WorldWideScience

Sample records for disabilities including autism

  1. Setting Global Research Priorities for Developmental Disabilities, Including Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, M.; Yasamy, M. T.; Emerson, E.; Officer, A.; Richler, D.; Saxena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of intellectual disabilities (ID) has been estimated at 10.4/1000 worldwide with higher rates among children and adolescents in lower income countries. The objective of this paper is to address research priorities for development disabilities, notably ID and autism, at the global level and to propose the more rational…

  2. Aged and Dependency Ratios among Autism, Intellectual Disability and Other Disabilities: 10-Year Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Dependency ratios are useful as general indicators of future economic and social health. The present paper focuses on the description of dependency ratios and over time change in different kind of disability which include autism, intellectual disability, vision, hearing, and limb impairments. We analyzed data mainly from the public web-access…

  3. Parental Stress in Families of Children With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Lawson, Katharine; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2015-11-01

    The level of parental stress in families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities and its association with child comorbid symptoms was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interview. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In this ethnically diverse sample, parental stress was significantly higher for the autism group and for non-Hispanic and US-born mothers. In both study groups, parental stress was related to child irritability. Parental stress was also related to gastrointestinal problems in the autism group and to sleep difficulties in the developmental disabilities group. Targeting child irritability may be particularly important in reducing parental stress for families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Public Policy and the Shaping of Disability: Incidence Growth in Educational Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lee Baker

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism has gained the attention of policy makers and public administrators in recent years. The surge in prevalence, in tandem with a growing social preference for community inclusion of individuals with disabilities, strains a variety of policy infrastructures. Autism and related disorders, which were first described in 1943, were originally thought to be extremely low incidence and usually coincident with mental retardation. In accordance with the disability policy paradigm of the era, public services for autism were provided predominantly in institutional settings. Since then, however, autism and related disorders have come to be understood as more common than was originally thought and more rarely associated with mental retardation. In this article, shift-share analysis is used to gain insight into how the growth in autism incidence is being differentially experienced and recorded within a single arena of policy across the United States. The challenges associated with a sudden growth in supply (that is the number of children with autism, while unique to autism in some respects, include aspects that are similar for other disabilities and in policy challenges in other arenas. Especially since the implementation of the Government Performance Results Act of 1996, there is increased pressure to create public policy infrastructures that are anchored by clearly cut categorical service delivery. If the categories themselves leave significant room for interpretation and their use actually has a shaping effect on the target population, then it is important to administration and policy evaluation to understand how the effect is playing out.

  5. The Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnosis for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD-DA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Wilkins, Jonathan; Boisjoli, Jessica A.; Smith, Kimberly R.

    2008-01-01

    Psychologists interviewed direct-care staff using a battery of assessment measures including the autism spectrum disorders-diagnosis for intellectually disabled adults (ASD-DA), the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II), the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Individuals with Severe Retardation (MESSIER), the…

  6. Descriptors of Friendship between Secondary Students with and without Autism or Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from an interpretevist, qualitative study exploring the connections and dynamics of friendship among three groups of secondary school-aged young adults. Each group included an individual with autism or intellectual and developmental disabilities who had extensive or pervasive support needs, and at least one high…

  7. Comorbidity of intellectual disability confounds ascertainment of autism: implications for genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Andrew; Kubina, Richard M; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2015-10-01

    While recent studies suggest a converging role for genetic factors towards risk for nosologically distinct disorders including autism, intellectual disability (ID), and epilepsy, current estimates of autism prevalence fail to take into account the impact of comorbidity of these disorders on autism diagnosis. We aimed to assess the effect of comorbidity on the diagnosis and prevalence of autism by analyzing 11 years (2000-2010) of special education enrollment data on approximately 6.2 million children per year. We found a 331% increase in the prevalence of autism from 2000 to 2010 within special education, potentially due to a diagnostic recategorization from frequently comorbid features such as ID. The decrease in ID prevalence equaled an average of 64.2% of the increase of autism prevalence for children aged 3-18 years. The proportion of ID cases potentially undergoing recategorization to autism was higher (P = 0.007) among older children (75%) than younger children (48%). Some US states showed significant negative correlations between the prevalence of autism compared to that of ID while others did not, suggesting state-specific health policy to be a major factor in categorizing autism. Further, a high frequency of autistic features was observed when individuals with classically defined genetic syndromes were evaluated for autism using standardized instruments. Our results suggest that current ascertainment practices are based on a single facet of autism-specific clinical features and do not consider associated comorbidities that may confound diagnosis. Longitudinal studies with detailed phenotyping and deep molecular genetic analyses are necessary to completely understand the cause of this complex disorder. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Post hoc analysis of plasma amino acid profiles: towards a specific pattern in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaye, Jean-Baptiste; Patin, Franck; Lagrue, Emmanuelle; Le Tilly, Olivier; Bruno, Clement; Vuillaume, Marie-Laure; Raynaud, Martine; Benz-De Bretagne, Isabelle; Laumonnier, Frederic; Vourc'h, Patrick; Andres, Christian; Blasco, Helene

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability present a challenge for therapeutic and dietary management. We performed a re-analysis of plasma amino acid chromatography of children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 22) or intellectual disability ( n = 29) to search for a metabolic signature that can distinguish individuals with these disorders from controls ( n = 30). Methods We performed univariate and multivariate analyses using different machine learning strategies, from the raw data of the amino acid chromatography. Finally, we analysed the metabolic pathways associated with discriminant biomarkers. Results Multivariate analysis revealed models to discriminate patients with autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability and controls from plasma amino acid profiles ( P intellectual disability patients shared similar differences relative to controls, including lower glutamate ( P intellectual disability revealed the involvement of urea, 3-methyl-histidine and histidine metabolism. Biosigner analysis and univariate analysis confirmed the role of 3-methylhistidine ( P = 0.004), histidine ( P = 0.003), urea ( P = 0.0006) and lysine ( P = 0.002). Conclusions We revealed discriminant metabolic patterns between autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and controls. Amino acids known to play a role in neurotransmission were discriminant in the models comparing autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability to controls, and histidine and b-alanine metabolism was specifically highlighted in the model.

  9. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  10. Forensic aspects of intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Overview This thesis reviewed forensic aspects of Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Chapter two was a case study where an individual with ID and ASD who exhibited forensic/Challenging Behaviour (CB) was assessed and intervention offered. Chapter three then focussed on the assessment of people with ID and ASD by critiquing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), version 3 and 4 (WAIS-III & WAIS-IV) (Wechsler, 1997; Wechsler, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c) and ...

  11. Emotional and behavioural adjustment in siblings of children with intellectual disability with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Michael A; Hastings, Richard P; Nash, Susie; Lloyd, Tracey; Dowey, Alan

    2009-09-01

    Siblings of children with autism may be at greater risk for psychological problems than siblings of children with another disability or of typically developing (TD) children. However, it is difficult to establish whether autism or the presence of intellectual disability (ID) explains the findings in previous research. Mothers rated the emotional and behavioural adjustment of siblings of children with ID with (N = 25) or without (N = 24) autism. Data were also available 18 months later for siblings of children with autism and ID (N = 15). Siblings of children with autism and ID had more emotional problems compared with siblings of children with ID only and with normative data. Three variables were pertinent: increasing age of the child with autism, having a brother with autism, and being younger than the child with autism. Behavioural and emotional difficulties of siblings of children with autism and ID were relatively stable over 18 months.

  12. Augmented Reality for Teaching Science Vocabulary to Postsecondary Education Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don D.; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel E.; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of an emerging technology called augmented reality to teach science vocabulary words to college students with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. One student with autism and three students with an intellectual disability participated in a multiple probe across behaviors (i.e.,…

  13. Communication problems in children with autism and intellectual disability : depicting the phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, Janne Pieternella Wilhelmina

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism and intellectual disability form a particularly vulnerable group, as both disorders have a significant impact on the way and level of information processing and communication. However, children with autism and co-occurring intellectual disability are often excluded from

  14. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  15. A case report of two male siblings with autism and duplication of Xq13-q21, a region including three genes predisposing for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Elisabet; Vujic, Mihailo; Kärrstedt, Ewa-Lotta; Erlandsson, Anna; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder, severe behaviour problems and duplication of the Xq12 to Xq13 region have recently been described in three male relatives. To describe the psychiatric comorbidity and dysmorphic features, including craniosynostosis, of two male siblings with autism and duplication of the Xq13 to Xq21 region, and attempt to narrow down the number of duplicated genes proposed to be leading to global developmental delay and autism. We performed DNA sequencing of certain exons of the TWIST1 gene, the FGFR2 gene and the FGFR3 gene. We also performed microarray analysis of the DNA. In addition to autism, the two male siblings exhibited severe learning disability, self-injurious behaviour, temper tantrums and hyperactivity, and had no communicative language. Chromosomal analyses were normal. Neither of the two siblings showed mutations of the sequenced exons known to produce craniosynostosis. The microarray analysis detected an extra copy of a region on the long arm of chromosome X, chromosome band Xq13.1-q21.1. Comparison of our two cases with previously described patients allowed us to identify three genes predisposing for autism in the duplicated chromosomal region. Sagittal craniosynostosis is also a new finding linked to the duplication.

  16. An IEP for Me: Program Improvement for Rural Teachers of Students with Moderate to Severe Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Developing high-quality programming for students with moderate to severe disability (MSD) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be challenging for teachers across the range of experience and training including those in rural contexts. This article outlines a process for the iterative refinement of teaching programs comprised of an evaluation…

  17. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism and other developmental disabilities: associations with ethnicity, child comorbid symptoms, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Burrows, Bethany; Bernstein, Leora; Hottinger, Kathryn; Lawson, Katharine; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2014-03-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine by children with autism and the association of its use with child comorbid symptoms and parental stress was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interviews. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. In this ethnically diverse sample, the use of complementary and alternative medicine was significantly higher for the autism group. In the autism group, use was significantly related to child's irritability, hyperactivity, food allergies, and parental stress; in the developmental disabilities group, there was no association with child comorbid symptoms or parental stress. The results contribute information to health care providers about families of children with autism who are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine.

  18. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language,

  19. Social Intervention for Adolescents with Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacyof Reciprocal Imitation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with…

  20. Challenging Behaviors in Adults with Intellectual Disability: The Effects of Race and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Tureck, Kimberly; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of challenging behaviors were assessed in 175 adults with intellectual disability (ID) or ID and a comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relationship between ASD diagnosis, race, and challenging behaviors was assessed using the "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA)." Those with ASD and ID were…

  1. Unwanted Sexual Contact: Students with Autism and Other Disabilities at Greater Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsten R.; Peña, Edlyn Vallejo; Rankin, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Ten percent of college students identify as having a disability, and a subsample of this population, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are increasingly participating in higher education. Autism spectrum disorders represent a spectrum of neurodevelopmental differences that can contribute to difficulties in communication and social…

  2. Differentiating characteristics of deafblindness and autism in people with congenital deafblindness and profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars-van den Boom, M.A.A.; Antonissen, A.C.F.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Vervloed, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In persons with deafblindness, it is hard to distinguish autism spectrum disorders from several deafblind specific behaviours caused by the dual sensory impairments, especially when these persons are also intellectually disabled. As a result, there is an over-diagnosis of autism in persons who are

  3. Race, Disability, and Grade: Social Relationships in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi F.; Locke, Jill; Kasari, Connie; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Race is associated with social relationships among typically developing children; however, studies rarely examine the impact of race on social outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined how race (African American, Latino, Asian, or White) in conjunction with disability status (autism spectrum disorders or typically…

  4. Predictors of Co-occurring Neurodevelopmental Disabilities in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauche, Lauren Head; Darcy Mahoney, Ashley E; Higgins, Melinda K

    Co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities (including cognitive and language delays and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) affect over half of children with ASD and may affect later behavioral, language, and cognitive outcomes beyond the ASD diagnosis. However, no studies have examined predictors of co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities in children with ASD. This study investigated whether maternal sociodemographic, perinatal and neonatal factors are associated with co-occurring disabilities. This study involved a retrospective analysis of medical records for children diagnosed with ASD between 2009 and 2010 at an Autism Center in the southeast United States. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities. Of the 385 children in the sample, 61% had a co-occurring neurodevelopmental disability. Children whose mothers had less education (OR: 0.905), had never been married (OR: 1.803), or had bleeding during pregnancy (OR: 2.233) were more likely to have a co-occurring neurodevelopmental disability. Both preterm birth and African American race were associated with bleeding during pregnancy. Several maternal and perinatal risk factors for ASD were found to put children at risk for further diagnoses of co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities. While prematurity, a well-established risk factor for ASD, as well as maternal ethnicity was not found to increase the risk of a co-occurring disability, this study suggests that bleeding during pregnancy may moderate these relationships. Understanding maternal, perinatal, and neonatal risk factors may inform healthcare provider screening for ASD and co-occurring neurodevelopmental disabilities by helping providers recognize infants who present with multiple risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Gestalt of functioning in autism spectrum disorder: Results of the international conference to develop final consensus International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health core sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Mahdi, Soheil; de Vries, Petrus J; Granlund, Mats; Robison, John E; Shulman, Cory; Swedo, Susan; Tonge, Bruce; Wong, Virginia; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Segerer, Wolfgang; Selb, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with diverse social, educational, and occupational challenges. To date, no standardized, internationally accepted tools exist to assess autism spectrum disorder-related functioning. World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can serve as foundation for developing such tools. This study aimed to identify a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief autism spectrum disorder Core Sets. Four international preparatory studies yielded in total 164 second-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health candidate categories. Based on this evidence, 20 international autism spectrum disorder experts applied an established iterative decision-making consensus process to select from the candidate categories the most relevant ones to constitute the autism spectrum disorder Core Sets. The consensus process generated 111 second-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories in the Comprehensive Core Set for autism spectrum disorder-one body structure, 20 body functions, 59 activities and participation categories, and 31 environmental factors. The Common Brief Core Set comprised 60 categories, while the age-appropriate core sets included 73 categories in the preschool version (0- to 5-year-old children), 81 in the school-age version (6- to 16-year-old children and adolescents), and 79 in the older adolescent and adult version (⩾17-year-old individuals). The autism spectrum disorder Core Sets mark a milestone toward the standardized assessment of autism spectrum disorder-related functioning in educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings.

  6. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  7. Using communication to reduce challenging behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between expressive communication impairments and common challenging behaviors in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. The communication challenges of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder/Intellectual Disability are described and several evidence-based intervention strategies are proposed to support communication so as to decrease challenging behaviors. Recommendations for practice are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…

  9. Differentiating characteristics of deafblindness and autism in people with congenital deafblindness and profound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoevenaars-van den Boom, M A A; Antonissen, A C F M; Knoors, H; Vervloed, M P J

    2009-06-01

    In persons with deafblindness, it is hard to distinguish autism spectrum disorders from several deafblind specific behaviours caused by the dual sensory impairments, especially when these persons are also intellectually disabled. As a result, there is an over-diagnosis of autism in persons who are deafblind leading to unsuitable interventions. Autism as specified by the DSM-IV was studied in 10 persons with congenital deafblindness with profound intellectual disabilities. Behaviours of people with deafblindness and autism (n = 5) and of people with deafblindness without autism (n = 5) were observed in a semi-standardised assessment. All people with deafblindness showed impairments in social interaction, communication and language. In contrast to persons without autism, people with deafblindness and autism showed significantly more impairments in reciprocity of social interaction, quality of initiatives to contact and the use of adequate communicative signals and functions. No differences between the groups were found for quantity and persistence of stereotyped behaviour, quality of play and exploration and adequate problem-solving strategies. This study indicates that there are some possibilities to differentiate autism from behaviours specific for deafblindness. It also confirms the large overlap in overt behaviours between people with deafblindness and persons with autism.

  10. A novel 3q29 deletion associated with autism, intellectual disability, psychiatric disorders, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamino, Elisa; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Belligni, Elga Fabia; Keller, Roberto; Riberi, Evelise; Gandione, Marina; Calcia, Alessandro; Mancini, Cecilia; Giorgio, Elisa; Cavalieri, Simona; Pappi, Patrizia; Talarico, Flavia; Fea, Antonio M; De Rubeis, Silvia; Cirillo Silengo, Margherita; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Brusco, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) has been associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). Often, individuals carrying the same pathogenic CNV display high clinical variability. By array-CGH analysis, we identified a novel familial 3q29 deletion (1.36 Mb), centromeric to the 3q29 deletion region, which manifests with variable expressivity. The deletion was identified in a 3-year-old girl diagnosed with ID/DD and autism and segregated in six family members, all affected by severe psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorder, and personality disorder. All individuals carrying the deletion were overweight or obese, and anomalies compatible with optic atrophy were observed in three out of four cases examined. Amongst the 10 genes encompassed by the deletion, the haploinsufficiency of Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1), associated with autosomal dominant optic atrophy, is likely responsible for the ophthalmological anomalies. We hypothesize that the haploinsufficiency of ATPase type 13A4 (ATP13A4) and/or Hairy/Enhancer of Split Drosophila homolog 1 (HES1) contribute to the neuropsychiatric phenotype, while HES1 deletion might underlie the overweight/obesity. In conclusion, we propose a novel contiguous gene syndrome due to a proximal 3q29 deletion variably associated with autism, ID/DD, psychiatric traits and overweight/obesity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Autism and Intellectual Disability Associated with Mitochondrial Disease and Hyperlactacidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guevara-Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD with intellectual disability (ID is a life-long debilitating condition, which is characterized by cognitive function impairment and other neurological signs. Children with ASD-ID typically attain motor skills with a significant delay. A sub-group of ASD-IDs has been linked to hyperlactacidemia and alterations in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. The objective of this report is to describe the clinical features of patients with these comorbidities in order to shed light on difficult diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in such patients. We reported the different clinical features of children with ID associated with hyperlactacidemia and deficiencies in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II–IV activity whose clinical presentations are commonly associated with the classic spectrum of mitochondrial diseases. We concluded that patients with ASD and ID presenting with persistent hyperlactacidemia should be evaluated for mitochondrial disorders. Administration of carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and folic acid is partially beneficial, although more studies are needed to assess the efficacy of this vitamin/cofactor treatment combination.

  12. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Foot (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability...

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    2013-11-15

    ... planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection. Abstract... (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY...)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  13. Continuity, commitment and context: adult siblings of people with autism plus learning disability.

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    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2013-09-01

    Sibling relationships are usually lifelong and reciprocal. They can assume particular significance when a brother or sister has a learning disability. Until recently, adult siblings of people with disabilities such as severe autism have been ignored by policy, practice and research. This qualitative study contributes to an emerging literature by exploring how adult siblings, who have a brother or sister with autism (plus learning disability) and living in England, give meaning to their family (and caring) relationships and engage with service delivery. We spoke to 21 adult siblings using semi-structured interviews and met with 12 of their siblings with autism. Our analysis, using a broad narrative approach, demonstrates the continuity of the sibling relationship and an enduring personalised commitment. The nature of this relationship, however, is sensitive to context. How non-disabled adult siblings relate to their childhood experience is fundamental when making sense of this, as is their need to fulfil other social and family obligations, alongside their 'sense of duty' to support their disabled brother or sister. Sibling experience was further mediated by negotiating their 'perceived invisibility' in social care policy and practice. Our work concludes that by understanding the way relationships between siblings have developed over time, adult siblings' contribution to the lives of their brother or sister with autism can be better supported for the benefit of both parties. Such an approach would support current policy developments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Does Quality of Life Differ for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability Compared to Peers without Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Víctor B.; Gómez, Laura E.; Morán, Ma. Lucía; Alcedo, Ma. Ángeles; Monsalve, Asunción; Fontanil, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    The main goal was to test if children with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show lower quality of life (QOL) in comparison to those with only ID. The KidsLife Scale was applied to 1060 children with ID, 25% of whom also had ASD, aged 4-21 years old. Those with ASD showed lower scores in several QOL domains but, when…

  15. Implementing UK Autism Policy & National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidance--Assessing the Impact of Autism Training for Frontline Staff in Community Learning Disabilities Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex; Browne, Sarah; Boardman, Liz; Hewitt, Lealah; Light, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    UK National Autism Strategy (Department of Health, 2010 and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance (NICE, 2012) states that frontline staff should have a good understanding of Autism. Fifty-six clinical and administrative staff from a multidisciplinary community Learning Disability service completed an electronic questionnaire…

  16. Disability Identification and Self-Efficacy among College Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Shattuck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of youth on the autism spectrum approaching young adulthood and attending college is growing. Very little is known about the subjective experience of these college students. Disability identification and self-efficacy are two subjective factors that are critical for the developmental and logistical tasks associated with emerging adulthood. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 to examine the prevalence and correlates of disability identification and self-efficacy among college students on the autism spectrum. Results indicate nearly one-third of these students do not report seeing themselves as disabled or having a special need. Black race was associated with lower likelihood of both disability identification and self-efficacy.

  17. Disability Identification and Self-Efficacy among College Students on the Autism Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Steinberg, Jessica; Yu, Jennifer; Wei, Xin; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Newman, Lynn; Roux, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of youth on the autism spectrum approaching young adulthood and attending college is growing. Very little is known about the subjective experience of these college students. Disability identification and self-efficacy are two subjective factors that are critical for the developmental and logistical tasks associated with emerging adulthood. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 to examine the prevalence and correlates of disability identification and...

  18. Transitions for Students with Intellectual Disability and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder: Carer and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadova, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.; Danker, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Schooling transitions are often challenging experiences for students with intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder (ID/ASD), their families, and their teachers. Transition processes, particularly planning, can facilitate successful transitions from primary to secondary schools, and to postschool settings. Bronfenbrenner's ecological…

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disability, and Emotional Functioning: Relatedness and Particular Impact on Challenging Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappok, Tanja; Sterkenburg, Paula; Bohm, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Persons with an intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behaviour (CB), especially in cases of co-occurring autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the relatedness and impact of ASD, the severity of ID, and the level of emotional

  20. Maternal Stress Predicted by Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a period of two years. The level of maternal…

  1. Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, H; Flamma, B; Van der Meere, J.J.; van Engeland, H.

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was

  2. Divided Attention Capacity in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogte, Hans; Flamma, Bert; Van Der Meere, Jaap; Van Engeland, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was tested using a computerized variant of a…

  3. Brief Report: Imaginative Drawing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L.; Craig, Eleanore

    2016-01-01

    Here we examine imaginative drawing abilities in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and learning disabilities (LD) under several conditions: spontaneous production, with use of a template, and combining two real entities to form an "unreal" entity. Sixteen children in each group, matched on mental and chronological age, were…

  4. Parent Assessments of Self-Determination Importance and Performance for Students with Autism or Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Fostering student self-determination is now considered an essential element of special education and transition services for children and youth with intellectual disability and/or autism. Yet, little is known about the pivotal role parents might play beyond the school campus in fostering self-determination among their children with developmental…

  5. Self-Determination among Transition-Age Youth with Autism or Intellectual Disability: Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 68 parents' views of the self-determination skills and capacities of their young adult children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability (ages 19-21 years). Results indicated parents placed a high value on the importance of all seven component skills (i.e., choice-making skills, decision-making skills,…

  6. Behavioral flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.; Green, V.A.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have particular difficulty with behavioral flexibility, but the knowledge base on behavioral flexibility in children with a diagnosis of ASD plus intellectual disability (ID) compared to children with ID only is still scarce. The aim of the present study

  7. Maternal stress predicted by characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a

  8. Using the Teaching Interactions Procedure to Teach Social Skills to Children with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Aubrey Hui Shyuan; Schulze, Kim; Rudrud, Eric; Leaf, Justin B.

    2016-01-01

    This study implemented a modified teaching interaction procedure to teach social skills to 4 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with an intellectual disability. A multiple baseline design across social skills and replicated across participants was utilized to evaluate the effects of the modified teaching interaction procedure. The…

  9. Social skills in children with intellectual disabilities with and without autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, A; Serra, M; Luteijn, E; Kraijer, D; Sytema, S; Minderaa, R

    Background Social skills were studied in 363 children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) and 147 with moderate ID with and without autism (age 4 through 18). The objective was to investigate the value of the Children's Social Behaviour Questionnaire (CSBQ), as a measure of subtle social

  10. Intervention for Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Walsh, Caitlin E.; Mulder, Emile; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Hajcak, Greg; Carr, Edward G.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    There is little research on the functional assessment and treatment of anxiety and related problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly those with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). In a recent study, we evaluated a multimethod strategy for assessing anxiety in children with ASD and IDD ("Am J…

  11. Disability Identification and Self-Efficacy among College Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Steinberg, Jessica; Yu, Jennifer; Wei, Xin; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Newman, Lynn; Roux, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of youth on the autism spectrum approaching young adulthood and attending college is growing. Very little is known about the subjective experience of these college students. Disability identification and self-efficacy are two subjective factors that are critical for the developmental and logistical tasks associated with emerging…

  12. Maintaining Vocational Skills of Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities through Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laarhoven, Toni; Winiarski, Lauren; Blood, Erika; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A modified pre/posttest control group design was used to measure the effectiveness of video modeling on the maintenance of vocational tasks for six students with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disabilities. Each student was assigned two vocational tasks at their employment settings and their independence with each task was measured…

  13. Executive Functioning in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, R. L.; Visser, E. M.; Berger, H. J. C.; Prins, J. B.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H. M. J.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Executive functioning (EF) is important for adequate behavioural functioning and crucial for explaining symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with normal intelligence, but is scarcely studied in individuals with ASD and intellectual disabilities (ID). We therefore study EF in an ID population by comparing…

  14. Maternal Psychiatric Disorder and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability in Subsequent Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are more common in the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) after the birth of their child. We aimed to assess the relationship between women's psychiatric contacts and subsequent offspring with ASD/ID. We linked three Western Australian registers to investigate pre-existing…

  15. Promoting Social Interactions and Job Independence for College Students with Autism or Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Carly B.; Carter, Erik W.

    2016-01-01

    The employment outcomes for young adults with autism or intellectual disability (ID) lag far behind those of their peers without disabilities. Most postsecondary education programs for students with disabilities incorporate internship experiences to foster employment skills. However, the proximity of job coaches may inadvertently hinder social…

  16. Music-based Autism Diagnostics (MUSAD) - A newly developed diagnostic measure for adults with intellectual developmental disabilities suspected of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Thomas; Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Dames, Sibylle; Heinrich, Manuel; Ziegler, Matthias; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The MUSAD was developed as a diagnostic observational instrument in an interactional music framework. It is based on the ICD-10/DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and was designed to assess adults on a lower level of functioning, including individuals with severe language impairments. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument. Calculations were based on a consecutive clinical sample of N=76 adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) suspected of ASD. Objectivity, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were calculated and a confirmatory factor analysis was applied to verify a reduced and optimized test version. The structural model showed a good fit, while internal consistency of the subscales was excellent (ω>.92). Item difficulties ranged between .04≤pi≤.82 and item-total correlation from .21 to .85. Objectivity was assessed by comparing the scorings of two external raters based on a subsample of n=12; interrater agreement was .71 (ICC 2, 1). Reliability was calculated for four test repetitions: the average ICC (3, 1) was .69. Convergent ASD measures correlated significantly with the MUSAD, while the discriminant Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) showed no significant overlap. Confirmation of factorial structure and acceptable psychometric properties suggest that the MUSAD is a promising new instrument for diagnosing ASD in adults with IDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lagging skills contribute to challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B; Cleary, Patrick; Kuschner, Emily S; Miller, Judith S; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Guy, Lisa; Kenworthy, Lauren; Schultz, Robert T; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2017-08-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder display challenging behaviors. These behaviors are not limited to those with cognitive and/or language impairments. The Collaborative and Proactive Solutions framework proposes that challenging behaviors result from an incompatibility between environmental demands and a child's "lagging skills." The primary Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills-executive function, emotion regulation, language, and social skills-are often areas of weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether these lagging skills are associated with challenging behaviors in youth with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Parents of 182 youth with autism spectrum disorder (6-15 years) completed measures of their children's challenging behaviors, executive function, language, emotion regulation, and social skills. We tested whether the Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills predicted challenging behaviors using multiple linear regression. The Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills explained significant variance in participants' challenging behaviors. The Depression (emotion regulation), Inhibit (executive function), and Sameness (executive function) scales emerged as significant predictors. Impairments in emotion regulation and executive function may contribute substantially to aggressive and oppositional behaviors in school-age youth with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Treatment for challenging behaviors in this group may consider targeting the incompatibility between environmental demands and a child's lagging skills.

  18. A comparison of central coherence skills between adolescents with an intellectual disability with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, NDJ; Bouma, A; Sytema, S; Kraijer, DW; Minderaa, RB; Van Lang, J.D.; Kraijer, S.W

    2006-01-01

    Central coherence theory hypothesizes individuals with autism process information in a detail-focused fashion. The present study examined whether adolescents with an intellectual disability and comorbid autism spectrum disorder showed a weaker central coherence than age- and IQ-matched controls. The

  19. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability: A Representative Study in One County in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Trine L.; Helverschou, Sissel B; Eilertsen, Dag E.; Heggelund, Trond; Myrbakk, Even; Martinsen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Few studies assess psychiatric disorders in representative samples of individuals with autism and ID. Symptoms of autism and psychiatric disorders have been confounded. PAC, a conceptually analysed and validated screening instrument, was used. Aims: Assess prevalence of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability only…

  20. Patterns of sport participation for youth with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephanie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Weiss, Jonathan A

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about sport participation in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study examined sport characteristics (frequency, diversity, positive social experiences [PSE]) for youth with ASD and intellectual disability compared to youth with intellectual disability alone and explored the personal and contextual correlates of involvement. Parents (N = 409) completed an online survey, and multiple mediation analyses were used to examine the factors that explained the relationships between sport involvement in youth with ASD and intellectual disability. No significant main effects of ASD status were found for frequency or diversity, but youth with intellectual disability alone had higher scores for PSE compared to youth with ASD and intellectual disability. Sociocommunicative abilities, coach relationship and resources mediated the relationship between ASD status and PSE. A better understanding of the factors related to sport is essential for allowing families, service providers and policy makers to improve involvement for youth with ASD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reported Wandering Behavior among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Catherine E.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Avila, Rosa M.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schieve, Laura A.; Pringle, Beverly; Blumberg, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize wandering, or elopement, among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. Study design Questions on wandering in the previous year were asked of parents of children with ASD with and without intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability without ASD as part of the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services. The Pathways study sample was drawn from the much larger National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs conducted in 2009-2010. Results For children with special healthcare needs diagnosed with either ASD, intellectual disability, or both, wandering or becoming lost during the previous year was reported for more than 1 in 4 children. Wandering was highest among children with ASD with intellectual disability (37.7%) followed by children with ASD without intellectual disability (32.7%), and then children with intellectual disability without ASD (23.7%), though the differences between these groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study affirms that wandering among children with ASD, regardless of intellectual disability status, is relatively common. However, wandering or becoming lost in the past year was also reported for many children with intellectual disability, indicating the need to broaden our understanding of this safety issue to other developmental disabilities. PMID:27157446

  2. Including People with Intellectual Disabilities in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…

  3. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and by restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Symptoms typically are apparent before age 3 years. The complex nature of these disorders, coupled with a lack of biologic markers for diagnosis and changes in clinical definitions over time, creates challenges in monitoring the prevalence of ASDs. Accurate reporting of data is essential to understand the prevalence of ASDs in the population and can help direct research. 2008. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that estimates the prevalence of ASDs and describes other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 14 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM does not rely on professional or family reporting of an existing ASD diagnosis or classification to ascertain case status. Instead, information is obtained from children's evaluation records to determine the presence of ASD symptoms at any time from birth through the end of the year when the child reaches age 8 years. ADDM focuses on children aged 8 years because a baseline study conducted by CDC demonstrated that this is the age of identified peak prevalence. A child is included as meeting the surveillance case definition for an ASD if he or she displays behaviors (as described on a comprehensive evaluation completed by a qualified professional) consistent with the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: Autistic Disorder; Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS, including Atypical Autism); or Asperger Disorder. The first phase of the ADDM methodology involves screening and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations completed by professional providers at multiple

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each of the disorders on the autism spectrum is a neurological disorder that affects a child's ability to communicate, understand language, play, and relate to others. They share some or all of the following characteristics, which can vary from mild to severe: (1) Communication problems (for example, with the use or comprehension of language); (2)…

  5. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  6. [Comorbid psychiatric disorders and differential diagnosis of patients with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) without intellectual disability are often diagnosed late in life. Little is known about co-occurring psychiatric disorders and differential diagnosis of ASC in adulthood, particularly with regard to personality disorders. What kind of comorbid psychiatric disorders occur in ASC? Which are the most prevalent differential diagnoses in a sample of patients who seek autism specific clinical diagnostics? 118 adults who were referred with a presumed diagnosis of autistic disorder, were diagnosed with autism specific instruments and the prevalence of further psychiatric disorders was investigated. 59 (50%) fulfilled the criteria of ASC. 36% of the individuals with ASC fulfilled also criteria for a DSM-IV axis-I psychiatric disorder. Affective disorders (24%) and social phobia (14%) were the most prevalent comorbid disorders. The most frequent differential diagnoses were depression, social phobia, paranoid, avoidant and narcissistic personality disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. 'Recognized, Valued and Supported'? The Experiences of Adult Siblings of People with Autism Plus Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl

    2015-07-01

    The potential of adult siblings to offer long-term support to a brother or sister with autism is rarely realized. To understand this, our study explores the expectations of social care among adult siblings. Using qualitative interviews, we spoke to 21 adult siblings about their family relationships and engagement with service delivery, met with 12 of their siblings with autism and talked to 12 social care staff. Siblings, although reflecting on the difficulties of growing up with someone who had autism, expressed a commitment towards their brother or sister. Most wanted involvement in their care. While some siblings described positive relationships with services, many felt marginalized. Practitioners largely confirmed their perceptions, while offering a justification for why they struggled to engage with adult siblings. By understanding the way relationships between siblings change over time, adult siblings' contribution to the lives of their disabled brother or sister can be better supported. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The visual rooting reflex in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and co-occurring intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J; Van Lang, Natasja D J; de With, S A Jytte; Minderaa, Ruud B; Stahl, Sherin S; Anderson, George M

    2012-02-01

    The rooting reflex has long been studied by neurologists and developmentalists and is defined as an orientation toward tactile stimulation in the perioral region or visual stimulation near the face. Nearly, all previous reports of the visual rooting reflex (VRR) concern its presence in adults with neurological dysfunction. Previously, the VRR was reported to be present in a majority of individuals with autism and absent in control subjects. In the present larger study, we examined the presence of the VRR in 155 individuals with ASD and co-occurring Intellectual Disability (ASD + ID: autism, N = 60; Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD_NOS), N = 95) and in a contrast group of 65 individuals with ID only. The VRR was present significantly more often in the ASD + ID (43.9%) group than in the ID-only group (24.6%; χ(1)(2)= 7.19; P = 0.007). Individuals with autism displayed a VRR more often (55.0%) than individuals with PDD-NOS (36.8%; χ(1)(2)= 4.92; P = 0.026) and individuals with ID only (24.6%; χ(1)(2)= 12.09; P = 0.001). A positive VRR was associated with lower IQ and adaptive functioning; in the ASD + ID group, ADI-R/ADOS domain scores were significantly higher in the VRR-positive subgroup. The results replicate and extend the finding of an increased occurrence of the VRR in autism. Although some association with IQ was observed, the VRR occurred substantially more often in the autism group compared with an intellectually disabled group, indicating some degree of specificity. Additional studies of infants and children with typical development, ASD and ID are needed to determine the utility of the VRR in ASD risk assessment and to elucidate possible specific behavioral associations. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Autism KidsHealth / For Teens / Autism What's in this article? ... With Autism? Print en español Autismo What Is Autism? Autism (also called "autism spectrum disorder") is a ...

