an accelerometry-based activity monitor in people with a physical disability. However, similar low correlations between objective and subjective activity measurements have been found in the general population. Users of the PASIPD should be cautious about overestimating physical activity levels. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marco Di Nardo
Full Text Available Background: Inclusion refers to the notion that all students, regardless of disability (mild or severe, will be taught in regular education classes even if special resources are needed. Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from country to country and school to school. One of the factors influencing the effective implementation of inclusion is the teacher's attitudes. The latest results from literature show that attitudes toward people with disabilities are changing in a positive direction over the last few decades. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an undergraduate adapted physical education course on the attitudes of pre-service physical educators toward individuals with disabilities. Methods: The Attitudes Towards Individuals with Physical Disabilities in Physical Education (ATIPDPE instrument, based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991 was used to measure the attitudes of pre-service teachers within three groups of students of the Department of Sport Science at the Università Degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope" (Italy enrolled in the 1st and 3rd year of Bachelor's studies in the Department of Sport Science, and students enrolled in the last year of a Master degree in Motor Activities and Preventive for Health. The software package SPSS 19.0 was used to analyze results via a Mann-Whitney U test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Although no significant differences between the groups were found in relation to group year or subject major, results found positive attitudes of pre-service teachers towards inclusion (Physical Education (PE 1st year attitude (ATT mean = 58.93; PE 3rd year ATT mean = 61.11; Postgraduate 2nd year mean = 59.80, as well as very high intentions. Attitudes were found to account for 30% of variance of intentions (R2 = .30. Conclusion: This research concluded that it is necessary to further improve and develop attitudes and intentions
Kaplan, Katy; Salzer, Mark S; Solomon, Phyllis; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Cousounis, Pamela
Despite the prevalence of Internet support groups for individuals with mental illnesses little is known about the potential benefits, or harm, of participating in such groups. Therefore, this randomized controlled trial sought to determine the impact of unmoderated, unstructured Internet peer support, similar to what is naturally occurring on the Internet, on the well-being of individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Three hundred individuals resident in the USA diagnosed with a Schizophrenia Spectrum or an Affective Disorder were randomized into one of three conditions: experimental Internet peer support via a listserv, experimental Internet peer support via a bulletin board, or a control condition. Three measurement time points, baseline, 4- and 12 months post-baseline, assessed well-being by examining measures of recovery, quality of life, empowerment, social support, and distress. Time × group interactions in the repeated measures ANOVA showed no differences between conditions on the main outcomes. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVAs found that those individuals who participated more in Internet peer support reported higher levels of distress than those with less or no participation (p = 0.03). Those who reported more positive experiences with the Internet peer support group also reported higher levels of psychological distress than those reporting less positive experiences (p = 0.01). Study results therefore do not support the hypothesis that participation in an unmoderated, unstructured Internet listserv or bulletin board peer support group for individuals with psychiatric disabilities enhances well-being. Counterintuitive findings demonstrating those who report more positive experiences also experienced higher levels of distress are discussed but we also point to the need for additional research. Future research should explore the various structures, formats, and interventions of Internet support, as well as the content and quality of interactions
Davies, Daniel K; Stock, Steven E; King, Larry R; Wehmeyer, Michael L
Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the results of research evaluating the use of a palmtop PC-based application designed to enable individuals with intellectual disability to access electronic books and documents. Participants with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, each group differing in the type of audio player used. Participants who used the specially designed reader made significantly fewer errors accessing electronic books and required significantly fewer prompts than did participants using either of 2 mainstream audiobook readers.
Washburn, Richard A; Zhu, Weimo; McAuley, Edward; Frogley, Michael; Figoni, Stephen F
To evaluate the construct validity of a new 13-item physical activity survey designed to assess physical activity in individuals with physical disabilities. Mail survey requesting information on physical activity, basic demographic characteristics, self-rated health, and self-rated physical activity. In February 2000, surveys were sent to 1176 individuals who had used rehabilitative services at a major midwestern university between 1950 and 1999. Two hundred twenty-seven men and 145 women with disabilities responded to the mail survey (80%, spinal cord or other locomotor injuries; 13%, visual and auditory injuries; 7%, other; 92%, white; mean age +/- standard deviation, 49.8 +/- 12.9y; mean length of disability, 36.9 +/- 14.9y). Not applicable. Physical activity was assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD requests the number of days a week and hours daily (categories) of participation in recreational, household, and occupational activities over the past 7 days. Total scores were calculated as the average hours daily times a metabolic equivalent value and summed over items. Pearson correlations between each survey item and the total PASIPD score were all statistically significant (P or= .20 (range, .20- .67). Factor analysis with principal component extraction and varimax orthogonal rotations revealed 5 latent factors (eigenvalues >or= 1, factor loadings >or= .40): home repair and lawn and garden, housework, vigorous sport and recreation, light sport and recreation, and occupation and transportation. These 5 factors accounted for 63% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.37 to.65, indicating low-to-moderate internal consistency within factors. Those who reported being "active/highly active" had higher total and subcategory scores compared with those "not active at all." Those in "excellent" health had higher total, vigorous sport and recreation, and occupation and
Hicham A. Diab
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the dental status of institutionalized intellectually disabled individuals in Lebanon and the role of background and behavioural determinants. Material and Methods: Oral health was recorded for 652 individuals (6, 12, 15 and 35 - 44 years old using the decayed, missing and filled teeth/decayed and filled teeth (DMFT/dft index. Data collected was statistically analysed with statistical significance set at P = 0.05. Results: Overall, mean DMFT index score was 5.86 (SD 6; composed of 3.64 (SD 4.05 decayed (D teeth; 1.71 (SD 4.38 missing (M teeth; 0.87 (SD 2.51 filled (F teeth. DMFT was highest in adults (12.71 [SD 7.43] and had a large component of missing (6.24 [SD 7.02] and filled (3.31 [SD 4.56] teeth. DMFT scores ranged between 3.5 (SD 4.44 at 6 years and 4.8 (SD 4.52 at 15 years and the decayed component was the main contributor. In multivariate analyses, governorate of residence was statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.040 and P ≤ 0.044 associated with D and DMFT, the degree of disability and caretaker educational level were statistically significantly (P = 0.009 and P = 0.008 associated with D, oral hygiene practices were statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.017; P < 0.001; P ≤ 0.017; P < 0.001 associated with D, M, F and DMFT and sugar consumption was statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03 and P ≤ 0.019 associated with D and DMFT. Conclusions: In Lebanon, preventive and treatment programs to improve the oral health status of institutionalized intellectually disabled subjects are needed.
Carver, Jordan; Ganus, Ashley; Ivey, Jon Mark; Plummer, Teresa; Eubank, Ann
This study aims to address the gap in research and contribute to the body of knowledge on the perspectives assistive technology device users have toward their devices. Mixed methods were used to better understand the impact of mobility assistive technology devices (MATDs) on participation for individuals with disabilities. The Functional Mobility Assessment was administered in conjunction with two qualitative questions developed by the research team allowing participants to expound on the impact of their MATD experience. Participants were recruited online via the National Spinal Cord Injury Association website and in-person at Abilities Expo in Atlanta, Georgia, and the International Seating Symposium in Nashville, Tennessee. Results are consistent with findings from prior research regarding accessibility for individuals with disabilities. Corresponding findings were found in both the quantitative and qualitative data and are categorized into several major themes: environment (indoor and outdoor), surface heights, transportation, dependence, independence, quality of life and participation. Quantitative data from this study indicate that users of MATD are satisfied with the way in which their devices enable maneuvering indoors, while qualitative data suggest otherwise. Implications for healthcare practitioners are described and future recommendations are provided. Implications for Rehabilitation Healthcare professionals should advocate for proper mobility assistive technology devices (MATDs) for their patients in order to enable increased independence, safety and efficiency. Healthcare professionals must be cognizant of the impact of the environment and/or environmental barriers when prescribing MATD. Additional areas of interest for future research may include investigating the impact of MATD in association with date of onset of disability, according to diagnoses, or specific to length of time since acquiring the device.
Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Zghal, Firas; Rebai, Haithem
This study examined neuromuscular fatigue after high-intensity intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with 10 controls. Both groups performed three maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extension with 5 min in-between. The highest level achieved was selected as reference MVC. The fatiguing exercise consists of five sets with a maximal number of flexion-extension cycles at 80% of the one maximal repetition (1RM) for the right leg at 90° with 90 s rest interval between sets. The MVC was tested again after the last set. Peak force and electromyography (EMG) signals were measured during the MVC tests. Root Mean Square (RMS) and Median Frequency (MF) were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of peak force to the RMS. Before exercise, individuals with ID had a lower MVC (psport train ID individuals, they should consider this nervous system weakness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benromano, Tali; Pick, Chaim G; Granovsky, Yelena; Defrin, Ruth
Previous studies on the sensitivity and reactivity to pain of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are inconsistent. The inconsistency may result from the reliance on self-reports and facial expressions of pain that are subject to internal and external biases. The aim was therefore to evaluate the reactivity to pain of individuals with ID by recording pain-evoked potentials (EPs), here for the first time, and testing their association with behavioral pain indices. Forty-one healthy adults, 16 with mild-moderate ID and 25 controls. Subjects received series of phasic heat stimuli and rated their pain on self-report scales. Changes in facial expressions and in pain EPs were recorded and analyzed offline. Pain self-reports, facial expressions, and the N2P2 amplitudes of the EPs exhibited stimulus-response relationship with stimulation intensity in both groups. The facial expressions and N2P2 amplitudes of individuals with ID were increased and N2P2 latency prolonged compared with controls. N2P2 amplitudes correlated with self-reports only in controls. Individuals with ID are hypersensitive/reactive to pain, a finding bearing clinical implications. Although pain EPs may reflect a somewhat different aspect of pain than the behavioral indices do, there is evidence to support their use to record pain in noncommunicative individuals, pending further validation. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Malone, Laurie A; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; McCroskey, Justin; Thirumalai, Mohanraj
Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions. However, many current AVGs are inaccessible or offer limited play options for individuals who are unable to stand, have balance issues, poor motor control, or cannot use their lower body to perform game activities. Making AVGs accessible to people with disabilities offers an innovative approach to overcoming various barriers to participation in physical activity. Our aim was to compare the effect of off-the-shelf and adapted game controllers on quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video gaming in persons with physical disabilities, specifically those with mobility impairments (ie, unable to stand, balance issues, poor motor control, unable to use lower extremity for gameplay). The gaming controllers to be evaluated include off-the-shelf and adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat. Participants (10-60 years old) came to the laboratory a total of three times. During the first visit, participants completed a functional assessment and became familiar with the equipment and games to be played. For the functional assessment, participants performed 18 functional movement tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. They also answered a series of questions from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions measurement tools, to provide a personal perspective regarding their own functional ability. For Visit 2, metabolic data were
Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy: Vol. 26 : Iss. 1 , Article 2. The Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) is recognized as one of the most significant pieces of civil rights legislation in American history and is aimed at protecting the rights of individuals with disabilities. Unfortunately, as the ADA has developed, some attorneys have exposed methods of exploiting the provisions of the ADA for personal, pecuniary benefits—fee-driven lawsuits for violations of plaintiff-friendly pr...
Griffin, Alexandra; Leaver, Andrew; Moloney, Niamh
Study Design Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Background General exercise, defined as purposeful physical activity involving repetitive exercises and incorporating multiple muscle groups, is frequently used in the management of whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). Evidence supporting its efficacy is not well established. Objectives To determine whether general exercise is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with WAD. Methods Studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and May 2015 were eligible if they evaluated a general exercise intervention compared with a different intervention or control. Studies were required to evaluate pain and disability at medium-term (6-14 weeks) and long-term (52 weeks) follow-ups. The mean ± SD and sample size were recorded for follow-up scores and for change scores from baseline to follow-up. Results Of the 3 high-quality studies that were eligible for inclusion, none investigated general exercise alone. There were no clinically meaningful differences between comprehensive exercise programs, which included general exercise, and minimal intervention controls in the medium and long term. No studies directly compared general exercise with a no-treatment control. All included studies used different control interventions, preventing meta-analysis. Conclusion A lack of significant long-term improvements from general exercise interventions in individuals with WAD was identified. This finding differs from the positive benefits of general exercise for other musculoskeletal conditions. This may, in part, relate to the complexity of whiplash conditions. This may also reflect the challenge of exercise prescription in this population, where the need for sufficient intensity is balanced against the impact that exercise has on pain. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1a. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(7):472-480. Epub 16 Jun 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7081.
O'Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay E.
Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found…
van der Meer, Larah; Kagohara, Debora; Achmadi, Donna; Green, Vanessa A.; Herrington, Christina; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy
Anecdotal reports suggest that individuals with developmental disabilities who lack speech may be enabled to communicate through the use of a new iPod-based communication device. However, there appear to be limited empirical data demonstrating successful use of this new device by such individuals. This study was designed to provide empirical…
Burke, Meghan; Arnold, Catherine; Owen, Aleksa
Although individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are living longer lives, fewer than half of parents of individuals with IDD conduct future planning. The correlates and barriers to future planning must be identified to develop targeted interventions to facilitate future planning. In this study, 388 parents of individuals…
Moghimi, Saba; Kushki, Azadeh; Guerguerian, Anne Marie; Chau, Tom
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive method for measuring brain activity and is a strong candidate for brain-computer interface (BCI) development. While BCIs can be used as a means of communication for individuals with severe disabilities, the majority of existing studies have reported BCI evaluations by able-bodied individuals.…
Gül, Seray Olçay
There are many studies in the literature in which individuals with intellectual disabilities exhibit social skills deficits and which show the need for teaching these skills systematically. This study aims to investigate the effects of an intervention package of consisting computer-presented video modeling and Social Stories on individuals with…
Sleister, Heidi M.; Valdovinos, Maria Gabriela
Weight gain is an often-observed side effect of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and is particularly significant in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The majority of individuals treated with AAPs will gain at least 10% of their initial body weight over the course of therapy (Umbricht & Kane, 1996). One's genetic constitution is an…
Brite, Roberta; Nunes, Francisco; Souza, Danielle
This study aims to analyze the managers' conceptions involved in the process of labor inclusion in 18 supermarkets with 5,000 employees, 300 of whom with disabilities. A group of 90 managers working with people with disability completed a Conceptions of Disability Inventory (CDI) about their conceptions of people with disabilities. Their responses were categorized as follows: (a) disability as a spiritual manifestation; b) disability as a deviation from normality; (c) disability based on assumptions of inclusion; (d) disability assessed from performance criteria; (e) disability assessed from the connection established with the work organization; (f) disability conceived by contracting benefits, and (g) disability based on the perception of the need for training. Based on the outcomes of the Pearson Correlation Matrix, significant linear correlations were found in seven managers' conceptions of disability. The results also indicate that the managers' conceptions contributed to differentiated inclusionist actions based on their perceptions related to people with disabilities. This study data contributes to identifying the best practices in labor inclusion. The outcomes of the present study could lead to development of a public policy aimed towards humanizing job alternatives for people with disability.
Dauman, Nicolas; Erlandsson, Soly I.; Albarracin, Dolorès; Dauman, René
Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach. Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51–79) were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014), the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data (n = 36 interviews) were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: “Losing body ownership,” “Lacking perspectives,” and “Persevering through difficulties.” Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance). It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore, this model
Dauman, Nicolas; Erlandsson, Soly I; Albarracin, Dolorès; Dauman, René
Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach. Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51-79) were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014), the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data ( n = 36 interviews) were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: "Losing body ownership," "Lacking perspectives," and "Persevering through difficulties." Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance). It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore, this model identifies a
Full Text Available Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach.Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51–79 were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014, the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data (n = 36 interviews were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998.Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: “Losing body ownership,” “Lacking perspectives,” and “Persevering through difficulties.” Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance. It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore
Donna J. Cech
Full Text Available Individuals with disabilities experience inequities in access to health care, education, employment, and social inclusion. Causes for Change International (CCI, a non-governmental Organization (NGO, using a community-based rehabilitation approach has worked for 20 years to build self-sufficiency, improve health-care services, and education for women, children, and persons with disabilities in Ecuador. CCI initially addressed health; advocacy for individuals with disabilities; and promoted educational opportunities for children with disabilities, starting in one rural community. CCI’s outreach has expanded through Ecuador’s coastal provinces, Andean provinces, and Galapagos Islands. CCI also focused on local health-care workforce development, developing employment skills for individuals with disabilities and social inclusion for this population. CCI collaborated with local organizations, government, and universities to provide resources, managed by local leadership. Key program elements of the CCI approach include (1 develop trust between CCI, local communities, local agencies, and government; (2 empower local groups to assume leadership and sustain programs; (3 support communities and groups invested in developing self-sufficiency; and (4 strengthen collaborations and partnerships between local and international organizations, universities, and government agencies. Key lessons learned by CCI are to be supportive of cultural differences; understand that limited financial and material resources may limit the program development; recognize that it is difficult not to foster dependent relationships with communities and appreciate the importance of working with and within the host country’s governmental systems. CCI is expanding its service base to other regions of Ecuador and is focusing on development of the Ecuadorian health-care workforce and social inclusion opportunities for individuals with disability. The efforts of a small NGO have
Cech, Donna J; Alvarado, Zully J
Individuals with disabilities experience inequities in access to health care, education, employment, and social inclusion. Causes for Change International (CCI), a non-governmental Organization (NGO), using a community-based rehabilitation approach has worked for 20 years to build self-sufficiency, improve health-care services, and education for women, children, and persons with disabilities in Ecuador. CCI initially addressed health; advocacy for individuals with disabilities; and promoted educational opportunities for children with disabilities, starting in one rural community. CCI's outreach has expanded through Ecuador's coastal provinces, Andean provinces, and Galapagos Islands. CCI also focused on local health-care workforce development, developing employment skills for individuals with disabilities and social inclusion for this population. CCI collaborated with local organizations, government, and universities to provide resources, managed by local leadership. Key program elements of the CCI approach include (1) develop trust between CCI, local communities, local agencies, and government; (2) empower local groups to assume leadership and sustain programs; (3) support communities and groups invested in developing self-sufficiency; and (4) strengthen collaborations and partnerships between local and international organizations, universities, and government agencies. Key lessons learned by CCI are to be supportive of cultural differences; understand that limited financial and material resources may limit the program development; recognize that it is difficult not to foster dependent relationships with communities and appreciate the importance of working with and within the host country's governmental systems. CCI is expanding its service base to other regions of Ecuador and is focusing on development of the Ecuadorian health-care workforce and social inclusion opportunities for individuals with disability. The efforts of a small NGO have helped build
Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; Sines, David
This article describes a risk audit carried out on the support provided for 36 people with profound learning disabilities who had been resettled from hospital care to supported housing. The risks were those factors identified in the literature as associated with deleterious effects on quality of life. The audit was carried out with a specially designed tool that covered 24 possible risks and involved a support worker familiar with the service user choosing the most appropriate statement regarding each risk. Their judgements were verified by care managers and social needs assessors. Whilst one or more risks were identified for 32 of the 36 service users, the overall result showed relatively low risks for the group as a whole with 62 incidences (7%) from a possible 864, which nevertheless highlighted several areas that needed attention. The results of the audit have led to action plans for the provision and for the individual service users for whom risks were identified.
Full Text Available The paper is based on a research which tries to explore, explain and describe Islam - science integration approach to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP for students with disabilities in chemistry lesson. As a qualitative case study, this paper is aimed at investigating how Islam - science integration approach can be underpinned for developing the IEP for Chemistry. Participants were recruited purposively and data were collected by interviews; documents’ analysis; and experts’ assessment (i.e. material experts, inclusive education experts, media experts, chemistry teachers and support teachers, then analyzed using content-analysis. The result shows Islam - science integration approach can be a foundation to develop the chemistry IEP by seeking support for the verses of the Qur'an and corresponding hadiths. Even although almost all the subject matter in chemistry can be integrated with Islamic values, this study only developed two contents, namely Periodic System of Elements and Reaction Rate.
Shnitzer-Meirovich, Shlomit; Lifshitz, Hefziba; Mashal, Nira
This study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of deep and shallow intervention programs in the acquisition of visual metaphor comprehension in individuals with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; aged 15-59, N = 53) or Down syndrome (DS; aged 15-52, N = 50). The deep intervention program was based on dynamic assessment model for enhancing analogical thinking. The shallow intervention program involves memorizing a metaphorical relationship between pairs of pictures. Visual metaphor comprehension was measured by the construction of a metaphorical connection between pairs of pictures. The results indicated that both etiology groups exhibited poor understanding of visual metaphors before the intervention. A significant improvement was observed in both interventions and both etiology groups, with greater improvement among individuals who underwent the deep processing. Moreover, the latter procedure led to greater generalization ability. The results also indicated that vocabulary contributed significantly to understanding unstudied metaphors and that participants with poorer linguistic abilities exhibited greater improvement in their metaphorical thinking. Thus, individuals with ID with or without DS are able to recruit the higher-order cognitive abilities required for visual metaphor comprehension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Work is important for one’s self-esteem, social standing and ability to participate in the community as well as for the material advantages it brings to individuals and their families. The evidence suggests that the benefits of employment outweigh the risks of work and are greater than the risks of long-term unemployment or sickness absence. Individuals may be born with physical or intellectual disadvantages (e.g., cerebral palsy, or they may be acquired during childhood or adult life. Some progressive conditions may present in childhood or adolescence (e.g., some muscular dystrophies and these need to be distinguished from those presenting later in life (e.g., trauma, stroke. Vocational rehabilitation (VR thus takes three forms: preparing those with a disability, health or mental health condition for the world of work, job retention for those in work and assisting those out of work into new work. Important components of VR consist of the attributes of the individual, the skills/knowledge of their health professionals, the knowledge and attitudes of actual or potential employers and the assistance that is provided by the state or other insurance facility. Charities are playing an increasing role.
