WorldWideScience

Sample records for dirty war index

  1. Commemoration practices of the Dirty War in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Díaz Tovar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results of an ethnographic research, that during the last three years has been dedicated to record and analyse the practices of commemoration of the "dirty war" (guerra sucia in Mexico. This involves articulating the memories of both violence and resistance. Strategies used by Mexican government during the dirty war, expressed a policy of fear —criminalization of protest, murder, forced disappearance and torture—; at the same time, resistance strategies form civil society such as marches, protests, tributes and commemorative days are presented.

  2. L-044: EPR-First Responders: Dirty War Successes and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this conference is the explanation and discussion of the emergency to take in a situation of a terrorist attack with a dirty bomb as well as give tools to take correct decisions in radiological emergency. The discussion was based upon the presentation of the film Dirty War

  3. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    modeling techniques used in freight rate forecasting. At the same time research in shipping index forecasting e.g. BDTI applying artificial intelligent techniques is scarce. This analyses the possibilities to forecast the BDTI by applying Wavelet Neural Networks (WNN). Firstly, the characteristics...... of traditional and artificial intelligent forecasting techniques are discussed and rationales for choosing WNN are explained. Secondly, the components and features of BDTI will be explicated. After that, the authors delve the determinants and influencing factors behind fluctuations of the BDTI in order to set...

  4. Land and Law in Marijuana Country: Clean Capital, Dirty Money, and the Drug War's Rentier Nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California's real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of "illegal" wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the "il/legal" dynamics of marijuana land use. As marijuana becomes licit, prohibitionist policies have enabled the capture of ground rent by landed interests from the marijuana industry at a time when the price of marijuana is declining (in part due to its increasing licitness). The resulting "drug war rentier nexus," a state-land-finance complex, is becoming a key, if obscured, component within marijuana's contemporary political economy.

  5. Dirty Hits

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Issue 9 of the Saatchi Gallery Magazine: Art&Music is dedicated to Sex. The article Dirty Hits invited a cross-section of contemporary artists and musicians to answer: What makes a dirty hit? As one of the artists invited, I wrote an autobiographical piece to reveal how these fumbling, feral sexual experiences of my childhood landscape, along with irrational superstition and folk law inform my life and underpin my work. The article also included an artwork: Louise Clarke, Sip (2009)

  6. Effects of dirty snow in nuclear winter simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelmann, A.M.; Robock, A.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    A large-scale nuclear war would inject smoke into the atmosphere from burning forests, cities, and industries in targeted areas. This smoke could fall out onto snow and ice and would lower cryospheric albedos by as much as 50%. A global energy balance climate model is used to investigate the maximum effect these ''dirty snow'' albedos have on the surface temperature in nuclear winter simulations which span several years. These effects are investigated for different nuclear winter scenarios, snow precipitation rates, latitudinal distributions of smoke, and seasonal timings. We find that dirty snow, in general, would have a small temperature effect at mid- and low latitudes but could have a large temperature effect at polar latitudes, particularly if the soot is able to reappear significantly in later summers. Factors which limit the climatic importance of the dirty snow are (1) the dirty snow albedo is lowest when the atmosphere still contains a large amount of light-absorbing smoke; (2) even with dirty snow, sea ice areas can still increase, which helps maintain colder temperatures through the sea ice thermal inertial feedback; (3) the snow and ice areas affected by the dirty snow albedos are largest when there is little seasonal solar insolation; and (4) the area affected by the dirty snow is relatively small under all circumstances. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  7. Kinetic equations in dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic equations for superconductors in the dirty limit are derived using a method developed for superfluid systems, which allows a systematic expansion in small parameters; exact charge conservation is obeyed. (orig.)

  8. Dirty Bomb Risk and Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We examined the relative risk and impact of a dirty bomb employing Co-60 and Cs-137, the two most common high activity source materials. We found that the risk of an area denial dirty bomb attack is greater for Cs-137 due to the form and chemistry of CsCl, the soft, powdery salt form currently in use for high activity Cs-137 sources, found in blood and research irradiators.

  9. Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular

  10. The media and dirty bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    During the recent Jose Padilla 'dirty bomb' scare, an indignant US citizen wrote to his local newspaper in Florida complaining that the news media were giving terrorists a recipe for making dirty bombs. 'Unless the media eases up on scaring us, he wrote, the public won't feel safe even leaving their homes. Or perhaps that is what they want, he said, 'us staying inside our homes watching the news on how terrorists can destroy us all.' It seems our real motivations have finally been uncovered we in the media want to scare them so much they won't leave their TV screens. Based on the previous event an analysis of the role of media and journalists is discussed. Leaders of the news media would, first of all, universally advise full and rapid and authoritative disclosure of what is known. If it isn't coming quickly from the highest levels, then the news will soon deteriorate to what's being heard on the streets, from police officers and fire fighters and other emergency personnel, and from passers-by. Journalists are the first to acknowledge their ignorance.That is why they ask questions. However, they seem to learn fast. It was found that that the term dirty bomb never appeared on Associated Press news wires before the 11 September 2001 attacks. Now it appears every day, and increasingly we are getting the facts right and helping to prepare our audience of millions for this dangerous new world

  11. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  12. Dirty Pop: Contemporary British Painting, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Phil Allen, Peter Ashton Jones, Jake Clark, Richard Clegg, Dan Coombs, Nelson Diplexcito, Nadine Feinson, Mick Finch, Richard Hamilton, Dan Hays, Gavin Lockheart, Andrea Medjesi Jones, David Leeson, Duncan Newton, Sarah Pickstone, Colin Smith, John Stark, Michael Stubbs, James White, Mark Wright.\\ud \\ud Dirty Pop, curated for &Model by Mark Wright, presents twenty contemporary painters whose work connects with Pop Art of the 1960’s, and particularly the legacy of the important British artist ...

  13. Apron (no more dirty egg: (representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Oliveira Ramos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title, in its ambiguity, comes from a song in tribute to mothers, “Mommy, Mommy. I remember slipper in hand, all of the apron dirty egg,” The purpose of this essay is to show contemporary narratives that seek to represent by the writting the sense of passion of the modern urban woman, her experiences of morality, what is left of what was called archetypally respectability and domestic responsibility.

  14. Climatic consequences of nuclear war: Working Group No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.

    1985-12-01

    Research needs on the climate consequences of nuclear war were discussed. These include: (1) a better definition of the emissions from massive urban fires; (2) the exploration of prescribed forest burns; (3) the dirty cloud problem; (4) microphysical studies of soot; and (5) simulation of the second summer season after nuclear war

  15. Ultrasound and Perforated Viscus; Dirty Fluid, Dirty Shadows, and Peritoneal Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shokoohi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of free air in the peritoneal cavity is vital in diagnosis of life-threatening emergencies, and can play a significant role in expediting treatment. We present a series of cases in which bedside ultrasound (US in the emergency department accurately identified evidence of free intra-peritoneal air and echogenic (dirty free fluid consistent with a surgical final diagnosis of a perforated hollow viscus. In all patients with suspected perforated viscus, clinicians were able to accurately identify the signs of pneumoperitoneum including enhanced peritoneal stripe sign (EPSS, peritoneal stripe reverberations, and focal air collections associated with dirty shadowing or distal multiple reflections as ring down artifacts. In all cases, hollow viscus perforation was confirmed surgically. It seems that, performing US in patients with suspected perforated viscus can accurately identify presence of intra-peritoneal echogenic or “dirty” free fluid as well as evidence of free air, and may expedite patient management.

  16. Interaction with the dirty, dangerous, and dull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyer, Clint; Husøy, Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    and the forms of prototyping and evaluation. For example, we might assume a stable and safe physical environment, or that if something doesn’t work, it is an annoyance rather than a life-or-death situation. In our work, we have explored quite a different context: that of an oil and gas facility, where work......The environments for which interaction designers design tend to be rather benign: the office, the home. The settings are familiar to us, identifiable and relatable, often places we’ve experienced firsthand. A host of assumptions are implicit in these settings that affect the style of design inquiry...... is at times dirty, dangerous, and dull. We describe how we approached design for this unfamiliar environment and outline some of our concepts. In our general program of research, we are exploring new, yet “close to market” artifacts and systems for use in oil and gas, potentially for productization....

  17. Dirty bombs: assesment of radiological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunovic, D.; Koukouliou, V.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries, regulatory control of radioactive sources, used extensively in medicine and industry, remains weak. Global concerns about the security and safety of radioactive sources escalated following the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. There are fears that some radioactive sources could be used by terrorists as radiological dispersal devices (RDD's), or so called 'dirty bombs'. The radioactive material dispersed, depending on the amount and intensity, could cause radiation sickness for a limited number of people nearby if, for example, they inhaled large amounts of radioactive dust. But the most severe tangible impacts would likely be the economic costs and social disruption associated with the evacuation and subsequent clean-up of contaminated property. It has been shown that usage of realistic data in a first response decision making as to avoid inappropriate public reaction accompanied by economic and social consequences is necessary.(author)

  18. Problems of Dirty Hands as a Species of Moral Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Matthew Henry

    2018-01-01

    Every problem of dirty hands is a moral conflict, but not every moral conflict is a problem of dirty hands. Every problem of dirty hands involves the prospect of evil conduct–conduct which will be evil if undertaken at all or which would be evil if undertaken in the absence of a searing moral dilemma–whereas not every moral conflict involves the prospect of evil conduct. To support and clarify the claims in the preceding two sentences, this paper will need to elucidate the nature of moral con...

  19. Sources of Radioactive Isotopes for Dirty Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, Joel

    2004-05-01

    From the security perspective, radioisotopes and radioactive sources are not created equal. Of the many radioisotopes used in industrial applications, medical treatments, and scientific research, only eight, when present in relatively large amounts in radioactive sources, pose high security risks primarily because of their prevalence and physical properties. These isotopes are americium-241, californium-252, cesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, radium-226, plutonium-238, and strontium-90. Except for the naturally occurring radium-226, nuclear reactors produce the other seven in bulk commercial quantities. Half of these isotopes emit alpha radiation and would, thus, primarily pose internal threats to health; the others are mainly high-energy gamma emitters and would present both external and internal health hazards. Therefore, the response to a "dirty bomb" event depends on what type of radioisotope is chosen and how it is employed. While only a handful of major corporations produce the reactor-generated radioisotopes, they market these materials to thousands of smaller companies and users throughout the world. Improving the security of the high-risk radioactive sources will require, among other efforts, cooperation among source suppliers and regulatory agencies.

  20. Dirty Hands Make Dirty Leaders?! The Effects of Touching Dirty Objects on Rewarding Unethical Subordinates as a Function of a Leader's Self-Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Cramwinckel (Florien); D. de Cremer (David); M.H. van Dijke (Marius)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader-subordinate relationships, and whether a leader's self-interest functions as a boundary condition to

  1. Dirty Hands Make Dirty Leaders?! The Effects of Touching Dirty Objects on Rewarding Unethical Subordinates as a Function of a Leader’s Self-Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel, F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339458739; De Cremer, D.; van Dijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader–subordinate relationships, and whether a leader’s self-interest functions as a boundary condition to this effect. A

  2. NOTE ABOUT THE MORALS CONCEIVED IN DIRTY HANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Pereira da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sartre’s philosophy and the existentialism were very important to the thought in the last century. Besides being a philosopher, Sartre was also a great writer and, in his play, Dirty hands, one can see many of his ideas. Tthis paper indicates the moral question, thus, the problem of liberty, presented in this Sartre’s specific work. Tthe matter of Dirty hands, when the characters are inside of the “border-situation”, is the liberty of choice. is the moment of affirmation of liberty, to Sartre. Iin this paper it is not the objective to contest Sartre’s concepts, as the one about “border-situation” or the other about liberty, because the purpose is only to show as Sartre use them in the play Dirty hands.

  3. Some signatures of quantum chaos on dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, F

    2001-01-01

    The Anderson theory of dirty superconductivity was established a few years after the discovery of the BCS wave function. Disregarding the rich properties in the one-particle energy spectrum in dirty limit, the theory claimed that the ground state condensate is translationally invariant and free from Toulouse type of frustrations. This theory also set down the foundation of dirty superconductivity in the presence of external fields. In this talk, I demonstrate the failure of the Anderson theory in amorphous superconducting films in general and its connection with Wigner-Dyson surmise. I will discuss the Chandrasekar-Glogston limit in which the nodes in one-particle wave functions are shown to result in a novel superconducting glass phase. I will also discuss why nature has tolerated the failure. (4. mesoscopic superconductivity)

  4. IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy can be captured quickly with 12 items using the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Jonason and Webster, 2010. Previous Item Response Theory (IRT analyses of the original English Dark Triad Dirty Dozen have shown that all three subscales adequately tap into the dark domains of personality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen using IRT. Method: 570 individuals (nmales = 326, nfemales = 242, and 2 unreported, including university students and white-collar workers with an age range between 19 and 65 years, responded to the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Garcia et al., 2017a,b. Results: Contrary to previous research, we found that the narcissism scale provided most information, followed by psychopathy, and finally Machiavellianism. Moreover, the psychopathy scale required a higher level of the latent trait for endorsement of its items than the narcissism and Machiavellianism scales. Overall, all items provided reasonable amounts of information and are thus effective for discriminating between individuals. The mean item discriminations (alphas were 1.92 for Machiavellianism, 2.31 for narcissism, and 1.99 for psychopathy. Conclusion: This is the first study to provide IRT analyses of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Our findings add to a growing literature on the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen scale in different cultures and highlight psychometric characteristics, which can be used for comparative studies. Items tapping into psychopathy showed higher thresholds for endorsement than the other two scales. Importantly, the narcissism scale seems to provide more information about a lack of narcissism, perhaps mirroring cultural conditions. Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Clinical psychology

  5. Political Obligation, Dirty Hands and Torture; A Moral Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political Obligation, Dirty Hands and Torture; A Moral Evaluation. H van Erp. Abstract. The example of a political leader who has to decide whether he would allow the torture of a suspect in order to get information about a ticking bomb has become notorious in ethical discussions concerning the tension between moral ...

  6. What "Dirty Dancing" Taught Me about Media Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxa, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The author reflects on her youthful viewing of "Dirty Dancing" on video against her parents' wishes as one example of the ineffectiveness of a protectionist approach to media. She offers ideas on how she and her students (pre-service and in-service educators) think through how to navigate selection of materials for effective media literacy…

  7. Symmetry conditions of a nodal superconductor for generating robust flat-band Andreev bound states at its dirty surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Shingo; Asano, Yasuhiro

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the symmetry property of a nodal superconductor that hosts robust flat-band zero-energy states at its surface under potential disorder. Such robust zero-energy states are known to induce the anomalous proximity effect in a dirty normal metal attached to a superconductor. A recent study has shown that a topological index NZES describes the number of zero-energy states at the dirty surface of a p -wave superconductor. We generalize the theory to clarify the conditions required for a superconductor that enables NZES≠0 . Our results show that NZES≠0 is realized in a topological material that belongs to either the BDI or CII class. We also present two realistic Hamiltonians that result in NZES≠0 .

  8. Dirty Work and Stigma: Caretakers of Death in Cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Soria Batista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the category dirty work in the analysis of the identity of morticians and funeral directors, as well as it identifies techniques and practices to deal with professional stigma. The article analyzes the role of the types of stains in the nature of these workers’ relationships with their dirty job, and the influence of context elements. This research, which integrates quantitative and qualitative methods, uses scales pertaining to this job and semi-structured interviews. It is concluded that the presence of moral stains in funeral directors brings the group together more solidly, and that elements such as class and race inhabit in the social construction of these discredited jobs and operate in the production of stained identities.

  9. Apron (no more) dirty egg: (re)presentations

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Regina Oliveira Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The title, in its ambiguity, comes from a song in tribute to mothers, “Mommy, Mommy. I remember slipper in hand, all of the apron dirty egg,” The purpose of this essay is to show contemporary narratives that seek to represent by the writting the sense of passion of the modern urban woman, her experiences of morality, what is left of what was called archetypally respectability and domestic responsibility.

  10. A DirtI Application for LBT Commissioning Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, J. L.

    2009-09-01

    In order to characterize the Gregorian focal stations and test the performance achieved by the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) adaptive optics system, two infrared test cameras were constructed within a joint project between INAF (Observatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy) and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany). Is intended here to describe the functionality and successful results obtained with the Daemon for the Infrared Test Camera Interface (DirtI) during commissioning campaigns.

  11. Dirty pretty language: translation and the borders of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Payson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the politics of English, and translation into Englishness, in the film Dirty Pretty Things (Frears. With a celebrated multilingual cast, some of whom did not speak much English, the film nevertheless unfolds in English as it follows migrant characters living illegally and on the margins in London. We take up the filmic representation of migrants in the “compromised, impure and internally divided” border spaces of Britain (Gibson 694 as one of translation into the imagined nation (Anderson. Dirty Pretty Things might seem in its style to be a kind of multicultural “foreignized translation” which reflects a heteropoetics of difference (Venuti; instead, we argue that Dirty Pretty Things, through its performance of the labour of learning and speaking English, strong accents, and cultural allusions, is a kind of domesticated translation (Venuti that homogenises cultural difference into a literary, mythological English and Englishness. Prompted by new moral panics over immigration and recent UK policies that heap further requirements on migrants to speak English in order to belong to “One Nation Britain” (Cameron, we argue that the film offers insights into how the politics of British national belonging continue to be defined by conformity to a type of deserving subject, one who labours to learn English and to translate herself into narrow, recognizably English cultural forms. By attending to the subtleties of language in the film, we trace the pressure on migrants to translate themselves into the linguistic and mythological moulds of their new host society.

  12. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  13. The threat of a dirty bomb and possible verification measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, Klaas van der; Hardeman, Frank; Meier, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses technical aspects of the dirty (radiological dispersion) bomb and the threat that this type of bomb poses to societies and international security. Based on the technology and materials needed to construct a dirty bomb, the relevance of the safeguards system for nuclear material accountancy and chemical and biological control systems is discussed. A dirty bomb consists of a conventional explosive charge combined with radioactive material. Its purpose is to contaminate a large area with radioactive material. The main consequences would be loss of life through direct impact and contamination. In comparison with use of nuclear fission devices, the number of direct casualties due to the impact of the explosion are likely to be small. In the long run, there may be casualties due to radioactive contamination, however, probably fewer than is mentioned in public discussions. Other consequences of the use of a radiological device include widespread panic, fear and uncertainty among the public, high decontamination costs, loss of real estate value and disruption of economic activity in the area concerned. If a terrorist is intent on causing maximum havoc and disruption, the radioactive material of choice should have a reasonably long half life. Access should be easy and such material should be available in sufficient quantities. The most obvious candidates from this perspective are 60 Co and 137 Cs and to a lesser extent 90 Sr. Also some more 'exotic' radionuclides or mixtures cannot absolutely be excluded. 60 Co and 137 Cs are frequently used in medical and industrial equipment. There is currently no international material accountancy system for these materials and thousands of sources have been produced in many countries. One or several of these sources contain sufficient material for the construction of an effective 'dirty bomb'. Approximative dispersion calculations will be performed to determine the spread of radioactive material. Dependent on the

  14. The (mismeasurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri J. Kajonius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research. Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698. We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500 and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the Mach-IV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT. Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49. The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were

  15. Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser

    2013-01-01

    A “clean” black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a “dirty black hole”. In this paper, the effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the gre...

  16. Dirty Secrets: How Tax Havens Destroy the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, R.

    2017-01-01

    What happens when the rich are allowed to hide their money in tax havens, and what we should do about it\\ud The Panama Papers were a reminder of how the superrich are allowed to hide their wealth from the rest of us. Dirty Secrets uncovers the extent of the corruption behind this crisis and shows what needs to be done in the face of this unregulated spread of rampant greed.\\ud \\ud Tax havens, we are often told, are part of the global architecture of capitalism, providing a freedom from regula...

  17. Experience with dust suppression in mining a thick, dirty seam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siepmann, D; Kohlhauer, H

    1975-11-20

    Dust suppression measures used when mining a thick, dirty seam are described. Dust sprays inside and outside the shearer drum helped to reduce coarse dust, but the resulting increase in moisture content of the coal limits the extent to which this method can be used. The shields were also fitted with sprays. Because of the dirt in the seam, continuous, remotely controlled deep infusion was used. This reduced the dust concentration from more than 10 mg/m/sup 3/ to between 3.9 and 6.6 mg/m/sup 3/.

  18. Dynamic intelligent cleaning model of dirty electric load data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoxing; Sun Caixin

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of dirty data in the load database derived from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Thus, the data must be carefully and reasonably adjusted before it is used for electric load forecasting or power system analysis. This paper proposes a dynamic and intelligent data cleaning model based on data mining theory. Firstly, on the basis of fuzzy soft clustering, the Kohonen clustering network is improved to fulfill the parallel calculation of fuzzy c-means soft clustering. Then, the proposed dynamic algorithm can automatically find the new clustering center (the characteristic curve of the data) with the updated sample data; At last, it is composed with radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), and then, an intelligent adjusting model is proposed to identify the dirty data. The rapid and dynamic performance of the model makes it suitable for real time calculation, and the efficiency and accuracy of the model is proved by test results of electrical load data analysis in Chongqing

  19. Lack of strategic insight: the "dirty bomb" effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Multiple countries including the United States and France are investing heavily in countermeasures to the threat of a "dirty bomb." All of the machinery simply involves a variation on a Geiger counter that picks up excess photon irradiation. Classically, a "dirty bomb" is defined as a dangerous radioactive material mixed in a variety of ways with high explosive, so when detonated, radioactive material is dispersed. Solid radioactive material such as Cesium or Cobalt sends off very penetrating ('hard') photons from which one cannot simply be protected by sheet lead or a heavy door. For official occasions with dignitaries of State, such a bomb could prove a modest distraction, but simple radiation physics suggests such a bomb would be limited in the damage it could cause, would largely be a mess to be cleaned up by an appropriately trained crew, would involve a very confined area, and thoroughly fails to comprehend the mentality of al-Queda 'central' that wishes to follow 9/11 with an equal or greater show of terrorist force. The author would argue this sort of mind-think occurs when you have too few people in the hard sciences in your intelligence sections.