  10. A comparison of central coherence skills between adolescents with an intellectual disability with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lang, Natasja D J; Bouma, Anke; Sytema, Sjoerd; Kraijer, Dirk W; Minderaa, Ruud B

    2006-01-01

    Central coherence theory hypothesizes individuals with autism process information in a detail-focused fashion. The present study examined whether adolescents with an intellectual disability and comorbid autism spectrum disorder showed a weaker central coherence than age- and IQ-matched controls. The central coherence skills of 43 adolescents from schools for students with severe learning problems were examined with two cognitive tasks. In these two tasks, detail-focused processing is beneficial to global processing to perform the tasks accurately and quickly. The group with autism spectrum disorder performed better than the control group. Adolescents with an intellectual disability and with comorbid autism spectrum disorder have a weaker central coherence than age- and IQ-matched controls. Partial support was also given for variability in weak central coherence within the autism spectrum.

  11. Shared neuroanatomical substrates of impaired phonological working memory across reading disability and autism

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chunming; Qi, Zhenghan; Harris, Adrianne; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Han, Michelle; Halverson, Kelly; Perrachione, Tyler K.; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Wexler, Kenneth; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with reading disability and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized, respectively, by their difficulties in reading and social communication, but both groups often have impaired phonological working memory (PWM). It is not known whether the impaired PWM reflects distinct or shared neuroanatomical abnormalities in these two diagnostic groups. Methods White-matter structural connectivity via diffusion weighted imaging was examined in 64 children,...

  12. Effectiveness of a workplace training programme in improving social, communication and emotional skills for adults with autism and intellectual disability in Hong Kong--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Karen P Y; Wong, Denys; Chung, Anthony C Y; Kwok, Natalie; Lam, Madeleine K Y; Yuen, Cheri M C; Arblaster, Karen; Kwan, Aldous C S

    2013-12-01

    This pilot study explored the effectiveness of workplace training programme that aimed to enhance the work-related behaviours in individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities. Fourteen participants with autism and mild to moderate intellectual disability (mean age = 24.6 years) were recruited. The workplace training programme included practices in work context and group educational sessions. A pre-test-post-test design was used with the Work Personality Profile, the Scale of Independent Behaviour Revised and the Observational Emotional Inventory Revised to evaluate the targeted behaviours. Improvement in social and communication skills specific to the workplace was achieved. For emotional control, participants became less confused and had a better self-concept. However, improvement in other general emotional behaviours, such as impulse control, was limited. The results indicated that a structured workplace training programme aimed at improving social, communication and emotional behaviours can be helpful for people with autism and intellectual disability. Further study with a larger sample size and a control group is recommended. The development of specific programme to cater for the emotional control needs at workplace for people with autism is also suggested. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Using Photovoice to Include People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…

  14. Augmented Reality as a Navigation Tool to Employment Opportunities for Postsecondary Education Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of location-based augmented reality navigation compared to Google Maps and paper maps as navigation aids for students with disabilities. The participants in this single subject study were three college students with intellectual disability and one college student with autism spectrum disorder.…

  15. Known for My Strengths: Positive Traits of Transition-Age Youth With Intellectual Disability and/or Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Boehm, Thomas L.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Annandale, Naomi H.; Taylor, Courtney E.; Loock, Aimee K.; Liu, Rosemary Y.

    2015-01-01

    Can young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities be known for their strengths? This mixed-method study explored the strengths of 427 youth and young adults with intellectual disability and/or autism (ages 13-21) from the vantage point of their parents. Using the Assessment Scale for Positive Character Traits-Developmental…

  16. Reducing distress in mothers of children with autism and other disabilities: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M; Fisher, Marisa H; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Lambert, Warren; Miodrag, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    Compared with other parents, mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disabilities experience more stress, illness, and psychiatric problems. Although the cumulative stress and disease burden of these mothers is exceptionally high, and associated with poorer outcomes in children, policies and practices primarily serve the identified child with disabilities. A total of 243 mothers of children with disabilities were consented and randomized into either Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (mindfulness practice) or Positive Adult Development (positive psychology practice). Well-trained, supervised peer mentors led 6 weeks of group treatments in 1.5-hour weekly sessions, assessing mothers 6 times before, during, and up to 6 months after treatment. Mothers had children with autism (65%) or other disabilities (35%). At baseline, 85% of this community sample had significantly elevated stress, 48% were clinically depressed, and 41% had anxiety disorders. Using slopes-as-outcomes, mixed random effects models, both treatments led to significant reductions in stress, depression, and anxiety, and improved sleep and life satisfaction, with large effects in depression and anxiety. Mothers in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction versus Positive Adult Development had greater improvements in anxiety, depression, sleep, and well-being. Mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder improved less in anxiety, but did not otherwise differ from their counterparts. Future studies are warranted on how trained mentors and professionals can address the unmet mental health needs of mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Doing so improves maternal well-being and furthers their long-term caregiving of children with complex developmental, physical, and behavioral needs. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy

    2010-01-07

    Evidence for the efficacy of treatments for autism has improved in recent years. In this systematic review the evidence for both drug and non-drug treatments is appraised and clinical guidance is provided for their use. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of early intensive multidisciplinary intervention programmes in children with autism? What are the effects of dietary interventions in children with autism? What are the effects of drug treatments in children with autism? What are the effects of non-drug treatments in children with autism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: applied behavioural analysis; auditory integration training; Autism Preschool Programme; casein-free diet; chelation; Child's Talk programme; cognitive behavioural therapy; digestive enzymes; EarlyBird programme; facilitated communication; Floortime therapy; gluten-free diet; immunoglobulins; melatonin; memantine; methylphenidate; More Than Words programme; music therapy; olanzapine; omega-3 fish oil; picture exchange communication system; Portage scheme; probiotics; relationship development interventions; risperidone; secretin; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); sensory integration training; social stories; social skills training; Son-Rise programme; TEACCH

  18. Quality of Life of siblings of children included in the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camila Bolivar Martins; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2013-01-01

    To assess the Quality of Life in siblings of children of the autism spectrum through self-response to the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire. Social-demographic data of 77 children included in the autism spectrum, aged 3 to 16 years, were collected. From these information, 21 older siblings, aged 16 to 30 years, were selected to answer said questionnaire, proposed by the World Health Organization Mental Health Program for quality of life evaluation. The data have shown a difference between the Environmental domain and the Physical and Psychological domains. The aspects related to the environment have an important role to the perception of quality of life self-declared by the subjects. However, family individuality, coping behaviors, social support, and assistance received directly interfere on this perception.

  19. Comparing the functional performance of children and youths with autism, developmental disabilities, and no disability using the revised pediatric evaluation of disability inventory item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ying-Chia; Kramer, Jessica M; Liljenquist, Kendra; Tian, Feng; Coster, Wendy J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We compared the functional performance of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and without disabilities using the revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT) Social/Cognitive, Daily Activities, and Responsibility domains. METHOD. A nationally representative sample of parents of children ages 0-21 without disabilities (n = 2,205), with ASD (n = 108), or with IDD (n = 150) completed an online survey. We obtained predicted PEDI-CAT scaled scores for three reference ages (5, 10, 15) from a modified analysis of covariance model and compared each group's scores using contrasts of the regression parameters. RESULTS. We found no significant differences between the ASD and IDD groups. The group with ASD demonstrated significantly lower performance than the group without disabilities across the three domains at ages 10 and 15. CONCLUSION. Scores on the PEDI-CAT differentiated the group with ASD from the group without disabilities. Children with ASD and IDD did not demonstrate different performance profiles. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. "My Brother Likes Meeting New People, but Don't Ask Him Any Direct Questions": Involving Adults with Autism plus Learning Disability in a Qualitative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2014-01-01

    Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…

  1. What does good look like? A guide for observing in services for people\\ud with learning disabilities and/or autism

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle-Brown, Julie; Murphy, Bev; Positive Behaviour Support Academy; Mencap

    2016-01-01

    This resource provides an overview of what good support looks like in services for people with learning disabilities and/or autism. The definition of “good” is based on both research and good practice and emphasises the nature and quality of the support needed to ensure good quality of life outcomes for people with learning disabilities and/or autism.

  2. Comparison of Perinatal Risk Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Intellectual Disability (ID), and Co-Occurring ASD and ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A.; Clayton, Heather B.; Durkin, Maureen S.; Wingate, Martha S.; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    While studies report associations between perinatal outcomes and both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID), there has been little study of ASD with versus without co-occurring ID. We compared perinatal risk factors among 7547 children in the 2006-2010 Autism and Developmental Disability Monitoring Network classified as…

  3. The Usefulness of the DBC-ASA as a Screening Instrument for Autism in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Shoumitro; Dhaliwal, Akal-Joat; Roy, Meera

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To explore the validity of Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm (DBC-ASA) as a screening instrument for autism among children with intellectual disabilities. Method: Data were collected from the case notes of 109 children with intellectual disabilities attending a specialist clinic in the UK. Results: The mean score…

  4. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Verónica; Mahdi, Soheil; Bölte, Sven

    2018-05-30

    Capturing functional information is crucial in childhood disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets promote assessments of functional abilities and disabilities in clinical practice regarding circumscribed diagnoses. However, the specificity of ICF Core Sets for childhood-onset disabilities has been doubted. This study aimed to identify content commonalities and differences among the ICF Core Sets for cerebral palsy (CP), and the newly developed Core Sets for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The categories within each Core Set were aggregated at the ICF component and chapter levels. Content comparison was conducted using descriptive analyses. The activities and participation component of the ICF was the most covered across all Core Sets. Main differences included representation of ICF components and coverage of ICF chapters within each component. CP included all ICF components, while ADHD and ASD predominantly focused on activities and participation. Environmental factors were highly represented in the ADHD Core Sets (40.5%) compared to the ASD (28%) and CP (27%) Core Sets. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for CP, ASD, and ADHD capture both common but also unique functional information, showing the importance of creating condition-specific, ICF-based tools to build functional profiles of individuals with childhood-onset disabilities. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include unique functional information. The ICF-based tools for CP, ASD, and ADHD differ in terms of representation and coverage of ICF components and ICF chapters. Representation of environmental factors uniquely influences functioning and disability across ICF Core Sets for CP, ASD and ADHD.

  5. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 58, Number SS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Problem/Condition: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities characterized by atypical development in socialization, communication, and behavior. ASDs typically are apparent before age 3 years, with associated impairments affecting multiple areas of a person's life. Because no biologic marker exists for ASDs,…

  6. Food Insecurity in U.S. Households That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan; Parish, Susan L.; Ghosh, Subharati; Igdalsky, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined food insecurity in households including children with disabilities, analyzing data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which included 24,729 households with children, 3,948 of which had children with disabilities. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of…

  7. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  8. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  9. Psychometrics and utility of Psycho-Educational Profile-Revised as a developmental quotient measure among children with the dual disability of intellectual disability and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwinesh, Merlin Thanka Jemi; Joseph, Rachel Beulah Jansirani; Daniel, Anna; Abel, Julie Sandra; Shankar, Satya Raj; Mammen, Priya; Russell, Sushila; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2012-09-01

    There is no agreement about the measure to quantify the intellectual/developmental level in children with the dual disability of intellectual disability and autism. Therefore, we studied the psychometric properties and utility of Psycho-Educational Profile-Revised (PEP-R) as a developmental test in this population. We identified 116 children with dual disability from the day care and inpatient database of a specialised Autism Clinic. Scale and domain level scores of PEP-R were collected and analyzed. We examined the internal consistency, domain-total correlation of PEP-R and concurrent validity of PEP-R against Gesell's Developmental Schedule, inter-rater and test-retest reliability and utility of PEP-R among children with dual disability in different ages, functional level and severity of autism. Besides the adequate face and content validity, PEP-R demonstrates a good internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from 0.91 to 0.93) and domain-total correlation (ranging from 0.75 to 0.90). The inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.96) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) for PEP-R is good. There is moderate-to-high concurrent validity with GDS (r ranging from 0.61 to 0.82; all Ps = 0.001). The utility of PEP-R as a developmental measure was good with infants, toddlers, pre-school and primary school children. The ability of PEP-R to measure the developmental age was good, irrespective of the severity of autism but was better with high-functioning children. The PEP-R as an intellectual/developmental test has strong psychometric properties in children with dual disability. It could be used in children with different age groups and severity of autism. PEP-R should be used with caution as a developmental test in children with dual disability who are low functioning.

  10. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  11. [Prosocial intervention in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: benefits of videotaping therapy sessions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, S; Askenazy, F; Renaudo, N; Staccini, P; Hun, S; Legall, E; Serret, S

    2015-02-01

    The category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) without intellectual disability (including Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism) has increased steadily among individuals since the 1980s. Although some symptoms may decrease with age, functional disability persists and is largely related to abnormalities in social interaction. Within the framework of PDD without intellectual disability, improving social skills appears to be a primary target for intervention programs. Despite a recent increase in the number of studies on this topic, few validated programs are yet available for clinical settings. We have developed an intervention targeting the improvement of social skills from the analysis of video sequences. The goal of this intervention is to promote communication within the group through sharing their interests and emotions, and to enhance the understanding of social situations. In order to assess the efficiency of this intervention, we have conducted a prospective, open, and uncontrolled study. First, it aimed at assessing the immediate effect of our intervention on a single social skill (communication) in an experimental situation (in the group) and in an ecological situations (family and school). Second, this study aimed at assessing the effects of this intervention on the subjects' social adjustment. This study included 16 individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome. Participants were evaluated before and after a 6-month video-based training using measures of socio-communicative and adaptive skills. Results revealed a statistically significant increase in the communication skills not only in the group (15.5%), but also at home (13.7%) and at school (8.7%). The evaluation of socio-adaptive behavior indicates a statistically significant increase in communication (12%), family (7%) and social autonomy (8%), and leisure activities (8%). The communication and social adjustment scores obtained upon inclusion were low, despite low

  12. Autism and Intellectual Disability-Associated KIRREL3 Interacts with Neuronal Proteins MAP1B and MYO16 with Potential Roles in Neurodevelopment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying F Liu

    Full Text Available Cell-adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily play critical roles in brain development, as well as in maintaining synaptic plasticity, the dysfunction of which is known to cause cognitive impairment. Recently dysfunction of KIRREL3, a synaptic molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily, has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental conditions including intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and in the neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome. However, the molecular mechanisms of its physiological actions remain largely unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that the KIRREL3 extracellular domain interacts with brain expressed proteins MAP1B and MYO16 and its intracellular domain can potentially interact with ATP1B1, UFC1, and SHMT2. The interactions were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization analyses of proteins expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, mouse neuronal cells, and rat primary neuronal cells. Furthermore, we show KIRREL3 colocalization with the marker for the Golgi apparatus and synaptic vesicles. Previously, we have shown that KIRREL3 interacts with the X-linked intellectual disability associated synaptic scaffolding protein CASK through its cytoplasmic domain. In addition, we found a genomic deletion encompassing MAP1B in one patient with intellectual disability, microcephaly and seizures and deletions encompassing MYO16 in two unrelated patients with intellectual disability, autism and microcephaly. MAP1B has been previously implicated in synaptogenesis and is involved in the development of the actin-based membrane skeleton. MYO16 is expressed in hippocampal neurons and also indirectly affects actin cytoskeleton through its interaction with WAVE1 complex. We speculate KIRREL3 interacting proteins are potential candidates for intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, our findings provide further insight into understanding the molecular

  13. Autism genetic database (AGD: a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebizadeh Zohreh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present work, the Autism Genetic Database (AGD was developed as a literature-driven, web-based, and easy to access database designed with the aim of creating a comprehensive repository for all the currently reported genes and genomic copy number variations (CNVs associated with autism in order to further facilitate the assessment of these autism susceptibility genetic factors. Description AGD is a relational database that organizes data resulting from exhaustive literature searches for reported susceptibility genes and CNVs associated with autism. Furthermore, genomic information about human fragile sites and noncoding RNAs was also downloaded and parsed from miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT/ICBP siRNA database. A web client genome browser enables viewing of the features while a web client query tool provides access to more specific information for the features. When applicable, links to external databases including GenBank, PubMed, miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT siRNA database are provided. Conclusion AGD comprises a comprehensive list of susceptibility genes and copy number variations reported to-date in association with autism, as well as all known human noncoding RNA genes and fragile sites. Such a unique and inclusive autism genetic database will facilitate the evaluation of autism susceptibility factors in relation to known human noncoding RNAs and fragile sites, impacting on human diseases. As a result, this new autism database offers a valuable tool for the research

  14. Peer-Mediated AAC Instruction for Young Children with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Many young children with developmental disabilities (DD) have significant delays in social, communication, and play skills. For those children learning to use augmentative and alternative communication (.AAC% successful social interactions with peers will require explicit instruction on the same system for both communication partners. Peer-mediated (PM) interventions are recommended best practice based on more than 30 years of research with young children with autism and other DDs. Integrating direct AAC instruction within PM programs to advance social reciprocity in typical preschool routines is a necessary and important next step for young AAC users. In this article, I will summarize the design and outcomes of two PM AAC studies documenting positive social outcomes for preschool children with severe autism. I will also teach } peer partners how to use AAC highlight strategies to recruit peers without disabilities systems (e.g., Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS], Speech Generating Devices [SGDs]), and engineer the preschool classroom for successful AAC communication. I will describe data collection procedures for measuring changes in reciprocal child and peer social communication interactions.

  15. Shared neuroanatomical substrates of impaired phonological working memory across reading disability and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunming; Qi, Zhenghan; Harris, Adrianne; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Han, Michelle; Halverson, Kelly; Perrachione, Tyler K; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Wexler, Kenneth; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with reading disability or individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized, respectively, by their difficulties in reading or social communication, but both groups often have impaired phonological working memory (PWM). It is not known whether the impaired PWM reflects distinct or shared neuroanatomical abnormalities in these two diagnostic groups. White-matter structural connectivity via diffusion weighted imaging was examined in sixty-four children, ages 5-17 years, with reading disability, ASD, or typical development (TD), who were matched in age, gender, intelligence, and diffusion data quality. Children with reading disability and children with ASD exhibited reduced PWM compared to children with TD. The two diagnostic groups showed altered white-matter microstructure in the temporo-parietal portion of the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) and in the temporo-occipital portion of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), as indexed by reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity. Moreover, the structural integrity of the right ILF was positively correlated with PWM ability in the two diagnostic groups, but not in the TD group. These findings suggest that impaired PWM is transdiagnostically associated with shared neuroanatomical abnormalities in ASD and reading disability. Microstructural characteristics in left AF and right ILF may play important roles in the development of PWM. The right ILF may support a compensatory mechanism for children with impaired PWM.

  16. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  17. Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2013-01-01

    Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…

  18. Effects of a School-Based Social Skills Training Program for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Kaid, Tiffany; MacFarland, Mari C.

    2015-01-01

    Social deficits are a core characteristic of individuals with autism spectrum disorders and co-occurring intellectual disabilities (ASD-ID). Despite persistence of these deficits into adolescence, few social skills interventions have been empirically evaluated for older individuals with ASD-ID. The present investigation adapted an efficacious…

  19. A Nationwide Survey of Disability Support Personnel regarding Transition and Services for Postsecondary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenke, Raychel C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyze the perceptions (through survey data) of Disability Support Services (DSS) personnel regarding the transition process for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from secondary to postsecondary institutions. Participants from 408 postsecondary institutions completed the survey with 60.4%…

  20. Use of Audio Cuing to Expand Employment Opportunities for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Howard, Monica R.; Wallace, Dustin P.; Bowen, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated audio cuing to facilitate community employment of individuals with autism and intellectual disability. The job required promoting products in retail stores by wearing an air-inflated WalkAround[R] costume of a popular commercial character. Three adolescents, ages 16-18, were initially trained with video modeling. Audio cuing was then…

  1. Teaching Reading Comprehension and Language Skills to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities Using Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Margaret M.; Nelson, Cynthia; Hinton, Vanessa; Franklin, Toni M.; Strozier, Shaunita D.; Terry, LaTonya; Franklin, Susan

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research demonstrating Direct Instruction (DI) as an effective reading comprehension intervention for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities (DD). Previous research has shown that DI, when portions of the program were implemented, resulted in increased skills (Flores & Ganz, 2007; Flores…

  2. Accommodations and Support Services for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A National Survey of Disability Resource Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsten R.

    2017-01-01

    Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are participating in postsecondary education at an increasing rate. Yet, we know little about what types of accommodations or services disability resource providers employ to support students with ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine how postsecondary institutions are fostering the academic…

  3. A Tool for Supporting Communication in the Workplace for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and/or Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Danielle M.; Müller, Eve; Frasché, Nancy F.; Kern, Ann S.; Resti, Israelle H.

    2017-01-01

    Speech and language impairments can pose significant challenges to the successful workplace inclusion of young adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Breakdowns are most likely to occur when support staff, workplace supervisors, or co-workers are unsure how to support effective communication.…

  4. A Multimethod Assessment of Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Mulder, Emile; Walsh, Caitlin E.; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Carr, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased risk for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is a lack of research on the assessment and treatment of anxiety in this population, particularly for those with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study evaluated a multimethod strategy for the assessment of anxiety and problem…

  5. The Clinical, Forensic and Treatment Outcome Factors of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder Treated in a Forensic Intellectual Disability Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Fola; Chester, Verity; Gunaratna, Ignatius J.; Hoare, Sudeep; Alexander, Regi T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To describe the characteristics of those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated within a forensic intellectual disability hospital and to compare them with those without ASD. Method: Service evaluation of a cohort of 138 patients treated over a 6-year period. Results: Of the 138, 42 had an ASD. Personality disorders and harmful…

  6. An International Clinical Study of Ability and Disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the WHO-ICF Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Soheil; Albertowski, Katja; Almodayfer, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This is the fourth international preparatory study designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Examine functioning of individuals diagnosed with ASD as documented...

  7. Trajectories of Diurnal Cortisol in Mothers of Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Relations to Health and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Lambert, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This study used a stress biomarker, diurnal cortisol, to identify how elevated stress in mothers of children and adults with autism and other disabilities relates to their health and mental health. Based on semi-parametric, group-based trajectory analysis of 91 mothers, two distinctive cortisol trajectories emerged: blunted (63%) or steep (37%).…

  8. Evaluation of Generalized Performance across Materials When Using Video Technology by Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Foster, Ashley L.; Bryant, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of four high school-aged students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability to generalize performance of skills when using materials different from those presented through video models. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate student…

  9. Low intensity behavioral treatment supplementing preschool services for young children with autism spectrum disorders and severe to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (on average 6.5 h per week) supplementing preschool services in 3-6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and severe to mild intellectual disability. Treatment was implemented in preschools (i.e., daycare centers)

  10. Treatment seeking adults with autism or ADHD and co-morbid Substance Use Disorder: Prevalence, risk factors and functional disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; Koeter, Maarten; Gorissen van Eenige, Marielle; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in adults, especially not about ASD with co-morbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). We wanted to examine how adults with ASD compare to adults with ADHD on prevalence and risk factors for co-morbid SUD, and on disability levels associated

  11. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  12. In their own words: the place of faith in the lives of young people with autism and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eleanor X; Carter, Erik W; Boehm, Thomas L; Annandale, Naomi H; Taylor, Courtney E

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Although the prominence of spirituality and religious connections among the people of the United States is well documented, little is known about the place of faith in the lives of youth with developmental disabilities. In this qualitative interview study, we examined the perspectives of 20 young people with intellectual disability or autism on their faith, spiritual expressions, and disability. Participants identified key spiritual expressions and themes reflecting the importance of faith in their lives. They also shared perceptions of their disability in the context of their faith, highlighting affirmation and acceptance of their disability. We offer recommendations to families, faith communities, and service systems for supporting the spiritual formation, expression, and connections of young people with disabilities.

  13. The Development of Object Permanence in Children with Intellectual Disability, Physical Disability, Autism, and Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan; Muhammad, Zayyad

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on object permanence with an emphasis on research on children with severe disabilities. Object permanence is the realisation that objects continue to exist in time and place even when they are no longer visible. This understanding is achieved across Stages IV-VI of Piaget's Sensorimotor Period.…

  14. Long-term outcome of a cohort of adults with autism and intellectual disability: A pilot prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Laura; Brondino, Natascia; Orsi, Paolo; Provenzani, Umberto; De Micheli, Andrea; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a long-life condition frequently associated with intellectual disability. To date, long-term outcome has been investigated mostly in ASD people with average or above-average intelligence and there is a paucity of data about autistic adults with comorbid intellectual disability. The aim of the present study is to assess long-term variations of adaptive abilities in a sample of autistic adults with intellectual disability and severe language impairment. 22 adults (17 males and 5 females) affected by autism and intellectual disability were recruited and evaluated after their admission in an Italian farm-community. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were used as outcome measure for adaptive abilities. After ten years the measurement was repeated in order to study the evolution of patients' skills along time. Additionally, sociodemographic variables, changes in medication and comorbidities were recorded. No statistically significant improvement neither deterioration was found according to VABS raw scores in the entire sample. On the contrary, a significant improvement was evident in standard scores for the Adaptive Behavior Composite Scale and for each domain. In general, our patients remained stable in adaptive abilities. However, our results are not generalisable to the entire autistic population, but only to inpatients with autism and comorbid intellectual disability. New measures should be developed in order to better assess changes in this particular population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Music for All: Including young people with intellectual disability in a university environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Daphne; Warren, Penny

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a continuing education course in creative music making, initiated to promote the inclusion of young people with intellectual disability in a university setting. Despite organizers' attempts to foster diversity within the student cohort, enrolments were almost exclusively from students who had intellectual disability. Being in the university environment, and in a place of higher learning, seemed to be valued by some. However, students' main focus was on group musicking in a dedicated music room rather than interacting with the wider university community. Those who did not identify as disabled believed it was important to continue to address the barriers to wider inclusion. While acknowledging the risks around mediating the social interactions of young people with intellectual disability, we argue that future courses should include activities specifically designed to bring them to classes with typical students and to the wider activities of the university.

  16. Principal component analysis study of visual and verbal metaphoric comprehension in children with autism and learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2012-01-01

    This research extends previous studies regarding the metaphoric competence of autistic and learning disable children on different measures of visual and verbal non-literal language comprehension, as well as cognitive abilities that include semantic knowledge, executive functions, similarities, and reading fluency. Thirty seven children with autism (ASD), 20 children with learning disabilities (LD), and 21 typically developed (TD) children participated in the study. Principal components analysis was used to examine the interrelationship among the various tests in each group. Results showed different patterns in the data according to group. In particular, the results revealed that there is no dichotomy between visual and verbal metaphors in TD children but rather metaphor are classified according to their familiarity level. In the LD group visual metaphors were classified independently of the verbal metaphors. Verbal metaphoric understanding in the ASD group resembled the LD group. In addition, our results revealed the relative weakness of the ASD and LD children in suppressing irrelevant information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-Specialist Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability or Lower-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasamy, M. Taghi; Barbui, Corrado; Saxena, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of effective treatments for use by non-specialists is listed among the top research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness worldwide. The purpose of this review is to appraise which interventions for children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders delivered by non-specialist care providers in community settings produce benefits when compared to either a no-treatment control group or treatment-as-usual comparator. Methods and Findings We systematically searched electronic databases through 24 June 2013 to locate prospective controlled studies of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers to children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders. We screened 234 full papers, of which 34 articles describing 29 studies involving 1,305 participants were included. A majority of the studies included children exclusively with a diagnosis of lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders (15 of 29, 52%). Fifteen of twenty-nine studies (52%) were randomized controlled trials and just under half of all effect sizes (29 of 59, 49%) were greater than 0.50, of which 18 (62%) were statistically significant. For behavior analytic interventions, the best outcomes were shown for development and daily skills; cognitive rehabilitation, training, and support interventions were found to be most effective for improving developmental outcomes, and parent training interventions to be most effective for improving developmental, behavioral, and family outcomes. We also conducted additional subgroup analyses using harvest plots. Limitations include the studies' potential for performance bias and that few were conducted in lower- and middle-income countries. Conclusions The findings of this review support the delivery of psychosocial interventions by non-specialist providers to children who have intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism

  18. Non-specialist psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with intellectual disability or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Reichow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of effective treatments for use by non-specialists is listed among the top research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness worldwide. The purpose of this review is to appraise which interventions for children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders delivered by non-specialist care providers in community settings produce benefits when compared to either a no-treatment control group or treatment-as-usual comparator. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched electronic databases through 24 June 2013 to locate prospective controlled studies of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers to children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders. We screened 234 full papers, of which 34 articles describing 29 studies involving 1,305 participants were included. A majority of the studies included children exclusively with a diagnosis of lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders (15 of 29, 52%. Fifteen of twenty-nine studies (52% were randomized controlled trials and just under half of all effect sizes (29 of 59, 49% were greater than 0.50, of which 18 (62% were statistically significant. For behavior analytic interventions, the best outcomes were shown for development and daily skills; cognitive rehabilitation, training, and support interventions were found to be most effective for improving developmental outcomes, and parent training interventions to be most effective for improving developmental, behavioral, and family outcomes. We also conducted additional subgroup analyses using harvest plots. Limitations include the studies' potential for performance bias and that few were conducted in lower- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review support the delivery of psychosocial interventions by non-specialist providers to children who have intellectual disabilities or lower

  19. French Validation of the Multidimensional Attitude Scale toward Persons with Disabilities (MAS): The Case of Attitudes toward Autism and Their Moderating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachez, Julie; Ndobo, Andre; Ameline, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the renewed interest in autism, the stigmatization of persons with autism and the need to better measure such stigmatization. Two studies were thus conducted on 101 and 104 participants in order to validate the French version of the Multidimensional Attitude Scale toward persons with disabilities, and examine the…

  20. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Autism Spectrum Disorder Initiatives Limited, Wicklow

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Newman, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD\\/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD\\/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Intervention for Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J; Walsh, Caitlin E; Mulder, Emile; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Hajcak, Greg; Carr, Edward G; Zarcone, Jennifer R

    2017-12-01

    There is little research on the functional assessment and treatment of anxiety and related problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly those with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). In a recent study, we evaluated a multimethod strategy for assessing anxiety in children with ASD and IDD (Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 118:419-434, 2013). In the present study, we developed treatments for the anxiety and associated problem behavior in these same children. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention package, incorporating individualized strategies from Positive Behavior Support and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. During intervention, all three participants showed substantial decreases in anxiety and problem behavior and significant increases in respiratory sinus arrhythmia in the situations that had previously been identified as anxiety-provoking.

  2. Self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Licence, Lucy; Richards, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    This review summarises the recent trends in research in the field of self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. New data on incidence, persistence and severity add to studies of prevalence to indicate the large scale of the clinical need. A number of person characteristics have been repeatedly identified in prevalence and cohort studies that: can be considered as risk markers (e.g. stereotyped behaviour, autism spectrum disorder) and indicate possible causal mechanisms (e.g. sleep disorder, anxiety). Studies have started to integrate traditional operant learning paradigms with known person characteristics and reviews and meta-analyses of applied behaviour analytic procedures can now inform practice. Despite these positive developments interventions and appropriate support falls far short of the required need. Expansions in applied research are warranted to develop and evaluate innovative service delivery models that can translate knowledge of risk markers and operant learning paradigms into widespread, low cost routine clinical practice. Alongside this, further pure research is needed to elucidate the direction of causality of implicated risk factors, in order to understand and intervene more effectively in self-injury.

  3. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  4. Environmental and state-level regulatory factors affect the incidence of autism and intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Rzhetsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affect the risks for neurodevelopmental maladies such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD and intellectual disability (ID. To compare environmental, phenotypic, socioeconomic and state-policy factors in a unified geospatial framework, we analyzed the spatial incidence patterns of ASD and ID using an insurance claims dataset covering nearly one third of the US population. Following epidemiologic evidence, we used the rate of congenital malformations of the reproductive system as a surrogate for environmental exposure of parents to unmeasured developmental risk factors, including toxins. Adjusted for gender, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical factors, the ASD incidence rates were strongly linked to population-normalized rates of congenital malformations of the reproductive system in males (an increase in ASD incidence by 283% for every percent increase in incidence of malformations, 95% CI: [91%, 576%], p<6×10(-5. Such congenital malformations were barely significant for ID (94% increase, 95% CI: [1%, 250%], p = 0.0384. Other congenital malformations in males (excluding those affecting the reproductive system appeared to significantly affect both phenotypes: 31.8% ASD rate increase (CI: [12%, 52%], p<6×10(-5, and 43% ID rate increase (CI: [23%, 67%], p<6×10(-5. Furthermore, the state-mandated rigor of diagnosis of ASD by a pediatrician or clinician for consideration in the special education system was predictive of a considerable decrease in ASD and ID incidence rates (98.6%, CI: [28%, 99.99%], p = 0.02475 and 99% CI: [68%, 99.99%], p = 0.00637 respectively. Thus, the observed spatial variability of both ID and ASD rates is associated with environmental and state-level regulatory factors; the magnitude of influence of compound environmental predictors was approximately three times greater than that of state-level incentives. The estimated county-level random effects exhibited marked spatial clustering, strongly

  5. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA). A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause. An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID. The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  6. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2010. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system in the United States that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD and other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional providers in the community. Multiple data sources for these evaluations include general pediatric health clinics and specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most ADDM Network sites also review and abstract records of children receiving special education services in public schools. The second phase involves review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if a comprehensive evaluation of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated prevalence estimates for ASD from the 2010 surveillance year. In addition to prevalence estimates, characteristics of the population of children with ASD are described. For 2010, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites from 5.7 to 21.9 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASD

  7. Autism Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahan, Neal; Copas, Randy

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 88 children have been identified with autism (CDC, 2012). Autism is often associated with other psychiatric, developmental, neurological, and genetic diagnoses. However, the majority (62%) of children identified on the autism spectrum do not have intellectual disability. Instead, they are hurting.…

  8. Individualized Education Programs for Students with Autism: Including Parents in the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The involvement of parents in developing individualized education programs (IEPs) for their children with autism is discussed. Essential components of IEP documents are outlined, and strategies that professionals can use to promote significant family involvement are considered. (Author/SW)

  9. Challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jane; Hemmings, Colin; Kravariti, Eugenia; Dworzynski, Katharina; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings. Clinical diagnoses were based on ICD-10 criteria and presence of challenging behavior was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS-B). The analyses showed that ASD diagnosis was significantly associated with male gender, younger age and lower level of ID. Challenging behavior was about four times more likely in adults with ASD as compared to non-ASD adults. In those with challenging behavior, there were significant differences in co-morbid psychopathology between ASD and non-ASD adults. However, after controlling for level of ID, gender and age, there was no association between co-morbid psychopathology and presence of challenging behavior. Overall, the results suggest that presence of challenging behavior is independent from co-morbid psychopathology in adults with ID and ASD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The phenotypic spectrum of ARHGEF9 includes intellectual disability, focal epilepsy and febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karl Martin; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Eilam, Anda; Gilad, Ronit; Blatt, Ilan; Rosenow, Felix; Kanaan, Moien; Helbig, Ingo; Afawi, Zaid

    2017-07-01

    Mutations or structural genomic alterations of the X-chromosomal gene ARHGEF9 have been described in male and female patients with intellectual disability. Hyperekplexia and epilepsy were observed to a variable degree, but incompletely described. Here, we expand the phenotypic spectrum of ARHGEF9 by describing a large Ethiopian-Jewish family with epilepsy and intellectual disability. The four affected male siblings, their unaffected parents and two unaffected female siblings were recruited and phenotyped. Parametric linkage analysis was performed using SNP microarrays. Variants from exome sequencing in two affected individuals were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. All affected male siblings had febrile seizures from age 2-3 years and intellectual disability. Three developed afebrile seizures between age 7-17 years. Three showed focal seizure semiology. None had hyperekplexia. A novel ARHGEF9 variant (c.967G>A, p.G323R, NM_015185.2) was hemizygous in all affected male siblings and heterozygous in the mother. This family reveals that the phenotypic spectrum of ARHGEF9 is broader than commonly assumed and includes febrile seizures and focal epilepsy with intellectual disability in the absence of hyperekplexia or other clinically distinguishing features. Our findings suggest that pathogenic variants in ARHGEF9 may be more common than previously assumed in patients with intellectual disability and mild epilepsy.