Tomeny, Theodore S; Ellis, Brandi M; Rankin, James A; Barry, Tammy D
Research on adult typically-developing (TD) siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities remains limited, and outcomes for TD siblings appear to vary widely. For the current study, 82 adult TD siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) completed questionnaires about themselves and their affected sibling. Results of this study suggest that the attitudes possessed by adult TD siblings are important to consider when understanding adult TD sibling outcomes. Specifically, data indicate that higher levels of positive sibling relationship attitudes are related to TD siblings providing more aid/support to their sibling with a disability, along with having higher levels of general life satisfaction, and negatively related to levels of stress and depressive symptoms among TD siblings. Consistent with previous child research, siblings of individuals with ASD reported fewer positive sibling relationship attitudes compared to siblings of individuals with ID. Finally, group membership related to aid provided, depressive symptoms, and stress of TD siblings indirectly through sibling relationship attitudes. Overall, results indicate that sibling relationship attitudes may be particularly important to consider when conceptualizing sibling relationships when one sibling has an intellectual or developmental disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ariel M Pani
Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID affects 2-3% of the population and may occur with or without multiple congenital anomalies (MCA or other medical conditions. Established genetic syndromes and visible chromosome abnormalities account for a substantial percentage of ID diagnoses, although for approximately 50% the molecular etiology is unknown. Individuals with features suggestive of various syndromes but lacking their associated genetic anomalies pose a formidable clinical challenge. With the advent of microarray techniques, submicroscopic genome alterations not associated with known syndromes are emerging as a significant cause of ID and MCA.High-density SNP microarrays were used to determine genome wide copy number in 42 individuals: 7 with confirmed alterations in the WS region but atypical clinical phenotypes, 31 with ID and/or MCA, and 4 controls. One individual from the first group had the most telomeric gene in the WS critical region deleted along with 2 Mb of flanking sequence. A second person had the classic WS deletion and a rearrangement on chromosome 5p within the Cri du Chat syndrome (OMIM:123450 region. Six individuals from the ID/MCA group had large rearrangements (3 deletions, 3 duplications, one of whom had a large inversion associated with a deletion that was not detected by the SNP arrays.Combining SNP microarray analyses and qPCR allowed us to clone and sequence 21 deletion breakpoints in individuals with atypical deletions in the WS region and/or ID or MCA. Comparison of these breakpoints to databases of genomic variation revealed that 52% occurred in regions harboring structural variants in the general population. For two probands the genomic alterations were flanked by segmental duplications, which frequently mediate recurrent genome rearrangements; these may represent new genomic disorders. While SNP arrays and related technologies can identify potentially pathogenic deletions and duplications, obtaining sequence information
Keith, Jessica M; Bennetto, Loisa; Rogge, Ronald D
Increases in intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) diagnoses coupled with higher rates of inclusion in school and community settings, has created more opportunities for exposure and integration between those with IDD and the mainstream population. Previous research has found that increased contact can lead to more positive attitudes toward those with IDD. The current study further investigated this impact of contact on attitudes by examining the influence of the quality and quantity of contact on both explicit and implicit levels of prejudice, while also considering potential mediation via intergroup anxiety and implicit attitudes. Based on past research and theory, we predicted that contact (especially quality contact) would have a strong relationship with explicit and implicit positive attitudes toward individuals with IDD. In the present study, 550 people completed a survey and short task that measured their level of contact with individuals with IDD across their lifetime, their current attitudes toward these individuals, and other constructs that are thought to influence this relationship. Multiple regression analyses suggested consistent links between higher quality of contact and lower levels of prejudice toward individuals with IDD at both the explicit and implicit levels. After controlling for quality of contact, higher quantity of contact was either not significantly associated with our measures of prejudice or was, importantly, associated with higher levels of prejudice. Additional analyses support intergroup anxiety and implicit positive attitudes as significant mediators in the associations between quality of contact and the various dimensions of explicit prejudice. Thus, it would seem that it is the quality of interpersonal interactions that is most strongly related to positive attitudes toward individuals with IDD, making it crucial to take care when developing inclusion opportunities in community settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd
Kattari, Shanna K; Walls, N Eugene; Speer, Stephanie Rachel
Transgender and gender nonconforming (GNC) individuals frequently experience discrimination and potentially a lack of respect from service providers, suggesting they have decreased access to professionals with cultural competency. Similarly, people with disabilities experience higher levels of discrimination in social services than their nondisabled counterparts. From an intersectional perspective, this study examines rates of discrimination in accessing social services faced by transgender and GNC people, comparing across ability. Data indicate that although transgender and GNC individuals of all abilities experience gender-based discrimination when accessing social services, those with disabilities experience higher levels of antitransgender discrimination in mental health centers, rape crisis centers, and domestic violence shelters.
McConachie, Douglas Alexander James; McKenzie, Karen; Morris, Paul Graham; Walley, Robert M
Support staff working with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and challenging behaviour experience high levels of work-related stress. Preliminary theoretical and experimental research has highlighted the potential suitability of acceptance and mindfulness approaches for addressing support staff stress. This study examines the effectiveness of an acceptance and mindfulness-based stress management workshop on the levels of psychological distress and well-being of support staff working with individuals with ID and challenging behaviour. Support staff (n=120) were randomly assigned to a workshop intervention condition (n=66) or to a waiting list control condition (n=54). Measurements were completed at three time points (pre-, post and 6 week follow-up) for: psychological distress, well-being, perceived work stressors, thought suppression, and emotional avoidance/psychological inflexibility. The intervention led to significantly greater reductions in distress in the intervention group than in the control group. This was largely maintained at 6 week follow-up. This effect was more pronounced amongst a subsample that had shown higher levels of psychological distress at baseline. Thought suppression was found to reduce significantly in the intervention group between post intervention and follow-up, although no significant change was found in well-being or experiential avoidance/psychological inflexibility. Overall, results demonstrated support for the effectiveness of an acceptance and mindfulness-based intervention in reducing distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qian, X; Tichá, R; Larson, S A; Stancliffe, R J; Wuorio, A
Being engaged in daily activities is a strong indicator of quality of life for individuals with intellectual disability (ID) who live in small community group homes. This study aimed to identify individual and organisational factors that predict high levels of engagement. Individuals with ID (n = 78), direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 174) and supervisors (n = 21) from 21 US group homes participated in the study. For each individual with ID, we conducted 80 min of observation at the person's residence. Information was also gathered regarding demographic characteristics, DSP competence, supervisor years of experience and management practices. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. On average, individuals were engaged in social activities 12% of observed time and non-social activities 35% of the time. Individuals with greater adaptive skills who were supported by more competent staff showed significantly higher levels of social engagement. Individuals with less severe deficits in adaptive behaviours and less challenging behaviour showed higher levels of non-social engagement. Although none of the factors related to group homes were significant, 24% of the variance in non-social engagement existed among group homes. These results suggested that engagement is a dynamic construct. The extent to which an individual with ID is engaged in daily life is a result of interplay between the individual's characteristics and the group home environment. Future research is needed to investigate the influence of variables specific to the group home on the engagement level of individuals with disabilities. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hull, Helia Garrido
This Article addresses the need to reform the ADA to prevent vexatious litigation and to promote the underlying goals of the Act. Part I of this Article introduces the topic of vexatious litigation and the importance of remedying the effects of exploitation of the ADA. Part II provides an overview of the ADA and its efforts to increase accessibility to individuals with disabilities, emphasizing the provisions of the Act that create incentives to engage in vexatious litigation. Part III examines and analyzes the judiciary's response to vexatious litigation under the ADA, and sanctions that have been issued to limit exploitation. Finally, Part IV provides recommendations to reform the ADA and state disability law counterparts, suggests corrective actions to address vexatious litigation, and identifies methods to promote equality for individuals with disabilities.
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Kilberg, Esther; Vakil, Eli
Integrative research review infers generalizations about a substantive subject, summarizes the accumulated knowledge that research has left unresolved and generates a new framework on these issues. Due to methodological issues emerging from working memory (WM) studies in the population with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID) (N=64) between 1990-2014, it is difficult to conclude on WM performance in this population. This integrative research review aimed to resolve literature conflicts on WM performance among individuals with NSID and to identify the conditions/moderators that govern their WM performance compared to controls with Typical development. We used the six stages of integrative research review: problem formulation, data collection, evaluation, data analysis, results, interpretation and discussion. The findings indicate two types of moderators that determine WM performance in the population with NSID: Participants' moderators (criteria for matching the ID and TD groups, CA and MA), and task moderators [the three WM components of Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) model and task load]. Only an interaction between the two moderators determines WM performance in this population. The findings indicate a hierarchy (from more to less preserved) in WM performance of individuals with NSID: The visuospatial tasks, then some of the executive functions tasks, and the phonological loop tasks being less preserved. Furthermore, at a low level of control, the performance of participants with NSID was preserved beyond the modality and vice versa. Modality and MA/intelligence determine WM performance of individuals with ID. Educators should prepare intervention programs take the impact of the two moderators into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Woude, Lucas
BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). METHODS: Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects'
Luteijn, I.; Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der
Knowledge regarding substance-related problems and offending behavior in individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning (MBID; IQ 50-85) has increased over the last years, but is still limited. The present study examined differences in prevalence and clinical
Fickert, Nancy A.; Ross, Diana
Caregivers who work in community living arrangements or intermediate care facilities are responsible for the oral hygiene of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Oral hygiene training programs do not exist in many organizations, despite concerns about the oral care of this population. The purpose of this study was to…
Introduction: Support staff working with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and challenging behaviour experience high levels of work-related stress. Preliminary theoretical and experimental research has highlighted the potential suitability of acceptance and mindfulness approaches for addressing support staff stress. This study examines the effectiveness of an acceptance and mindfulness-based stress management workshop on the levels of psychological distress and well...
de Groot, S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Niezen, A.; Smit, C. A. J.; Post, M. W. M.
Study design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: To evaluate the physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities (PASIPD) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with a specialized SCI unit. Methods: The PASIPD was examined by comparing
Fox, Robert A.; Burke, Amie M.; Fung, Michael P.
We studied the effectiveness of an individually-tailored leisure program implemented by direct care staff in a residential program for 28 adults with severe to profound intellectual disability using a multiple baseline design across two homes over a 1.5 year baseline and treatment period followed by another nearly 1.5 year maintenance phase. The…
Eglseder, Kate; Webb, Sheridan
Purpose: To investigate the need for sexuality education for individuals with adult onset physical disabilities as it relates to quality of life and to identify current trends in the provision of sexuality education by health care providers relating to quality of care. Data Sources: Literature review from January 1986 to December 2016. Study…
Shivers, Carolyn M.; Kozimor, Laura Michelle
Introduction: The presence of comorbid mental illness in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has been shown to have additional negative impact on parents and caregivers. However, the impact of such dual diagnoses on typically developing siblings has yet to be examined. Methods: Parents and typically developing…
Schepis, Maureen M.; Reid, Dennis H.
A young adult with multiple disabilities (profound mental retardation, spastic quadriplegia, and visual impairment) was provided with a voice output communication aid (VOCA) which allowed communication through synthesized speech. Both educational and residential staff members interacted with the individual more frequently when she had access to…
Munde, V. S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.
BackgroundWhile optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is focused on the environment' or alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking.
Bouck, Emily C.
Is a functional curriculum aligned with the federal education policies of No Child Left Behind (2002) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004)? This article analyzes the alignment, or lack thereof, between this approach to educating secondary students with mild mental impairment and the two main federal education laws…
Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.
Background: A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to…
Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Hazel, T. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Objective: To investigate the reliability and validity of a Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-based Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - third edition (WAIS-III) short form (SF) in a sample of individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) (N=117; M-IQ=71.34; SDIQ=8.00,
Brenton, Beatrice White; Gilmore, Doug
An operational index of discrepancy between ability and achievement using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was tested with 50 male and 10 female legally identified learning disabled (LD) children (mean age 9 years 2 months). Use of the index identified 74% of the males and 30% of the…
Nery-Hurwit, Mara; Kincl, Laurel; Driver, Simon; Heller, Brittany
Individuals with disabilities face increasing health and employment disparities, including increased risk of morbidity and mortality and decreased earnings, occupational roles, and greater risk of injury at work. Thus, there is a need to improve workplace safety and health promotion efforts for people with disability. The purpose of this study was to obtain stakeholder feedback about an online program, Be Active, Work Safe, which was developed to increase the physical activity and workplace safety practices of individuals with disability. Eight stakeholders (content experts and individuals with disability) evaluated the 8-week online program and provided feedback on accessibility, usability, and content using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Stakeholders suggested changes to the organization, layout and accessibility, and content. This included making a stronger connection between the physical activity and workplace safety components of the program, broadening content to apply to individuals in different vocational fields, and reducing the number of participant assessments. Engaging stakeholders in the development of health promotion programs is critical to ensure the unique issues of the population are addressed and facilitate engagement in the program. Feedback provided by stakeholders improved the program and provided insight on barriers for adoption of the program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heyn, Patricia C; Baumgardner, Chad A; McLachlan, Leslie; Bodine, Cathy
The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mixed-reality (MR) exercise environment on engagement and enjoyment levels of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Six people participated in this cross-sectional, observational pilot study involving one MR exercise trial. The augmented reality environment was based on a first-person perspective video of a scenic biking/walking trail in Colorado. Males and females (mean age, 43.3 ± 13.7 years) were recruited from a research database for their participation in previous clinical studies. Of the 6 participants, 2 had SCI, 2 had IDD, and 2 were without disability. The primary outcome measurement of this pilot study was the self-reported engagement and enjoyment level of each participant after the exercise trial. All participants reported increased levels of engagement, enjoyment, and immersion involving the MR exercise environment as well as positive feedback recommending this type of exercise approach to peers with similar disabilities. All the participants reported higher than normal levels of enjoyment and 66.7% reported higher than normal levels of being on a real trail. Participants' feedback suggested that the MR environment could be entertaining, motivating, and engaging for users with disabilities, resulting in a foundation for further development of this technology for use in individuals with cognitive and physical disabilities.
Cankaya, Serkan; Kuzu, Abdullah
Mobile skill teaching software has been developed for the parents of the children with intellectual disability to be used in teaching daily life skills. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of the mobile skill teaching software developed for the use of the parents of the children with intellectual disability. In…
McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja
Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…
Russell, Andrew T.; Hahn, Joan Earle; Hayward, Katharine
The purpose of this study was to describe the medication management and treatment provided in a specialty outpatient psychiatry clinic for 198 community-residing children and adults with intellectual disability and other developmental disabilities (IDD) referred to the clinic and discharged between 1999 and 2008. Using a descriptive design, data…
Müller, Rachel; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ravesloot, Craig; Ipsen, Catherine
The aim of this study was to examine how the construct of happiness is related to pain intensity, pain interference, and distress in individuals with physical disabilities. This study involves cross-sectional analyses of 471 individuals with a variety of health conditions reporting at least mild pain. The first hypothesis that happiness mediates the relationship between pain intensity and two outcomes, pain interference and distress, was not supported. The second hypothesis was supported by a good fitting model (χ2(10) = 12.83, P = 0.23, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.025) and indicated that pain intensity significantly mediated the effect of happiness on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.13, P Happiness showed a significant direct effect on pain intensity (β = -0.20, P happiness components meaning, pleasure, and engagement fitted well (χ2(4) = 9.65, P = 0.05, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.055). Pain intensity acted as a significant mediator but only mediated the effect of meaning on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.07, P = 0.05) and on distress (indirect effect via pain interference: β = -0.04, P = 0.05). Only meaning (β = -0.10, P = 0.05), but neither pleasure nor engagement, had a significant direct effect on pain intensity. Participants who reported greater happiness reported lower pain interference and distress through happiness' effects on pain intensity. Experiencing meaning and purpose in life seems to be most closely (and negatively) associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and distress. Findings from this study can lay the groundwork for intervention studies to better understand how to more effectively decrease pain intensity, pain interference, and distress.
Raver, Sharon A.; Michalek, Anne M.; Michalik, Jan; Valenta, Milan
Caregivers of individuals with disabilities in the United States have been reported to experience additional hardships than families with typical children as they attempt to balance family and work (Parish, Rose, Grinstein-Weiss, Richman, & Andrews, 2008). In this study, 31 caregivers of individuals with intellectual disabilities from the…
Jimenez-Pardo, J; Holmes, J D; Jenkins, M E; Johnson, A M
Physical activity is generally thought to be beneficial to individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). There is, however, limited information regarding current rates of physical activity among individuals with PD, possibly due to a lack of well-validated measurement tools. In the current study we sampled 63 individuals (31 women) living with PD between the ages of 52 and 87 (M = 70.97 years, SD = 7.53), and evaluated the amount of physical activity in which they engaged over a 7-day period using a modified form of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD was demonstrated to be a reliable measure within this population, with three theoretically defensible factors: (1) housework and home-based outdoor activities; (2) recreational and fitness activities; and (3) occupational activities. These results suggest that the PASIPD may be useful for monitoring physical activity involvement among individuals with PD, particularly within large-scale questionnaire-based studies.
Walker, J G; Anstey, K J; Lord, S R
To determine whether demographic, health status and psychological functioning measures, in addition to impaired visual acuity, are related to vision-related disability. Participants were 105 individuals (mean age=73.7 years) with cataracts requiring surgery and corrected visual acuity in the better eye of 6/24 to 6/36 were recruited from waiting lists at three public out-patient ophthalmology clinics. Visual disability was measured with the Visual Functioning-14 survey. Visual acuity was assessed using better and worse eye logMAR scores and the Melbourne Edge Test (MET) for edge contrast sensitivity. Data relating to demographic information, depression, anxiety and stress, health care and medication use and numbers of co-morbid conditions were obtained. Principal component analysis revealed four meaningful factors that accounted for 75% of the variance in visual disability: recreational activities, reading and fine work, activities of daily living and driving behaviour. Multiple regression analyses determined that visual acuity variables were the only significant predictors of overall vision-related functioning and difficulties with reading and fine work. For the remaining visual disability domains, non-visual factors were also significant predictors. Difficulties with recreational activities were predicted by stress, as well as worse eye visual acuity, and difficulties with activities of daily living were associated with self-reported health status, age and depression as well as MET contrast scores. Driving behaviour was associated with sex (with fewer women driving), depression, anxiety and stress scores, and MET contrast scores. Vision-related disability is common in older individuals with cataracts. In addition to visual acuity, demographic, psychological and health status factors influence the severity of vision-related disability, affecting recreational activities, activities of daily living and driving.
... cooperative, nonprofit, limited dividend or mutual associations, limited liability companies, commercial... or partnerships of individuals are not eligible entities. (2) An entity is not eligible if it serves...
...; child. 21.3041 Section 21.3041 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... 38 U.S.C. Chapter 35 Eligibility and Entitlement § 21.3041 Periods of eligibility; child. (a) Eligibility derived from a veteran with a P&T disability. An eligible child's period of eligibility generally...
de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Parkington, Karisa; Mirenda, Pat; Cain, Kate; MacLeod, Andrea A N; Segers, Eliane
The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual opportunities. The participants were individuals with expertise either in special needs and/or language education to support bilingualism (e.g., second language (L2) instruction), who served as key informants about service delivery and/or policy in these areas. Six themes emerged as salient during the analysis: we include all kids, special needs drives it, time/scheduling conflicts, IEP/IPP/statement drives it, it's up to the parents, and service availability. The results suggested that access to language programs and services is limited for children with DD, even though participants at all sites reported adherence to a philosophy of inclusion. A priority on special education services over language services was identified, as well as barriers to providing children with DD access to programs and services to support bilingual development. Some of these barriers included time and scheduling conflicts and limited service availability. Additionally, the role of parents in decision making was affirmed, although, in contrast to special education services, decision-making about participation or exemption from language programs was typically left up to the parents. Overall, the results suggest a need for greater attention to providing supports for both first (L1) and L2 language development for bilingual children with DD and greater access to available language programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the oral health related quality of life and the effect of dental anxiety on the oral health related quality of life in young, mildly intellectually disabled individuals who are attending a special school. Materials and Methods: Eighty six mildly intellectually disabled students participated this cross-sectional study. Oral health-related quality of life-United Kingdom Scale and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 were used to evaluate the effects of oral health of the individuals on their quality of life. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale was used to determine the dental anxiety levels of the individuals. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: The mean age of the participants was 17.12±1.40 years and the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score of the students was 3.10±2.76. According to the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, 28.0% of the students had dental anxiety. A significant inverse relationship was detected between dental anxiety levels and oral health-related quality of life (r=-0.239; p=0.028. Conclusion: Nearly 30% of individuals with mild intellectual disabilities were determined to have dental anxiety. Considering that the oral health-related quality of life decreases with increasing dental anxiety, it may be beneficial for dentists to administer premedication before treatment to decrease the anxiety levels of these patients.
Full Text Available Background: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2-57 (25.69±11.56 yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5% cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8% individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2% cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6% with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3% of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%, Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2% and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%. Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6% individuals.Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared.
Lauren J. Rice
Full Text Available In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group. Three self-injurious behaviours (head banging, skin-picking and hitting and/or biting self were measured on five occasions over 18 years using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC a well-validated caregiver report measure. Rates of skin picking were higher in individuals with PWS and hitting and/or biting self was higher in individuals with ASD compared to the ID group. Rates of head banging were similar across the three groups. Over time, skin-picking and head banging increased with age for individuals with ASD and hitting and/or biting self increased for the PWS group. In the PWS and mixed ID groups head banging decreased with age. These findings suggest that the typology and developmental trajectories of self-injurious behaviours differ between those with PWS and ASD.
Garbi, Márcia de Oliveira Sakamoto Silva; Hortense, Priscilla; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; da Silva, Talita de Cássia Raminelli; Castanho, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros
OBJECTIVES: to measure the pain intensity, identify the disability and depression levels in people with chronic back pain and to correlate these variables. A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken at the Pain Treatment Clinic of the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto Hospital das Clínicas, between February and June 2012, after receiving approval from the Ethics Committee at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing. METHOD: sixty subjects with chronic back pain participated. The instruments used were: the 11-point Numerical Category Scale, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. To analyze the data, the arithmetic means, standard deviations and Spearman's correlation coefficient were calculated. RESULTS: the findings show that the participants presented high pain, disability and depression levels. The correlation between pain intensity and disability and between pain intensity and depression was positive and weak and, between disability and depression, positive and moderate. CONCLUSION: the study variables showed moderate and weak indices and the mutual correlations were positive. PMID:25296139
Ojha, Rohit P; Jackson, Bradford E; Tota, Joseph E; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Singh, Karan P; Bae, Sejong
Post-marketing surveillance studies provide conflicting evidence about whether Guillain–Barre syndrome occurs more frequently following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccination. We aimed to assess whether Guillain–Barre syndrome is reported more frequently following HPV4 vaccination than other vaccinations among females and males aged 9 to 26 y in the United States. We used adverse event reports received by the United States Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 to estimate overall, age-, and sex-specific proportional reporting ratios (PRRs) and corresponding Χ2 values for reports of Guillain–Barre syndrome between 5 and 42 d following HPV vaccination. Minimum criteria for a signal using this approach are 3 or more cases, PRR ≥2, and Χ2 ≥ 4. Guillain–Barre syndrome was listed as an adverse event in 45 of 14 822 reports, of which 9 reports followed HPV4 vaccination and 36 reports followed all other vaccines. The overall, age-, and sex-specific PRR estimates were uniformly below 1. In addition, the overall, age-, and sex-specific Χ2 values were uniformly below 3. Our analysis of post-marketing surveillance data does not suggest that Guillain–Barre syndrome is reported more frequently following HPV4 vaccination than other vaccinations among vaccine-eligible females or males in the United States. Our findings may be useful when discussing the risks and benefits of HPV4 vaccination. PMID:24013368
Ojha, Rohit P; Jackson, Bradford E; Tota, Joseph E; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Singh, Karan P; Bae, Sejong
Post-marketing surveillance studies provide conflicting evidence about whether Guillain-Barre syndrome occurs more frequently following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccination. We aimed to assess whether Guillain-Barre syndrome is reported more frequently following HPV4 vaccination than other vaccinations among females and males aged 9 to 26 y in the United States. We used adverse event reports received by the United States Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 to estimate overall, age-, and sex-specific proportional reporting ratios (PRRs) and corresponding Χ2 values for reports of Guillain-Barre syndrome between 5 and 42 d following HPV vaccination. Minimum criteria for a signal using this approach are 3 or more cases, PRR≥2, and Χ2≥4. Guillain-Barre syndrome was listed as an adverse event in 45 of 14,822 reports, of which 9 reports followed HPV4 vaccination and 36 reports followed all other vaccines. The overall, age-, and sex-specific PRR estimates were uniformly below 1. In addition, the overall, age-, and sex-specific Χ2 values were uniformly below 3. Our analysis of post-marketing surveillance data does not suggest that Guillain-Barre syndrome is reported more frequently following HPV4 vaccination than other vaccinations among vaccine-eligible females or males in the United States. Our findings may be useful when discussing the risks and benefits of HPV4 vaccination.