  20. The Value Relevance of Dirty Surplus Accounting Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Buijink, W.F.J.; Eken Ra, R.C.W.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Dutch financial reporting standard setters have taken steps to make dirty surplus accounting flows more visible to parties outside firms, either by eliminating their possibility or by requiring comprehensive income type statements. These steps are presumably based on the idea that dirty

  1. Classification of Clean and Dirty Pighouse Surfaces Based on Spectral Reflectance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Braithwaite, Ian David; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2004-01-01

    of designing a vision based system to locate dirty areas and subsequently direct a cleaning robot to remove dirt. Novel results include the characterisation of the spectral reflectance of real surfaces and dirt in a pig house and the design of illumination to obtain discrimination of clean from dirty areas...

  2. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  3. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  4. Characterizing Cyberbullying among College Students: Hacking, Dirty Laundry, and Mocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajitha Kota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullying behaviors occur across the lifespan and have increasingly migrated to online platforms where they are known as cyberbullying. The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of cyberbullying among college students. Participants were recruited for focus groups through purposeful sampling, including recruitment from groups traditionally at risk for bullying. Focus groups discussed views and perceptions of cyberbullying on campuses. Groups were led by a trained facilitator and were audio recorded and manually transcribed. The constant comparative approach was used to identify themes and representative quotations. The 42 participants had an average age of 19.2 (SD = 1.2, 55% were female, 83% were Caucasian. Three themes emerged from the data: (1 lack of agreement on a definition of cyberbullying, but consensus on three representative scenarios: hacking, dirty laundry and mocking; (2 concerns with translating definitions of traditional bullying to cyberbullying; (3 opinions that cyberbullying may manifest differently in college compared to younger adolescents, including increased potential for long-term effects. College students were not in agreement about a theoretical definition, but they could agree upon specific representative instances of cyberbullying.  Future studies could consider using common case examples or vignettes of cyberbullying, or creation of developmentally representative definitions by age group.

  5. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  6. The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri J; Persson, Björn N; Rosenberg, Patricia; Garcia, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research. Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the Mach-IV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck's questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT). Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on the

  7. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  8. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  9. ON DIRTY WORDS: AN ATTEMPT TO INTIMATE THE CONUNDRUM OF THE SIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Basthomi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the use of dirty words with reference to sociolinguis- tic and Saussurean conceptual frameworks. It starts with a personal-anecdotal ac- count on the difficulties in dealing with didactic issues in relation to the use of dirty words. In the guise of tackling the problem, sociolinguistic explanation is pursued, which, in the end, shows that sociolinguistic explanation is not really adequate to handle  the  issue.  This  relates  to  the  possible  notion  that  dirty  words  might  be enacted as a (very personal expression, devoid of any physical addressees. Saussu- rean linguistic concepts are also explored, and, yet, similar to the sociolinguistic ex- planation, also lacks explanatory rigor in that the Saussurean materiality approach affirms that dirty words are neutral in their very materiality. A hypothetical proposi- tion to deal with dirty words will conclude the article

  10. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  11. Evidence that dirty electricity is causing the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The epidemics of obesity and diabetes most apparent in recent years had their origins with Thomas Edison's development of distributed electricity in New York City in 1882. His original direct current (DC) generators suffered serious commutator brush arcing which is a major source of high-frequency voltage transients (dirty electricity). From the onset of the electrical grid, electrified populations have been exposed to dirty electricity. Diesel generator sets are a major source of dirty electricity today and are used almost universally to electrify small islands and places unreachable by the conventional electric grid. This accounts for the fact that diabetes prevalence, fasting plasma glucose and obesity are highest on small islands and other places electrified by generator sets and lowest in places with low levels of electrification like sub-Saharan Africa and east and Southeast Asia.

  12. 4. MESOSCOPIC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Some signatures of quantum chaos on dirty superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F.

    2001-10-01

    The Anderson theory of dirty superconductivity was established a few years after the discovery of the BCS wave function. Disregarding the rich properties in the one-particle energy spectrum in dirty limit, the theory claimed that the ground state condensate is translationally invariant and free from Toulouse type of frustrations. This theory also set down the foundation of dirty superconductivity in the presence of external fields. In this talk, I demonstrate the failure of the Anderson theory in amorphous superconducting films in general and its connection with Wigner-Dyson surmise. I will discuss the Chandrasekar-Glogston limit in which the nodes in one-particle wave functions are shown to result in a novel superconducting glass phase. I will also discuss why nature has tolerated the failure.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.

  14. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    2009-01-01

    contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a ‘dirty bomb’ explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city...... of different types of conceivable contaminants from a ‘dirty bomb’ are discussed....

  15. Drought and Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Couttenier; Raphael Soubeyran

    2010-01-01

    We show that civil war is strongly related to drought in sub-Saharan Africa. We consider the e ect of variations in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (Palmer 1965) - a cumulative index that combines precipitation, temperature and the local characteristics of the soil - on the risk of civil war. While the recent, contentious debate on the link between climate and civil war has mainly focused on precipitation and temperature, without obtaining converging results, the Palmer index describes soci...

  16. War Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...

  17. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  18. How Do Low-Literacy Populations Perceive "Dirty Bombs"? Implications for Preparedness Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Maurer, Laurie; Greener, Judith; Mora, Gabriella; Ruggieri, Dominique; Wolak, Caitlin; Parvanta, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Potential terror events such as "dirty bombs" could have significant public health effects, but little is known about how low-literacy populations perceive dirty bombs, their trust in public health or government officials to provide credible information, and their willingness to comply with recommended actions. We surveyed 50 low-literacy adults from a large urban center; they were mostly members of ethnic minority groups. We used unique social marketing methods-perceptual mapping and vector message modeling-to create 3-dimensional models that reflected respondents' knowledge of what a dirty bomb is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their concerns about complying with "shelter in place" recommendations. To further understand individual variations in this at-risk group, a k-means cluster analysis was used to identify 3 distinct segments, differing on trust of local authorities and their emergency response, willingness to comply with emergency directives, and trust of information sources. Message strategies targeting each segment were developed to focus on concepts important to moving the groups toward a "shelter in place" behavior, revealing key differences in how best to communicate with risk communication. We discuss how these methods helped elucidate specific differences in each segment's understanding of and likely response during the event of a "dirty bomb" and how these techniques can be used to create more effective message strategies targeted to these groups.

  19. Essays on the relevance and use of dirty surplus accounting flows in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis intends to add empirical evidence to a recently heavily debated regulatory issue, the necessity of promoting a clean surplus income statement. I document the magnitude, and assess the relevance of dirty surplus accounting flows in European member states. In particular, this thesis

  20. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  1. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  2. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  3. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211

  4. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...

  5. Perpetual War?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...

  6. Currency wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  7. Globalizing Contemporary War

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-01-01

    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  8. The Dirty Dozen Scale: Validation of a Polish Version and Extension of the Nomological Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z. Czarna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In five studies (total N = 1,300 we developed and validated a Polish version of the Dirty Dozen measure (DTDD-P that measures the three traits of the Dark Triad, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. We detail the presence and stability of a bifactor structure of the 12 items and present evidence for good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. We examine the nomological network surrounding the Dark Triad and show that both the Dark Triad total score and the subscales have acceptable validity. We also present evidence on the Dark Triad and moral behavior. Dark Triad predicts utilitarian moral choice (e.g., approval for sacrificing somebody’s life for the sake of saving others and this link is mediated by low empathic concern. In total, our results suggest that the Polish Dirty Dozen—Parszywa Dwunastka—is valid, stable, and useful for the study of lingering puzzles in the literature.

  9. Optimal carbon tax with a dirty backstop: Oil, coal, or renewables?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees A.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own. The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  10. On the Capacity of the Dirty Paper Channel with Fast Fading and Discrete Channel States

    OpenAIRE

    Rini, Stefano; Shitz, Shlomo Shamai

    2016-01-01

    The "writing dirty paper" capacity result crucially dependents on the perfect channel knowledge at the transmitter as the presence of even a small uncertainty in the channel realization gravely hampers the ability of the transmitter to pre-code its transmission against the channel state. This is particularly disappointing as it implies that interference pre-coding in practical systems is effective only when the channel estimates at the users have very high precision, a condition which is gene...

  11. How training and experience affect the benefits of autonomy in a dirty-bomb experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Bruemmer; Curtis W. Nielsen; David I. Gertman

    2008-03-01

    A dirty-bomb experiment conducted at the INL is used to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of three different modes of robot control. The experiment uses three distinct user groups to understand how participants’ background and training affect the way in which they use and benefit from autonomy. The results show that the target mode, which involves automated mapping and plume tracing together with a point and click tasking tool, provides the best performance for each group. This is true for objective performance such as source detection and localization accuracy as well as subjective measures such as perceived workload, frustration and preference. The best overall performance is achieved by the Explosive Ordinance Disposal group which has experience in both robot teleoperation and dirty bomb response. The user group that benefits least from autonomy is the Nuclear Engineers that have no experience with either robot operation or dirty bomb response. The group that benefits most from autonomy is the Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Response Team that has extensive experience related to the task, but no robot training.

  12. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg damage and dirty, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the damage and dirty eggs and egg weight, depending on two different breeding systems and different ages of laying hens. Object of investigation were table eggs, their damage and dirty in the laying hens of the final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and the free range system.  In both rearing systems were ensured the conditions for laying hens in accordance with legislation establishing minimum standards for the laying hens minimum standards for the protection of laying hens, protection of animals kept for farming purposes in accordance with the principles of the so-called five freedoms. That was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in both breeding systems. The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand every day and the same day were supplemented water to drinking troughs.  Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding hens and production of high quality and safe of table eggs. Based on the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that to the damage and dirty eggs are not affected by the age of the breeding system and age of laying hens. Statistically significant difference     (p ≤ 0.05 in the egg weight was observed between breeding cage system and breeding free range system and   between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  13. Smog wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospodarek, M.P.

    1979-04-12

    International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.

  14. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  15. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  16. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  17. [The peculiar morphological features of the imprints of straight and wavy head hair dirtied with blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, E N; Nagornov, M N; Prokhorenko, A S

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific morphological features of the imprints of blood-soaked straight and wavy head hair. The contact imprints of straight and wavy head hair dirtied with blood were obtained experimentally. The imprints of straight hair were shown to exhibit the elements in the form of the rectilinear and bow-shaped slightly bent stripes. The imprints of wavy hair were shaped as the arches, waves, circles, and a large number of various small elements, such as dashes and commas.

  18. Thermal behaviour of the ESR Relaxation time in slightly dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwachheim, G.; Machado, S.F.; Tsallis, C.

    1978-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of the ESR relaxation rate in slightly dirty superconductors is discussed for both exchange and spin-orbit interactions between the conduction electrons and the impurities. The sensibility to the electronic density of states is exhibited by using, in a modified BCS framework, an heuristic analytic form which avoids two of three defects of a previous similar treatment. The sudden increase (decrease) of the relaxation rate immediately below the critical temperature for the exchange (spin-orbit) case is confirmed. Reasonable agreement with experimental data in LaRu 2 ; Gd is obtained [pt

  19. On geodesics with negative energies in the ergoregions of dirty black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2015-03-01

    We consider behavior of equatorial geodesics with the negative energy in the ergoregion of a generic rotating "dirty" (surrounded by matter) black hole. It is shown that under very simple and generic conditions on the metric coefficients, there are no such circular orbits. This entails that such geodesic must originate and terminate under the event horizon. These results generalize the observation made for the Kerr metric in A. A. Grib, Yu. V. Pavlov and V. D. Vertogradov, Mod. Phys. Lett.29, 1450110 (2014), arXiv:1304.7360.

  20. The non-commutative topology of two-dimensional dirty superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nittis, Giuseppe; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Non-commutative analysis tools have successfully been applied to the integer quantum Hall effect, in particular for a proof of the stability of the Hall conductance in an Anderson localization regime and of the bulk-boundary correspondence. In this work, these techniques are implemented to study two-dimensional dirty superconductors described by Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonians. After a thorough presentation of the basic framework and the topological invariants, Kubo formulas for the thermal, thermoelectric and spin Hall conductance are analyzed together with the corresponding edge currents.

  1. Ensuring the safety of surgical teams when managing casualties of a radiological dirty bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael; Nocera, Antony

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to ensure their own safety when dealing with the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb is primarily determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type of event. This review article defines the associated radiological terminology with an emphasis on the personal safety of surgical team members in respect to the principles of radiological protection. The article also describes a technique for use of hand held radiation monitors and will discuss the identification and management of radiologically contaminated patients who may pose a significant danger to the surgical team. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Georg Friedrich Nicolai: war physician against war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2017-01-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.

  3. Bacterial populations associated with the dirty area of a South African poultry abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geornaras, I; de Jesus, A E; von Holy, A

    1998-06-01

    Bacterial populations associated with three sample types from the neck region of poultry carcasses in the dirty area of an abattoir were characterized. Sample types before and after scalding were skin only, feathers only, and a skin and feather combination. The neck skin of carcasses after the defeathering processing stage was also sampled. Bacterial populations associated with water from the scald tank, rubber fingers at the exit of the defeathering machine, and air in the dirty area were also characterized. Bacterial colonies (751) were randomly isolated from yeast extract-supplemented tryptone soya agar plates exhibiting 30 to 300 colonies. Micrococcus spp. were isolated in the highest proportion from pre-and postscalded carcass samples (63.5 to 86.1% of isolates), regardless of the sample type. Conversely, Enterobacteriaceae (40.3%), Acinetobacter (19.4%), and Aeromonas/Vibrio (12.5%) species predominated on neck skin samples taken from mechanically defeathered carcasses. Isolates from the rubber fingers were, however, predominantly Micrococcus spp. (94.4%). Bacterial groups isolated in the highest proportion from scald tank water samples were Micrococcus spp. (38.3%), species of Enterobacteriaceae (29.1%), and lactic acid bacteria (17.0%). Corynebacterium spp., species of Enterobacteriaceae, and Micrococcus spp. were dominant on air settle plates.

  4. BOGDAŁÓW SEDIMENT TRAP OF DIRTY WATERS AS AN ECO-HYDROLOGICAL OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Gilewska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediment traps of dirty waters are, generally speaking, temporary hydrotechnical constructions associated with the purification of mine waters from mineral-organic suspensions. Once coal mining is finished and artificial supplies are cut off, such sediment traps – depending on hydrological and hydrotechnical conditions – undergo drainage or are utilised as water reservoirs. Drained sediment traps most commonly go through a period of self-generated reclamation – renaturalisation and become, similarly to water reservoirs, eco-hydrological objects. Bearing in mind the fact that the role of sediment traps is cleaning dirty waters, it seemed advisable to recognise the properties of sediments accumulated in them and to assess their impact on the arising plant communities. Two years after its closure, the entire area of the sediment trap (16 ha was subjected to soil science and phytosociological investigation. Differentiated moisture content and soil conditions of the sediment tank surface were favourable for the settlement of various species characterised by differing site requirements which conferred a completely new quality to this post-industrial land and its biodiversity. The invasion of herbaceous and woody plants indicates that despite the function of sediment tank played earlier in the brown coalmine infrastructure, the material which was accumulated in it provided a favourable habitat for the development of plant cover. It may be assumed that it can be attributed to a significant admixture of brown coal.

  5. Evaluation of sprayable fixatives on a sandy soil for potential use in a dirty bomb response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G; Whitaker, John D

    2008-06-01

    After the events of 11 September 2001, the possibility of a dirty bomb being detonated within the United States seems more realistic. Development of tools for use in response to a dirty bomb detonation has become a topic of both discussion and research. While it has been reported that the health risk to the public from such an event would likely be small, it is thought that the psychological impact could be considerable. One response option that has been considered is adapting sprayable solutions for the purpose of fixing contamination in place, thereby limiting the spread of contamination by wind and rain and facilitating subsequent cleanup. This work evaluated two commercially available particle fixatives (IsoFIX-HT and IsoFIX-RC) for their effectiveness in preventing dispersal of simulated contamination. Nonradioactive cesium chloride and cobalt oxide particles were selected as the simulated contamination and applied to the surface of three outdoor test plots. Two test plots were treated with fixatives; the third plot provided a control. Samples were collected over 95 days to observe changes in tracer concentration on the surface of the test plots. One fixative (IsoFIX-RC) effectively held the tracer in place with no net loss of tracer, while the other fixative (IsoFIX-HT) had no impact on the loss of tracer relative to the control. Under the conditions tested, IsoFIX-RC appears capable of fixing surface contamination in place for at least several months.

  6. Surgical considerations in the management of combined radiation blast injury casualties caused by a radiological dirty bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to respond appropriately to the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb will be determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type unique terrorist event. This paper will focus on the surgical aspects of this scenario with particular emphasis on the management of combined trauma-radiological injury. The paper also describes some of the more serious explosion-contamination incidents from nuclear industrial sources, summarises learning points and parallels taken from these scenarios in relation to subject of a radiological dirty bomb and describes the likely radioactive substances involved. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, K G; Mikkelsen, T; Astrup, P; Thykier-Nielsen, S; Jacobsen, L H; Hoe, S C; Nielsen, S P

    2009-12-01

    The ARGOS decision support system is currently being extended to enable estimation of the consequences of terror attacks involving chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological substances. This paper presents elements of the framework that will be applied in ARGOS to calculate the dose contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a 'dirty bomb' explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city of different types of conceivable contaminants from a 'dirty bomb' are discussed.

  8. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  9. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  10. Theory of phase-slip processes in thin and dirty current-carrying superconducting wires: Deviations from local equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Oscillatory phase-slip solution of a set of integrodifferential equations describing time-dependent processes in dirty superconductors in the Ginzburg-Landau regime are found numerically very near Tsub(c). Deviations from local equilibrium improve the agreement with observed V-I curves. (orig.)

  11. An Examination of the Dirty Dozen Measure of Psychopathy: A Cautionary Tale about the Costs of Brief Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Few, Lauren R.; Seibert, L. Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present…

  12. War in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  13. Unconventional scaling of the anomalous Hall effect accompanying electron localization correction in the dirty regime

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Y. M.

    2013-03-05

    Scaling of the anomalous Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity σAH∝σ2xx has been observed in the dirty regime of two-dimensional weak and strong localization regions in ultrathin, polycrystalline, chemically disordered, ferromagnetic FePt films. The relationship between electron transport and temperature reveals a quantitatively insignificant Coulomb interaction in these films, while the temperature dependent anomalous Hall conductivity experiences quantum correction from electron localization. At the onset of this correction, the low-temperature anomalous Hall resistivity begins to be saturated when the thickness of the FePt film is reduced, and the corresponding Hall conductivity scaling exponent becomes 2, which is above the recent unified theory of 1.6 (σAH∝σ1.6xx). Our results strongly suggest that the correction of the electron localization modulates the scaling exponent of the anomalous Hall effect.

  14. Dose modelling for 'dirty bomb' scenarios - an ARGOS DSS feature under development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    number of people could become directly affected. Current versions of European decision support systems are inapplicable in this context, as they do not take into account the specific characteristics of ’dirty bomb’ scenarios, with respect to radionuclides (dose conversion factors), initial......The world of today is not only facing the risk of accidents (e.g., in nuclear facilities, as considered in the EURANOS project). Also other types of emergencies, notably involving radiological terrorism, pose a threat. Acts of terror would be most likely to take place in a city, where the greatest...... physicochemical forms, blast contaminant transformations, plume height and propagation, deposition velocities, post-deposition migration and clearance, as well as countermeasure effectiveness. This problem is being addressed for a new version of the ARGOS decision support system....

  15. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  16. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  17. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  18. Arms Diffusion and War

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...

  19. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  20. Comparison of primary and delayed primary closure in dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, O.B.A.; Ahmed, N.; Butt, M.W.U.D.; Saleem, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Objective of this study was to compare primary and delayed primary wound closure for dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection. Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Multan. From 16 Sep 2010 to 15 Mar 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 110 patients were randomly divided into two groups of 55 patients each using random numbers table. Abdominal wounds of one group were closed primarily and of other group were subjected to delayed primary wound closure. The wounds were then checked for surgical site infection for seven post operative days. Results: A higher frequency of surgical site infection was observed in primary closure group (27.3%) as compared to delayed primary closure group (9.1%) which was statistically significant (p=0.013). Conclusion: Delayed primary closure is superior to primary closure in dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection. (author)

  1. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  2. Elimination of the dirty crust of white alterated glaze from excavated ceramics using the laser cleaning alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Castro, Elvira; Saiz Mauleón, María Begoña; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The laser technique has been applied to the cleaning process of glazed decorated ceramics from excavation sites. The use of this method arises as the only possible alternative in the process of cleaning pieces with crusts of dirt that are extremely hard and strongly stuck over altered and friable white glaze layers. The study carried out has allowed to fix the optimal laser parameters in the elimination of the dark dirty layer found on several fragments from different periods. The study has b...

  3. The first critical field, Hc1perpendicularto, and the penetration depth in dirty superconducting S/N multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, A.A.; Krasnov, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    The proximity effect in dirty S/N multilayers is studied theoretically. The structure of the Abrikosov vortex and the first critical field, H c1 perpendicular to , in a perpendicular magnetic field is investigated. Our approach is based on solving Ginzburg-Landau and Usadel equations with boundary conditions applicable to real structures. It was shown that for highly conducting N-layers there exists a positive curvature on H c1 (T) dependences. (orig.)

  4. Nonequilibrium theory of dirty, current-carrying superconductors: Phase-slip oscillators in narrow filaments near T/sub c/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts-Tobin, R.J.; Kraehenbuehl, Y.; Kramer, L.