  11. Including Students with Disabilities in Common Non-Summative Assessments. NCEO Brief. Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive large-scale assessments have become the norm in states across the U.S. Participation rates of students with disabilities in these assessments have increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. As consortia of states move toward the development and implementation of assessment systems that include both non-summative assessments and…

  12. Evaluating and Using Literature Including People with Disabilities in All Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslick, Mary Ellen; Pearson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    To help students see their worlds differently and to expand those views beyond their own backyards, educators can expose them to quality multicultural children's literature. In this article, we focus on a subtopic within the genre of multicultural children's literature: literature including people with disabilities. We chose seven recent texts…

  13. Prenatal Maternal Serum Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Yau, Vincent M; Hansen, Robin; Kharrazi, Martin; Yoshida, Cathleen K; Calafat, Antonia M; Windham, Gayle; Croen, Lisa A

    2018-01-02

    Emerging work has examined neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), but few studies have assessed associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our objective was to estimate associations of maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) in children. Participants were from a population-based nested case-control study of children born from 2000 to 2003 in southern California, including children diagnosed with ASD ( n =553), ID without autism ( n =189), and general population (GP) controls ( n =433). Concentrations of eight PFAS from stored maternal sera collected at 15-19 wk gestational age were quantified and compared among study groups. We used logistic regression to obtain adjusted odds ratios for the association between prenatal PFAS concentrations (parameterized continuously and as quartiles) and ASD versus GP controls, and separately for ID versus GP controls. Geometric mean concentrations of most PFAS were lower in ASD and ID groups relative to GP controls. ASD was not significantly associated with prenatal concentrations of most PFAS, though significant inverse associations were found for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) [adjusted ORs for the highest vs. lowest quartiles 0.62 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.93) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.97), respectively]. Results for ID were similar. Results from this large case-control study with prospectively collected prenatal measurements do not support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to PFAS is positively associated with ASD or ID. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1830.

  14. Prenatal Maternal Serum Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Vincent M.; Hansen, Robin; Kharrazi, Martin; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Windham, Gayle; Croen, Lisa A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Emerging work has examined neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), but few studies have assessed associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations of maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) in children. Methods: Participants were from a population-based nested case–control study of children born from 2000 to 2003 in southern California, including children diagnosed with ASD (n=553), ID without autism (n=189), and general population (GP) controls (n=433). Concentrations of eight PFAS from stored maternal sera collected at 15–19 wk gestational age were quantified and compared among study groups. We used logistic regression to obtain adjusted odds ratios for the association between prenatal PFAS concentrations (parameterized continuously and as quartiles) and ASD versus GP controls, and separately for ID versus GP controls. Results: Geometric mean concentrations of most PFAS were lower in ASD and ID groups relative to GP controls. ASD was not significantly associated with prenatal concentrations of most PFAS, though significant inverse associations were found for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) [adjusted ORs for the highest vs. lowest quartiles 0.62 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.93) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.97), respectively]. Results for ID were similar. Conclusions: Results from this large case–control study with prospectively collected prenatal measurements do not support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to PFAS is positively associated with ASD or ID. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1830 PMID:29298162

  15. State-Level Trends in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from 2000 to 2012: A Reanalysis of Findings from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, R Christopher; Carter, Alice S

    2018-04-13

    Since 2000, the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Network (ADDM) has published detailed prevalence estimates for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among 8 year-olds, which are widely interpreted as the U.S. national prevalence of ASD. Although differences in state-level ASD prevalence has been reported, state-level heterogeneity has not been explored systematically. We analyzed state-level estimates and trends in ASD prevalence from 2000 to 2012 using secondary data from bi-annual ADDM reports. Heterogeneity among state-level ASD prevalence estimates were apparent in 2000 and grew between 2000 and 2012. Findings highlight the need for greater understanding of how children with ASD are identified by the medical and educational systems, which has significant implications for the state-level resources required to effectively manage ASD.

  16. Policies for including disabled people in education. obstacles and facilitating factors for their implementation: Bucaramanga, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Serrano R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the factors enabling or hindering the implementation of inclusive education policies for the disabled population of Bucaramanga. Methodology: a descriptive study, involving representatives from governmental agencies (EG, members of the faculty boards of educational institutions (DIE and guardians of disabled individuals (APSD. Physical, social, and political obstacles and facilitating factors that could potentially determine the implementation of these policies were analyzed. Data was collected through interviews. Results: there was a total of 2, 32, and 34 participants from the EG, DIE, and APSD groups respectively. Identified obstacles included: lack of strategies to support educational institutions, poor or limited teacher training, high tuition fees, and negative attitude towards disability. The facilitating factors included: availability of places, inclusion of this issue in the political agenda, and desire of the disabled individuals’ families to provide them with education. Discussion: These findings provide useful information for further research on this issue and show how action has been taken, as well as how urgent it is to establish a direct relationship between academia and the public sector to propose strategies for assessing and modifying these policies.

  17. Autism and intellectual disability are differentially related to sociodemographic background at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Helen; Glasson, Emma; Nassar, Natasha; Whitehouse, Andrew; Bebbington, Ami; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Dixon, Glenys; Malacova, Eva; Bower, Carol; Stanley, Fiona

    2011-03-30

    Research findings investigating the sociodemographics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been inconsistent and rarely considered the presence of intellectual disability (ID). We used population data on Western Australian singletons born from 1984 to 1999 (n = 398,353) to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of children diagnosed with ASD with or without ID, or ID without ASD compared with non-affected children. The profiles for the four categories examined, mild-moderate ID, severe ID, ASD without ID and ASD with ID varied considerably and we often identified a gradient effect where the risk factors for mild-moderate ID and ASD without ID were at opposite extremes while those for ASD with ID were intermediary. This was demonstrated clearly with increased odds of ASD without ID amongst older mothers aged 35 years and over (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69 [CI: 1.18, 2.43]), first born infants (OR = 2.78; [CI: 1.67, 4.54]), male infants (OR = 6.57 [CI: 4.87, 8.87]) and increasing socioeconomic advantage. In contrast, mild-moderate ID was associated with younger mothers aged less than 20 years (OR = 1.88 [CI: 1.57, 2.25]), paternal age greater than 40 years (OR = 1.59 [CI: 1.36, 1.86]), Australian-born and Aboriginal mothers (OR = 1.60 [CI: 1.41, 1.82]), increasing birth order and increasing social disadvantage (OR = 2.56 [CI: 2.27, 2.97]). Mothers of infants residing in regional or remote areas had consistently lower risk of ASD or ID and may be linked to reduced access to services or under-ascertainment rather than a protective effect of location. The different risk profiles observed between groups may be related to aetiological differences or ascertainment factors or both. Untangling these pathways is challenging but an urgent public health priority in view of the supposed autism epidemic.

  18. Social challenges and supports from the perspective of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eve; Schuler, Adriana; Yates, Gregory B

    2008-03-01

    The study describes the perspectives of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities (ASDs) regarding social challenges and supports. Eighteen adults with ASDs were individually interviewed. They were asked to describe their experiences navigating their social worlds, and recommend effective social supports and strategies for improving social connectedness. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts revealed a number of common experiences including a profound sense of isolation, difficulty initiating social interactions, challenges relating to communication, longing for greater intimacy, desire to contribute to one's community, and effort to develop greater social/self-awareness. Commonly recommended social supports included external supports (e.g. activities based on shared interests, highly structured or scripted social activities, and small groups or dyads); communication supports (e.g. alternative modes of communication, explicit communication, and instruction in interpreting and using social cues); and self-initiated strategies for handling social anxiety (e.g. creative/improvisational outlets, physical activity, spiritual practice/organized religion, and time spent alone).

  19. Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggernaes, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism...... introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research. Future...

  20. Impact of an implicit social skills training group in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: A before-and-after study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokthan Guivarch

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs have problems with social skills. Social skills training groups are among the proposed therapeutic strategies, but their efficacy still needs to be evaluated.To evaluate the efficacy of an implicit social skills training group in children with ASDs without intellectual disability.A before-and-after study of children with ASD without intellectual disability was conducted in a child psychiatry day hospital, where they participated in an implicit group with cooperative games. Their social skills were assessed using the Social-Emotional Profile (SEP, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, and the empathy quotient (EQ before and after 22 weeks.Six patients aged 9 to 10 years old were evaluated. A significant increase in overall adaptation and social skills (median 8 and 7.7 points in the SEP was demonstrated in addition to a significant reduction in the CARS score (median: 4 points, including in the field of social relationships. The EQ increased two-fold.This implicit group improved the children's social skills. It would be interesting to evaluate the maintenance of these skills over time, examine more widespread results, and compare implicit and explicit groups.

  1. Impact of an implicit social skills training group in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: A before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivarch, Jokthan; Murdymootoo, Veena; Elissalde, Sara-Nora; Salle-Collemiche, Xavier; Tardieu, Sophie; Jouve, Elisabeth; Poinso, François

    2017-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have problems with social skills. Social skills training groups are among the proposed therapeutic strategies, but their efficacy still needs to be evaluated. To evaluate the efficacy of an implicit social skills training group in children with ASDs without intellectual disability. A before-and-after study of children with ASD without intellectual disability was conducted in a child psychiatry day hospital, where they participated in an implicit group with cooperative games. Their social skills were assessed using the Social-Emotional Profile (SEP), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the empathy quotient (EQ) before and after 22 weeks. Six patients aged 9 to 10 years old were evaluated. A significant increase in overall adaptation and social skills (median 8 and 7.7 points) in the SEP was demonstrated in addition to a significant reduction in the CARS score (median: 4 points), including in the field of social relationships. The EQ increased two-fold. This implicit group improved the children's social skills. It would be interesting to evaluate the maintenance of these skills over time, examine more widespread results, and compare implicit and explicit groups.

  2. Cognitive shifting and externalising problem behaviour in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, E M; Berger, H J C; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H M J; Prins, J B; Teunisse, J P

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural problems are frequently reported in residential care for people with an intellectual disability (ID) in particular when they are additionally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are indications that impairment in cognitive shifting may be associated with problem behaviour. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship of cognitive shifting and severity of ASD symptoms with externalising problem behaviour in individuals with ID, with and without ASD, and (2) to examine whether a diagnosis based on shifting impairment is more predictive of externalising problem behaviour than an ASD diagnosis. Participants consisted of adolescents and young adults with mild ID, with and without ASD (n = 41). Pearson intercorrelations were computed to explore the relationship between shifting impairment and severity of ASD symptoms on the one hand and ratings of externalising problem behaviour on the other hand. t-Tests were performed to analyse differences in externalising problem behaviour. Unlike ASD symptom severity, shifting scores were found to be associated with externalising problem behaviour, but only if shifting was measured using rating scales and not when using neuropsychological tasks. Externalising problem behaviour scores significantly differed when groups were classified according to shifting impairment (impaired vs. non-impaired) but not when they were classified according to ID and ASD diagnoses. It is proposed to use a cognition-based approach when analysing problem behaviour, thus concentrating not so much on ID and ASD diagnosis and their corresponding symptoms, but rather placing the focus on cognitive symptoms. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Baio, Jon; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Bilder, Deborah; Charles, Jane; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Julie; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Lee, Li-Ching; Pettygrove, Sydney; Robinson, Cordelia; Schulz, Eldon; Wells, Chris; Wingate, Martha S; Zahorodny, Walter; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2012. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin). Surveillance to determine ASD case status is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional service providers in the community. Data sources identified for record review are categorized as either 1) education source type, including developmental evaluations to determine eligibility for special education services or 2) health care source type, including diagnostic and developmental evaluations. The second phase involves the review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if one or more comprehensive evaluations of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors that are consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years living in catchment areas of the ADDM Network sites in 2012, overall and stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and the type of source records (education and health records versus health records only). In addition, this report describes the proportion of children with ASD with a score consistent with intellectual disability on a standardized intellectual ability test, the age at which the earliest known

  4. Executive Functions and Adaptive Behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorders with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been often investigated, although results seem to be rather inconsistent. The first aim of this study was to detect which EF components are common to the ASD continuum (from high- to low-functioning ASD) and identify a possible EF profile for ASD people. Planning, mental flexibility, inhibition of response, generativity, and ecologic EF were investigated. This study was extended not only to high-functioning ASD, but also to ASD with intellectual disability (ID). The second aim was to find EF aspects correlating with adaptive skills in ASD. A total of 61 children participated in the study (27 ASD with and without ID and 34 controls). Results highlight an executive profile characterised by impaired flexibility and deficient planning; these deficits are associated with decreased adaptive ability, particularly socialization, and a deficient shifting in ecologic conditions. These features are present in all ASD subgroups with and without ID; for this reason, they might be assumed as being specific features in ASD. PMID:24829905

  5. Social skills: differences among adults with intellectual disabilities, co-morbid autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy.

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    Smith, Kimberly R M; Matson, Johnny L

    2010-01-01

    Assessing social skills is one of the most complex and challenging areas to study because behavioral repertoires vary depending on an individual's culture and context. However, researchers have conclusively demonstrated that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have impaired social skills as well as those with co-morbid autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is unknown how these groups differ. Assessment of social skills was made with the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Individuals with Severe Retardation. One hundred participants with ID were matched and compared across four equal groups comprising 25 participants with ID, 25 participants with epilepsy, 25 participants with ASD, and 25 participants with combined ASD and epilepsy. When controlling for age, gender, race, level of ID, and hearing and visual impairments, significant differences were found among the four groups on the MESSIER, Wilks's Λ=.58, F(18, 257)=3.05, psocial skills than the ID only or groups containing only a single co-morbid factor with ID (ASD or epilepsy only). Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving Psychiatric Hospital Care for Pediatric Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Gabriels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and/or intellectual disabilities (ID are at greater risk for psychiatric hospitalization compared to children with other disorders. However, general psychiatric hospital environments are not adapted for the unique learning styles, needs, and abilities of this population, and there are few specialized hospital-based psychiatric care programs in the United States. This paper compares patient outcomes from a specialized psychiatric hospital program developed for pediatric patients with an ASD and/or ID to prior outcomes of this patient population in a general psychiatric program at a children’s hospital. Record review data indicate improved outcomes for patients in the specialized program of reduced recidivism rates (12% versus 33% and decreased average lengths of inpatient stay (as short as 26 days versus 45 days. Available data from a subset of patients (=43 in the specialized program showed a decrease in irritability and hyperactivity behaviors from admission to discharge and that 35 previously undetected ASD diagnoses were made. Results from this preliminary study support specialized psychiatric care practices with this population to positively impact their health care outcomes.

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among 4-Year-Old Children in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network.

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    Christensen, Deborah L; Bilder, Deborah A; Zahorodny, Walter; Pettygrove, Sydney; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Rice, Catherine; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Baio, Jon; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) facilitates timely access to intervention services. Yet, few population-based data exist on ASD identification among preschool-aged children. The authors aimed to describe ASD prevalence and characteristics among 4-year-old children in 5 of 11 sites participating in the 2010 Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Children with ASD were identified through screening of health and education records for ASD indicators, data abstraction and compilation for each child, and clinician review of records. ASD prevalence estimates, ages at first evaluation and ASD diagnosis, cognitive test scores, and demographics were compared for 4-year-old children and 8-year-old children living in the same areas. Among 58,467 children in these 5 sites, 4-year-old ASD prevalence was 13.4 per 1000, which was 30% lower than 8-year-old ASD prevalence. Prevalence of ASD without cognitive impairment was 40% lower among 4-year-olds compared with 8-year-olds, but prevalence of ASD with cognitive impairment was 20% higher among 4-year-olds compared with 8-year-olds. Among 4-year-olds with ASD, female and non-Hispanic white children were more likely to receive their first comprehensive evaluation by age 36 months compared with male and non-Hispanic black children, respectively. Among children diagnosed with ASD by age 48 months, median age at first comprehensive evaluation was 27 months for 4-year-olds compared with 32 months for 8-year-olds. Population-based ASD surveillance among 4-year-old children provides valuable information about the early identification of children with ASD and suggests progression toward lowering the age of first ASD evaluation within participating Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring communities.

  8. Sibling relationship quality and psychosocial outcomes among adult siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and individuals with intellectual disability without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeny, Theodore S; Ellis, Brandi M; Rankin, James A; Barry, Tammy D

    2017-03-01

    Research on adult typically-developing (TD) siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities remains limited, and outcomes for TD siblings appear to vary widely. For the current study, 82 adult TD siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) completed questionnaires about themselves and their affected sibling. Results of this study suggest that the attitudes possessed by adult TD siblings are important to consider when understanding adult TD sibling outcomes. Specifically, data indicate that higher levels of positive sibling relationship attitudes are related to TD siblings providing more aid/support to their sibling with a disability, along with having higher levels of general life satisfaction, and negatively related to levels of stress and depressive symptoms among TD siblings. Consistent with previous child research, siblings of individuals with ASD reported fewer positive sibling relationship attitudes compared to siblings of individuals with ID. Finally, group membership related to aid provided, depressive symptoms, and stress of TD siblings indirectly through sibling relationship attitudes. Overall, results indicate that sibling relationship attitudes may be particularly important to consider when conceptualizing sibling relationships when one sibling has an intellectual or developmental disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential associations between sensory response patterns and language, social, and communication measures in children with autism or other developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R; Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T; Poe, Michele; Boyd, Brian A; Freuler, Ashley; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-12-01

    To examine patterns of sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) as factors that may account for variability in social-communicative symptoms of autism and variability in language, social, and communication skill development in children with autism or other developmental disabilities (DDs). Children with autistic disorder (AD; n = 72, mean age = 52.3 months) and other DDs (n = 44, mean age = 48.1 months) participated in a protocol measuring sensory response patterns; social-communicative symptoms of autism; and language, social, and communication skills. Hyporesponsiveness was positively associated with social-communicative symptom severity, with no significant group difference in the association. Hyperresponsiveness was not significantly associated with social-communicative symptom severity. A group difference emerged for sensory seeking and social-communicative symptom severity, with a positive association for the AD group only. For the 2 groups of children combined, hyporesponsiveness was negatively associated with language skills and social adaptive skills. Sensory seeking also was negatively associated with language skills. These associations did not differ between the 2 groups. Aberrant sensory processing may play an important role in the pathogenesis of autism and other DDs as well as in the rate of acquisition of language, social, and communication skills.

  10. Development of a versatile enrichment analysis tool reveals associations between the maternal brain and mental health disorders, including autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A recent study of lateral septum (LS) suggested a large number of autism-related genes with altered expression in the postpartum state. However, formally testing the findings for enrichment of autism-associated genes proved to be problematic with existing software. Many gene-disease association databases have been curated which are not currently incorporated in popular, full-featured enrichment tools, and the use of custom gene lists in these programs can be difficult to perform and interpret. As a simple alternative, we have developed the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), a minimal tool that enables one to easily evaluate expression data for enrichment of any conceivable gene list of interest. Results The MSET approach was validated by testing several publicly available expression data sets for expected enrichment in areas of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and arthritis. Using nine independent, unique autism gene lists extracted from association databases and two recent publications, a striking consensus of enrichment was detected within gene expression changes in LS of postpartum mice. A network of 160 autism-related genes was identified, representing developmental processes such as synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphogenesis, and differentiation. Additionally, maternal LS displayed enrichment for genes associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, and depression. Conclusions The transition to motherhood includes the most fundamental social bonding event in mammals and features naturally occurring changes in sociability. Some individuals with autism, schizophrenia, or other mental health disorders exhibit impaired social traits. Genes involved in these deficits may also contribute to elevated sociability in the maternal brain. To date, this is the first study to show a significant, quantitative link between the maternal brain and mental health disorders using large scale gene expression data. Thus, the

  11. Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Susan E; Mandell, David S; Schultz, Robert T

    2009-11-07

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by severe deficits in socialisation, communication, and repetitive or unusual behaviours. Increases over time in the frequency of these disorders (to present rates of about 60 cases per 10,000 children) might be attributable to factors such as new administrative classifications, policy and practice changes, and increased awareness. Surveillance and screening strategies for early identification could enable early treatment and improved outcomes. Autism spectrum disorders are highly genetic and multifactorial, with many risk factors acting together. Genes that affect synaptic maturation are implicated, resulting in neurobiological theories focusing on connectivity and neural effects of gene expression. Several treatments might address core and comorbid symptoms. However, not all treatments have been adequately studied. Improved strategies for early identification with phenotypic characteristics and biological markers (eg, electrophysiological changes) might hopefully improve effectiveness of treatment. Further knowledge about early identification, neurobiology of autism, effective treatments, and the effect of this disorder on families is needed.

  12. The Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…

  13. Mutations in SYNGAP1 Cause Intellectual Disability, Autism, and a Specific Form of Epilepsy by Inducing Haploinsufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berryer, Martin H; Hamdan, Fadi F; Klitten, Laura L

    2013-01-01

    De novo mutations in SYNGAP1, which codes for a RAS/RAP GTP-activating protein, cause nonsyndromic intellectual disability (NSID). All disease-causing point mutations identified until now in SYNGAP1 are truncating, raising the possibility of an association between this type of mutations and NSID...... also showed ataxia, autism, and a specific form of generalized epilepsy that can be refractory to treatment. All of these mutations occurred de novo, except c.283dupC, which was inherited from a father who is a mosaic. Biolistic transfection of wild-type SYNGAP1 in pyramidal cells from cortical...

  14. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L.; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S.; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N.; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F.

    2018-01-01

    Problem/Condition Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period Covered 2014. Description of System The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8

  15. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Jon; Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F

    2018-04-27

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2014. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years during the 2014 surveillance year, on the basis of DSM

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press release: Autism Prevalence Slightly ...

  17. Emotional development in adults with autism and intellectual disabilities: a retrospective, clinical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Sappok

    Full Text Available Individuals with intellectual disability (ID are at risk for additional autism spectrum disorders (ASD. A large amount of research reveals deficits in emotion-related processes that are relevant to social cognition in ASD. However, studies on the structure and level of emotional development (ED assessing emotional maturity according to the normative trajectory in typically developing children are scares. The level of ED can be evaluated by the 'Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development' (SAED, a semi-structured interview with a close caregiver. The SAED assesses the level of emotional developmental based on a five stage system in 10 domains, for example, 'interaction with peers' or 'object permanence', which are conducive to the overall emotional developmental level. This study examined the ED as measured by the SAED in 289 adults (mean age: 36 years with ID with and without additional ASD. A lower level in ED was observed in ASD/ID combined that corresponded to the ED of typically developing children aged 1.5-3 years versus an ED with a corresponding age of 3-7 years in ID individuals without ASD. Moreover, distinct strengths in 'object permanence', and weaknesses in 'interaction', 'verbal communication', 'experience of self', 'affect differentiation', 'anxiety', and 'handling of material objects' led to a characteristic pattern of ED in ASD. SAED domains with highest discriminative power between ID individuals with and without ASD (5/10 were used to predict ASD group membership. The classification using a selection of SAED domains revealed a sensitivity of 77.5% and a specificity of 76.4%. ASD risk increased 2.7-fold with every SAED level. The recognition of delayed and uneven pattern of ED contributes to our understanding of the emotion-related impairments in adults with ID and ASD these individuals. Assessment of intra-individual ED could add value to the standard diagnostic procedures in ID, a population at risk for underdiagnosed ASD.

  18. Emotional development in adults with autism and intellectual disabilities: a retrospective, clinical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappok, Tanja; Budczies, Jan; Bölte, Sven; Dziobek, Isabel; Dosen, Anton; Diefenbacher, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for additional autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A large amount of research reveals deficits in emotion-related processes that are relevant to social cognition in ASD. However, studies on the structure and level of emotional development (ED) assessing emotional maturity according to the normative trajectory in typically developing children are scares. The level of ED can be evaluated by the 'Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development' (SAED), a semi-structured interview with a close caregiver. The SAED assesses the level of emotional developmental based on a five stage system in 10 domains, for example, 'interaction with peers' or 'object permanence', which are conducive to the overall emotional developmental level. This study examined the ED as measured by the SAED in 289 adults (mean age: 36 years) with ID with and without additional ASD. A lower level in ED was observed in ASD/ID combined that corresponded to the ED of typically developing children aged 1.5-3 years versus an ED with a corresponding age of 3-7 years in ID individuals without ASD. Moreover, distinct strengths in 'object permanence', and weaknesses in 'interaction', 'verbal communication', 'experience of self', 'affect differentiation', 'anxiety', and 'handling of material objects' led to a characteristic pattern of ED in ASD. SAED domains with highest discriminative power between ID individuals with and without ASD (5/10) were used to predict ASD group membership. The classification using a selection of SAED domains revealed a sensitivity of 77.5% and a specificity of 76.4%. ASD risk increased 2.7-fold with every SAED level. The recognition of delayed and uneven pattern of ED contributes to our understanding of the emotion-related impairments in adults with ID and ASD these individuals. Assessment of intra-individual ED could add value to the standard diagnostic procedures in ID, a population at risk for underdiagnosed ASD.

  19. Maternal conditions and perinatal characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Amanda T; Glasson, Emma J; Nassar, Natasha; Jacoby, Peter; Pennell, Craig; Hagan, Ronald; Bourke, Jenny; Leonard, Helen; Stanley, Fiona J

    2013-01-01

    As well as being highly comorbid conditions, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) share a number of clinically-relevant phenomena. This raises questions about similarities and overlap in diagnosis and aetiological pathways that may exist for both conditions. To examine maternal conditions and perinatal factors for children diagnosed with an ASD, with or without ID, and children with ID of unknown cause, compared with unaffected children. The study population comprised all live singleton births in Western Australia (WA) between January 1984 and December 1999 (N = 383,153). Univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were applied using a blocked modelling approach to assess the effect of maternal conditions, sociodemographic factors, labour and delivery characteristics and neonatal outcomes. In univariate analyses mild-moderate ID was associated with pregnancy hypertension, asthma, urinary tract infection, some types of ante-partum haemorrhage, any type of preterm birth, elective C-sections, breech presentation, poor fetal growth and need for resuscitation at birth, with all factors showing an increased risk. Severe ID was positively associated with poor fetal growth and need for resuscitation, as well as any labour or delivery complication. In the multivariate analysis no maternal conditions or perinatal factors were associated with an increased risk of ASD without ID. However, pregnancy hypertension and small head circumference were associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94; OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.96, respectively). For ASD with ID, threatened abortion before 20 weeks gestation and poor fetal growth were associated with an increased risk. Findings show that indicators of a poor intrauterine environment are associated with an elevated risk of ID, while for ASD, and particularly ASD without ID, the associations are much weaker. As such, these findings highlight the importance of accounting for

  20. A case report of Chinese brothers with inherited MECP2-containing duplication: autism and intellectual disability, but not seizures or respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu; Xu, Qiong; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodi; Cheng, Tianlin; Wu, Bingbing; Ding, Yanhua; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Qiu, Zilong; Yu, Xiang

    2012-08-21

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a family of neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Recent studies have shown that copy number variations in dosage sensitive genes can contribute significantly to these disorders. One such gene is the transcription factor MECP2, whose loss of function in females results in Rett syndrome, while its duplication in males results in developmental delay and autism. Here, we identified a Chinese family with two brothers both inheriting a 2.2 Mb MECP2-containing duplication (151,369,305 - 153,589,577) from their mother. In addition, both brothers also had a 213.7 kb duplication on Chromosome 2, inherited from their father. The older brother also carried a 48.4 kb duplication on Chromosome 2 inherited from the mother, and a 8.2 kb deletion at 11q13.5 inherited from the father. Based on the published literature, MECP2 is the most autism-associated gene among the identified CNVs. Consistently, the boys displayed clinical features in common with other patients carrying MECP2 duplications, including intellectual disability, autism, lack of speech, slight hypotonia and unsteadiness of movement. They also had slight dysmorphic features including a depressed nose bridge, large ears and midface hypoplasia. Interestingly, they did not exhibit other clinical features commonly observed in American-European patients with MECP2 duplication, including recurrent respiratory infections and epilepsy. To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of Chinese Han patients with MECP2-containing duplications. Further cases are required to determine if the above described clinical differences are due to individual variations or related to the genetic background of the patients.

  1. A case report of Chinese brothers with inherited MECP2-containing duplication: autism and intellectual disability, but not seizures or respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs are a family of neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Recent studies have shown that copy number variations in dosage sensitive genes can contribute significantly to these disorders. One such gene is the transcription factor MECP2, whose loss of function in females results in Rett syndrome, while its duplication in males results in developmental delay and autism. Case presentation Here, we identified a Chinese family with two brothers both inheriting a 2.2 Mb MECP2-containing duplication (151,369,305 – 153,589,577 from their mother. In addition, both brothers also had a 213.7 kb duplication on Chromosome 2, inherited from their father. The older brother also carried a 48.4 kb duplication on Chromosome 2 inherited from the mother, and a 8.2 kb deletion at 11q13.5 inherited from the father. Based on the published literature, MECP2 is the most autism-associated gene among the identified CNVs. Consistently, the boys displayed clinical features in common with other patients carrying MECP2 duplications, including intellectual disability, autism, lack of speech, slight hypotonia and unsteadiness of movement. They also had slight dysmorphic features including a depressed nose bridge, large ears and midface hypoplasia. Interestingly, they did not exhibit other clinical features commonly observed in American-European patients with MECP2 duplication, including recurrent respiratory infections and epilepsy. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of Chinese Han patients with MECP2-containing duplications. Further cases are required to determine if the above described clinical differences are due to individual variations or related to the genetic background of the patients.

  2. The combined impact of social support and perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder and without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A; Eack, Shaun M

    2017-06-01

    Identifying modifiable correlates of good quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder is of paramount importance for intervention development as the population of adults with autism spectrum disorder increases. This study sought to examine social support and perceived stress as potential modifiable correlates of quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder. We hypothesized that adults with autism spectrum disorder without co-occurring intellectual disabilities ( N = 40; aged 18-44 years) would report lower levels of social support and quality of life than typical community volunteers who were matched for age, sex, and race ( N = 25). We additionally hypothesized that social support would buffer the effect of perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that adults with autism spectrum disorder reported significantly lower levels of social support and quality of life than matched typical community volunteers. In addition, findings showed significant direct effects of social support and perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Social support did not buffer the effect of perceived stress on quality of life. Interventions that teach adults with autism spectrum disorder skills to help them better manage stress and cultivate supportive social relationships have the potential to improve quality of life.

  3. Examining the Outcomes of Including Students with Disabilities in a Bullying/Victimization Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Emily C.; Vinoski, Erin; Black, Mary; Varjas, Kris; Henrich, Christopher; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities are bullied at rates disproportionate to their typically developing peers, yet we know little about effective interventions to reduce the rates of victimization among students with disabilities across all disability categories. This study examined the effectiveness of the inclusive Bullying/Victimization Intervention…

  4. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  5. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  6. Functional convergence of histone methyltransferases EHMT1 and KMT2C involved in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S Koemans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kleefstra syndrome, caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1, is characterized by intellectual disability (ID, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, characteristic facial dysmorphisms, and other variable clinical features. In addition to EHMT1 mutations, de novo variants were reported in four additional genes (MBD5, SMARCB1, NR1I3, and KMT2C, in single individuals with clinical characteristics overlapping Kleefstra syndrome. Here, we present a novel cohort of five patients with de novo loss of function mutations affecting the histone methyltransferase KMT2C. Our clinical data delineates the KMT2C phenotypic spectrum and reinforces the phenotypic overlap with Kleefstra syndrome and other related ID disorders. To elucidate the common molecular basis of the neuropathology associated with mutations in KMT2C and EHMT1, we characterized the role of the Drosophila KMT2C ortholog, trithorax related (trr, in the nervous system. Similar to the Drosophila EHMT1 ortholog, G9a, trr is required in the mushroom body for short term memory. Trr ChIP-seq identified 3371 binding sites, mainly in the promoter of genes involved in neuronal processes. Transcriptional profiling of pan-neuronal trr knockdown and G9a null mutant fly heads identified 613 and 1123 misregulated genes, respectively. These gene sets show a significant overlap and are associated with nearly identical gene ontology enrichments. The majority of the observed biological convergence is derived from predicted indirect target genes. However, trr and G9a also have common direct targets, including the Drosophila ortholog of Arc (Arc1, a key regulator of synaptic plasticity. Our data highlight the clinical and molecular convergence between the KMT2 and EHMT protein families, which may contribute to a molecular network underlying a larger group of ID/ASD-related disorders.