Barrett, Courtenay A.; Cottrell, Joseph M.; Newman, Daniel S.; Pierce, Benjamin G.; Anderson, Alisha
Approximately 2.4 million children receive special education services for specific learning disabilities (SLDs), and school psychologists are key contributors to the SLD eligibility decision-making process. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) enabled local education agencies to use response to intervention (RTI) instead of the…
... explore a list of eligibility information, Search by Keyword or Browse All . Whole Blood Donation Donation frequency: ... Travel Deferrals Still have eligibility questions? Search by Keyword Other Ways to Help Even if you aren' ...
... underserved populations; (4) identify research gaps; (5) identify mechanisms of integrating research and... translation grantees to advance or add to their work by-- (1) Conducting systematic reviews and developing... and Rehabilitative Services proposes a funding priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research...
Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Fredrick, Laura D.; Dykes, Mary Kay; Best, Sherwood; Cohen, Elisabeth Tucker
A national study involving 59 teachers instructing students with physical and health disabilities, 26 universities, 36 local school system directors, and 29 state departments of education, found over 40% of the teachers did not feel well trained in half of the competencies. Concerns regarding the effects of generic teacher certification are…
Scherba de Valenzuela, J.; Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Parkington, K.; Mirenda, P.; Cain, K.; MacLeod, A.A.N.; Segers, P.C.J.
The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual
Brown, Ivan; Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric
Quality of life is a social construct that is measured by what are considered to be its most appropriate indicators. Quality of life measurement in intellectual disability reflects a variety of indicators, often grouped under life domains. Subjective and objective methods of measuring indicators each have strengths and drawbacks, but it is…
Brown, Fredda; Gothelf, Carole R.; Guess, Doug; Lehr, Donna H.
This article explores implications of people's interpretations of communicative efforts by people with severe disabilities. Recent initiatives to support and promote self-determination are critically assessed as possibly functioning to limit self-determination. Use of preference assessments and behavior supports is discussed as a key to…
Sinclair, James; Kahn, Laurie G.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara A.; Knowles, Christen
Sex education is not only a necessary component of public school curriculum, but it is also an important opportunity for students with and without disabilities to learn about their own development as emerging adults. Although comprehensive sex education is not federally mandated, many states and districts choose to offer some form of sex education…
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Shtein, Sarit; Weiss, Itzhak; Svisrsky, Naama
We previously reported a meta-analysis of explicit memory studies in populations with intellectual disability (ID). The current study discusses the educational implications of this meta-analysis. The main factors at the core of these implications can be divided into two categories: those related to task characteristics (e.g., depth of processing,…
Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; Sines, David
This article describes a risk audit carried out on the support provided for 36 people with profound learning disabilities who had been resettled from hospital care to supported housing. The risks were those factors identified in the literature as associated with deleterious effects on quality of life. The audit was carried out with a specially…
... affiliates need continued support to engage in meaningful dialogue, continual learning, and problem solving... dissemination strategies. The Partnership Project has developed and enhanced tools and strategies to improve the... disabilities within general education reform efforts. Engagement tools and strategies include: (1) Various...
Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.
Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…
Van Laarhoven, Toni; Winiarski, Lauren; Blood, Erika; Chan, Jeffrey M.
A modified pre/posttest control group design was used to measure the effectiveness of video modeling on the maintenance of vocational tasks for six students with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disabilities. Each student was assigned two vocational tasks at their employment settings and their independence with each task was measured…
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Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L.; Osborne, Karen J.
Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning…
Boehm, Thomas L.; Carter, Erik W.
Social relationships can shape the well-being of parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). Although much attention has focused on relationships with other family members or professionals, less is known about the place and contributions of informal relationships (i.e., non-family, unpaid others) in the lives of…
Sullivan, Michael J L; Simon, Gregory
The purpose of the present research was to examine the feasibility of a telephonic occupational rehabilitation program. A sample of 23 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain was enrolled in the telephonic version of the Progressive Goal Attainment Program (PGAP-Tel). The PGAP-Tel is a risk-targeted intervention designed to reduce pain-related disability consequent to musculoskeletal injury. Treatment outcomes of PGAP-Tel were compared to a group of individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain, who participated in the face-to-face format of the PGAP. Results showed that PGAP-Tel was acceptable to the majority of participants (76%) to whom it was offered. There were indications that engagement and adherence issues were more problematic in PGAP-Tel than in the face-to-face intervention. Both groups showed comparable reductions in pain, depression, fear of symptom exacerbation, and self-reported disability. Participants in the face-to-face intervention showed greater reduction in catastrophic thinking than participants in PGAP-Tel. Finally, 26% of participants in PGAP-Tel had resumed some form of employment at treatment termination compared to 56% of the participants in the face-to-face intervention. Given the low cost of the PGAP-Tel intervention and the accessibility advantages of a telephonic delivery, this type of intervention might be an important resource for targeting occupational disability in rural or remote communities when face-to-face services are not available.
Smedema, Susan Miller; Kesselmayer, Rachel Friefeld; Peterson, Lauren
Purpose: To test a meditation model of the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and job satisfaction in employed individuals with disabilities. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using Hayes's (2012) PROCESS macro for SPSS and multiple regression analysis. Two-hundred fifty-nine employed persons with disabilities were recruited…
Lee, Amy; Kiemle, Gundi
Background: This study examines the experiences of qualified nurses working with individuals diagnosed with both intellectual disability and personality disorder (PD) in a medium-secure forensic intellectual disability setting. Potential training needs are highlighted, as well as other ways in which services could better support staff to work…
Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett
The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…
Cuskelly, Monica; Moni, Karen; Lloyd, Jan; Jobling, Anne
The study reported here was an examination of the reliability of a method for determining acquiescent responding and the capacity to respond to items using a Likert scale response format by adults with an intellectual disability. Reliability of the outcomes of these procedures was investigated using a test-retest design. Associations with receptive vocabulary were examined. The majority of the participants did not demonstrate acquiescent responding. Individuals' responses to the Likert-type discrimination tasks were consistent, although this varied somewhat depending upon the abstractness of the task. There was some association between receptive language age equivalence scores and respondent performance. It is recommended that the pretest protocol (a) be modified to improve its reliability, and (b) this modified version be used with study participants who have an intellectual disability to ascertain the appropriate level of choice to be used for items that use a Likert response format.
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... days that it wishes to count as holidays for those in unpaid activities in its Work Verification Plan... policies and definitions as part of its Work Verification Plan, specified at § 261.62. (c) For unsubsidized... toward the participation rate for a self-employed individual than the number derived by dividing the...
... individual who is self-employed, the documentation must comport with standards set forth in the State's approved Work Verification Plan. Self-reporting by a participant without additional verification is not... case file. In accordance with § 261.62, a State must describe in its Work Verification Plan the...
Full Text Available Communication barriers often result in exclusion of children and youth with disabilities from activities and social settings that are essential to their psychosocial development. In particular, difficulties in describing their experiences of activities and social settings hinder our understanding of the factors that promote inclusion and participation of this group of individuals. To address this specific communication challenge, we examined the feasibility of developing a language-free measure of experience in youth with severe physical disabilities. To do this, we used the activity of the peripheral nervous system to detect patterns of psychological arousal associated with activities requiring different patterns of cognitive/affective and interpersonal involvement (activity engagement. We demonstrated that these signals can differentiate among patterns of arousal associated with these activities with high accuracy (two levels: 81%, three levels: 74%. These results demonstrate the potential for development of a real-time, motor- and language-free measure for describing the experiences of children and youth with disabilities.
Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret
There is a disagreement in place-based research regarding whether objective indicators or individual perceptions of environments are better predictors of well-being. This study assessed environmental influences on well-being for 373 individuals with psychiatric disabilities living independently in 66 neighborhoods in the southeastern United States. Three questions were examined utilizing random effects models: (1) How much variance in personal and neighborhood well-being can be explained by neighborhood membership? (2) What is the relationship between participant perceptions of neighborhood quality and researcher ratings of neighborhood quality? and (3) What is the relative influence of individual perceptions, perceptions aggregated by neighborhood, and researcher ratings of neighborhood quality in predicting personal and neighborhood well-being? Results indicate that individual perceptions of neighborhood quality were more closely related to well-being than either aggregated perceptions or researcher ratings. Thus, participants' perceptions of their neighborhoods were more important indicators of their well-being than objective ratings made by researchers. Findings have implications for measurement approaches and intervention design in placed-based research.
Ruiz, Sarah; Urdapilleta, Oswaldo; Clark-Shirley, Leanne J; Howard, Jennifer; Poey, Judith
This article explores how rebalancing efforts can support the needs of individuals aging with a lifelong disability. The National Balancing Indicator project examined the overall long-term supports and services system (LTSS) progress in five indicators within the Sustainability, Coordination and Transparency, and Prevention principles toward a balanced LTSS system for those aging with a lifelong disability. In assessing state efforts to create a balanced participant-directed LTSS system with the National Balancing Indicators, the findings suggest states are better equipping the system to handle a burgeoning population of individuals aging with a lifelong disability, but more progress is still needed. Overall, states need to continue to create a seamless system that allows individuals with lifelong disabilities to transition smoothly through the life course.
Patricia NAVAS MACHO
Full Text Available People with intellectual (ID and developmental disabilities who have generalized or extensive support needs constitute a particularly vulnerable group that has traditionally experienced situations of exclusion. Despite this, their situation has not been a priority subject of study nor have there been specific developments in social policy to respond to their needs, which can be translated into an absence of interest in knowing the reality of these group, difficulties to guarantee the fulfillment of their rights, and lack of initiative aimed to achieve their full inclusion in society. Is therefore necessary to undertake different actions, translated into objectives of the present work: to explore and synthesize existing data on this group in our country; to detect their needs and their fulfillment; and to propose evidence-based guidelines to ensure their well-being and rights. For this purpose, the methodology used consisted of: (a a review of the most relevant scientific literature of the last ten years on ID and extensive support needs; and (b the analysis of the results yield by two national surveys carried out in Spain: the Disability, Independence, and Dependency Situations survey, EDAD (INE, 2008, and the System for Autonomy and Care for Dependency, SAAD (IMSERSO, 2016, among others. Considering the disparities observed within this group, urgent lines of action are highlighted, which are aimed to improve the knowledge about the living conditions of people with more significant ID and drive better practices in the provision of supports to this group.
Full Text Available In available studies of inclusive practice and IEP, emphasis was placed on the activities undertaken to reach the accessibility of teaching programs for students with special needs. Architectural accessibility of schools and its implementation for IEP has not been researched enough. The main aim of this research was to highlight the importance of architectural barriers for the process of creating IEP for pupils with physical disabilities, trough determining a current situation in regular elementary schools in Belgrade. An observation list, with 38 variables of architectural accessibility was used in this research. The sample consisted of 12 elementary schools in “Zvezdara” Municipality, Belgrade. The results show that there is complete architectural accessibility in nine out of 38 variables. All nine variables belong to “universal design”. In other variables, elements that measure specific components of architectural accessibility for pupils with physical disabilities mainly intermit. This must be taken into consideration when we discuss IEP, primarily from the aspect of planning additional help and support to professionals, providing additional time for pupils’ work and learning in class, and providing adequate place for learning.
Jahoda, Andrew; Selkirk, Mhairi; Trower, Peter; Pert, Carol; Stenfert Kroese, Biza; Dagnan, Dave; Burford, Bronwen
Establishing a collaborative relationship is a cornerstone of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Increasingly CBT is being offered to people with intellectual disabilities who may have problems with receptive and expressive communication, and a history of disadvantage or discrimination in their relationships with those in positions of power. Consequently, they may have difficulty establishing a collaborative interaction with their therapist. This paper uses a novel method of interactional analysis to examine if collaboration increases as therapy progresses. Fifteen participants with borderline to mild intellectual disabilities and significant problems of depression, anxiety and anger were recruited from specialist clinical services to participate in this study. Verbatim transcripts of therapy sessions 4 and 9 were coded using an initiative-response method of analysing power distribution in dialogue, to investigate collaboration at the level of therapeutic interaction. The initiative-response scores indicated that power was relatively equally distributed between clients and therapists. On this measure there was no significant increase in collaboration as therapy progressed, as the dialogues were relatively equal from session 4. Analyses of the pattern of interaction showed that whilst the therapists asked most questions, the clients contributed to the flow of the analysis and played an active part in dialogues. The implications of these findings are discussed, along with the possible uses of such interactional analyses in identifying barriers to communication and ways of establishing effective therapeutic dialogue.
Vaitsman, Jeni; Lobato, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa
The 1988 Constitution approved the Continuous Cash Benefit (BCP) directed to elders and disabled persons with a household per capita income of 25% of the minimum wage, and around 4 million people received this benefit in 2015. The design of BPC for disabled persons involves organizations of social security, social welfare and health. This paper discusses how some intersectoral coordination mechanisms gaps between these areas produce access barriers to potential beneficiaries. Results stem from a qualitative study performed with physicians, administrative staff and social workers from the National Institute of Social Security (INSS) and of the Social Welfare Reference Center (CRAS) in three municipalities of different Brazilian regions. Intersectoral coordination and cooperation are more structured at the Federal level. At the local level, they rely on informal and horizontal initiatives, which produce immediate but discontinuous solutions. The role of the CRAS remains contingent on the implementation. The need to establish institutionalized mechanisms for coordination and cooperation between social welfare, health and social insurance to improve the implementation and reduce barriers to access to the BCP is apparent.
Araten-Bergman, T; Werner, S
The present study aimed to explore the applicability of the attribution model to social workers' attributions towards clients with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and psychiatric illness. Specifically, the study examined the relations between social workers' attribution of responsibility, causality, stereotypes of dangerousness, their emotional reactions and behavioural reactions towards clients with dual diagnosis. Social workers (N = 279) completed questionnaires measuring attributions of responsibility, causation and dangerousness, and reported on their emotional and behavioural reactions to clients diagnosed with DD. Most social workers reported high levels of helping behaviours. The strongest predictor of discriminatory behaviours was the stereotype of dangerousness. Social workers who reported feeling less anger and more pity towards clients with DD tended to report higher levels of helping behaviour. But contrary to attribution theory, fear and anger did not predict discriminatory behaviours. The results are discussed in relation to the core values of social work and to professional identity. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yell, Mitchell; Smith, Carl; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey
In the past few years, the provision of mental health services in public schools has received considerable attention. When students with disabilities are eligible for special education and related services under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mental health services are required if such services are needed to provide…
Fickert, Nancy A; Ross, Diana
Caregivers who work in community living arrangements or intermediate care facilities are responsible for the oral hygiene of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Oral hygiene training programs do not exist in many organizations, despite concerns about the oral care of this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a caregiver educational program. This study used a quasi-experimental one-group pretest/posttest design with repeated measures to describe the outcomes of an educational program. Program participants demonstrated oral hygiene skills on each other while being scored by a trained observer, after which they completed an oral hygiene compliance survey. After three months, a follow-up included the same posttest, demonstration of oral hygiene skills, and repeat of the compliance survey. Paired-sample t-tests of oral hygiene knowledge showed a statistically significant improvement from pretest to posttest and from pretest to three-month posttest. Oral hygiene skills and compliance improved. Results demonstrate evidence that caregiver education improves knowledge, skill, and compliance in oral hygiene. Further studies are required to demonstrate the value of providing oral hygiene education and training for caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
Tint, A; Thomson, K; Weiss, J A
Special Olympics (SO) is commonly cited to play an important role in the lives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of the current review was to (a) synthesise key findings regarding the physical, psychological/emotional, social and/or intellectual/cognitive correlates of SO participation for individuals with ID and (b) highlight limitations in the extant research as well as directions for future research. A systematic review of electronic databases was undertaken. A total of 46 articles were confirmed to meet study criteria. Quality assessments of included studies were conducted using checklists from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodology checklists (SIGN 50; SIGN 2008). There was a larger amount of support for physical, psychological/emotional and social outcomes as compared with cognitive/intellectual outcomes; however, many studies were confounded by measurement difficulties, sampling procedures and a lack of replicable methods, which hinder generalisation of results. This review highlights the need for a continued critical focus on SO programme evaluation research with more rigorous and replicable methods. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E
Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed.
Bertelli, M; Bianco, A; Rossi, M; Scuticchio, D; Brown, I
There is substantial literature investigating quality of life (QoL) of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). QoL of families of people with ID is emerging as an important field of research. Despite this, there is a lack of studies regarding their relationship. The present paper aimed to study the relationship between QoL scores of individuals with ID and members of their families. Twenty-seven parents or relatives of 27 adults with ID were recruited by four different research centres across Tuscany (Italy) to be interviewed through the Italian adaptation of the Family Quality of Life Survey - 2006 (FQoLS-2006), a tool developed for use in a multiple-country study on family QoL. The FQoLS-2006 was translated and adapted to Italian through three revisions. The last was submitted to the authors of the original version, who also maintain an electronic data file and data archive for statistical evaluations in various countries. QoL of persons with ID was assessed through the administration of the Quality of Life - Instrument Package. QoL scores were analysed to describe population characteristics and to examine the relationships among measures of individual and family QoL using correlations (Pearson and Spearman). Findings showed that family ratings of QoL were generally low. Families interviewed reported a low level of QoL in 'Support from Others' and 'Community Interaction', while 'Family Relationships' and 'Health of the Family' rated higher. For individual QoL, individuals had the lowest scores in the area of 'Spiritual being' and higher scores in the area of 'Physical being'. Correlations examining possible relationships among Importance, Satisfaction and Opportunities found some statistically significant correlation coefficients between some aspects of the three main areas of individual QoL (Being, Belonging and Becoming) and the nine family domains. Most of these correlations regarded family 'Financial Well-Being', 'Family Relationships, 'Support from
Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane
Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…
The pediatrician's role in development and implementation of an Individual Education Plan (IEP) and/or an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP). American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Children with Disabilities.
The Individual Education Plan and Individual Family Service Plan are legally mandated documents developed by a multidisciplinary team assessment that specifies goals and services for each child eligible for special educational services or early intervention services. Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable of federal, state, and local requirements; establish linkages with early intervention, educational professionals, and parent support groups; and collaborate with the team working with individual children.
Smith, Madison; Wilder, David A
The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) is an informant-based tool designed to identify the variables responsible for performance problems. To date, the PDC-HS has not been examined with individuals with intellectual disabilities. In the current study, two supervisors with intellectual disabilities completed the PDC-HS to assess the productivity of two supervisees with disabilities who performed a pricing task in a thrift store. The PDC-HS suggested that performance deficits were due to a lack of training; a PDC-HS-indicated intervention was effective to increase accurate pricing. • The PDC-HS is an informant-based tool designed to identify the variables responsible for employee performance problems in human service settings. • The PDC-HS can be completed by some individuals with intellectual disabilities in a supervisory position to identify the variables responsible for problematic job performance among their supervisees. • A PDC-HS indicated intervention was demonstrated to be effective to improve the job performance of individuals with disabilities. • The PDC-HS may be a useful tool to support performance improvement and job maintenance among individuals with intellectual disabilities.
... Employees § 330.605 Eligibility. (a) To be eligible for the special selection priority, an individual must... selection priority when there are no eligible surplus and displaced agency employees within the local...) Eligibility for special selection priority begins on the date the agency issues the employee a reduction in...
Tatiana URIEN ORTIZ
Full Text Available This article analyzes the ethical implications of acknowledging disability as a human rights issue. The most common way to understand disability is inspired by a welfarist structure where collective needs trump the wishes of the individual. This new conceptualization, inspired by influential philosophers, such as Dworkin and Margalit, understands dignity as the individual’s right to have their life unfold in an inclusive context that creates self-respect.
Madsen, Emily K.; Peck, Janelle A.; Valdovinos, Maria G.
In working with individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), it is direct care staff who are often required to collect data on individuals' behavior which is used as the basis for implementation of empirically based approaches for intervention and treatment. Due to limited resources, indirect and descriptive measures of…
Galli, Manuela; Coghe, Giancarlo; Sanna, Paola; Cocco, Eleonora; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Pau, Massimiliano
This study analyzes how multiple sclerosis (MS) does affect one of the most common voluntary activities in life: the gait initiation (GI). The main aim of the work is to characterize the execution of this task by measuring and comparing relevant parameters based on center of pressure (COP) patterns and to study the relationship between these and the level of expanded disability status scale (EDSS). To this aim, 95 MS subjects with an average EDSS score of 2.4 and 35 healthy subjects were tested using a force platform during the transition from standing posture to gait. COP time-series were acquired and processed to extract a number of parameters related to the trajectory followed by the COP. The statistical analysis revealed that only a few measurements were statistically different between the two groups and only these were subsequently correlated with EDSS score. The correlation analysis underlined that a progressive alteration of the task execution can be directly related with the increase of EDSS score. These finding suggest that most of the impairment found in people with MS comes from the first part of the COP pattern, the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). The central nervous system performs APAs before every voluntary movement to minimize balance perturbation due to the movement itself. Gait Initiation's APAs consist in some ankle muscles contractions that induce a backward COP shift to the swing limb. The analysis here performed highlighted that MS affected patients have a reduced posterior COP shift that reveals that the anticipatory mechanism is impaired. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla
Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content of ISPs with respect to the social contacts of people with PIMD. ISPs for 60 persons with PIMD in the Netherlands were inductively coded and illustrated with quotations. It turned out that every ISP contained information about social contacts. Of all the quotations extracted, 71.2% were about current conditions, 6.2% were about the future and less than 1% concerned actual goals. The social contacts of people with PIMD are mentioned in their ISPs, but this is rarely translated into goals. The results of the current study suggest that attention should be paid to ensuring that professionals understand the importance of social contacts and their application in practice.
van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; van Mechelen, Willem
The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects' diagnoses were: stroke, spinal cord injury, whiplash, and neurological-, orthopedic- or back disorders. The PASIPD is a 7-d recall physical activity questionnaire that was completed twice, 1 wk apart. During this week, physical activity was also measured with an Actigraph accelerometer. The test-retest reliability Spearman correlation of the PASIPD was 0.77. The criterion validity Spearman correlation was 0.30 when compared to the accelerometer. The PASIPD had test-retest reliability and criterion validity that is comparable to well established self-report physical activity questionnaires from the general population.