    1981-01-01

    General equations for the dynamic behavior of dirty superconductors in the Ginzburg--Landau regime Vertical BarT/sub c/-TVertical Bar<< T/sub c/ are derived from microscopic theory. In the immediate vicinity of T/sub c/ a local equilibrium approximation leads to a simple generalized time-dependent Ginzburg--Landau equation. The oscillatory phase-slip solutions presented previously are discussed in greater detail

  5. High throughput sequencing and proteomics to identify immunogenic proteins of a new pathogen: the dirty genome approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, Gilbert; Kebbi-Beghdadi, Carole; Bertelli, Claire; Collyn, François; Riederer, Beat M; Yersin, Camille; Croxatto, Antony; Raoult, Didier

    2009-12-23

    With the availability of new generation sequencing technologies, bacterial genome projects have undergone a major boost. Still, chromosome completion needs a costly and time-consuming gap closure, especially when containing highly repetitive elements. However, incomplete genome data may be sufficiently informative to derive the pursued information. For emerging pathogens, i.e. newly identified pathogens, lack of release of genome data during gap closure stage is clearly medically counterproductive. We thus investigated the feasibility of a dirty genome approach, i.e. the release of unfinished genome sequences to develop serological diagnostic tools. We showed that almost the whole genome sequence of the emerging pathogen Parachlamydia acanthamoebae was retrieved even with relatively short reads from Genome Sequencer 20 and Solexa. The bacterial proteome was analyzed to select immunogenic proteins, which were then expressed and used to elaborate the first steps of an ELISA. This work constitutes the proof of principle for a dirty genome approach, i.e. the use of unfinished genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria, coupled with proteomics to rapidly identify new immunogenic proteins useful to develop in the future specific diagnostic tests such as ELISA, immunohistochemistry and direct antigen detection. Although applied here to an emerging pathogen, this combined dirty genome sequencing/proteomic approach may be used for any pathogen for which better diagnostics are needed. These genome sequences may also be very useful to develop DNA based diagnostic tests. All these diagnostic tools will allow further evaluations of the pathogenic potential of this obligate intracellular bacterium.

  6. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to

  7. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  8. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  9. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  10. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  11. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  12. Blast experiments for the derivation of initial cloud dimensions after a ''Dirty Bomb'' event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielen, H.; Schroedl, E.

    2004-01-01

    Basis for the assessment of potential consequences of a ''dirty bomb'' event is the calculation of the atmospheric dispersion of airborne particles. The empirical derivation of parameters for the estimation of the initial pollutant cloud dimensions was the principal purpose for blast experiments performed in the training area Munster in summer 2003 with the participation of several highly engaged German organisations and institutions. The experiments were performed under variation of parameters like mass and kind of explosive, subsurface characteristics or meteorological conditions and were documented by digital video recording. The blasting experiments supplied significant results under reproducible conditions. The initial cloud dimension was primarily influenced by the explosive mass. The influence of other parameters was relatively small and within the range of the experimental uncertainties. Based on these experimental results a new correlation was determined for the empirical estimation of the initial cloud dimensions as a function of explosive mass. The observed initial cloud volumes were more than an order of magnitude smaller than those calculated with other widely-used formulas (e.g. HOTSPOT). As a smaller volume of the initial cloud leads to higher near-ground concentration maxima, our results support an appropriate adjustment of currently employed calculation methods. (orig.)

  13. Disordered 2d quasiparticles in class D: Dirac fermions with random mass, and dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, M.; Serban, D.; Zirnbauer, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Disordered noninteracting quasiparticles that are governed by a Majorana-type Hamiltonian -- prominent examples are dirty superconductors with broken time-reversal and spin-rotation symmetry, or the fermionic representation of the 2d Ising model with fluctuating bond strengths -- are called class D . In two dimensions, weakly disordered systems of this kind may possess a metallic phase beyond the insulating phases expected for strong disorder. We show that the 2d metal phase emanates from the free Majorana fermion point, in the direction of the RG trajectory of a perturbed WZW model. To establish this result, we develop a supersymmetric extension of the method of nonabelian bosonization. On the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, the density of states becomes nonvanishing at zero energy, by a mechanism akin to dynamical mass generation. This feature is explored in a model of N species of disordered Dirac fermions, via the mapping on a nonlinear sigma model, which encapsulates a Z 2 spin degree of freedom. We compute the density of states in a finite system, and obtain agreement with the random-matrix prediction for class D , in the ergodic limit. Vortex disorder, which is a relevant perturbation at the free-fermion point, changes the density of states at low energy and suppresses the local Z 2 degree of freedom, thereby leading to a different symmetry class, BD

  14. Field Prototype of the ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation Device for the Detection of Dirty Bombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cherubini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation (NAI device is a tool designed to improve CBRNE defense. It is designed to uncover radioactive and nuclear threats including those in the form of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, the so-called “dirty bombs”. The NAI device, at its current development stage, allows to detect 6 g of 235U hidden in a package. It is easily transportable, light in weight, and with a real-time response. Its working principle is based on two stages: (1 an “active” stage in which neutrons are emitted by a neutron generator to interact with the item under inspection, and (2 a “passive” stage in which secondary neutrons are detected originating a signal that, once processed, allows recognition of the offence. In particular, a clear indication of the potential threat is obtained by a dedicated software based on the Differential Die-Away Time Analysis method.

  15. Evaluation of surface sampling method performance for Bacillus Spores on clean and dirty outdoor surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Einfeld, Wayne; Boucher, Raymond M.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Tezak, Matthew Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Recovery of Bacillus atrophaeous spores from grime-treated and clean surfaces was measured in a controlled chamber study to assess sampling method performance. Outdoor surfaces investigated by wipe and vacuum sampling methods included stainless steel, glass, marble and concrete. Bacillus atrophaeous spores were used as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores in this study designed to assess whether grime-coated surfaces significantly affected surface sampling method performance when compared to clean surfaces. A series of chamber tests were carried out in which known amounts of spores were allowed to gravitationally settle onto both clean and dirty surfaces. Reference coupons were co-located with test coupons in all chamber experiments to provide a quantitative measure of initial surface concentrations of spores on all surfaces, thereby allowing sampling recovery calculations. Results from these tests, carried out under both low and high humidity conditions, show that spore recovery from grime-coated surfaces is the same as or better than spore recovery from clean surfaces. Statistically significant differences between method performance for grime-coated and clean surfaces were observed in only about half of the chamber tests conducted.

  16. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  17. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  18. The peace and nuclear war dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Peace and Nuclear War Dictionary is organized so that entries and supplementary data can be located easily and quickly. Items are arranged alphabetically throughout, rather than grouped into chapters. When doubtful about how to locate an entry, consult the general index. Page numbers for terms appear in the index in heavy black type; subsidiary concepts discussed within entries can be found in the index, identified by page numbers in regular type. For study purposes, numerous entries have also been subsumed under major topical headings in the index, affording the reader access to broad classes of related information. The reader can also fully explore a topic by employing the extensive cross-references included in all entries. Many entries can be found as subsidiary terms, but in each case the concept is related to the main entry. The author has adopted the format of this book to provide the reader a variety of useful applications. These include its use as a dictionary and ready reference guide to the global language of peace and nuclear war; a study guide for introductory courses in Nuclear War and Peace of International Relations, or for any specialized course in the area; a supplement to a textbook or a group of paperback monographs adopted for use in these courses; a source of review material for the political science major enrolled in advanced courses; and a social science aid for use in business, education, government, policy sciences, and journalism

  19. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  20. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  1. Revisiting and renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  2. The “dirty chest”—correlations between chest radiography, multislice CT and tobacco burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J; Goltz, J P; Lorenz, F; Obermann, A; Kirchner, E M; Kickuth, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking-induced airway disease commonly results in an overall increase of non-specific lung markings on chest radiography. This has been described as “dirty chest”. As the morphological substrate of this condition is similar to the anthracosilicosis of coal workers, we hypothesised that it is possible to quantify the radiological changes using the International Labour Organization (ILO) classification of pneumoconiosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the extent of cigarette smoking and increased lung markings on chest radiography and to correlate the chest radiographic scores with findings on CT studies. Methods In a prospective analysis a cohort of 85 smokers was examined. The cigarette consumption was evaluated in pack years (defined as 20 cigarettes per day over 1 year). Film reading was performed by two board-certified radiologists. Chest radiographs were evaluated for the presence of thickening of bronchial walls, the presence of linear or nodular opacities, and emphysema. To correlate the smoking habits with the increase of overall lung markings in chest radiography, the ILO profusion score was converted to numbers ranging from zero to nine. Chest radiographs were rated according to the complete set of standard films of the revised ILO classification. Results 63/85 (74%) of the smokers showed an increase in overall lung markings on chest radiography; 32 (37%) had an ILO profusion score of chest radiography and the cigarette consumption quantified as pack years (r=0.68). The majority of the heavy smokers (>40 pack years) showed emphysema; there was no significant difference between the prevalence of emphysema as diagnosed by CT (62%) or chest radiography (71%) (pchest radiography. PMID:21937617

  3. Preliminary design for hot dirty-gas control-valve test facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary design and cost estimating effort for a facility for the testing of control valves in Hot Dirty Gas (HDGCV) service. This design was performed by Mittelhauser Corporation for the United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The objective of this effort was to provide METC with a feasible preliminary design for a test facility which could be used to evaluate valve designs under simulated service conditions and provide a technology data base for DOE and industry. In addition to the actual preliminary design of the test facility, final design/construction/operating schedules and a facility cost estimate were prepared to provide METC sufficient information with which to evaluate this design. The bases, assumptions, and limitations of this study effort are given. The tasks carried out were as follows: METC Facility Review, Environmental Control Study, Gas Generation Study, Metallurgy Review, Safety Review, Facility Process Design, Facility Conceptual Layout, Instrumentation Design, Cost Estimates, and Schedules. The report provides information regarding the methods of approach used in the various tasks involved in the completion of this study. Section 5.0 of this report presents the results of the study effort. The results obtained from the above-defined tasks are described briefly. The turnkey cost of the test facility is estimated to be $9,774,700 in fourth quarter 1979 dollars, and the annual operating cost is estimated to be $960,000 plus utilities costs which are not included because unit costs per utility were not available from METC.

  4. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  5. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  6. Children of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)

  7. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  8. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  9. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  10. Maslow, Needs, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    for individual‟s remains equally true for groups and nations.ŗ Abraham H. Maslow did groundbreaking work on a hierarchy of needs; he identified five...Penguin Press, 1991), 48. 3 Ibid, 49. 4 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, Second Edition. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 35-58. 5... Maslow , Needs, and War by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Baker United States Air Force United States Army War College

  11. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  12. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a

  13. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...

  14. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  15. High throughput sequencing and proteomics to identify immunogenic proteins of a new pathogen: the dirty genome approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Greub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the availability of new generation sequencing technologies, bacterial genome projects have undergone a major boost. Still, chromosome completion needs a costly and time-consuming gap closure, especially when containing highly repetitive elements. However, incomplete genome data may be sufficiently informative to derive the pursued information. For emerging pathogens, i.e. newly identified pathogens, lack of release of genome data during gap closure stage is clearly medically counterproductive. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the feasibility of a dirty genome approach, i.e. the release of unfinished genome sequences to develop serological diagnostic tools. We showed that almost the whole genome sequence of the emerging pathogen Parachlamydia acanthamoebae was retrieved even with relatively short reads from Genome Sequencer 20 and Solexa. The bacterial proteome was analyzed to select immunogenic proteins, which were then expressed and used to elaborate the first steps of an ELISA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work constitutes the proof of principle for a dirty genome approach, i.e. the use of unfinished genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria, coupled with proteomics to rapidly identify new immunogenic proteins useful to develop in the future specific diagnostic tests such as ELISA, immunohistochemistry and direct antigen detection. Although applied here to an emerging pathogen, this combined dirty genome sequencing/proteomic approach may be used for any pathogen for which better diagnostics are needed. These genome sequences may also be very useful to develop DNA based diagnostic tests. All these diagnostic tools will allow further evaluations of the pathogenic potential of this obligate intracellular bacterium.

  16. Children and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  17. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  18. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  19. The Fukushima War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We know that henceforth there will be a 'before' and an 'after' Fukushima, just as there is a before and an after Hiroshima-Nagasaki. However, these two nuclear-related events are quite different in nature, and the characteristics they do share are not those we might expect. Although atomic fission is the common denominator, the consequences of their respective origins diverge - an industrial accident for Fukushima, military attacks for Hiroshima-Nagasaki - even (paradoxically, as we shall see) with respect to radioactivity. Yet their catastrophic proportions and geopolitical implications draw them together. Represented in Japan by well-known numbers that refer to the dates on which they occurred - 3.11 for March 11, 2011; 8.6 and 8.9 for August 6 and 9, 1945 - Fukushima and Hiroshima-Nagasaki are geopolitical markers, each having both a temporal and a spatial dimension. In other words, to quote the late Pierre Gentelle, these are major spatial events generating widespread repercussions, both locally and globally, and affecting political action and ideological discourse in a number of countries. Their geography is fully fledged in that it comprises a physical and geophysical dimension, thus reflecting natural phenomena, nature itself, and the individualized perception that everyone has of it - scientists, individuals, and populations alike. This is also about war. An actual war that ended with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And a war now being fought against the invisible enemy of radiation at Fukushima and in other areas of Japan, with the country's 'hot spots' (hotto supoto), 'evacuation zones' (hinan kuiki), and other such 'exclusion zones' (haijo kuiki). A war with devastated landscape, theoretically unaffected hinterland, and a division of the land dictated by emerging battlefields; and with its front lines and a population caught in the crossfire or forced to leave. In this war against radiation, the 2011 US military (Japan's occupiers in 1945) limited Operation

  20. Lysimeter experiments to determine the ability of soil to reduce concentrations of BOD, available P and inorganic N in dirty water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, S K E; Chadwick; Retter, A R

    2005-11-01

    Lysimeter experiments were conducted to determine the ability of different soils to reduce levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and concentrations of molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) and ammonium-N (NH4(+)-N) in dirty water and the impact of applications on nitrate leaching. An additional experiment investigated the effect of dirty water components on leaching quality. This information is required to assess the potential risk of dirty water applications on polluting groundwater and to assess the use of such soils in the development of treatment systems for dirty water. Intact and disturbed soil lysimeters, 0.5 and 1m deep were constructed from four soils; a coarse free-draining sandy loam, a sandy loam over soft sandstone, a calcareous silty clay over chalk and a sandy loam over granite. For the coarse free-draining sandy loam, lysimeters were also constructed from disturbed soil with and without the addition of lime, to assess if this could increase phosphorus immobilisation. Levels of BOD and concentrations of MRP, NH4(+)-N and nitrate (NO3(-)-N) of leachates were measured following dirty water applications at 2 and 8 mm day(-1) under laboratory conditions. Under the daily 2mm application, all soils were effective at treating dirty water, reducing concentrations of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N by > or = 98% but NO3(-)-N concentrations increased up to 80 mg l(-1) from the 0.5 m deep lysimeters of the sandy loam over granite. Soils were less effective at reducing levels of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N at the 8 mm daily rate of application, with maximum NO3(-)-N concentrations of leachates of 200 mg l(-1) from disturbed soils.

  1. Construction of disturbed and intact soil blocks to develop percolating soil based treatment systems for dirty water from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, S K E; Chadwick, D R; Headon, D M

    2002-03-01

    Intact soil blocks with a surface area of 1.8 x 1.6 m, 1.0 m deep, were excavated in a coarse sandy loam. The sides of the soil blocks were supported with plywood before using hydraulic rams to force a steel cutting plate beneath them. Disturbed soil blocks of the same depth as the intact blocks were also established. Experiments were conducted to determine purification efficiencies for biological oxygen demand (BOD), molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP), nitrate and ammonium-N after the application of dirty water. A preliminary experiment is described where a low application of dirty water was applied to the soil blocks, 2 mm day(-1). In addition, a chloride tracer was conducted for the duration of the experiment. Disturbed soil had a purification efficiency for BOD of 99% compared to 96% from intact soil (Pammonium-N were 100 and 99%, respectively, for the intact and disturbed soils. Nitrate-N concentration increased in leachate from both treatments reaching maximum concentrations of 15 and 8 mg l(-1) from disturbed and intact soils, respectively. Chloride traces for each soil block followed similar patterns with 47 and 51% loss from disturbed and intact soils, respectively.

  2. Air Pollution and 'Dirty' Industries. How and Why Does the Composition of Manufacturing Output Change with Economic Development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the impact on air pollution of changes in the composition of manufacturing output in developed and developing countries. Pollution emissions from manufacturing output are estimated in a manner which holds constant the effect of technology and regulations allowing the impact of compositional changes alone on pollution to be estimated. The paper has three main findings; (1) the inverted-U estimated between per capita income and the pollution intensity of GDP arises due to both the composition of manufacturing becoming cleaner and the share of manufacturing output in GDP falling. Compositional changes alone are not responsible for the inverted-U between per capita income and per capita emissions; (2) changes to the composition of manufacturing output are consistent with the pollution haven hypothesis, however there is clear evidence that rising per capita incomes are associated with a failing income elasticity of demand for 'dirty' products. This fact may explain the compositional changes that occur with development; (3) in addition to the income elasticity effect, the analysis suggests that land prices and to a lesser extent the prices of labour and capital, determine the proportion of dirty industry within a country's manufacturing sector. 27 refs

  3. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  4. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  5. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  6. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  7. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  8. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  9. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  10. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    This 11th edition of Why nations go to war analyses ten case studies covering major ... of the time (Germany, Russia, Serbia and Austria in particular), Stoessinger depicts ... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American ... to war. The nuclear option is available to both countries and the strategic.

  11. Iowa and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  12. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  13. Commentary: Warring ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  14. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...

  15. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...

  16. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  17. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  18. Education and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…

  19. Wars of Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    , both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...

  20. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  1. Give Earth a Chance Series, Dirty Air, Trash Is Taking Over, Sounds and Silence, Pesticides Are Perilous, Tragedy in the Laundromat, Troublesome Tail Pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    These six booklets in the "Give Earth a Chance Series" are titled, "Dirty Air,""Trash is Taking Over,""Sounds and Silence,""Pesticides are Perilous,""Tragedy in the Laundromat," and "Troublesome Tail Pipes." The booklets are suitable for elementary use, and are intended to…

  2. DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE PROCESSES WITH SIMULATION: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WAR Algorithm, a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI) of a chemical process, is presented with modifications that account for the PEI of the energy consumed within that process. From this theory, four PEI indexes are used to evaluate the envir...

  3. DirtyGrid I: 3D Dust Radiative Transfer Modeling of Spectral Energy Distributions of Dusty Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, Karl A.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the properties of stellar populations and interstellar dust has important implications for galaxy evolution. In normal star-forming galaxies, stars and the interstellar medium dominate the radiation from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR). In particular, interstellar dust absorbs and scatters UV and optical light, re-emitting the absorbed energy in the IR. This is a strongly nonlinear process that makes independent studies of the UV-optical and IR susceptible to large uncertainties and degeneracies. Over the years, UV to IR spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting utilizing varying approximations has revealed important results on the stellar and dust properties of galaxies. Yet the approximations limit the fidelity of the derived properties. There is sufficient computer power now available that it is now possible to remove these approximations and map out of landscape of galaxy SEDs using full dust radiative transfer. This improves upon previous work by directly connecting the UV, optical, and IR through dust grain physics. We present the DIRTYGrid, a grid of radiative transfer models of SEDs of dusty stellar populations in galactic environments designed to span the full range of physical parameters of galaxies. Using the stellar and gas radiation input from the stellar population synthesis model PEGASE, our radiative transfer model DIRTY self-consistently computes the UV to far-IR/sub-mm SEDs for each set of parameters in our grid. DIRTY computes the dust absorption, scattering, and emission from the local radiation field and a dust grain model, thereby physically connecting the UV-optical to the IR. We describe the computational method and explain the choices of parameters in DIRTYGrid. The computation took millions of CPU hours on supercomputers, and the SEDs produced are an invaluable tool for fitting multi-wavelength data sets. We provide the complete set of SEDs in an online table.

  4. [The war at home: "war amenorrhea" in the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In 1917, the Göttingen gynaecologist Dietrich published a short article about a phenomenon which he called "war amenorrhea" ("Kriegsamenorrhoe"). The article attracted the attention of his colleagues. While the affected women did not pay much attention to their amenorrhea, the physicians considered the phenomenon a new disease which was mainly caused by the war. This new disease gave the gynaecologists the opportunity to present their specialty as a discipline with high relevance for medicine in times of war. Nevertheless, there was no consensus about the importance, the incidence, the diagnostic criteria, the causes and the appropriate therapy of"war amenorrhea". Although the gynaecologists failed to define a uniform clinical syndrome, they maintained the construction of "war amenorrhea" after the war and subsumed it under well known types of amenorrhea. We can conclude that under the conditions of war a new disease emerged which was not sharply defined.

  5. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main…

  6. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  7. A social theory of war: Clausewitz and war reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    of war. I then show how this framework helps us understand some key problems in the political science literature on war and conflict. I attempt to show two main things: (1) that there are different types of wars (and that these differences are not necessarily related to the standing of the actors, i......This article presents a new theory of war that is grounded in the insights of Clausewitz on the social nature of conflict. Clausewitz had argued that war is a political process; he therefore distinguished between ‘war’—understood in political terms—and warfare—understood as fighting. He...... then created a typology covering a spectrum of war ranging from total to limited, the political stakes of a conflict determining where it would fall on the spectrum. I develop and modify this basic framework by arguing that the social organization of the actors has a determining role in predicting the stakes...

  8. Peace and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, A.

    1981-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties, Albert Schweitzer fought for a policy of peace and warned of the dangers of nuclear war in speeches and publications. Reading his appeals again today, we find that they have lost nothing of their uncanny up-to-dateness. Just the opposite: The disaster predicted by Albert Schweitzer is a stronger threat now than it was at his time. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Technology of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1973-01-01

    This Article is the Note of a lecture, which was hold by Engelbert Borda at the Catholic-Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna in 27. 03. 1973. The author describes the development of modern nuclear weapon systems and the resulting war strategies. He is concerned about a possible end of the ‚balance of terror’ and the development in automation of nuclear strike back strategies. (rössner) [de

  10. Australia and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denborough, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume compiles the papers presented in the conference held in May 1983 under the auspices of the Center for Continuing Education at the Australian National University. It also includes some previously unpublished scientific research. The papers range from analyses of the atmospheric and medical consequences of nuclear war to summaries of the efforts of people in all walks of life to prevent a global catastrophe

  11. Military Adaptation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    war, there was little role for air defense. In a 1924 memorandum, the air staff explicitly stated “as a principle that the bombing squa- drons ...pulling his squa- drons back from southeastern England, if the pressure on them became too great and then redeploying them forward again, if the...minute as more and more British air- craft arrived in the area. Before reality set in, the controllers had scrambled three squa- drons of Hurricanes and

  12. Predicting symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Croatian war veterans: the role of socio-demographics, war experiences and subjective quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar, Mladen; Plašć, Ivana Dijanić; Bunjevac, Tomislav; Hrabač, Pero; Jakšić, Nenad; Kozina, Slavica; Henigsberg, Neven; Sagud, Marina; Marčinko, Darko

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has documented multiple chains of risk in the development of PTSD among war veterans. However, existing studies were mostly carried out in the West, while they also did not analyze specific symptom clusters of PTSD. The aim of this study was to examine the role of socio-demographic characteristics, war experiences and subjective quality of life in the prediction of three clusters of PTSD symptoms (i.e., avoidance, intrusion, hyperarousal). This study comprised 184 male participants who have survived war imprisonment during the Croatian Homeland War in the period from 1991 to 1995. The data was collected through several self-report measuring instruments: questionnaire on socio-demographic data, war experiences (Questionnaire on Traumatic Combat and War Experiences), subjective quality of life (WHO-Five Well-being Index), and PTSD symptoms (Impact of Events Scale - Revised). The level of three symptom clusters of PTSD was found to be moderate to high, as indicated by the scores on the IES-R. Results of the three hierarchical regression analyses showed the following: traumatic war experiences were significant predictors of avoidance symptoms; traumatic war experiences and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of hyperarousal symptoms; and traumatic war experiences, material status and subjective quality of life were significant predictors of intrusion symptoms. These findings support the widespread belief that the development of war-related PTSD is accounted for by multiple chains of risk, while traumatic war experiences seem to be the only predictor of all three symptom clusters. Future research should put more emphasis on specific PTSD symptom clusters when investigating the etiopathogenesis of this disorder among war-affected populations.