  7. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Maryellen Brunson; Hasty Mills, Amber M; Murphy, Laura E

    2017-11-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Intellectual Disability (ID) are common co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders; however, limited research exists regarding the presentation and severity of overlapping symptomology, particularly inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, when a child is diagnosed with one of more of these neurodevelopmental disorders. As difficulties with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are symptoms frequently associated with these disorders, the current study aims to determine the differences in the severity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in children diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, and co-occurring diagnosis of ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, and ASD/ID. Participants in the current study included 113 children between the ages of 6 and 11 who were diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, or ASD/ID. Two MANOVA analyses were used to compare these groups witih respsect to symptom (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity) severity. Results indicated that the majority of diagnostic groups experienced elevated levels of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, results yielded differences in inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity. In addition, differences in measure sensitivity across behavioral instruments was found. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often exhibit inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, particularly those with ADHD, ASD, ASD/ADHD, and ADHD/ID; therefore, differential diagnosis may be complicated due to similarities in ADHD symptom severity. However, intellectual abilities may be an important consideration for practitioners in the differential diagnosis process as children with ID and ASD/ID exhibited significantly less inattention and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. Additionally, the use of multiple behavior rating measures in conjunction with other assessment procedures may help practitioners determine the most

  8. Identification of new TRIP12 variants and detailed clinical evaluation of individuals with non-syndromic intellectual disability with or without autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdecke, H.-J.; Pettersson, M.; Albrecht, B.; Bernier, R. A.; Cremer, K.; Eichler, E. E.; Falkenstein, D.; Gerdts, J.; Jansen, S.; Kuechler, A.; Kvarnung, M.; Lindstrand, A.; Nilsson, D.; Nordgren, A.; Pfundt, R.; Spruijt, L.; Surowy, H. M.; de Vries, B. B. A.; Wieland, T.; Engels, H.; Strom, T. M.; Kleefstra, T.; Wieczorek, D.

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquitin pathway is an enzymatic cascade including activating E1, conjugating E2, and ligating E3 enzymes, which governs protein degradation and sorting. It is crucial for many physiological processes. Compromised function of members of the ubiquitin pathway leads to a wide range of human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 12 (TRIP12) gene (OMIM 604506), which encodes an E3 ligase in the ubiquitin pathway, have been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition to autistic features, TRIP12 mutation carriers showed intellectual disability (ID). More recently, TRIP12 was postulated as a novel candidate gene for intellectual disability in a meta-analysis of published ID cohorts. However, detailed clinical information characterizing the phenotype of these individuals was not provided. In this study, we present seven novel individuals with private TRIP12 mutations including two splice site mutations, one nonsense mutation, three missense mutations, and one translocation case with a breakpoint in intron 1 of the TRIP12 gene and clinically review four previously published cases. The TRIP12 mutation-positive individuals presented with mild to moderate ID (10/11) or learning disability [intelligence quotient (IQ) 76 in one individual], ASD (8/11) and some of them with unspecific craniofacial dysmorphism and other anomalies. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of 11 TRIP12 mutation-positive individuals and thereby expand the clinical spectrum of the TRIP12 gene in non-syndromic intellectual disability with or without ASD. PMID:27848077

  9. Prevalence and Impact of Unhealthy Weight in a National Sample of US Adolescents with Autism and Other Learning and Behavioral Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Keydra L.; Visser, Susanna; Boulet, Sheree; Sharma, Andrea J.; Kogan, Michael D.; Boyle, Coleen A.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight among US adolescents with and without autism and other learning and behavioral developmental disabilities (DDs) and assessed the health consequences of obesity among adolescents with DDs. From the 2008 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we selected 9,619 adolescents ages 12–17 years. Parent respondents reported weight, height, presence of DDs and health conditions. We calculated body mass index (BMI) and defined obesity, overweight, and underweight as ≥95th, ≥85th to learning disorder/other developmental delay. We compared BMI outcomes among adolescents in each DD group versus adolescents without DDs using multivariable logistic regression. Socio-demographic factors and birthweight were included as confounders. Estimates were weighted to reflect the US population. Both obesity and underweight prevalences were higher among adolescents with than without DDs [adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) 1.5 (1.25–1.75) and 1.5 (1.01–2.20), respectively]. Obesity was elevated among adolescents with all DD types, and was highest among the autism subgroup [aPR 2.1 (1.44–3.16)]. Adolescents with either a DD or obesity had higher prevalences of common respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatological and neurological conditions/symptoms than nonobese adolescents without DDs. Adolescents with both DDs and obesity had the highest estimates for most conditions. Obesity is high among adolescents with autism and other DDs and poses added chronic health risks. Obesity prevention and management approaches for this vulnerable population subgroup need further consideration. PMID:24553796

  10. Self-controlled technologies to support skill attainment in persons with an autism spectrum disorder and/or an intellectual disability: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, W.L.J.E.; Sterkenburg, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Persons with an autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disability have difficulties in processing information, which impedes the learning of daily living skills and cognitive concepts. Technological aids support learning, and if used temporarily and in a self-controlled manner, they may

  11. Effects of Modified Schema-Based Instruction on Real-World Algebra Problem Solving of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jenny Rose

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of modified schema-based instruction (SBI) on the algebra problem solving skills of three middle school students with autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability (ASD/ID). Participants learned to solve two types of group word problems: missing-whole and missing-part. The themes of the word…

  12. Enhancing Activity by Means of Tactile Symbols: A Study of a Heterogeneous Group of Pupils with Congenital Blindness, Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Gro; Naerland, Terje

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates responses to verbal versus tactile requests in children with congenital blindness, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Observation was conducted on two occasions. At T1, requests were given verbally, and at T2, tactile requests were given. All pupils perceived tactile symbols to be explicit requests…

  13. A Mindfulness Parent Well-Being Course: Evaluation of Outcomes for Parents of Children with Autism and Related Disabilities Recruited through Special Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leah; Gold, Eluned; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Jones, Mariel; Griffiths, Annee; Silverton, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Parents of children with intellectual disabilities and/or autism have been shown to experience higher levels of distress than other parents. Despite such data having been available for several decades, the evidence base for psychological interventions to support parental well-being is small. Recent data suggest that both mindfulness and acceptance…

  14. Access to Services, Quality of Care, and Family Impact for Children with Autism, Other Developmental Disabilities, and Other Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with…

  15. Comparative Effects of Mindfulness and Support and Information Group Interventions for Parents of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsky, Yona; Hastings, Richard P.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Palucka, Anna M.; Hutton, Sue; White, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated two community based interventions for parents of adults with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. Parents in the mindfulness group reported significant reductions in psychological distress, while parents in the support and information group did not. Reduced levels of distress in the mindfulness group…

  16. The Effects of Self-Monitoring with a MotivAider[R] on the On-Task Behavior of Fifth and Sixth Graders with Autism and Other Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Dina Boccuzzi; DeBar, Ruth M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior of three fifth and sixth grade boys with autism and other disabilities. While completing math assignments independently, the students wore an electronic device called a MotivAider[R] that vibrated at pre-set time schedules prompting the students to self-record whether or…

  17. "I Didn't Used to Have Much Friends": Exploring the Friendship Concepts and Capabilities of a Boy with Autism and Severe Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Whilst progress has been made in understanding the friendships of children with autism, research on the friendships of children with additional learning disabilities remains extremely limited. In this research, a qualitative case study approach provided a rich description of the friendship concepts and capabilities of Ben, a 10-year-old boy with…

  18. The Association between Social Skills and Mental Health in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Belinda; Wong, Michelle; Dossetor, David; Hayes, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with social skills deficits and co-occurring mental health difficulties. ASD frequently co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID). There is scant literature exploring the association between social skills and mental health in children with ASD, with or without ID. Participants were 292 children aged…

  19. Do Social Networks Differ? Comparison of the Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities, People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other People Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…

  20. The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic…

  1. Use of Perceive, Recall, Plan, Perform Stage Two Cognitive Task Analysis for Students with Autism and Intellectual Disability: The Impact of a Sensory Activity Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Caroline; Chapparo, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a classroom sensory activity schedule (SAS) on cognitive strategy use during task performance. This work studies a single-system AB research design with seven students with autism and intellectual disability. Repeated measures using the Perceive, Recall, Plan and Perform (PRPP) Cognitive Task…

  2. Gender and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children: Analysis of Data from the National Disability Registry of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the…

  3. Fine and Gross Motor Task Performance When Using Computer-Based Video Models by Students with Autism and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Swindle, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the…

  4. Ability of Children with Learning Disabilities and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Recognize Feelings from Facial Expressions and Body Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girli, Alev; Dogmaz, Sila

    2018-01-01

    In this study, children with learning disability (LD) were compared with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in terms of identifying emotions from photographs with certain face and body expressions. The sample consisted of a total of 82 children aged 7-19 years living in Izmir in Turkey. A total of 6 separate sets of slides, consisting of…

  5. Long contiguous stretches of homozygosity spanning shortly the imprinted loci are associated with intellectual disability, autism and/or epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Korostelev, Sergei A; Zelenova, Maria A; Yurov, Yuri B

    2015-01-01

    Long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) (regions/runs of homozygosity) are repeatedly detected by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chromosomal microarrays. Providing important clues regarding parental relatedness (consanguinity), uniparental disomy, chromosomal recombination or rearrangements, LCSH are rarely considered as a possible epigenetic cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Additionally, despite being relevant to imprinting, LCSH at imprinted loci have not been truly addressed in terms of pathogenicity. In this study, we examined LCSH in children with unexplained intellectual disability, autism, congenital malformations and/or epilepsy focusing on chromosomal regions which harbor imprinted disease genes. Out of 267 cases, 14 (5.2 %) were found to have LCSH at imprinted loci associated with a clinical outcome. There were 5 cases of LCSH at 15p11.2, 4 cases of LCSH at 7q31.2, 3 cases of LCSH at 11p15.5, and 2 cases of LCSH at 7q21.3. Apart from a case of LCSH at 7q31.33q32.3 (~4 Mb in size), all causative LCSH were 1-1.5 Mb in size. Clinically, these cases were characterized by a weak resemblance to corresponding imprinting diseases (i.e., Silver-Russell, Beckwith-Wiedemann, and Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes), exhibiting distinctive intellectual disability, autistic behavior, developmental delay, seizures and/or facial dysmorphisms. Parental consanguinity was detected in 8 cases (3 %), and these cases did not exhibit LCSH at imprinted loci. This study demonstrates that shorter LCSH at chromosomes 7q21.3, 7q31.2, 11p15.5, and 15p11.2 occur with a frequency of about 5 % in the children with intellectual disability, autism, congenital malformations and/or epilepsy. Consequently, this type of epigenetic mutations appears to be the most common one among children with neurodevelopmental diseases. Finally, since LCSH less than 2.5-10 Mb in size are generally ignored in diagnostic SNP microarray studies, one can conclude that an important

  6. Maternal conditions and perinatal characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T Langridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As well as being highly comorbid conditions, autism spectrum disorders (ASD and intellectual disability (ID share a number of clinically-relevant phenomena. This raises questions about similarities and overlap in diagnosis and aetiological pathways that may exist for both conditions. AIMS: To examine maternal conditions and perinatal factors for children diagnosed with an ASD, with or without ID, and children with ID of unknown cause, compared with unaffected children. METHODS: The study population comprised all live singleton births in Western Australia (WA between January 1984 and December 1999 (N = 383,153. Univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were applied using a blocked modelling approach to assess the effect of maternal conditions, sociodemographic factors, labour and delivery characteristics and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: In univariate analyses mild-moderate ID was associated with pregnancy hypertension, asthma, urinary tract infection, some types of ante-partum haemorrhage, any type of preterm birth, elective C-sections, breech presentation, poor fetal growth and need for resuscitation at birth, with all factors showing an increased risk. Severe ID was positively associated with poor fetal growth and need for resuscitation, as well as any labour or delivery complication. In the multivariate analysis no maternal conditions or perinatal factors were associated with an increased risk of ASD without ID. However, pregnancy hypertension and small head circumference were associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94; OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.96, respectively. For ASD with ID, threatened abortion before 20 weeks gestation and poor fetal growth were associated with an increased risk. CONCLUSION: Findings show that indicators of a poor intrauterine environment are associated with an elevated risk of ID, while for ASD, and particularly ASD without ID, the associations are much weaker. As

  7. Hybridising Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility to Include Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…

  8. Preliminary study of gaze toward humans in photographs by individuals with autism, Down syndrome, or other intellectual disabilities: implications for design of visual scene displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Light, Janice

    2014-06-01

    Visual scene displays (VSDs) are a form of augmentative and alternative communication display in which language concepts are embedded into an image of a naturalistic event. VSDs are based on the theory that language learning occurs through interactions with other people, and recommendations for VSD design have emphasized using images of these events that include humans. However, many VSDs also include other items that could potentially be distracting. We examined gaze fixation in 18 school-aged participants with and without severe intellectual/developmental disabilities (i.e., individuals with typical development, autism, Down syndrome and other intellectual disabilities) while they viewed photographs with human figures of various sizes and locations in the image, appearing alongside other interesting, and potentially distracting items. In all groups, the human figures attracted attention rapidly (within 1.5 seconds). The proportions of each participant's own fixation time spent on the human figures were similar across all groups, as were the proportions of total fixations made to the human figures. Although the findings are preliminary, this initial evidence supports the inclusion of humans in VSD images.

  9. Access to services, quality of care, and family impact for children with autism, other developmental disabilities, and other mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire

    2014-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was utilized to examine the association between child's special needs condition and three outcomes (N = 18,136): access to services (difficulty using services, difficulty getting referrals, lack of source of care, and inadequate insurance coverage), quality of care (lack of care coordination, lack of shared decision making, and no routine screening), and family impact (financial, employment, and time-related burden). Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to compare caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, developmental delay, or intellectual disability), mental health conditions (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, behavioral/conduct problems, or depression), or both developmental disabilities and mental health conditions. Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders were significantly more likely to report difficulty using services, lack of source of care, inadequate insurance coverage, lack of shared decision making and care coordination, and adverse family impact as compared to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities, mental health conditions, or both. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Teaching children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities to perform multistep requesting using an iPad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzrayer, Nouf M; Banda, Devender R; Koul, Rajinder

    2017-06-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and/or developmental disabilities are unable to meet their daily communication needs with speech alone. These individuals are considered potential candidates for speech-generating devices (SGDs) and mobile technologies with AAC-specific applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of systematic instruction on teaching multistep requesting skills using an iPad loaded with Proloquo2Go to children with ASD and other developmental disabilities. The participants in this study were four children between the ages of 8 and 10 years diagnosed with ASD and/or other developmental disabilities. The results indicated that for these participants, the intervention was effective in increasing multistep requesting using the iPad. All participants were successful to varying degrees in navigating across pages and combining symbols to request preferred items. Additionally, the participants demonstrated generalization of newly acquired skills by requesting different preferred items and activities during the generalization probes. Results are discussed and implications for research and practice are presented.

  11. Cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability including cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Weier

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is known to be involved not only in motor but also cognitive and affective processes. Structural changes in the cerebellum in relation to cognitive dysfunction are an emerging topic in the field of neuro-psychiatric disorders. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS cerebellar motor and cognitive dysfunction occur in parallel, early in the onset of the disease, and the cerebellum is one of the predilection sites of atrophy. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between cerebellar volumes, clinical cerebellar signs, cognitive functioning and fatigue in MS. Cerebellar volumetry was conducted using T1-weighted MPRAGE magnetic resonance imaging of 172 MS patients. All patients underwent a clinical and brief neuropsychological assessment (information processing speed, working memory, including fatigue testing. Patients with and without cerebellar signs differed significantly regarding normalized cerebellar total volume (nTCV, normalized brain volume (nBV and whole brain T2 lesion volume (LV. Patients with cerebellar dysfunction likewise performed worse in cognitive tests. A regression analysis indicated that age and nTCV explained 26.3% of the variance in SDMT (symbol digit modalities test performance. However, only age, T2 LV and nBV remained predictors in the full model (r(2 = 0.36. The full model for the prediction of PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test scores (r(2 = 0.23 included age, cerebellar and T2 LV. In the case of fatigue, only age and nBV (r(2 = 0.17 emerged as significant predictors. These data support the view that cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability, including cognitive impairment in MS. However, this contribution does not seem to be independent of, and may even be dominated by wider spread MS pathology as reflected by nBV and T2 LV.

  12. Teaching social perception skills to adolescents with autism and intellectual disabilities using video-based group instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, Tiffany A; Plavnick, Joshua B; Sankar, Sudha; Gallagher, Annie C

    2018-05-17

    Few interventions focus on teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) that are consistently used during interactions with peers ( Carter et al., 2014). The present study evaluated the effects of video-based group instruction (VGI) on the acquisition of social perception skills of five adolescents with ASD or ID in a public school setting. Social perception involves observing affective behaviors of others, discriminating relevant environmental stimuli, and differentially reinforcing the affective behavior of another person. Typically developing peers supported VGI implementation as social partners for participants. A multiple probe design across behaviors demonstrated the effectiveness of VGI for teaching social perception skills. Four of five participants acquired and maintained the targeted social perception skills, and we observed some transfer to a nontreatment setting. Results of this study suggest VGI may support the acquisition of social perception among adolescents with ASD or ID. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Corpus callosum abnormalities, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and autism in patients with haploinsufficiency of ARID1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Halgren; Kjaergaard, S; Bak, M

    2011-01-01

    . The etiology is expected to be genetic in as much as 30-50% of the cases, but the underlying genetic cause remains unknown in the majority of cases. By next-generation mate-pair sequencing we mapped the chromosomal breakpoints of a patient with a de novo balanced translocation, t(1;6)(p31;q25), agenesis...... of corpus callosum (CC), intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, and autism. The chromosome 6 breakpoint truncated ARID1B which was also truncated in a recently published translocation patient with a similar phenotype. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) data showed that a primer set...... proximal to the translocation showed increased expression of ARID1B, whereas primer sets spanning or distal to the translocation showed decreased expression in the patient relative to a non-related control set. Phenotype-genotype comparison of the translocation patient to seven unpublished patients...

  14. The relationship between carers' report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Tyrer, Freya; Barrett, Mary; Tin, Nyunt; McGrother, Catherine W; Kiani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    It is often difficult to determine the triad of impairments and whether autistic features are the consequence of intellectual impairment or autism spectrum disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between carer-reported autistic traits and independent diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected on carers' subjective report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of ASD. Of 1145 adults with ID identified, 220 (19%) individuals had a diagnosis of ASD, and 778 (68%) individuals had at least one autistic trait. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved with two or more autistic traits (sensitivity 63%; specificity 79%) and the positive predictive value increased substantially as the number of autistic traits increased. However, a significant proportion of individuals with ID who did not have a diagnosis of ASD also displayed autistic traits. Our findings suggest that in the absence of other measures, the presence of autistic traits can serve as a useful proxy measure for ASD in research (and/or clinical settings). However, although information on autistic traits may help healthcare practitioners to identify people with possible ASD, it cannot be used alone to make a formal diagnosis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Euthanasia and assisted suicide for people with an intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder: an examination of nine relevant euthanasia cases in the Netherlands (2012-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Curfs, Leopold; Finlay, Ilora; Hollins, Sheila

    2018-03-05

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide (EAS) have been legally possible in the Netherlands since 2001, provided that statutory due care criteria are met, including: (a) voluntary and well-considered request; (b) unbearable suffering without prospect of improvement; (c) informing the patient; (d) lack of a reasonable alternative; (e) independent second physician's opinion. 'Unbearable suffering' must have a medical basis, either somatic or psychiatric, but there is no requirement of limited life expectancy. All EAS cases must be reported and are scrutinised by regional review committees (RTE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether any particular difficulties arise when the EAS due care criteria are applied to patients with an intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder. The 416 case summaries available on the RTE website (2012-2016) were searched for intellectual disability (6) and autism spectrum disorder (3). Direct content analysis was used on these nine cases. Assessment of decisional capacity was mentioned in eight cases, but few details given; in two cases, there had been uncertainty or disagreement about capacity. Two patients had progressive somatic conditions. For most, suffering was due to an inability to cope with changing circumstances or increasing dependency; in several cases, suffering was described in terms of characteristics of living with an autism spectrum disorder, rather than an acquired medical condition. Some physicians struggled to understand the patient's perspective. Treatment refusal was a common theme, leading physicians to conclude that EAS was the only remaining option. There was a lack of detail on social circumstances and how patients were informed about their prognosis. Autonomy and decisional capacity are highly complex for patients with intellectual disabilities and difficult to assess; capacity tests in these cases did not appear sufficiently stringent. Assessment of suffering is particularly difficult for

  16. Forgotten, excluded or included? Students with disabilities: A case study at the University of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudaruth, Sameerchand; Gunputh, Rajendra P; Singh, Upasana G

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities in the tertiary education sector are more than a just a phenomenon, they are a reality. In general, little attention is devoted to their needs despite the fact that they need more care and attention. This paper, through a case study at the University of Mauritius, sought to answer some pertinent questions regarding students with disabilities. Does the University of Mauritius have sufficient facilities to support these students? Are students aware of existing facilities? What additional structures need to be put in place so that students with any form of disability are neither victimised, nor their education undermined? Are there any local laws about students with disabilities in higher education? To answer these questions and others, an online questionnaire was sent to 500 students and the responses were then analysed and discussed. The response rate was 24.4% which showed that students were not reticent to participate in this study. Our survey revealed that most students were not aware of existing facilities and were often neglected in terms of supporting structures and resources. ICT facilities were found to be the best support that is provided at the University of Mauritius. The right legal framework for tertiary education was also missing. Ideally, students with disabilities should have access to special facilities to facilitate their learning experiences at tertiary institutions. Awareness about existing facilities must also be raised in order to offer equal opportunities to them and to enable a seamless inclusion.

  17. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  18. "Recognized, Valued and Supported"? The Experiences of Adult Siblings of People with Autism Plus Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential of adult siblings to offer long-term support to a brother or sister with autism is rarely realized. To understand this, our study explores the expectations of social care among adult siblings. Method: Using qualitative interviews, we spoke to 21 adult siblings about their family relationships and engagement with service…

  19. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  20. Cultural Influences on Perceptions of Health, Illness, and Disability: A Review and Focus on Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Neeraja; Myers, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual paper considers the role of culture in shaping family, professional, and community understanding of developmental disabilities and their treatments. The meanings of health, illness, and disability vary greatly across cultures and across time. We use Bronfenbrenner's ecological model to provide a theoretical framework for examining…

  1. 4-H Programs with a Focus on Including Youth with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Mitzi; Henderson, Karla; Luken, Karen; Bialeschki, Deb; Casey, Mary, II

    2002-01-01

    Intentionally Inclusive 4-H Club Programs is a pilot project intended to create accessible 4-H environments for people with disabilities. An experiential curriculum for 9-12 year-olds was developed and used in three North Carolina counties. Formative evaluation showed how 4-H staff are raising awareness and involving youth and volunteers with…

  2. Issues concerning scientific production of including people with disabilities at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, B M; Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey carried out on leading periodicals in the areas of Ergonomics, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, the aim of which was to identify scientific publications on the inclusion at work of people with disabilities. The survey of articles published on this topic in the following journals was conducted in December 2010: Applied Ergonomics, Ergonomics, the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Disability and Rehabilitation, and the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. The survey covered issues published between 2000 and 2010 and was conducted electronically using the CAPES Periodicals Portal. To collect the articles, it was necessary to check the articles published in each of the issues of each volume of these periodicals. This is how the articles on the topic in question were found. There were 27 articles on the topic of inclusion at work of people with disabilities, of which 13 were published in the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation and 12 in Disability and Rehabilitation. Thus, it is clear that the issue in question is still a subject that is seldom dealt with in these publications and it is noted that only two articles were published in Ergonomics journals in this period, thus confirming the paucity of scientific publications on this subject.

  3. The Developmental Trajectory of Self-Injurious Behaviours in Individuals with Prader Willi Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J. Rice

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group. Three self-injurious behaviours (head banging, skin-picking and hitting and/or biting self were measured on five occasions over 18 years using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC a well-validated caregiver report measure. Rates of skin picking were higher in individuals with PWS and hitting and/or biting self was higher in individuals with ASD compared to the ID group. Rates of head banging were similar across the three groups. Over time, skin-picking and head banging increased with age for individuals with ASD and hitting and/or biting self increased for the PWS group. In the PWS and mixed ID groups head banging decreased with age. These findings suggest that the typology and developmental trajectories of self-injurious behaviours differ between those with PWS and ASD.

  4. Context influences the motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behaviour in children diagnosed with intellectual disability with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2012-05-01

    Children are motivated to engage in stereotypic and repetitive behaviours for a number of reasons. Their motivation seems to change according to context, but little empirical evidence supports that observation. Interventions designed to reduce the behaviours may be improved by an increased understanding of the interaction between motivation and context. Using Rasch analysis, we analysed data describing stereotypic behaviours from 279 Revised Motivation Assessment Scales (MAS:R). Data were gathered from two groups of children: Group 1 with intellectual disability (n = 37) and Group 2 with both intellectual disability and autism (n = 37). We examined behaviours in three contexts: free time, transition and while engaged in tasks. MAS:R distinguishes two intrinsic motivators: enhanced sensation and decreased anxiety and three extrinsic motivators: seeking attention or objects or escape. Significant differences in motivators were observed during free time and transition. No one motivator predominated while children were engaged in tasks. For both groups, sensory enhancement was a more likely motivator in free time and anxiety reduction was a more likely motivator during transition. Transition was the context most likely to influence extrinsic motivators, but there were significant differences between the groups. Context influences the motivation for stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. Transition has a particularly powerful effect. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  6. Salivary α-amylase as a marker of stress reduction in individuals with intellectual disability and autism in response to occupational and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquérusse, J; Azhari, A; Setoh, P; Cainelli, S; Ripoli, C; Venuti, P; Esposito, G

    2018-02-01

    Although the benefits of a range of disability-centric therapies have been well studied, little remains known about how they work, let alone how to monitor these benefits in a precise and reliable way. Here, in two independent studies, we examine how sessions consisting of occupational or music therapy, both widely recognised for their effectiveness, modulate levels of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a now time- and cost-efficient marker of stress, in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Pre-session and post-session levels of sAA were compared in both groups in response to therapy and control sessions. In comparison to control sessions, occupational therapy significantly dampened rises in sAA levels while music therapy significantly decreased baseline sAA levels, highlighting the ability of both types of therapy to reduce stress and by proxy contribute to enhancing overall well-being. Not only do these results confirm the stress-reducing nature of two types of multisensory therapy, but they support the use of sAA as a potential tool for evaluating stress levels in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, providing an important physiological lens that may guide strategies in clinical and non-clinical care for individuals with disabilities. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Signs and Symptoms of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Mitochondrial Disease FAQs Data & Statistics New Data on Autism Research & Tracking ADDM Community Report CADDRE SEED Frequently ...

  8. Autism As a Disorder of High Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    A suite of recent studies has reported positive genetic correlations between autism risk and measures of mental ability. These findings indicate that alleles for autism overlap broadly with alleles for high intelligence, which appears paradoxical given that autism is characterized, overall, by below-average IQ. This paradox can be resolved under the hypothesis that autism etiology commonly involves enhanced, but imbalanced, components of intelligence. This hypothesis is supported by convergent evidence showing that autism and high IQ share a diverse set of convergent correlates, including large brain size, fast brain growth, increased sensory and visual-spatial abilities, enhanced synaptic functions, increased attentional focus, high socioeconomic status, more deliberative decision-making, profession and occupational interests in engineering and physical sciences, and high levels of positive assortative mating. These findings help to provide an evolutionary basis to understanding autism risk as underlain in part by dysregulation of intelligence, a core human-specific adaptation. In turn, integration of studies on intelligence with studies of autism should provide novel insights into the neurological and genetic causes of high mental abilities, with important implications for cognitive enhancement, artificial intelligence, the relationship of autism with schizophrenia, and the treatment of both autism and intellectual disability. PMID:27445671

  9. Jordanian Parents' Beliefs about the Causes of Disability and the Progress of Their Children with Disabilities: Insights on Mainstream Schools and Segregated Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dababneh, Kholoud Adeeb; Al-Zboon, Eman K.; Baibers, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the beliefs of Jordanian parents of children with disabilities (CWD), including intellectual disabilities, specific learning disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder: both in terms of the causes of these disabilities, and the ability of their children to make progress. A qualitative interpretive methodology was employed.…

  10. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  11. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  12. Quality of life and self-determination in students with disabilities included in regular classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Miguel Muñoz Cantero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, quality of life and self-determination begin to position itself as a key axis in interventions aimed at students with disabilities, motivating the interest of researchers and professionals to know their general well-being. This article evaluates the quality of life and self-determination of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities enrolled in regular schools. A case study methodology, descriptive-interpretative, is used through mixed data collection methods. The instruments used are Questionnaire for Assessment the Quality of Life in Teen Students (CCVA and ARC-INICO Scale for Assessment Self-Determination (for 14 students and interviews (for four teachers. A descriptive statistical analysis, contextualized by the extracted information from the interviews, was conducted. The results show high scores in different domains of quality of life, apart from emotional well-being, community inclusion and self-determination that are improvable. Adequate perception of students is observed about their ability to make decisions, choices and a good predisposition take control in different areas of their life. It is necessary to continue inquiring about the impact of educational environment, attitude and perception of teachers and the opportunities offered to students to act self-determined and increase their quality of life.

  13. A Systematic Review of Informal Relationships among Parents of Individuals with Intellectual Disability or Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Thomas L.; Carter, Erik W.

    2016-01-01

    Social relationships can shape the well-being of parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). Although much attention has focused on relationships with other family members or professionals, less is known about the place and contributions of informal relationships (i.e., non-family, unpaid others) in the lives of…

  14. Factors Influencing the Research Participation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and…

  15. The Relationship between Stress and Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n=38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n=37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized-controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than did healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571

  16. "If We Are Going to Include Them We Have to Do It before We Die": Norwegian Seniors' Views of Including Seniors with Intellectual Disability in Senior Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvaldsen, Anne Kristin; Balandin, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Concepts of inclusion and participation are at the core of both international and Norwegian policy for people with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to identify senior centre users' views of the barriers and solutions to the inclusion of seniors with intellectual disability in community senior centres. Method: Thirty…

  17. Autism and Mental Retardation of Young Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN ZHANG; CHENG-YE JI

    2005-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and rehabilitation status of autism and mental retardation in China. Methods Screening test and clinical assessment were conducted for the diagnosis of autism and mental retardation. The assessment included investigation of the histories of medical conditions and development of these two disorders, utilization and needs for the rehabilitation service, and related intellectual and behavioral appraisal. Results Among the 7345 children investigated, the prevalence of autism disorder was 1.10 cases per 1000 children aged 2-6 years (95% CI=0.34 to 2.54), and the prevalence of mental retardation was 10.76 cases per 1000 children (95% CI=8.40 to 13.12). All the children suffering from autistic disorder were intellectually disabled, whereas 31.0% of the non-autism mental retardates had other disabilities. The medical conditions prior to birth and perinatal period were important potential factors for autism. Half of the autistic children and 84% of the children with non-autism mental retardation had never received any rehabilitative service. Conclusions The prevalence of autistic disorder in children aged 2-6 years in Tianjin is rather high. It is urgent to improve the status of the autistic and intelligently disabled young children in China. In order to upgrade the level of early diagnostic and improve the intervention to autism and mental retardation, public awareness and training courses should be heightened.

  18. Altered Gene-Regulatory Function of KDM5C by a Novel Mutation Associated With Autism and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianatos, Christina N; Farrehi, Clara; Friez, Michael J; Burmeister, Margit; Keegan, Catherine E; Iwase, Shigeki

    2018-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) affects up to 2% of the population world-wide and often coincides with other neurological conditions such as autism spectrum disorders. Mutations in KDM5C cause Mental Retardation, X-linked, Syndromic, Claes-Jensen type (MRXSCJ, OMIM #300534) and are one of the most common causes of X-linked ID. KDM5C encodes a histone demethylase for di- and tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2/3), which are enriched in transcriptionally engaged promoter regions. KDM5C regulates gene transcription; however, it remains unknown whether removal of H3K4me is fully responsible for KDM5C-mediated gene regulation. Most mutations functionally tested to date result in reduced enzymatic activity of KDM5C, indicating loss of demethylase function as the primary mechanism underlying MRXSCJ. Here, we report a novel KDM5C mutation, R1115H, identified in an individual displaying MRXSCJ-like symptoms. The carrier mother's cells exhibited a highly skewed X-inactivation pattern. The KDM5C-R1115H substitution does not have an impact on enzymatic activity nor protein stability. However, when overexpressed in post-mitotic neurons, KDM5C-R1115H failed to fully suppress expression of target genes, while the mutant also affected expression of a distinct set of genes compared to KDM5C-wildtype. These results suggest that KDM5C may have non-enzymatic roles in gene regulation, and alteration of these roles contributes to MRXSCJ in this patient.

  19. New insights in the interpretation of array-CGH: autism spectrum disorder and positive family history for intellectual disability predict the detection of pathogenic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Vitiello, Francesco; Casertano, Alberto; Fontana, Paolo; Genesio, Rita; Bruzzese, Dario; Ginocchio, Virginia Maria; Mormile, Angela; Nitsch, Lucio; Andria, Generoso; Melis, Daniela

    2016-04-12

    Array-CGH (aCGH) is presently used into routine clinical practice for diagnosis of patients with intellectual disability (ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ACGH could detect small chromosomal imbalances, copy number variations (CNVs), and closely define their size and gene content. ACGH detects pathogenic imbalances in 14-20 % of patients with ID. The aims of this study were: to establish clinical clues potentially associated with pathogenic CNVs and to identify cytogenetic indicators to predict the pathogenicity of the variants of uncertain significance (VOUS) in a large cohort of paediatric patients. We enrolled 214 patients referred for either: ID, and/or ASD and/or MCA to genetic services at the Federico II University of Naples, Department of Translational Medicine. For each patient we collected clinical and imaging data. All the patients were tested with aCGH or as first-tier test or as part of a wider diagnostic work-up. Pathologic data were detected in 65 individuals (30 %) and 46 CNVs revealed a known syndrome. The pathological CNVs were usually deletions showing the highest gene-dosage content. The positive family history for ID/ASD/MCA and ASD were good indicators for detecting pathological chromosomal rearrangements. Other clinical features as eyes anomalies, hearing loss, neurological signs, cutaneous dyscromia and endocrinological problems seem to be potential predictors of pathological CNVs. Among patients carrying VOUS we analyzed genetic features including CNVs size, presence of deletion or duplication, genic density, multiple CNVs, to clinical features. Higher gene density was found in patients affected by ID. This result suggest that higher gene content has more chances to include pathogenic gene involved and causing ID in these patients. Our study suggest the use of aCGH as first-tier test in patients with neurdevelopmental phenotypes. The inferred results have been used for building a flow-chart to be

  20. The extent to which students with disabilities are included in elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In educational context inclusion can be defined as including a number of key perspectives, policies and practices (such as reducing barriers) to learning and ... It was evident that students at higher education institutions should be encouraged to participate in sport or any related physical and recreational activity that can ...