Kurtz, Patricia F; Boelter, Eric W; Jarmolowicz, David P; Chin, Michelle D; Hagopian, Louis P
This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force, 1995) and adapted by Jennett and Hagopian (2008) for evaluation of single-case research studies were used to examine the support for FCT. Results indicated that FCT far exceeds criteria to be designated as a well-established treatment for problem behavior exhibited by children with ID and children with autism spectrum disorder, and can be characterized as probably efficacious with adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown a markedly higher mortality rate among disability pensioners than among non-retired. Since most disability pensions are granted because of non-fatal diseases the reason for the increased mortality therefore remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential explanatory factors. Methods Data from five longitudinal cohort studies in Sweden, including 6,887 men and women less than 65 years old at baseline were linked to disability pension data, hospital admission data, and mortality data from 1971 until 2001. Mortality odds ratios were analyzed with Poisson regression and Cox's proportional hazards regression models. Results 1,683 (24.4% subjects had a disability pension at baseline or received one during follow up. 525 (7.6% subjects died during follow up. The subjects on disability pension had a higher mortality rate than the non-retired, the hazards ratio (HR being 2.78 (95%CI 2.08–3.71 among women and 3.43 (95%CI 2.61–4.51 among men. HR was highest among individuals granted a disability pension at young ages (HR >7, and declined parallel to age at which the disability pension was granted. The higher mortality rate among the retired subjects was not explained by disability pension cause or underlying disease or differences in age, marital status, educational level, smoking habits or drug abuse. There was no significant association between reason for disability pension and cause of death. Conclusion Subjects with a disability pension had increased mortality rates as compared with non-retired subjects, only modestly affected by adjustments for psycho-socio-economic factors, underlying disease, etcetera. It is unlikely that these factors were the causes of the unfavorable outcome. Other factors must be at work.
...) Information in reports prepared by individuals and entities performing certification or licensure reviews, or by professional accreditation organizations, as well as related assessments prepared for a facility... in the State when necessary to conduct a full investigation of an incident of abuse or neglect under...
Davis, Hope C; Troy Blackburn, J; Ryan, Eric D; Luc-Harkey, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew S; Padua, Darin A; Pietrosimone, Brian
The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self-reported function (International Knee Documentation Committee Index), isometric quadriceps strength and rate of torque development in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Forty-one individuals [31% male, BMI mean 25 (SD 4) kg/m 2 , months post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction mean 49 (SD 40)] completed the self-reported function and isometric quadriceps function testing. Rate of torque development was assessed at 0-100ms (early), 100-200ms (late) ms, and peak following the onset of contraction. Associations were examined between rate of torque development, strength, and self-reported function. Linear regression was used to determine the unique amount of variance explained by the combination of rate of torque development and strength. Higher rate of torque development 100-200ms is weakly associated with higher self-reported function in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (r=0.274, p=0.091); however, rate of torque development 100-200ms does not predict a significant amount of variance in self-reported function after accounting for strength (ΔR 2 =0.003, P=0.721). Quadriceps strength has a greater influence on self-reported function compared to rate of torque development in individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with time from surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking
... types of services to passengers with a disability that are or are not available on the flight. ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.41 What flight-related... ability to accommodate passengers with a disability, including limitations on the availability of level...
Perrier, Marie-Josée; Smith, Brett M; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
Few individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) engage in the recommended amount of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Yet little is known about how, and why, active individuals engage in specific types of LTPA. This study explored how a unique narrative environment and disability narratives motivated individuals with SCI to engage in LTPA. Fourteen individuals with SCI from a physical activity program participated in approximately hour-long interviews. Interviews were then subjected to a narrative analysis. Individuals who used a restitution narrative (n = 6) were motivated to engage in functional LTPA because of the desire to maintain the body and restore the past self. The individual who used the chaos narrative (n = 1) preferred solitary LTPA as exposure to others with SCI was a constant reminder of the lost, pre-injury self. Individuals who used a quest narrative (n = 7) explored LTPA options that fit with their interests; these individuals were open to new types of LTPA, such as sport and outdoor recreation. The plot of three disability narratives can all motivate the pursuit of LTPA; however, not all types of LTPA are seen as equal. LTPA interventions can be enhanced through the lessons learned from this unique type of environment. Despite individuals' views about their disability, they can still be motivated to engage in routine LTPA. Different theoretical determinants, such as health or social benefits, hold different relevance for LTPA among individuals with differing disability narratives. The environment provided by practitioners can therefore elicit some stories of SCI while stifling others. Open narrative environment will attract individuals to listen and maintain involvement in LTPA.
Scherer, Reinhold; Faller, Josef; Friedrich, Elisabeth V C; Opisso, Eloy; Costa, Ursula; Kübler, Andrea; Müller-Putz, Gernot R
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) translate oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns into action. Different mental activities modulate spontaneous EEG rhythms in various ways. Non-stationarity and inherent variability of EEG signals, however, make reliable recognition of modulated EEG patterns challenging. Able-bodied individuals who use a BCI for the first time achieve - on average - binary classification performance of about 75%. Performance in users with central nervous system (CNS) tissue damage is typically lower. User training generally enhances reliability of EEG pattern generation and thus also robustness of pattern recognition. In this study, we investigated the impact of mental tasks on binary classification performance in BCI users with central nervous system (CNS) tissue damage such as persons with stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI). Motor imagery (MI), that is the kinesthetic imagination of movement (e.g. squeezing a rubber ball with the right hand), is the "gold standard" and mainly used to modulate EEG patterns. Based on our recent results in able-bodied users, we hypothesized that pair-wise combination of "brain-teaser" (e.g. mental subtraction and mental word association) and "dynamic imagery" (e.g. hand and feet MI) tasks significantly increases classification performance of induced EEG patterns in the selected end-user group. Within-day (How stable is the classification within a day?) and between-day (How well does a model trained on day one perform on unseen data of day two?) analysis of variability of mental task pair classification in nine individuals confirmed the hypothesis. We found that the use of the classical MI task pair hand vs. feed leads to significantly lower classification accuracy - in average up to 15% less - in most users with stroke or SCI. User-specific selection of task pairs was again essential to enhance performance. We expect that the gained evidence will significantly contribute to make imagery-based BCI technology
Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs translate oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG patterns into action. Different mental activities modulate spontaneous EEG rhythms in various ways. Non-stationarity and inherent variability of EEG signals, however, make reliable recognition of modulated EEG patterns challenging. Able-bodied individuals who use a BCI for the first time achieve - on average - binary classification performance of about 75%. Performance in users with central nervous system (CNS tissue damage is typically lower. User training generally enhances reliability of EEG pattern generation and thus also robustness of pattern recognition. In this study, we investigated the impact of mental tasks on binary classification performance in BCI users with central nervous system (CNS tissue damage such as persons with stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI. Motor imagery (MI, that is the kinesthetic imagination of movement (e.g. squeezing a rubber ball with the right hand, is the "gold standard" and mainly used to modulate EEG patterns. Based on our recent results in able-bodied users, we hypothesized that pair-wise combination of "brain-teaser" (e.g. mental subtraction and mental word association and "dynamic imagery" (e.g. hand and feet MI tasks significantly increases classification performance of induced EEG patterns in the selected end-user group. Within-day (How stable is the classification within a day? and between-day (How well does a model trained on day one perform on unseen data of day two? analysis of variability of mental task pair classification in nine individuals confirmed the hypothesis. We found that the use of the classical MI task pair hand vs. feed leads to significantly lower classification accuracy - in average up to 15% less - in most users with stroke or SCI. User-specific selection of task pairs was again essential to enhance performance. We expect that the gained evidence will significantly contribute to make imagery-based BCI
Poquérusse, J; Azhari, A; Setoh, P; Cainelli, S; Ripoli, C; Venuti, P; Esposito, G
Although the benefits of a range of disability-centric therapies have been well studied, little remains known about how they work, let alone how to monitor these benefits in a precise and reliable way. Here, in two independent studies, we examine how sessions consisting of occupational or music therapy, both widely recognised for their effectiveness, modulate levels of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a now time- and cost-efficient marker of stress, in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Pre-session and post-session levels of sAA were compared in both groups in response to therapy and control sessions. In comparison to control sessions, occupational therapy significantly dampened rises in sAA levels while music therapy significantly decreased baseline sAA levels, highlighting the ability of both types of therapy to reduce stress and by proxy contribute to enhancing overall well-being. Not only do these results confirm the stress-reducing nature of two types of multisensory therapy, but they support the use of sAA as a potential tool for evaluating stress levels in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, providing an important physiological lens that may guide strategies in clinical and non-clinical care for individuals with disabilities. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kreisman, Brian M; John, Andrew B
In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), and it has been revised and modified several times. At the time of this writing, this law was most recently amended by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Pub. L. No. 108-446, 118 Stat. 2647, December 3, 2004), which took effect on July 1, 2005. Colloquially the law is still referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Children with hearing loss or auditory processing disorder (APD) may qualify for services under IDEA. However, a review of the literature found no review of case law for such children. This article provides a comprehensive review of case law involving the IDEA and children with hearing loss or APD from the U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. courts of appeals. We conducted a systematic review of case law. A LexisNexis search for cases involving IDEA and children with hearing loss or APDs was conducted. For the purpose of the present case review, all appellate decisions (cases accepted by the U.S. courts of appeals or the U.S. Supreme Court) were included if they found that the child had hearing loss or APD, regardless of the reason for the appeal under IDEA. In the instance of multiple cases that involved the same two parties, these cases are summarized together to provide the legal context. Brief explanations of IDEA and the federal judicial process as it pertains to IDEA disputes are presented. Following these explanations, a chronological review of IDEA appellate cases concerning students with hearing loss or APD is provided. The IDEA cases reviewed focus on three main issues: placement of the child, methodology of teaching, and the provision of services. This case law review provides a helpful summary of higher court cases for educational audiologists and parents of children with hearing loss or APDs, as well as educators, individualized education program team members, school administrators, and legal
Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Musculoskeletal Services Framework outlines the importance of health care needs assessment. Our aim was to provide a model for this for knee pain and disability, describing felt need (individual assessment of a need for health care and expressed need (demand for health care. This intelligence is required by health care planners in order to implement the new Framework. Methods A multi-method approach was used. A population survey (n = 5784 was administered to adults aged 50+ registered with 3 general practices. The questionnaire contained a Knee Pain Screening Tool to identify the prevalence of knee pain and health care use in the population, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC. Survey responders who scored "severe" or "extreme" on at least one item on the pain or physical function scale on the WOMAC were categorised into "severe" groups. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with 22 survey responders to explore in detail the experience of living with knee pain and disability. A sample of interviewees (n = 10 completed an open format patient diary to explore the experience of knee pain in everyday life. Results The 12-month period prevalence of knee pain was 49.5%, of which half was severe. Severe difficulties were reported with domestic duties, bending, bathing, climbing stairs and getting in or out of a car. Some self-care is occurring. The majority (53% of responders with severe pain or disability had not consulted their GP in the last 12 months. The qualitative study revealed reasons for this including a perception that knee pain is part of normal ageing, little effective prevention and treatment is available and the use of medications causes side effects and dependency. Conclusion This study adds to previous work by highlighting a gap between felt and expressed need and the reasons for this mismatch. There is evidence of self-management, but also missed opportunities for
Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
Stress-related mental disorders rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension in sickness absentees with stress-related mental disorders. A cohort of 36304 non-retired individuals aged 16-64 years at 31.12.2004 with at-least one sickness absence spell due to stress-related mental disorders (SRMD) initiated in 2005 in Sweden was followed-up with regard to disability pension (2006-2010) by linkage of registers. Uni- and multivariate Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% Confidence Intervals, CI, were estimated using Cox regression for several risk markers. During the follow-up period, 2735 individuals (7.5%) were granted a disability pension, predominantly due to mental diagnoses (n = 2004, 73.3%). In the multivariate analyses, female sex, age exceeding 35 years, low educational level, being born in a country outside EU25 and Northern Europe, residing outside big cities, living alone, having had a long duration of the first spell due to SRMD (>90 days); mental disorders necessitating frequent specialised health care as well as comorbid somatic disorders were found to be predictive of granting disability pension. Some different patterns emerged for risk factors related to diagnosis-specific disability pension and for younger and older individuals. Several predictors could be identified as risk markers for disability pension. The variation in the effect of risk markers with regard to age and diagnosis of disability pension speaks in favour of the importance of a person-centered approach in treatment and rehabilitation.
Werner, Shirli; Shulman, Cory
Studies have shown that stigmatization is linked to lower quality of life; however, only scant research has examined the association between family caregivers' internalization of stigma (affiliate stigma) and their subjective quality of life (subjective well-being, SWB). Furthermore, studies have rarely examined this association via comparison between caregivers of individuals with different developmental disabilities in addition to examining the influence of psychosocial protective factors. These were the aims of the current study. Family caregivers (N=176) of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disabilities (ID), and physical disabilities (PD) completed a self-report structured questionnaire including scales measuring SWB, affiliate stigma, burden, positive meaning in caregiving, social support and self-esteem. Results showed that SWB of family caregivers was below the average normative level and especially low for caregivers of individuals with ASD. The strongest predictors of SWB were caregivers' self-esteem, social support, positive meaning in caregiving, and affiliate stigma. Furthermore, an interaction was found between affiliate stigma and diagnosis, showing that among caregivers of individuals with ASD, greater levels of stigma were associated with lower ratings of SWB, whereas such an association was not found among caregivers of individuals with ID or PD. Findings from this study point to the importance of supporting caregivers across the life-span in order to decrease stigma, improve social support and self-esteem and improve SWB. Further, findings point to the need to respond differentially to the various developmental disabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blick, Rachel N; Litz, Katherine S; Thornhill, Monica G; Goreczny, Anthony J
More individuals with an intellectual disability now possess prerequisite skills and supports necessary for successful work force integration than did previous generations. The current study compared quality of life of community-integrated workers with those participating in sheltered vocational workshops and adult day care programs. We considered numerous indices of quality of life, including inclusion and community participation; satisfaction within professional services, home life, and day activities; dignity, rights, and respect received from others; fear; choice and control; and family satisfaction. Our data revealed several important differences in quality of life across daytime activities; participants involved in community-integrated employment tended to be younger, indicated a greater sense of community integration, and reported more financial autonomy than did those who participated in adult day care programs and sheltered workshops. However, individuals reported no differences in overall satisfaction across daytime activities. We discuss generational differences across employment status as well as possible explanations to account for high levels of satisfaction across daytime activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Müller, Eve; Schuler, Adriana; Yates, Gregory B
The study describes the perspectives of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities (ASDs) regarding social challenges and supports. Eighteen adults with ASDs were individually interviewed. They were asked to describe their experiences navigating their social worlds, and recommend effective social supports and strategies for improving social connectedness. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts revealed a number of common experiences including a profound sense of isolation, difficulty initiating social interactions, challenges relating to communication, longing for greater intimacy, desire to contribute to one's community, and effort to develop greater social/self-awareness. Commonly recommended social supports included external supports (e.g. activities based on shared interests, highly structured or scripted social activities, and small groups or dyads); communication supports (e.g. alternative modes of communication, explicit communication, and instruction in interpreting and using social cues); and self-initiated strategies for handling social anxiety (e.g. creative/improvisational outlets, physical activity, spiritual practice/organized religion, and time spent alone).
... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT The Summer Youth Employment and Training Program § 628.702 Eligibility. (a) Age and economic disadvantage. An individual is eligible to participate in programs funded...
... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT The Adult Program § 628.605 Eligibility. (a) Age and economic disadvantage. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an individual shall be eligible to...
... not disabled for the position in question to the Merit Systems Protection Board under 5 U.S.C. 7701... EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DISABILITY RETIREMENT General Provisions § 844.103 Eligibility. (a) Except as..., resulting in a deficiency in performance, conduct, or attendance, or if there is no such deficiency, the...
McNulty, Brian A.; And Others
This report on the fourth year of Colorado's participation in Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act describes major accomplishments in preparing for full implementation of Part H in Year 5. Accomplishments in the following areas are discussed: state definition of developmental delay, central directory, timetables for serving…
Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Davis, Tonya N.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Sutherland, Dean; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff
We conducted a systematic review of studies that involved iPods[R], iPads[R], and related devices (e.g., iPhones[R]) in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. The search yielded 15 studies covering five domains: (a) academic, (b) communication, (c) employment, (d) leisure, and (e) transitioning across school settings.…
Valiquette, Christine; Sutton, Ann; Ska, Bernadette
This article reports on the views of individuals with learning disability (LD) on their use of their speech generating devices (SGDs), their satisfaction about their communication, and their priorities. The development of an interview tool made of graphic symbols and entitled Communication, Satisfaction and Priorities of SGD Users (CSPU) is…
Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla
Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content
Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Bettencourt, Amie F.; Sutherland, Kevin; Lotze, Geri M.; Mays, Sally; Wright, Stephen; Farrell, Albert D.
To enhance the positive adjustment of youths with high incidence disabilities, a better understanding of the factors that influence their use of effective responses in challenging situations is needed. In this qualitative study, adolescents described individual and peer factors that would influence their use of effective nonviolent or aggressive…
Saito, Yoshiaki; Aoki, Yusuke; Takeshita, Eri; Saito, Takashi; Sugai, Kenji; Komaki, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Takanoha, Satoko; Wada, Satoru; Sasaki, Masayuki
To describe the characteristics of hypophosphatemia in severely disabled individuals with neurological disorders and to identify its causative factors. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data from 82 individuals with motor skills classified as sitting, rollover or bedridden. Age, gender and body mass index were compared in individuals with (n=19) and without (n=63) a history of hypophosphatemia (serum phosphate levels refeeding syndrome (n=4) and Fanconi syndrome (n=3), but was unidentifiable in one episode. Significant elevations in C-reactive protein levels and reductions in sodium levels were observed during hypophosphatemia episodes. Hypophosphatemia is a common complication in severely disabled individuals with frequent bacterial infections, refeeding following malnutrition and valproate administration for epilepsy treatment. Because severe hypophosphatemia is life threatening, serum phosphate levels should be closely monitored in this population. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... aligned to alternate academic achievement standards, a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives... than the first IEP to be in effect when the child turns 16, or younger if determined appropriate by the... EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education...
Lofthouse, Rachael E; Lindsay, William R; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P; Boer, Douglas P; Haaven, James L
The purpose of the present study was to add to the literature on the predictive accuracy of a dynamic intellectual disability specific risk assessment tool. A dynamic risk assessment for sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S), a static risk assessment for sexual offending (STATIC-99), and a static risk assessment for violence (Violence Risk Appraisal Guide [VRAG]) were completed for a sample of 64 adult males with an intellectual disability. The dynamic risk assessment for sexual offenders with an intellectual disability resulted in the best prediction of sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S area under the curve (AUC) = 0.92) this was better than an established sexual offending static risk assessment (STATIC-99 AUC = 0.75). A static tool for violent reoffending, did not perform as well in this group (VRAG AUC = 0.58). Results suggest that dynamic variables are useful in predicting sexual reoffending with individuals with an intellectual disability, confirming previous findings. The ARMIDILO-S is a promising dynamic risk assessment for individuals with an intellectual disability. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Title I--improving the academic achievement of the disadvantaged; Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)--assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities. Final regulations.
The Secretary amends the regulations governing programs administered under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) (referred to in these regulations as the Title I program) and the regulations governing programs under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (referred to in these regulations as the IDEA program). These regulations provide States with additional flexibility regarding State, local educational agency (LEA), and school accountability for the achievement of a small group of students with disabilities whose progress is such that, even after receiving appropriate instruction, including special education and related services designed to address the students' individual needs, the students' individualized education program (IEP) teams (IEP Teams) are reasonably certain that the students will not achieve grade-level proficiency within the year covered by the students' IEPs.
Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios; Liga, Maria; Karra, Chrisanthi; Amiridis, Ioannis
Reaction time and muscle activation deficits might limit the individual's autonomy in activities of daily living and in participating in recreational activities. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a 14-week hippotherapy exercise program on movement reaction time and muscle activation in adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Nineteen adolescents with moderate ID were assigned either to an experimental group (n=10) or a control group (n=9). The experimental group attended a hippotherapy exercise program, consisting of two 30-min sessions per week for 14 weeks. Reaction time, time of maximum muscle activity and electromyographic activity (EMG) of rectus femoris and biceps femoris when standing up from a chair under three conditions: in response to audio, visual and audio with closed eyes stimuli were measured. Analysis of variance designs showed that hippotherapy intervention program resulted in significant improvements in reaction time and a reduction in time to maximum muscle activity of the intervention group comparing to the control group in all 3 three conditions that were examined (phippotherapy training. Hippotherapy probably creates a changing environment with a variety of stimuli that enhance deep proprioception as well as other sensory inputs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that hippotherapy can improve functional task performance by enhancing reaction time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Groot, S; van der Woude, L H V; Niezen, A; Smit, C A J; Post, M W M
Cross-sectional study. To evaluate the physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities (PASIPD) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with a specialized SCI unit. The PASIPD was examined by comparing group scores of people with different personal (age, gender and body mass index) and lesion characteristics (level (paraplegia/tetraplegia), completeness, time since injury (TSI)) in 139 persons with SCI 1 year after discharge from in-patient rehabilitation. Relationships between PASIPD scores and measures of activities (wheelchair skills, Utrecht Activity List, mobility range and social behavior subscales of the SIP68) and fitness (peak oxygen uptake, peak power output and muscular strength) were determined. Persons with tetraplegia had significantly lower PASIPD scores than those with paraplegia (PPASIPD scores than persons with shorter TSI (PPASIPD scores showed moderate correlations with activities (0.36-0.51, PPASIPD showed weak-to-moderate relationships with activity and fitness parameters. There seems to be a limited association between self-reported activity level and fitness in people with SCI.
Full Text Available Chimpanzee culture has generated intense recent interest, fueled by the technical complexity of chimpanzee tool-using traditions; yet it is seriously doubted whether chimpanzees are able to learn motor procedures by imitation under natural conditions. Here we take advantage of an unusual chimpanzee population as a 'natural experiment' to identify evidence for imitative learning of this kind in wild chimpanzees. The Sonso chimpanzee community has suffered from high levels of snare injury and now has several manually disabled members. Adult male Tinka, with near-total paralysis of both hands, compensates inability to scratch his back manually by employing a distinctive technique of holding a growing liana taut while making side-to-side body movements against it. We found that seven able-bodied young chimpanzees also used this 'liana-scratch' technique, although they had no need to. The distribution of the liana-scratch technique was statistically associated with individuals' range overlap with Tinka and the extent of time they spent in parties with him, confirming that the technique is acquired by social learning. The motivation for able-bodied chimpanzees copying his variant is unknown, but the fact that they do is evidence that the imitative learning of motor procedures from others is a natural trait of wild chimpanzees.
Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W
Chimpanzee culture has generated intense recent interest, fueled by the technical complexity of chimpanzee tool-using traditions; yet it is seriously doubted whether chimpanzees are able to learn motor procedures by imitation under natural conditions. Here we take advantage of an unusual chimpanzee population as a 'natural experiment' to identify evidence for imitative learning of this kind in wild chimpanzees. The Sonso chimpanzee community has suffered from high levels of snare injury and now has several manually disabled members. Adult male Tinka, with near-total paralysis of both hands, compensates inability to scratch his back manually by employing a distinctive technique of holding a growing liana taut while making side-to-side body movements against it. We found that seven able-bodied young chimpanzees also used this 'liana-scratch' technique, although they had no need to. The distribution of the liana-scratch technique was statistically associated with individuals' range overlap with Tinka and the extent of time they spent in parties with him, confirming that the technique is acquired by social learning. The motivation for able-bodied chimpanzees copying his variant is unknown, but the fact that they do is evidence that the imitative learning of motor procedures from others is a natural trait of wild chimpanzees.