  13. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  14. The Aftermath of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...

  15. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  16. War Without Politics: A Critique of Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sellers, Robin B

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps no aspect of Carl von Clausewitz's classic "On War" has more continuing relevance for strategists than his assertion that war "is an act of policy" and further that "war is not merely an act...

  17. Airpower in Three Wars (WWII, Korea, Vietnam)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momyer, William

    2003-01-01

    ... (Operation Allied Force), and the war in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom). It is not my intent to analyze air operations in these wars but to see if there are trends that might be appropriate for another war...

  18. Reexamining Fourth Generation War as a Paradigm for Future War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Charter of the League of Nations and the subsequent Kellogg -Briand Pact “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” To demonstrate...twenty-years after the Kellogg -Briand Pact. Although the 1945-1991 period did see a decline in major interstate war relative to the immediately

  19. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  20. The Cost of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibey Asthappan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spending almost US$700 billion to combat insurgents in Afghanistan, the U.S. population should be hopeful that they “bought” something of value as the Afghan War concludes. This exploratory study focuses on evaluating operations within Afghanistan by accounting for enemy and civilian losses. Integration of civilian losses offers an opportunity to evaluate operations that represent societal losses to the Afghan people. Regression estimates using zero-inflated negative-binomial models indicate that military operations resulted in more civilian casualties than enemy losses.

  1. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  2. Fear of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radil, T.

    1987-01-01

    Problem of psychological consequences of nuclear war threat is considered. Two categories of persons are distinguished: persons who are not decision-making but whose life is threatened, and persons who make decisions but are not responsible for them. An active approach to problems, related to a possible nuclear disaster, appears to be a powerfull socio-political means against nuclear danger and also has both psychotherapeutic and preventive meaning from the viewpoint of at least a partial liberation and protecion of people against the fear of nuclear death. By their effective activity among people, physicians and psychologists can effectively struggle against the fear of nuclear death

  3. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  4. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, E.; Kramer, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

  5. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  6. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  7. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war......, and in social theory and sociology as well, there is a missing link in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fulfil that gap (Gertrud Brücher; Krysztof Matuszek; Rasmus Beckmann; Barbara Kuchler; Tobias Kohl; Klaus Dammann) Luhmann (born 1927), who...... as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do initially with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832). The central point, then, is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war...

  8. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  9. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations

  10. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  11. Psychological consequences of war-traumatized children and adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevludin Hasanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Research into the psychosocial consequences of war and political violence on children’s and adolescent’s developmental wellbeing has shown a steady increase over the last decades. Numerous studies, from differing cultures in different war zones around the world, have documented the effect on children of exposure to war atrocities. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH 1992-1995, at the end of 20th century found the citizens of BH and the world mental health professionals and scientists unprepared to deal with the adverse consequences for the entire BH population and especially for its most vulnerable part, children and adolescents, to be able to take adequate measures of sufficient mental health care to prevent devastating consequences of severe multiple traumas. Only a few research studies were done during and after this war in BH, the United States, Sweden, Norway, the UK and Germany focusing on the relationship between war trauma, Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, suicidal thoughts, acculturation, repatriation, poverty, behavioral problems, school adjustment, relational problems of children and their mothers after deployment of war PTSD veterans and war prisoners, and treatment of psychological consequences in examined children and adolescents from BH. The major part of this paper reviewed available literature on Medline that reported national and international studies which investigated the psychological consequences of war on BH children and adolescents and several papers about children and adolescents from Srebrenica, that were not indexed on Medline, but showed very crucial results for the issue described.

  12. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  13. Suicide among war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  14. War-related experiences of former child soldiers in northern Uganda: comparison with non-recruited youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Schryver, Maarten de; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    Armed conflict imposes huge hardship on young people living in war zones. This study assessed former child soldiers' experience and perception of stress in common war events during the armed conflict in northern Uganda and compares it with their non-recruited counterparts. To investigate whether child soldiers experienced more severe exposure to war events, and explore how war might affect youths differently, depending on the co-occurrence of these events. The study was undertaken in four northern Ugandan districts in 22 secondary schools with a sample size of 981 youths, about half of whom had been child soldiers. The participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and stressful war events which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a probabilistic index and correlation network analysis. Former child soldiers had significantly greater experience of war events than their non-recruited counterparts. The violence of war is more central in their experience and perception of stress, whereas the scarcity of resources and poor living conditions are most central for non-recruited participants. The extent to which a war event, such as separation from the family, is perceived as stressful depends on the experience and perception of other stressful war events, such as confrontation with war violence for former child soldiers and life in an Internally Displaced Persons' camp for non-recruited participants. The network approach permitted demonstration of the many ways in which war-affected youths encounter and appraise stressful war events. War events might function as moderators or mediators of the effect that other war events exert on the lives and well-being of young people living in war zones. This demands comprehensive and individualized assessment.

  15. Commemorating a war that never came

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war......The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  16. Attitudes and perceptions of urban African Americans of a "dirty bomb" radiological terror event: results of a qualitative study and implications for effective risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith R; Ruggieri, Dominique; Parvanta, Claudia; Mora, Gabriella; Wolak, Caitlin; Normile, Rebecca; Gordon, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a "dirty bomb" is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with "shelter in place" recommendations. Thirty-seven 18-65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia. Results were analyzed by using the Krueger method of analyzing narrative text. The responses highlighted little knowledge or concern about a dirty bomb. Lack of trust in local authorities was expressed, with participants indicating that they did not feel their needs were addressed. While shelter in place was understood, most said they would still check on family or talk with others to get the "whole truth" because the most trusted information sources were neighbors and community leaders. Our results indicate that a risk communication intervention for urban minorities may support desirable behaviors in the event of a dirty bomb, but successful communication will require establishing a local leader as a spokesperson to convince people of the importance of sheltering in place.

  17. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  18. Emergency Physicians at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  19. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, N.

    1980-01-01

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  1. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  2. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  3. The cultural dimension of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kochetkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present article introduces the concept of the culture wars. Reviewed the features and characteristics of the culture wars. Described the basic methods of the culture wars. Сoncluded that the theoretical design concept of the culture wars can be a uniting point for a number of important areas of the science of international relations.

  4. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  5. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  6. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  7. The Falkland Islands War: An Image of War in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, J

    1997-01-01

    .... By any reckoning, it was a war that should never have been fought. It was a war unlike any other war in the twentieth century, and since 1945 it was the first war to erupt outside the construct of the Cold War paradigm...

  8. The War on War League: A South African pacifist movement, 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Communist Party. This article however contends that it needs to be understood in its own terms, as a pacifist movement, reflecting a political moment of resistance to the plunge into global war. Keywords: War on War League, South Africa, Pacifism, Anti-War Movement, First World War, Syndicalism, Internationalism, ...

  9. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will... National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The teleconference meeting will be...

  10. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J

    2008-01-01

    ... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...

  11. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  12. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  13. Mapping the Sorrows of War

    OpenAIRE

    West, Philip; Philip, West

    2007-01-01

    The two keywords in this essay, mapping and sorrows, are used as heuristic devices to explore the sticky problems of reconciliation among former enemies from the Asia Pacific War, 1931-1945, primarily Japan and China, but also Korea and the United States. Sorrows, as a word and concept, offers an innovative approach to healing the wounds of war by countering the powerful influence of war memories in the familiar narratives of self-pity and self-glorification. In the language of politics and d...

  14. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  15. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  16. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugos...

  17. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  18. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  19. Religious ethics, Christianity, and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Syse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708

  20. Clausewitz Nuclear War and Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, Alan W

    1991-01-01

    .... The advent of nuclear weapons and their role in the evolving east-west struggle following the second world war created a situation, however, unforeseen by Clausewitz, where the most basic political...

  1. The Justice of Preventive War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, Henry

    2004-01-01

    In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions, including preventive war...

  2. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  3. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  4. Cyber-Physical War Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Sullivan, D. T.; Kott, A

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents general strategies for cyber war gaming of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) that are used for cyber security research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). Since Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and other CPSs are operational systems, it is difficult or impossible to perform security experiments on actual systems. The authors describe how table-top strategy sessions and realistic, live CPS war games are conducted at ARL. They also discuss how the recorde...

  5. Dirty and 40 days in the wilderness: Eliciting childbirth and postnatal cultural practices and beliefs in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sheetal; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Hundley, Vanora; Angell, Catherine; Simkhada, Padam

    2016-07-05

    Pregnancy and childbirth are socio-cultural events that carry varying meanings across different societies and cultures. These are often translated into social expectations of what a particular society expects women to do (or not to do) during pregnancy, birth and/or the postnatal period. This paper reports a study exploring beliefs around childbirth in Nepal, a low-income country with a largely Hindu population. The paper then sets these findings in the context of the wider global literature around issues such as periods where women are viewed as polluted (or dirty even) after childbirth. A qualitative study comprising five in-depth face-to-face interviews and 14 focus group discussions with mainly women, but also men and health service providers. The qualitative findings in Nepal were compared and contrasted with the literature on practices and cultural beliefs related to the pregnancy and childbirth period across the globe and at different times in history. The themes that emerged from the analysis included: (a) cord cutting & placenta rituals; (b) rest & seclusion; (c) purification, naming & weaning ceremonies and (d) nutrition and breastfeeding. Physiological changes in mother and baby may underpin the various beliefs, ritual and practices in the postnatal period. These practices often mean women do not access postnatal health services. The cultural practices, taboos and beliefs during pregnancy and around childbirth found in Nepal largely resonate with those reported across the globe. This paper stresses that local people's beliefs and practices offer both opportunities and barriers to health service providers. Maternity care providers need to be aware of local values, beliefs and traditions to anticipate and meet the needs of women, gain their trust and work with them.

  6. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  7. Hunger influenced life expectancy in war-torn Sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence N

    2018-04-27

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem especially in developing countries experiencing war/conflicts. War might be one of the socio-political factors influencing malnutrition in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. This study aims at determining the influence of war on corruption, population (POP), number of population malnourished (NPU), food security and life expectancy (LE) in war-torn SSA countries (WTSSA) by comparing their malnutrition indicators. Fourteen countries in WTSSA were stratified into zones according to war incidences. Countries' secondary data on population (POP), NPU, Food Security Index (FSI), corruption perceptions index (CPI), Global Hunger Index (GHI) and LE were obtained from global published data. T test, multivariate and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship between CPI, POP, GHI, FSI, NPU, male LE (MLE) and female LE (FLE) in WTSSA at p Malnutrition indicators were similarly affected in WTSSA. Hunger influenced life expectancy. Policies promoting good governance, equity, peaceful co-existence, respect for human right and adequate food supply will aid malnutrition eradication and prevent war occurrences in Sub-Saharan African countries.

  8. Three wars that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W M S

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.

  9. Depleted uranium. A post-war disaster for environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, P.; Fahey, D.; Bertell, R.; Robicheau, D.; Bristow, R.; Arbuthnot, F.; Van der Keur, H.

    1999-05-01

    In the course of the preparations for the The Hague Appeal for Peace '99 conference in the Netherlands, Laka decided to make a brochure about the use of depleted uranium in conventional weaponry and its consequences. The idea was born because of the short time reserved during the session for the presentation of all details about depleted uranium (DU). Although the word 'depleted uranium' may suggest no harmful impact from radiation, this brochure will clarify the real radiotoxic (and chemotoxic) properties of DU. Laka asked several 'insiders' to take part in the completion of the brochure. Thanks to their efforts, we have been able to present well-documented articles for activists, scientists, scholars and students to share with them valuable information about the hazardous impact of DU contamination and its consequences on human health and the environment. Taking notice of the growing military use of DU, we must consider not only the increased threats of radioactive battlefields but also the whole dirty cycle in the uranium industry connected with the DU technology and its impact on health and the environment in the surroundings of test areas and in the uranium industry itself. The contents of all the contributions are under the responsibility of the authors.The titles of the contributions are (1) Depleted uranium. A by-product of the nuclear chain; (2) Depleted uranium weapons. Lessons from the 1991 Gulf War; (3) Gulf War veterans and depleted uranium; (4) The next testing site for depleted uranium weaponry; (5) Depleted uranium. The thoughts of the first British Gulf War veteran to be tested for, and found to be poisoned with depleted uranium; (6) The health of the Iraqi people; (7) Uranium pollution from the amsterdam 1992 plane crash; and (8) an overview od organizations involved in campaigns against depleted uranium. refs

  10. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  11. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  12. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  13. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  14. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT...of the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI), the chronic condition currently defined only by veterans’ self-reported symptoms

  15. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  16. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  17. The Just War or Just a War? A Proposal for Ethical Joint Doctrine of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Sarah J

    2005-01-01

    .... It is the foundation of joint professional military education and training, forming the basis for how the warfighter will prosecute a war, and is a reflection of the judgments of senior military leadership...

  18. Innominate artery war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radoje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A case is reported of successfully surgically treated explosive war injury to the innominate artery. Case report. A 26 - year-old soldier was injured in combat by a fragment of mortar shell. In the field hospital, the wound gauze packing was applied, followed by orotracheal intubation and thoracic drainage. The soldier was admitted to MMA six hours later. Physical examination, on admission, revealed huge swelling of the neck, the absence of pulse in the right arm and the right common carotid artery. Chest x-ray revealed hemopneumothorax of the right side and the foreign metal body in the projection of the right sternoclavicular joint. Due to the suspicion of large vessel injury, a median sternotomy was immediately performed. Surgery revealed disrupted bifurcation of the right innominate artery, so the ligation was performed. Aortography was performed postoperatively, followed by the reconstruction of innominate bifurcation with synthetic grafts. Control aortography showed good graft patency, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition with palpable pulses and mild anisocoria as a sole neurological sequela. Conclusion. A rare and life-threatening injury was successfully managed, mainly due to the rational treatment carried out in the field hospital that helped the injured to survive and arrive to the institution capable of performing the most sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  19. Prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  20. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  1. War of Images and Images of War: Rape and Sacrifice in the Iraq War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Rial

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses one of the great issues about which global media remains silent: the rape of Muslim women by U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Contemporary mediascape is prolix. But some silences remain, such as the issue of rape during war. With an anthropological approach to the meaning of war and through the analysis of images, the article focuses on the participation of women in this male space.

  2. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  3. Rheological stratification of the Hormuz Salt Formation in Iran - microstructural study of the dirty and pure rock salts from the Kuh-e-Namak (Dashti) salt diapir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závada, Prokop; Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos; Schulmann, Karel; Rahmati, Mahmoud; Lexa, Ondrej; Wollenberg, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Significant viscosity contrasts displayed in flow structures of a mountain namakier (Kuh-e-Namak - Dashti), between 'weak' terrestrial debris bearing rock salt types and 'strong' pure rock salt types are questioned for deformation mechanisms using detailed quantitative microstructural study including crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) mapping of halite grains. While the solid impurity rich ("dirty") rock salts contain disaggregated siltstone and dolomite interlayers, "clean" salts (debris free) reveal microscopic hematite and remnants of abundant fluid inclusions in non-recrystallized cores of porphyroclasts. Although flow in both, the recrystallized dirty and clean salt types is accommodated by combined mechanisms of pressure-solution creep (PS), grain boundary sliding (GBS) and dislocation creep accommodated grain boundary migration (GBM), their viscosity contrasts are explained by significantly slower rates of intergranular diffusion and piling up of dislocations at hematite inclusions in clean salt types. Porphyroclasts of clean salts deform by semi-brittle and plastic mechanisms with intra-crystalline damage being induced also by fluid inclusions that explode in the crystals at high fluid pressures. Boudins of clean salt types with coarse grained and original sedimentary microstructure suggest that clean rock salts are associated with dislocation creep dominated power law flow in the source layer and the diapiric stem. Rheological contrasts between both rock salt classes apply in general for the variegated and terrestrial debris rich ("dirty") Lower Hormuz and the "clean" rock salt forming the Upper Hormuz, respectively, and suggest that large strain rate gradients likely exist along horizons of mobilized salt types of different composition and microstructure.

  4. Shell's Big Dirty Secret. Insight into the world's most carbon intensive oil company and the legacy of CEO Jeroen van der Veer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, L.; Rowell, A.; Kretzmann, S.

    2009-06-01

    Royal Dutch Shell plc is the largest oil operator in Nigeria, and holds more acreage in Canada's oil sands than any other corporation. Because of these facts, and several others, Shell is also the most carbon intensive oil company in the world. In short, for every barrel of oil it produces in the future, Shell will contribute more to global warming than any other oil company. This report documents Shell's record investment in dirty forms of energy, and it illuminates the corporate strategy and lobbying for regulations that indicate it intends to profit from that position for a long time to come (authors' abstract)

  5. Climate wars and fat wars: A new role for law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Kroeze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Public trust in science is eroding because of a number of conflicts. In the sphere of climate science and of nutrition science, a basic methodological difference between scientists has escalated into what can be called wars. These wars are the result of influences such as personalities of leading scientists and powerful commercial and political interests. The wars have escalated to such an extent that leading scientists are being threatened with legal action and disciplinary procedures for advocating divergent views. These legal processes are not primarily about the procedural aspects of their actions, but are couched as being ‘about the science’. This means that legal processes are being used to ‘settle’ the science – something that the law has never been required to do. This new role for law has implications for legal education and requires that lawyers become more capable to understand empirical research.

  6. A Lyrical War: Gallipoli War through Poetry in Anzac Diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Çelikel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the First World War, Dardanelles witnessed one of the fiercest clashes in history between the British and the Turkish forces. This eight-month-war caused the settlement of British army that included Australian and New Zealand Army Corps known as Anzacs on particularly the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Australian and New Zealander soldiers and officers constantly kept diaries and wrote letters that in a sense recorded history from the personal perspective contributing to history with individual observation. If Anzac diaries kept during the Gallipoli clashes in 1915 function as secondary historical sources, they also do function as reminiscences of military officers who found consolation in expressing themselves lyrically during harsh conflicts. Some Anzac officers quote poems in their diaries and some write their own poetry to cope with the violence of war using the aestheticism of poetry. Their poems, on the other hand, remain not only as the lyrical reflections of a deadly reality but also as even more painful portrayals of war. This paper aims to read poems either quoted or written in the diaries of Anzac soldiers and officers in order to analyse the emotional effects of war on individuals. The poems will be analysed through the perspective of cultural landscape and question the influence of landscape on the perception of war in the minds of the Anzacs. From the new historicist perspective, the diaries bearing poetry will be read not as the sources of historical information but as the texts that use history as the material for poetry. The paper will also question whether or not the individual observations change the perception of official history that does not become the main impulse behind the writing of poetry but turns merely into one of its sources.

  7. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  8. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  9. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  10. War Gamers Handbook: A Guide for Professional War Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    by McCarty Little in 1912 continues today. Others have also contributed to war gaming scholarship. McHugh (1966), a NWC war gamer from the mid-1930s...select areas of particular interest to the sponsor ( McHugh , 1966). The game-specific purposes, more recently referred to as objectives, are discrete...no intent to try to win. Such a design is used mainly to promote participant learning ( McHugh , 1966). Scenario A game scenario is the scenic

  11. Metamorphosis of the coal sector. From dirty to clean?; Metamorfose van de kolensector. Van vies naar schoon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, S.

    2008-05-15

    The author surveys the extreme make-over of the coal industry: from dirty to clean. To many of us, coal might seem the energy source of the past. In many countries of Western Europe, coal mines were closed decades ago and in most cases gas has replaced coal for heating. However, the worldwide use of coal has never been as high as it is today and coal consumption is expected to increase by 70% until 2030. This increase has mainly to do with the rapid growth of energy consumption in China and India. There are, however, environmental problems related to coal, the most prominent being the very high CO2 emissions, causing climate change. Capturing CO2 and burying it in geological formation underground, a technology called Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), could potentially alleviate the CO2 burden that is inevitably related to coal. However, CCS is not yet a proven method and there are many uncertainties to be taken away. This leaves a gap between the international and European policy goals of decreasing global CO2 emissions and the emissions caused by coal. In fact, it shows the necessity of reaching an international climate agreement (post Kyoto) and of creating a fair efforts sharing balance between the industrialized and developing countries. [Dutch] De auteur geeft een overzicht van de extreme veranderingen in de steenkoolindustrie om deze schoner te laten produceren. Voor velen van ons lijken kolen misschien de energiebron van het verleden. In veel landen van West-Europa, werden kolenmijnen tientallen jaren geleden gesloten en in de meeste gevallen heeft aardgas steenkool vervangen voor verwarming. Echter, het wereldwijde gebruik van steenkool is nog nooit zo hoog geweest als nu en het verbruik van steenkool zal naar verwachting met 70% stijgen tot 2030. Deze stijging heeft vooral te maken met de snelle groei van het energieverbruik in China en India. Er zijn echter milieuproblemen in verband met steenkool, waarvan de meest prominente de zeer hoge CO2-uitstoot

  12. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  13. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  14. Genetic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the aftermath of a nuclear war, genetic effects may appear trivial in comparison with the enormity of the catastrophic development in the survivors' health and the environment. Gross effects are immediately or subtly demonstrable on the basis of diverse war scenarios. On the other hand, in a great number of organisms, genetic effects of radiation have been shown to occur according to a no-threshold dose-effect curve, thus implying that effects may be found even in situations and population groups where other direct effects are small. The discussions on the effects of nuclear war have indicated that whatever sector of effects is focused on, closer examination has, in each case - be it treatment of casualties, effects on climate, or effects on world trade - led to a picture of possible and often probable catastrophic collapse

  15. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  16. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  17. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  18. Sizewell 'dirty tricks'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Steve.