  1. [Suicidal behaviors in adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by an atypical sociability, alterations in communication, restricted interests and stereotypies, with adding affective and adaptative disabilities. The suicidal behaviors are frequently observed in the adolescents and adults with an ASD without intellectual deficience. However, the clinical research on the topic is limited and the diagnosis not assessed in the emergency units. Among the individual risk factors of the suicidal behavior in ASD patients, mood and anxiety disorders are found as well as a familial affective disorder history. The intimidation and the lack of socio-professional integration were also reported as environnemental risk factors. Laters tudies taking into account the cognitive characteristics would permit to investigate the suicidal phenomenology in ASD patients.

  2. Autism Treatment and Family Support Models Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Esbati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a lifelong neurological disability of unknown etiology. The criteria for a diagnosis of autism are based on a triad of impairments in social interaction, communication and a lack of flexibility in thinking and behavior There are several factors which are likely to contribute to this variation including the definition of autism and variability in diagnosis amongst professionals, however anecdotally there appears to have been a steadily increasing demand for services. The purpose of this review of research literature relating to the management and treatment of children with autism is to identify the most effective models of best practice. The review includes Comparative evidence supporting a range of treatment and intervention models, across the range of individuals included within autism spectrum disorders, psychodynamic treatment/management which are based on the assumption that autism is the result of emotional damage to the child, usually because of failure to develop a close attachment to parents, especially the mother, biological treatments, educational and behavioral interventions, communication therapies, cost benefits and supporting families.The research is examined for evidence to support best practice models in supporting families at the time of diagnosis and assessment and an overview of the nature of comprehensive supports that help reduce stresses that may be experienced by families of a child with autism and promote inclusion in community activities.

  3. The Effect of Autism Spectrum Disorders on Adaptive Independent Living Skills in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Dempsey, Timothy; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2009-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a class of conditions categorized by communication problems, ritualistic behaviors, and deficits in social behaviors. While evidence supporting a genetic component of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is strong, no specific genetic marker has been identified. Thus, professionals have had to utilize intelligence tests…

  4. Screening individuals with intellectual disability, autism and Tourette's syndrome for KCNK9 mutations and aberrant DNA methylation within the 8q24 imprinted cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado, Marta Sánchez; Camprubí, Cristina; Tümer, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The phenotype overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) & intellectual disabilities (ID) is mirrored at the genetic level, with common genes being reported mutated in variety of developmental disabilities. However despite widespread genetic screening for mutations, in approximately 40......-60% of childhood developmental disorders the genetic cause remains unknown. Several genome-wide linkage screens in ASD have identified a locus mapping to distal 8q. We have recently identified a novel brain-specific imprinted cluster at this location, which contains the reciprocally expressed maternal KCNK9...... and paternally expressed non-coding PEG13 transcripts, the latter located within an intron of TRAPPC9. Interestingly, mutations of KCNK9 and TRAPPC9 have been reported in Birk-Barel mental retardation and non-syndromic familial forms of ID, respectively. Here, we report a genetic screen for KCNK9 coding...

  5. Early Mortality and Primary Causes of Death in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. Methods The study population comprised all mothers of live-born children in Western Australia from 1983–2005. We accessed state-wide databases which enabled us to link socio-demographic details, birth dates, diagnoses of intellectual disability or ASD in the children and dates and causes of death for all mothers who had died prior to 2011. Using Cox Regression with death by any cause and death by each of the three primary causes as the event of interest, we calculated hazard ratios for death for mothers of children intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. Results and Discussion During the study period, mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD had more than twice the risk of death. Mothers of children with intellectual disability were 40% more likely to die of cancer; 150% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease and nearly 200% more likely to die from misadventure than other mothers. Due to small numbers, only hazard ratios for cancer were calculated for mothers of children with ASD. These mothers were about 50% more likely to die from cancer than other mothers. Possible causes and implications of our results are discussed. Conclusion Similar studies, pooling data from registries elsewhere, would improve our understanding of factors increasing the mortality of mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD. This would allow the implementation of informed services and interventions to improve these mothers' longevity. PMID:25535971

  6. Early mortality and primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fairthorne

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. METHODS: The study population comprised all mothers of live-born children in Western Australia from 1983-2005. We accessed state-wide databases which enabled us to link socio-demographic details, birth dates, diagnoses of intellectual disability or ASD in the children and dates and causes of death for all mothers who had died prior to 2011. Using Cox Regression with death by any cause and death by each of the three primary causes as the event of interest, we calculated hazard ratios for death for mothers of children intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the study period, mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD had more than twice the risk of death. Mothers of children with intellectual disability were 40% more likely to die of cancer; 150% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease and nearly 200% more likely to die from misadventure than other mothers. Due to small numbers, only hazard ratios for cancer were calculated for mothers of children with ASD. These mothers were about 50% more likely to die from cancer than other mothers. Possible causes and implications of our results are discussed. CONCLUSION: Similar studies, pooling data from registries elsewhere, would improve our understanding of factors increasing the mortality of mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD. This would allow the implementation of informed services and interventions to improve these mothers' longevity.

  7. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  8. Prevalence and impact of unhealthy weight in a national sample of US adolescents with autism and other learning and behavioral disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Keydra L; Schieve, Laura A; Visser, Susanna; Boulet, Sheree; Sharma, Andrea J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2014-10-01

    We estimated the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight among US adolescents with and without autism and other learning and behavioral developmental disabilities (DDs) and assessed the health consequences of obesity among adolescents with DDs. From the 2008 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we selected 9,619 adolescents ages 12-17 years. Parent respondents reported weight, height, presence of DDs and health conditions. We calculated body mass index (BMI) and defined obesity, overweight, and underweight as ≥95th, ≥85th to obesity and underweight prevalences were higher among adolescents with than without DDs [adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) 1.5 (1.25-1.75) and 1.5 (1.01-2.20), respectively]. Obesity was elevated among adolescents with all DD types, and was highest among the autism subgroup [aPR 2.1 (1.44-3.16)]. Adolescents with either a DD or obesity had higher prevalences of common respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatological and neurological conditions/symptoms than nonobese adolescents without DDs. Adolescents with both DDs and obesity had the highest estimates for most conditions. Obesity is high among adolescents with autism and other DDs and poses added chronic health risks. Obesity prevention and management approaches for this vulnerable population subgroup need further consideration.

  9. Caregiver Burdens and Preventive Dental Care for Children with Autism Spectrum disorder, developmental disability and/or mental health conditions: National Survey of CSHCN, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Rini; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Madhavan, S. Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the burdens of caregivers on one perception of the need and receipt of preventive dental care for a subset of children with special health care needs—children with Autism Spectrum disorder, developmental disability and/or mental health conditions (CASD/DD/MHC). Methods The authors used the 2009–2010 National Survey of CSHCN. The survey included questions addressing preventive dental care and caregivers’ financial, employment, and time-related burdens. The associations of these burdens on perceptions and receipt of preventive dental care use were analyzed with bivariate Chi square analyses and multinomial logistic regressions for CASD/DD/MHC (N=16,323). Results Overall, 16.3% of CASD/DD/MHC had an unmet preventive dental care need. There were 40.0% of caregivers who reported financial burden, 20.3% who reported employment burden, and 10.8% who reported time burden. A higher percentage of caregivers with financial burden, employment burden, and time-related burden reported that their CASD/DD/MHC did not receive needed preventive dental care (14.1 %, 16.5%, 17.7% respectively) compared to caregivers without financial, employment, or time burdens (9.0%, 9.6%, 11.0% respectively). Caregivers with financial burden (adjusted multinomial odds ratio, 1.38 [95%CI: 1.02, 1.86]) and employment burden (adjusted multinomial odds ratio, 1.45 [95%CI: 1.02, 2.06]) were more likely to report that their child did not receive preventive dental care despite perceived need compared to caregivers without financial or employment burdens. Conclusions for practice Unmet needs for preventive dental care were associated with employment and financial burdens of the caregivers of CASD/DD/MHC. PMID:27465058

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.

  11. To Include or Not to Include--This Is the Question: Attitudes of Inclusive Teachers toward the Inclusion of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Sharon; Einat, Tomer

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have emphasized the relationship between success of policies of inclusion and acceptance and accommodation of students with intellectual disabilities in mainstream settings and teachers' positive attitudes toward them. Using semi-structured interviews and interpretive and constructivist strategies, the present study qualitatively…

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... with a mitochondrial disease: may also have an autism spectrum disorder, may have some of the symptoms/signs of ...

  13. When Autistic Behavior Suggests a Disease Other than Classic Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Mark D

    2017-02-01

    Most neurodevelopmental disorders are defined by their clinical symptoms and many disorders share common features. Recently there has been an increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, although concerns have been raised about the accuracy of the reported prevalence rates. This article reviews the essential features of autism spectrum disorder and describes other conditions that may include similar symptoms that may be misdiagnosed as autism spectrum disorder (primary communication disorders, anxiety disorders, attachment disorders, intellectual disability, vision and hearing impairment, and normal variations). An approach to differential diagnosis is discussed with particular attention to evaluation of young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  15. Microdeletions including FMR1 in three female patients with intellectual disability - further delineation of the phenotype and expression studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, A M; Wohlleber, E; Engels, H

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide...... clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random...

  16. Autism Narratives in Media Coverage of the MMR Vaccine-Autism Controversy under a Crip Futurism Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Benjamin W

    2018-03-09

    While previous studies in health communication have examined online news media regarding autism, there is a lack of research that critically examines how such media representations may stigmatize autism and seeks to eliminate the condition, particularly in the context of the resurging measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine-autism controversy. To address this gap in the literature, this study analyzes 153 articles that engage the MMR vaccine-autism controversy from the top 10 online news sources in the U.S. from September 2015 through July 2017. It draws from Kafer's (2013) work in Feminist, Crip, Queer, using a lens of crip futurism to interpret three major narrative themes: a death and survival narrative that purports autism as a worst-case scenario, a societal problem narrative, and a preventative narrative that seeks to eliminate the condition. These themes suggest that online news media narratives about autism surrounding the autism-MMR controversy play into stereotypes about autism, including stigmatization and prioritization of preventive behaviors and cures over supporting the lived experiences of autistic individuals. Continued research on the impact of online media portrayals of autism specifically, and disability in health contexts generally, is called for.

  17. Creating a "Win-Win IEP" for Students with Autism: A How-To Manual for Parents and Educators. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Beth

    This book is intended to provide parents of students with autism with necessary information for the Individualized Education Program (IEP) process and includes relevant information from the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters discuss the following topics: (1) introductory information; (2) definitions of autism, the basic…

  18. Epilepsy in patients with autism: links, risks and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besag FMC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frank MC Besag Neurodevelopmental Team, East London Foundation NHS Trust, Family Consultation Clinic, Bedford, UK Abstract: Autism is more common in people with epilepsy, approximately 20%, and epilepsy is more common in people with autism with reported rates of approximately 20%. However, these figures are likely to be affected by the current broader criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, which have contributed to an increased prevalence of autism, with the result that the rate for ASD in epilepsy is likely to be higher and the figure for epilepsy in ASD is likely to be lower. Some evidence suggests that there are two peaks of epilepsy onset in autism, in infancy and adolescence. The rate of autism in epilepsy is much higher in those with intellectual disability. In conditions such as the Landau–Kleffner syndrome and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, the epilepsy itself may present with autistic features. There is no plausible mechanism for autism causing epilepsy, however. The co-occurrence of autism and epilepsy is almost certainly the result of underlying factors predisposing to both conditions, including both genetic and environmental factors. Conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and sleep disorders are common in both epilepsy and autism. Epilepsy is generally not a contraindication to treating these conditions with suitable medication, but it is important to take account of relevant drug interactions. One of the greatest challenges in autism is to determine why early childhood regression occurs in perhaps 25%. Further research should focus on finding the cause for such regression. Whether epilepsy plays a role in the regression of a subgroup of children with autism who lose skills remains to be determined. Keywords: epilepsy, autism, regression, genetics, environment, Landau-Kleffner, CSWS 

  19. Autism in action: Reduced bodily connectedness during social interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. (Lieke E. Peper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills. New entry points for the development of such assessments may be found in 'bodily connectedness', the attunement of bodily movement between two individuals. In typical development, bodily connectedness is related to psychological connectedness, including social skills and relation quality. Limitations in bodily connectedness could be a central mechanism underlying the social impairment in autism. While bodily connectedness can be minutely assessed with advanced techniques, our understanding of these skills in autism is limited. This Perspective provides examples of how the potential relation between bodily connectedness and specific characteristics of autism can be examined using methods from the coordination dynamics approach. Uncovering this relation is particularly important for developing sensitive tools to assess the tendency to initiate social interactions and the dynamics of mutual adjustments during social interactions, as current assessments are not suited to grasp ongoing dynamics and reciprocity in behavior. The outcomes of such research may yield valuable openings for the development of diagnostic markers for autism that can be applied across the lifespan.

  20. Autism in Action: Reduced Bodily Connectedness during Social Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, C Lieke E; van der Wal, Sija J; Begeer, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills. New entry points for the development of such assessments may be found in 'bodily connectedness', the attunement of bodily movement between two individuals. In typical development, bodily connectedness is related to psychological connectedness, including social skills and relation quality. Limitations in bodily connectedness could be a central mechanism underlying the social impairment in autism. While bodily connectedness can be minutely assessed with advanced techniques, our understanding of these skills in autism is limited. This Perspective provides examples of how the potential relation between bodily connectedness and specific characteristics of autism can be examined using methods from the coordination dynamics approach. Uncovering this relation is particularly important for developing sensitive tools to assess the tendency to initiate social interactions and the dynamics of mutual adjustments during social interactions, as current assessments are not suited to grasp ongoing dynamics and reciprocity in behavior. The outcomes of such research may yield valuable openings for the development of diagnostic markers for autism that can be applied across the lifespan.

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Irish Society for Autism - Wexford

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solayar, Gandhi N

    2011-10-28

    Abstract Background Current treatments for the prevention of thromboembolism include heparin and low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). A number of studies have suggested that long term administration of these drugs may adversely affect osteoblasts and therefore, bone metabolism. Xarelto™ (Rivaroxaban) is a new anti-thrombotic drug for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the possible effects of rivaroxaban on osteoblast viability, function and gene expression compared to enoxaparin, a commonly used LMWH. Methods Primary human osteoblast cultures were treated with varying concentrations of rivaroxaban (0.013, 0.13, 1.3 and 13 μg\\/ml) or enoxaparin (1, 10 and 100 μg\\/ml). The effect of each drug on osteoblast function was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. The MTS assay was used to assess the effect of drug treatments on cell proliferation. Changes in osteocalcin, Runx2 and BMP-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression following drug treatments were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Rivaroxaban and enoxaparin treatment did not adversely affect osteoblast viability. However, both drugs caused a significant reduction in osteoblast function, as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity. This reduction in osteoblast function was associated with a reduction in the mRNA expression of the bone marker, osteocalcin, the transcription factor, Runx2, and the osteogenic factor, BMP-2. Conclusions These data show that rivaroxaban treatment may negatively affect bone through a reduction in osteoblast function.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  3. The Association Between Social Skills and Mental Health in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, With and Without Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Belinda; Wong, Michelle; Dossetor, David; Hayes, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with social skills deficits and co-occurring mental health difficulties. ASD frequently co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID). There is scant literature exploring the association between social skills and mental health in children with ASD, with or without ID. Participants were 292 children aged six to 13 with ASD (217 without ID; 76 with Mild ID). Parents and teachers rated social skills and mental health using standardised questionnaires. Greater mental health difficulties were associated with greater social responsiveness difficulties and poorer social skills across the sample. Effect sizes were large. Social skills explained a significant proportion of the variance in mental health scores across the sample. The study has important implications for treatment and future research.

  4. An iPad™-based picture and video activity schedule increases community shopping skills of a young adult with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckley, Elizabeth; Tincani, Matt; Guld Fisher, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the iPad 2™ with Book Creator™ software to provide visual cues and video prompting to teach shopping skills in the community to a young adult with an autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. A multiple probe across settings design was used to assess effects of the intervention on the participant's independence with following a shopping list in a grocery store across three community locations. Visual cues and video prompting substantially increased the participant's shopping skills within two of the three community locations, skill increases maintained after the intervention was withdrawn, and shopping skills generalized to two untaught shopping items. Social validity surveys suggested that the participant's parent and staff favorably viewed the goals, procedures, and outcomes of intervention. The iPad 2™ with Book Creator™ software may be an effective way to teach independent shopping skills in the community; additional replications are needed.

  5. Detective Questions: A Strategy for Improving Inference-Making in Children With Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent problems in reading comprehension is the difficulty in making inferences from the text, especially for students with mild disabilities (i.e., children with learning disabilities or with high-functioning autism). It is essential, therefore, that educators include the teaching of reading strategies to improve their students'…

  6. The impact of including children with intellectual disability in general education classrooms on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.

  7. The Teaching Strategies used by Teachers for Learners with Autism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amy Stambach

    A learner who has autism and blindness is a child who has a combination of both ... The Ominde Report (1964) in Kenya advocated for teacher training to include a .... special diet, speech therapy among others were lacking as supported by the ... intellectual disability, physical, communication difficulties, and cerebral palsy ...

  8. Autism Diagnosis and Screening: Factors to Consider in Differential Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer; Turygin, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in assessment methods to diagnose disorders on the autism spectrum. Many reasons for this trend exist and include advancing knowledge on how to make a diagnosis, the heterogeneity of the spectrum, the realization that different methods may be needed based on age and intellectual disability. Other factors…

  9. Diagnosing Autism in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Validation of the DiBAS-R in an Independent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Manuel; Böhm, Julia; Sappok, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    The study assessed the diagnostic validity of the diagnostic behavioral assessment for autism spectrum disorders-revised (DiBAS-R; 19-item screening scale based on ratings by caregivers) in a clinical sample of 381 adults with ID. Analysis revealed a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.67 in the overall sample (70.3% agreement). Sensitivity…

  10. Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…

  11. The Perception of Four Basic Emotions in Human and Nonhuman Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    Children who experienced autism, mental retardation, and language disorders; and, children in a clinical control group were shown photographs of human female, orangutan, and canine (boxer) faces expressing happiness, sadness, anger, surprise and a neutral expression. For each species of faces, children were asked to identify the happy, sad, angry,…

  12. Assessing the Dim Light Melatonin Onset in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and No Comorbid Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma K.; Richdale, Amanda L.; Hazi, Agnes; Prendergast, Luke A.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed melatonin levels and the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and also investigated the relationships between melatonin and objectively measured sleep parameters. Sixteen adults with ASD (ASD-Only), 12 adults with ASD medicated for comorbid diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  14. A review of music and movement therapies for children with autism: Embodied interventions for multisystem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Narayan Bhat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Evidence suggests that musical training significantly impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, motor, and behavioral development, in children with ASDs, typically developing individuals, and children with other neurological disabilities such as dyslexia and intellectual disabilities. In this review, we first highlight mechanisms and evidence for how music and movement interventions can enhance communication, social-emotional, behavioral, and motor skills in individuals with autism. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies in children with autism that provide neuroanatomical evidence for the effects of music therapies in autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research.

  15. Autism awareness in children and young people: surveys of two populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenburger, K; Jordan, J-A; McKerr, L; Lloyd, K; Schubotz, D

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly, pupils on the autism spectrum are educated in inclusive mainstream classrooms. However, they often experience social isolation and bullying, and raising the awareness of autism in peers has been suggested as a remedy. In order to assess autism awareness in peers, autism-related questions were included in two large-scale surveys: the Kids Life and Times survey for 11-year olds and the Young Life and Times survey for 16-year olds; a total of n = 3353 children and young people completed the surveys. Autism awareness was higher for the teenagers (80%) than for the younger children (50%). Many of the children knew someone with autism (50%) and generally reported positive and supportive attitudes. Self-reported prevalence of autism was 3.1% for teenagers and 2.7% for the younger children. Peers recognised bullying as a problem and were willing to help. Children and young people have good levels of awareness and knowledge about autism and reported positive attitudes towards peers with autism and are willing to help those who are bullied. A higher than expected number of children and young people self-reported being on the autism spectrum. These findings bode well for peer-mediated support strategies for inclusive education. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Vocal Connections: How Voicework in Music Therapy Helped a Young Girl with Severe Learning Disabilities and Autism to Engage in her Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Warnock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the use of the non-verbal voice in music therapy with children with severe learning disabilities, complex needs and autism. Recent literature on the use of the voice in music therapy is summarised and links are made between the aims of music therapy and those of special educational establishments. Theories regarding the voice and the self, and the important connection between body awareness and emotion as precursors to learning are referred to, particularly in relation to learning disability. Through a case study, I demonstrate how a young girl used voicework to build connections with herself and the music therapist, whereby consequently she became more motivated to interact with her surroundings. I argue hence that the use of the non-verbal voice in music therapy, through its intrinsic connection to identity and internal emotional states can contribute significantly towards the healthy developments necessary for a person to be able to learn. Therefore, by increasing our knowledge about the actual process of learning, and the significance of our work within that process, we can move towards demonstrating clearer outcomes of music therapy in the educational context and have a stronger ‘voice’ within the multi-disciplinary teams that serve this population.

  17. iStimulation: Apple iPad Use with Children Who Are Visually Impaired, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, Laura V.; Ouimet, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its creation in the early 1980s, Light Box, a product developed by the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) that is designed for working on functional vision tasks with children who have visual impairments or multiple disabilities, has been an effective tool to help teach children with visual impairments to locate and track items…

  18. “When Physical Educators let pupils “pass” it makes them outsiders”- A sociological analysis of pupils with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary schools in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    It was decided by law in Denmark in 2012 that more children diagnosed with Autism and ADHD were to be included in primary schools. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affect social communication, interaction and often also motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). ...

  19. Screening individuals with intellectual disability, autism and Tourette's syndrome for KCNK9 mutations and aberrant DNA methylation within the 8q24 imprinted cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Delgado, Marta; Camprubí, Cristina; Tümer, Zeynep; Martínez, Francisco; Milà, Montserrat; Monk, David

    2014-09-01

    The phenotype overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) & intellectual disabilities (ID) is mirrored at the genetic level, with common genes being reported mutated in variety of developmental disabilities. However despite widespread genetic screening for mutations, in approximately 40-60% of childhood developmental disorders the genetic cause remains unknown. Several genome-wide linkage screens in ASD have identified a locus mapping to distal 8q. We have recently identified a novel brain-specific imprinted cluster at this location, which contains the reciprocally expressed maternal KCNK9 and paternally expressed non-coding PEG13 transcripts, the latter located within an intron of TRAPPC9. Interestingly, mutations of KCNK9 and TRAPPC9 have been reported in Birk-Barel mental retardation and non-syndromic familial forms of ID, respectively. Here, we report a genetic screen for KCNK9 coding mutations and potential epigenetic aberrations that could result in deregulated imprinting in a cohort of 120 ID, 86 ASD and 86 Tourette syndrome patients. Fifteen of the ID patients had clinical characteristics overlapping with Birk-Barel syndrome. Sequencing of the two coding exons of KCNK9 failed to identify pathologic mutations, with only one variant, rs2615374, being present with allele frequencies similar to those described in dbSNP database. DNA methylation profiling of the KCNK9 and TRAPPC9 promoters, the maternally methylated PEG13 DMR and a long-range enhancer region were normal in all patients. Our findings suggest that mutations of KCNK9 or epigenetic disturbances within the PEG13 imprinted cluster do not significantly contribute to the cause of the developmental disabilities tested in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Expectations and Anticipations of Middle and High School Special Education Teachers in Preparing Their Students with Intellectual Disability for Future Adult Roles Including Those as Partner and Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of individual ethnographic interviews and focus groups, I explored the expectations and anticipations of middle and high school special education teachers as they carry out their professional charge of educating their students with intellectual disability for lives in the least restrictive environment, including possible adult…

  1. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  2. Advanced parental age and the risk of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Maureen S; Maenner, Matthew J; Newschaffer, Craig J; Lee, Li-Ching; Cunniff, Christopher M; Daniels, Julie L; Kirby, Russell S; Leavitt, Lewis; Miller, Lisa; Zahorodny, Walter; Schieve, Laura A

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated independent effects of maternal and paternal age on risk of autism spectrum disorder. A case-cohort design was implemented using data from 10 US study sites participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. The 1994 birth cohort included 253,347 study-site births with complete parental age information. Cases included 1,251 children aged 8 years with complete parental age information from the same birth cohort and identified as having an autism spectrum disorder based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. After adjustment for the other parent's age, birth order, maternal education, and other covariates, both maternal and paternal age were independently associated with autism (adjusted odds ratio for maternal age > or =35 vs. 25-29 years = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.6; adjusted odds ratio for paternal age > or =40 years vs. 25-29 years = 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.8). Firstborn offspring of 2 older parents were 3 times more likely to develop autism than were third- or later-born offspring of mothers aged 20-34 years and fathers aged autism risk with both maternal and paternal age has potential implications for public health planning and investigations of autism etiology.

  3. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.

  4. Ubiquinol Improves Symptoms in Children with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvozdjakova, Anna; Kucharska, Jarmila; Ostatnikova, Daniela; Babinska, Katarina; Nakladal, Dalibor; Crane, Fred L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression) and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood.

  5. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Autism Spectrum Disorder Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Consumer Summary September 23, 2014 Download PDF 692. ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  6. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  7. Riding the rapids: living with autism or disability--an evaluation of a parenting support intervention for parents of disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttard, Lucy; Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Susan; Beecham, Jennifer; Todd, Samantha; Bromley, Jo

    2014-10-01

    Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to support parents of disabled children to manage their child's behaviour problems is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group-delivered intervention (Riding the Rapids) which was specifically developed for parents of a child with a disability or autistic spectrum condition. This programme has been routinely delivered by a community-based mental health team across an urban, multi-ethnic locality for a number of years. A non-randomised controlled study design comprising an intervention group (n=48) and comparator (no intervention) group (n=28) was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention on child behaviour (Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory; parent-set goals) and parenting efficacy and satisfaction (Parents Sense of Competence Scale) at post-intervention and six-month follow-up. Data on costs to the service provider of delivering the intervention were also collected. Receipt of the intervention was associated with significant reductions in parent-reported behaviour problems and significant improvements in parenting efficacy and satisfaction. At six-month follow-up, progress towards achieving parent-set child behaviour goals and parenting satisfaction had been maintained. Post hoc analysis suggests parents who do not have English as a first language may not benefit as much as other parents from this intervention. Findings suggest this is a promising intervention for parents of a child with a disability that is likely to be less resource intensive to service providers than individually delivered interventions. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  9. Trends in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, intellectual disability, and vision impairment, metropolitan atlanta, 1991-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Van Naarden Braun

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, cerebral palsy (CP, hearing loss (HL, intellectual disability (ID, and vision impairment (VI over a 15-20 year time period, with specific focus on concurrent changes in ASD and ID prevalence. We used data from a population-based developmental disabilities surveillance program for 8-year-olds in metropolitan Atlanta. From 1991-2010, prevalence estimates of ID and HL were stable with slight increases in VI prevalence. CP prevalence was constant from 1993-2010. The average annual increase in ASD prevalence was 9.3% per year from 1996-2010, with a 269% increase from 4.2 per 1,000 in 1996 to 15.5 per 1,000 in 2010. From 2000-2010, the prevalence of ID without ASD was stable; during the same time, the prevalence of ASD with and without co-occurring ID increased by an average of 6.6% and 9.6% per year, respectively. ASD prevalence increases were found among both males and females, and among nearly all racial/ethnic subgroups and levels of intellectual ability. Average annual prevalence estimates from 1991-2010 underscore the significant community resources needed to provide early intervention and ongoing supports for children with ID (13.0 per 1,000, CP, (3.5 per 1,000, HL (1.4 per 1,000 and VI (1.3 in 1,000, with a growing urgency for children with ASD.

  10. An Evaluation of Multi-Component Exposure Treatment of Needle Phobia in an Adult with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J.; Symons, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fear of medical procedures in general and needles in particular can be a difficult clinical challenge to providing effective health care for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Methods: A changing criterion design was used to examine graduated exposure treatment for blood-injury-injection phobia in an adult…

  11. Associations between Resilience and the Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Elizabeth; Ekas, Naomi; Hastings, Richard P.; Griffith, Gemma M.

    2018-01-01

    There is variability in the extent to which mothers are affected by the behavior problems of their children with developmental disabilities (DD). We explore whether maternal resilience functions as a protective or compensatory factor. In Studies 1 and 2, using moderated multiple regression models, we found evidence that maternal resilience…

  12. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  13. Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically

  14. Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

    1986-03-01

    The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.

  15. The Association Between Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Yasmeen

    2013-01-01

    Every day many thousands of children face the complications of Autism. According to Geraghty, Depasquale, and Lane (2010), Autism has become one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental disabilities, with one in one hundred children diagnosed with Autism in the United States every day. The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has not been determined. One of many questions researchers are asking is whether an association exists between gastrointestinal disorders and Autism. This li...

  16. Close Encounters of the Medical Kind: When Kids with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities Visit the Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Taking a young child to the doctor is not always the easiest of tasks, even when the child does not have a disability. This can be seen in the sheer number of children's books on the subject. Using key words such as "going to the doctor," a quick search of Amazon.com's children's book listing brings up a list of over 1,200 books. While the books…

  17. Symptoms of Autism Among Children with Congenital Deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    concerning individuals with congenital deafblindness. This study examines symptoms of autism among 71 children with congenital deafblindness using the Autism Behavior Checklist. The cohort of children with congenital deafblindness was found to have symptoms of autism on a level similar to children......Associations between congenital deafness or blindness and autism have been found. The main consequences of congenital sensory impairment, being barriers for communication, language and social interaction development, may lead to symptoms of autism. To date only few studies have been reported...... with another developmental disorder than autism for example intellectual disability. No association was found between severity of congenital sensory impairment and severity or type of symptoms of autism....

  18. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger font sizes and more white space. Ease of Use included discussion about PROMs’ administration. While health professionals suggested PROMs could be completed in waiting rooms, patients preferred settings with more privacy and where they could access help from people they know. Contextual Factors included other challenges and wider issues associated with completing PROMs. While health professionals highlighted difficulties created by the system in managing patients with low literacy/learning disabilities, patient participants stressed that understanding the purpose of PROMs was important to reduce intimidation. Conclusions Adjusting PROMs’ format, giving an explicit choice of where patients can complete them, and clearly conveying PROMs’ purpose and benefit to patients may help to prevent inequality when using PROMs in health services.

  19. A Virtual Approach to Teaching Safety Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Trisha; Scudder, Rosalind R.; Weheba, Gamal; Crumrine, Daiquirie

    2007-01-01

    Recent advancements in the development of hardware/software configurations for delivering virtual reality (VR) environments to individuals with disabilities have included approaches for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article describes a study comparing benefits of using VR to benefits of an integrated/visual treatment model…

  20. The relationship between sensory processing and anxiety on cars scale in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Neda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by deficits in social interactions, social communication, stereotyped behavior associated with sensory disorders occurring before the age of 3. There has been a growing trend of this neurodevelopmental disorder in recent years. Although the sensory processing problems have been noticed since the first descriptions of autism spectrum disorders, it is only the DSM-5, diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, that includes sensory problems, as the crucial symptom in diagnostic profile of autism spectrum disorder. Objective: To establish the relationship between functional areas related to sensory processing and anxiety, as well as to determine the degree of autistic disorder in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Method: 42 participants, adolescents and adults with severe autism disorder and intellectual disability, aged 15-35, of both sexes from Belgrade were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS used to determine the degree of autistic disorder. The following functional areas were compared: sensory interests and anxiety in adolescents and adults with autistic spectrum of both sexes. Results: The results indicated the existence of the relationship between anxiety and unusual sensory interests and the severity of autism spectrum disorder. The results showed that there was a correlation between visual perception and the level of intellectual functioning, especially of the severity of autistic disorder and visual perception. Conclusion: These results indicate the reasons of the problems and difficulties in the field of general adaptation of the individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

  1. Using peer-mediated instruction to support communication involving a student with autism during mathematics activities: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paulo; Alant, Erna

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an A-B singled subject design to explore the extent to which a peer-mediated intervention supported a first-grade student with autism's usage both in purpose and frequency of a speech-generating device (SGD) during mathematics activities. The intervention involved teaching a peer without a disability to encourage the student with autism to use the SGD during partnered mathematics activities. Our analysis involved visual and descriptive examination of trends and patterns over time, and comparison of means between and within phases. We found during the course of this study that (1) the student with autism's level of overall communication, which included the relevancy of these communicative behaviors, increased; (2) the student with autism's level of spontaneous communication acts increased; and (3) the peer became more independent with supporting the student with autism's communication. Implications for future research and practice are provided.

  2. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the central government maintains a registry of certified cases. The registry started to enroll cases of ASD in 1990, providing a unique opportunity for studying ASD at the national level. Because the government discourages the certification under 3 years of age, we limited our analyses to those who were at least 3 years old. Using the registry data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ASD by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. From 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old increased from 3995 to 8072 annually, and the prevalence generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 5.64:1 to 6.06:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). A higher prevalence was observed in the urban areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 2.24:1 to 2.72:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  4. Primary care for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Paul S; Farley, Megan; Davis, Toby

    2010-02-15

    The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted until after social skill and communication impairments are exhibited. Physicians should perform developmental surveillance at all well-child visits, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administering an autism-specific screening tool at the 18- and 24-month visits. A referral for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is appropriate if concerns arise from surveillance, screening, or parental observations. The goals of long-term management are to maximize functional independence and community engagement, minimize maladaptive behaviors, and provide family and caregiver support. Physicians play an important role in coordinating care through an interdisciplinary team; referring families for specialized services; and treating children's associated conditions, including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Autism is a lifelong condition, but early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment can improve the prognosis, whereas associated medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual disability can worsen the prognosis.

  5. A Review of Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Plotts, Cynthia; Kozeneski, Nicole; Skinner-Foster, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of widely used measures for assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders, including the "Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised," "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule," "Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition," "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition," and "Childhood Autism…

  6. 45 CFR 1308.15 - Eligibility criteria: Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Autism. 1308.15 Section 1308... Services Performance Standards § 1308.15 Eligibility criteria: Autism. A child is classified as having autism when the child has a developmental disability that significantly affects verbal and non-verbal...