Nasrolahei, M; Poorhagibagher, M; Vahedi, M; Maleki, I
OBJECTIVE. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections and account for large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate and the etiologic agents of UTIs in inhabitants of rehabilitation centers of Mazandaran province in northern Iran and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the uropathogens isolated. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each of 314 participants (163 males, 151 females) residing in 12 rehabilitation centers of Ramsar, Nowshahr, Chalous, Amol, Sari and Behshahr. Urine specimens were cultured and bacterial isolates were identified by conventional methods. All urines fulfilling the criteria for the presence of significant bacteriuria (> or = 10(4) cfu/ml urine) were defined as positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The rate of urinary tract infection was 30.9% with the highest rate in pediatrics (p 50 years). Bacteria most frequently isolated from urine specimens was Escherichia coli (39.2%) with the highest rate of infection in females age group antibiotics tested against the isolated organisms for susceptibility test, ceftriaxone and gentamicin maintain good activity against the majority of gram negative bacteria that cause UTIs recovered from individuals with intellectual disability. Vancomycin was effective against Staphylococcus aureus. This survey shows that the prevalence of UTIs among inhabitants of institutions for mentally retarded persons in Mazandaran province of Iran is much higher than normal population.
van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; van den Hazel, Teunis; Engels, Rutger C M E
To investigate the reliability and validity of a Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-based Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - third edition (WAIS-III) short form (SF) in a sample of individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) (N = 117; M(IQ) = 71.34; SD(IQ) = 8.00, range: 52-85). A full WAIS-III was administered as a standard procedure in the diagnostic process. The results indicate an excellent reliability (r = 0.96) and a strong, positive correlation with the full WAIS-III (r = 0.89). The SF correctly identified ID in general and the correct IQ category more specifically in the majority of cases (97.4% and 86.3% of cases, respectively). In addition, 82.1% of the full scale IQ (FSIQ) estimates fell within the 95% confidence interval of the original score. We conclude that the SF is a reliable and valid measure to estimate FSIQ. It can be used in clinical and research settings when global estimates of intelligence are sufficient.
Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia
Determining the groups that are most susceptible to developing disability is essential to establishing effective prevention and rehabilitation strategies. The aim of the present study was to determine gender differences in the incidence of disability regarding activities of daily living (ADL) and determinants among elderly residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In 2000, 1634 elderly with no difficulties regarding ADL (modified Katz Index) were selected. These activities were reassessed in 2006 and disability was the outcome for the analysis of determinants. The following characteristics were analyzed at baseline: socio-demographic, behavioral, health status, medications, falls, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, handgrip, mobility and balance. The incidence density was 42.4/1000 women/year and 17.5/1000 men/year. After adjusting for socioeconomic status and health conditions, women with chronic diseases and social vulnerability continued to have a greater incidence of disability. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age and depressive symptoms in both genders; stroke and slowness on the sit-and-stand test among men; and osteoarthritis and sedentary lifestyle among women. Better cognitive performance and handgrip strength were protective factors among men and women, respectively. Adverse clinical and social conditions determine differences between genders regarding the incidence of disability. Decreased mobility and balance and health conditions that affect the central nervous system or lead to impaired cognition disable men more, whereas a sedentary lifestyle, reduction in muscle strength and conditions that affect the osteoarticular system disable women more. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S
Parents of sons and daughters with disabilities have ongoing financial burdens and vulnerability due to the demands of caregiving responsibilities and their related direct and indirect costs. This study aims to investigate whether midlife and older parents of individuals with a mental health problem or a developmental disability were particularly vulnerable to the impact of the recession. The data were drawn from Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), a longitudinal survey of a national probability sample in the United States, Waves II (2004-2006) and III (2013-2014; 84 parents of individuals with a mental health problem, 98 parents of individuals with a developmental disability, and 2,029 parents of individuals without any conditions as a comparison group). The findings suggest that the midlife and older parents whose son or daughter had a mental health problem experienced more recession impacts than comparison parents, even after controlling prerecession financial status and sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicate the need for policies that provide effective financial support and reduce restrictions on health service access in order to relieve the financial burden experienced by midlife and older parents of individuals with a mental health problem. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.
... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Design Requirements for Programs Under Title II of the Job Training Partnership Act § 628.505 Eligibility. (a) Eligibility criteria. (1) Individuals who apply to... disadvantage. Specific eligibility criteria for programs under title II, parts A, B, and C are described in...
Lüdecke, H.-J.; Pettersson, M.; Albrecht, B.; Bernier, R. A.; Cremer, K.; Eichler, E. E.; Falkenstein, D.; Gerdts, J.; Jansen, S.; Kuechler, A.; Kvarnung, M.; Lindstrand, A.; Nilsson, D.; Nordgren, A.; Pfundt, R.; Spruijt, L.; Surowy, H. M.; de Vries, B. B. A.; Wieland, T.; Engels, H.; Strom, T. M.; Kleefstra, T.; Wieczorek, D.
The ubiquitin pathway is an enzymatic cascade including activating E1, conjugating E2, and ligating E3 enzymes, which governs protein degradation and sorting. It is crucial for many physiological processes. Compromised function of members of the ubiquitin pathway leads to a wide range of human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 12 (TRIP12) gene (OMIM 604506), which encodes an E3 ligase in the ubiquitin pathway, have been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition to autistic features, TRIP12 mutation carriers showed intellectual disability (ID). More recently, TRIP12 was postulated as a novel candidate gene for intellectual disability in a meta-analysis of published ID cohorts. However, detailed clinical information characterizing the phenotype of these individuals was not provided. In this study, we present seven novel individuals with private TRIP12 mutations including two splice site mutations, one nonsense mutation, three missense mutations, and one translocation case with a breakpoint in intron 1 of the TRIP12 gene and clinically review four previously published cases. The TRIP12 mutation-positive individuals presented with mild to moderate ID (10/11) or learning disability [intelligence quotient (IQ) 76 in one individual], ASD (8/11) and some of them with unspecific craniofacial dysmorphism and other anomalies. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of 11 TRIP12 mutation-positive individuals and thereby expand the clinical spectrum of the TRIP12 gene in non-syndromic intellectual disability with or without ASD. PMID:27848077
.... VA will not consider the disabling effects of chronic alcoholism to be the result of willful... entitlement to an extended period of eligibility is dependent upon the disabling effects of chronic alcoholism... or her chosen program of education. (2) VA will not consider the disabling effects of chronic...
The iconicity of graphic symbols and the iconicity hypothesis are theoretical concepts that have had an impact on the use of augmentative and alternative communication strategies for people with severe intellectual disabilities. This article reviews some of the recent literature on the impact of iconicity on symbol recognition and use by typically developing children and relates those findings to people with severe disability. It seems that although iconicity may have some impact on symbol learning, there are other variables that are likely to be much more important. It is likely that iconicity is not helpful to those learning graphic symbols who have little or no comprehension of spoken language.
Danquah, Lisa; Polack, Sarah; Brus, Aude; Mactaggart, Islay; Houdon, Claire Perrin; Senia, Patrick; Gallien, Pierre; Kuper, Hannah
To assess the prevalence of disability and service needs in post-earthquake Haiti, and to compare the inclusion and living conditions of people with disabilities to those without disabilities. A population-based prevalence survey of disability was undertaken in 2012 in Port-au-Prince region, which was at the centre of the earthquake in 2010. Sixty clusters of 50 people aged 5 + years were selected with probability proportionate to size sampling and screened for disability (Washington Group short set questionnaire). A case-control study was undertaken, nested within the survey, matching cases to controls by age, gender and cluster. There was additional case finding to identify further children with disabilities. Information was collected on: socioeconomic status, education, livelihood, health, activities, participation and barriers. The prevalence of disability was 4.1% (3.4-4.7%) across 3132 eligible individuals. The earthquake was the second leading cause of disability. Disability was more common with increasing age, but unrelated to poverty. Large gaps existed in access of services for people with disabilities. Adults with disabilities were less likely to be literate or work and more likely to visit health services than adults without disabilities. Children with disabilities were less likely to be currently enrolled at school compared to controls. Children and adults with disabilities reported more activity limitations and participation restriction. Further focus is needed to improve inclusion of people with disabilities in post-earthquake Haiti to ensure that their rights are fulfilled. Almost one in six households in this region of Haiti included a person with a disability, and the earthquake was the second leading cause of disability. Fewer than half of people who reported needing medical rehabilitation had received this service. The leading reported barriers to the uptake of health services included financial constraints (50%) and difficulties with
Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J
OBJECTIVE Prospective longitudinal outcomes registries are at the center of evidence-driven health care reform. Obtaining real-world outcomes data at 12 months can be costly and challenging. In the present study, the authors analyzed whether 3-month outcome measurements sufficiently represent 12-month outcomes for patients with degenerative lumbar disease undergoing surgery. METHODS Data from 3073 patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative lumbar disease were entered into a prospective multicenter registry (N(2)QOD). Baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded. The absolute differences between actual 12- and 3-month ODI scores was evaluated. Additionally, the authors analyzed the absolute difference between actual 12-month ODI scores and a model-predicted 12-month ODI score (the model used patients' baseline characteristics and actual 3-month scores). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for ODI of 12.8 points and the substantial clinical benefit (SCB) for ODI of 18.8 points were used based on the previously published values. The concordance rate of achieving MCID and SCB for ODI at 3-and 12-months was computed. RESULTS The 3-month ODI scores differed from 12-month scores by an absolute difference of 11.9 ± 10.8, and predictive modeling estimations of 12-month ODI scores differed from actual 12-month scores by a mean (± SD) of 10.7 ± 9.0 points (p = 0.001). Sixty-four percent of patients (n = 1982) achieved an MCID for ODI at 3 months in comparison with 67% of patients (n = 2088) by 12 months; 51% (n = 1731) and 61% (n = 1860) of patients achieved SCB for ODI at 3 months and 12 months, respectively. Almost 20% of patients had ODI scores that varied at least 20 points (the point span of an ODI functional category) between actual 3- and 12-month values. In the aggregate analysis of achieving MCID, 77% of patients were concordant and 23% were discordant in achieving or not achieving
Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those
Lee, Heok In; Rojewski, Jay W.; Gregg, Noel
Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, a propensity score analysis revealed significant causal effects for a secondary career and technical education (CTE) concentration on the postsecondary work outcomes of adolescents with high-incidence disabilities. High school students identified as CTE concentrators (three or more high…
Pouliot, Danielle M.; Müller, Eve; Frasché, Nancy F.; Kern, Ann S.; Resti, Israelle H.
Speech and language impairments can pose significant challenges to the successful workplace inclusion of young adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Breakdowns are most likely to occur when support staff, workplace supervisors, or co-workers are unsure how to support effective communication.…
Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…
Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Gustafson, Melissa R.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling to teach fire extinguishing behaviors to three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. A multiple probe design across three fire extinguishing behaviors and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based program. Results indicate that…
Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Fleming, Courtney; Chung, Yi-Cheih; Wheeler, Geoffrey M.; Basbagill, Abby R.; Singh, Angella H.
We conducted a systematic replication of Cannella-Malone et al. by comparing the effects of video prompting to video modeling for teaching seven students with severe disabilities to do laundry and wash dishes. The video prompting and video modeling procedures were counterbalanced across tasks and participants and compared in an alternating…
Jang, Yuh; Chang, Tzyh-Chyang; Lin, Keh-Chung
Physical capacity evaluations (PCEs) are important and frequently offered services in work practice. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the National Taiwan University Hospital Physical Capacity Evaluation (NTUH PCE) on a sample of 149 participants consisted of three groups: 45 intellectual disability (ID), 56 mental illness…
Tomasone, Jennifer R; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Pila, Eva; Lamontagne, Marie-Eve; Cummings, Isabelle; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Routhier, François
In Canada, two counseling services are offered to facilitate physical activity participation among persons with physical disabilities, yet both have encountered concerns related to the recruitment and retainment of clients. The purpose of this paper is to explore factors related to service adoption among nonusers, and the barriers and facilitators to maintaining service participation among adopters. Individuals who had never enrolled in the services (nonusers, n = 13) as well as current/previous service clients (adopters, n = 26) participated in interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Transcripts were subjected to deductive thematic analysis according to participant group. Fifteen themes relating to service adoption within 10 of the 12 theoretical domains were identified for nonusers, while 23 themes relating to maintenence of service participation were identified across all 12 theoretical domains for adopters. The findings provide strategies to improve recruitment, adoption, and retention of clients in counseling services and to enhance the experiences of targeted service users. Implications for Rehabiliation Peer support and education for equipment use should be built into physical activity programs to encourage participation among persons with physical disabilities. Programs that encourage physical activity among individuals with disabilities should be designed by practitioners to be responsive to a variety of needs, which are addressed in the program's advertisements and offerings. The Theoretical Domains Framework is a useful framework for providing valuable insight about clients' experiences of adoption and maintenance of a behavior change service, suggesting merit in other rehabilitation settings.
... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...
Full Text Available Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4. Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity.
Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna
Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity. PMID:26834874
Furrer, Angela; Michel, Gisela; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Müller, Rachel
To investigate the associations between subjective well-being and pain intensity, pain interference, and depression in individuals with physical disabilities. We hypothesized that (1) pain control and (2) pain catastrophizing mediate the effects of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, and depression. Analyses of cross-sectional data from 96 individuals diagnosed with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or post-polio syndrome, with average pain intensity of ≥4 (0-10) on at least half the days in the past month. Two models tested study hypotheses using structural equation. Both models showed acceptable model fit. Pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity and pain interference, but not on depression. Pain control did not significantly mediate the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, or depression. Path coefficients showed significant direct effects of subjective well-being on pain control (β = 0.39), pain catastrophizing (β = -0.61), pain interference (β = -0.48; -0.42), and depression (β = -0.75; -0.78). This study supports the potential of enhancing subjective well-being and lowering pain catastrophizing for reducing pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability. The findings indicate that true experiments to test for causal associations are warranted. Implications for rehabilitation The majority of individuals with physical disabilities report having persistent moderate-to-severe pain that may negatively limit daily activities and quality of life. The present cross-sectional study indicates that individuals who reported greater subjective well-being showed significantly lower pain intensity via the mediating effect of lower pain catastrophizing. Since sample size and respective power are low, these findings should be taken as first
Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those in peers with average intelligence (defined here as an IQ above 85). The processes underlying these externalizing behavior problems in children with MBID nevertheless largely remained unclear and e...
VanDerNagel, Joanneke E L; Kiewik, Marion; van Dijk, Marike; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; van der Palen, Job; Buitelaar, Jan K; Uges, Donald R A; Koster, Remco A; de Jong, Cor A J
Individuals with mild or borderline intellectual disability (MBID) are at risk of substance use (SU). At present, it is unclear which strategy is the best for assessing SU in individuals with MBID. This study compares three strategies, namely self-report, collateral-report, and biomarker analysis. In a sample of 112 participants with MBID from six Dutch facilities providing care to individuals with intellectual disabilities, willingness to participate, SU rates, and agreement between the three strategies were explored. The Substance use and misuse in Intellectual Disability - Questionnaire (SumID-Q; self-report) assesses lifetime use, use in the previous month, and recent use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and stimulants. The Substance use and misuse in Intellectual Disability - Collateral-report questionnaire (SumID-CR; collateral-report) assesses staff members' report of participants' SU over the same reference periods as the SumID-Q. Biomarkers for SU, such as cotinine (metabolite of nicotine), ethanol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its metabolite THCCOOH, benzoylecgonine (metabolite of cocaine), and amphetamines were assessed in urine, hair, and sweat patches. Willingness to provide biomarker samples was significantly lower compared to willingness to complete the SumID-Q (p<0.001). Most participants reported smoking, drinking alcohol, and using cannabis at least once in their lives, and about a fifth had ever used stimulants. Collateralreported lifetime use was significantly lower. However, self-reported past month and recent SU rates did not differ significantly from the rates from collateral-reports or biomarkers, with the exception of lower alcohol use rates found in biomarker analysis. The agreement between self-report and biomarker analysis was substantial (kappas 0.60-0.89), except for alcohol use (kappa 0.06). Disagreement between SumID-Q and biomarkers concerned mainly over-reporting of the SumID-Q. The agreement between SumID-CR and biomarker
... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.5 Licensee eligibility. (a) An individual (one man or one... entity other than an individual) is ineligible to obtain a new GMRS system license or make a major...
...), cooperatives, trusts, and sole proprietorships. (c) Eligible government applicants include State and local... and not be for the sole benefit of the individual applicant or an individual household. (f) As a...
Dudding-Byth, Tracy; Baxter, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hackett, Anna; O'Donnell, Sheridan; White, Susan M; Attia, John; Brunner, Han; de Vries, Bert; Koolen, David; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Ratwatte, Seshika; Riveros, Carlos; Brain, Steve; Lovell, Brian C
Massively parallel genetic sequencing allows rapid testing of known intellectual disability (ID) genes. However, the discovery of novel syndromic ID genes requires molecular confirmation in at least a second or a cluster of individuals with an overlapping phenotype or similar facial gestalt. Using computer face-matching technology we report an automated approach to matching the faces of non-identical individuals with the same genetic syndrome within a database of 3681 images [1600 images of one of 10 genetic syndrome subgroups together with 2081 control images]. Using the leave-one-out method, two research questions were specified: 1) Using two-dimensional (2D) photographs of individuals with one of 10 genetic syndromes within a database of images, did the technology correctly identify more than expected by chance: i) a top match? ii) at least one match within the top five matches? or iii) at least one in the top 10 with an individual from the same syndrome subgroup? 2) Was there concordance between correct technology-based matches and whether two out of three clinical geneticists would have considered the diagnosis based on the image alone? The computer face-matching technology correctly identifies a top match, at least one correct match in the top five and at least one in the top 10 more than expected by chance (P syndromes except Kabuki syndrome. Although the accuracy of the computer face-matching technology was tested on images of individuals with known syndromic forms of intellectual disability, the results of this pilot study illustrate the potential utility of face-matching technology within deep phenotyping platforms to facilitate the interpretation of DNA sequencing data for individuals who remain undiagnosed despite testing the known developmental disorder genes.
Cobigo, V.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Balogh, R.; Leung, F.; Lin, E.; Lunsky, Y.
Background: Effective cancer screening must be available for all eligible individuals without discrimination. Lower rates of cervical and breast cancer screening have been reported in certain groups compared with women from the general population, such as women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Research on the factors…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibles are the beneficiaries of both Medicare and Medicaid. Dual eligibles satisfy the eligibility conditions for Medicare benefit. Dual eligibles also qualify for Medicaid because they are aged, blind, or disabled and meet the income and asset requirements for receiving Supplement Security Income (SSI assistance. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between dual eligibility and health care utilization among Medicare beneficiaries. Methods The household component of the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS 1996–2000 is used for the analysis. Total 8,262 Medicare beneficiaries are selected from the MEPS data. The Medicare beneficiary sample includes individuals who are covered by Medicare and do not have private health insurance during a given year. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB regression model is used to analyse the count data regarding health care utilization: office-based physician visits, hospital inpatient nights, agency-sponsored home health provider days, and total dental visits. Results Dual eligibility is positively correlated with the likelihood of using hospital inpatient care and agency-sponsored home health services and the frequency of agency-sponsored home health days. Frequency of dental visits is inversely associated with dual eligibility. With respect to racial differences, dually eligible Afro-Americans use more office-based physician and dental services than white duals. Asian duals use more home health services than white duals at the 5% statistical significance level. The dual eligibility programs seem particularly beneficial to Afro-American duals. Conclusion Dual eligibility has varied impact on health care utilization across service types. More utilization of home healthcare among dual eligibles appears to be the result of delayed realization of their unmet healthcare needs under the traditional Medicare-only program
Full Text Available Working memory training has been increasingly popular in the last year. Previous studies has shown that children with intellectual disabilities have low working memory capacity and therefore have a great potential for improvement by this type of intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of working memory and cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities. The effects reported in previous studies have varied and therefore meta-analysis of articles in the major databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria included to have a pretest-posttest design with a training group and a control group and to have measures of working memory or short-term memory. Ten studies with 28 comparisons were included. The results reveal a significant overall pretest-posttest small effect size for of working memory training for children with intellectual disabilities compared to controls. A mixed working memory approach, considering both verbal and visuo-spatial components and working mainly on strategies, was the only significantly effective training type with a medium effect size. The most commonly reported training type with 60 percent of the included comparisons, visuo-spatial working memory training, had a non-significant effect size that was close to zero. We conclude that even if there is an overall effect of working memory training, a mixed working memory approach appears to cause this effect. Given the few studies included and the different characteristics of the included studies, interpretations should be done with caution. However, different types of interventions appear to have different effects. Even if the results were promising, more studies are needed to better understand how to design an effective working memory intervention for this group and to understand if, and how, these short-term effects remains over time and transfer to everyday activities.
As a part of the Individualized Education Plan (IEP), special education teachers work along with their student with special needs and their parent(s)/guardian(s) to create and implement Individualized Transition Plans (ITP) to assist the student with their transition to the post-school environment. As mandated by Individuals with Disabilities…
Araceli Arellano Torres
Full Text Available Results of research suggest that self-determination is one of the variables that determine, in part, the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities and their recognition as equal members of society. This paper presents a summary of the main ideas about this construct: factors that enable the origin and development of this movement, conceptual models, assessment tools and suggestions for intervention. To do this, we have performed an exhaustive review of the literature. Efforts to promote this basic right let us to state that self-determination is no longer a wish but it has become a reality.
Shi, Xiuquan; Wheeler, Krista K; Shi, Junxin; Stallones, Lorann; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Shakespeare, Tom; Xiang, Huiyun
An increased risk of unintentional injuries among individuals with disability has been reported in many studies, yet quantitative syntheses of findings from previous studies have not been done. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the relationship between pre-existing disability and unintentional injuries. We searched 14 electronic databases to identify original research published between Jan 1, 1990 and Feb 28, 2013. Included studies reported the odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) of unintentional injuries in adults 18+ years of age with pre-existing disabilities compared with adults without disabilities. Twenty six eligible studies were included covering 54,586 individuals with disabilities. We conducted quality assessments and then analyzed the pooled effects using random-effect models. The pooled OR of unintentional injuries was 1.77 (95% CI 1.51-2.07) for all studies in individuals with disabilities compared with individuals without disabilities. The pooled ORs were 1.87 (95% CI 1.52-2.30) for overall unintentional injuries, 1.64 (95% CI 1.39-1.94) for falls-related injuries, 1.62 (95% CI 1.24-2.13) for occupational injuries, and 1.91 (95% CI 1.59-2.30) for non-occupational injuries. Compared with adults without disabilities, individuals with disabilities are at a significantly higher risk of unintentional injuries. Evidence about the association between cognitive disabilities and unintentional injuries is weak. Future researchers are encouraged to use International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to classify disability and use rigorous evaluation methods to assess and implement the most appropriate injury prevention efforts to mitigate the risks identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Felton, E. A.; Radwin, R. G.; Wilson, J. A.; Williams, J. C.