    1987-01-01

    The pro-nuclear lobby is accused of dubious tactics to promote their case for the Sizewell-B reactor. These include reassessing future electricity demand which, it is claimed, could only be met by nuclear power, claiming that new power stations were needed to avoid blackouts during cold spells, and the reporting of a major design fault in the control rods of the Torness and Heysham AGR stations. The latter is felt to be related to the promotion by the South of Scotland Electricity Board of the AGR case, as opposed to the Central Electricity Generating Board's advocation of a PWR reactor design. The author argues for a series of coal-fired power stations instead, and a major energy conservation programme. (UK)

  19. Smelly and dirty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard; Zandstra, Elizabeth; de Wijk, Rene

    to play an important role: it is known that clearly recognisable odours lead to fewer behavioural effects than odours that are barely noticed. Once odours are recognised they may elicit all types of conscious reasoning that can inhibit behavioural effects. We used three odours: clearly unpleasant (Sulphur......), clearly pleasant (Orange) and somewhat less familiar but also pleasant (Grass). Naïve subjects were led into special odour-controlled rooms in which each odour was dispersed, for what they believed to be a food product test. They were requested to cut a rusk into several parts, eat the parts...... citrus odours. Green grass, not known for its association with cleaning, showed similar effects to Orange. We posit that odour valence plays an important role, as Grass -and Orange- are in general well liked and have positive connotations, and produced more sweeping movements than the unpleasant Sulphur....

  20. Doing Dirty Interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    In this paper we will present and discuss an example of an interview characterized by the researcher moving back and forth between two positions. On the one hand the formal position of being an interviewer/researcher using her prepared interview guide as a tool and on the other hand bringing...... in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...... and the interviewee might seduce each other to develop a conversation in which intersections between supervision/coaching and interviewing merge. The example clearly demonstrates how subjectivity influences the knowledge that is being produced in an interview situation, which should be recognized and reflected upon...

  1. Dirty, sexy money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, F.

    2008-04-19

    Carbon is the hot new commodity, but can trading it like a currency really save the planet? On 1 January the Kyoto Protocol's emissions targets came into full force, creating a market in permits to emit greenhouse gases. The article discusses whether carbon trading is actively providing a mechanism that rewards people for reducing their carbon emissions instead of increasing them or it simply giving big polluters a way of dodging their responsibilities. The system allows companies investing in emissions-cutting projects in developing countries to earn credits known as certified emission reductions (CERs). By late 2007 the UN had approved more than 1600 projects for CERs. More than a third of the official CDM projects are for hydroelectric dams, mostly in China. However, most of these dams were either completed or under construction before the application for carbon credits was made and would have been built anyway. The author argues that it is unavoidable that some credits would go to such projects. He says that the danger is now that governments are seduced into believing the initial success of the carbon market allows them to avoid hard political choices in climatic change. Another danger is that only a minority of emissions are covered by legal caps. Most industrial and transport emissions in developing countries remain outside the market as do huge emissions caused by deforestation, draining wetlands and ploughing fields. One answer might be 'full carbon accounting' in which all exchanges of greenhouse gases, both into and out of the atmosphere, would have to be included in national and corporate carbon accounts. Remove sensing may soon make this possible. 1 fig.

  2. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  4. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...

  5. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....

  6. The War in Afghanistan: A Strategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herring, G

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a strategic analysis of the war in Afghanistan. It begins by articulating the United States' strategic objectives for the war, the approaches taken to achieve those objectives, and the resources employed in each approach...

  7. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  8. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.

  9. Patterns of War Termination: A Statistical Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, II, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    .... Specifically, this thesis addressed questions concerning the most relevant factors toward predicting both the outcomes of interstate wars and the winners of intrastate and extra-systemic wars, within...

  10. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  11. Nuclear war as false memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Timberlake

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Timberlake outlines aspects of his creative practice as an artist, explaining his fascination for the ‘fictions of nuclear war’ – a war that never happened and so became the subject of ‘false memory’. Highlighting discontinued historical trajectories, the author shows how the cultural legacy of Britain’s nuclear test programme of the 1950s and ’60s may be explored meaningfully in paintings and photography resulting from his archival research at the Imperial War Museum in London.

  12. 17. The Thirty Years War

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, David

    2013-01-01

    Without any question the period of the Thirty Years War, from 1618 to 1648, was one of the most horrifying in the history of Germany. Not only were huge numbers of soldiers killed in battle in virtually every part of the Holy Roman Empire, but even greater numbers of the civilian population died in the conflict or through starvation or disease. Houses, churches, villages and towns were burnt and destroyed, and by the end of the war the population had been reduced from about sixteen millions t...

  13. War and Peace: an Economic Liberalist Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. HUNG

    2009-01-01

    In a simple formal model of two-country, two-good with an elementary Conflict Technology, we use a rudimentary game theoretics to study the matter of war and peace, where under peace, cooperative exchange takes place, and where, in case of war, the winner takes all through appropriation of the whole endowment left after payment of armament expenditures. We provide conditions under which war is inevitable, then go on to characterize situations where war, still probable, is not necessarily the ...

  14. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  15. Economic Origins of War and Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Why do wars happen, and what do societies fight over? Why are international relations sometimes fearful and aggressive and other times harmonious? I show that these questions can be fruitfully explored by importing some basic economic theory into the existing bargaining theory of war. A separate essay analyzes the interactions between the United States and countries that may be pursuing nuclear weapons. "Costly Peace: A New Rationalist Explanation for War" posits a new explanation for war: so...

  16. The Effect of War on the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan, Li; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    Since 1991 the Gulf war occurred, global concern on human being health and environmental damages has continued to increase. This project assesses the damages caused by the war to environment. Wars started by countries could bring infinite damages to the natural environment; in this project we intend to discuss and clarify our viewpoint that” the impacts of war on the environment most have negative effects”. We also focus on the fundamental information for understanding the further developing ...

  17. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  18. North Dalmatian Outline Of War Ethnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Jadran

    2016-01-01

    The text presents the anthropological, ethnological and ethnographic interests in the war, problematizes them within the borders of North Dalmatia and suggests possible future disciplinary interests. The war ethnography is a type of text which can be useful in the local communities which are still recovering from the effects of the war. Compared with the global practice of dealing with these topics, it can be assumed that the corpus of the war ethnography would have cultural, social and scien...

  19. The State, War, and the State of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to offer an understanding of the relationship between war making and state creation in the world have been undertaken by many international relations and strategic studies scholars. In most of these attempts attention has been focused on how state making in Europe differed from that in other parts of the world.

  20. The Unprincipled War: Looking at the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-18

    Unidad Movid de Patrullaje Rural iv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Drug war - reality or rhetoric? Drugs from Latin America kill an estimated 10,000...PiP), the Peruvian equivalent to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Unidad Movil de Patrullaje Rural (UMOPR), the agency charged exclusively

  1. Penetrating abdominal war injuries among the war victims at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospital for prompt and appropriate treatment. All cases of such injuries should have exploratory laparotomy as soon as possible. Introduction. Penetrating abdominal injuries among the war wounded present a challenge in its management especially in a situation with limited human and financial resources such as ours.

  2. Effect of war on the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Antoine B; Nassar, Anwar H; Usta, Ihab M; Zreik, Tony G; Abu Musa, Antoine A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of a short period of war on the menstrual cycles of exposed women. Six months after a 16-day war, women in exposed villages aged 15-45 years were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their menstrual history at the beginning, 3 months after, and 6 months after the war. A control group, not exposed to war, was also interviewed. The data collected were analyzed to estimate the effect of war on three groups of women: those who stayed in the war zone for 3-16 days (Group A), those who were displaced within 2 days to safer areas (Group B), and women not exposed to war or displacement (Group C-control). More than 35% of women in Group A and 10.5% in Group B had menstrual aberrations 3 months after the cessation of the war. These percentages were significantly different from each other and from that in Group C (2.6%). Six months after the war most women regained their regular menstrual cycles with the exception of 18.6% in Group A. We found a short period of war, acting like an acute stressful condition, resulted in menstrual abnormalities in 10-35% of women and is probably related to the duration of exposure to war. This might last beyond the war time and for more than one or two cycles. In most women the irregular cycles reversed without any medical intervention. II.

  3. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  4. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  5. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  6. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  7. Churches, chaplains and the Great War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious

  8. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  9. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva; Erke Kartabayeva; Nurzipa Alpysbayeva

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  10. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  11. Psychological After-effects of War in Displaced Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The psychological after-effects of violence due to the armed conflict have left traumatic memories or indelible stigma in victimized women. Females are overrepresented since they compose more than half of the victims in the Colombian warfare. (Sierra, Calle, and Vélez, 2015. Thus, we considered the following research question: What psychological after-effects of war prevail in displaced women? In this research project, we defined psychological after-effects of war as signs, symptoms and psychological disorders based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Moreover, we defined forced migration as the movement of people, families and groups away from their homes to other places. This movement is coerced by a powerful actor or group to expel, harass and uproot a person, group or community.   We adopted a social psychological perspective to study the after-effects of war in displaced women. This is a narrative review in which we included manuscripts from academic journals, institutional reports and books. The inclusion criteria were the following: manuscripts published and indexed from 2005 to 2015, and generalizability of the results.  We selected the following academic data-bases: Academic Search Complete, Medline, Redalyc, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. We selected 7 out of 50 papers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results showed that displaced women suffer from mood, impulse control and behavioral disorders. These disorders prevail due to the after-effects of war. Whereas fear, helplessness, anger and uprooting are equally conducive to the emotional stability that they experience. We conclude that war directly and indirectly affects the mental health of women forced to emigrate, causing mental disorders and psychological alterations.

  12. The Civil War and Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  13. Simulating the Fog of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    along with death , is what distinguishes war from peace, yet commercial board wargames have traditionally made no morc effort to impose the former upon the...shiny paper map. Burnside would have had no bridge named after him if he had ordered a single horseman to ride into the easily fordable Antietam Creek

  14. boer war (1899–1902)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    André Wessels, a professor of history at the University of the Free State in. Bloemfontein, South Africa, and currently also a Visiting Fellow in the School of. Humanities and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales, at the Australian. Defence Force Academy in Canberra, is an established Anglo-Boer War historian. In.

  15. Scientists study 'cold war' fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the epidemiological studies being carried out to determine radiation doses to the public from intentional and accidental releases of radioactive compounds during the Cold War. These studies at present are focused on Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Fernald, with studies beginning at Rocky Flats and Savannah

  16. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  17. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  18. The Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Lessons from the Russo-Japanese War." United Service Magazine 30 (October 1904-March 1905):112+. Caemmerer, Rudolf von. The Development of Strategical...over the German operational plan for the western offensive, 1940.] Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1957. This is the best work on the subject. Kissel

  19. MACROECONOMIC POLICY OF CURRENCY WAR: METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekareva S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of investigation of a modern international monetary and finance field for some countries which would participate in currency war. Usually currency wars are used in order to achieve some competitive advantages in international trade relations. Real effective exchange rate index was used as the key instrument in our analysis. It reflects a nominal exchange rate and the main trade partners’ structure as well. Moreover, some macroeconomic and finance indices were used. The methods of investigation are cluster and panel data analyses. The period of investigation is 1990-2012. The result of analysis is connected with showing differences in countries’ possibility of implementing monetary policy instruments to improve their competitiveness.

  20. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  1. John Dumbrell, Rethinking the Vietnam War.

    OpenAIRE

    Gratale, Joseph Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the conclusion of the Vietnam War in the early 1970s, the USA has been involved in a number of wars and military interventions throughout the world.  From the US invasion of Grenada in 1983 and the Persian Gulf War of 1991, to the US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century, the USA has found a variety of justifications and rationales in pursuing its national interests through the implementation of war.  In spite of the frequency and impacts of US military interventions ov...

  2. Nutrition in pre-war Sarajevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zec, S; Telebak, B; Sljepcevic, O; Filipovic-Hadziomeragic, A

    1995-10-01

    To assess nutritional status, dietary intake and lifestyle habits of non-manual workers in Sarajevo. Healthy employees in non-manual occupations from four large companies were invited to participate in a nutrition and health survey during 1990 and 1991. All the subjects were working in the city centre of Sarajevo. 1860 subjects (1120 men and 740 women) aged from 20-65 years of age participated. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometric measurements (weights and heights) and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data on health status, diet and lifestyle were gathered through individual questionnaires. Overall, 4.3% of the sample was found to be underweight (BMI 30.5). The majority of the obese men were in responsible positions (for example, directors, heads of departments). The majority of obese women were in the 35-45 years old age group in the post-maternity period. Intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate exceeded former Yugoslavian recommended dietary allowances. About one third of participants (34.3% men and 27.3% women) smoked heavily and 18.1% of men drank alcohol. A total of 16.2% of men and 11.6% of women suffered from hypertension. The food intake of the population of Sarajevo before the war was generally high. There was high consumption of meat, fatty foods and alcoholic drinks (particularly among men) and low levels of physical activity. This resulted in high levels of obesity and chronic degenerative diseases such as hypertension. Thus, high living standards and physical inactivity had a damaging effect on the health of non-manual workers in pre-war Sarajevo.

  3. Political theology and eschatological war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griško Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to describe the antagonism that constitutes the eschatological position, i.e., the inseparability of eschatology from a concept of eschatological war, through 1 the political theology of Carl Schmitt, 2 Orthodox Christological anthropology and 3 the nomadology of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Schmitt's political theology can be understood as a theory of eschatological war. The theological character of Schimtt's work entails that 'the secularisation of theological concepts' is constitutive of the eschatological concept of cosmological finitude. Moreover, Schmitt's distinction between friend and enemy, which informs his concept of politics as the 'political', aims to identify the primary antagonism of eschatological history. For Schmitt, the liberal end of history is the absolutisation of the enemy, as liberalism denies the fundamental distinction of the political, namely, liberalism maintains that war is over on the basis of its claim to immanent historical truth. From the position of Orthodox Christological anthropology, liberalism also contains a clear eschatological element. The anthropology of liberalism is consistent with the gnomic will, which, according to St. Maximus the Confessor, is the fallen definition of human freedom, i.e., freedom as choice. Freedom as the natural will, in contrast, determines the ethical mission of man as the soteriological deification of cosmos. The lines of eschatological war can be further illustrated through the work of Deleuze and Guattari as well as Heinz Von Foerster, whose concepts of diagram/ abstract machine and trivial/non-trivial machine may contribute to an understanding of how a concept of war informs the transformative cosmology which belongs to the eschatological logic of cosmic finitude and deification, theosis.

  4. Food availability after nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of acute-phase food shortage vulnerabilities for 15 countries clearly indicates that in many countries massive levels of malnutrition and starvation are a possible outcome of a major nuclear war. The principal direct cause of such food shortages would be the climatic disturbances and societal disruptions during the initial post-war year. Even without climatic disturbances, import-dependent countries could suffer food shortages. Many of the countries with the highest levels of agricultural production and storage would probably be targets of nuclear weapons. It seems unlikely that food exports would continue from severely damaged countries, thus propagating effects to non-combatant countries. A similar analysis of food storage vulnerability in 130 countries indicates that a majority of people live in countries with inadequate food stores for such major perturbations. This is true even if consumption rates of 1,000 kcal . person/sup -1/ . day/sup -1/ are assumed rather than 1,500 kcal . person/sup -1/ . day/sup -1/. This vulnerability is particularly severe in Africa, and South America. Even though most of the countries of these continents have no nuclear weapons and are not likely to be targeted, the human consequences of a major nuclear war could be nearly as severe as in the principal combatant countries. Few countries would have sufficient food stores for their entire population and massive mortality would result if only pre-harvest levels were available. These conclusions represent an aspect of nuclear war that has only been recently realized. The possibility of climatic disturbances following a large nuclear war has introduced a new element to the global consequences expected. Not only are the populations of the major combatant countries at risk in a nuclear exchange, but also most of the global human population

  5. Ukrainian Hybrid War – Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotărescu Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not, influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.

  6. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    after his return.432 Seventy- five Gulf War personnel were hospitalized for chicken pox during deployment.1431 Only a few cases of viral hepatitis were...and independent of circulating uranium levels. Of particular interest are findings from an ongoing study at the University of New Mexico indicating that...periods, can produce chronic neurological or behavioral effects. The New Mexico study is an important example of a particularly relevant approach

  7. THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WAR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory defines potential environmental impact indexes that characterize the generation and t...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 937 ... Vol 39, No 2 (2011), Book Review: Russia's heroes 1941–45, Abstract PDF ... Vol 37, No 2 (2009), Book Review: The hot "Cold War": The USSR in Southern Africa, Abstract ... Vol 23, No 3 (1993), Book review: Under fire - an American story ... Vol 38, No 2 (2010), Book Review: Why nations go to war ...

  9. Analysis of Hc2(θ,T) for Mg(B1-xCx)2 single crystals by using the dirty two-gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Jung-Dae; Kim, Heon-Jung; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jo, Younghun; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    To understand the effect of carbon doping on the superconductivity in MgB 2 , we obtained the angle- and temperature-dependent upper critical fields [H c2 (θ) and H c2 (T)] for Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 single crystals (x = 0.06 and 0.1) from resistivity measurements while varying the temperature, the field, and the direction of the field. The detailed values of the diffusivity for two different directions for each σ-band and π-band were obtained to explain both the temperature- and the angle-dependent H c2 by using the dirty-limit two-gap model. The induced impurity scattering of the σ-band and the π-band for both the ab-plane and the c-direction is studied. (fast track communication)

  10. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations.

  11. The evolving war on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A; Gray, Nathanael S; Baselga, Jose

    2011-04-01

    Building on years of basic scientific discovery, recent advances in the fields of cancer genetics and medicinal chemistry are now converging to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. Starting with serendipitous observations in rare subsets of cancer, a paradigm shift in clinical research is poised to ensure that new molecular insights are rapidly applied to shape emerging cancer therapies. Could this mark a turning point in the "War on Cancer"? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling Cyber Physical War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    games share similar constructs. We also provide a game-theoretic approach to mathematically analyze attacker and defender strategies in cyber war...Military Practice of Course-of-Action Analysis 4 2. Game-Theoretic Method 7 2.1 Mathematical Model 7 2.2 Strategy Selection 10 2.2.1 Pure...officers, hundreds of combat and support vehicles, helicopters, sophisticated intelligence and communication equipment and specialists , artillery and

  13. Japanese physicist during the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Nambu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The japanese interest for the science is comparatively recent and one of the first japanese physicist is Hantoro Nagaoka with an atomic model in 1903. During the war the physicist take refuge in the theory and two universities proper in spite of difficult working conditions. This paper goes over the historical aspects of the japanese scientific research and contributions to the nucleus physic. (A.L.B.)

  14. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    UA25 .L342 2009) Mandel, Robert . The Meaning of Military Victory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006. 190pp. (U163 .M266 2006) Marshall, Monty G., and...Ted Robert Gurr. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park: Center for...18pp. (AD-A468-990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468990 Raymer , James H. In Search of Lasting Results: Military War Termination Doctrine. Fort

  15. The Nature of War Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    of Positivism , 1848, Auguste Comte presents the Hierarchy of Science that is in general use today. Mathematics is at the top of Comte‟s hierarchy of...as those of September 11, 2001, should be punitive or legal and should not provoke full altruistic war. The final insight is that the Information...and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic governance. It is characterized by a state‟s right of political self-determination, legal

  16. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent windstorms, toxic smog and persistent radioactive fallout - in short, the combination of conditions that has come to be known as nuclear winter. In brief, the authors' initial results, published in Science in December, 1983, showed that the potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war...are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield nuclear surface bursts and by smoke from city and forest fires ignited by airbursts of all yields. Subsequent studies, based on more powerful models of the general circulation of the earth's atmosphere, have tended to confirm both the validity of the authors' investgative approach and the main thrust of their findings. Most of this article is devoted to reviewing the current state of knowledge on this vital issue

  17. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covey, C.

    1985-01-01

    Global climatic consequences of a nuclear war have, until recently, been assumed to be insignificant compared with the obviously devastating direct effects from blast, heat, and short-term fallout. But a number of investigations carried out over the past few years indicate that climatic impact could actually be severe enough to threaten the global ecosystem significantly, including regions that may not have been directly involved in the war. This change in perception comes as researchers realize that the fires ignited by nuclear explosions would generate so much smoke that, even spread over a large portion of Earth's surface, densities could be high enough to block most of the sunlight normally reaching the ground. As a result, temperatures could decrease below freezing in a nuclear winter lasting weeks to months. Smoke from fires is what would make nuclear winter so severe. Of necessity, theoretical models are relied upon to estimate the climatic impact of nuclear war. The models incorporate many uncertain assumptions, particularly regarding the small-scale details of smoke production by fires

  18. Post Gulf War oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the spin-offs from the Gulf War will be a change in the old order within OPEC. With Iraq and Kuwait production stopped because of the war, output from OPEC countries is around 23.5 million barrels per day compared with about 20 million last August before the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. It is reported that there are some 225 to 235 million barrels of oil in inventory, worldwide, above normal levels. As seen in the accompanying graph, oil prices have drifted back to about the same level as in March 1990 from the wartime high of nearly $40/bbl. Before the invasion, Saudi Arabia's quota was 5.4 million bbls per day. Since then, Saudi has pumped at 7.7 to 7.9 bbls per day with plans to reactivate shut-in wells which will bring production capability to 10 million bbls per day. Other OPEC countries are at maximum capacity and some, Venezuela, for example, are also in the process of expanding production. This article discusses the effect of the war on the future oil supply, other countries' response to Iraq oil production, and prediction of possible oil price response

  19. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited.

  20. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  1. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  2. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  3. The War of Ideas: An Abandoned Front in the Global War on Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allegretti, Joseph A

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the United States is losing the "war of ideas." The U.S. Department of State is the lead agency for strategic communications in the war of ideas, as distinguished from the U.S...