  7. Emerging Technologies in Autism Diagnosis, Therapy, Treatment, and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder is the fastest growing developmental disability today. Autism is a syndrome with a diverse set of symptoms--rarely consistent across diagnosed individuals, and requiring a combination of therapies, educational approaches, and treatments. There is no known cure for autism. Instead treatment is left to educators and…

  8. Southeast Asian Parents Raising a Child with Autism: A Qualitative Investigation of Coping Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, June; Yoder, Marian K.; Canham, Daryl

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability increasing in incidence over the past decade. Parents of children with autism experience prolonged levels of stress and isolation. Using qualitative research design, nine parents of children with autism participated in this study that focused on the effect of autism on the family, coping styles, and support…

  9. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A ...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchack, Kristian E; Thomas, Craig A

    2016-12-15

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills. Therefore, early identification of autism spectrum disorder is important, and experts recommend the use of a validated screening tool at 18- and 24-month well-child visits. Medications can be used as adjunctive treatment for maladaptive behaviors and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but there is no single medical therapy that is effective for all symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Prognosis is heavily affected by the severity of diagnosis and the presence of intellectual disability. Children with optimal outcomes receive earlier, more intensive behavioral interventions and less pharmacologic treatment.

  11. A de novo 1q22q23.1 Interstitial Microdeletion in a Girl with Intellectual Disability and Multiple Congenital Anomalies Including Congenital Heart Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiūnienė, Beata; Preiksaitiene, Egle; Morkūnienė, Aušra; Ambrozaitytė, Laima; Utkus, Algirdas

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that molecular karyotyping is an effective diagnostic tool in individuals with developmental delay/intellectual disability. We report on a de novo interstitial 1q22q23.1 microdeletion, 1.6 Mb in size, detected in a patient with short stature, microcephaly, hypoplastic corpus callosum, cleft palate, minor facial anomalies, congenital heart defect, camptodactyly of the 4-5th fingers, and intellectual disability. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 1.6-Mb deletion in the 1q22q23.1 region, arr[GRCh37] 1q22q23.1(155630752_157193893)×1. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed its de novo origin. The deleted region encompasses 50 protein-coding genes, including the morbid genes APOA1BP, ARHGEF2, LAMTOR2, LMNA, NTRK1, PRCC, RIT1, SEMA4A, and YY1AP1. Although the unique phenotype observed in our patient can arise from the haploinsufficiency of the dosage-sensitive LMNA gene, the dosage imbalance of other genes implicated in the rearrangement could also contribute to the phenotype. Further studies are required for the delineation of the phenotype associated with this rare chromosomal alteration and elucidation of the critical genes for manifestation of the specific clinical features. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Autism from a cognitive-pragmatic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul , Anne; Manificat , Sabine; Foudon , Nadège

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Autism is one of a group of three neuro-developmental disorders including, in addition to autism itself, Asperger Syndrome and a fairly heterogeneous group of patients who present some but not all of the symptoms of autism (see below, section 2.2). Asperger Syndrome and autism being the best described pathologies, notably in terms of language and language development, they will be the focus of our attention in what follows. Autism has been described as being to pragmat...

  13. Somatosensory evoked potentials in children with autism | Azouz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SSEPs) changesamong children with autism, and their relation to somatosensory manifestations and severity of autism. Subjects: Thirty children with autism aged 2–12 years were included in the study, all of them fulfilling criteria of the Diagnostic ...

  14. Adapting Art Instruction for Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jennifer M.; Janeczko, Donna

    1991-01-01

    This article presents adaptations for teaching art to students with disabilities. Various techniques, methods, and materials are described by category of disability, including students with mental disabilities, visual impairments, hearing impairments, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and physical disabilities. (JDD)

  15. Home Care for Children with Chronic Illnesses and Severe Disabilities: A Bibliography and Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alice; And Others

    The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…

  16. Case Studies in Applied Behavior Analysis for Students and Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Keith; Haymes, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This book responds to a critical need for highly qualified personnel who will become exemplary professionals because of their advanced knowledge, skills, and experiences in working with students and adults that have varying disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Since Board Certification for behavior analysts was introduced,…

  17. Executive dysfunction in high functioning autism

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Hollie

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is presently a lack of consistency in research designed to measure executive functioning (EF) in autism that may be attributable to lack of homogeneity or comorbid conditions (i.e. learning disability or additional diagnosis) in test samples. Aim: A systematic review focused on a subset of EF (verbal fluency: VF) was conducted, using only studies of high-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) without an additional diagnosis or learning disability. An emp...

  18. High-Tech or Low-Tech? Comparing Self-Monitoring Systems to Increase Task Independence for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Savage, Melissa; Meyer, Nancy K.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Hunley, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Independence is the ultimate goal for students with disabilities, including secondary students with autism. One avenue targeted for increasing independence and decreasing prompt-dependency is through self-monitoring. In this study, investigators sought to determine whether a difference exists in levels of task independence when three students with…

  19. Establishing Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach Academics to Students with Autism as an Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jenny R.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Davis, Luann Ley; Geddes-Hall, Jennifer; Test, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is growing in popularity and has demonstrated positive effects for students with disabilities, including those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this review, criteria for group experimental and single case studies were used to determine quality (Horner et al., "Exceptional Children" 71:165-179,…

  20. Reciprocal deletion and duplication at 2q23.1 indicates a role for MBD5 in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullegama, S.V.; Rosenfeld, J.A.; Orellana, C.; Bon, B.W.M. van; Halbach, S.; Repnikova, E.A.; Brick, L.; Li, C.; Dupuis, L.; Rosello, M.; Aradhya, S.; Stavropoulos, D.J.; Manickam, K.; Mitchell, E.; Hodge, J.C.; Talkowski, M.E.; Gusella, J.F.; Keller, K.; Zonana, J.; Schwartz, S.; Pyatt, R.E.; Waggoner, D.J.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lin, A.E.; Vries, B. de; Mendoza-Londono, R.; Elsea, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations associated with abnormal gene dosage have an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID) and autism. We hypothesize that the chromosome 2q23.1 region encompassing MBD5 is a dosage-dependent region, wherein

  1. Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents with Self-Reported Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tally

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the relative risk for suicide attempts (SA) among high-school students self-identifying with one or more disability classifications (nine); assesses the extent to which youth with disabilities are disproportionately vulnerable to risk factors that predict suicidal behavior among all adolescents; and explores whether disability status adds to risk for SA after accounting for a comprehensive set of known risk and protective factors for SA. Analyses using Wisconsin's 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment Survey data found that youth in each disability category were 3-9 times more likely to report suicide attempt(s) relative to peers, and the endorsement of multiple disabilities tripled the risk SA relative to youth reporting a single disability. Some disability sub-groups, including youth reporting autism spectrum disorder, hearing, and vision impairments reported surprisingly high rates of SA. While youth with disabilities reported disproportionate exposure to adversity in every life domain examined, similar to youth reporting SA, disability status added unique risk for suicidal behavior. This suggests that disability may be a 'fundamental cause' of suicidal behavior, a question that requires further investigation.

  2. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijetić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and associated intellectual disability, seven to 19 years of age (M=11.97; SD=3.70. The assessment was conducted using the Peabody Motor Development Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the criteria for describing the level of severity of autism spectrum disorder (APA, 2013. The results have shown that participants' motor skills significantly correlate with social communication (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.452; p=0.012; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.511; p=0.004; Vineland total r=-0.391; p=0.032 and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.383; p=0.037; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.433; p=0.017; Vineland total r=-0.371; p=0.044. Lower level of autistic symptomatology is associated with higher motor achievements. It is necessary to pay more attention to the assessment and treatment of motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, given the established delay in the development of these skills, and bearing in mind their relationship with the severity of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Timely identification of motor disorders would allow the use of early treatment and potentially lead to better results, compared to later inclusion in intervention programs.

  3. De novo 14q24.2q24.3 microdeletion including IFT43 is associated with intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies, cardiac anomalies, and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokman, Marijn F; Oud, Machteld M; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Slaats, Gisela G; Nicolaou, Nayia; Renkema, Kirsten Y; Nijman, Isaac J; Roepman, Ronald; Giles, Rachel H; Arts, Heleen H; Knoers, Nine V A M; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2016-06-01

    We report an 11-year-old girl with mild intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies, congenital heart defect, myopia, and facial dysmorphisms including an extra incisor, cup-shaped ears, and a preauricular skin tag. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified a de novo 4.5-Mb microdeletion on chromosome 14q24.2q24.3. The deleted region and phenotype partially overlap with previously reported patients. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on 14q24 microdeletions and further delineate the associated phenotype. We performed exome sequencing to examine other causes for the phenotype and queried genes present in the 14q24.2q24.3 microdeletion that are associated with recessive disease for variants in the non-deleted allele. The deleted region contains 65 protein-coding genes, including the ciliary gene IFT43. Although Sanger and exome sequencing did not identify variants in the second IFT43 allele or in other IFT complex A-protein-encoding genes, immunocytochemistry showed increased accumulation of IFT-B proteins at the ciliary tip in patient-derived fibroblasts compared to control cells, demonstrating defective retrograde ciliary transport. This could suggest a ciliary defect in the pathogenesis of this disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Antidepressants during pregnancy and autism in offspring: population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K; Dalman, Christina; Newschaffer, Craig; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2017-07-19

    Objectives  To study the association between maternal use of antidepressants during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. Design  Observational prospective cohort study with regression methods, propensity score matching, sibling controls, and negative control comparison. Setting  Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants  254 610 individuals aged 4-17, including 5378 with autism, living in Stockholm County in 2001-11 who were born to mothers who did not take antidepressants and did not have any psychiatric disorder, mothers who took antidepressants during pregnancy, or mothers with psychiatric disorders who did not take antidepressants during pregnancy. Maternal antidepressant use was recorded during first antenatal interview or determined from prescription records. Main outcome measure  Offspring diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, with and without intellectual disability. Results  Of the 3342 children exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy, 4.1% (n=136) had a diagnosis of autism compared with a 2.9% prevalence (n=353) in 12 325 children not exposed to antidepressants whose mothers had a history of a psychiatric disorder (adjusted odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.85). Propensity score analysis led to similar results. The results of a sibling control analysis were in the same direction, although with wider confidence intervals. In a negative control comparison, there was no evidence of any increased risk of autism in children whose fathers were prescribed antidepressants during the mothers' pregnancy (1.13, 0.68 to 1.88). In all analyses, the risk increase concerned only autism without intellectual disability. Conclusions  The association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and autism, particularly autism without intellectual disability, might not solely be a byproduct of confounding. Study of the potential underlying biological mechanisms could help the understanding of modifiable mechanisms in the

  5. A longitudinal perspective on parent-child conflict and conflict resolution in youth with or without developmental disability

    OpenAIRE

    Marquis, Willa

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child conflict is associated with a range of negative socioemotional outcomes for youth, including mental health problems, poorer social functioning, and long-term detrimental effects on romantic partnerships and their own parenting practices. Little is known about parent-child conflict in families of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), namely intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders, despite their particular susceptibility to its problematic impact. Youth with DD ...

  6. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Blind and Disabled Applicants (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits for federal...

  7. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How autism became autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  9. An Evaluation of a Social Skills Intervention for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities Preparing for Employment in Ireland: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edith; Holloway, Jennifer; Lydon, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are faced with significant barriers relating to employment opportunities and workplace participation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Walker social skills curriculum: the ACCESS program and video modeling to increase social communication skills necessary for workplace inclusion.…

  10. Predicting Caregiver and Family Quality of Life for Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): An Application of the Disability Centrality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is expressed quite differently from person to person due to the spectrum of symptoms an individual may experience. Developmentally, children who have ASD manage issues with communication and restricted or repetitive behaviors that impact their activities of daily living and/or…

  11. Perception of Life as Stressful, Not Biological Response to Stress, Is Associated with Greater Social Disability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…

  12. Comparative Observations of Learning Engagement by Students with Developmental Disabilities Using an iPad and Computer: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthanat, Sajay; Curtin, Christine; Knotak, David

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of the Apple iPad for learning by children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those on the autism spectrum. A single case design was used to record the participation of four students with DD when taught with their standard computer at baseline, followed by the introduction of the iPad. A six-component…

  13. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  14. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  15. IMUNODIAGNOSTIC AND IMMUNOTHERAPY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Infantile autism is one of the most disabling illnesses of neurological, emotional and intellectual development. The cause of autism remains unknown. However, recent investigations suggest that this disorder shares several features of established autoimmune disorders.The aim of this article is to describe the news of imunodiagnostic and immunotherapy in autism. Interpretation of data is made by conceptual and methodological differences between studies. The autoimmune response is most likely directed against the brain myelin, perhaps secondary to a viral infection. The idea that autism is an autoimmune disorder is further strengthened by the fact that autistic patients respond well to treatment with immune modulating drugs. Immune interventions can produce immune modulation-state of suppression or stimulation. Immune therapy should always be done in consultation with physicians.

  16. Custodial Homes, Therapeutic Homes, and Parental Acceptance: Parental Experiences of Autism in Kerala, India and Atlanta, GA USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrett, Jennifer C

    2015-06-01

    The home is a critical place to learn about cultural values of childhood disability, including autism and intellectual disabilities. The current article describes how the introduction of autism into a home and the availability of intervention options change the structure and meaning of a home and reflect parental acceptance of a child's autistic traits. Using ethnographic data from Kerala, India and Atlanta, GA USA, a description of two types of homes are developed: the custodial home, which is primarily focused on caring for basic needs, and the therapeutic home, which is focused on changing a child's autistic traits. The type of home environment is respondent to cultural practices of child rearing in the home and influences daily activities, management, and care in the home. Further, these homes differ in parental acceptance of their autistic children's disabilities, which is critical to understand when engaging in international work related to autism and intellectual disability. It is proposed that parental acceptance can be fostered through the use of neurodiverse notions that encourage autism acceptance.

  17. Language and Speech in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Morson, Emily M; Grace, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability characterized by atypical social interaction, interests or body movements, and communication. Our review examines the empirical status of three communication phenomena believed to be unique to autism: pronoun reversal (using the pronoun you when the pronoun I is intended, and vice versa), echolalia (repeating what someone has said), and a reduced or even reversed production-comprehension lag (a reduction or reversal of the well-established finding that speakers produce less sophisticated language than they can comprehend). Each of these three phenomena has been claimed to be unique to autism; therefore, each has been proposed to be diagnostic of autism, and each has been interpreted in autism-centric ways (psychoanalytic interpretations of pronoun reversal, behaviorist interpretations of echolalia, and clinical lore about the production-comprehension lag). However, as our review demonstrates, none of these three phenomena is in fact unique to autism; none can or should serve as diagnostic of autism, and all call into question unwarranted assumptions about autistic persons and their language development and use.

  18. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Person with an Autism Spectrum Condition and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Neil; Allez, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the difficulties in assessing and treating PTSD in people with intellectual disability is that it may not present with the typical symptoms associated with the disorder. This may be why there is a dearth of literature on the treatment of PTSD using cognitive behavioural approaches for people with intellectual disability (e.g.…

  19. Disability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  20. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome as a cause of encephalopathy that includes cognitive disability, treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy and a complex movement disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John M

    2012-05-01

    Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the SLC2A1 gene, resulting in impaired glucose transport into the brain. It is characterized by a low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (hypoglycorrhachia) in the absence of hypoglycemia, in combination with low to normal lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It often results in treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy with progressive developmental disabilities and a complex movement disorder. Recognizing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is important, since initiation of a ketogenic diet can reduce the frequency of seizures and the severity of the movement disorder. There can be a considerable delay in diagnosing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and this point is illustrated by the natural history of this disorder in a 21-year-old woman with severe, progressive neurological disabilities. Her encephalopathy consisted of treatment-resistant seizures, a complex movement disorder, progressive intellectual disability, and deceleration of her head growth after late infancy. Focused evaluation at age 21 revealed GLUT1 deficiency caused by a novel heterozygous missence mutation in exon 7 (c.938C > A; p.Ser313Try) in SLC2A1 as the cause for her disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad; MacFarland, Stephanie Z.; Umbreit, John

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) program used to teach functional requesting and commenting skills to people with disabilities (Bondy & Frost, 1993; Frost & Bondy, 2002). In this study, tangible symbols were added to PECS in teaching requesting to four students (ages 7-14) with…

  2. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahagirdar, D.; Kroll, T.; Ritchie, K.; Wyke, S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated

  3. A case report of Chinese brothers with inherited MECP2-containing duplication: autism and intellectual disability, but not seizures or respiratory infections

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiu; Xu, Qiong; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodi; Cheng, Tianlin; Wu, Bingbing; Ding, Yanhua; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Qiu, Zilong; Yu, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a family of neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Recent studies have shown that copy number variations in dosage sensitive genes can contribute significantly to these disorders. One such gene is the transcription factor MECP2, whose loss of function in females results in Rett syndrome, while its duplication in males results in developmental delay and autism. Case presentation Here, we identified a Chinese famil...

  4. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  5. Equivalence of Symptom Dimensions in Females and Males with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic…

  6. What is this thing called autism? A critical analysis of the tenacious search for autism's essence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2012-01-01

    Currently, autism is a widespread and diverse neurodevelopmental disorder that includes both severely impaired and institutionalized patients and the fairly geeky but brilliant university professor. Despite its heterogeneity, autism is often presented as a distinct nosological entity with a unifying

  7. Neurons in the Fusiform Gyrus are Fewer and Smaller in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, Imke A. J.; Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; von Cappeln, Patricia; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Korr, Hubert; Heinsen, Helmut; Hof, Patrick R.; van Engeland, Herman; Schmitz, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in face perception are a core feature of social disabilities in autism. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that patients with autism could perform face perception tasks. However, the fusiform gyrus (FG) and other cortical regions supporting face processing in controls are hypoactive in patients with autism.…

  8. Matching Procedures in Autism Research: Evidence from Meta-Analytic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Michal; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize some of our findings from a series of three meta-analyses and discuss their implications for autism research. In the first meta-analysis, we examined studies addressing the theory of mind hypothesis in autism. This analysis revealed that theory of mind disabilities are not unique to autism, although what may be unique…

  9. Autism and Obstacles to Medical Diagnosis and Treatment: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marcia Datlow; Graveline, Patrick J.; Smith, Jared Brian

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability that provides special challenges to families, schools, and adult support systems. An additional area that is affected by the symptoms of autism is medicine. The deficits associated with autism in the areas of communication and social skills, as well as the prevalence of challenging behavior can interfere with…

  10. Longitudinal Study of Driver Licensing Rates among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Allison E.; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Huang, Patty; Metzger, Kristi B.

    2018-01-01

    Driving may increase mobility and independence for adolescents with autism without intellectual disability (autism spectrum disorder); however, little is known about rates of licensure. To compare the proportion of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder who acquire a learner's permit and driver's license, as well as the rate at…

  11. Autism spectrum disorder causes, mechanisms, and treatments: focus on neuronal synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Hyejung; Mah, Won; Kim, Eunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted and repetitive interests/behaviors. Advances in human genomics have identified a large number of genetic variations associated with ASD. These associations are being rapidly verified by a growing number of studies using a variety of approaches, including mouse genetics. These studies have also identified key mechanisms underlying the patho...

  12. Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Šteglová, Dominika

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on problem behavior, its manifestations and causes of origin in children with autism spectrum disorders. The thesis is divided into two parts, the theoretical and empirical. The theoretical part focuses on introduction to issues of autism spectrum disorders and problem behavior. Mentioned here is history and etiology of disorders, also the part deals with autistic triad of disability. Among others I try briefly characterize various autism spectrum disorders focusing on inf...

  13. Effects of Child-Robot Interactions on the Vocalization Production of Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots. Research Reports, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Findings from two studies investigating the effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of young children with disabilities are reported. The two studies included seven children with autism, two children with Down syndrome, and two children with attention deficit disorders. The Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA)…

  14. Using Quality of Family Life Factors to Explore Parents' Experience of Educational Provision for Children with Developmental Disabilities in Rural Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen; Hussain, Rafat

    2017-01-01

    Australian education service provision includes the delivery of quality educational programmes to rural and remote living children. However, according to their parents, many children with developmental disabilities (such as Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders) who are living in rural country areas in New South Wales (NSW) still do not have…

  15. ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS OF EMPLOYERS, EMPLOYEES AND PARENTS ABOUT THE EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja STANKOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to work is one of the fundamental human rights in all developed countries around the world. The employment, actually the right to work of persons with disability is the final phase of the long and complex process of their rehabilitation that affects the possibility of their integration in the community.The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of employment of people with autism, based on the attitudes and opinions of employers, employees and parents of the children with autism.The basic tasks of this research are: to determine whether the employers would employ a person with autism; weather employers and the employees know what autism is; weather according to employers and employees people with autism are able to perform their job duties in complete and weather the parents of children with autism would like their child to be employed.We conducted this research in a period of 3 months and included 130 respondents. Obtained data were collected, grouped, tabled and processed with standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Exact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and the interpretation of the results, we concluded that in the Republic of Macedonia do not exist positive atmosphere, for employment of the persons with autism, the employers do not want to employ a person with autism. The professionals must engage more deeply in this problematic in order to achieve a complete integration of the people with autism in the society.

  16. Is synaesthesia more common in autism?

    OpenAIRE

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Donielle; Asher, Julian; Wheelwright, Sally; Fisher, Simon E; Gregersen, Peter K; Allison, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition in which a sensation in one modality triggers a perception in a second modality. Autism (shorthand for Autism Spectrum Conditions) is a neurodevelopmental condition involving social-communication disability alongside resistance to change and unusually narrow interests or activities. Whilst on the surface they appear distinct, they have been suggested to share common atypical neural connectivity. Methods In the present study, we carried...

  17. Motivation, Interest, and Attention: Re-Defining Learning in the Autism Spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequia, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In "The Passionate Mind: How People with Autism Learn", Wendy Lawson presents readers with various cognitive theories of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this book, Lawson makes reference to the medical and social models of disability, urging readers to consider disability from a social rather than a medical or deficit-driven perspective. Each…

  18. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  19. Hospitalizations of Children with Autism Increased from 1999 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfack, Aaron M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Chan, Jia; Saynina, Olga; Wise, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital discharges for children with autism, in comparison to children with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, mental retardation/intellectual disability, and the general population. Hospitalizations for autism increased nearly threefold over 10 years, especially at the oldest ages, while hospitalizations for…

  20. Targeted Treatments in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, C. Kagan; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of a constellation of symptoms that sometimes occur as part of a complex disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication and behavioral domains. It is a highly disabling disorder and there is a need for treatment targeting the core symptoms. Although autism is accepted…

  1. Inclusion of children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    Inclusion of children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in DenmarkMore children diagnosed with autism and ADHD have been included in primary school by law in Denmark over the last years (L379, 2012). In a new School reform (L406, 2014) the children have to particip......Inclusion of children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in DenmarkMore children diagnosed with autism and ADHD have been included in primary school by law in Denmark over the last years (L379, 2012). In a new School reform (L406, 2014) the children have...... to participate in physical activities at least 45 minutes each school day. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). Therefore these children can be challenge to participate...... a process-oriented methodology (Baur & Ernst, 2011).The methods of the research are primarily based on qualitative methods: Analysis of the curriculum for PE from the Danish ministry of Education and political strategies of inclusion, field observations primarily in PE, interviews with the 11 children...

  2. Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for Children with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning…

  3. Autism through the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Autism through the Lifespan Home / Living with Autism / ...

  4. Epilepsy and Autism: Is there a special relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.; Plioplys, Sigita

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, there has been an interest in the association between epilepsy and autism. The high frequency of autism in some of the early-onset developmental encephalopathic epilepsies is frequently cited as evidence of the relationship between autism and epilepsy. While these specific forms of epilepsy carry a higher than expected risk of autism, most if not all of the association may be due to intellectual disability (ID). The high prevalence of interictal EEG discharges in children with autism is also cited as further evidence although errors in the diagnosis of epilepsy seem to account for at least part of those findings. The prevalence of ID is substantially elevated in children with either epilepsy or autism. In the absence of ID, there is little evidence of a substantial, if any, increased risk of autism in children with epilepsy. Further, although the reported prevalence of autism has increased over the last several years, much of this increase may be attributable to changes in diagnostic practices, conceptualization of autism in the presence of ID, and laws requiring provision of services for children with autism. In the context of these temporal trends, any further efforts to tease apart the relationships between epilepsy, ID, and autism will have to address head-on the accuracy of diagnosis of all three conditions before we can determine whether there is indeed a special relationship between autism and epilepsy. PMID:22381386

  5. Loss of function of KIAA2022 causes mild to severe intellectual disability with an autism spectrum disorder and impairs neurite outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldergem, L. van; Hou, Q.; Kalscheuer, V.M.M.; Rio, M. del; Doco-Fenzy, M.; Medeira, A.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Cabrol, C.; Haas, S.A.; Cacciagli, P.; Moutton, S.; Landais, E.; Motte, J.; Colleaux, L.; Bonnet, C.; Villard, L.; Dupont, J.; Man, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Existence of a discrete new X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndrome due to KIAA2022 deficiency was questioned by disruption of KIAA2022 by an X-chromosome pericentric inversion in a XLID family we reported in 2004. Three additional families with likely pathogenic KIAA2022 mutations were

  6. Environmental Chemical Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Penlesky, Annie C.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. We included studies that had individual-level data on autism, exposure measures pertaining to pregnancy or the 1st year of life, valid comparison groups, control for confounders, and adequate sample sizes. Despite the inherent error in the measurement of many of these environmental exposures, which is likely to attenuate observed associations, some environmental exposures showed associations with autism, especially traffic-related air pollutants, some metals, and several pesticides, with suggestive trends for some volatile organic compounds (e.g., methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and styrene) and phthalates. Whether any of these play a causal role requires further study. Given the limited scope of these publications, other environmental chemicals cannot be ruled out, but have not yet been adequately studied. Future research that addresses these and additional environmental chemicals, including their most common routes of exposures, with accurate exposure measurement pertaining to several developmental windows, is essential to guide efforts for the prevention of the neurodevelopmental damage that manifests in autism symptoms. PMID:25199954

  7. Cerberus, an Access Control Scheme for Enforcing Least Privilege in Patient Cohort Study Platforms : A Comprehensive Access Control Scheme Applied to the GENIDA Project - Study of Genetic Forms of Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrend, Pierre; Mazzucotelli, Timothée; Colin, Florent; Collet, Pierre; Mandel, Jean-Louis

    2017-11-16

    Cohort Study Platforms (CSP) are emerging as a key tool for collecting patient information, providing new research data, and supporting family and patient associations. However they pose new ethics and regulatory challenges since they cross the gap between patients and medical practitioners. One of the critical issues for CSP is to enforce a strict control on access privileges whilst allowing the users to take advantage of the breadth of the available data. We propose Cerberus, a new access control scheme spanning the whole life-cycle of access right management: design, implementation, deployment and maintenance, operations. Cerberus enables switching from a dual world, where CSP data can be accessed either from the users who entered it or fully de-identified, to an access-when-required world, where patients, practitioners and researchers can access focused medical data through explicit authorisation by the data owner. Efficient access control requires application-specific access rights, as well as the ability to restrict these rights when they are not used. Cerberus is implemented and evaluated in the context of the GENIDA project, an international CSP for Genetically determined Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a result of this study, the software is made available for the community, and validated specifications for CSPs are given.

  8. An Evaluation of a Social Skills Intervention for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities preparing for Employment in Ireland: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edith; Holloway, Jennifer; Lydon, Helena

    2018-05-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are faced with significant barriers relating to employment opportunities and workplace participation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Walker social skills curriculum: the ACCESS program and video modeling to increase social communication skills necessary for workplace inclusion. Participants attended two sessions (i.e., 3 h) per week across a period of 20 weeks. A multiple-probe design was used to demonstrate social skills outcomes across three broad curricular areas (i.e., peer-related, adult-related, and self-related social skills). Pre-and post-intervention standardized assessments were also taken. Results showed significant increases in target social skills and a significant decrease in problem behaviors following intervention. Evidence of maintenance and generalization were also demonstrated. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and autism: maternal and infant peripheral blood levels in the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, Lisa A.; Goines, Paula; Braunschweig, Daniel; Yolken, Robert; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Grether, Judith K.; Fireman, Bruce; Kharrazi, Martin; Hansen, Robin; Van de Water, Judy

    2008-01-01

    LAY ABSTRACT The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioral characteristics. There is currently no laboratory test that can be done to identify autism. In this study, we investigated a molecule called brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a possible early biologic marker for autism. BDNF is a small protein found throughout the central nervous system and in circulating blood. We measured the level of BDNF in blood collected from women during pregnancy and from their babies at birth. We found that the concentration of BDNF in the maternal mid-pregnancy and newborn blood specimens was similar for children with autism, children with mental retardation, and children with typical development. The results of this study suggest that BDNF is unlikely to be a useful early biologic marker for autism. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Objective To investigate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mid-pregnancy and neonatal blood specimens as early biologic markers for autism. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study nested within the cohort of infants born from July 2000 – September 2001 to women who participated in the prenatal screening program in Orange County, California. Cases (n=84) were all children receiving services for autism at the Regional Center of Orange County. Two comparison groups from the same study population were included: children with mental retardation or developmental delay (n=49) receiving services at the same regional center, and children not receiving services for developmental disabilities, randomly sampled from the California birth certificate files (n=159), and frequency-matched to autism cases on sex, birth year, and birth month. BDNF concentrations were measured in archived mid-pregnancy and neonatal blood specimens drawn during routine prenatal and newborn screening using a highly sensitive bead-based assay (Luminex). Results The concentration of BDNF in maternal mid-pregnancy and neonatal specimens was

  10. Music research with children and youth with disabilities and typically developing peers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura S; Jellison, Judith A

    2012-01-01

    Systematic reviews of research provide pertinent information to both practitioners and researchers. While there are several recent reviews of music research and children with specific disabilities (primarily autism), there is no current review of music research with children with a wide variety of disabilities. The aim of the current study is to identify and systematically review music research with children and youth published in peer reviewed journals for the years 1999 through 2009. Research questions focused on participant characteristics; research purposes, methodologies, and findings; as well as the presence of ideas from special education policies, and practices. We also asked how results have changed from those from an earlier review (Jellison, 2000). Using computer and hand-searches, we identified 45 articles that met our criteria for inclusion. Once identified, through a process of consensus we analyzed articles based on criteria, categories, and codes used in the earlier review. Additionally we analyzed measurement instruments and effectiveness of interventions as reported by the authors. Primary findings show a large majority of studies were experimental with most reporting effective or partially effective interventions, particularly for social variables. Compared to the earlier review, increases were found for participants with autism and for reports including ideas from special education. Percentages of articles measuring generalization and examining high-incident disability populations (specific learning disabilities) were low. The findings from this review and comparisons to the earlier review reveal important implications for practices with children with autism and preparation of researchers to design and conduct studies in inclusive music settings.

  11. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J Yn; Lai, K Yc

    2016-12-01

    Findings about the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been inconsistent in western literature and little is known among non-western societies. This study explored the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. A total of 116 families with siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders co-morbid with learning disability were included in the study. Parents completed questionnaires about sibling emotional and behavioural adjustment, and their own mental well-being, quality of life, and family functioning. Siblings completed a questionnaire on their relationship with the autistic proband. Parent ratings did not reveal any significant negative impact on the emotional and behavioural adjustment of the typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder, but there were concerns about their peer relationships and weak prosocial behaviours. When cut-off scores were used to screen for risk of mental health problems, a quarter of the siblings warranted further assessment. Parents' quality of life and family functioning were significant predictors of sibling adjustment. In managing children with autism spectrum disorder, it is necessary to bear in mind the adjustment of their siblings, especially their peer relationships and prosocial behaviour. Adopting a holistic approach to address the psychosocial needs of the parents can facilitate sibling adjustment.

  12. [Psychometric attributes of the Spanish version of A-TAC screening scale for autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, E; Sáez Velasco, S; Delgado Benito, V; Ausín Villaverde, V; García Soto, X R; Trejo Gabriel Y Galán, J M; Martín Santidrián, A; Macarrón, J V; Cordero Guevara, J; Benito-León, J; Louis, E D

    2011-07-01

    As there are no biological markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), screening must focus on behaviour and the presence of a markedly abnormal development or a deficiency in verbal and non-verbal social interaction and communication. To evaluate the psychometric attributes of a Spanish version of the autism domain of the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities Inventory (A-TAC) scale for ASD screening. A total of 140 subjects (43% male, 57% female) aged 6-16, with ASD (n=15), Mental Retardation (n=40), Psychiatric Illness (n=22), Tics (n=12) and controls (n=51), were included for ASD screening. The predictive validity, acceptability, scale assumptions, internal consistency, and precision were analysed. The internal consistency was high (α=0.93), and the standard error was adequate (1.13 [95% CI, -1.08 a 3.34]). The mean scores of the Autism module were higher in patients diagnosed with ASD and mental disability compared to the rest of the patients (P<.001). The area under the curve was 0.96 for the ASD group. The autism domain of the A-TAC scale seems to be a reliable, valid and precise tool for ASD screening in the Spanish school population. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. WearSense: Detecting Autism Stereotypic Behaviors through Smartwatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Amiri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex developmental disorder that affects approximately 1 in 68 children (according to the recent survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—CDC in the U.S., and has become the fastest growing category of special education. Each student with autism comes with her or his own unique needs and an array of behaviors and habits that can be severe and which interfere with everyday tasks. Autism is associated with intellectual disability, impairments in social skills, and physical health issues such as sleep and abdominal disturbances. We have designed an Internet-of-Things (IoT framework named WearSense that leverages the sensing capabilities of modern smartwatches to detect stereotypic behaviors in children with autism. In this work, we present a study that used the inbuilt accelerometer of a smartwatch to detect three behaviors, including hand flapping, painting, and sibbing that are commonly observed in children with autism. In this feasibility study, we recruited 14 subjects to record the accelerometer data from the smartwatch worn on the wrist. The processing part extracts 34 different features in each dimension of the three-axis accelerometer, resulting in 102 features. Using and comparing various classification techniques revealed that an ensemble of 40 decision trees has the best accuracy of around 94.6%. This accuracy shows the quality of the data collected from the smartwatch and feature extraction methods used in this study. The recognition of these behaviors by using a smartwatch would be helpful in monitoring individuals with autistic behaviors, since the smartwatch can send the data to the cloud for comprehensive analysis and also to help parents, caregivers, and clinicians make informed decisions.

  14. Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

  15. Intellectually Capable but Socially Excluded? A Review of the Literature and Research on Students with Autism in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Nick; Beavan, Nick

    2012-01-01

    As autism is a social learning disability it is a disadvantage in any social setting such as a classroom. The 1990s saw a surge of young people diagnosed with autism who are now approaching college age; indeed there is evidence that students with autism are becoming a significant cohort in further education. However, anecdotal evidence suggests…

  16. The lived experience of parenting a child with autism in a rural area: making the invisible, visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogsteen, Lindsey; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of parents parenting a child with autism while living in a rural area. The philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology was used to guide this inquiry, and interviews of 26 families served as primary data. Thematic statements were isolated using van Manen's (1990) selective highlighting approach. "Making the invisible, visible" emerged as the essence of the parents' experience. Parents shared that although autism was an invisible disability, they in fact made it visible in their constant battles to ensure their child received the best quality of life. The major themes of this essence included a) he's not the Rain Man, b) society's lack of knowledge and understanding, and c) doing it on our own. Findings from this study may be used to guide program development that is concerned with improving the quality of life of families of children with autism living in rural areas.