A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that takes recorded brain signals and translates them into real-time actions, in this case movement of a cursor on a computer screen. This work applied Fitts' law to the evaluation of performance on a target acquisition task during sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training. Fitts' law, which has been used as a predictor of movement time in studies of human movement, was used here to determine the information transfer rate, which was based on target acquisition time and target difficulty. The information transfer rate was used to make comparisons between control modalities and subject groups on the same task. Data were analyzed from eight able-bodied and five motor disabled participants who wore an electrode cap that recorded and translated their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals into computer cursor movements. Direct comparisons were made between able-bodied and disabled subjects, and between EEG and joystick cursor control in able-bodied subjects. Fitts' law aptly described the relationship between movement time and index of difficulty for each task movement direction when evaluated separately and averaged together. This study showed that Fitts' law can be successfully applied to computer cursor movement controlled by neural signals.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Autism. 1308.15 Section 1308... Services Performance Standards § 1308.15 Eligibility criteria: Autism. A child is classified as having autism when the child has a developmental disability that significantly affects verbal and non-verbal...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are caused by an external...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on eligible children. 303.4 Section 303.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... eligible children. This part 303 does not apply to any child with disabilities receiving a free appropriate...
Barclay-Goddard, Ruth; King, Judy; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; Schwartz, Carolyn E
A major goal of treatment for people living with chronic illness or disability is self-management leading to optimized health-related quality of life. This change process has been described in the adult education literature as transformative learning, while in health-related quality of life research, response shift has emerged as a key concept. Response shift and transformative learning literature were reviewed, and the theoretical frameworks of the 2 concepts were compared and contrasted. Response shift is described as a change in internal standards, values, or definition of a construct (eg, health-related quality of life) over time, commonly seen in individuals with chronic illness. In the context of chronic illness, transformative learning is described as a complex process of personal change including beliefs, feelings, knowledge, and values. Transformative learning is often triggered by the diagnosis of a chronic illness. This results in a critical reflection of taken-for-granted assumptions and leads to new ways of thinking, influencing personal changes in daily living. Comparing the models of response shift and transformative learning in chronic illness, the catalyst in response shift appears comparable with the trigger in transformational learning; mechanisms to process of changing; and perceived quality of life to outcomes. Both transformative learning and response shift have much to offer health care providers in understanding the learning process for the person living with chronic illness or disability to optimize their quality of life. Suggestions for future research in response shift and transformative learning in individuals with chronic health conditions and disability are proposed. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Townley, Greg; Miller, Henry; Kloos, Bret
Although an extensive body of literature highlights the important role of social support for individuals with psychiatric disabilities, definitions of support tend to be restricted-focusing on intimate relationships such as friend and family networks and ignoring the role of casual relationships existing naturally in the community. This mixed-methods study of 300 consumers of mental health services in the Southeastern US aims to better understand the impact of community supports, termed distal supports, on community integration and recovery from mental illness. Qualitative content analysis, tests of group mean differences, and hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed the following: (1) participants primarily reported receiving tangible support (e.g., free medication/discounted goods) from distal supports rather than emotional support (e.g., displays of warmth/affection) or informational support (e.g., provision of advice); (2) women and older participants reported more distal supports than men or younger participants; and (3) distal supports played a unique role in predicting community integration and recovery even after accounting for the influence of traditional support networks. Results highlight the importance of considering diverse types of social support in naturally occurring settings when designing treatment plans and interventions aimed at encouraging community participation and adaptive functioning for individuals with psychiatric disabilities.
Heidi I Stanish
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of strategies that have been used to promote physical activity in individuals with intellectual disability. Several different approaches are discussed and the strengths and limitations of each are presented. Some determinants of physical activity for individuals with intellectual disability are also reported in an effort to better understand the factors that influence participation that could be targeted in future interventions. Recommendations for programming are provided.Este artículo presenta un panorama de las estrategias que se han empleado para promover la actividad física en individuos con discapacidad intelectual. Se discuten varios enfoques distintos y se presentan las fortalezas y limitaciones de cada uno. Se informa asimismo acerca de algunos de los determinantes de la actividad física para los individuos con discapacidad intelectual para contribuir a un mayor entendimiento de los factores que influyen en la participación y que podrían ser el objetivo de futuras intervenciones. Se proporcionan recomendaciones para la programación.
... inclusion of individuals with disabilities on the teams that develop the cloud and Web technologies... Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...
The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program remains an important source of financial support for low-income families of children with special health care needs and disabling conditions. In most states, SSI eligibility also qualifies children for the state Medicaid program, providing access to health care services. The Social Security Administration (SSA), which administers the SSI program, considers a child disabled under SSI if there is a medically determinable physical or mental impairment or combination of impairments that results in marked and severe functional limitations. The impairment(s) must be expected to result in death or have lasted or be expected to last for a continuous period of at least 12 months. The income and assets of families of children with disabilities are also considered when determining financial eligibility. When an individual with a disability becomes an adult at 18 years of age, the SSA considers only the individual's income and assets. The SSA considers an adult to be disabled if there is a medically determinable impairment (or combination of impairments) that prevents substantial gainful activity for at least 12 continuous months. SSI benefits are important for youth with chronic conditions who are transitioning to adulthood. The purpose of this statement is to provide updated information about the SSI medical and financial eligibility criteria and the disability-determination process. This statement also discusses how pediatricians can help children and youth when they apply for SSI benefits.
Pavlović Miroslav V.
Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a chronic adversity that increases the likelihood of negative developmental outcomes. The aim of this research is to examine differences between adolescents with mild ID and typically developing (TD adolescents in personal qualities which contribute to successful adaptation. The sample consisted of 92 adolescents with mild ID and 772 TD adolescents, 13-19 years of age, of both sexes. Resiliency was assessed using the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents. In comparison to TD adolescents, adolescents with mild ID have significantly lower levels of sense of mastery and sense of relatedness and a higher level of emotional reactivity. In the subsample of adolescents with mild ID there were no age or sex differences for resiliency. Adolescents with mild ID have a lower level of resiliency than TD adolescents, which highlights the need to develop programs focused on personal qualities associated with positive developmental outcomes.
VanDerNagel, Joanne E. L.; van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Ruedrich, Stephen; Ayu, Astri P.; Schellekens, Arnt F. A.
Introduction: Substance use disorders (SUD) are common among individuals with intellectual and developmental disorders (IDD). The quality of care individuals with these conditions receive can be affected by perceptions and attributions of SUD among clinicians, professional caregivers, and family members. The aim of this study was to explore such…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disability and disability certificates are like double-edged swords. On one hand, a non-qualifying individual may avail certain benefits and privileges reserved for disabled person due to over calculation; and on other hand, a deserving disabled may not be able to get benefit out of the granted opportunities due to under calculation. This study was thus undertaken to analyse the disability certificates issued at our institution to determine the fallacies that are evident in the criteria for disability assessment. METHODOLOGY 500 cases of permanent physical disability (PPD resulting from road traffic accidents (RTA satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were re-examined after final assessment of disability and the assessed disability was reviewed in terms of the defect in function of body; the total percentage of disability allotted to the candidate and the appropriateness of the assessed value in relation to the hindrance caused to daily routine. OBSERVATIONS No discrepancy was noted in 355 cases, but in rest of 145 cases a number of discrepancies were noted in relation to the above said criteria of comparison. Out of these, in 20% cases, the percentage of disability did not include a note of the total impact of the disability on physical, mental, social life of the disabled person resulting in more non-functioning as compared to the calculated resulting permanent disability. In rest 30% cases with discrepancies, calculated percentage had ill correlation between malfunctioning of the body part and its overall calculation in relation to the body as a whole. Rest 50% cases were those where similar malfunctioning resulting from different lesions was assessed differently resulting in different percentages of permanent physical disabilities. CONCLUSION A serious revision of these guidelines in lieu of discrepancies must be ensued to benefit one and all equally and to ensure uniformity in the process which is a gateway to
... of the loan; (4) Store the honey pledged as loan collateral in eligible storage and in eligible... paragraph (a) of this section, who enters into a contract to sell the honey used as collateral for a loan... are tendering for a loan; and (2) The commingled honey is not used as collateral for an individual...
... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.704 Eligibility. (a) To be eligible for the special selection priority, an individual must meet all of the...
This rule reissues the current regulations and: Establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and implements the non-funding and non-reporting provisions in DoD for: Provision of early intervention services (EIS) to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, as well as special education and related services to children with disabilities entitled under this part to receive education services from the DoD; implementation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary program of EIS for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families who, but for age, are eligible to be enrolled in DoD schools; provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE), including special education and related services, for children with disabilities, as specified in their individualized education programs (IEP), who are eligible to enroll in DoD schools; and monitoring of DoD programs providing EIS, and special education and related services for compliance with this part. This rule also establishes a DoD Coordinating Committee to recommend policies and provide compliance oversight for early intervention and special education.
Müller, Rachel; Gertz, Kevin J; Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L; Bombardier, Charles H; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P
To determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a computer-based positive psychology intervention in individuals with a physical disability and chronic pain. Individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or postpolio syndrome and chronic pain were randomly assigned to a positive psychology or a control condition. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to practice 4 personalized positive psychology exercises. Participants in the control group were instructed to write about life details for 8 weeks. Participants completed online well-being and pain-related questionnaires at baseline, posttreatment, and at the 2.5-month follow-up, and rated treatment satisfaction at posttreatment. Ninety-six participants were randomized and 68 (70%) completed follow-up assessments. Participants in the positive psychology intervention group reported significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in pain intensity, pain control, pain catastrophizing, pain interference, life satisfaction, positive affect, and depression. Improvements in life satisfaction, depression, pain intensity, pain interference, and pain control were maintained to the 2.5-month follow-up. Participants in the control group reported significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in life satisfaction, and pretreatment to follow-up improvements in pain intensity and pain control. Significant between-group differences, favoring the treatment group, emerged for pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in pain intensity and pain control. Participants were similarly satisfied with both treatments. The results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a computer-based positive psychology intervention for improving well-being and pain-related outcomes in individuals with physical disabilities and chronic pain, and indicate that a full trial of the intervention is warranted.
von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Dailey, Natalie S; Aguilar, Jessica M; Gómez, Rebecca; Plante, Elena
Even without explicit instruction, learners are able to extract information about the form of a language simply by attending to input that reflects the underlying grammar. In this study, the authors explored the role of variability in this learning by asking whether varying the number of unique exemplars heard by the learner affects learning of an artificial syntactic form. Learners with normal language (n = 16) and language-based learning disability (LLD; n = 16) were exposed to strings of nonwords that represented an underlying grammar. Half of the learners heard 3 exemplars 16 times each (low variability group), and the other half of the learners heard 24 exemplars twice each (high variability group). Learners were then tested for recognition of items heard and generalization of the grammar with new nonword strings. Only those learners with LLD who were in the high variability group were able to demonstrate generalization of the underlying grammar. For learners with normal language, both those in the high and the low variability groups showed generalization of the grammar, but relative effect sizes suggested a larger learning effect in the high variability group. The results demonstrate that the structure of the learning context can determine the ability to generalize from specific training items to novel cases.
Wilkinson, Krista M; Light, Janice
Visual scene displays (VSDs) are a form of augmentative and alternative communication display in which language concepts are embedded into an image of a naturalistic event. VSDs are based on the theory that language learning occurs through interactions with other people, and recommendations for VSD design have emphasized using images of these events that include humans. However, many VSDs also include other items that could potentially be distracting. We examined gaze fixation in 18 school-aged participants with and without severe intellectual/developmental disabilities (i.e., individuals with typical development, autism, Down syndrome and other intellectual disabilities) while they viewed photographs with human figures of various sizes and locations in the image, appearing alongside other interesting, and potentially distracting items. In all groups, the human figures attracted attention rapidly (within 1.5 seconds). The proportions of each participant's own fixation time spent on the human figures were similar across all groups, as were the proportions of total fixations made to the human figures. Although the findings are preliminary, this initial evidence supports the inclusion of humans in VSD images.
... basic period of eligibility. The basic period of eligibility does not run as long as any of the... eligibility does not run during any period when a veteran's participation in a vocational rehabilitation..., does not satisfy the definition of disabling effects of chronic alcoholism. (4) Injuries sustained by a...
Smogavec, Mateja; Cleall, Alison; Hoyer, Juliane; Lederer, Damien; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Palmer, Elizabeth E; Deprez, Marie; Benoit, Valérie; Maystadt, Isabelle; Noakes, Charlotte; Leal, Alejandro; Shaw, Marie; Gecz, Jozef; Raymond, Lucy; Reis, André; Shears, Deborah; Brockmann, Knut; Zweier, Christiane
Heterozygous copy number variants (CNVs) or sequence variants in the contactin-associated protein 2 gene CNTNAP2 have been discussed as risk factors for a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Bi-allelic aberrations in this gene are causative for an autosomal-recessive disorder with epilepsy, severe intellectual disability (ID) and cortical dysplasia (CDFES). As the number of reported individuals is still limited, we aimed at a further characterisation of the full mutational and clinical spectrum. Targeted sequencing, chromosomal microarray analysis or multigene panel sequencing was performed in individuals with severe ID and epilepsy. We identified homozygous mutations, compound heterozygous CNVs or CNVs and mutations in CNTNAP2 in eight individuals from six unrelated families. All aberrations were inherited from healthy, heterozygous parents and are predicted to be deleterious for protein function. Epilepsy occurred in all affected individuals with onset in the first 3.5 years of life. Further common aspects were ID (severe in 6/8), regression of speech development (5/8) and behavioural anomalies (7/8). Interestingly, cognitive impairment in one of two affected brothers was, in comparison, relatively mild with good speech and simple writing abilities. Cortical dysplasia that was previously reported in CDFES was not present in MRIs of six individuals and only suspected in one. By identifying novel homozygous or compound heterozygous, deleterious CNVs and mutations in eight individuals from six unrelated families with moderate-to-severe ID, early onset epilepsy and behavioural anomalies, we considerably broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum associated with bi-allelic aberrations in CNTNAP2. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Dlugacz, Henry A; Droubi, Luna
This article argues that the ADA and its integration mandate, informed by international standards, should extend to incarcerated individuals with mental disabilities who reenter society, as they are at highly elevated risk for unnecessary segregation in institutions such as homeless shelters or hospitals or through reincarceration. An understanding of the precise services needed to prevent these strongly related but distinct variants of institutionalization requires a robust and continuing research agenda. In discussing the breadth of the ADA, we explore its history, interpretations of its application in a variety of contexts with respect to vulnerable populations and integration, and enforcement. We also turn to international approaches to integration mandates as they apply to reentry. By interpreting the domestic and international principles that create the context for integration we hope to have provided a resource for future application of the ADA integration in the context of prisoner reentry. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Didden, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Green, V. A.; Korzilius, H.; Mouws, C.; Lancioni, G. E.; O'Reilly, M. F.; Curfs, L. M. G.
Background: Little is known about behavioural flexibility in children and adults with Angelman syndrome and whether people with this syndrome have more or less problems in being behaviourally flexible as compared with other people. Method: Behavioural flexibility scores were assessed in 129 individuals with Angelman syndrome using 11 items from…
Liang, Jiali; Wilkinson, Krista
Purpose: A striking characteristic of the social communication deficits in individuals with autism is atypical patterns of eye contact during social interactions. We used eye-tracking technology to evaluate how the number of human figures depicted and the presence of sharing activity between the human figures in still photographs influenced visual…
Buunk, Bram P.
Illuminates the nature and direction of social comparison research using a sample of 168 Dutch individuals. Some of the findings revealed uncertainty and frustration related to a need for social comparison, a desire more for information than affiliation about similar others, and the influence of health problems in evaluating one's situation. (RJM)
Liang, Jiali; Wilkinson, Krista
A striking characteristic of the social communication deficits in individuals with autism is atypical patterns of eye contact during social interactions. We used eye-tracking technology to evaluate how the number of human figures depicted and the presence of sharing activity between the human figures in still photographs influenced visual attention by individuals with autism, typical development, or Down syndrome. We sought to examine visual attention to the contents of visual scene displays, a growing form of augmentative and alternative communication support. Eye-tracking technology recorded point-of-gaze while participants viewed 32 photographs in which either 2 or 3 human figures were depicted. Sharing activities between these human figures are either present or absent. The sampling rate was 60 Hz; that is, the technology gathered 60 samples of gaze behavior per second, per participant. Gaze behaviors, including latency to fixate and time spent fixating, were quantified. The overall gaze behaviors were quite similar across groups, regardless of the social content depicted. However, individuals with autism were significantly slower than the other groups in latency to first view the human figures, especially when there were 3 people depicted in the photographs (as compared with 2 people). When participants' own viewing pace was considered, individuals with autism resembled those with Down syndrome. The current study supports the inclusion of social content with various numbers of human figures and sharing activities between human figures into visual scene displays, regardless of the population served. Study design and reporting practices in eye-tracking literature as it relates to autism and Down syndrome are discussed. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.6066545.
Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S; Bentsen, Bo; Gaihede, Michael; Lontis, Eugen R
For severely paralyzed individuals, alternative computer interfaces are becoming increasingly essential for everyday life as social and vocational activities are facilitated by information technology and as the environment becomes more automatic and remotely controllable. Tongue computer interfaces have proven to be desirable by the users partly due to their high degree of aesthetic acceptability, but so far the mature systems have shown a relatively low error-free text typing efficiency. This paper evaluated the intra-oral inductive tongue computer interface (ITCI) in its intended use: Error-free text typing in a generally available text editing system, Word. Individuals with tetraplegia and able bodied individuals used the ITCI for typing using a MATLAB interface and for Word typing for 4 to 5 experimental days, and the results showed an average error-free text typing rate in Word of 11.6 correct characters/min across all participants and of 15.5 correct characters/min for participants familiar with tongue piercings. Improvements in typing rates between the sessions suggest that typing ratescan be improved further through long-term use of the ITCI.
Full Text Available The process of separation and individuation is a developmental psychological process, which takes place at various phases of child development within his first three years of life. These phases include the Normal Autistic Phase, the Normal Symbiotic Phase, the Separation-Individuation Phase (with sub-phases Differentiation, Practicing and Rapprochement, On the Way to Object Constancy and the Final Separation and Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. Undisturbed transition through the developmental phases leads to the establishment of psychological structure in the human infant, which means that he reaches autonomy and independence, thus becoming an individual. For children which were born with physical disabilities and have their intellectual capacities preserved (i.e. in cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy etc., the fulfillment of this process is endangered, because their development was stuck at the Normal Symbiotic Phase due to two types of factors. The first group represents factors of physical disability (i.e. impossibility to move, obtain independent experiences and, consequently, the inability to detach from the Object, while the second group represents reactions to this hindrance (i.e. over-protection, which further thwarts attempts to detach from the Object.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders (CMD have become one of the leading causes for disability pension (DP. Studies on predictors of adverse health outcome following DP are sparse. This study aimed to examine the association of different socio-demographic factors and health care consumption with subsequent suicidal behaviour among individuals on DP due to CMD. METHOD: This is a population-based prospective cohort study based on register data. All individuals aged 18-64 years, living in Sweden on 31-Dec-2004 who in 2005 were on DP due to CMD (N = 46 745 were followed regarding suicide attempt and suicide (2006-10. Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for suicidal behaviour were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During the five-year follow-up, 1 046 (2.2% and 210 (0.4% individuals attempted and committed suicide, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that young age (18-24 years and low education predicted suicide attempt, while living alone was associated with both higher suicide attempt and suicide (range of HRs 1.23 to 1.68. Combined prescription of antidepressants with anxiolytics during 2005 and inpatient care due to mental diagnoses or suicide attempt (2001-05 were strongly associated with suicide attempt and suicide (range of HRs 1.3 to 4.9, while inpatient care due to somatic diagnoses and specialized outpatient care due to mental diagnoses during 2001-05 only predicted suicide attempt (HR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7; HR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7. CONCLUSIONS: Along with socio-demographic factors, it is very important to consider type of previous healthcare use and medication history when designing further research or intervention aiming at individuals on DP due to CMD. Further research is warranted to investigate both characteristics of disability pension due to CMD, like duration, diagnoses and grade as well as mechanisms to subsequent suicidal behavior, taking potential gender differences into
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of eligibility for Medicaid. 400.94... Determination of eligibility for Medicaid. (a) The State must determine Medicaid and SCHIP eligibility under its Medicaid and SCHIP State plans for each individual member of a family unit that applies for medical...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible representation of eligible clients... CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.4 Permissible representation of eligible clients. Recipients may represent an individual eligible client who is seeking specific relief from a welfare agency. [62 FR 30766...
Lundell, Henrik; Christensen, Mark Schram; Barthélemy, Dorothy
Recovery of function following lesions in the nervous system requires adaptive changes in surviving circuitries. Here we investigate whether changes in cerebral activation are correlated to spinal cord atrophy and recovery of functionality in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). 19...... hand and the functional ability of the SCI participants measured by the clinical motor score on the other. There was no significant correlation between activation in any other cerebral area and the motor score. Activation in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1), M1 and PMC was negatively correlated...... to the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials...
Ptomey, Lauren T; Wittenbrook, Wendy
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutrition services provided by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTRs), who work under RDN supervision, are essential components of comprehensive care for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). Nutrition services should be provided throughout life in a manner that is interdisciplinary, family-centered, community based, and culturally competent. Individuals with IDD and CYSHCN have many risk factors requiring nutrition interventions, including growth alterations (eg, failure to thrive, obesity, or growth retardation), metabolic disorders, poor feeding skills, drug-nutrient interactions, and sometimes partial or total dependence on enteral or parenteral nutrition. Furthermore, these individuals are also more likely to develop comorbid conditions, such as obesity or endocrine disorders that require nutrition interventions. Poor nutrition-related health habits, limited access to services, and long-term use of multiple medications are considered health risk factors. Timely and cost-effective nutrition interventions can promote health maintenance and reduce risk and cost of comorbidities and complications. Public policy for individuals with IDD and CYSHCN has evolved, resulting in a transition from institutional facilities and programs to community and independent living. The expansion of public access to technology and health information on the Internet challenges RDNs and NDTRs to provide accurate scientific information to this rapidly growing and evolving population. RDNs and NDTRs with expertise in this area are best prepared to provide appropriate nutrition information to promote wellness and improve quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Starting in January 2011, Switzerland will implement a multidimensional, context-sensitive procedure to establish eligibility in education systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the different eligibility-related practices with a special focus on children with disabilities. The paper then outlines the philosophical and conceptual framework of the eligibility procedure based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. The different components and methodology applied to organise information in the process towards establishing eligibility are also presented. Finally, some observations are made regarding transparent and just applications of the eligibility procedure, and the implementation of this new eligibility procedure.
Levén, Anna; Lyxell, Björn; Andersson, Jan; Danielsson, Henrik
This study focused on prospective memory in persons with intellectual disability and age-matched controls. Persons with intellectual disability have limited prospective memory function. We investigated prospective memory with words and pictures as cues at encoding and retrieval. Prospective and episodic memory was estimated from Prospective Memory Game performance. Pictures at retrieval were important for prospective memory in particular in the intellectual disability group. Prospective memor...
MacMahon, Kenneth M. A.; Jahoda, Andrew; Espie, Colin A.; Broomfield, Niall M.