  4. The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War: An Analysis Using the Principles of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glazer, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War provides the operational commander with an excellent opportunity to examine the importance of the application, or misapplication, of the principles of war in a conflict...

  5. The physicians and the nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper shows that a lot of physicians in the world are worried about a new nuclear war and they created the International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War. The main objectives of the IPPNNW are to amplify the public or people knowledge of the medical aspects of the nuclear war and promote and coordinate researches about the medical and psychological effects of the nuclear weapon race. (author)

  6. What is New in New Wars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    it is appropriate to briefly summarize classical war theory. Many theorists and practitioners have studied war. Plato , Thucydides, Sun Tzu, Jomini and... rational purpose, where pride reigns, where emotions are paramount and where instinct is king.13 War is also a place where we are prevented from...be associated with the existence of societies or states, of state interests and of rational and irrational calculation on how they may be achieved

  7. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  8. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0480 TITLE: Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D...Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0480 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ashok K...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific

  9. Hybrid Wars: Israel’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Grachikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to summarize the experience of Israel in the fight against non-traditional threats, which escalated into a hybrid war. Feature of these wars lies in the fact that they are usually conducted between Western and non-Western countries in the border and poorly controlled space. West opponents favor alliances and associations of non-Western countries and non-state actors. In this case, to justify the war, the norms of international law are used.

  10. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the head...

  11. Russian deserters of World War I

    OpenAIRE

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-01-01

    Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion sca...

  12. Food and War in Herodotus’ Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the way Herodotus relates food and war in his work. In the first part we consider the economic causes of war, those related to populations’ food supplies. In the second part we focus on the role of food in a war scenario. In spite of the great relevance given by Herodotus in the construction of his war narratives to the characters of kings and generals, the Greek historian is perfectly aware of the economic implications the military conflicts usually have throughout the history of mankind.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_7

  13. America’s Longest War – the War on Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrwisz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The problem of using illicit drugs in the United States, which is the largest drug consumer in the world, is an important and controversial subject. The prohibition, which aimed to eliminate alcohol from the American society, ended in a failure. In the case of federal drug legislation, the first acts appeared exactly one hundred years ago. The next, intense phase began in 1970 during the presidency of Richard Nixon, when the war on drugs has been declared. Until this day, the number of acts a...

  14. The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…

  15. “The War Took Its Origins in a Mistake”: The Third War of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The early colonial wars on the Cape Colony's eastern borderlands and western Xhosaland, such as the 1799–1803 war, have not received as much attention from military historians as the later wars. This is unexpected since this lengthy conflict was the first time the British army fought indigenous people in southern Africa.

  16. "The Masters of War": Finding Ways to Talk about the First World War Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This article sets out to challenge conventional descriptions and explanations of war and teaching about war. It draws on raw data from three qualitative arts-based projects to illustrate the complexity of cognitive and affective understandings of the place of war, past, present and future, through the jarring dissonance of "mash-up"--a…

  17. Clinical Evaluation of a Proposed New Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levine, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Thus far, studies on Gulf War veterans have not defined any syndrome specific to deployed Gulf War veterans, but have only suggested that Persian Gulf War veterans have a higher frequency of a number...

  18. Women of Valor in the American Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerman, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    .... At the outset of the war, more women were forced into working in factories or for the government, not only to support the war effort but also to provide for the family when the husband was at war...

  19. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  20. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  1. Polemological Paradigm of Hybrid War Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Dodonov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the methodological problems and manipulative mechanisms of hybrid warfare. Owing to the polemological (from πολέμιος — war and λόγος — study approach the authors managed to systematize and summarize the theories of war and peace, clarify contemporary western concepts of warfare, outline the specifi cs of the Russian view on the hybrid war concept, assess the signifi cance of information and manipulation technologies for hybrid wars, analyze a number of geopolitical and socio-cultural dimensions of modern hybrid wars. The polemology is a branch of science, which studies the nature of armed confl icts and wars, their role in time and space, cycles, intensity, scope, scale, and causative relations and their classifi cation. Polemology deals with the wars and armed confl icts of the past, present and future. Novel hybrid wars take a respective place among them. They involve using all available warfare, regular and irregular, cyber and those allowing for the use of weapons of mass destruction, and also information, psychological and propaganda war using the latest information and media technologies. According to the classical approach, the state is the only subject of military actions, but today its role has changed dramatically under the infl uence of other political and economic supranational and trans-border factors. For the purpose of studying wars and armed confl icts from the polemological perspective it means the need to focus on social changes in all the areas of human life, on considering various elements of the political, economic or even technological context, which infl uence the war as a social phenomenon.

  2. Medicine and nuclear war - helpless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    At the end of the ''2nd Medical Congress for the Prevention of Nuclear War'' attention is again drawn to the fact that erroneous or intended use of nuclear weapons can kill hundreds of millions and make the earth unlivable. What physicians are refusing here is not to give whatever help they can or are obliged to. They are on strike against politicians and journalists who ascribe them an ability they do not possess. They refuse to be the objects of false praise pretending that they could be helpers or rescuers in the, unfortunately, not only possible but probable nuclear catastrophe. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Icons and Emoticons: Screen Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Duerfahrd, Lance

    2015-01-01

    The cinema is being upstaged by a device paradoxically meant (in part) to transmit it: the iPhone. How do films change, how is their impact altered, when viewed on these devices? What aspects of the movie screen (and subsequently our movie experience) are lost or threatened when they are displaced by this new technological format? This is not an abstract war: it is going on (in the dark) every time we attend a screening. My paper will explore what is at stake in our decision to illuminate our...

  4. When War Rigs the Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of intrastate conflict on electoral manipulation. Using a rationalist bargaining model, it produces a hypothesis stating that actors in post-conflict elections will have increased incentive to reallocate seats through manipulation. To test this causal claim a new...... % seat threshold critical for obtaining absolute majority, the intensity of intrastate conflict before each election exhibits a large, positive jump right at the cut-off. This is interpreted as evidence of conflict having a substantial, manipulation-inducing effect on the largest parties in parliament...... – in the aftermath of war they tend to tamper with election results in order to gain absolute majority....

  5. The threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report aims to describe the present threat of nuclear war, with particular reference to New Zealand, and the increasing concern felt by many scientists, from a scientific viewpoint but in non-technical language. It surveys what is known about nuclear weapons and the consequences of their use, and attention is drawn to the importance of penetrating the language and examining the assumptions made in the propaganda about n uclear deterrence . The tasks involved in maintaining the present peace and attempting to establish an agreed disarmament is examined. The report pays particular attention to the roles of scientists in these endeavours

  6. Atoms for war or peace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forland, A.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear reactor built in Norway was a 100 kW experimental reactor which was put into operation at Kjeller in 1951. After the Ministry of Defence had granted 5 millions Nkr for the purpose of building a small research reactor, Institutt for atomenergi was established in 1947. The planning of the project took place at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. The main purpose of this study is to explain why a small power like Norway went ahead with a nuclear reactor project at the outset of the post-war period: How was it possible for Norway to undertake nuclear energy research, and what were the reasons for doing it?

  7. The Second Schleswig War 1864. Prelude, Events and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Ole; Adriansen, Inge

    The Second Schleswig War 1864 offers a reader-friendly overview of the prelude to the war, the events of the war itself, and its wide-ranging, long-lasting consequences.......The Second Schleswig War 1864 offers a reader-friendly overview of the prelude to the war, the events of the war itself, and its wide-ranging, long-lasting consequences....

  8. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Suzy Kim

    2015-01-01

    While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran) during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. T...

  9. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  10. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  11. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  12. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  13. Conference on disarmament: prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Australia's Ambassador for Disarmament urges the Conference to establish an appropriate means for ensuring that practical work under Item 3 - the prevention of nuclear war - is carried out. The text of the Australian reply to the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the prevention of nuclear war follows the Ambassador's speech

  14. Widespread after-effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive fallout and depletion of the ozone layer, once believed catastrophic consequences of nuclear war, are now proved unimportant in comparison to immediate war damage. Today, ''nuclear winter'' is claimed to have apocalyptic effects. Uncertainties in massive smoke production and in meteorological phenomena give reason to doubt this conclusion. (author)

  15. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end…

  16. My service in the Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losicki, M.

    1991-01-01

    During the Gulf War author, as a member of Polish Medical Mission, worked in the Saudi Military Hospital in the King Khalid Military Centre. An article describes radiologist service on a conventional contemporary war, as well as 3 cases of medical treatment. 5 figs

  17. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...... are identified, including Bolivia, Botswana, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turkey....

  18. Naval War College Review. Autumn 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Almanacco Navale 1988. Genoa, Italy: Institute Idrografico Della Marina, 1988. 1092pp. $59 These two large volumes are awesome compilations of data and...surging west to escape the Russians. This is a story of war eloquently told. Semmlec, Kenneth, ed. The War Despatches of Kenneth Slessor. St. Lucia

  19. Mental health in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses mental health problems in populations in nonwestern war-affected regions, and methods to mitigate these problems through interventions focusing on social reintegration. It describes a number of studies among war-affected populations in widely different areas: refugees from the

  20. Teaching World War I from Multiple Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)

  1. Creative Chaos: Learning from the Yugoslavian War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to understand more about the continued learning process of those who have experienced negative life experiences. This paper focuses on the various issues of learning and living through war, specifically encounters from the war in former Yugoslavia. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to understand lessons learned by…

  2. The Vietnam War and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the author's contribution to the Center for Social Studies Education curriculum on the Vietnam War. Focuses on "How the War Was Reported," a unit which raises four questions concerning the responsibilities of the government and the press for keeping the public informed. Encourages use of the curriculum in teaching about the…

  3. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  4. Private Military Contractors, War Crimes and International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The end of the Cold War witnessed the growth and spread of legally established private military contractors (PMCs) playing largely undefined roles in wars, international security and post-conflict reconstruction. The operations of PMCs in Iraq and Afghanistan in the 21st century have been marked by gross human rights ...

  5. Museums and the Representation of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Winter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Museums are the cathedrals of the twenty-first century, in that they have filled the void left by the conventional churches as a site in which mixed populations of different faiths or no faith at all, of different origins and beliefs, confront and meditate on sacred themes – sacrifice, death, mourning, evil, brotherhood, dignity, transcendence.1 War not only belongs in museums; war dominates museum space in much of the public representation of history and will continue to do so. That being so, it is the task of war museums to persuade visitors to pose the question: how can war be represented? While there is no adequate answer to this question, museum professionals must try to answer it anyway with a large dose of humility. By avoiding the didactic mode, that is, that they know the answer and will present it to the visitors, they can perform a major public service. By admitting the magnitude of the problems inherent in trying to represent war, and through it, trying to represent the pain of others, museum directors and designers fulfil a critical social task. Knowing about war is the business of an informed citizenship, and museums are those sites where moral questions are posed, questions inevitably raised about war, questions about sacrifice, suffering, brotherhood, courage, love, recovery, transcendence. Museums enable visitors to pose these enduring questions, by converting war time into museum space.

  6. Gunshot Wounds of the South Mrican War*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-09

    Oct 9, 1971 ... of the wounds which were to be caused by the Mauser and. Lee-Metford ... Trojan War and at the beginning of the Christian era, when it was written ..... 9 Oktober 1971. The South African War was the first, and probably the.

  7. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999, rests on research toward a new history of Australians and the South African war commissioned by ... "spontaneity": the Australian offers of troops for the Boer war', Historical Studies. 18(70) Apr ...... 'People come out of that movie', said Jack Thompson, an actor in it;. 'saying "Fuck ... A documentary due for release soon ...

  8. PEACE, WAR AND AFTERWARDS 1914 TO 1919

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World War (and even fewer have been published) Peace, War and Afterwards is a most welcome publication. Through Wade's letters to his mother the reader gets to know him as a young man who initially takes a rather light-hearted view of travelling to England tojoin the British army. His decision to enlist was motivated by ...

  9. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Although considerable further research has been conducted since the writing of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) study, the main conclusions reached in early 1986 about the potential climatic, atmospheric, chemical, ecological, and agricultural consequences of a nuclear war are still valid, also taking into account the latest research results by Thompson and Schneider (1986). The main finding of the SCOPE study is that severe, large-scale, possibly global, climatic disturbances could result from a nuclear war in which a substantial fraction (10% or more) of the combustible materials in the NATO and Warsaw Pact nations would burn, producing several tens of million tonnes of soot. This could be caused by nuclear attacks on less than a hundred of the most important urban and industrial centres of these nations. As a consequence, it is estimated that surface temperatures might drop by more than 10 deg. C over a large fraction of the continents in the northern hemisphere and that rainfall could also be strongly reduced. These effects could last for weeks, maybe years. In many parts of the northern hemisphere agricultural productivity would be severely reduced, contributing to serious food shortages. 37 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Currency Wars: Myth and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Bartashuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the term "currency war", its meaning and the present situation in the world economy. It also contains research and analysis of HSBC's operations in different countries in the devaluation race grouping them according to the participation in currency wars. Along with the benefits of the devaluation of its own currency the actual disadvantages that may reveal afterwards have been identified. This article highlights the different versions of events put forward by the experts in the global economy and analysts. The authors mention the possible problems of ordinary citizens in case of their country's aggressive policy to reduce their national currency. The behavior of the Russian ruble was also discussed in detail according to which the recommendations were given to depositors of banks about their future action in the circumstances. Devaluation race in any case cannot be completed safely but it is possible to avoid excessive losses if the countries achieve international agreement by establishing a new currency regime.

  11. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Arthur G

    2015-10-01

    The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points), the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion.

  12. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur G. Shapiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points, the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion.

  13. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  14. Active war in Sri Lanka: Children's war exposure, coping, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, Champika K; Azar, Sandra T

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to active war is understudied among Sinhalese children in Sri Lanka. We investigated PTSD symptom severity in children using child (n = 60) and mother (n = 60) reports; child-reported war exposure and coping; as well as self-reported maternal PTSD symptom severity. The study addressed active war in 2 rural locations (acute and chronic community war exposure). Child-reports were significantly greater than mother-reports of child PTSD symptom severity. Furthermore, children's war exposure, child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity, and maternal PTSD symptom severity were significantly greater in the acute versus chronic community war exposure location, but children's approach and avoidance coping did not significantly differ, indicating a potential ceiling effect. Children's war exposure significantly, positively predicted child-reported child PTSD symptom severity, controlling for age, gender, and maternal PTSD symptom severity, but only maternal PTSD symptom severity significantly, positively predicted mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity. Avoidance coping (in both acute and chronic war) significantly positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported child PTSD symptom severity relation, but not mother-reports of the same. Approach coping (in chronic but not acute war) significantly, positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity relations. We advanced the literature on long-term active war by confirming the value of children's self-reports, establishing that both approach and avoidance coping positively mediated the war-exposure-PTSD symptom severity relation, and that the mediation effect of approach coping was situationally moderated by acute verses chronic community war exposure among Sri Lankan children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Great war, ethics of Vidovdan, memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with a characterization of contemporaneity (dominance of the financial sector and high technology, politicization of economy, ideological use of culture and control of the capacity for thought and a brief analysis of expansionism (political, economic, cultural on the eve of the Great War, the author embarks on a more detailed description of the spiritual situation in the wake of the Great War: in philosophy, literature, art, as well as the national-political programmatic texts and war propaganda publications of German intellectuals of the time. The continuity of the Austro-Hungarian colonial policy towards the Balkans and Serbia culminates in instigating a preventive war against Serbia by the elites in Berlin and Vienna, which is of importance with regard to the question of responsibility for the war, guided by concrete aims of war in which causes for war are reflected. These war elites wanted to declare the assassination in Sarajevo as the cause of war, which in fact was a political assassination and tyrannicide. The freedom movement of democratic youth, Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia, needs to be viewed in the European context as inspired by the Serbian tradition of the cult of Kosovo and the ethics of Vidovdan (St Vitus' Day which speaks both about the victim's sacrifice as sublimation of history and about just suffering as elements of identity. Historical memory suggests that historical responsibility is transgenerational. The epic proportions of Serbian suffering in the Great War have additionally encouraged the positing of the theme of St Vitus' Day Temple (Vidovdanski Hram as envisaged by Ivan Meštrović. The foundations of this idea were shaken by Miloš Crnjanski who, in his 'Lyrics of Ithaca', succeeds in returning to Vidovdan (St Vitus' Day the inexhaustible national power of validity. Because of enormous Serbian military and civilian casualties in recent history, the need to establish a Victim's Sacrifice Memorial, in our day

  16. Three Generations, Three Wars: African American Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K

    2016-02-01

    This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Clean to dirty limit and T c suppression in NdFeAsO0.7F0.3 studied by H c2 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallecchi, I.; Tarantini, C.; Shen, Y.; Singh, R. K.; Newman, N.; Cheng, P.; Jia, Y.; Wen, H.-H.; Putti, M.

    2018-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, dH c2/dT, in an increasingly disordered NdFeAsO0.7F0.3 (NdFeAs(O,F)) single crystal that has been progressively irradiated up to a 5.25 × 1016 cm- 2 total α-particle dose. For the H∣∣ab-plane, dH c2/dT does not vary remarkably with irradiation, while for the H∣∣c-axis it increases sharply after the first irradiation of 3.60 × 1015 cm-2 and then more gradually with further irradiation doses. Focusing on the H∣∣c-axis, we develop a phenomenological analysis of the H c2 slope which allows us to inspect the crossover from the clean to the dirty regime. From the H c2 slope normalized to the critical temperature and to its clean limit value, we extract the ratio of the coherence length ξ BCS to the mean free path {\\ell } and we find that when T c is reduced by a factor of four from its pristine value, ξ BCS/{\\ell } becomes as large as ˜7 and {\\ell } reaches values of ˜1.8 nm, indicating that NdFeAs(O,F) is well into the dirty regime. Our analysis of the H c2 slope also allows us to compare the pair-breaking effectiveness of scattering in different superconductors, showing similarity between unconventional NdFeAs(O,F) and moderate-T c phonon-mediated devices, such as MgB2 and A15 compounds, but much a stronger difference with YBa2Cu3O7-δ . This work thus shows that dH c2/dT is a reliable parameter, providing an alternative to residual resistivity, for investigating the pair-breaking mechanism induced by impurity scattering in superconductors.

  18. Mau Mau War: British Counterinsurgency In Colonial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    supporters. 92 Colin P. Clarke, Molly Dunigan, Beth Grill, and Christopher Paul, Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies (Washington, DC: RAND...labor pool for imperial dirty work, the decision to deputize untrained and ill-disciplined volunteers backfired. A third example of how British

  19. Association of Islamic Prayer with Psychological Stability in Bosnian War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajević, Izet; Sinanović, Osman; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2017-12-01

    To compare the outcomes among war veterans who pray/do not pray and who were not suffering mental disorders after the Bosnia-Herzegovina war (1992-95). The sample consists of 100 healthy Bosnian war veterans divided in two equal groups-one, a highly religious group inside which were individuals who perform five obligatory prayers every day, and another group of individuals who do not practice any daily prayer. We used Minnesota Multiphase Personal Inventory (MMPI), Profile Index of Emotions (PIE) and Life Style Questionnaire (LSQ). War veterans who prayed had significantly higher levels for: incorporation, self-protection, and for reactive formation; but significantly lower levels for regression, compensation, transfer, no-controlling, oppositional and aggressiveness than their peers who did not pray. Practicing religion (regular performing daily prayers) is associated with reduction of tendencies towards the tendency for risk, impulsiveness, and aggression. It is also associated with successful overcoming of emotional conflicts in war veterans who practiced religion than their peers who did not practice religion.

  20. Dirty money: an investigation into the hygiene status of some of the world's currencies as obtained from food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesekoop, Frank; Russell, Cryn; Alvarez-Mayorga, Beatriz; Aidoo, Kofi; Yuan, Qipeng; Scannell, Amalia; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jiang, Xiuping; Barro, Nicolas; Otokunefor, Kome; Smith-Arnold, Cheralee; Heap, Amy; Chen, Jing; Iturriage, Montserat H; Hazeleger, Wilma; DeSlandes, Jenny; Kinley, Brandon; Wilson, Kieran; Menz, Garry

    2010-12-01

    A total of 1280 banknotes were obtained from food outlets in 10 different countries (Australia, Burkina Faso, China, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States), and their bacterial content was enumerated. The presence of bacteria on banknotes was found to be influenced by the material of the notes, and there was a strong correlation between the number of bacteria per square centimeter and a series of indicators of economic prosperity of the various countries. The strongest correlation was found with the "index of economic freedom," indicating that the lower the index value, the higher the typical bacterial content on the banknotes in circulation. Other factors that appear to influence the number of bacteria on banknotes were the age of the banknotes and the material used to produce the notes (polymer-based vs. cotton-based). The banknotes were also screened for the presence of a range of pathogens. It was found that pathogens could only be isolated after enrichment and their mere presence does not appear to be alarming. In light of our international findings, it is recommended that current guidelines as they apply in most countries with regard to the concurrent hygienic handling of foods and money should be universally adopted. This includes that, in some instances, the handling of food and money have to be physically separated by employing separate individuals to carry out one task each; whereas in other instances, it could be advantageous to handle food only with a gloved hand and money with the other hand. If neither of these precautions can be effectively implemented, it is highly recommended that food service personnel practice proper hand washing procedures after handling money and before handling food.

  1. The great war and the cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burns

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films made thereafter, since such stories have elements that a mass audience, many of whom had fathers, sons, husbands, brothers, etc. in the military, can actually identify with. As propaganda, such movies—and this would be the case with the Second World War even more—may serve an important political end, by arguably having a much greater influence on public consciousness than official government propaganda, which usually arouses more suspicion. In fact, the US government during both world wars would make a direct appeal to Hollywood producers.