  17. Child with autism in inclusive educational setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Katarina N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the possibility of including children with autistic spectrum disorders in mainstream groups in kindergartens, but from the perspective of preschool educators in inclusive educational groups, examining their attitudes to the problem concerned, and knowledge of the basic aspects of the disorder and effective methodological solutions, which were used in their work. The research conducted in Preschool institution 'Nata Veljkovic' in Krusevac, on a sample of 36 preschool teachers selected randomly, with the request to have more than five years of working experience, has shown that most teachers expressed concern and fear of the inclusion of children with autism and that there was a need for additional education in the field of developmental disabilities, that would make them better equipped to work and give them more confidence.

  18. Autism Children’s App using PECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareena Soomro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since autistic children suffers from learning disabilities and communication barriers, this research aim to design, develop and evaluate an Android based mobile application (app providing better learning environment with inclusion of graphical representation in a cost effective manner. This research evaluate various supporting technologies and finds Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS to be better choice for integrating with the app. Evaluation results reveal that the inclusion of PECS helped the children suffering from Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD to better communicate with others. The study included autistic children who do not speak, who are unintelligible and who are minimally effective communicators with their present communication system. The evolution results showed encouraging impacts of the Autism App in supporting autistic children to adapt to normal life and improve the standard of their life.

  19. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick SE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarah E Fitzpatrick, Laura Srivorakiat, Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. Keywords: autism, autism spectrum disorder, aggression, treatment, antipsychotics, applied behavior analysis

  20. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetic regulation in Autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraboni Chaudhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an impaired social communication skill and often results in repetitive, stereotyped behavior which is observed in children during the first few years of life. Other characteristic of this disorder includes language disabilities, difficulties in sensory integration, lack of reciprocal interactions and in some cases, cognitive delays. One percentage of the general population is affected by ASD and is four times more common in boys than girls. There are hundreds of genes, which has been identified to be associated with ASD etiology. However it remains difficult to comprehend our understanding in defining the genetic architecture necessary for complete exposition of its pathophysiology. Seeing the complexity of the disease, it is important to adopt a multidisciplinary approach which should not only focus on the “genetics” of autism but also on epigenetics, transcriptomics, immune system disruption and environmental factors that could all impact the pathogenesis of the disease. As environmental factors also play a key role in regulating the trigger of ASD, the role of chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation has started to emerge. Such epigenetic modifications directly link molecular regulatory pathways and environmental factors, which might be able to explain some aspects of complex disorders like ASD. The present review will focus on the role of epigenetic regulation in defining the underlying cause for ASD

  2. SSA Disability Claim Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset includes fiscal year data for initial claims for SSA disability benefits that were referred to a state agency for a disability determination. Specific...

  3. Comorbid psychopathology and stress mediate the relationship between autistic traits and repetitive behaviours in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D; Rojahn, J

    2015-02-01

    Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. A battery of questionnaires including measures of autistic traits, repetitive behaviours, stress, executive dysfunctions and comorbid psychopathology were administered to a sample of adults with autism and intellectual disabilities (n = 43). We found that when taken as set dimensions of comorbidity, dysexecutive functioning and stress mediated or explained the effects of autistic symptoms on repetitive behaviour. The total model explained 60% of the variation in repetitive behaviours (R = 0.60; F = 13.64, P autism, while executive functioning did not contribute to that relationship. © 2013 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  5. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  6. Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2014-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

  7. Risk factors for autism: An Egyptian study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    IQ assessment using Stanford–Binrent intelligence scale, and assessment of severity ... All studied developmental milestones were delayed among autistic children than ... Peer review under responsibility of Ain Shams University. ..... Treatment and educa- ..... communication in people with autism and intellectual disability. J.

  8. Bullying Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, I.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Didden, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are particularly vulnerable to be involved in bullying compared to their peers without ASD. Studies have found that students with ASD are at higher risk to be involved in bullying as a bully (i.e., perpetrator of bullying), a victim

  9. The role of augmentative and alternative communication for children with autism: current status and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacono T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Iacono,1 David Trembath,2 Shane Erickson3 1Living with Disability Research Centre, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia; 2Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 3Living with Disability Research Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC interventions are used for children with autism, often as stand-alone communication interventions for those who are minimally verbal. Our aim was to synthesize the evidence for AAC interventions for children (up to 21 years, and then consider the role of AAC within established, comprehensive, evidence-based autism interventions targeting learning across multiple developmental domains.Design: We completed a systematic search of three databases (OVID Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC as well as forward citation and hand searches to identify systematic reviews of AAC intervention efficacy research including children with autism, published between 2000 and March 2016 in peer-reviewed journals. Data pertaining to the quality indicators of included studies, effect sizes for intervention outcomes, and evidence for effectiveness were extracted for descriptive analysis.Results: The search yielded 17 systematic reviews. Most provided indicators of research quality for included studies, of which only relatively few provided conclusive results. Communication targets tended to be focused on teaching children to make requests. Still, effect size measures for included studies indicated that AAC was effective to highly effective.Conclusion: There is growing evidence for the potential benefits of AAC for children with autism, but there is a need for more well-designed studies and broader, targeted outcomes. Furthermore, a lack of evidence for the role of AAC within comprehensive intervention programs may account for a tendency by autism researchers and practitioners to neglect this intervention. Attempts to

  10. Robots for use in autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati, Brian; Admoni, Henny; Matarić, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a group of lifelong disabilities that affect people's ability to communicate and to understand social cues. Research into applying robots as therapy tools has shown that robots seem to improve engagement and elicit novel social behaviors from people (particularly children and teenagers) with autism. Robot therapy for autism has been explored as one of the first application domains in the field of socially assistive robotics (SAR), which aims to develop robots that assist people with special needs through social interactions. In this review, we discuss the past decade's work in SAR systems designed for autism therapy by analyzing robot design decisions, human-robot interactions, and system evaluations. We conclude by discussing challenges and future trends for this young but rapidly developing research area.

  11. Autism: cause factors, early diagnosis and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shreya; Acharya, U Rajendra; Adeli, Hojjat; Bairy, G Muralidhar; Adeli, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurobiological disorder characterized by neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. Cognitive impairment, lack of social skills, and stereotyped behavior are the major autistic symptoms, visible after a certain age. It is one of the fastest growing disabilities. Its current prevalence rate in the U.S. estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is 1 in 68 births. The genetic and physiological structure of the brain is studied to determine the pathology of autism, but diagnosis of autism at an early age is challenging due to the existing phenotypic and etiological heterogeneity among ASD individuals. Volumetric and neuroimaging techniques are explored to elucidate the neuroanatomy of the ASD brain. Nuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neuroimaging biomarkers can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of ASD. This paper presents a review of the types of autism, etiologies, early detection, and treatment of ASD.

  12. Relations between Age, Autism Severity, Behavioral Treatment and the Amount of Time in Regular Education Classrooms among Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Tasneem L.

    2012-01-01

    Under federal law, students with disabilities have the right to be educated in classrooms with students without disabilities. For students with autism, social, communication, and behavioral deficits make inclusion difficult. The severity of deficits change over time, and therefore, so too do the effects of these deficits upon inclusion. Although…

  13. Genetics Home Reference: SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intellectual disability develops epilepsy, and about half have autism spectrum disorder . Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? ...

  14. Comparing the use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Behavior Checklist protocols to identify and characterize autistic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thaís Helena Ferreira; Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Pimentel, Ana Gabriela Lopes; Lacerda, Camila Andrioli; Balestro, Juliana Izidro; Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2012-01-01

    To compare the results obtained in the Autism Behavior Checklist with those obtained in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to identify and characterize children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Participants were 28 children with psychiatric diagnosis within the autism spectrum that were enrolled in language therapy in a specialized service. These children were assessed according to the Autism Behavior Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale criteria, based on information obtained with parents and therapists, respectively. Data were statistically analyzed regarding the agreement between responses. Results indicating high or moderate probability of autism in the Autism Behavior Checklist were considered concordant with the results indicating mild-to-moderate or severe autism in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Results indicating low probability of autism in the Autism Behavior Checklist and without autism in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale were also considered concordant. There was agreement on most of the responses. Cases in which there was disagreement between results obtained on both protocols corroborate literature data, showing that the instruments may not be sufficient, if applied alone, to define the diagnosis. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale may not effectively diagnose autistic children, while the Autism Behavior Checklist may result in over- diagnose, including within the autism spectrum children with other disorders. Therefore, the associated use of both protocols is recommended.

  15. White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0302 TITLE: White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Pathology in Autism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0302 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Methods used to directly study the autism brain include brain

  16. Madness as disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-12-01

    How does society imagine mental illness? Does this shift radically over time and with different social attitudes as well as scientific discoveries about the origins and meanings of mental illness? What happens when we begin to think about mental illness as madness, as a malleable concept constantly shifting its meaning? We thus look at the meanings associated with 'general paralysis of the insane' in the nineteenth century and autism today in regard to disability. In this case study we examine the claims by scholars such as the anthropologist Emily Martin and the psychiatrist Kay Jamison as to the relationship between mental illness, disability and creativity. Today, the health sciences have become concerned with mental illness as a form of disability. How does this change the meaning of madness for practitioners and patients? © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Understanding environmental contributions to autism: Causal concepts and the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Krakowiak, Paula

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science. Causal concepts are introduced, including root causes; pitfalls in interpreting time trends as clues to etiologic factors; susceptible time windows for exposure; and implications of a multi-factorial model of ASD. An historical background presents early research into the origins of ASD. The epidemiologic literature from the last fifteen years is briefly but critically reviewed for potential roles of, for example, air pollution, pesticides, plastics, prenatal vitamins, lifestyle and family factors, and maternal obstetric and metabolic conditions during her pregnancy. Three examples from the case-control CHildhood Autism Risks from Genes and the Environment Study are probed to illustrate methodological approaches to central challenges in observational studies: capturing environmental exposure; causal inference when a randomized controlled clinical trial is either unethical or infeasible; and the integration of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences on development. We conclude with reflections on future directions, including exposomics, new technologies, the microbiome, gene-by-environment interaction in the era of -omics, and epigenetics as the interface of those two. As the environment is malleable, this research advances the goal of a productive and fulfilling life for all children, teen-agers and adults. Autism Res 2018, 11: 554-586. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  18. Relationships Between Self-Injurious Behaviors, Pain Reactivity, and β-Endorphin in Children and Adolescents With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M; Charrier, Annaëlle; Oriol, Cécile; Kermarrec, Solenn; Canitano, Roberto; Botbol, Michel; Coulon, Nathalie; Antoine, Corinne; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cohen, David; Haidar, Hazar; Trabado, Séverine; Carlier, Michèle; Bronsard, Guillaume; Mottron, Laurent

    Autism and certain associated behaviors including self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and atypical pain reactivity have been hypothesized to result from excessive opioid activity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between SIB, pain reactivity, and β-endorphin levels in autism. Study participants were recruited between 2007 and 2012 from day care centers and included 74 children and adolescents diagnosed with autism (according to DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and CFTMEA) and intellectual disability. Behavioral pain reactivity and SIB were assessed in 3 observational situations (parents at home, 2 caregivers at day care center, a nurse and child psychiatrist during blood drawing) using validated quantitative and qualitative scales. Plasma β-endorphin concentrations were measured in 57 participants using 2 different immunoassay methods. A high proportion of individuals with autism displayed SIB (50.0% and 70.3% according to parental and caregiver observation, respectively). The most frequent types of SIB were head banging and hand biting. An absence or decrease of overall behavioral pain reactivity was observed in 68.6% and 34.2% of individuals with autism according to parental and caregiver observation, respectively. Those individuals with hyporeactivity to daily life accidental painful stimuli displayed higher rates of self-biting (P < .01, parental evaluation). No significant correlations were observed between β-endorphin level and SIB or pain reactivity assessed in any of the 3 observational situations. The absence of any observed relationships between β-endorphin level and SIB or pain reactivity and the conflicting results of prior opioid studies in autism tend to undermine support for the opioid theory of autism. New perspectives are discussed regarding the relationships found in this study between SIB and hyporeactivity to pain. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Recent Research on the Etiologies of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Eileen; Van Dyke, Don C.; Sears, Lonnie; Matzen, Jane; Lin-Dyken, Deborah; McBrien, Dianne M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews recent research on the etiologies of autism, including genetic research, anatomic and neuroimaging studies, topics in neurophysiology research (including serotonin, dopamine, and opiods), immunologic research, studies of autism phenotype, and electroencephalographic studies. It concludes that, as of yet, research has found no clear…

  20. Features of the broader autism phenotype in people with epilepsy support shared mechanisms between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Annie E; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Wilson, Sarah J

    2017-04-01

    Richard, A.E., I.E. Scheffer and S.J. Wilson. Features of the broader autism phenotype in people with epilepsy support shared mechanisms between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2016. To inform on mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we conducted meta-analyses to test whether impaired facial emotion recognition (FER) and theory of mind (ToM), key phenotypic traits of ASD, are more common in people with epilepsy (PWE) than controls. We contrasted these findings with those of relatives of individuals with ASD (ASD-relatives) compared to controls. Furthermore, we examined the relationship of demographic (age, IQ, sex) and epilepsy-related factors (epilepsy onset age, duration, seizure laterality and origin) to FER and ToM. Thirty-one eligible studies of PWE (including 1449 individuals: 77% with temporal lobe epilepsy), and 22 of ASD-relatives (N=1295) were identified by a systematic database search. Analyses revealed reduced FER and ToM in PWE compared to controls (p<0.001), but only reduced ToM in ASD-relatives (p<0.001). ToM was poorer in PWE than ASD-relatives. Only weak associations were found between FER and ToM and epilepsy-related factors. These findings suggest shared mechanisms between epilepsy and ASD, independent of intellectual disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Mendelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna; White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Schmid, Lorrie; Riggsbee, Jan; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer; Dawson, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together® , for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  3. Deletions in 16p13 including GRIN2A in patients with intellectual disability, various dysmorphic features, and seizure disorders of the rolandic region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reutlinger, C.; Helbig, I.; Gawelczyk, B.; Subero, J.I.; Tonnies, H.; Muhle, H.; Finsterwalder, K.; Vermeer, S.; Pfundt, R.; Sperner, J.; Stefanova, I.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Spiczak, S. von; Baalen, A. van; Boor, R.; Siebert, R.; Stephani, U.; Caliebe, A.

    2010-01-01

    Seizure disorders of the rolandic region comprise a spectrum of different epilepsy syndromes ranging from benign rolandic epilepsy to more severe seizure disorders including atypical benign partial epilepsy/pseudo-Lennox syndrome,electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and Landau-Kleffner

  4. Teacher Perceptions about the Importance of Parental Involvement for Included Students with Learning Disabilities in New York Metropolitan Area Orthodox Yeshivas and Day Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Goldie Eichorn

    2010-01-01

    The population of students attending Jewish day schools includes an increasing number of students with exceptional needs. How Jewish schools meet the needs of these students is an important question. Inclusive education is a service model predicated on legal and philosophical mores as well as pedagogical and psychological findings. The quality of…

  5. Drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in autism spectrum disorders: a chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Benjamin A; Wink, Logan K; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in people with autism spectrum disorders as behavioral symptoms requiring medication adjustment despite previous trials of risperidone and aripiprazole or previous trials of three psychotropic drugs targeting the symptom cluster, one of which was risperidone or aripiprazole. We reviewed the medical records of individuals of all ages referred to our clinic for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic evaluation, as well as pharmacotherapy follow-up notes for all people meeting autism spectrum disorder criteria, for drug-refractory symptoms. Among 250 consecutively referred individuals, 135 met autism spectrum disorder and enrollment criteria, and 53 of these individuals met drug-refractory symptom criteria. Factors associated with drug-refractory symptoms included age 12 years or older (p diagnosis of autistic disorder (p = 0.0139), and presence of intellectual disability (p = 0.0273). This pilot report underscores the significance of drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums; suggests the need for future study clarifying factors related to symptom development; and identifies the need for focused treatment study of this impairing symptom domain. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Autism Severity and Qualities of Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurkens, Nicole M.; Hobson, Jessica A.; Hobson, R. Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how severity of autism affects children's interactions (relatedness) and relationships with their parents. Participants were 25 parent-child dyads that included offspring who were children with autism aged from 4 to 14 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed using the calibrated severity…

  7. Unauthorized Minds: How "Theory of Mind" Theory Misrepresents Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukler, David

    2005-01-01

    Recent representations of autism frequently include an assumption that autism is the result of a "theory of mind" deficit (i.e., an inability to understand others' mental states). This notion is examined using a social constructionist perspective. The belief that autism is a sort of "mind-blindness" has much in common with earlier representations…

  8. Possible Links among Mirror Neurons and Genes Related to Autism

    OpenAIRE

    MOCHIZUKI, Mai; 望月,麻衣

    2016-01-01

    Autism includes many neurodevelopmental disorders and defi cits in communication. Althoughresearchers have considered various origins, the onset mechanism is still not clear. The aim ofthis article is to provide some clues for interaction of autism with mirror neuronal and geneticfactors. First, the impact of neural brain cells considered to infl uence autism will be discussedwith reference to mirror neurons. Then, the discussion will move to genes related to autism.Consequently, it is argued...

  9. Review of Autism Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that onset in the first 3 years of life and led to lifelong disability.Despite the early onset of symptoms, diagnosis of thissyndromedoes not happenuntil severalyears later, somany childrenlosethe opportunityfor earlyintervention.There arevarious toolsforscreening anddiagnosis, buttheirdesign, strengths and weaknesses aredifferent. The aim of this study was assess these tools from various aspects to provide a comprehensive view. Materials and methods: This study is a narrative literature review on screeningtoolsof autism. Comprehensive searches of the scientific literature were conducted in textbooks and 8 electronic databases(proquest,wiley,google scholar,SID,Scopus, Web of Science ،Science Direct ، and Medline and Pediatric book. language restriction (Persian and English was applied. The search strategy consisted of keywords and medical subject headings for autism and various screening tests. Result: In this study, 28 screening tests were identified from 1992 to 2014. CHAT is oldest test and the most recent test is CAST The minimum age that can perform the screening is six months that related to ITC. Minimum time of testing was 5 minutes  for CHAT and the maximum time was 90-120 minutes for ASIEP-3.RAADS-R test was the highest specificity and specificity (100% and the lowest specificity was 14% in ESAT test Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that any of the autism screening tools consider specific skill and various aspects of the disease, careful evaluation is need to choose proper test.

  10. Beyond the Spectrum: Rethinking Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The "spectrum" has become the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing autism, with fundamental consequences for notions of disability, diversity, and normality. In this article, we draw on ethnographic research with autistic communities to explore how the notion of the autism spectrum has become a focus of explicit identification, reflection, and contestation. To further this inquiry, we place these debates into conversation with earlier debates regarding another spectrum—the Kinsey Scale, a "spectrum" for conceptualizing sexual orientation that first appeared in 1948 but has been critiqued since the 1970s. How might responses to the Kinsey Scale (like the Klein Grid contribute to rethinking the autism spectrum? This is a question about the cultural and political implications of metaphors and conceptual models. It is of broad importance because the spectrum metaphor is being extended to a range of conditions beyond autism itself. Our goal is thus to build on insights from sexuality studies as well as the insights of autistic persons, advocates, and researchers who wish to forestall the naturalization of "the spectrum." In doing so, we seek to contribute to a discussion of what alternative frameworks might bring to questions of social justice, ability, and human flourishing.

  11. Mothers' Experiences of Children in the Autistic Spectrum in Greece: Narratives of Development, Education and Disability across Their Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukisas, Theodoros D.; Papoudi, Despina

    2016-01-01

    Autism occupies a prominent place in scientific research both as a medical and as a socio-cultural phenomenon. Autism is studied as a disorder and a diagnostic label, as an experience of people with autism, their parents and their supporters, and finally as a disability related to stigma and rejection. The purpose of this article is to describe…

  12. A Twin Study of Heritable and Shared Environmental Contributions to Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Thompson, Lee; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Law, Paul; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Eng, Charis; Morris, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined genetic and shared environment contributions to quantitatively-measured autism symptoms and categorically-defined autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants included 568 twins from the Interactive Autism Network. Autism symptoms were obtained using the Social Communication Questionnaire and Social Responsiveness…

  13. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder as Behavior Technicians for Young Children with Autism: Outcomes of a Behavioral Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial for Early Intervention for Autism: A Pilot Study of the Autism 1-2-3 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia C. N.; Kwan, Queenie K.

    2010-01-01

    We piloted a 2-week "Autism-1-2-3" early intervention for children with autism and their parents immediately after diagnosis that targeted at (1) eye contact, (2) gesture and (3) vocalization/words. Seventeen children were randomized into the Intervention (n = 9) and Control (n = 8) groups. Outcome measures included the Autism Diagnostic…

  15. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...

  16. Effects of picture exchange communication system on communication and behavioral anomalies in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S; Singh, Tej B

    2010-07-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors.

  17. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  18. Characteristics of international websites with information on developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Gelbar, Nicholas W; Mouradjian, Keri; Shefcyk, Allison; Smith, Isaac C

    2014-10-01

    The Internet often serves as a primary resource for individuals seeking health-related information, and a large and growing number of websites contain information related to developmental disabilities. This paper presents the results of an international evaluation of the characteristics and content of the top 10 ranked results (i.e., not including sponsored results - pay-per-click) returned when one of five terms related to developmental disabilities (i.e., ADHD, autism, down syndrome, learning disability, intellectual disability) was entered into one of six country specific Google online search engines (i.e., Australia (https://www.google.com.au), Canada (https://www.google.ca), Ireland (https://www.google.ie), New Zealand (https://www.google.co.nz), the United Kingdom (https://www.google.co.uk), and the United States (https://www.google.com)) on October 22, 2013. Collectively, we found that international consumers of websites related to developmental disabilities will encounter different websites with differing content and terminology, and should be critical consumers to ensure they locate the information they are seeking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  20. Defining Autism: Variability in State Education Agency Definitions of and Evaluations for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda L. Pennington

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the steady rise in the prevalence of students with autism, this study examined the definition of autism published by state education agencies (SEAs, as well as SEA-indicated evaluation procedures for determining student qualification for autism. We compared components of each SEA definition to aspects of autism from two authoritative sources: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA-2004. We also compared SEA-indicated evaluation procedures across SEAs to evaluation procedures noted in IDEA-2004. Results indicated that many more SEA definitions incorporate IDEA-2004 features than DSM-IV-TR features. However, despite similar foundations, SEA definitions of autism displayed considerable variability. Evaluation procedures were found to vary even more across SEAs. Moreover, within any particular SEA there often was little concordance between the definition (what autism is and evaluation procedures (how autism is recognized. Recommendations for state and federal policy changes are discussed.

  1. Demographic and clinical correlates of autism symptom domains and autism spectrum diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y; Constantino, John N; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L; Eng, Charis

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive Autism Network registry. Social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms were obtained using caregiver-reports on the So...

  2. Autism as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence for an sAPPα-mediated anabolic pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Sokol, Deborah K.; Erickson, Craig; Ray, Balmiki; Ho, Chang Y.; Maloney, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by social skills and communication deficits and interfering repetitive behavior. Intellectual disability often accompanies autism. In addition to behavioral deficits, autism is characterized by neuropathology and brain overgrowth. Increased intracranial volume often accompanies this brain growth. We have found that the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) associated amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), especially its neuroprotective processing product, secrete...

  3. Effects of Picture Exchange Communication System on Communication and Behavioral Anomalies in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S.; Singh, Tej B.

    2010-01-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child t...

  4. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John; Dalrymple, Nancy; Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool’s reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine associations between IEP quality and school, teacher, and child characteristics. IEPs for 35 students with autism (Mage = 6.1 years; SD = 1.6) from 35 d...

  5. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  6. Autism spectrum disorder in a community-based sample with neurodevelopmental problems in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewande O. Oshodi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a globally prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder for which early diagnosis and intervention is the mainstay of management. In the African continent, limited data is available regarding the non-clinic based samples. Lack of information available to caregivers and inadequate skilled manpower often limit early detection and access to the few available though under resourced services in the community. Community based screening can be an important drive to create awareness and improve information dissemination regarding services available for those living with this disorder. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study utilizing data obtained from participants of a community-based autism screening exercise. The surveillance exercise was part of the annual Orange Ribbon initiative for autism awareness and screening held in 2014. Data was obtained from 85 participants involved in the Autism Surveillance screening exercise within the Lagos community. Community public service radio announcements state wide and word of mouth were used to invite and enroll eligible participants to the screening and consultation exercise. A second stage screening and a brief sociodemographic questionnaire followed by a third stage clinical interview and evaluation using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5 Edition (DSM 5 were used. Appropriate consultation and referrals to services in the community were given. Participants had a mean age of 7.53 years (SD 4.35. Twenty-nine (34.5% met the diagnosis of ASD. Other diagnosis included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, language and speech disorder, intellectual disability (8.3% and learning disorders (9.5%. Main health concerns to caregivers were poor language development in all (100%, of which 11 (40.7% were non-verbal; gaze avoidance was seen in 14 (48.3% and challenging behavior in 12 (42.9%. Comorbidities included seizure disorders (3.4% and ADHD (6

  7. Family Quality of Life of South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, Liezl; Dada, Shakila; Samuels, Alecia E.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the family quality of life among families who are raising a young child with autism spectrum disorder. Survey research was conducted with 180 families of children with autism spectrum disorder who were receiving disability-related services in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The principle measure used was the Beach…

  8. Spatial Cognition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Superior, Impaired, or Just Intact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgin, Jamie O.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2005-01-01

    The profile of spatial ability is of interest across autism spectrum disorders (ASD) because of reported spatial strengths in ASD and due to the recent association of Asperger's syndrome with Nonverbal Learning Disability. Spatial functions were examined in relation to two cognitive theories in autism: the central coherence and executive function…

  9. Autism: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 1 = Autismo: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on autism is offered in both English and Spanish, and is the same in both languages although numbered differently. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that autism is listed as a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.…

  10. Learning through Seeing and Doing: Visual Supports for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaila M.; Gagie, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a life-long, complex developmental disorder that causes impairment in the way individuals process information. Autism belongs to heterogeneous categories of developmental disabilities where neurological disorders lead to deficits in a child's ability to communicate, understand language, play, develop social skills, and relate to others.…

  11. State Medicaid Spending and Financial Burden of Families Raising Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Thomas, Kathleen C.; Rose, Roderick; Kilany, Mona; Shattuck, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between state Medicaid spending for children with disabilities and the financial burden reported by families of children with autism. Child and family data were from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (n = 2,011 insured children with autism). State characteristics were from public…

  12. Differences in the Clinical Presentation of Trisomy 21 with and without Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, C. A.; Murray, D. S.; Kinsman, A.; Castillo, H.; Mitchell, T.; Hickey, F. J.; Patterson, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autism occurs 10 times more often in children with Down syndrome than in the general population, but diagnosing co-occurring autism in Down syndrome with severe intellectual disability is challenging. The objective of this case-control study was to identify characteristics differentiating children with trisomy 21 with and without…

  13. Caregiver Perspectives about Assistive Technology Use with Their Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Campbell, Philippa H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to examine how caregivers of infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder view their daily activities/routines and in what way, if any, assistive technology (AT) acts as a support. A total of 134 families who reported their child's disability as autism spectrum disorder/pervasive developmental disorder completed a survey…

  14. Autism Litigation: Outcomes for 2010, Trends in Decision Making and Changes in Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Doris Adams; Kearley, Regina

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder has systematically risen since Kanner's description in 1943 and Asperger's definition in 1944. An increase in numbers has met with an increase in litigation regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA). Outcomes that first favored parents…

  15. Relationship Satisfaction, Parenting Stress, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitlauf, Amy S.; Vehorn, Alison C.; Taylor, Julie L.; Warren, Zachary E.

    2014-01-01

    Mothers of children with autism report higher levels of depression than mothers of children with other developmental disabilities. We explored the relations between child characteristics of diagnostic severity and problem behaviors, parenting stress, relationship quality, and depressive symptoms in 70 mothers of young children with autism. We…

  16. Biomarkers in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHendren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers.

  17. Linking neocortical, cognitive, and genetic variability in autism with alterations of brain plasticity: the Trigger-Threshold-Target model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottron, Laurent; Belleville, Sylvie; Rouleau, Guy A; Collignon, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    The phenotype of autism involves heterogeneous adaptive traits (strengths vs. disabilities), different domains of alterations (social vs. non-social), and various associated genetic conditions (syndromic vs. nonsyndromic autism). Three observations suggest that alterations in experience-dependent plasticity are an etiological factor in autism: (1) the main cognitive domains enhanced in autism are controlled by the most plastic cortical brain regions, the multimodal association cortices; (2) autism and sensory deprivation share several features of cortical and functional reorganization; and (3) genetic mutations and/or environmental insults involved in autism all appear to affect developmental synaptic plasticity, and mostly lead to its upregulation. We present the Trigger-Threshold-Target (TTT) model of autism to organize these findings. In this model, genetic mutations trigger brain reorganization in individuals with a low plasticity threshold, mostly within regions sensitive to cortical reallocations. These changes account for the cognitive enhancements and reduced social expertise associated with autism. Enhanced but normal plasticity may underlie non-syndromic autism, whereas syndromic autism may occur when a triggering mutation or event produces an altered plastic reaction, also resulting in intellectual disability and dysmorphism in addition to autism. Differences in the target of brain reorganization (perceptual vs. language regions) account for the main autistic subgroups. In light of this model, future research should investigate how individual and sex-related differences in synaptic/regional brain plasticity influence the occurrence of autism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology to Support Sign Language for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review of the literature provides a synthesis of research on the use of technology to support sign language. Background research on the use of sign language with students who are deaf/hard of hearing and students with low incidence disabilities, such as autism, intellectual disability, or communication disorders is provided. The…

  19. Supporting College and University Students with Invisible Disabilities: A Guide for Faculty and Staff Working with Students with Autism, AD/HD, Language Processing Disorders, Anxiety, and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslund, Christy

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of students with invisible disabilities attending college and university, faculty and staff find themselves faced with new challenges. This practical handbook provides lecturers, tutors, disability services, and administrative staff with an overview of the invisible disabilities they may encounter, dispelling common myths…

  20. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic) Female: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Azadeh; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation) including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy). In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery) due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills) under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  1. Examining National Trends in Educational Placements for Students with Significant Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Using the least restrictive environments (LRE) data from annual "Reports to Congress," this study examined national trends in placement between 2000 and 2014 for school-aged students considered to have significant disabilities from among the categories of autism (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), multiple disabilities (MD), and…

  2. Inclusive Education for Students with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaniah Ikhfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses major issues and trends in special education in Indonesia, including implications of trends for the future developments. Trends are discussed for the following areas: (1 inclusion and integration, issues will remain unresolved in the near future; (2 early childhood and postsecondary education with disability students, special education will be viewed as lifespan schooling; (3 transitions and life skills, these will receive greater emphasis; and (4 consultation and collaboration, more emphasis but problems remain. Moreover, the participant of the study in this paper was an autism student of twelve years old who lived at Maguwoharjo, Yogyakarta. This study was qualitative with case study as an approach of the research. The researchers conclude the autism that has good academic, communication and emotional skill are able to go to integrated school accompanied by guidance teacher. But in practice, inclusive education in Indonesia is inseparable from stakeholders ranging from government and institutions such as schools, educators, school environment, community and parents to support the goal of inclusive education itself. Adequate infrastructure also needs to be given to the school that organizes inclusive education for an efficient and effective students understanding learning-oriented of inclusive education. In short, every child has the same opportunity in education, yet for special education which is aimed at student with special educational needs.

  3. Clinical characteristics of children and young adults with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Christelle M; Spence, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    The association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy has been described for decades, and yet we still lack the full understanding of this relationship both clinically and at the pathophysiologic level. This review evaluates the available data in the literature pertaining to the clinical characteristics of patients with autism spectrum disorder who develop epilepsy and, conversely, patients with epilepsy who develop autism spectrum disorder. Many studies demonstrate an increased risk of epilepsy in individuals with ASD, but rates vary widely. This variability is likely secondary to the different study methods employed, including the study population and definitions of the disorders. Established risk factors for an increased risk of epilepsy in patients with ASD include intellectual disability and female gender. There is some evidence of an increased risk of epilepsy associated with other factors such as ASD etiology (syndromic), severity of autistic features, developmental regression, and family history. No one epilepsy syndrome or seizure type has been associated, although focal or localization-related seizures are often reported. The age at seizure onset can vary from infancy to adulthood with some evidence of a bimodal age distribution. The severity and intractability of epilepsy in populations with ASD have not been well studied, and there is very little investigation of the role that epilepsy plays in the autism behavioral phenotype. There is evidence of abnormal EEGs (especially epileptiform abnormalities) in children with ASD even in the absence of clinical seizures, but very little is known about this phenomenon and what it means. The development of autism spectrum disorder in patients with epilepsy is less well studied, but there is evidence that the ASD risk is greater in those with epilepsy than in the general population. One of the risk factors is intellectual disability, and there is some evidence that the presence of a particular seizure

  4. Behavioral Disorders, Learning Disabilities and Megavitamin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPerchia, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…

  5. Strategies for oral health care for people with disabilities in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Jeng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral health care for disabled patients is an important health issue in Taiwan. Disabled patients seeking dental care include those with mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Down syndrome, autism, xerostomia, AIDS, loss of function of major organs, and neurologic diseases. Current dental health care policies do not completely address this critical oral health issue. Most of these physically or mentally disabled patients cannot find suitable or qualified dental services in local dental clinics or even hospitals. Our current health care insurance system should provide greater benefits for dental practitioners who are willing to care for such disabled patients. The Department of Health (DOH should legislate policies to provide greater financial support and equipment and encourage hospital dental clinics and dentists to join this special oral care program. Dental schools, hospitals, and the DOH can also provide curricula and special training programs for both dentists and undergraduate dental students so that they can learn about diseases and dental care of these patients. The government and DOH should cover the fees of lawsuits if dentists have medical legal problems while treating patients with disabilities. Questions on special care dentistry can possibly be included in the National Board Dental Examination. The government can establish some national oral health care centers to treat these disabled patients. Through the development of effective preventive and treatment strategies, the incidence of oral diseases in these patients can be reduced in the future.