Background: Recent studies have suggested that cognitive biases may play an important mediating role in aggressive outbursts from people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Essentially, some individuals may frequently perceive other people as acting towards them in a hostile fashion. This biased perception may develop through repeated…
Moores, Donald F.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is having a major impact on the education of deaf and hard of hearing children, and in many ways has taken on an importance far in excess of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which has been evolving since 1975. Congress has appropriated less money for both laws than their…
Full Text Available Disabled people, amidst political and social gains, continue to experience discrimination in multiple areas. Understanding how such discrimination, named here as ableism, operates is important and may require studying perspectives of people who do not claim a disability identity. Ableism may be expressed in a number of ways, and examining how a particular group, in this case siblings of disabled people, understand and value disability may contribute to overall understandings about how ableism works. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore relationships between siblings of disabled people's broad societal understandings of disability and their attitudes towards it. In order to tease out this relationship further we have also examined factors that impact how people define disability. Using both social psychological and sociological approaches, we have contextualized individual attitudes as providing additional new information about social meanings of disability, and set this study's results against the larger backdrops of debates over meanings of disability within Disability Studies. In our research, participants revealed complex understandings of disability, but most often defined disability as preventing or slowing action, as an atypical function, a lack of independence, and as a socially constructed obstacle. Participants' unconscious (implicit disability attitudes significantly related to their understandings of disability as lacking independence, impairment, and/or in relation to the norm, and their conscious (explicit disability attitudes. Moreover, longer employment in a disability-related industry was correlated with defining disability as a general difference, rather than as slowing or limiting of tasks.
Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Baccouch, Rym; Laatar, Rabeb; Kachouri, Hiba; Rebai, Haithem
Background: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a hopping and jumping training programme (HJP) versus a sensorimotor rehabilitation programme (SRP) on postural performances in children with intellectual disability. Methods: Three groups of children with intellectual disability participated in the study: the HJP group, the SRP group…
Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Washington, DC.
Mental health advocates have been distressed for years about the disproportionate number of people with psychiatric disabilities who are arrested or held in jail or prison. Equally disturbing is the endless cycle of recidivism that results when people with psychiatric disabilities are released with their needs unmet. The Council of State…
O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.; Wong, Alex W. K.
With the continued lower employment rate for persons with disabilities, researchers are focusing more on barriers to employment that reach beyond functional impairment. Personality and self-efficacy have consistently been important factors when considering employment outcomes for persons without disability; less is known about these factors as…
Williamson, Brittany; Aplin, Tammy; de Jonge, Desleigh; Goyne, Matthew
To explore the acceptability and value of three wearable GPS devices for older persons and individuals with a disability and safety concerns when accessing the community. This pilot study explored six wearers' and their support persons' experience of using three different wearable GPS devices (a pendant, watch, and mini GPS phone), each for a two-week period. Participants identified safety as the main value of using a wearable GPS device. The acceptability and value of these devices was strongly influenced by device features, ease of use, cost, appearance, the reliability of the GPS coordinates, the wearer's health condition and the users familiarity with technology. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred the pendant. Wearable GPS devices are potentially useful in providing individuals who have safety concerns with reassurance and access to assistance as required. To ensure successful utilization, future device design and device selection should consider the user's familiarity with technology and their health condition. This study also revealed that not all wearable GPS devices provide continuous location tracking. It is therefore critical to ensure that the device's location tracking functions address the wearer's requirements and reason for using the device. Implications for Rehabilitation The acceptability and usability of wearable GPS devices is strongly influenced by the device features, ease of use, cost, appearance, the reliability of the device to provide accurate and timely GPS coordinates, as well as the health condition of the wearer and their familiarity with technology. Wearable GPS devices need to be simple to use and support and training is essential to ensure they are successfully utilized. Not all wearable GPS devices provide continuous location tracking and accuracy of location is impacted by line of sight to satellites. Therefore, care needs to be taken when choosing a suitable device, to ensure that the device's location tracking
Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre
This Paper studies the design of retirement and disability policies. It illustrates the often observed exit from the labour force of healthy workers through disability insurance schemes. Two types of individuals, disabled and leisure-prone ones, have the same disutility for labour and cannot be distinguished. They are not, however, counted in the same way in social welfare. Benefits depend on retirement age and on the (reported) health status. We determine first- and second-best optimal benef...
Dwyer, Kevin P.
This report discusses disciplining children with disabilities in schools, in the context of the legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Practical concepts are explained in terms of the school's responsibility to: (1) maintain a safe environment; (2) teach a code of discipline to all students; (3) use the…
Berglind, Daniel; Nyberg, Gisela; Willmer, Mikaela; Persson, Margareta; Wells, Michael; Forsell, Yvonne
Young adults with mobility disability (MD) are less likely to engage in regular physical activity (PA) compared with their able-bodied peers and inactive adults with a MD are more likely to report one or more chronic diseases compared to those who are physically active. Despite the vast amount of research published in the field of PA interventions over the past decades, little attention has been focused on interventions aiming to increase PA among individuals with MD. Thus, we propose to compare the effects of an eHealth program compared to a usual care supervised health program on levels of PA and other health behaviors. The current intervention will use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with two treatment groups (an eHealth program and a usual care supervised health program) in young adults with newly acquired MD. In total, 110 young adults (aged 18-40 years) with a MD, acquired within the past 3 years, will be recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is accelerometer-measured time spent in moderate to vigorous PA. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life, depression, stress, fitness, body composition, diet, musculoskeletal pain, motivation to exercise and work ability. There is a lack of RCTs investigating effective ways to increase levels of PA in young adults with MD. Increased levels of PA among this physically inactive population have the potential to substantially improve health-related outcomes, possibly more so than in the general population. The trial will put strong emphasis on optimizing exercise adherence and investigating feasibility in the two treatment programs. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (2017/1206-31/1). International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN), reference number ISRCTN22387524 . Prospectively registered February 4, 2018.
Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
BACKGROUND: Stress-related mental disorders rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension in sickness absentees with stress-related mental disorders. METHO....... The variation in the effect of risk markers with regard to age and diagnosis of disability pension speaks in favour of the importance of a person-centered approach in treatment and rehabilitation....
Recent legislative changes to the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) have significantly altered eligibility requirements for disability pensions. A CPP medical adviser explains how the changes affect physicians and examines the federal government's definition of "disability."
The impact of stress and social support on the mental health of individuals with intellectual disabilities Efectos del estrés y del apoyo social sobre la salud mental de individuos con discapacidad intelectual
People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at increased risk for mental health problems than the general population. The reasons for this are both biological and social. Current treatment for mental health problems tends to be reactive in nature with less emphasis on how mental health problems can be prevented. A better understanding of the social contributors to mental health in individuals with ID should lead to the prevention of mental health problems in this particularly vulnerable po...
Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay
Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.
Denomme, Luke T.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a broad range of neurological symptoms. One of the most common symptoms experienced by individuals with MS is poor balance control during standing and walking. The main mechanism underlying impaired balance control in MS appears to result from slowed somatosensory conduction and impaired central integration. The current thesis assessed postural and dynamic control of balance of 'individuals with MS with mild disability' (IwMS). IwMS were compared to 'healthy age-matched individuals' (HAMI) and community-dwelling 'older adults' (OA). The purpose of this thesis was to quantify differences in postural and dynamic control of balance in IwMS to the two populations who display balance control differences across the lifespan and represent two extreme ends of the balance control continuum due to natural aging. IwMS (n = 12, x¯age: 44 +/- 9.4 years), HAMI (n = 12, x¯age: 45 +/- 9.9 years) and community-dwelling OA (n = 12, x¯ age: 68.1 +/- 4.5 years) postural and dynamic balance control were evaluated during a Romberg task as well as a dynamic steering task. The Romberg task required participants to stand with their feet together and hands by their sides for 45 seconds with either their eyes open or closed. The dynamic steering task required participants to walk and change direction along the M-L plane towards a visual goal. Results from these two tasks reveal that IwMS display differences in postural control when compared to HAMI when vision was removed as well as differences in dynamic stability margin during steering situations. During the postural control task IwMS displayed faster A-P and M-L COP velocities when vision was removed and their COP position was closer to their self-selected maximum stability limits compared to HAMI. Assessment of dynamic stability during the steering task revealed that IwMS displayed reduced walking speed and cadence during the
... Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security Disability Benefits, RI 98-7. As required... Personnel Management. Title: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your...
... biological parent becomes unable to care for the child due to a disability; or (4) The employee, annuitant....303 Eligibility of foster children under Option C. (a) Effective October 30, 1998, foster children are eligible for coverage as family members under Option C. (b) To qualify for coverage as a foster child, the...
Brown, S E
People with disabilities have, for the most part, failed to identify with each other as a group. This has been detrimental because it has built a sense of isolation when a camaraderie based upon existing commonalities could have been developed. During the past ten to twenty years, there has been a great deal of discussion about appropriate language to use when discussing disability issues. This discussion has been a part of a larger debate concerning the existence of a disability culture. I believe that there is indeed a disability culture and I am a proponent of identifying and passing on stories which contribute to that culture. I have chosen to use mythology to convey this message and have begun with a focus on heroes - people who do something out of the ordinary. It is contended that almost all people with disabilities have performed heroic activities because of the pervasive discrimination encountered by each individual with a disability. Creating a disability mythology is an attempt to recognize and promote heroes within the disabled community and to advocate the importance of telling other people how positive change has occurred through instances of individual heroism.
Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.
Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…
Idzinga, J. C.; de Jong, A. L.; van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.
Background: Previous studies, both in hospitals and in institutions for clients with an intellectual disability (ID), have shown that medication errors at the administration stage are frequent, especially when medication has to be administered through an enteral feeding tube. In hospitals a specially designed intervention programme has proven to…
van den Hazel, Teunis; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert
The diagnosis personality disorder is often found among samples of adults with mild intellectual disability and severe behavioral and mental health disorders. The number of studies on the adverse effects of this diagnosis are scarce. Using vignettes in the present study, we have explored the relationship between the diagnosis personality disorder…
Buskermolen, M.; Hoekman, J.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
Background and Objective: Studies on people with both Hearing Impairments (HI) and an Intellectual Disability (ID) are rare, although in clinical practice aggressive incidents such as destructive behaviour aimed at objects or other people and self-harming behaviour are mentioned as common problems.
Raviv, Dorit; Stone, C. Addison
This study found that 49 adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) scored lower than 49 normally achieving peers on a self-image questionnaire. Later-diagnosed adolescents with LD scored higher than early diagnosed adolescents. LD severity was not related to self-image. Moderate relationships were found between parents' perceptions and…
... or Mental Health from the school of discipline, the proposed graduation rate eligibility threshold... sizes across the health professions schools, the graduation rate eligibility thresholds for Hispanic...: allopathic and osteopathic medicine; pharmacy; dentistry; and behavioral or mental health. Individual schools...
Näslund, Rebecka; Qais Al Said, Shariffa Khalid
This article examines how a group of students with visual disabilities speak about becoming disabled and living with disability in relation to: material entities, practices, and their own expectations regarding the future in the Sultanate of Oman. It draws upon individual interviews among six adults with visual disabilities. The article outlines, from a material semiotics approach, how various forms of modes of ordering enact disability. An interdisciplinary approach, informed by disability s...
Cebulla, Andreas; Zhu, Rong
A new National Disability Insurance Scheme is being trialled in Australia, following criticism of the fragmented and inequitable nature of existing disability supports (e.g. in the 2009 ‘Shut Out’ report by the National People with Disabilities and Carer Council) and reform recommendations made by the Australian Government's Productivity Commission in 2011. The Insurance Scheme distinguishes between people living with disability who will be eligible for different types of supports: either mai...
... Residence” card with the Wartime Civil Control Administration; or (3) Individuals ordered by the Navy to... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility determinations. 74.3 Section 74.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION...
... not limited to, health, mental health, assessment, permanent housing placement, drug and alcohol abuse... that health services may only be provided to individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or... by HUD. (c) Faith-based activities. (1) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible...
... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...
... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...
Delgado, Marta Sánchez; Camprubí, Cristina; Tümer, Zeynep
The phenotype overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) & intellectual disabilities (ID) is mirrored at the genetic level, with common genes being reported mutated in variety of developmental disabilities. However despite widespread genetic screening for mutations, in approximately 40......-60% of childhood developmental disorders the genetic cause remains unknown. Several genome-wide linkage screens in ASD have identified a locus mapping to distal 8q. We have recently identified a novel brain-specific imprinted cluster at this location, which contains the reciprocally expressed maternal KCNK9...... and paternally expressed non-coding PEG13 transcripts, the latter located within an intron of TRAPPC9. Interestingly, mutations of KCNK9 and TRAPPC9 have been reported in Birk-Barel mental retardation and non-syndromic familial forms of ID, respectively. Here, we report a genetic screen for KCNK9 coding...
MacLean, Hannah Ng On-Nar
Background: Support for the four factor construct validity of the third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) has been found in clinical and non clinical populations but some studies question whether more complex models consistent with the concepts of fluid and crystallised intelligence provide a better explanation of the data. The WAIS-III is frequently used in the diagnosis of learning disability, however, previous exploratory factor analysis of data from a population ...
Jespersen, Louise Norman; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Tjørnhøj-thomsen, Tine
highlighted as affecting quality of life. The use of social tactics to avoid confrontation with certain aspects of their disability was common among participants. Conclusions: Across disabilities, caregiving, dependency, understanding and acceptance, and discrimination and prejudice were all important aspects......Purpose: We explored which shared aspects of social relations were considered important to the quality of life of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 years living with a disability. We examined how social relations were experienced as affecting quality of life and social participation. Materials...... and methods: Fifteen focus groups involving 48 persons with disabilities were conducted using photo elicitation, preference ranking and props. Focus group interviews were supplemented with seven individual interviews with individuals unable to participate in focus groups. All focus group interviews...
This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.
... Employees § 330.1203 Eligibility. (a) In order to be eligible for special selection priority, an eligible...) Eligibility for special selection priority as an eligible displaced employee of the former Panama Canal Zone...) Eligibility for special selection priority as an eligible displaced employee of the former Panama Canal Zone...
... inclusion and integration of individuals with disabilities into society, and promote the employment... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program.... Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)--Disability and...
ILICH-STOSHOVIКЈ Danijela; NIKOLIКЈ Snezhana
Inclusion, as a process of enrolling of children with disability in regular schools, demands obligation for adequate preparing regular schools, teachers, pupils and their parents for accepting those children. It, also, means that special services must be prepared to help teachers and children with disability too, in an adequate way. The first and most important step is developing of Individualized education programs (IEP).The purpose of IEP is to provide a disabled child with specialized or i...
Sánchez Delgado, Marta; Camprubí, Cristina; Tümer, Zeynep; Martínez, Francisco; Milà, Montserrat; Monk, David
The phenotype overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) & intellectual disabilities (ID) is mirrored at the genetic level, with common genes being reported mutated in variety of developmental disabilities. However despite widespread genetic screening for mutations, in approximately 40-60% of childhood developmental disorders the genetic cause remains unknown. Several genome-wide linkage screens in ASD have identified a locus mapping to distal 8q. We have recently identified a novel brain-specific imprinted cluster at this location, which contains the reciprocally expressed maternal KCNK9 and paternally expressed non-coding PEG13 transcripts, the latter located within an intron of TRAPPC9. Interestingly, mutations of KCNK9 and TRAPPC9 have been reported in Birk-Barel mental retardation and non-syndromic familial forms of ID, respectively. Here, we report a genetic screen for KCNK9 coding mutations and potential epigenetic aberrations that could result in deregulated imprinting in a cohort of 120 ID, 86 ASD and 86 Tourette syndrome patients. Fifteen of the ID patients had clinical characteristics overlapping with Birk-Barel syndrome. Sequencing of the two coding exons of KCNK9 failed to identify pathologic mutations, with only one variant, rs2615374, being present with allele frequencies similar to those described in dbSNP database. DNA methylation profiling of the KCNK9 and TRAPPC9 promoters, the maternally methylated PEG13 DMR and a long-range enhancer region were normal in all patients. Our findings suggest that mutations of KCNK9 or epigenetic disturbances within the PEG13 imprinted cluster do not significantly contribute to the cause of the developmental disabilities tested in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie
-resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according...... undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility...... (approximately half of cases) was blood pressure normalization after treatment adjustment by a hypertension specialist. Our findings highlight that hypertension centers with a record in clinical experience and research should remain the gatekeepers before renal denervation is considered....
The use of assistive technology for cognition to support the performance of daily activities for individuals with cognitive disabilities due to traumatic brain injury: The current state of the research.
Leopold, Anne; Lourie, Anna; Petras, Hanno; Elias, Eileen
Many individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are young and could have many years of productivity ahead of them. However, cognitive impairments may hinder individuals' ability to perform daily tasks. Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) can be effective in helping compensate for cognitive impairments. This study examined the current state of the research on using ATCs to support daily activities for individuals with cognitive disabilities that are due to TBI. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2015. To evaluate the nature of the research, qualitative data were extracted pertaining to recruitment, participant characteristics, intervention design, type of ATCs and their functions, matching individuals with ATCs, training for using the ATC, and outcomes. Research examining the effectiveness of ATCs as everyday compensatory tools for cognitive impairments that are due to TBI is limited. The majority of studies were case studies or quasi-experimental studies with small sample sizes. Studies showed positive associations between use of ATCs and individuals' abilities to perform tasks regardless of age, TBI severity, and time since injury. Future research should assess the match between the individual and the technology, study the impact of training on using ATCs, and analyze the usability of ATCs.
Matthew S. Rutledge
Both unemployment insurance (UI) extensions and the availability of disability benefits have disincentive effects on job search. But UI extensions can reduce the efficiency cost of disability benefits if UI recipients delay disability application until they exhaust their unemployment benefits. This paper, the first to focus on the effect of UI extensions on disability applications, investigates whether UI eligibility, extension, and exhaustion affect the timing of disability applications and ...
Full Text Available Locating occupational therapy within gendered and racialized systems of power, the authors consider the intersectional nature of critical disability studies discourse and the need for occupational therapy to incorporate such values into practice. This article discusses ways in which occupational therapy as a profession and individual therapists can align with or resist the economic determination which has come to dominate medical systems. It considers some of the political background to the history of the profession and its relationship with power. This positioning of the profession is explored against the impact of neoliberal economic policy on health, rights, service delivery and disability, and against some key issues, the pressure of ageing populations and the positon of occupational therapists as women professionals. Current policies present a critical challenge to central occupational therapy tenets. Occupational therapists may find themselves working both in alliance with disabled people and disability activists, and against them.
Full Text Available Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability.
... more of the following areas: (i) Cognitive development. (ii) Physical development, including vision and... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infants and toddlers with disabilities. 303.16 Section... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.16...
Rubenstein, Eric; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura A; Christensen, Deborah L; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Rice, Catherine E; Bakian, Amanda V; Durkin, Maureen S; Rosenberg, Steven A; Kirby, Russell S; Lee, Li-Ching
Although data on publicly available special education are informative and offer a glimpse of trends in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and use of educational services, using these data for population-based public health monitoring has drawbacks. Our objective was to evaluate trends in special education eligibility among 8-year-old children with ASD identified in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. We used data from 5 Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network sites (Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, and North Carolina) during 4 surveillance years (2002, 2006, 2008, and 2010) and compared trends in 12 categories of special education eligibility by sex and race/ethnicity. We used multivariable linear risk regressions to evaluate how the proportion of children with a given eligibility changed over time. Of 6010 children with ASD, more than 36% did not receive an autism eligibility in special education in each surveillance year. From surveillance year 2002 to surveillance year 2010, autism eligibility increased by 3.6 percentage points ( P = .09), and intellectual disability eligibility decreased by 4.6 percentage points ( P special education services under other categories, and racial/ethnic disparities persisted. To monitor trends in ASD prevalence, public health officials need access to comprehensive data collected systematically, not just special education eligibility.
... 32 CFR Part 57 Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible DoD...-2011-OS-0095] RIN 0790-AI77 Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible... (EIS) to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, as well as special education and...
Bogart, Kathleen R
Current theories of adaptation to disability do not address differences in adaptation to congenital or acquired disability. Although people with congenital disabilities are generally assumed to be better adapted than people with acquired disabilities, few studies have tested this, and even fewer have attempted to explain the mechanisms behind these differences. This study tested the proposition that whether a disability is congenital or acquired plays an important role in the development of the disability self-concept (consisting of disability identity and disability self-efficacy), which in turn, affects satisfaction with life. It was predicted that disability self-concept would be better developed among people with congenital, compared with acquired disabilities, predicting greater satisfaction with life in those with acquired conditions. 226 participants with congenital and acquired mobility disabilities completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring satisfaction with life, self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and demographic information. Self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and income were significant predictors of satisfaction with life. Congenital onset predicted higher satisfaction with life; disability identity and disability self-efficacy, but not self-esteem, partially mediated the relationship. Findings highlight the distinction between adaptation to congenital versus acquired disability and the importance of disability self-concept, which are underresearched constructs. Results suggest that rather than attempting to "normalize" individuals with disabilities, health care professionals should foster their disability self-concept. Possible ways to improve disability self-concept are discussed, such as involvement in the disability community and disability pride. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kolbe, Sherry L.
The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments offered a welcome shield for disabled students who found themselves unfairly disciplined within their school placements. Highlights the disagreements that continue over the bill's interpretation, and the fight by advocates for the disabled to limit unreasonable suspensions and…
... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...
Wormsley, Diane P.
This article describes the components of the Individualized Meaning-centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education (I-M-ABLE) for teaching braille reading and writing to students who are blind and have additional cognitive impairments. The components of I-M-ABLE are: (1) selecting and teaching the Key Vocabulary; (2) teaching the efficient use of…
Full Text Available Inclusion, as a process of enrolling of children with disability in regular schools, demands obligation for adequate preparing regular schools, teachers, pupils and their parents for accepting those children. It, also, means that special services must be prepared to help teachers and children with disability too, in an adequate way. The first and most important step is developing of Individualized education programs (IEP.The purpose of IEP is to provide a disabled child with specialized or individualized assistance in school. In order an IEP to be developed for a child, it is necessary to evaluate a child, and than to determine goals of individual achievements for every pupil with disability.The aim of this paper is to show one of many ways for construction IEP. The paper will give some examples of IEP recommendation (general and special, goals and steps to determine programs and types of services.
Berkeley High School, with the nation's largest sports program, had numerous student eligibility violations in 1997. Many districts are defending the validity of their eligibility practices, as parents push harder for their children's right to compete on school teams. This article covers legal battles, competitive environments, legislative…
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.
McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Part C) authorizes states to establish systems to provide early intervention services (e.g., therapy) for children at risk, with the incentive of federal financial support. This study examines family and neighborhood characteristics associated with currently utilizing physical, occupational, or speech therapy among very low birthweight (VLBW) 2-year-old children who meet Wisconsin eligibility requirements for early intervention services (EI) due to developmental delay. This cross-sectional analysis used data from the Newborn Lung Project, a regional cohort study of VLBW infants hospitalized in Wisconsin's newborn intensive care units during 2003-2004. We included the 176 children who were age two at follow-up, and met Wisconsin state eligibility requirements for EI based on developmental delay. Exact logistic regression was used to describe child and neighborhood socio-demographic correlates of parent-reported receipt of therapy. Among VLBW children with developmental delay, currently utilizing therapy was higher among children with Medicaid (aOR = 5.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 28.3) and concomitant developmental disability (aOR = 5.2, 95% CI: 2.1, 13.3) and lower for those living in a socially more disadvantaged neighborhood (aOR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.98, per tertile). Among a sample of VLBW 2-year olds with developmental delays who are EI-eligible in WI, 4 out of 5 were currently receiving therapy, per parent report. Participation in Medicaid positively influences therapy utilization. Children with developmental difficulties who live in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods are at highest risk for not receiving therapy.
... expression, listening comprehension, pre-reading, pre-writing and pre-mathematics; or (3) The child shows... itself in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak or, for preschool age children, acquire the precursor...
... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TALENT SEARCH General § 643.3 Who is eligible to participate in a project? (a) An individual is eligible to participate in a Talent Search project if the individual... Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau); or (v) Is a resident of the Freely Associated States—the Federated...
... below average Development way below that of peers Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized ... Social. Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty ...
... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...
... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...
Bouck, Emily C.; Satsangi, Rajiv
Students with mild intellectual disability generally garner less individual attention in research, as they are often aggregated with students with moderate and severe intellectual disability or students with other high incidence disabilities. This study used the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to look at the personal…
... living for individuals with disabilities and their families. Types of Priorities When inviting... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number: 84.133A-09] Final Priority; National Institute on Disability... . Through the implementation of the Plan, NIDRR seeks to: (1) Improve the quality and utility of disability...
Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Yen, Chia-Feng; Escorpizo, Reuben; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Fang, Wen-Hui
In 2010, the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was developed, based on the concept of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The ICF provides a common language and framework for health and health-related status and attempts to integrate the biopsychosocial model as a multidimensional perspective in understanding functioning. Activities and participation (AP) is one salient component of the ICF refers to the execution of a task by an individual, and how such tasks are involved in their daily life. It is essential to examine the gap between the general adult population and adults with disabilities. This gap may be attributed to health status, personal factors, and natural and social environments, which include social and health services and policies. The purposes: (1) To develop a normative activity and participation (AP) value for the adult population and people with disabilities; and (2) to compare the gap in AP normative values between the two groups in Taiwan. We use the WHODAS 2.0 to survey and develop a normative AP value for the general adult population, and used secondary data from National Disability Eligibility Determination System (NDEDS) of Taiwan to describe the AP functioning distribution of adult with disability. There were 1100 participants, selected by stratified proportional sampling from two cities. There were also 144,850 participants who were adults with disability, selected from the secondary database in Taiwan. The AP curve for the disabled population increased rapidly at the beginning. The summary score was 13.21 in the performance at 90 percentile for the general population and 82.61 score for disabled adults that the similar gap in every domain, its means that there are significant functioning difference and health equality in general adults population and adults with disabilities. This presents a substantial challenge for both the government and the whole
Full Text Available To marry and form a household of one’s own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.
Roush, Susan E; Sharby, Nancy
The purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to explore models of disability from the perspective of the academic discipline of disability studies (DS), (2) to consider the paradox of improving functional capacities while valuing disability as diversity, (3) to identify how physical therapy's use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) disablement model intersects with various disability models, and (4) to apply this broader understanding of disability to physical therapist practice, education, and research. The DS literature has been critical of rehabilitation professionals, particularly targeting the medical model of disability. In contrast, advocates for a social model of disability recognize disability as diversity. It is paradoxical for physical therapy to simultaneously work to ameliorate disability while celebrating it as diversity. The ICF biopsychosocial disablement model offers a mechanism to practice within this paradox and suggests that it is no longer sufficient to conceptualize disability as a purely individual matter that requires attention in isolation from the impact of the larger society.
... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...
Riddle, Christopher A
Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British
The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Many different types of organizations are eligible to become Partners.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.214 Section 416.214 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not...
Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).
Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy
This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…
Samoocha, D.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Anema, R.J.; Steenbeek, R.; Beek, A.J.V.D.
Background. Individuals claiming a disability benefit after long-term sickness absence, have to undergo medical disability assessments. These assessments, often carried out by specialized physicians, can be complicated by wrong expectations or defensive attitudes of disability benefit claimants. It
Christine O'Rourke - Lang
Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed
Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; Lyons, Seán
Addressing the extra economic costs of disability seems a logical step towards alleviating elements of social exclusion for people with disabilities. This paper estimates the economic cost of disability in Ireland in terms of the additional spending needs that arise due to disability. It defines and estimates models of the private costs borne by families with individuals who have a disability in Ireland when compared to the wider population, both in general and by severity of illness. Our mod...
... eligibility for the period in which the beneficiary's disability determination is pending before the Social... Authorization Act on October 28, 2009. Prior to this amendment, beneficiaries who did not purchase Medicare Part... responsibilities among the various levels of government, therefore, consultation with State and local officials is...
..., ethnic background, sex, religious affiliation, or disability; (2) Limit parental rights provided under... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD...
... services due to the severity of the applicant's disability. (3) Presumption of eligibility for Social... applicant or group of applicants is excluded or found ineligible solely on the basis of the type of..., color, or national origin of the applicant; (B) Type of expected employment outcome; (C) Source of...
Reschly, D J
Students with disabilities or suspected disabilities are evaluated by schools to determine whether they are eligible for special education services and, if eligible, to determine what services will be provided. In many states, the results of this evaluation also affect how much funding assistance the school will receive to meet the students' special needs. Special education classification is not uniform across states or regions. Students with identical characteristics can be diagnosed as disabled in one state but not in another and may be reclassified when they move across state or school district lines. Most disabilities with a clear medical basis are recognized by the child's physician or parents soon after birth or during the preschool years. In contrast, the majority of students with disabilities are initially referred for evaluation by their classroom teacher (or parents) because of severe and chronic achievement or behavioral problems. There is evidence that the prevalence of some disabilities varies by age, the high-incidence disabilities such as learning disabilities and speech-language disabilities occur primarily at the mild level, the mild disabilities exist on broad continua in which there are no clear demarcations between those who have and those who do not have the disability, and even "mild" disabilities may constitute formidable barriers to academic progress and significantly limit career opportunities. Problems with the current classification system include stigma to the child, low reliability, poor correlation between categorization and treatment, obsolete assumptions still in use in treatment, and disproportionate representation of minority students. Both African-American and Hispanic students are disproportionately represented in special education but in opposite directions. The disproportionately high number of African Americans in special education reflects the fact that more African-American students than white students are diagnosed with
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible collateral. 330.10 Section... SECURITIES § 330.10 Eligible collateral. The Association, in its discretion, shall determine what collateral is eligible for inclusion in the Multiclass Securities program. Eligible collateral may include GNMA...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Eligible organization. 1160.114 Section 1160.114... Order Definitions § 1160.114 Eligible organization. Eligible organization means an organization eligible... organization pursuant to section 501(c) (3), (5), or (6) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 501(c) (3), (5...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible organization. 1260.114 Section 1260.114... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.114 Eligible organization. Eligible organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary pursuant to the Act and this part as being eligible to...
The impact of stress and social support on the mental health of individuals with intellectual disabilities Efectos del estrés y del apoyo social sobre la salud mental de individuos con discapacidad intelectual
Full Text Available People with intellectual disabilities (ID are at increased risk for mental health problems than the general population. The reasons for this are both biological and social. Current treatment for mental health problems tends to be reactive in nature with less emphasis on how mental health problems can be prevented. A better understanding of the social contributors to mental health in individuals with ID should lead to the prevention of mental health problems in this particularly vulnerable population. Two promising areas of research when thinking about mental health promotion and ID are stress and social support, which are reviewed here.Las personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI están más expuestas a sufrir problemas de salud mental que la población general. Las razones son tanto biológicas como sociales. El tratamiento actual para los problemas de salud mental tiende a ser reactivo por naturaleza, poniendo menor énfasis en la prevención. Una mejor comprensión de los contribuyentes sociales en la salud mental de los individuos con DI debería llevar a la prevención de problemas de salud mental en esta población particularmente vulnerable. Dos áreas de investigación promisorias cuando se piensa en promoción de la salud mental y DI son el estrés y el apoyo social, que aquí se revisan.
Food Security Status of People with Disabilities in Selassie Kebele , Hawassa Town, Southern Ethiopia. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Individuals with physical type of disabilities accounted for the largest proportion of ...
This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…
Jenell Lynn-Senter Wittmer
Full Text Available Previous organizational research has focused heavily on organizational commitment, for employees in general, as well as for specific minority groups. However, there is a large gap in the research literature concerning the organizational commitment of people with disabilities. The current study contributes to the literature both by investigating the predictors of reported organizational commitment of people with disabilities, as well by examining organizational-level predictors, rather than individual-level phenomena. Additionally, rather than examining legal or compliance issues related to people with disabilities, as is found in most previous research, the current study examines contextual predictors of organizational commitment, pro-disability climate, pro-disability technology, and availability of flexible work arrangements. Structural equation modeling results suggest that there is a chain effect of pro-disability climate, which impacts the organizational commitment of people with disabilities through pro-disability technology and flexible work arrangements. Implications for both research and human resource practitioners are discussed.
..., postsecondary education or training, braille literacy, inclusive corporate cultures, and some characteristics of... vision loss or who have multiple disabilities (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2005; Shaw, Gold... (e.g., individuals with more severe vision loss or individuals with multiple disabilities). The RRTC...
... claimants. The term eligible claimants means: (1) Individuals present at the World Trade Center, Pentagon... at the World Trade Center, Pentagon, or Shanksville, Pennsylvania site at the time of or in the immediate aftermath of the crashes and who died as a direct result of the terrorist-related aircraft crash...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. Methods A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. Results The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. Conclusions There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.
Støver, Morten; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Sund, Erik R; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon
The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available Sport was used to complement therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.
... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week of...
... return. Section 1413(a) of the Affordable Care Act directs the Secretary of HHS to establish a system... choose to obtain coverage through an Exchange will be eligible to qualify for a new premium tax credit... for the premium tax credit to help eligible individuals and families afford health insurance coverage...
.../MedicaidEligibility/downloads/CMS-2349-P-PreliminaryRegulatoryImpactAnalysis.pdf . A summary of the... Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 QI Qualifying Individuals QMB Qualified Medicare Beneficiaries SHO... eligibility criteria, such as citizenship or satisfactory immigration status. Children and, in some States...
The plays of William Shakespeare were reviewed for references to disabilities, aging and disability, and older characters with disabilities. Shakespeare's references draw from traditional cultural notions about older people with disabilities. These traditional notions include people with physical disabilities being evil, the entertainment value of disabilty, and those who were mentally ill being wild and animal-like. He viewed the aging process as disabling and old age as a time when individuals lost some abilities to function, particularly when it came to mental capacity and physical mobility. His writings show that he used disability as a literary tool to add dimension to characters and set them apart. Contemporary literature continues to share some of Shakespeare's view on aging and disability but also departs from them in important ways. For example, contemporary treatment of disabilities and aging places more emphasis on the human side of the affects of aging and disabilities. Disabilities and aging are not cast in the same negative terms as Shakespeare used.
Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.
The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…
Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Moss, Colleen K.
Trying out for the school play. Performing in the band. Joining a sports team or club. These experiences are memorable parts of middle and high school life. For many students with disabilities, however, these everyday school experiences remain elusive. Although the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) clearly states that IEP teams…
Alphin, Henry C., Jr., Ed.; Lavine, Jennie, Ed.; Chan, Roy Y., Ed.
Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives. It is vital that learning opportunities are available on a global scale, regardless of individual disabilities or differences, and to create more inclusive educational practices. "Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility" is a comprehensive reference source for…
Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin
possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...
This article discusses the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The ADA is a federal civil rights law that was passed in 1990 with the aim of securing equal rights for persons with disabilities in the employment, housing, government, transportation, and public accommodation contexts. It…
Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…
Maydosz, Ann; Maydosz, Diane
Despite the fact that disability has been recognized as "a natural part of the human experience" (Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000) and that the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 and its later reauthorizations as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) should have served…
Dalbudak, Ibrahim; Gürkan, Alper C.; Yigit, Sih Mehmet; Kargun, Mehmet; Hazar, Gürkan; Dorak, Feridun
This study aims to investigate visually disabled students', who study in the level of primary education, high school, university, attitudes about physical education and sport in terms of different variables. Totally 100 visually disabled students who are individual and team athletes and study in Izmir, (8 visually disabled athletes study in…
... must be given to unusual physical or mental effects in individual cases, to peculiar effects of occupational activities, to defects in physical or mental endowment preventing the usual amount of success in overcoming the handicap of disability and to the effect of combinations of disability. Total disability will...
This paper raises issues relating to disability and citizenship, especially those concerned with difference, discrimination, power, and the politics of identity. It adopts a social model of disability that is critical of individualized, homogenized, deficit views of people with disabilities and urges an equal opportunities approach in which the…
Learning disability nurses have a key role in addressing the health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities. People with learning disabilities are less likely to participate in bowel screening than other sectors of the population, despite there being evidence of this population being at an increased risk of developing bowel cancer. There are a range of barriers at individual and systemic levels that impact on participation in bowel screening by people with learning disabilities. Actions to address these barriers have been identified in the literature and learning disability nurses are a key agent of change in enabling people with learning disabilities to participate in the national screening programmes.
Harris, Richard; Robertson, Jacqueline
Discussion of support services for college students with learning disabilities presents the nine-step process used at Ball State University (Indiana) to encourage students to identify themselves, meet eligibility guidelines, learn about services and accommodations provided by the university, talk to professors about needed accommodations, use…
Weinberg, Lois A.
Interviews and review of case files investigated reasons for the common failure to meet the educational needs of abused and neglected children with disabilities in foster care. Agency dysfunctions which negatively affected appropriate educational provisions were identified in such categories as eligibility, timeline violation, inappropriate…
Birgul Elbozan Cumurcu
Full Text Available Physical disability is termed as disturbance or defect which impede or eliminate human body’s ability by disturbing human structure and shape. Physical disability may occur due to neonatal, natal or postnatal causes. People with physical disability have some natural needs as everyone. They are known to have difficulties in many areas of life. In society, sexual lives of these individuals are treated as an unknown and ignored issue, and moreover it has been assumed that they have no such needs. Disabled patients experience many troubles in their life domains including sexuality. This article provides information about physical disability and sexuality, and difficulties with which disabled people faces in their sexual life and overviews literature on this topic.
Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B
New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage. We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under scenarios of existing and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses assessed the extension of eligibility to include individuals with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, or all HIV-positive adults, compared with the previous (2010) recommendation of initiation with CD4 counts of 350 cells per μL or less. We assessed costs from a health-system perspective, and calculated the incremental cost (in US$) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted to compare competing strategies. Strategies were regarded very cost effective if the cost per DALY averted was less than the country's 2012 per-head gross domestic product (GDP; South Africa: $8040; Zambia: $1425; India: $1489; Vietnam: $1407) and cost effective if the cost per DALY averted was less than three times the per-head GDP. In South Africa, the cost per DALY averted of extending eligibility for antiretroviral therapy to adult patients with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less ranged from $237 to $1691 per
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible project. 1739.11 Section 1739.11 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.11 Eligible project. To be eligible for a grant, the Project must: (a) Serve a Rural Area where Broadband Transmission Service does not currently...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible organizations. 321.2 Section... § 321.2 Eligible organizations. (a) Organizations eligible to apply for qualification and to serve as.... (b)(1) An organization that desires to redeem securities must first qualify as a paying agent. An...
... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.405 Eligible projects... rehabilitation. (b) Types of projects which are eligible. The following types of work are eligible for...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible costs. 35.1135 Section 35....1135 Eligible costs. A PHA may use financial assistance received under the modernization program (CIAP....112 of this title. Eligible costs include: (a) Evaluation and insurance costs. Evaluation and hazard...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible organization. 1220.109 Section 1220.109... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.109 Eligible organization. The term eligible organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary pursuant to...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible organization. 1250.313 Section 1250.313... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.313 Eligible organization. Eligible organization means any organization, association, or cooperative which represents egg producers of any egg producing area of the...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Eligible organization. 1150.108 Section 1150.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.108 Eligible organization. Eligible organization means any organization which...
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible projects. 1709.109 Section 1709.109... projects. Eligible projects are those that acquire, construct, extend, repair, upgrade or otherwise improve... are eligible. Projects providing or improving service to communities with extremely high energy costs...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible projects. 810.302 Section 810.302 Highways... SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Federal-Aid Urban System Nonhighway Public Mass Transit Projects § 810.302 Eligible projects. (a) Eligible projects are those defined as nonhighway public mass transit projects in...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility; child. 21.3040 Section 21.3040 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED.... Chapter 35 Eligibility and Entitlement § 21.3040 Eligibility; child. (a) Commencement. A program of...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible investments. 615.5140 Section 615.5140... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5140 Eligible investments. (a) You may hold only the following types of investments listed in the Investment Eligibility Criteria...
Nurmela, Kirsti; Heikkinen, Virpi; Hokkanen, Risto; Ylinen, Aarne; Uitti, Jukka; Mattila, Aino; Joukamaa, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka
The aim of the study was to reveal potential gaps and inconsistencies in the identification of alcohol abuse in health care and in employment services and to analyse the granting of disability pensions with respect to the alcohol abuse identification pattern. The material consisted of documentary information on 505 long-term unemployed subjects with low employability sent to the development project entitled 'Eligibility for a Disability Pension' in 2001-2006 in Finland. The dichotomous variables 'Alcohol abuse identified in employment services' and 'Alcohol abuse identified in health care' were cross-tabulated to obtain a four-class variable 'Alcohol abuse identification pattern'. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the association of alcohol abuse identification pattern with the granting of disability pensions. Alcohol abuse was detected by both health care and employment services in 47% of those identified as abusers (41% of examinees). Each service systems also identified cases that the other did not. When alcohol abuse was identified in health care only, the OR for a disability pension being granted was 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) compared with applicants without identified alcohol abuse. The result remained the same and statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. Alcohol abuse identified in health care was positively associated with the granting of a disability pension. Closer co-operation between employment services and health care could help to identify those long-term unemployed individuals with impaired work ability in need of thorough medical examination. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
individuals, ultimately resulting in reluctance to seek help and delay in rehabilitation. .... appropriately, and social stigma associated with the disability. ... and others, hence their significant others feel shame, self-blame and mistrust; leading to.
... assistance and related activities to maximize the full inclusion and integration into society, employment, independent living, family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities of all ages; promoting the transfer of, use ...
Nolan, John D.; Driscoll, Rosemary L.
Memory storage and retrieval of learning disabled (LD) and normal children at two age levels (8-9 years and 11-12 years) were compared using a multitrial free recall paradigm. Stimuli were two lists of 20 high frequency nouns. Each child was tested individually on both lists on different days; one presentation was blocked, one random with…
Benjamin W. Mann
Full Text Available Disability March (DM was an online contingent of the 2017 Women's March on Washington which allowed protestors who could not attend physical marches due to disabilities to create profiles and descriptions on the website disabilitymarch.com. In this thematic analysis of the 2,251 profiles created through DM, I found emergent themes related to disability disclosure, support for broad health care coverage, support for human rights, and opposition to the new political administration. Comments supporting these themes demonstrated that DM functioned as a unique form of cyberprotest that upheld disabled perspectives through solidarity. This study demonstrates that disability cyberprotest movements like DM may promote disabled individuals within broader protest discourse and contemporary policy issues that are often essential to the survival and well-being of marginalized individuals.
Kolwitz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Szymon
The article describes attitudes to disability and physically disabled people, taking into account the aspect of ethical and social location, what physically disabled meant in societies, and ways to solve the problems of disability. The article is based on studies of disability and historical sources. Christ's attitude shown in the Gospels changed the traditional cultures of the ancient treatment of disability in terms of it being seen as a penalty of the divine. The development of Christianity caused a gradual expansion of the ideas of charity, at the same time stepping up care and material support to all those physically disabled in need. Care of the disabled is based mostly on charity. Church activities supported, by the structure of the State and private individuals, was of paramount importance. Medieval society felt responsible for disabled people.
Sarmiento, Cristina; Miller, Sonya R; Chang, Eleanor; Zazove, Philip; Kumagai, Arno K
All physicians will care for individuals with disabilities; however, education about disabilities is lacking at most medical schools. Most of the schools that do include such education exclusively teach the medical model, in which disability is viewed as an impairment to be overcome. Disability advocates contest this approach because it overlooks the social and societal contexts of disability. A collaboration between individuals with disabilities, educators, and physicians to design a medical school curriculum on disabilities could overcome these differences. A curriculum on disabilities for first- and second-year medical students was developed during the 2013-2014 academic year and involved a major collaboration between a medical student, medical educators, disability advocates, and academic disability specialists. The guiding principle of the project was the Disability Rights Movement motto, "Nothing about us without us." Two small-group sessions were created, one for each medical school class. They included discussions about different models of disability, video and in-person narratives of individuals with disabilities, and explorations of concepts central to social perceptions of disability, such as power relationships, naming and stigmatization, and disability as identity. According to evaluations conducted after each session, students reported positive feedback about both sessions. Through this curriculum, first- and second-year medical students learned about the obstacles faced by individuals with disabilities and became better equipped to understand and address the concerns, hopes, and societal challenges of their future patients. This inclusive approach may be used to design additional curricula about disabilities for the clinical and postgraduate years.
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Full Text Available This paper assesses whether eligibility for conditional cash transfer programs has been manipulated, as well as the impact of this phenomenon on time allocation within households. To perform this analysis, we use data from the 2006 PNAD (Brazilian national household survey and investigate the eligibility manipulation for the Bolsa Família (Family Stipend program during this time period. The program assists families with a monthly per capita income of around R$120.00 (US$60.00. By applying the tests developed by McCrary (2008, we find suggestive evidence that individuals manipulate their income by voluntarily reducing their labor supply in order to become eligible to the program. Moreover, the reduction in labor supply is greater among women, especially single or divorced mothers. This evidence raises some concern about the unintended consequences related to the eligibility criteria utilized by Bolsa Família, as well as the program's impact on individuals living in extreme poverty.
Scheid, Teresa L
In a controversial expansion of workplace civil rights, the 1990 Americans with Disability Act (ADA) extended anti-discrimination protection to individuals with "mental impairments." One of the most critical barriers to the employment of individuals with mental disabilities is the degree of social stigma such disabilities incur, and there is compelling evidence that employers have stigmatizing attitudes and have discriminated against those with mental disabilities. This study examines the role played by stigma in employers' response to the 1990 Americans with Disability Act (ADA). A stratified sample of one hundred ninety employers were surveyed in 1996-1997 in a major Southern metropolitan area. Telephone interviews were completed with one hundred seventeen employers (response rate of 61.6%). The article describes employers' experiences with employees with mental disabilities and accommodations, specific employment practices, and attitudes towards those with mental disabilities. Stigma played an important role in conformity to the ADA (operationalized as either hiring or having specific recruiting policies for hiring individuals with mental disabilities). Furthermore, employers expressing coercive (fear of a lawsuit) as opposed to normative (belief that it is the right thing to do) rationales for compliance were more likely to hold stigmatized attitudes. Employers' beliefs about mental disability form a crucial foundation for truly supportive work environments (those that value difference and diversity), and further research is needed to determine if over time the ADA is successful in changing attitudes as well as behavior.
... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements § 51.5... Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act (42 U.S.C. 6041, et seq.) and designated in...