  2. Dermot Bolger’s Ghosting the War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kędzierska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermot Bolger’s Walking the Road (2007 is a tribute to Francis Ledwidge (1887–1917, one of the greatest Irish poets of the First World War. Focusing on the life and afterlife of Ledwidge who, as depicted in Bolger’s play, emblematizes the condition of other Great War combatants doomed to oblivion, this essay, concerned with the various functions of the deployment of ghosts in Bolger’s drama, argues that spectrality can become an effective means of revealing the plight of the war dead: the unremembered, whose names were effectively erased from public memory and who, thus turned into homeless revenants, were forced into a continual involvement in the war from which they cannot escape, even after death. As a spectral witness who moves between pre-war Ireland and the world of the trenches, Bolger’s hero makes one aware how similar these realities are. Furthermore, as a classic case of shell shock, he demonstrates the role of haunting in the narrative of trauma, identity and memory. Last but not least, whilst enhancing the gothic dimension of the war, Frank’s perceptions, as well as his spectral discourse, not only contribute significantly to illuminating the enigma which he personified, but, by providing an insight into his search for himself, they convey the plight of truth seekers who grasp, yet never fully encompass the Irish experience of the war.

  3. World war against our will

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.

    1981-01-01

    Corresponding to the topic under investigation, i.e. referring to the two-pronged decision of the NATO consisting of the modernization of TNF and the offer for arms control, the present study is structured as a balance of forces analysis, embedded into the theory and practice of the cooperative Ruestungssteuerung (arms control), and aiming at the analyses of the risk and prevention of war in the Euronuclear field. The two leading questions of the investigation are: 1. Does the WTO in fact have a dangerous military superiority in the TNF sector which had required the NATO decision of the modernization of TNF in 1979 without delay and, in particular, without previous arms control negotiations. 2. Can, as a general principle independent a so of the answer to the preciding question - an increase of nuclear intermediate range missiles be identified with more strategic stability and security even at the beginning of the eighties. (orig./HP) [de

  4. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... wedged between two irreconcilable identities, divisions threatened to derail this already enfeebled grouping. Yet leaders of the community, presuming a common Britishness with the Falkland Islanders and Britons in the United Kingdom, sought to intervene in the conflict by reaching out to both...

  5. Dismantling the Cold War economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markusen, A.; Yudkin, J.

    1992-01-01

    End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a large military production sector has depleted the civilian economy of key resources and has preempted creation of the kind of broad-base civilian-oriented industrial policies needed for economic revitalization. The second is that a large military production sector creates barriers to the movement of resources. The third is that economic depletion and the barriers to moving resources to civilian production make conversion planning essential. This book explains why conversion is difficult, but offers only a few pages of specific conversion proposals

  6. State Policy Against Information War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shibaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and effective method to resolve aconflict between countries is information war. Information warfare, i.e. propaganda, information sabotage, blackmail, could be more damaging than the effects of the traditional methods of war. The government must be prepared to prevent and counteract the bleeding-edge techniques of warfare that is to work out measures, to oppose enemy’s information weapons , to gain information superiority , to develop a society thatis immune to disinformation, to elaborate a concept of information warfare counteraction.The authors have examined both foreign and Russian sources of law which define the requirements for the government activities to oppose information warfare. They also refer to the opinions of foreign and Russian researchers, politicians and public figures who have commented on the concept and features of such political and legal constructs as information warfare and information weapons. The problem of information warfare must be identified as a profoundly serious and damaging threat. This paper provides the features of information warfare and the methods to resist it as well as the proposals to amend the domestic legislation to create conditions for an accurate understanding of this political and legal phenomenon. In addition, it points out that the amendment of the Information Security Doctrine is not sufficient to counterbalance the threat of information warfare. In a certain document it is necessary to recount all notions, requirements and methods for the government actions aimed to gradually change the situation, particularly, the development of sectoral (information security legislation, specialists training to be able to deal with informational and psychological aggression forming public opinion through the government-run mass media, etc.

  7. Applications of Depleted Uranium in the first and second Persian Gulf Wars: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Behrouzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of natural uranium enrichment process. Its unique characteristics (e.g. high density caused to use in civilian and military fields extensively. In the military fields, DU is used in the bullets and projectiles war hats. The munitions containing DU were used in the recent wars, more strikingly in the Middle East region (first and second Persian Gulf wars, and Afghanistan. Due to its biological impacts, this study aimed to assess biological effects of DU using scientometrics by investigating papers indexed in Pubmed from 1990-2008, to reveal the number and type of articles and also the important dimensions of DU biological impacts as well as the core issues. Methods: In this descriptive epidemiologic study, quantitative methods (counting frequency of words and scientometrics were used. Sample size was the total of the articles indexed in Pubmed during 1991- 2008, containing the terms "Gulf War" and "Depleted Uranium" in their title or keywords. Results: The most compromised body systems were urinary, nervous and cardiovascular. Other systems such as endocrine, musculoskeletal, immune and respiratory were also mentioned. Conclusion: Highly controversial results which have been stated in the surveyed articles about DU biological and environmental impacts caused the authors to recommend long term investigations for assessing its effects on recurrence to reveal potential late effects of DU.

  8. Russian deserters of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diffi cult fights, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in different years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - flight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.

  9. Prevalence of Gulf war veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome: questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalder, T; Hotopf, M; Unwin, C; Hull, L; Ismail, K; David, A; Wessely, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine how many veterans in a random sample of British veterans who served in the Gulf war believe they have “Gulf war syndrome,” to examine factors associated with the presence of this belief, and to compare the health status of those who believe they have Gulf war syndrome with those who do not. Design Questionnaire study asking British Gulf war veterans whether they believe they have Gulf war syndrome and about symptoms, fatigue, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, physical functioning, and their perception of health. Participants 2961 respondents to questionnaires sent out to a random sample of 4250 Gulf war veterans (69.7%). Main outcome measure The proportion of veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome. Results Overall, 17.3% (95% confidence interval 15.9 to 18.7) of the respondents believed they had Gulf war syndrome. The belief was associated with the veteran having poor health, not serving in the army when responding to the questionnaire, and having received a high number of vaccinations before deployment to the Gulf. The strongest association was knowing another person who also thought they had Gulf war syndrome. Conclusions Substantial numbers of British Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndrome, which is associated with psychological distress, a high number of symptoms, and some reduction in activity levels. A combination of biological, psychological, and sociological factors are associated with the belief, and these factors should be addressed in clinical practice. What is already known on this topicThe term Gulf war syndrome has been used to describe illnesses and symptoms experienced by veterans of the 1991 Gulf warConcerns exist over the validity of Gulf war syndrome as a unique entityWhat this study adds17% of Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndromeHolding the belief is associated with worse health outcomesKnowing someone else who believes they have Gulf war syndrome and receiving

  10. 38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periods of war. 3.2..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.2 Periods of war. This section sets forth the beginning and ending dates of each war period beginning with the Indian wars. Note that the term...

  11. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form MA-240...

  12. The Implications of Preemptive and Preventive War Doctrines: A Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    geopolitics, ideology , and personality as combining to produce the fatal brew which resulted in 42 years of nuclear shadowed global menace.26 But...preventive war. 49 1. Preventive war is war, and preventive warfare is warfare. It is not a distinctive genus of war and warfare. The distinguishing

  13. A REMF's View of Viet Nam War Literature Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, David A.

    An academic librarian who is a Vietnam War veteran was inspired by the exemplary collection of Vietnam War literature at the Colorado State University Library to begin his own personal collection of mass market paperbacks dealing with the Vietnam War. Although Vietnam War fiction was common on the mass market racks in the mid 1980s, it has been…

  14. War casualties on the home front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  15. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H. CONTRACTING...NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ashok...intestinal symptoms (fatigue, joint pain, insomnia, general stiffness and headache) associated with IBS. All of these symptoms are part of the Gulf War

  16. How to understand the hybrid war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Banasik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the hybrid wars were conducted for centuries, the annexation of the Crimea and the involvement of the Russian Federation in the conflict in the Ukraine calls new discussions over its essence. Evaluation of the theory and practice of the activities carried out by FR indicates that we are dealing with the new generation of war. However, it is not in contradiction with the "Clausewitzian paradigm" of conducting armed struggle, which says that war is merely a continuation of politics by other means. The hybrid actions refer precisely to these measures, whereas the rules of warfare, its nature and objectives are still the same.

  17. The biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents the consensus of a group of biologists on the likely biological effects of a large-scale nuclear war. Such a war would leave, at most, scattered survivors in the Northern Hemisphere. Those survivors would be facing extreme cold, hunger, water shortages, heavy smog and darkness without the support of an organized society. The ecosystems would be severly stressed and changing in ways that can't be predicted. In the Southern Hemisphere, events would depend on the degree of propagation of the atmospheric effects from North to South. People living in those areas will be very strongly affected by the war

  18. The war in Gaza: A humanitarian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed Sathar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Justice, sovereignty and self-determination for all human beings are fundamental foundations for healthcare and human rights. In any civilised society, the balance between medical ethics and human rights is critical for the delivery of healthcare. War is a deeply ethical issue. Combatants, whose violations of international conventions, laws and codes of ethics during war and political conflict are detrimental to civilian non-combatants, including healthcare workers, commit crimes against humanity. The war in Gaza is a humanitarian crisis.

  19. Invisible Infantry: Mexicans in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Plasencia de la Parra

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the  participation of Mexican  and  Mexican- American troops in the United States army during World War II. Recruiting, discrimination, their  role  in the  armed forces  and their reinsertion into society once the war ended, are examined. Special emphasis is placed  on the  Hispanics  fight for their  civil and political rights that was carried on very actively by many War veterans.

  20. The FARC a way into new wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Valencia Grajales

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This text, first comparing the FARC with the texts of Mao Tse-Tung, Strategic Issues in Guerrilla War Against Japan, with Diana Hernández Hoyos, International Humanitarian Law: How and why to apply international humanitarian law to the law and the internal conflict in Colombia, also Mary Kaldor, New Wars, Chapter 2 and 3, with Peter Waldman and Fernando Reinares, in companies in the Civil War, Chapter 1 and 3, and also that of Eduardo Pizarro Leon Gomez. The FARC, Defense to the Combination of All Forms of Struggle. Chapter 1, second in the comparisons were attempted an analysis of the historical circumstances, to finely make conclusions

  1. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  2. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  3. "In war, not everyone's a soldier." A Review of This War of Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ecenbarger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article works to critically engage This War of Mine as a radically different style of war game that is rarely seen today. War games often glorify what it means to be in battle and have the player, essentially, saving their country or the world. This War of Mine, on the other hand, puts the player in the role of a survivor, someone simply trying to make it through the turmoil. This article examines the ways in which the game creates empathy for the avatar through aesthetic and narrative devices.

  4. Bringing the Stories Home: Wafaa Bilal’s War on the Public Narrative of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to examine some artistic representations that persuade us to read the complexity of the narratives of war. To focus this issue, we will analyze Wafaa Bilal’s Domestic Tension exhibition, work which could be defined as a translation of war self-experience into an artistic frame. In this context Domestic Tension configures a space to examine the effects of war violence in modern societies. Under this perspective, art become more than a simple and empty representation of war, but further more the only possible response to human violence.

  5. Torn between war and peace: Critiquing the use of war to mobilize peaceful climate action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, Johannes; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2017-01-01

    Notable studies have suggested the potentiality of the WWII wartime mobilization as a model for climate change adaptation and/or mitigation. The argument being that we need a similar rapid and total shift in our industrial social and economic environment to prevent or at least address the pending impacts of climate change. This argument and these studies have inspired us to think with them on what it means to use the WWII war analogy as a security claim in energy and climate change debates. Here, we would like to use this opportunity to draw attention to some of the implicit dangers of a call to war in such discussions. Among others we observe, first, the absence of any attention to the actual mobilization policies, in terms of garnishing public support. Second, based on the insights from Critical Security Studies, we question the historical incongruence of the case study especially by comparing the perceived enemy in both cases. Lastly, building on that same security literature, we point to some undesirable and perhaps unintended consequences of the use of war analogies in climate change debates. - Highlights: • The WWII war analogy with its policy focus extends the war metaphor in climate change debates. • As a mobilization technique the analogy draws attention to the WWII policies that “sold” the war. • We provide several reasons why the war analogy is incongruent with climate change. • The war analogy remains subject to the dangers that accompany the use of a war metaphor.

  6. The Notion of a "Pre-emptive War:" the Six Day War Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtulus, Ersun N

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a critical assessment of the widespread conceptualization of the June 1967 War between Israel and its neighboring Arab states as a pre-emptive war both in academic and non-academic writing. Tracing the origins of the notion of pre-emptive war to international law, the article identifies three necessary conditions for such a war to be classified as pre-emptive: acute crisis combined with high alert levels; vulnerable offensive weapons; and strategic parity as regards to of...

  7. Nordic Narratives of the Second World War : National Historiographies Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    How have the dramatic events of the Second World War been viewed in the Nordic countries? In Nordic Narratives of the Second World War, leading Nordic historians analyse post-war memory and historiography. They explore the relationship between scholarly and public understandings of the war. How have national interpretations been shaped by official security-policy doctrines? And in what way has the end of the Cold War affected the Nordic narratives? The authors not only present the ...

  8. Increased Postdeployment Use of Medication for Common Mental Disorders in Danish Gulf War Veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev Gabriel; Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gulf War veterans (GWVs) have an elevated risk of reporting symptoms of mental disorders as compared with nondeployed military controls. A difficulty in the Gulf War health research is that most health outcomes are self-reported; therefore, it is highly relevant to study objective....../hypnotic medication, and (3) number of postdeployment psychiatric contacts. The association between outcomes and GWVs status was studied by using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until December 31, 2014...... and anxiolytic or hypnotic medicine among GWVs compared with NVs were rather surprising since we recently, by using the same study population, found that deployment to the Persian Gulf was not associated with increased sickness absence or reduced labor market attachment. However, our results indicate...

  9. The Gulf War: A Critical Essay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzu, Sun

    1992-01-01

    This essay, written by the famous Chinese military theoretician, Sun Tzu, proposes a thesis that ought to provoke considerable discussion among theoreticians in training at the National War College...

  10. Turkish Independence War and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru‑Nicolae Cucu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Great Powers came to take the control of its territories. Having a strategic position at the southern gate of Europe, all of Turkish lands were very important for the First World War winners, both to secure European borders and to develop the trade between Europe and Middle East. On the other side, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk command, a new Turkey with a strong nationalist way decided to fight for emancipating. Winning the war with the Great Powers not only in a military way, but also from a diplomatic perspective, the new Turkey became a modern regional power, having institutions and laws that assured its prosperity and security. Taking into consideration the independence war evolution, this paper wants also to show the diplomatic capability of Turkish leaders to balance between powers involved in the region.

  11. Humanity cannot survive a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author documents the unprecedented disaster that a nuclear war would wreak. He and his colleagues conclude that a nuclear war may mean the end of the human species. The environment that will confront most human beings and other organisms after a thermonuclear holocaust will be so altered, and so malign, that extreme and widespread damage to living systems is inevitable. It is, for example, entirely possible that the biological impacts of a war, apart from those resulting directly from a blast, fire, and prompt radiation, could result in the end of civilization in the Northern Hemisphere. The author's primary task in this paper is to give some technical background to explain why numerous biologists, especially ecologists, are convinced that decision-makers in many nations vastly underrate the potential risks of nuclear war

  12. War And Reconstruction: Four Comparative Case Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four case studies are taken from four different continents, four different wars under .... and revolutionary changes in the structures and power relations in society and ..... general public accept nowadays that although states' rights were the ...

  13. Chinese National Strategy of Total War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Good, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    ... concept of total warfare. This research seeks to determine if China is currently engaged in a total war with the United States across nontraditional forms of conflict including economic, political, information, financial...

  14. Gas Warfare in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintham, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)

  15. Clausewitz, nonlinearity, and the unpredictability of war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerchen, A.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the frequent invocations of his name in recent years, especially during the Gulf War, there is something deeply perplexing about the work of Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831). In particular, his unfinished magnum opus On War seems to offer a theory of war, at the same time that is perversely denies many of the fundamental preconditions of theory as such - simplification, generalization and prediction, among others. The book continues to draw the attention of both soldiers and theorists of war, although soldiers often find the ideas of Clausewitz too philosophical to appear practical, while analysts usually find his thoughts too empirical to seem elegant. Members of both groups sense that there is too much truth in what he writes to ignore him. Yet, as the German historian Hans Rothfels has bluntly put it, Clausewitz is an author 'more quoted than actually read.' 84 refs

  16. INTERNAL WARS: RETHINKING PROBLEM AND RESPONSE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max

    2001-01-01

    ...)--are the most pervasive and likely type of conflict in the post-Cold War era. It is almost certain that the United States will become involved directly or indirectly in some of these conflicts...

  17. The World Wide Web of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Modern communications, combined with the near instantaneous publication of information on the World Wide Web, are providing the means to dramatically affect the pursuit, conduct, and public opinion of war on both sides...

  18. December 2004 - 38 War Wounds with Fractures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... War Wounds With Fractures: The ICRC Experience. East and Central ... limbs, the remaining 30% have central wounds involving head, chest or abdomen. The longer .... holding, especially for the lower limb. It can be used for ...

  19. Atmospheric effects of a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birks, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: nuclear war scenario (assumptions of size and place of explosions); fires; urban and forest fires; smoke and soot; darkness; meteorological and climatic effects; photochemical smog; ozone shield depletion; conclusions. (U.K.)

  20. Tolstoy's Mathematics in "War and Peace"

    OpenAIRE

    Vitanyi, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The nineteenth century Russian author Leo Tolstoy based his egalitarian views on sociology and history on mathematical and probabilistic views, and he also proposed a mathematical theory of waging war.

  1. [Give attention to war in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo; Groenewegen, Henk J; Meijman, Frans J

    2009-01-01

    Medical consequences of war are prominent in the media. The United Nations and the World Medical Association have called for medical curricula to permanently include consideration of human rights, in particular human rights in war time. Information on the medical consequences of war and weapon systems is valuable knowledge. Courses on this subject are popular amongst medical students, a considerable number of whom are willing to spend a period working for organisations as the Red Cross, Doctors without Borders or the Military Health Service. In spite of this, none of the Dutch medical faculties has given the subject a permanent place in its curriculum. Gathering knowledge on the medical consequences of war depends completely on the efforts of individuals.

  2. Globalization and the Nature of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, Antulio

    2003-01-01

    ... in economic and political processes-is transforming every aspect of human affairs. What is not yet clear, however, are the impacts of these trends, especially how they might affect the nature of war...

  3. Child psychiatric sequelae of maternal war stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, A

    1985-12-01

    Two cohorts of boys were examined while attending a well-baby clinic and reexamined at the end of the first grade of elementary school. One cohort (n = 57) consisted of boys born in the year of the Six-Day War in 1967. The other cohort was born 2 years later (n = 63). Data on socio-demographic background, early development, behavior at school and at home were obtained from the mothers and the teachers. Statistical analysis showed that the "war children" had significant developmental delays and regressive, non-affiliative and dissocial behavior. The children, who were in their first half year of life at the time of the war, were much more disturbed than those of whom the mothers were pregnant at the time of the war. The findings suggest that a disturbed mother-child relationship existed in the former group.

  4. Anwar Sadat and the 1973 October War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Mel; Bouchard, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... The outcome of the "Six-Day War" of 1967 created an overwhelming feeling of hostility toward Israel by the Arab nations, particularly by the people of Egypt, who felt humiliated and dishonored...

  5. Structural Completeness in The War is Over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that Nina Mimica's The War is Over achieves structural completeness on the basis of a number of choices regarding its visual style: shot scale, shot length, editing style and camera movement.  ar Udgivelsesdato: Autumn...

  6. Sizing Post-Cold War Nuclear Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oelrich, I

    2001-01-01

    This study addresses the utility of, and need for, nuclear weapons a decade after the end of the Cold War with special focus on the numbers and types of nuclear weapons appropriate for particular requirements...

  7. The Chechen War: Another Russian Humiliation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perrin

    2001-01-01

    ...." Thus began the Chechen War in December 1994, sparked by an out-of-control, breakaway republic and fueled by the Kremlin's need to maintain integrity of the Russian Federation and to control strategic resources...

  8. Adaptability - A New Principle of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickerson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... military establishment across a wide spectrum outside of war. These include, but are by no means limited to visioning the future military, weapons development and acquisition, and education of American military leadership...

  9. War and perpetual peace: Hegel, Kant and contemporary war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the views of two classical authors about the possibility of peace and the inevitability of war: Kant and Hegel. The paper will argue that the main lines of these two schools are still alive today in our contemporary international politics. The Kantian school, with the possibility of peace, based on a league of nations, has inspired the creation of the United Nations. The Hegelian way of thinking (there is no judge above the national states, besides the history of the world has proven to be as contemporary as ever, once one analyzes some recent events of the international politics. Both Kantian and Hegelian views have weak and strong points, and it is a difficult task to reconcile both of them in a reasonable international politics. At the end, the paper will present JohnRawls´ doctrine of international politics, as stated in The Laws of Peoples, arguing that this doctrine follows the Kantian tradition of a foedus pacificum, while giving room to some Hegelian philosophical conceptions.

  10. Reconceptualizing the Global War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    when the label war is assigned, the population logically applies, either consciously or subconsciously , the fundamental assumptions of warfare in a...the Nation.” 26 42 Pace, National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism, 7. 43 Robert Gates, “A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the...Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon for a New Age.” 48 Clark A. Murdock et al., Beyond Goldwater-Nichols: Defense Reform for a New Strategic

  11. On immorality of terrorism and war

    OpenAIRE

    Čičovački Predrag

    2003-01-01

    The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others) who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable mora...

  12. Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1982-01-01

    Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nu...

  13. Introduction: Mobilizing Shakespeare During the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Smialkowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This introduction situates this special issue in the context of ongoing debates surrounding the “cultural mobilization” of Shakespeare during the Great War. The key areas of these debates include the degree to which Shakespeare could successfully be appropriated during the war for totalizing – nationalist and imperialist – purposes; the challenges to such appropriations (for instance, from the colonized nations); ideological fractures produced by seeing Shakespeare, simultaneously, as “univer...

  14. [German nurses during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  15. [Order of Malta during First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-06-01

    The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.

  16. Theoreticalaspects ofinformation war and national security

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Shumka; P. H. Chernyk

    2015-01-01

    A wide and comprehensive analysis of methods of conducting information war to create an effective mechanism of counteraction has extremely important significance. Information warfare ­ acts committed to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy due to the impact of information and information systems enemy while ensuring the security of its own information and information systems. Today the term «information war» is used in two areas: in the broadest sense ­ ...