  6. Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Autism Symptom Domains and Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Constantino, John N.; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L.; Eng, Charis

    2014-01-01

    Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive…

  7. Autism Treatment Survey: Services Received by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Public School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kristen L.; Morrier, Michael J.; Heflin, L.; Ivey, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    The Autism Treatment Survey was developed to identify strategies used in education of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Georgia. Respondents of the web-based survey included a representative sample of 185 teachers across the state, reporting on 226 children with ASD in grades preschool-12th. The top five strategies being used in…

  8. Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Experiences Among Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Implications for Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jessica Penwell; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2015-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of autism since the 1990s has led to growing demand for sex education that meets the needs of persons on the autism spectrum. Yet there is a dearth of research documenting the firsthand experiences and perspectives of autistic individuals. A thematic analysis was conducted of in-depth, Internet-facilitated interviews with 24 adults on the autism spectrum who were recruited from Internet community spaces between November 2012 and May 2013. Inclusion criteria were self-identification as a person on the autism spectrum, being a U.S. resident, being aged 18 or older, and having the ability to communicate orally or through writing. Participants were aged 18-61 and were living in the community at the time of interview, most with limited extrafamilial support. They were less likely than the general population to be heterosexual or gender-conforming and were more likely to have experienced romantic or sexual debut after age 18. Participants' most common concerns were courtship difficulties and sensory dysregulation in the context of partnered sexuality. These concerns were exacerbated by inadequate and inappropriate sex education experiences. Participants addressed challenges by using sensory barriers (e.g., latex gloves); planning when and how to have sex; negotiating alternatives to sexual scripts predicated on nondisabled experience; and practicing explicit and intentional communication. Individuals on the autism spectrum would benefit from sex education that normalizes differences (e.g., in identities and experiences of sexuality), is offered throughout young adulthood, addresses disability-relevant sensory and communication needs, and includes practicing neurotypical sociosexual norms. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. Autism and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  10. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryland Hilde K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ, as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS, an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  11. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Hilde K; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J

    2012-11-12

    The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11-13 years) who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS), an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (pchildren with neurological disorders was moderate to high for the total score and for three sub scores generated from a factor analysis, and low to moderate for single items. The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  12. Intestinal permeability and glucagon-like peptide-2 in children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Marli A; Sigalet, David L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    We measured small intestinal permeability using a lactulose:mannitol sugar permeability test in a group of children with autism, with current or previous gastrointestinal complaints. Secondly, we examined whether children with autism had an abnormal glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) response...... to feeding. Results were compared with sibling controls and children without developmental disabilities. We enrolled 14 children with autism, 7 developmentally normal siblings of these children and 8 healthy, developmentally normal, unrelated children. Our study did not detect differences in these measures...... of gastrointestinal function in a group of children with autism....

  13. A Cohort Study of Intellectual Disability Focusing on Fragile X Syndrome in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Indah Winarni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID is a major public health problem because the defect, treatment and rehabilitation require long life both medical and socio-economic assessment. Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common cause of inherited X-linked intellectual disabilities (ID with reduced penetrance. With regards to behavioral and emotional phenotype, FXS commonly mixed up with idiopathic autism. The prevalence is found higher in males compared to females. In accordance with rapid development of diagnosis technique, the prevalence of FXS is defining worldwide including Indonesia using, currently, simple molecular method. Objectives: This study was aimed to diagnose genetic cause of ID and to establish the prevalence of FXS among ID population in Central Java, and Yogyakarta Province. Method: Screening has been performed since 1994 continuously in high risk population (special school with and without autism using clinical, cytogenetic, and FMR1 gene PCR-based molecular approach. Cascade testing was subjected to the family members with positive result of FXS and many new cases were disclosed in our cohort study. Results: The prevalence of FXS among ID population was calculated to be 1.9% (5/262 in 1994 and 1.7% (9/527 in 2011. Among autism population it was determined to be 6.15% (4/65. Trisomy 21 was found in 14% (74/527 as a major cause of ID. Conclusion: The prevalence of FXS among screened ID population overtime is comparable.

  14. Quantifying social development in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmar, F R; Carter, A; Sparrow, S S; Cicchetti, D V

    1993-05-01

    This study was concerned with the development of quantitative measures of social development in autism. Multiple regression equations predicting social, communicative, and daily living skills on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were derived from a large, normative sample and applied to groups of autistic and nonautistic, developmentally disordered children. Predictive models included either mental or chronological age and other relevant variables. Social skills in the autistic group were more than two standard deviations below those predicted by their mental age; an index derived from the ratio of actual to predicted social skills correctly classified 94% of the autistic and 92% of the nonautistic, developmentally disordered cases. The findings are consistent with the idea that social disturbance is central in the definition of autism. The approach used in this study has potential advantages for providing more precise measures of social development in autism.

  15. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  16. Consensus Paper: Pathological Role of the Cerebellum in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L.; Blaha, Charles D.; Blatt, Gene J.; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R.; Dickson, Price E.; Estes, Annette M.; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H.; Kemper, Thomas L.; King, Bryan H.; Martin, Loren A.; Millen, Kathleen J.; Mittleman, Guy; Mosconi, Matthew W.; Persico, Antonio M.; Sweeney, John A.; Webb, Sara J.; Welsh, John P.

    2013-01-01

    There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar genetics, cerebellar immune function, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytocin related changes in autism, motor control and cognitive deficits, cerebellar coordination of movements and cognition, gene-environment interactions, therapeutics in autism and relevant animal models of autism. Points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Undefined areas or areas requiring further investigation include lack of treatment options for core symptoms of autism, vermal hypoplasia and other vermal abnormalities as a consistent feature of autism, mechanisms underlying cerebellar contributions to cognition, and unknown mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation. PMID:22370873

  17. Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L; Blaha, Charles D; Blatt, Gene J; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R; Dickson, Price E; Estes, Annette M; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H; Kemper, Thomas L; King, Bryan H; Martin, Loren A; Millen, Kathleen J; Mittleman, Guy; Mosconi, Matthew W; Persico, Antonio M; Sweeney, John A; Webb, Sara J; Welsh, John P

    2012-09-01

    There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar genetics, cerebellar immune function, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytocin-related changes in autism, motor control and cognitive deficits, cerebellar coordination of movements and cognition, gene-environment interactions, therapeutics in autism, and relevant animal models of autism. Points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Undefined areas or areas requiring further investigation include lack of treatment options for core symptoms of autism, vermal hypoplasia, and other vermal abnormalities as a consistent feature of autism, mechanisms underlying cerebellar contributions to cognition, and unknown mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation.

  18. Disability and global development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Joan; Lord, Janet; Defranco, Allison

    2012-07-01

    The United States invests billions of taxpayer dollars each year into foreign assistance programs that foster international diplomacy and development directed toward improving the quality of life for people around the world. These programs develop economies and combat poverty, promote democracy and governance, build new infrastructure, advance and protect human rights, among other development goals. The United States cannot effectively accomplish the goals of foreign assistance programs unless it undertakes measures to ensure that the programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The United States has been a leader in advancing the rights of people with disabilities and must continue to promote disability rights through its international development work. Overseas economic development will not be successful unless people with disabilities are included. Because of the significant number of people with disabilities in developing countries, if they are not included, the very economic growth the United States is trying to foster will be hindered. The goals of democracy and governance programs cannot be achieved without the inclusion of people with disabilities. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions for people with disabilities that undermine access to justice and full participation in society. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  20. Variability in a three-generation family with Pierre Robin sequence, acampomelic campomelic dysplasia, and intellectual disability due to a novel ∼1 Mb deletion upstream of SOX9, and including KCNJ2 and KCNJ16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco; Bottillo, Irene; Morlino, Silvia; Barone, Chiara; Cascone, Piero; Grammatico, Paola; Laino, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia and acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD) are allelic disorders due to heterozygous mutations in or around SOX9. Translocations and deletions involving the SOX9 5' regulatory region are rare causes of these disorders, as well as Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Genotype-phenotype correlations are not straightforward due to the complex epigenetic regulation of SOX9 expression during development. We report a three-generation pedigree with a novel ∼1 Mb deletion upstream of SOX9 and including KCNJ2 and KCNJ16, and ascertained for dominant transmission of PRS. Further characterization of the family identified subtle appendicular anomalies and a variable constellation of axial skeletal features evocative of ACD in several members. Affected males showed learning disability. The identified deletion was smaller than all other chromosome rearrangements associated with ACD. Comparison with other reported translocations and deletions involving this region allowed further refining of genotype-phenotype correlations and an update of the smallest regions of overlap associated with the different phenotypes. Intrafamilial variability in this pedigree suggests a phenotypic continuity between ACD and PRS in patients carrying mutations in the SOX9 5' regulatory region. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ubiquinol Improves Symptoms in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gvozdjáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood. Oxidative stress and antioxidants can participate in pathobiochemical mechanisms of autism. Methods. Twenty-four children, aged 3–6 years, with autism according to the DSM IV criteria and using CARS were included in the study. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL, γ- and α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and lipid peroxidation were determined in plasma before and after three months of supportive therapy with ubiquinol at a daily dose 2×50 mg. Data on behavior of the children were collected from parents at the same time. Results. Ubiquinol supportive therapy improved symptoms in children with autism, as communication with parents (in 12%, verbal communication (in 21%, playing games of children (in 42%, sleeping (in 34%, and food rejection (in 17%, with CoQ10-TOTAL plasma level above 2.5 μmol/L. Conclusions. Beneficial effect of ubiquinol in children with autism has been demonstrated for the first time. We assume that plasma concentration of CoQ10-TOTAL and lipid peroxidation could be used as relevant biomarkers of ubiquinol supportive therapy.

  2. Intersectional harassment and deviant embodiment among Autistic adults: (dis)ability, gender and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jessica Penwell

    2017-11-01

    Harassment scholarship increasingly attends to the intersectional nature of harassment and its function within systems of domination. However, little of this work includes disability. In-depth interviews with 24 adults on the autism spectrum in the USA demonstrate the intersections of gender, sexuality and (dis)ability in the construction of deviant embodiments as targets for harassment. These intersections also shape how participants made sense of these experiences of violence. Participants' disability characteristics were often read as gender or sexual variance, with harassers relying on sexist and heterosexist constructs to frighten, demean or humiliate them for disability characteristics. Participant experiences demonstrate the cisgender basis of 'able-bodied' identity as well as the 'able-bodied' basis of cisgender and heterosexual identities and experiences. The interdependency of gender, sexuality and (dis)ability embodiment point to how it is critical for scholars and activists to account for the role of gender and heterosexist harassment in ableist oppression and disability harassment in (hetero)sexist oppression, as well as the limits of current US law enforcement structures in providing redress for harassment.

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by clinical, etio- logic and ... twin and family studies provide evidence for strong genetic ..... adolescents rats: relevant to autism spectrum disorders.

  4. Diagnosis of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Gillian; Cass, Hilary; Slonims, Vicky

    2003-01-01

    Parents want autism to be diagnosed as early as possible, and early intervention may improve long term outcomes. The authors of this review discuss the identification and assessment process for children with autism and autistic spectrum disorder

  5. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard

    2017-01-01

    Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...... is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism....

  6. Kids' Quest: Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Have Information For… Parents / Educators What is autism and how do I recognize a kid who might be diagnosed as having an autism spectrum disorder? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet What is autism spectrum disorder? What are some ... of mutations in individual genes but rather spontaneous coding mutations across many genes. De novo mutations may ...

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within the category. These were autistic disorder ("classic" autism), Asperger syndrome (which usually involved milder symptoms, mostly related ... but not all, of the features of classic autism or Asperger syndrome). 2 Health care providers no longer use ...

  9. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Volker; Elissa H. Dua; Christopher Lopata; Marcus L. Thomeer; Jennifer A. Toomey; Audrey M. Smerbeck; Jonathan D. Rodgers; Joshua R. Popkin; Andrew T. Nelson; Gloria K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2) is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution si...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  11. Does microglial dysfunction play a role in autism and Rett syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maezawa, Izumi; Calafiore, Marco; Wulff, Heike; Jin, Lee-Way

    2011-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) including classic autism is a group of complex developmental disabilities with core deficits of impaired social interactions, communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors. Although the neurobiology of ASDs has attracted much attention in the last two decades, the role of microglia has been ignored. Existing data are focused on their recognized role in neuroinflammation, which only covers a small part of the pathological repertoire of microglia. This review highlights recent findings on the broader roles of microglia, including their active surveillance of brain microenvironments and regulation of synaptic connectivity, maturation of brain circuitry and neurogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that microglia respond to pre- and postnatal environmental stimuli through epigenetic interface to change gene expression, thus acting as effectors of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Impairments of these microglial functions could substantially contribute to several major etiological factors of autism, such as environmental toxins and cortical underconnectivity. Our recent study on Rett syndrome, a syndromic autistic disorder, provides an example that intrinsic microglial dysfunction due to genetic and epigenetic aberrations could detrimentally affect the developmental trajectory without evoking neuroinflammation. We propose that ASDs provide excellent opportunities to study the influence of microglia on neurodevelopment, and this knowledge could lead to novel therapies.

  12. An Inside Job: How Endosomal Na+/H+ Exchangers Link to Autism and Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C. Kondapalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism imposes a major impediment to childhood development and a huge emotional and financial burden on society. In recent years, there has been rapidly accumulating genetic evidence that links the eNHE, a subset of Na+/H+ exchangers that localize to intracellular vesicles, to a variety of neurological conditions including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disability and epilepsy. By providing a leak pathway for protons pumped by the V-ATPase, eNHE determine luminal pH and regulate cation (Na+, K+ content in early and recycling endosomal compartments. Loss-of-function mutations in eNHE cause hyperacidification of endosomal lumen, as a result of imbalance in pump and leak pathways. Two isoforms, NHE6 and NHE9 are highly expressed in brain, including hippocampus and cortex. Here, we summarize evidence for the importance of luminal cation content and pH on processing, delivery and fate of cargo and on the surface expression and function of membrane receptors and neurotransmitter transporters, drawing upon insights from model organisms and mammalian cells. These studies lead to cellular models of eNHE activity in pre- and post-synaptic neurons and astrocytes, where they could impact synapse development and plasticity. The study of eNHE has provided new insight on the mechanism of autism and other debilitating neurological disorders and opened up new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Altered modular organization of structural cortical networks in children with autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex developmental disability that characterized by deficits in social interaction, language skills, repetitive stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although great heterogeneity exists, previous findings suggest that autism has atypical brain connectivity patterns and disrupted small-world network properties. However, the organizational alterations in the autistic brain network are still poorly understood. We explored possible organizational alterations of 49 autistic children and 51 typically developing controls, by investigating their brain network metrics that are constructed upon cortical thickness correlations. Three modules were identified in controls, including cortical regions associated with brain functions of executive strategic, spatial/auditory/visual, and self-reference/episodic memory. There are also three modules found in autistic children with similar patterns. Compared with controls, autism demonstrates significantly reduced gross network modularity, and a larger number of inter-module connections. However, the autistic brain network demonstrates increased intra- and inter-module connectivity in brain regions including middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, and cingulate, suggesting one underlying compensatory mechanism associated with brain functions of self-reference and episodic memory. Results also show that there is increased correlation strength between regions inside frontal lobe, as well as impaired correlation strength between frontotemporal and frontoparietal regions. This alteration of correlation strength may contribute to the organization alteration of network structures in autistic brains.

  14. Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jakob; Grønborg, Therese Koops; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Schendel, Diana; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Importance Valproate is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychological disorders and may be the only treatment option for women of childbearing potential. However, prenatal exposure to valproate may increase the risk of autism. Objective To determine whether prenatal exposure to valproate is associated with an increased risk of autism in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based study of all children born alive in Denmark from 1996 to 2006. National registers were used to identify children exposed to valproate during pregnancy and diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (childhood autism [autistic disorder], Asperger syndrome, atypical autism, and other or unspecified pervasive developmental disorders). We analyzed the risks associated with all autism spectrum disorders as well as childhood autism. Data were analyzed by Cox regression adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age at conception, paternal age at conception, parental psychiatric history, gestational age, birth weight, sex, congenital malformations, and parity). Children were followed up from birth until the day of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, death, emigration, or December 31, 2010, whichever came first. Main Outcomes and Measures Absolute risk (cumulative incidence) and the hazard ratio (HR) of autism spectrum disorder and childhood autism in children after exposure to valproate in pregnancy. Results Of 655 615 children born from 1996 through 2006, 5437 were identified with autism spectrum disorder, including 2067 with childhood autism. The mean age of the children at end of follow-up was 8.84 years (range, 4-14; median, 8.85). The estimated absolute risk after 14 years of follow-up was 1.53% (95% CI, 1.47%- 1.58%) for autism spectrum disorder and 0.48% (95% CI, 0.46%-0.51%) for childhood autism. Overall, the 508 children exposed to valproate had an absolute risk of 4.42% (95% CI, 2.59%-7.46%) for autism spectrum disorder (adjusted HR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1

  15. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, T M; Leach, P T; Crawley, J N

    2016-01-01

    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Roses for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses Roses for Autism, a program that provides training, guidance and employment opportunities for older students and adults on the autistic spectrum. Roses for Autism tackles one of the biggest challenges currently facing the autism community--a disproportionally high unemployment rate that hovers around 88 percent. Although a…

  17. International telemedicine consultations for neurodevelopmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L; Sable, Craig; Evans, Sarah; Knight, Joseph; Cunningham, Parker; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Gropman, Andrea; Stuart, Sheela; Glass, Penny; Conway, Anne; Ramadan, Issam; Paiva, Tania; Batshaw, Mark L; Packer, Roger J

    2014-06-01

    A telemedicine program was developed between the Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington, DC, and the Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Foundation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A needs assessment and a curriculum of on-site training conferences were devised preparatory to an ongoing telemedicine consultation program for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities in the underserved eastern region of the UAE. Weekly telemedicine consultations are provided by a multidisciplinary faculty. Patients are presented in the UAE with their therapists and families. Real-time (video over Internet protocol; average connection, 768 kilobits/s) telemedicine conferences are held weekly following previews of medical records. A full consultation report follows each telemedicine session. Between February 29, 2012 and June 26, 2013, 48 weekly 1-h live interactive telemedicine consultations were conducted on 48 patients (28 males, 20 females; age range, 8 months-22 years; median age, 5.4 years). The primary diagnoses were cerebral palsy, neurogenetic disorders, autism, neuromuscular disorders, congenital anomalies, global developmental delay, systemic disease, and epilepsy. Common comorbidities were cognitive impairment, communication disorders, and behavioral disorders. Specific recommendations included imaging and DNA studies, antiseizure management, spasticity management including botulinum toxin protocols, and specific therapy modalities including taping techniques, customized body vests, and speech/language and behavioral therapy. Improved outcomes reported were in clinician satisfaction, achievement of therapy goals for patients, and requests for ongoing sessions. Weekly telemedicine sessions coupled with triannual training conferences were successfully implemented in a clinical program dedicated to patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities by the Center for Neuroscience at CNMC and the UAE government. International consultations in neurodevelopmental

  18. Disability and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  19. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...

  20. Proteomic explorations of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoko, Nicholas; McShane, Adam J; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2017-09-01

    Proteomics, the large-scale study of protein expression in cells and tissues, is a powerful tool to study the biology of clinical conditions and has provided significant insights in many experimental systems. Herein, we review the basics of proteomic methodology and discuss challenges in using proteomic approaches to study autism. Unlike other experimental approaches, such as genomic approaches, there have been few large-scale studies of proteins in tissues from persons with autism. Most of the proteomic studies on autism used blood or other peripheral tissues; few studies used brain tissue. Some studies found dysregulation of aspects of the immune system or of aspects of lipid metabolism, but no consistent findings were noted. Based on the challenges in using proteomics to study autism, we discuss considerations for future studies. Apart from the complex technical considerations implicit in any proteomic analysis, key nontechnical matters include attention to subject and specimen inclusion/exclusion criteria, having adequate sample size to ensure appropriate powering of the study, attention to the state of specimens prior to proteomic analysis, and the use of a replicate set of specimens, when possible. We conclude by discussing some potentially productive uses of proteomics, potentially coupled with other approaches, for future autism research including: (1) proteomic analysis of banked human brain specimens; (2) proteomic analysis of tissues from animal models of autism; and (3) proteomic analysis of induced pluripotent stem cells that are differentiated into various types of brain cells and neural organoids. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1460-1469. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interventions and Adaptations for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Inclusive Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzeller, Katharine L.; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Jung, Jeesun; Coogle, Christan G.

    2018-01-01

    The inclusive education of children with disabilities is considered best practice, yet many early childhood educators feel unprepared to deliver appropriate instruction for children with disabilities and often require supports to successfully meet the children's unique needs. Young children experiencing autism spectrum disorder are being diagnosed…

  2. A Review of Play Interventions for Children with Autism at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossyvaki, Lila; Papoudi, Despina

    2016-01-01

    Play is an important aspect of children's development and its value to education has been widely explored. However, play in children with disabilities and especially children with autism may be restricted when compared to that of their non-disabled peers of similar age and abilities. Moreover, play has been neglected to a certain extent in school…

  3. Changes in Mothers' Experiences of Receiving an Autism Diagnosis: A Contextualized Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Shana

    2011-01-01

    Autism has a unique history. The definition has broadened and changed over time, from an emotional disturbance with psychogenic origins to a neurodevelopmental disability with suspected environmental and genetic origins. Diagnosis occurs later than children born with obvious disabilities such as cerebral palsy or Down syndrome, but earlier than…

  4. Self-reported stress among adolescent siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M; McGregor, Casey; Hough, Ashlea

    2017-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of studies showing increased stress among mothers of individuals with autism spectrum disorders, few studies have examined general stress among typically developing siblings. This study used an online survey to compare the levels of self-reported stress between adolescent siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome. Sibling of individuals with autism reported significantly more overall stress than did siblings of individuals with Down syndrome, as well as more stress specifically attributed to the brother/sister with autism. The two groups did not differ on perceived social support from family and friends. In linear regression models, the disability group (autism vs Down syndrome) was significantly related to sibling stress above and beyond target child behavior problems, perceived social support, and demographic factors. These results help shed light on the daily experiences of adolescent siblings of individuals with autism and call for more research into potential interventions to address increased stress levels.

  5. Parents' and Young Adults' Perspectives on Transition Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and…

  6. The Lived Experience of US Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systemic Review and Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years--autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report"…

  7. Managing Behavior by Managing the Classroom: Making Learning Accessible for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Christen A.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)--a group of developmental disabilities that cause severe problems with socialization, behavior, and communication--continues to grow. In 2008, the year that "Odyssey" focused on autism, the estimated prevalence of ASD for hearing children was 1 in 150 (CDC, 2007), while today estimates suggest…

  8. Challenges and Successful Pedagogical Strategies: Experiences from Six Swedish Students with Blindness and Autism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Verdier, Kim; Fernell, Elisabeth; Ek, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of autism in children with blindness is much higher than in the general population. There are many challenges regarding the school situation for children with this complex dual disability. This study explored challenges and successful strategies in school for a sample of six Swedish children with blindness and autism, with and…

  9. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

  10. Employment Outcomes of Vocational Rehabilitation Clients with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Charlotte Y.; Yamamoto, Scott H.

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently documented poor employment outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Vocational rehabilitation (VR) services provide substantial federal and state commitments to individuals with disabilities to obtain and maintain employment. To date, little research has examined the relationship between VR services…

  11. College Students' Openness toward Autism Spectrum Disorders: Improving Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Rose E. A.; White, Susan W.

    2011-01-01

    One probable consequence of rising rates of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in individuals without co-occurring intellectual disability is that more young adults with diagnoses or traits of ASD will attend college and require appropriate supports. This study sought to explore college students' openness to peers who demonstrate…

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder: FRAXE Mutation, a Rare Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, F.; Café, C.; Almeida, J.; Mouga, S.; Oliveira, G.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Fragile X E is associated with X-linked non-specific mild intellectual disability (ID) and with behavioral problems. Most of the known genetic causes of ASD are also causes of ID, implying that these two…

  13. Foster Care Involvement among Medicaid-Enrolled Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidav, Zuleyha; Xie, Ming; Mandell, David S.

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence and risk of foster care involvement among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to children with intellectual disability (ID), children with ASD and ID, and typically developing children were examined using 2001-2007 Medicaid data. Children were followed up to the first foster care placement or until the end of 2007;…

  14. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John; Dalrymple, Nancy; Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool's reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine…

  15. Equivalence of symptom dimensions in females and males with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were mapped to nine a priori symptom dimensions. Multi-group confirmatory factor models, including measurement equivalence and item response theory analyses, examined whether males and females showed measurement or structural differences in autism symptom constructs. Results indicated mean differences in restricted interests that were not due to measurement bias. No other symptom dimension showed evidence of measurement bias and autism symptom structure was highly similar between males and females. Future studies are needed to carefully estimate any sex differences in the content, frequency, or intensity/severity of restricted interests in females and males.

  16. Double Voicing and Personhood in Collaborative Life Writing about Autism: the Transformative Narrative of Carly's Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Monica

    2018-06-01

    Collaborative memoirs by co-writers with and without autism can enable the productive interaction of the voices of the writers in ways that can empower rather than exploit the disabled subject. Carly's Voice, co-written by Arthur Fleischmann and his autistic daughter Carly, demonstrates the capacity for such life narratives to facilitate the relational interaction between writers in the negotiation of understandings of disability. Though the text begins by focusing on the limitations of life with autism, it develops into a collaboration which helps both writers move toward new ways of understanding disability and their own and one another's life stories.

  17. Identifying High Ability Children with DSM-5 Autism Spectrum or Social Communication Disorder: Performance on Autism Diagnostic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Fosenburg, Staci L.; Wurster, Kristin G.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    This study was a replication of Mazefsky et al.'s ("Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities" 43:1236-1242, 2013) investigation among a sample of 45 high ability children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD under DSM-IV-TR. Items from the ADOS and ADI-R were mapped onto DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD to determine…

  18. Processing Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.

  19. Sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  20. Predictors of disability retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T

    1997-12-01

    Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.

  1. Does rubella cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eHutton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen, yet autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiologic findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism.Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  2. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today's world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  3. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic Female: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy. In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  4. Sleep Patterns in Adults with a Diagnosis of High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma K; Richdale, Amanda L

    2015-11-01

    To examine sleep patterns and sleep problems and their relationship with daytime functioning in adults with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual disability (high-functioning autism spectrum disorder [HFASD]) compared to neurotypical (NT) adults. Cross-sectional. Home-based study. 36 adults with HFASD and 36 age-, intelligence quotient- and sex-matched NT adults. Participants completed an online questionnaire battery including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 14-d sleep wake diary and 14-d actigraphy data collection. Adults with HFASD had significantly more general sleep disturbances and higher scores on the PSQI, longer sleep onset latencies (actigraphy), and poorer sleep efficiency (diary) and these results remained significant after accounting for the False Discovery Rate. Those adults with HFASD who did not have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety/depression had significantly shorter total sleep time (diary and actigraphy) compared to NT adults. Compared to NT adults, the HFASD group self-reported significantly poorer refreshment scores upon waking in the morning and higher scores on the daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness subscale of the PSQI. These findings support the notion that problems related to sleep, in particular insomnia, continue into adulthood in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Resilience in family members of persons with autism spectrum disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Johnson, Norah L; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, caregivers find caring for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) challenging. Family members must manage many aspects of care giving, which is demanding, overwhelming, and can affect the family members' mental health. However learning how to be resilient may help family members overcome the stress and burden associated with caring for a person with ASD. A search was completed in Medline, PsycINFO, Proquest, Web of Science, and CINAHL using the key words "autism," "caregivers," "mothers," and "fathers," alone and in combination. Inclusion criteria were English language articles reporting studies with samples of children with ASD, as distinct from children with other intellectual or developmental disabilities. Fifty-eight articles that met these inclusion criteria were summarized and, from those, the authors selected 22 articles that included indicators of resilience. This integrative review highlights current research on resilience in adult family members of persons with ASD. Indicators of resilience, risk factors, protective factors, and outcomes of resilience were identified. The review indicates that parents of children with ASD who possess indicators of resilience are better able to manage the adversity associated with caring for children with ASD. Thus, enhancing resilience among family members of persons with autism may be beneficial to both the caregivers and care recipients.

  6. Interactive visual supports for children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Gillian R.; Hirano, Sen; Marcu, Gabriela; Monibi, Mohamad; Nguyen, David H.; Yeganyan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Interventions to support children with autism often include the use of visual supports, which are cognitive tools to enable learning and the production of language. Although visual supports are effective in helping to diminish many of the challenges of autism, they are difficult and time-consuming to create, distribute, and use. In this paper, we present the results of a qualitative study focused on uncovering design guidelines for interactive visual supports that would address the many chall...

  7. Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, Aleksandra; Husarova, Veronika; Lakatosova, Silvia; Bakos, Jan; Vlkova, Barbora; Babinska, Katarina; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Development of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including autism, is based on a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Recent data propose the etiopathogenetic role of intestinal microflora in autism. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in fecal microbiota in children with autism and determine its role in the development of often present gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and possibly other manifestations of autism in Slovakia. The fecal microflora of 10 children with autism, 9 siblings and 10 healthy children was investigated by real-time PCR. The fecal microbiota of autistic children showed a significant decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and elevation of the amount of Lactobacillus spp. Our results also showed a trend in the incidence of elevated Desulfovibrio spp. in children with autism reaffirmed by a very strong association of the amount of Desulfovibrio spp. with the severity of autism in the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) restricted/repetitive behavior subscale score. The participants in our study demonstrated strong positive correlation of autism severity with the severity of GI dysfunction. Probiotic diet supplementation normalized the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Desulfovibrio spp. and the amount of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of autistic children. We did not find any correlation between plasma levels of oxytocin, testosterone, DHEA-S and fecal microbiota, which would suggest their combined influence on autism development. This pilot study suggests the role of gut microbiota in autism as a part of the "gut-brain" axis and it is a basis for further investigation of the combined effect of microbial, genetic, and hormonal changes for development and clinical manifestation of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of Sibling Interventions with Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Devender R.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen intervention studies were reviewed that included children with autism and their typical siblings. Overall, results across several studies reveal that siblings can have positive impacts on social and communication skills in children with autism. However, methodological variations and mixed results in studies that included siblings as…

  9. Physical-recreational activities and persons with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potić Srećko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational activities represent individual or organized group activities chosen by free will, which help individuals to maintain good health, physical and working condition. In addition to the required physical segment, recreation also includes mental component which refers to strengthening of the will and determination, acquisition and development of self-control. With physical and mental aspect of recreational activities, many authors especially emphasize the importance of socio-psychological component of recreation. The aim of this paper is to review the so far published scientific and professional works in which the problem of recreational activities of persons with cerebral palsy, sight impairment, intellectual disability and autism is discussed, by studying the available literature. During the research we used the electronic data base of Serbian Library Consortium for Coordinated Acquisition, Google Scholar, as well as published material available in print. The participation of persons with disabilities in physical-recreational activities in the community is determined by the individual characteristics of the person, but with the community factors as well. The results of many studies show that persons with disabilities participate less in leisure and physical recreational activities and that is largely related to the level of social integration of these persons. Taking into account the fact that the participation of persons with disabilities in physical-recreational activities largely correlates with the quality of life of these persons, it is necessary to increase the number of recreational services that the community offers, as well as to specialise, modify and adapt some of them in relation to the needs of these persons. Also, it is recommended that as an integral part of all therapeutic approaches to persons with disability, the training of these persons for the appropriate use of their leisure time be included.

  10. Behavioural problems and autism in children with hydrocephalus : a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Barbro; Carlsson, Göran; Persson, Eva-Karin; Uvebrant, Paul

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of behavioural problems and autism in a population-based group of children with hydrocephalus and to see whether learning disabilities, cerebral palsy (CP), epilepsy, myelomeningocele (MMC) or preterm birth increase the risk of these problems. In the 107 children with hydrocephalus born in western Sweden in 1989-1993, behaviour was assessed using the Conners' parent rating scales in 66 and the teacher's rating scales in 57. Autism was investigated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Parents rated 67% of the children and teachers 39% of the children as having behavioural problems (>1.5 SD, or T score >65). Learning disabilities increased the risk significantly and almost all the children with CP and/or epilepsy had behavioural problems. Autism was present in nine children (13%), in 20% of those without MMC and in one of 26 with MMC. Autism was significantly more frequent in children with learning disabilities (27% vs. 7%) and in children with CP and/or epilepsy (33% vs. 6%). The majority of children with hydrocephalus have behavioural problems and many have autism. It is therefore important to assess and understand all the aspects of cognition and behaviour in these children in order to minimise disability and enhance participation for the child.

  11. Virtual reality for the treatment of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, D

    1997-01-01

    Autism is a mental disorder which has received attention in several unrelated studies using virtual reality. One of the first attempts was to diagnose children with special needs at Tokyo University using a sandbox playing technique. Although operating the computer controls proved to be too difficult for the individuals with autism in the Tokyo study, research at the University of Nottingham, UK, is successful in using VR as a learning aid for children with a variety of disorders including autism. Both centers used flat screen computer systems with virtual scenes. Another study which concentrated on using VR as a learning aid with an immersive headset system is described in detail in this chapter. Perhaps because of the seriousness of the disorder and the lack of effective treatments, autism has received more study than attention deficit disorders, although both would appear to benefit from many of the same technology features.

  12. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  13. Marital satisfaction and life circumstances of grown children with autism across 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L; Barker, Erin T; Baker, Jason K; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S

    2012-10-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child's autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent-child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers' marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother-child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers' marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child's departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents' marital relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Referential communication in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Svenolof; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2008-07-01

    Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated diminished performance in children with autism spectrum disorder, mirroring performance in everyday life, in comparison to verbal IQ and mental age matched typically developing children. Among children with autism spectrum disorders, there was a positive relationship between performance in referential communication and theory of mind. Memory capacity also proved to play a role in success in the task.

  15. Enhancing Social Behavior of Children with Autism in an Inclusive Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Though laws relating to including children on the autism spectrum and general education in public school settings are in place, inclusion of students is still not a widespread practice in all elementary classrooms. This study examines the social needs of children with autism and in an inclusive classroom. Children with autism are often placed in…

  16. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  17. Voices of Young Adults with Autism and Their Perspective on Life Choices after Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative research study was to explore how young adults who have an autism spectrum disorder perceive their life choices after secondary education. The focus participants in the sample were young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For the purpose of this research, ASD includes autism and Asperger's…

  18. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  19. Evidence for Latent Classes of IQ in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Jeffrey; Dawson, Geraldine; Sterling, Lindsey; Beauchaine, Theodore; Zhou, Andrew; Koehler, Elizabeth; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Estes, Annette; Abbott, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Autism is currently viewed as a spectrum condition that includes strikingly different severity levels; IQ is consistently described as one of the primary aspects of the heterogeneity in autism. To investigate the possibility of more than one distinct subtype of autism based on IQ, both latent class analysis and taxometrics methods were used to…

  20. Examining Playground Engagement between Elementary School Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Shih, Wendy; Kretzmann, Mark; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the social behavior of children with and without autism spectrum disorder during recess. This study documented the naturally occurring recess engagement and peer interaction behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder in inclusive school settings. Participants included 51 children with autism spectrum…