  17. Psychosocial effects of war experiences among displaced children in southern Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgos, Dorothy; Worden, J William; Gupta, Leila

    This study focused on assessing the psychosocial effects of the long standing, high intensity, and guerrilla-style of warfare among displaced children in Southern Darfur. The goal was to better understand the etiology, prognosis, and treatment implications for traumatic reactions, depression, and grief symptoms in this population. Three hundred thirty-one children aged 6-17 from three IDP Camps were selected using a quota sampling approach and were administered a Demographic Questionnaire, Child Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index, Child Depression Inventory, and the Expanded Grief Inventory. Forty-three percent were girls and 57% were boys. The mean age of the children was 12 years. Results found that children were exposed to a very large number of war experiences with no significant differences between genders for types of exposure, including rape, but with older children (13-17 years) facing a larger number of exposures than younger children (6-12 years). Out of the 16 possible war experiences, the mean number was 8.94 (SD = 3.27). Seventy-five percent of the children met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, and 38% exhibited clinical symptoms of depression. The percentage of children endorsing significant levels of grief symptoms was 20%. Increased exposure to war experiences led to higher levels of: (1) traumatic reactions; (2) depression; and (3) grief symptoms. Of the 16 war experiences, abduction, hiding to protect oneself, being raped, and being forced to kill or hurt family members were most predictive of traumatic reactions. Being raped, seeing others raped, the death of a parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the strongest predictors of depressive symptoms. War experiences such as abduction, death of one's parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the most associated with the child's experience of grief. In addition to Total Grief, Traumatic Grief, Existential Grief, and Continuing Bonds

  18. Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Emmy E

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews and reflects on studies that have explored the effects of war on children around the world. Most are cross-sectional and based on self-reports. They describe a range of mental health problems, related to dose effects and to the negative impact of being a victim or witness of violent acts, threats to and loss of loved ones, prolonged parental absence, and forced displacement. The more recent the exposure to war, and the older the child, the higher was the likelihood of reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values. Among the few documented intervention studies for children of war, school-based interventions, implemented by teachers or locally trained paraprofessionals, proved to be a feasible and low-cost alternative to individual or group therapy. More longitudinal research with multiple informants is needed to document the trajectories of risk and resilience in war-affected children, to assess their long-term development and mental health, and to identify effective treatment approaches.

  19. The Social Effects of War Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan DEMİREL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, knowledge is increasingly impacted via visual representation. The messages sent through various sources, such as newspaper, television and the internet, lead people to form opinions about various topics. In this context, photography is one of the most powerful source of information. Moreover, the visual power and the ability to show nonverbal communication makes it a perfect tool for propaganda. These days, photographs showing war themes are used more often than the past. It can be said that war photographs serve as a tool for showing the world the realities of war to those, even to those who turn their back to massacres. After all, a dead body creates a shocking effect in the seer. In this study, the context of the photographs of the war, examined in sample of photograph of Aylan Kurdi, which became the “icon” of immigration due to Syrian civil war and war it relates to and it is studied to understand how it is assessed and understood considering the environment and conditions on the date the photo was taken, existing values, beliefs and things happened in the world in that time, from a critical point of view.

  20. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  1. Why the end of the Cold War doesn't matter: the US war of terror in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Orthodox narratives of US foreign policy have been employed as uncontested modes of historical interpretation with US post-Cold War foreign policy in the Third World characterised by discontinuity from its earlier Cold War objectives. Chomsky's work adopts an alternative revisionist historiography that views US post-Cold War foreign policy as characterised by continuity with its earlier Cold War objectives. This article examines the continuities of US post-Cold War policy in Colombia, and exp...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 2951 - 3000 of 4423 ... Vol 88, No 8 (1998), Pernkopf's Atlas - A product of Nazi Atrocities Perpetrated in Austria during world war II, Abstract PDF. David Querido. Vol 99, No 5 (2009), Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa: Association with psychiatric disorders, Abstract PDF. DJ Stein, SL Williams, ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 106 of 106 ... Vol 23 (2012), Vowel raising in Akan reduplication, Abstract PDF. K Adomako. Vol 23 (2012), War and Absurdity: Reading the Manifestations of Trauma in Uwem Akpan's “Luxurious Hearses”, Abstract PDF. HO Okolocha. Vol 23 (2012), Yorùbá Proverbs and Musicality, Abstract PDF. MO Olatunji.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 150 ... Vol 8, No 1 (2014), The film editor in Nollywood: Teco Benson's War Front as ... Vol 7, No 1 (2013), The self-sacrificing image as a genre in Nigerian video films ... Vol 9, No 2 (2015), Thriller theory as a panacea for nation ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 18, No 3 (1988), Language in military service, Abstract PDF. J.H. Picard. Vol 42, No 1 (2014), Last Night I Dreamed of Peace: An Extraordinary Diary of Courage from the Vietnam War, Abstract PDF. DT Tram. Vol 12, No 2 (1982), Leiers deur die jare (1912-1982), Abstract PDF. CJ Nothling, EM Meyers. Vol 6, No 3 (1976) ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 937 ... Vol 11, No 2 (1981), 'n Ontleding van die invloed en vermoë van kortafstandlugvervoersteun op eenheidstaktiese beplanning en operasies en aanbevelings hoe hierdie ... A Case of Arrested Development: The Historiography Relating to South Africa's Participation in the Second World War, Abstract PDF.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 701 - 750 of 937 ... G Segell. Vol 36, No 1 (2008), The 'Atomic' Despatch: Field Marshal Auchinleck, the fall of the Tobruk garrison and post-war Anglo-South African relations, Abstract PDF. A Stewart. Vol 42, No 2 (2014), The Background Radiation and Exposure Levels at Various South African West Coast Military Units ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 150 ... Vol 2, No 1 (2009), African War Films and The Tragedy of Ethnic Tensions ... Rachael Diang'a, Charles Kebaya ... M Abuku, C Odi ... in a globalized world: Imperatives from Wole Soyinka and Iyorwuese Hagher, Abstract PDF.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Vol 4, No 2 (2017), Akan Ananse Stories, Yorùbá Ìjàpá Tales, and the ... M Quarcoo, EK Amuzu, AP Owusu ... Rachel Thompson ... Vol 4, No 2 (2017), World War One in Africa: Implications on Christian Missions, Abstract.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 155 ... Lagos Historical Review. ... Vol 6 (2006), Football, mobilization and protest: Nnamdi Azikiwe and the goodwill tours of World War II, Abstract. Wiebe Boer. Vol 7 (2007), From Retreat to Re-engagement: The New American ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 937 ... Vol 20, No 2 (1990), A strategy for the development of the Human ... Vol 13, No 4 (1983), Art and propaganda in an age of war: the role of ... Vol 10, No 4 (1980), Aspects of army road transport management, Abstract PDF.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 11, No 2 (1981), Warning and Response by Julian Critch. ley. Leo Cooper, 1978. Abstract PDF. Calvin Smit, VC Muller. Vol 25, No 2 (1995), Wartime Christmases in five countries in World War II, Abstract PDF. H Rose-Innes. Vol 8, No 1 (1978), Weer en klimaat as omgewingsfaktore in die militêre situasie, Abstract PDF.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 412 ... Issue, Title. Vol 30, No 3 (2011) ... Transferring the principle of double effect from war to business, Abstract. G. J. Rossouw ... Vol 22, No 2 (2003), Can more business ethics teaching halt corruption in companies? Abstract.

  14. "I Don't Shag Dirty Girls": Marginalized Masculinities and the Use of Partner Selection as a Sexual Health Risk Reduction Strategy in Heterosexual Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Understanding and addressing the sexual risk taking of young men remains a key research, policy, and practice concern in attempts to improve the emotional and physical sexual health of young men and their sexual partners. This article explores one of the ways in which young men attempt to mitigate sexual risk through the assigning of labels to particular young women and using these as a basis for their decisions in relation to sexual activity, contraception, and condom use. The article uses the lens of hegemonic masculinities theory to increase understanding of the role played by the construction and performance of marginalized masculinities and how these in turn are influenced by social exclusionary processes. The article draws on focus group and interview data from 46 young men aged 15 to 17 years living in the northwest of England, purposively selected on the basis of the prevailing policy definitions of social inclusion and exclusion. The article describes a form of marginalized masculinity pertaining to socially excluded young men, which as a result of limited access to other tenets of hegemonic masculinity, is disproportionately reliant on sexual expertise and voracity alongside overt demonstrations of their superiority over women. It is in this context that young women are assigned the labels of "dirty" or "clean" on the basis of a selection of arbitrary judgments relating to dress, demeanor, area of residence, and perceived sexual activities. The motivations of the young men, the impact on young women, and the policy and practice implications are all discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Cancer in US Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Fatema Z; Garabrant, David H; Ketchum, Norma S; Michalek, Joel E

    2004-02-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality were summarized in Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War. The index subjects were Operation Ranch Hand veterans who sprayed 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin)-contaminated herbicides in Vietnam. Comparisons served in Southeast Asia during the same period but did not spray herbicides. We assessed cancer incidence and mortality using national rates and contrasted cancer risk in each of three Ranch Hand dioxin exposure categories relative to comparisons. The incidence of melanoma and prostate cancer was increased among white Ranch Hand veterans relative to national rates. Among veterans who spent at most 2 years in Southeast Asia, the risk of cancer at any site, of prostate cancer and of melanoma was increased in the highest dioxin exposure category. These results appear consistent with an association between cancer and dioxin exposure.

  16. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  17. Training of the American Soldier During World War I and World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    smallpox, chicken pox , meningitis, typhoid, diptheria and other diseases resulted in the deaths of between 17,000 to 19,000 men during the course of...lessons of previous wars in both periods. The Spanish-American War and the United States’ incursion into Mexico provided valuable experience in

  18. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  19. Researching the Viet Nam War inside Viet Nam: U.S. Student Teachers Explore War Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The author asserts that it is time for social studies teachers to engage students in a review of the rift between historical reality and mythology about Viet Nam, especially in light of recent comparisons that many have made between the Viet Nam War and the current situation in Iraq. Few teachers dealt with Viet Nam at the time of the war, and…

  20. Influence of World Wars on the Development of International Law on War Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.

  1. War stress and late-life mortality in World War II civilian resistance veterans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Velde, Wybrand Op; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Aarts, Petra G. H.

    The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war

  2. The great war and the cinema The great war and the cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burns

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films made thereafter, since such stories have elements that a mass audience, many of whom had fathers, sons, husbands, brothers, etc. in the military, can actually identify with. As propaganda, such movies—and this would be the case with the Second World War even more—may serve an important political end, by arguably having a much greater influence on public consciousness than official government propaganda, which usually arouses more suspicion. In fact, the US government during both world wars would make a direct appeal to Hollywood producers. Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films

  3. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  4. Gender, Attitudes Toward War, and Masculinities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Yasuko; Sakamoto, Yuiri; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have argued that masculinity is linked to war. We conducted a web-based survey to examine relationships between gender, attitudes toward war, and masculinities within a sample of Japanese adults of both sexes ( N = 366). Our results indicated that while men were more likely than women to accept war, the relationship between attitudes toward war and masculinities was inconclusive. Moreover, the results suggested that favorable attitudes toward war among men could be attenuated by interpersonal orientations. Based on our findings, we recommend a reexamination of attitudes toward war within the Japanese population.

  5. Wars and suicides in Israel, 1948-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron Ostre, Israel

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed.

  6. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron (Ostre), Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  7. Nuclear strategy: the doctrine of just war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Sudha

    2006-01-01

    It is essential that there be growth in a man's moral standing if he has to deal with the great powers given to him-the greatest being the power to destroy. The bequest of history, diplomacy and war is undeniably disconcerting for the evidence it provides on the role of morality, in life. A return to the ancient and forgotten art of moral reasoning, especially while formulating strategic policies, is de rigueur. The discovery of the nuclear weapons has indeed been serendipitous. And the environment in which one fashions the strategic doctrine for use of nuclear weapons is dynamic. The usefulness of these nuclear weapons is narrow and specific in that its sole purpose is to deter a nuclear attack. History has been witness to strategies been woven around this central theme of deterring a rival or enemy nation, in the process forgetting the existence of the moral threshold. Deterrence is a policy that fashions a situation whereby war can be limited if not averted. It rests on the capability of a nation to deter the enemy and ensure that the credibility of the threat is maintained and respected and employed when necessary. Nuclear weapons deter but there is the pursuit of the absolute means to seek foolproof deterrence. Herein lies the dilemma. The stakes involved in a nuclear war and the use of these weapons stimulate varied and worried debates. To justify a war, arguments tend to get grounded on 'justwar'. The doctrine of Just War is concerned not with what men did in war but what they ought to do or refrain from doing; the jus ad bellum or justification of war and the jus in bello or the limitation of war. The U.S. now stands as the sole 'super' power that is willing to use its military and technical might for a 'just cause'. This has only ensured that though the uniquely perilous results of the use of nuclear weapons have been understood, its use remains entrenched in the mind while future policy decisions are being made. And nuclear weapons 'explode the theory of

  8. Historical Development of War Stress Reaction Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Nahit Ozmenler

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The battles that have come to this day had spectacular psychologic and psychiatric effects. Battle stres reactions in historical development phase has been mentioned with such different names as nostalgia, shell shock, soldier’s heart, Da Costra Syndrome, old sergeant syndrome, agent orange effect and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD due to the symptoms coming into prominence. On the othere hand they do tend to show similarities (palpilation, stomach complaints, rhomatizmal aches, neurological and psychiatric symptoms, etc. in the context of symptoms and findigs. During the historical phase, the transition of methods have also infliuenced the prominent clinical characteristics of the war stress syndromes. The symptoms that arose during the gulf War have exhibited neither similarities nor explainable characteristics with previous war stress reactions of the past. Therefore, in the context of diagnostics systems, there is no clarity about where it should be incorporated. The inability to find any satisfactory organic pathology in war stress reactions have been the unchanging characteristic of the illness. In collaboration with the increasing mortality and morbidity that arise in wars it is not only an important factor but the resistance of patients, who had been effected, to amelioration is continuing to be an important concern which preoccupies governments, military authorities and doctors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 63-70

  9. Physics in WWI: Fighting the Acoustic War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    World War I was the first high-technology war, and when the United States began to prepare for it in 1915 the federal government turned to the storied inventor Thomas Edison. Edison formed a board that included industrial executives and engineers but only one physicist, its members holding that they wanted people who would do things and not just talk about them. However, in 1916, the nation's scientists managed to create a place for themselves in the preparedness effort by organizing the National Research Council under the National Academy of Sciences. Once the United States went to war, in April 1917, the NRC brought academic and industrial physicists together in efforts to detect incoming aircraft, submerged submarines, and the location of long-range artillery. The efforts employed devices that relied in the main on the detection and identification of sound waves from these weapons. The devices were passive responders, but they were marked by increasing sophistication and enabled the United States and its allies to prosecute an acoustic war. That branch of the war was militarily effective, overshadowed the work of Edison's group, and gained physicists high standing among leaders in both the military and industry.

  10. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  11. The new military medical ethics: legacies of the Gulf Wars and the War on Terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Steven H

    2013-03-01

    United States military medical ethics evolved during its involvement in two recent wars, Gulf War I (1990-1991) and the War on Terror (2001-). Norms of conduct for military clinicians with regard to the treatment of prisoners of war and the administration of non-therapeutic bioactive agents to soldiers were set aside because of the sense of being in a 'new kind of war'. Concurrently, the use of radioactive metal in weaponry and the ability to measure the health consequences of trade embargos on vulnerable civilians occasioned new concerns about the health effects of war on soldiers, their offspring, and civilians living on battlefields. Civilian medical societies and medical ethicists fitfully engaged the evolving nature of the medical ethics issues and policy changes during these wars. Medical codes of professionalism have not been substantively updated and procedures for accountability for new kinds of abuses of medical ethics are not established. Looking to the future, medicine and medical ethics have not articulated a vision for an ongoing military-civilian dialogue to ensure that standards of medical ethics do not evolve simply in accord with military exigency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Making Sense of War and Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    When people tell stories about their past experiences, they often include descriptions that infer changes in trust repertoires over time, especially when the stories relate to serious life dramas like war and peace. A happy ending can make a past war appear meaningful. In this case study......, retrospective narratives summarizing fifty years of history in Aceh, Indonesia, were analyzed using Fuglsang’s & Jagd’s framework (2013). The concept spiritual trust is introduced, and the case study indicates that when neither institutions nor powers are strong enough to support trusting, trust in a divine...... power can provide an alternative framework for sensemaking and trusting. In Aceh, three decades of civil war ended with a peace process in 2005, and extreme distrust was then replaced by institutional trust. Insights from that process are of relevance for the study of trust-repair....

  13. Indian foreign policy during the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    This article examines India's foreign policy priorities during the years of the Cold War with a focus on international relations. As in the rest of the world, the India's foreign policy was marked by the dynamics of continuity and change in world policy, associated with the historical period of the Cold War (1947-90) and its impact on the neighbouring and regional context of India. As its hypothesis this article argues that this period was characterized by the challenges of consolidating the autonomy of independence, which means: achieving development; solving disputes arising from conflicts with neighbours; and, presenting India as a country committed to peace, which explains not only its position against war and the use of nuclear weapons, but also, with respect to one of the most original aspects of Indian foreign policy, its status as a non-aligned country

  14. On immorality of terrorism and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičovački Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable moral implications with regards to the treatment of other human beings, a further common and troubling implication of terrorism and war consists in the fact that dehumanization of others leads also to a dehumanization of ourselves. .

  15. Italy and War of Vlora during 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhilda Shuka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Italy played special attention to the province of Vlora during World War I, because of its great strategic importance in the Adriatic Sea. Italy had deployed in October 1914 in Sazan and had occupied Vlore since December 1914. But for the Albanian people, the liberation of Vlora was a key moment for its survival. It was the victorious War of Vlora in 1920, following the decisions of the Congress of Lushnja which reconfirmed Albania's independence and which put Albania in the course of a normal independent country. The important role of the war in direct confrontation with the Italian political and military forces of the time, are intended to be reflected in this article based on historical arguments and new perspective of our days.

  16. Special Issue: War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases and analyt......This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases...... and analytical approaches. The contributions fall into the following four themes: violent masculine rituals and how contemporary societies cope with extreme violence against women; popular written and visual fiction about war and masculine rationalities; gender relations in social movements of rebellions...

  17. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  18. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  19. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  20. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  1. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  2. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  3. Impact of World War I on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  4. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.

  5. Norwegian Neutrality in the Inter-War Years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanevik, Karl E

    2006-01-01

    ...". This policy was chosen for several reasons. Following the war Norway placed great emphasis on the "League of Nations" and hoped that this new organization would settle future disputes between states without states having to resort to war...

  6. The effects of nuclear war. 2. rev. enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodejohann, J.

    1982-01-01

    Possible and probable effects of a nuclear war in Europe are described on the basis of a study by the Office of Technology Assessment, US Kongress ('The effects of nuclear war', Wash. D.C. 1979). (HP) [de

  7. Modeling a Strategy for the War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Darral

    2002-01-01

    .... This paper discusses a strategy for conducting the war on terrorism in terms of a system and how that strategy must be adjusted over the long-term to compensate for fluctuating components of the war on terrorism...

  8. The Gulf War Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary

    2001-01-01

    This audit was requested by the Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness and Military Deployments, which has the authority to coordinate all aspects of Gulf War investigations for DoD...

  9. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fregoso, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    .... These Strategic Soldiers and their respective leaders must not only be aware of their potential influence in a war environment, they must learn how to harness this ability in support of their nation's war strategy...

  10. Mitigating Key Intelligence Gaps In Colombian War On Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goebel, Jefferey

    2003-01-01

    Successfully transitioning from a war on drugs to a war on terrorism in Colombia is a national security concern for the United States and poses significant operational readiness challenges for USSOUTHCOM...

  11. Training to Fight Training and Education During the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, David

    1997-01-01

    ... requirements of military missions." One of Legacy's nine task areas is the Cold War Project, which seeks to "inventory, protect, and conserve DoD's physical and literary property and relics" associated with the Cold War. In early 1993, Dr...

  12. Defense Inventory: Army War Reserve Spare Parts Requirements Are Uncertain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Department of Defense policy calls for each of the services to acquire and maintain sufficient war materiel inventories to commence execution of the two-war scenario and sustain operations until...

  13. Conflict and Conscience: Ideological War and the Albigensian Crusade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, John W

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a case study on ethics within war. The 13th century Albigensian Crusade was a war against a heretical religious ideology known as Catharism whose tenets threatened the social order of Europe...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 21, No 1-2 (2008), L'altro 'Fuori' E L'altro 'Dentro' Nel Cinema Italiano Contemporaneo, Abstract PDF. L Ciavola. Vol 19, No 2 (2006), L'epopea della .... Vol 9, No 2 (1996), Notes and Gleanings - Quaderno proibito: A silenced woman's voice in post-war Italy, Abstract PDF. Piera Carroli. Vol 30, No 2 (2017), Notes and ...

  15. The Culture War and Issue Salience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wroe, Andrew; Ashbee, Edward; Gosling, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    -time data and nonlinear regression. It finds (1) that there was a steady and significant increase in concern about traditional moral issues between the early 1980s and 2000, but (2) that the over-time increase was driven by an upward and equal shift in the importance attached to traditional moral issues......Despite much talk of a culture war, scholars continue to argue over whether the American public is divided on cultural and social issues. Some of the most prominent work in this area, such as Fiorina's Culture War?, has rejected the idea. However, this work has in turn been criticized for focussing...

  16. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  17. Operational Art in Pontiac’s War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    several British forts in the Great Lakes region, also known as the pays d’en haut . Pontiac’s War emerged following the French defeat in the French...responded with enough British forces to maintain a foothold in the pay’s d’en haut through the end of 1763. In 1764, the British dispatched Colonel...John Bradstreet and Colonel Henry Bouquet into the pay’s d’en haut to pacify the hostile Indians and reassert control. The war finally ended when Sir

  18. Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1982-01-01

    Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369

  19. Can Old Regimes Handle New Wars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Troels

    Research on New Wars argues that since the 1980s states and regimes have become more vulnerable to violence from non-state actors. Two developments in the Sahel region support the New Wars thesis: an increase in Islamist radicalization and new access to the global black market, both of which......, the paper finds that regimes in the Sahel region are still able to cope with the rise in non-state threats. The paper first shortly compares the longevity of the present regimes in the Sahel region to all previous ones, second examines in-depth how Chad and Mali fight the insurgents. Findings are that since...

  20. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs