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  1. GPCRs Direct Germline Development and Somatic Gonad Function in Planarians.

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    Amir Saberi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Planarians display remarkable plasticity in maintenance of their germline, with the ability to develop or dismantle reproductive tissues in response to systemic and environmental cues. Here, we investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs in this dynamic germline regulation. By genome-enabled receptor mining, we identified 566 putative planarian GPCRs and classified them into conserved and phylum-specific subfamilies. We performed a functional screen to identify NPYR-1 as the cognate receptor for NPY-8, a neuropeptide required for sexual maturation and germ cell differentiation. Similar to NPY-8, knockdown of this receptor results in loss of differentiated germ cells and sexual maturity. NPYR-1 is expressed in neuroendocrine cells of the central nervous system and can be activated specifically by NPY-8 in cell-based assays. Additionally, we screened the complement of GPCRs with expression enriched in sexually reproducing planarians, and identified an orphan chemoreceptor family member, ophis, that controls differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs. ophis is expressed in somatic cells of male and female gonads, as well as in accessory reproductive tissues. We have previously shown that somatic gonadal cells are required for male GSC specification and maintenance in planarians. However, ophis is not essential for GSC specification or maintenance and, therefore, defines a secondary role for planarian gonadal niche cells in promoting GSC differentiation. Our studies uncover the complement of planarian GPCRs and reveal previously unappreciated roles for these receptors in systemic and local (i.e., niche regulation of germ cell development.

  2. GPCRs Direct Germline Development and Somatic Gonad Function in Planarians.

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    Saberi, Amir; Jamal, Ayana; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Newmark, Phillip A

    2016-05-01

    Planarians display remarkable plasticity in maintenance of their germline, with the ability to develop or dismantle reproductive tissues in response to systemic and environmental cues. Here, we investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in this dynamic germline regulation. By genome-enabled receptor mining, we identified 566 putative planarian GPCRs and classified them into conserved and phylum-specific subfamilies. We performed a functional screen to identify NPYR-1 as the cognate receptor for NPY-8, a neuropeptide required for sexual maturation and germ cell differentiation. Similar to NPY-8, knockdown of this receptor results in loss of differentiated germ cells and sexual maturity. NPYR-1 is expressed in neuroendocrine cells of the central nervous system and can be activated specifically by NPY-8 in cell-based assays. Additionally, we screened the complement of GPCRs with expression enriched in sexually reproducing planarians, and identified an orphan chemoreceptor family member, ophis, that controls differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs). ophis is expressed in somatic cells of male and female gonads, as well as in accessory reproductive tissues. We have previously shown that somatic gonadal cells are required for male GSC specification and maintenance in planarians. However, ophis is not essential for GSC specification or maintenance and, therefore, defines a secondary role for planarian gonadal niche cells in promoting GSC differentiation. Our studies uncover the complement of planarian GPCRs and reveal previously unappreciated roles for these receptors in systemic and local (i.e., niche) regulation of germ cell development.

  3. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Morthorst, Jane E.; Andersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine......: In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period. The expression of the genes expected to be high in males (ar, sox9a and dmrt1a) and high...

  4. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

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    Rasmussen Lene J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. Results In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period. The expression of the genes expected to be high in males (ar, sox9a and dmrt1a and high in females (fig alpha and cyp19a1a was segregated in two groups with more than 10 times difference in expression levels. All of the investigated genes showed peaks in expression levels during the time of sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Expression of all genes was investigated on cDNA from the same fish allowing comparison of the high and low expressers of genes that are expected to be highest expressed in either males or females. There were 78% high or low expressers of all three "male" genes (ar, sox9a and dmrt1 in the investigated period and 81% were high or low expressers of both "female" genes (fig alpha and cyp19a1a. When comparing all five genes with expected sex related expression 56% show expression expected for either male or female. Furthermore, the expression of all genes was investigated in different tissue of adult male and female zebrafish. Conclusion In zebrafish, the first significant peak in gene expression during the investigated period (2–40 dph was dmrt1 at 10 dph which indicates involvement of this gene

  5. Gene expression profiling reveals new potential players of gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo.

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    Gwenn-Aël Carré

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors

  6. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals New Potential Players of Gonad Differentiation in the Chicken Embryo

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    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Couty, Isabelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Govoroun, Marina S.

    2011-01-01

    Background In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein) and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. Conclusion/Significance This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors of chicken gonad

  7. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

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    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  8. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

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    Yue Sheng; Wei Zhao; Ying Song; Zhigang Li; Majing Luo; Quan Lei; Hanhua Cheng; Rongjia Zhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  9. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

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    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  10. [Congenital disorders of gonadal differentiation: clinico-morphological variants and surgical treatment].

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    Raĭgorodskaia, N Iu; Morozov, D A; Bolotova, N V; Tsmokaliuk, E N; Zharkov, D A; Aĭrian, É K

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of examination and surgical treatment of 25 patients with congenital disorders of gonadal differentiation. Survey plan included an assessment of the external genitalia, karyotyping and molecular analysis of Y-chromosome, determination of serum gonadotropins and testosterone levels, visualization of the gonads using ultrasound and laparoscopy methods, and intraoperative morphological examination of the material. Based on the results of a comprehensive survey, mixed testicular dysgenesis was identified in 25% of patients, complete testicular dysgenesis--in 16%, partial gonadal dysgenesis--in 44%, ovotesticular violation of sexualization--in 16% of patients. Clinical, macroscopic and morphological characteristics of each of these options are defined. The choice of sexual identity and tactics of surgical treatment are explained.

  11. Effects of in ovo exposure of Imazalil and Atrazine on sexual differentiation in chick gonads

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    Yamashita, J.; Ikeda, M. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Iwasawa, T.; Ikeya, M. [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In contrast to mammals, the heterogametic sex (sex chromosome: ZW) in avian species is the genetic female whereas the homogametic (sex chromosome: ZZ) is the genetic male. The W chromosome positively controls early aromatase synthesis and consequently estrogen production. The presence of estrogens and their receptors plays a crucial role in female sexual differentiation. Chicken embryonic gonads are bipotential at an early stage. During development of the female, the left gonad differentiates to a single ovary/oviduct, and the right gonad regresses, developing a permanent female phenotype. This sexual differentiation occurs as a result of aromatase expression in the left gonad at day 6.5 and the production of estrogen from testosterone. In the male genotype, both gonads develop into two testes. The time- and sex-dependent expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, which determine the ratio of androgens/estrogens produced by the gonads, has been extensively investigated during the last 5-6 year. These results show that the lack of estrogen synthesis in the male appears to be due to the extremely low levels of P450 aromatase expression. In female, extensive expression of the aromatase gene (around day 5-6 incubation), leading to estrogen synthesis, and specific expression of the estrogen receptor-mRNA in the left gonad result in the development of a functional left ovary. Experimental sex reversal has been performed using anti-estrogens, androgens, aromatase inhibitors and synthetic steroid. Differences between male and female gonadal differentiation and development are depended on the absence of aromatase and estrogen. On the one hand, differences between left and right ovarian development are depended on the specific expression of the estrogen receptor in the left gonad. Persistent chlorine-containing pesticide, imazalil is structurally similar to various imidazolecontaining chemicals used clinically such as the potent aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole and

  12. Correlation among thermosensitive period, estradiol response, and gonad differentiation in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

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    Merchant-Larios, H; Ruiz-Ramirez, S; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Marmolejo-Valencia, A

    1997-09-01

    Reptile embryos with temperature sex determination have a thermosensitive period (TSP). The finding that exogenous estradiol (E2) overcomes the effect of male-promoting temperature led to the idea that temperature may regulate estrogen concentration in the gonad during TSP. Since interspecific variations in TSP and in the effect of exogenous E2 exist, we undertook a study in the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea. Four parameters were correlated: the TSP (time dimension), the thermosensitive stages (rate of development), gonad development (histological aspect), and the estradiol response. Two kinds of experiments were performed: (1) Eggs were shifted once, at different stages of development, from a male-promoting temperature to a female-temperature (or vice versa) for the remainder of development. (2) Eggs at male-promoting temperature were treated once with 6 or 12 microg of estradiol (E2) at various times of incubation. Sex ratio was established around hatching in each experimental series. We found that the temporal dimension of the TSP was around 7 days (Days 20-27 of incubation) at a male-promoting or a female-promoting temperature. The rate of development of the whole embryo and gonadal growth was faster at female-promoting temperature than at male-promoting temperature. Formation of the genital ridge began at stage 21-22 and histological differentiation of the gonads occurred around stage 26-27. Although these stages coincided with the TSP, at male-promoting temperature the thermosensitive stages occurred earlier (from stages 20-21 to stages 23-24) than at female-promoting temperature (from stages 23-24 to stages 26-27). Thus, at male promoting-temperature, sex was determined in embryos with incipient or undifferentiated gonads. In contrast, E2 treatment continued to feminize the gonads of embryos at a male-promoting temperature beyond the TSP up to stage 25-26, but the E2-induced ovaries were significantly smaller than temperature-induced ovaries. It is

  13. UV laser radiation alters the embryonic protein profile of adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex and gonadal differentiation in the lizard, Calotes Versicolor.

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    Khodnapur, Bharati S; Inamdar, Laxmi S; Nindi, Robertraj S; Math, Shivkumar A; Mulimani, B G; Inamdar, Sanjeev R

    2015-02-01

    To examine the impact of ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation on the embryos of Calotes versicolor in terms of its effects on the protein profile of the adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex (AKG), sex determination and differentiation, embryonic development and hatching synchrony. The eggs of C. versicolor, during thermo-sensitive period (TSP), were exposed to third harmonic laser pulses at 355 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for 180 sec. Subsequent to the exposure they were incubated at the male-producing temperature (MPT) of 25.5 ± 0.5°C. The AKG of hatchlings was subjected to protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and to histology. The UV laser radiation altered the expression of the protein banding pattern in the AKG complex of hatchlings and it also affected the gonadal sex differentiation. SDS-PAGE of AKG of one-day-old hatchlings revealed a total of nine protein bands in the control group whereas UV laser irradiated hatchlings expressed a total of seven protein bands only one of which had the same Rf as a control band. The UV laser treated hatchlings have an ovotestes kind of gonad exhibiting a tendency towards femaleness instead of the typical testes. It is inferred that 355 nm UV laser radiation during TSP induces changes in the expression of proteins as well as their secretions. UV laser radiation had an impact on the gonadal differentiation pathway but no morphological anomalies were noticed.

  14. SOX4 regulates gonad morphogenesis and promotes male germ cell differentiation in mice.

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    Zhao, Liang; Arsenault, Michel; Ng, Ee Ting; Longmuss, Enya; Chau, Tevin Chui-Ying; Hartwig, Sunny; Koopman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The group C SOX transcription factors SOX4, -11 and -12 play important and mutually overlapping roles in development of a number of organs. Here, we examined the role of SoxC genes during gonadal development in mice. All three genes were expressed in developing gonads of both sexes, predominantly in somatic cells, with Sox4 being most strongly expressed. Sox4 deficiency resulted in elongation of both ovaries and testes, and an increased number of testis cords. While female germ cells entered meiosis normally, male germ cells showed reduced levels of differentiation markers Nanos2 and Dnmt3l and increased levels of pluripotency genes Cripto and Nanog, suggesting that SOX4 may normally act to restrict the pluripotency period of male germ cells and ensure their proper differentiation. Finally, our data reveal that SOX4 (and, to a lesser extent, SOX11 and -12) repressed transcription of the sex-determining gene Sox9 via an upstream testis-specific enhancer core (TESCO) element in fetal gonads, raising the possibility that SOXC proteins may function as transcriptional repressors in a context-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of meiotic entry and gonadal sex differentiation in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a unique type of cell division that is performed only by germ cells to form haploid gametes. The switch from mitosis to meiosis exhibits a distinct sex-specific difference in timing, with female germ cells entering meiosis during fetal development and male germ cells at puberty when...... in the context of fetal gonad development and germ cell differentiation, with emphasis on results obtained in humans. Furthermore, the consequences of dysregulated meiosis signaling in humans are briefly discussed in the context of selected pathologies, including testicular germ cell cancer and some forms...

  16. Gonadal Morphogenesis and Sex Differentiation in Intraovarian Embryos of the Viviparous Fish Zoarces viviparus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Zoarcidae): A Histological and Ultrastructural Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tina H.; Jespersen, Åse; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to know the timing and process of normal gonadal differentiation and development in the specific species being investigated in order to evaluate the effect of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on these processes. In the present study gonadal sex differentiation and develo...

  17. Gonad Transcriptome Analysis of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Identifies Potential Genes Regulating the Sex Determination and Differentiation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chenyang; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong

    2018-04-01

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is a commercially important bivalve in aquaculture worldwide. C. gigas has a fascinating sexual reproduction system consisting of dioecism, sex change, and occasional hermaphroditism, while knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation is still limited. In this study, the transcriptomes of male and female gonads at different gametogenesis stages were characterized by RNA-seq. Hierarchical clustering based on genes differentially expressed revealed that 1269 genes were expressed specifically in female gonads and 817 genes were expressed increasingly over the course of spermatogenesis. Besides, we identified two and one gene modules related to female and male gonad development, respectively, using weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Interestingly, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that neurotransmitter-related terms were significantly enriched in genes related to ovary development, suggesting that the neurotransmitters were likely to regulate female sex differentiation. In addition, two hub genes related to testis development, lncRNA LOC105321313 and Cg-Sh3kbp1, and one hub gene related to ovary development, Cg-Malrd1-like, were firstly investigated. This study points out the role of neurotransmitter and non-coding RNA regulation during gonad development and produces lists of novel relevant candidate genes for further studies. All of these provided valuable information to understand the molecular mechanisms of C. gigas sex determination and differentiation.

  18. Disruption of apoptosis pathways involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation by 17α-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzio, Ana; Matos, Manuela; Santos, Dércia; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A.; Monteiro, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Apoptosis in females is avoided by anti-apoptotic pathways and in males is essential to the “juvenile ovary” failure. • BIRC5 is central to the regulation of zebrafish spermatogenesis. • EE2 did not change sex ratios, but Fadrozole induced masculinization with a significant increase in male proportion. • The few females identified after exposure to Fadrozole may have avoided sex reversal by increasing anti-apoptotic proteins. • EE2 increased the pro-apoptotic genes/proteins in males, promoting gonad differentiation. - Abstract: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) sex determination seems to involve genetic factors (GSD) but also environmental factors (ESD), such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are known to mimic endogenous hormones and disrupt gonad differentiation. Apoptosis has also been proposed to play a crucial role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Nevertheless, the interactions between EDCs and apoptosis have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to assess if and which apoptotic pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and how EDCs may interfere with this process. With these purposes, zebrafish were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE 2 , 4 ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad, 50 μg/L) from 2 h to 35 days post-fertilization (dpf). Afterwards, a gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR and a stereological analysis, based on systematic sampling and protein immunohistochemistry, were performed. The death receptors (FAS; TRADD), anti-apoptotic (BCL-2; MDM2), pro-apoptotic (CASP-2 and −6) and cell proliferation (BIRC5/survivin; JUN) genes and proteins were evaluated. In general, apoptosis was inhibited in females through the involvement of anti-apoptotic pathways, while in males apoptosis seemed to be crucial to the failure of the “juvenile ovary” development and the induction of testes transformation. The JUN protein was shown to be necessary in juvenile ovaries, while the BIRC5 protein seemed to be involved in

  19. Disruption of apoptosis pathways involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation by 17α-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzio, Ana, E-mail: aluzio@utad.pt [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Departamento de Biologia e Ambiente (DeBA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Matos, Manuela [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, BioISI– Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Life Sciences and Environment School (ECVA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Santos, Dércia [Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A.; Monteiro, Sandra M. [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Departamento de Biologia e Ambiente (DeBA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Apoptosis in females is avoided by anti-apoptotic pathways and in males is essential to the “juvenile ovary” failure. • BIRC5 is central to the regulation of zebrafish spermatogenesis. • EE2 did not change sex ratios, but Fadrozole induced masculinization with a significant increase in male proportion. • The few females identified after exposure to Fadrozole may have avoided sex reversal by increasing anti-apoptotic proteins. • EE2 increased the pro-apoptotic genes/proteins in males, promoting gonad differentiation. - Abstract: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) sex determination seems to involve genetic factors (GSD) but also environmental factors (ESD), such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are known to mimic endogenous hormones and disrupt gonad differentiation. Apoptosis has also been proposed to play a crucial role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Nevertheless, the interactions between EDCs and apoptosis have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to assess if and which apoptotic pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and how EDCs may interfere with this process. With these purposes, zebrafish were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}, 4 ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad, 50 μg/L) from 2 h to 35 days post-fertilization (dpf). Afterwards, a gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR and a stereological analysis, based on systematic sampling and protein immunohistochemistry, were performed. The death receptors (FAS; TRADD), anti-apoptotic (BCL-2; MDM2), pro-apoptotic (CASP-2 and −6) and cell proliferation (BIRC5/survivin; JUN) genes and proteins were evaluated. In general, apoptosis was inhibited in females through the involvement of anti-apoptotic pathways, while in males apoptosis seemed to be crucial to the failure of the “juvenile ovary” development and the induction of testes transformation. The JUN protein was shown to be necessary in juvenile ovaries, while the BIRC5 protein seemed to be involved

  20. The direct response of the gonads to cues of stress in a temperate songbird species is season-dependent

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    Nicolette L. McGuire

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH system in the hypothalamus is often considered the final point in integration of environmental cues as they pertain to the reproductive axis. However, cues such as stress and food availability are detectable in the plasma (as glucocorticoid and metabolic fuel fluctuations. Vertebrate gonads express glucocorticoid receptor, therefore we hypothesized that the gonads can detect and respond directly to cues of stress. We provide evidence here that, in addition to regulation by the brain, the gonads of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris respond directly to fluctuations in corticosterone and metabolic fuels by modulating sex steroid secretion. Using a 4-h gonad culture, we show that physiologically-relevant concentrations of corticosterone and metabolic stress (via use of the glucose utilization inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose and the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor ethyl 2-mercaptoacetate (2DG/MA can directly decrease testosterone and estradiol secretion from luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH-stimulated testes and ovaries. This effect is regulated seasonally. Prior to the breeding season, testes and ovaries respond to corticosterone and 2DG/MA by significantly decreasing gonadal steroid release. Within the breeding season, the testes do not respond to these cues of stress, while the ovaries respond only to corticosterone. This seasonal difference in response may be due in part to the influence of these cues of stress on gonadal neuropeptide expression: corticosterone upregulates GnIH expression in the testes while metabolic stress upregulates GnIH in the ovaries. Thus the gonads can directly respond to fluctuations in corticosterone and metabolic fuels during a time of critical importance to the onset of breeding.

  1. MicroRNA dynamics at the onset of primordial germ and somatic cell sex differentiation during mouse embryonic gonad development.

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    Fernández-Pérez, Daniel; Brieño-Enríquez, Miguel A; Isoler-Alcaraz, Javier; Larriba, Eduardo; Del Mazo, Jesús

    2018-03-01

    In mammals, commitment and specification of germ cell lines involves complex programs that include sex differentiation, control of proliferation, and meiotic initiation. Regulation of these processes is genetically controlled by fine-tuned mechanisms of gene regulation in which microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved. We have characterized, by small-RNA-seq and bioinformatics analyses, the miRNA expression patterns of male and female mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) and gonadal somatic cells at embryonic stages E11.5, E12.5, and E13.5. Differential expression analyses revealed differences in the regulation of key miRNA clusters such as miR-199-214 , miR-182-183-96 , and miR-34c-5p , whose targets have defined roles during gonadal sexual determination in both germ and somatic cells. Extensive analyses of miRNA sequences revealed an increase in noncanonical isoforms on PGCs at E12.5 and dramatic changes of 3' isomiR expression and 3' nontemplate nucleotide additions in female PGCs at E13.5. Additionally, RT-qPCR analyses of genes encoding proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis and 3' nucleotide addition uncovered sexually and developmentally specific expression, characterized by the decay of Drosha , Dgcr8 , and Xpo5 expression along gonadal development. These results demonstrate that miRNAs, their isomiRs, and miRNA machinery are differentially regulated and participate actively in gonadal sexual differentiation in both PGCs and gonadal somatic cells. © 2018 Fernández-Pérez et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Characterization of gonadal transcriptomes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus reveals differentially expressed genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Tao

    Full Text Available Four pairs of XX and XY gonads from Nile tilapia were sequenced at four developmental stages, 5, 30, 90, and 180 days after hatching (dah using Illumina Hiseq(TM technology. This produced 28 Gb sequences, which were mapped to 21,334 genes. Of these, 259 genes were found to be specifically expressed in XY gonads, and 69 were found to be specific to XX gonads. Totally, 187 XX- and 1,358 XY-enhanced genes were identified, and 2,978 genes were found to be co-expressed in XX and XY gonads. Almost all steroidogenic enzymes, including cyp19a1a, were up-regulated in XX gonads at 5 dah; but in XY gonads these enzymes, including cyp11b2, were significantly up-regulated at 90 dah, indicating that, at a time critical to sex determination, the XX fish produced estrogen and the XY fish did not produce androgens. The most pronounced expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes was observed at 30 and 90 dah for XX and XY gonads, corresponding to the initiation of germ cell meiosis in the female and male gonads, respectively. Both estrogen and androgen receptors were found to be expressed in XX gonads, but only estrogen receptors were expressed in XY gonads at 5 dah. This could explain why exogenous steroid treatment induced XX and XY sex reversal. The XX-enhanced expression of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b at all stages suggests an important role for estrogen in female sex determination and maintenance of phenotypic sex. This work is the largest collection of gonadal transcriptome data in tilapia and lays the foundation for future studies into the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and maintenance of phenotypic sex in non-model teleosts.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Microarray Data of Rainbow Trout Fry Gonad Differentiation Modulated by Ethynylestradiol.

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    Sophie Depiereux

    Full Text Available Sex differentiation in fish is a highly labile process easily reversed by the use of exogenous hormonal treatment and has led to environmental concerns since low doses of estrogenic molecules can adversely impact fish reproduction. The goal of this study was to identify pathways altered by treatment with ethynylestradiol (EE2 in developing fish and to find new target genes to be tested further for their possible role in male-to-female sex transdifferentiation. To this end, we have successfully adapted a previously developed bioinformatics workflow to a meta-analysis of two datasets studying sex reversal following exposure to EE2 in juvenile rainbow trout. The meta-analysis consisted of retrieving the intersection of the top gene lists generated for both datasets, performed at different levels of stringency. The intersecting gene lists, enriched in true positive differentially expressed genes (DEGs, were subjected to over-representation analysis (ORA which allowed identifying several statistically significant enriched pathways altered by EE2 treatment and several new candidate pathways, such as progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and PPAR signalling. Moreover, several relevant key genes potentially implicated in the early transdifferentiation process were selected. Altogether, the results show that EE2 has a great effect on gene expression in juvenile rainbow trout. The feminization process seems to result from the altered transcription of genes implicated in normal female gonad differentiation, resulting in expression similar to that observed in normal females (i.e. the repression of key testicular markers cyp17a1, cyp11b, tbx1, as well as from other genes (including transcription factors that respond specifically to the EE2 treatment. The results also showed that the bioinformatics workflow can be applied to different types of microarray platforms and could be generalized to (ecotoxicogenomics studies for environmental risk assessment

  4. Morphological and transcriptomic effects of endocrine modulators on the gonadal differentiation of chicken embryos: The case of tributyltin (TBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Jessica; Afonso-Grunz, Fabian; Jessl, Luzie; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Winter, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2018-03-01

    Morphological malformations induced by tributyltin (TBT) exposure during embryonic development have already been characterized in various taxonomic groups, but, nonetheless, the molecular processes underlying these changes remain obscure. The present study provides the first genome-wide screening for differentially expressed genes that are linked to morphological alterations of gonadal tissue from chicken embryos after exposure to TBT. We applied a single injection of TBT (between 0.5 and 30 pg as Sn/g egg) into incubated fertile eggs to simulate maternal transfer of the endocrine disruptive compound. Methyltestosterone (MT) served as a positive control (30 pg/g egg). After 19 days of incubation, structural features of the gonads as well as genome-wide gene expression profiles were assessed simultaneously. TBT induced significant morphological and histological malformations of gonadal tissue from female embryos that show a virilization of the ovaries. This phenotypical virilization was mirrored by altered expression profiles of sex-dependent genes. Among these are several transcription and growth factors (e.g. FGF12, CTCF, NFIB), whose altered expression might serve as a set of markers for early identification of endocrine active chemicals that affect embryonic development by transcriptome profiling without the need of elaborate histological analyses. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Different levels of testicular organization during gonadal differentiation in B6.Y(Tir) mice manifesting sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, Nivia Rocio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2012-09-01

    B6.Y(Tir) (mice with Y chromosome from a strain in Tirano, Italy, and autosomes and X-chromosomes from the B6 strain) mice provide an excellent model for analysing sex development that occurs during gonadal differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to sex reversal are unclear. Our aim has been to establish which molecular events participate in this sex reversal. The pattern of gene expression related to testicular [Sry (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome), Sox9 (Sry-related high-mobility group box gene 9) and Mis (Müllerian-inhibiting substance)] and ovarian [Wnt4 (Wingless-type MMTV (murine-mammary-tumour virus) integration site family, member 4), Rspo1 (cysteine-rich secretory protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat) and Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8)] differentiation was analysed by applying immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR), focusing on XY gonads from the B6.Y(Tir) mouse, but also analysing the normal strains CD-1 and C57BL/6J (B6). The expression of genes related to the process of sexual differentiation was altered in the case of the B6.Y(Tir) strain, both at the transcript and protein level, inducing differentiation of ovaries and ovotestes, but not the formation of the testes, which were normal. Our results indicate that the expression of testicular genes is inhibited at various levels, permitting the expression of ovarian genes such as Wnt4, Stra8 and Rspo1. However, their activity was not clear when the data were averaged. Correlation analysis indicated that an ovary differentiation pathway is activated when the testicular differentiation pathway is inhibited. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E.; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of invest......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...... investigations of gonadal gene expression during the critical period of sex differentiation. Furthermore, the presented staining method is applicable to other species as it is directed towards alkaline phosphatase that is expressed in gonocytes and embryonic stem cells, which is conserved among vertebrate...

  7. Differential role of gonadal hormones on kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration in medial amygdaloid nucleus of female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereno, G L; Beltramino, C A

    2009-10-20

    Sex hormones contribute to modulating brain functions throughout the life span. It has been suggested that estrogen prevents neuronal loss in different areas of the CNS such as the hippocampus. However there are less consistent data on its effects on the amygdala. Kainic acid (KA) is used to produce seizures that mimic those of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. At high doses in animal models, KA induces neurotoxicity, particularly in the medial amygdaloid nuclei (MeA). It is uncertain whether the gonadal hormones are protective or not against this neurotoxicity in the MeA. Here we show that a single dose of KA induces neurodegeneration in the subnuclei of the MeA of rats with different degrees of intensity in males and females. A differential neuroprotective effect of the gonadal hormones was also observed. In diestrous rats, massive neuronal death similar to that in the ovariectomized females was detected. MeA neurons of proestrous rats, like the ovariectomized treated with estrogen, were significantly less affected by the KA. Testosterone produced a mild neuroprotective action, but dihydrotestosterone did not protect. A similar pattern was observed in all male groups. Together, the results indicate that estrogen protects MeA neurons from KA neurotoxicity. Androgens are only partially neuroprotective, with this effect being found only in testosterone, probably through its conversion to estrogen by aromatase.

  8. Sex Reversal and Comparative Data Undermine the W Chromosome and Support Z-linked DMRT1 as the Regulator of Gonadal Sex Differentiation in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Claire E; Major, Andrew T; Ayers, Katie L; Brown, Rosie J; Mariette, Mylene; Sackton, Timothy B; Smith, Craig A

    2017-09-01

    The exact genetic mechanism regulating avian gonadal sex differentiation has not been completely resolved. The most likely scenario involves a dosage mechanism, whereby the Z-linked DMRT1 gene triggers testis development. However, the possibility still exists that the female-specific W chromosome may harbor an ovarian determining factor. In this study, we provide evidence that the universal gene regulating gonadal sex differentiation in birds is Z-linked DMRT1 and not a W-linked (ovarian) factor. Three candidate W-linked ovarian determinants are HINTW, female-expressed transcript 1 (FET1), and female-associated factor (FAF). To test the association of these genes with ovarian differentiation in the chicken, we examined their expression following experimentally induced female-to-male sex reversal using the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD). Administration of FAD on day 3 of embryogenesis induced a significant loss of aromatase enzyme activity in female gonads and masculinization. However, expression levels of HINTW, FAF, and FET1 were unaltered after experimental masculinization. Furthermore, comparative analysis showed that FAF and FET1 expression could not be detected in zebra finch gonads. Additionally, an antibody raised against the predicted HINTW protein failed to detect it endogenously. These data do not support a universal role for these genes or for the W sex chromosome in ovarian development in birds. We found that DMRT1 (but not the recently identified Z-linked HEMGN gene) is male upregulated in embryonic zebra finch and emu gonads, as in the chicken. As chicken, zebra finch, and emu exemplify the major evolutionary clades of birds, we propose that Z-linked DMRT1, and not the W sex chromosome, regulates gonadal sex differentiation in birds. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  9. Effects Of Treatment With Radioactive Iodine On Gonadal Functions In Patients With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fard Esfahani A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with radioactive iodine on the function of gonads in males and females with follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Consenting patients in the reproductive age were grouped according to the cumulative dose of received radioiodine and followed for at least 12 months. For all men, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured; some (53 cases were also studied by semen analysis. For women, tests for serum levels of LH, FSH, estrogen, and progesterone were performed. Results: Overall, 246 patients (159 females, 87 males were studied. In 87.4% of men, there was an increase in serum FSH level after radioiodine therapy, in 20.7% of whom the level remained high during follow-up period. The average serum level of FSH after each course of treatment was significantly higher than the level before treatment (p<0.01, and there was a meaningful correlation with the cumulative dose of received iodine (p<0.001. Reduced number of sperms was shown in 35.8% of male patients, among whom 73.7% also showed reduced motility. In 36.8% of the patients with reduced sperm number (13.2% of the total, this finding was persistent during the follow-up period. Increased level of FSH was correlated with reduced sperm counts in all doses (pgonadal-hypophyseal hormones and treatment with radioactive iodine was found, and there were no signs and symptoms of sexual dysfunction. Infertility was not noticed in any patient and no case of abortion was found. Conclusion: It seems that cells in spermatogonia lineage (in contrast to Leydig cells are radiosensitive, with the sensitivity related to the cumulative dose of received radioactive iodine. But in the oogonia cell line, the radiosensitivity is

  10. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Hefei; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Gang

    2016-09-15

    Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the developing gonads. Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. Further examination revealed reduction in cell proliferation and abnormal somatic cell differentiation in the nr0b1 mutant gonads at the undifferentiated and bi-potential ovary stages. Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of changes in food supply at the time of sex differentiation on the gonadal transcriptome of juvenile fish. Implications for natural and farmed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Díaz

    Full Text Available Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish.This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1 4-month-old sexually undifferentiated fish, comparing the gonads of fish with the highest vs. the lowest growth, to explore a possible link between transcriptome and future sex, and 2 testis from 11-month-old juveniles where growth had been manipulated through changes in food supply. The four groups used were: i sustained fast growth, ii sustained slow growth, iii accelerated growth, iv decelerated growth. The transcriptome of undifferentiated gonads was not drastically affected by initial natural differences in growth. Further, changes in the expression of genes associated with protein turnover were seen, favoring catabolism in slow-growing fish and anabolism in fast-growing fish. Moreover, while fast-growing fish took energy from glucose, as deduced from the pathways affected and the analysis of protein-protein interactions examined, in slow-growing fish lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis was favored. Interestingly, the highest transcriptomic differences were found when forcing initially fast-growing fish to decelerate their growth, while accelerating growth of initially slow-growing fish resulted in full transcriptomic convergence with sustained fast-growing fish.Food availability during sex differentiation shapes the juvenile testis transcriptome, as evidenced by adaptations to different energy balances. Remarkably, this occurs in absence of major histological changes in the testis. Thus, fish are able to recover transcriptionally their testes if they are provided with enough food supply during sex

  12. Proteomic approach for identifying gonad differential proteins in the oyster (Crassostrea angulata) following food-chain contamination with HgCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Hong; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2013-12-06

    Hg discharged into the environmental waters can generally be bioaccumulated, transformed and transmited by living organisms, thus resulting in the formation of Hg-toxicity food chains. The pathway and toxicology of food chain contaminated with environmental Hg are rarely revealed by proteomics. Here, we showed that differential proteomics had the potential to understand reproduction toxicity mechanism in marine molluscs through the Hg-contaminated food chain. Hg bioaccumulation was found in every link of the HgCl2-Chlorella vulgaris-oyster-mice food chain. Morphological observations identified the lesions in both the oyster gonad and the mice ovary. Differential proteomics was used to study the mechanisms of Hg toxicity in the oyster gonad and to find some biomarkers of Hg contamination in food chain. Using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, we identified 13 differential protein spots, of which six were up-regulated, six were down-regulated, while one was undecided. A portion of these differential proteins was further confirmed using real-time PCR and western blotting methods. Their major functions involved binding, protein translocation, catalysis, regulation of energy metabolism, reproductive functioning and structural molecular activity. Among these proteins, 14-3-3 protein, GTP binding protein, arginine kinase (AK) and 71kDa heat shock connate protein (HSCP 71) are considered to be suitable biomarkers of environmental Hg contamination. Furthermore, we established the gene correspondence, responding to Hg reproductive toxicity, between mouse and oyster, and then used real-time PCR to analyze mRNA differential expression of the corresponding genes in mice. The results indicated that the mechanism of Hg reproductive toxicity in mouse was similar to that in oyster. We suggest that the proteomics would be further developed in application research of food safety including toxicological mechanism. It is well known that mercury (Hg) is one of the best toxic metal elements in

  13. Androgen induces gonadal soma-derived factor, Gsdf, in XX gonads correlated to sex-reversal but not Dmrt1 directly, in the teleost fish, northern medaka (Oryzias sakaizumii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Myosho, Taijun; Sato, Tadashi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Tohru

    2016-11-15

    In the inbred HNI-II strain of Oryzias sakaizumii, Dmy and Gsdf are expressed in XY gonads from Stages 35 and 36, respectively, similarly to the inbred Hd-rR strain of Oryzias latipes. However, Dmrt1 respectively becomes detectable at Stage 36 and 5 days post hatching (dph) in the two strains. In XX HNI-II embryos, 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) induces Gsdf mRNA from Stage 36, accompanied by complete sex-reversal in all treated individuals (MT, 10 ng/mL), while Dmrt1 mRNA was first detectable at 5 dph. In XX d-rR, MT induced Gsdf mRNA expression and sex-reversal in only some of the treated individuals. Together, these results suggest the testis differentiation cascade in XY individuals differs between the HNI-II and Hd-rR strains. In addition, it is suggested that androgen-induced XX sex-reversal proceeds via an androgen-Gsdf-Dmrt1 cascade and that Gsdf plays an important role in sex-reversal in medaka. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of cadmium on growth, metamorphosis and gonadal sex differentiation in tadpoles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at 0, 1, 8. 85 or 860 mu g L(-1) in FETAX medium from 0 to 86 d postfertilization. Premetamorphic tadpoles were sampled on day 3 1; pre and prometamorphic tadpoles on day 49; and frogs (NF stage 66) between days 50 and 86. Survival, snout-vent length (SVL), tail length, total length, hindlimb length (HLL), initiation of metamorphic climax, size at and completion of metamorphosis, and gonadal condition and sex ratio (assessed histologically) were determined. Survival was unaffected by Cd until day 49, but increased mortality was observed after day 49 at 860 mu g Cd L(-1). On day 31, when tadpoles were in early premetamorphosis, inhibitory effects on tadpole growth were observed only at 860 mu g Cd L(-1). On day 49, when most tadpoles where in late premetamorphosis/early prometamorphosis, reductions in SVL, HLL and total length were observed at 8 and 860 but not 85 mu g L(-1), thus creating a U-shaped size distribution at 0-85 mu g Cd L(-1). However, this U-shaped size pattern was not evident in postmetamorphic individuals. In fact, frog size at completion of metamorphosis was slightly smaller at 85 mu g Cd L(-1) relative to control animals. These observations confirmed a recent report of a Cd concentration-dependent bimodal growth pattern in late-premetamorphic Xenopus tadpoles, but also showed that growth responses to varying Cd concentrations change with development. The fraction of animals initiating or completing metamorphosis during days 50-86 was reduced in a Cd concentration-dependent manner. Testicular histology and population sex ratios were unaffected by Cd suggesting that, unlike mammals, Cd is not strongly estrogenic in Xenopus tadpoles.

  15. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate neurotoxicity of HIV and cocaine: testosterone and ICI 182,780 sensitive mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mactutus Charles F

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV Associated Dementia (HAD is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection that erodes the quality of life for patients and burdens health care providers. Intravenous drug use is a major route of HIV transmission, and drug use is associated with increased HAD. Specific proteins released as a consequence of HIV infection (e.g., gp120, the HIV envelope protein and Tat, the nuclear transactivating protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In primary cultures of human fetal brain tissue, subtoxic doses of gp120 and Tat are capable of interacting with a physiologically relevant dose of cocaine, to produce a significant synergistic neurotoxicity. Using this model system, the neuroprotective potential of gonadal steroids was investigated. Results 17β-Estradiol (17β-E2, but not 17α-estradiol (17α-E2, was protective against this combined neurotoxicity. Progesterone (PROG afforded limited neuroprotection, as did dihydrotestosterone (DHT. The efficacy of 5α-testosterone (T-mediated neuroprotection was robust, similar to that provided by 17β-E2. In the presence of the specific estrogen receptor (ER antagonist, ICI-182,780, T's neuroprotection was completely blocked. Thus, T acts through the ER to provide neuroprotection against HIV proteins and cocaine. Interestingly, cholesterol also demonstrated concentration-dependent neuroprotection, possibly attributable to cholesterol's serving as a steroid hormone precursor in neurons. Conclusion Collectively, the present data indicate that cocaine has a robust interaction with the HIV proteins gp120 and Tat that produces severe neurotoxicity, and this toxicity can be blocked through pretreatment with ER agonists.

  16. Cloning, localization and differential expression of Neuropeptide-Y during early brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Anitha, Arumugam; Murugananthkumar, Raju; Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar; Bhasker, Dharavath; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2017-09-15

    Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) has diverse physiological functions which are extensively studied in vertebrates. However, regulatory role of NPY in relation to brain ontogeny and recrudescence with reference to reproduction is less understood in fish. Present report for the first time evaluated the significance of NPY by transient esiRNA silencing and also analyzed its expression during brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus. As a first step, full-length cDNA of NPY was cloned from adult catfish brain, which shared high homology with its counterparts from other teleosts upon phylogenetic analysis. Tissue distribution revealed dominant expression of NPY in brain and testis. NPY expression increased during brain development wherein the levels were higher in 100 and 150days post hatch females than the respective age-matched males. Seasonal cycle analysis showed high expression of NPY in brain during pre-spawning phase in comparison with other reproductive phases. Localization studies exhibited the presence of NPY, abundantly, in the regions of preoptic area, hypothalamus and pituitary. Transient silencing of NPY-esiRNA directly into the brain significantly decreased NPY expression in both the male and female brain of catfish which further resulted in significant decrease of transcripts of tryptophan hydroxylase 2, catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH), tyrosine hydroxylase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in brain and luteinizing hormone-β/gonadotropin-II (lh-β/GTH-II) in pituitary exhibiting its influence on gonadal axis. In addition, significant decrease of several ovary-related transcripts was observed in NPY-esiRNA silenced female catfish, indicating the plausible role of NPY in ovary through cfGnRH-GTH axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen

    2009-01-01

    was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...

  18. Differential regulation of kiss1 expression by melatonin and gonadal hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bolborea, M; Bentsen, A H

    2010-01-01

    In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs...... differentially regulate Kiss1 expression in the ARC and the AVPV. Kiss1 expression was examined by in situ hybridization in both male and female hamsters kept in various experimental conditions, and we observed that 1) SD exposure markedly reduced Kiss1 expression in the ARC and AVPV of male and female hamsters...... as compared to LD animals, 2) sex steroid treatment in SD-adapted male and female hamsters increased the number of Kiss1 neurons in the AVPV but decreased it in the ARC, 3) melatonin administration to LD-adapted hamsters decreased Kiss1 mRNA level in both the AVPV and the ARC in intact animals, whereas...

  19. Differential regulation of kiss1 expression by melatonin and gonadal hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bolborea, M; Bentsen, A H

    2010-01-01

    ). In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Because both the duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin and circulating sex steroid levels vary with photoperiod, the aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin and sex steroids...... differentially regulate Kiss1 expression in the ARC and the AVPV. Kiss1 expression was examined by in situ hybridization in both male and female hamsters kept in various experimental conditions, and we observed that 1) SD exposure markedly reduced Kiss1 expression in the ARC and AVPV of male and female hamsters...... as compared to LD animals, 2) sex steroid treatment in SD-adapted male and female hamsters increased the number of Kiss1 neurons in the AVPV but decreased it in the ARC, 3) melatonin administration to LD-adapted hamsters decreased Kiss1 mRNA level in both the AVPV and the ARC in intact animals, whereas...

  20. Gonadal doses from radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Morris, N.D.

    1980-06-01

    The method of calculation of gonadal doses arising from different radiotherapeutic procedures is described. The measurement of scatter factors to the gonads from superficial and deep therapy is detailed and the analytic fits to the experimental data, as a function of field position, field size and beam energy are given. The data used to calculate the gonadal doses from treatments using linear accelerators, teletherapy and sealed sources are described and the analytic fits to the data given

  1. Differential regulation of kiss1 expression by melatonin and gonadal hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bolborea, M; Bentsen, A H

    2010-01-01

    In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs). In rode......In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs...... differentially regulate Kiss1 expression in the ARC and the AVPV. Kiss1 expression was examined by in situ hybridization in both male and female hamsters kept in various experimental conditions, and we observed that 1) SD exposure markedly reduced Kiss1 expression in the ARC and AVPV of male and female hamsters...... as compared to LD animals, 2) sex steroid treatment in SD-adapted male and female hamsters increased the number of Kiss1 neurons in the AVPV but decreased it in the ARC, 3) melatonin administration to LD-adapted hamsters decreased Kiss1 mRNA level in both the AVPV and the ARC in intact animals, whereas...

  2. The large Maf factor Traffic Jam controls gonad morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle A; Alls, Jeffrey D; Avancini, Rita M; Koo, Karen; Godt, Dorothea

    2003-11-01

    Interactions between somatic and germline cells are critical for the normal development of egg and sperm. Here we show that the gene traffic jam (tj) produces a soma-specific factor that controls gonad morphogenesis and is required for female and male fertility. tj encodes the only large Maf factor in Drosophila melanogaster, an orthologue of the atypical basic Leu zipper transcription factors c-Maf and MafB/Kreisler in vertebrates. Expression of tj occurs in somatic gonadal cells that are in direct contact with germline cells throughout development. In tj mutant gonads, somatic cells fail to inter-mingle and properly envelop germline cells, causing an early block in germ cell differentiation. In addition, tj mutant somatic cells show an increase in the level of expression for several adhesion molecules. We propose that tj is a critical modulator of the adhesive properties of somatic cells, facilitating germline-soma interactions that are essential for germ cell differentiation.

  3. Differential equations inverse and direct problems

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    DEGENERATE FIRST ORDER IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS IN BANACH SPACES A NONISOTHERMAL DYNAMICAL GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS THEOREMSSOME GLOBAL IN TIME RESULTS FOR INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL PARABOLIC INVERSE PROBLEMSFOURTH ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS WITH GENERAL WENTZELL BOUNDARY CONDITIONSTUDY OF ELLIPTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN UMD SPACESDEGENERATE INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF PARABOLIC TYPE EXPONENTIAL ATTRACTORS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR EQUATIONSCONVERGENCE TO STATIONARY STATES OF SOLUTIONS TO THE SEMILINEAR EQUATION OF VISCOELASTICITY ASYMPTOTIC BEHA

  4. Direct effect of gonadal and contraceptive steroids on insulin release from mouse pancreatic islets in organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1984-01-01

    Sex steroids are supposed to contribute to the normal glucose homeostasis and to the altered glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy and during contraception. In the present study isolated mouse pancreatic islets were maintained in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 0.5% newborn...... on the glucose-stimulated insulin release probably by increasing the glucose sensitivity. The results suggest that the alterations in glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy and during treatment with certain oral contraceptives may in part be due to a direct effect of progestins on the beta-cell....

  5. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Fractional Directional Differentiation and Its Application for Multiscale Texture Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaobang Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the directional derivative expression of Taylor formula for two-variable function from Taylor formula of one-variable function. Further, it proposes a new concept, fractional directional differentiation (FDD, and corresponding theories. To achieve the numerical calculation, the paper deduces power series expression of FDD. Moreover, the paper discusses the construction of FDD mask in the four quadrants, respectively, for digital image. The differential coefficients of every direction are not the same along the eight directions in the four quadrants, which is the biggest difference by contrast to general fractional differentiation and can reflect different fractional change rates along different directions, and this benefits to enlarge the differences among the image textures. Experiments show that, for texture-rich digital images, the capability of nonlinearly enhancing comprehensive texture details by FDD is better than those by the general fractional differentiation and Butterworth filter. By quantity analysis, it shows that state-of-the-art effect of texture enhancement is obtained by FDD.

  7. Evolutionary Changes in Sensitivity to Hormonally Induced Gonadal Sex Reversal in a Frog Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ikuo; Ohtani, Hiromi; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Ezaz, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese frog Glandirana rugosa is unique in that it shows geographic variation in sex chromosome differentiation and heterogametic sex determination. To elucidate the cause of interpopulation differences in gonadal sex differentiation, we investigated hormonally induced sex reversal and the expression patterns of genes associated with sex determination during early tadpole development. We found that sex reversal was easily induced in XX females and XY males of 2 forms (West-Japan and East-Japan) of G. rugosa with the ancestral homomorphic sex chromosomes under male heterogametic sex determination. During sex reversal, expression of CYP19 and/or FOXL2 was dependent on the phenotypic sex of the gonad. In contrast, sex reversal was not induced in ZW females of a population with a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome system or in XX females or XY males in a population with a heteromorphic XY sex chromosome system. The latter 2 populations are evolutionarily derived forms. These results indicate an evolutionary direction for the gonadal sex differentiation mechanism. The original system was highly sensitive to sex hormones and allowed almost complete sex reversal. From this ancestral form, a new system evolved that was resistant to hormones and showed a change in the heterogametic sex and the sex chromosome differentiation mechanism. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Milton, Sarah L.; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP) at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:24705165

  9. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Milton, Sarah L; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra

    2013-06-07

    The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP) at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

  10. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra García-Gasca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

  11. Differential Binding Models for Direct and Reverse Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Isaac; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2016-03-10

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a technique to measure the stoichiometry and thermodynamics from binding experiments. Identifying an appropriate mathematical model to evaluate titration curves of receptors with multiple sites is challenging, particularly when the stoichiometry or binding mechanism is not available. In a recent theoretical study, we presented a differential binding model (DBM) to study calorimetry titrations independently of the interaction among the binding sites (Herrera, I.; Winnik, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 8659-8672). Here, we build upon our DBM and show its practical application to evaluate calorimetry titrations of receptors with multiple sites independently of the titration direction. Specifically, we present a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the general form d[S]/dV that can be integrated numerically to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of free and bound species S at every injection step and, subsequently, to evaluate the volume-normalized heat signal (δQ(V) = δq/dV) of direct and reverse calorimetry titrations. Additionally, we identify factors that influence the shape of the titration curve and can be used to optimize the initial concentrations of titrant and analyte. We demonstrate the flexibility of our updated DBM by applying these differentials and a global regression analysis to direct and reverse calorimetric titrations of gadolinium ions with multidentate ligands of increasing denticity, namely, diglycolic acid (DGA), citric acid (CIT), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and use statistical tests to validate the stoichiometries for the metal-ligand pairs studied.

  12. Engineering kidney cells: reprogramming and directed differentiation to renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael M; Tosic, Jelena; Pichler, Roman; Arnold, Sebastian J; Lienkamp, Soeren S

    2017-07-01

    Growing knowledge of how cell identity is determined at the molecular level has enabled the generation of diverse tissue types, including renal cells from pluripotent or somatic cells. Recently, several in vitro protocols involving either directed differentiation or transcription-factor-based reprogramming to kidney cells have been established. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells can be guided towards a kidney fate by exposing them to combinations of growth factors or small molecules. Here, renal development is recapitulated in vitro resulting in kidney cells or organoids that show striking similarities to mammalian embryonic nephrons. In addition, culture conditions are also defined that allow the expansion of renal progenitor cells in vitro. Another route towards the generation of kidney cells is direct reprogramming. Key transcription factors are used to directly impose renal cell identity on somatic cells, thus circumventing the pluripotent stage. This complementary approach to stem-cell-based differentiation has been demonstrated to generate renal tubule cells and nephron progenitors. In-vitro-generated renal cells offer new opportunities for modelling inherited and acquired renal diseases on a patient-specific genetic background. These cells represent a potential source for developing novel models for kidney diseases, drug screening and nephrotoxicity testing and might represent the first steps towards kidney cell replacement therapies. In this review, we summarize current approaches for the generation of renal cells in vitro and discuss the advantages of each approach and their potential applications.

  13. Estrogen alters gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf)/Foxl2 expression levels in the testes associated with testis-ova differentiation in adult medaka, Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Chiba, Ayaka; Sato, Tadashi; Myosho, Taijun; Yamamoto, Jun; Okamura, Tetsuro; Onishi, Yuta; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Iguchi, Taisen; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2017-10-01

    Testis-ova differentiation in sexually mature male medaka (Oryzias latipes) is easily induced by estrogenic chemicals, indicating that spermatogonia persist in sexual bipotentiality, even in mature testes in medaka. By contrast, the effects of estrogen on testicular somatic cells associated with testis-ova differentiation in medaka remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the dynamics of sex-related genes (Gsdf, Dmrt1, and Foxl2) expressed in Sertoli cells in the mature testes of adult medaka during estrogen-induced testis-ova differentiation. When mature male medaka were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; 800ng/L), testis-ova first appeared after EB treatment for 14days (observed as the first oocytes of the leptotene-zygotene stage). However, the testis remained structurally unchanged, even after EB treatment for 28days. Although Foxl2 is a female-specific sex gene, EB treatment for 7days induced Foxl2/FOXL2 expression in all Sertoli cell-enclosed spermatogonia before testis-ova first appeared; however, Foxl2 was not detected in somatic cells in control testes. Conversely, Sertoli-cell-specific Gsdf mRNA expression levels significantly decreased after EB treatment for 14days, and no changes were observed in DMRT1 localization following EB treatment, whereas Dmrt1 mRNA levels increased significantly. Furthermore, after EB exposure, FOXl2 and DMRT1 were co-localized in Sertoli cells during testis-ova differentiation, although FOXL2 localization was undetectable in Sertoli-cell-enclosed apoptotic testis-ova, whereas DMRT1 remained localized in Sertoli cells. These results indicated for the first time that based on the expression of female-specific sex genes, feminization of Sertoli cells precedes testis-ova differentiation induced by estrogen in mature testes in medaka; however, complete feminization of Sertoli cells was not induced in this study. Additionally, it is suggested strongly that Foxl2 and Gsdf expression constitute potential molecular markers for

  14. Directed technical change and differentiation of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Vincent M.; Loeschel, Andreas; Reilly, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward looking model that captures empirical links between CO 2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We find our most cost effective climate policy to include a combination of R and D subsidies and CO 2 emission constraints, although R and D subsidies raise the shadow value of the CO 2 constraint (i.e. CO 2 price) because of a strong rebound effect from stimulating innovation. Furthermore, we find that cost effectiveness of climate policy improves if it is differentiated between technologies. Even our rudimentary distinction between CO 2 intensive technologies and non-CO 2 intensive technologies lead to this result. Such differentiated climate policy encourages growth in the non-CO 2 intensive sectors and discourages growth in CO 2 intensive sectors by harnessing positive effects of technology externalities on total factor productivity in the former and letting the latter bear relatively more of the abatement burden. This result is robust to whether emission constraints, R and D subsidies or combinations of both are used as climate policy instruments. (author)

  15. EMBARAZO EXITOSO EN PACIENTE CON DISGENESIA GONADAL PURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ortiz A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Objetivo: Reporte de un caso de embarazo exitoso en una paciente con disgenesia gonadal pura.
    Diseño de estudio: Informe de caso.
    Lugar: Centro de Fertilidad y Reproducción Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá (REPROTEC.
    Paciente: Una paciente con disgenesia gonadal 46,XY confi rmada.
    Intervención: Gonadectomía por laparoscopia, fertilización in vitro con donación de oocitos, transferencia de embriones en blastocisto (2 y parto por cesárMea.
    Resultado principal: Embarazo exitoso y nacido vivo.
    Conclusiones: Las pacientes con disgenesia gonadal pura 46,XY; tienen como opción de fertilidad, la donación de ovocitos y transferencia de embriones con adecuadas tasas de embarazos exitosos.

    Palabras clave: síndrome de Swyer, disgenesia gonadal pura, fertilización in vitro

    SUCCESSFUL PREGNANCY IN A PATIENT WITH PURE GONADAL DYSGENESIS

    Abstract

    Sexual differentiation is a complex process, that begins from conception with determination of genetic sex and from sixth week, gonadal differentiation; any alteration in any of the tracts can cause conditions where there is discordance between phenotype and genotype, that are called alterations in sexual development. Swyers syndrome and the syndrome of androgen insensitivity share the characteristics of a female phenotype with 46, XY karyotype.

    Key words: Swyer Syndrome, Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis, in vitro fertilization.

  16. Transcriptomic analyses reveal novel genes with sexually dimorphic expression in the zebrafish gonad and brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini Sreenivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our knowledge on zebrafish reproduction is very limited. We generated a gonad-derived cDNA microarray from zebrafish and used it to analyze large-scale gene expression profiles in adult gonads and other organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified 116638 gonad-derived zebrafish expressed sequence tags (ESTs, 21% of which were isolated in our lab. Following in silico normalization, we constructed a gonad-derived microarray comprising 6370 unique, full-length cDNAs from differentiating and adult gonads. Labeled targets from adult gonad, brain, kidney and 'rest-of-body' from both sexes were hybridized onto the microarray. Our analyses revealed 1366, 881 and 656 differentially expressed transcripts (34.7% novel that showed highest expression in ovary, testis and both gonads respectively. Hierarchical clustering showed correlation of the two gonadal transcriptomes and their similarities to those of the brains. In addition, we have identified 276 genes showing sexually dimorphic expression both between the brains and between the gonads. By in situ hybridization, we showed that the gonadal transcripts with the strongest array signal intensities were germline-expressed. We found that five members of the GTP-binding septin gene family, from which only one member (septin 4 has previously been implicated in reproduction in mice, were all strongly expressed in the gonads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have generated a gonad-derived zebrafish cDNA microarray and demonstrated its usefulness in identifying genes with sexually dimorphic co-expression in both the gonads and the brains. We have also provided the first evidence of large-scale differential gene expression between female and male brains of a teleost. Our microarray would be useful for studying gonad development, differentiation and function not only in zebrafish but also in related teleosts via cross-species hybridizations. Since several genes have been shown to play similar

  17. Temperature regulates SOX9 expression in cultured gonads of Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mendoza, N; Harley, V R; Merchant-Larios, H

    2001-01-15

    Although sex determination starts in the gonads, this may not be the case for species with temperature sex determination (TSD). Since temperature affects the whole embryo, extragonadal thermosensitive cells may produce factors that induce gonadal sex determination as a secondary event. To establish if gonads of a species with TSD respond directly to temperature, pairs of gonads were cultured, one at female-promoting temperature (FPT) and the contralateral at male-promoting temperature (MPT). Histological and immunohistochemical detection of SOX9 revealed that the response to temperature of isolated gonads was similar to that of the gonads of whole embryos. While gonads cultured at MPT maintained SOX9 expression, it was downregulated in gonads at FPT. Downregulation of SOX9 took longer in gonads cultured at stage 23 than in gonads cultured at stage 24, suggesting that a developmental clock was already established at the onset of culture. To find out if sex commitment occurs in vitro, gonads were switched from FPT to MPT at different days. Results showed that the ovarian pathway was established after 4 days of culture. The present demonstration that gonads have an autonomous temperature detector that regulates SOX9 expression provides a useful starting point from which the molecular pathways underlying TSD can be elucidated. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  19. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  20. Sex differences in brain developing in the presence or absence of gonads

    OpenAIRE

    Büdefeld, Tomaz; Grgurevic, Neza; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdic, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    Brain sexual differentiation results from the interaction of genetic and hormonal influences. The current study utilized a unique agonadal mouse model to determine relative contributions of genetic and gonadal hormone influences in the differentiation of selected brain regions. SF-1 knockout (SF-1 KO) mice are born without gonads and adrenal glands, and are not exposed to endogenous sex steroids during fetal/neonatal development. Consequently, male and female SF-1 KO mice are born with female...

  1. Delay differential equations recent advances and new directions

    CERN Document Server

    Balachandran, Balakumar; Gilsinn, David E

    2009-01-01

    This is a cohesive set of contributions from leading experts on the theory and applications of functional and delay differential equations. The book focuses on theory, symbolic, and numerical methods, which show the practical applications of the concepts.

  2. Molecular initiating events of the intersex phenotype: Low-dose exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol rapidly regulates molecular networks associated with gonad differentiation in the adult fathead minnow testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R.; Isaacs, Meghan A.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyni@yahoo.ca

    2016-12-15

    testis, despite the fact that dmrt1 itself was not different in expression from control males. Transcriptional networks involving forkhead box L2 (foxl2) (transcript involved in ovarian follicle development) were increased in expression in the testis. Noteworthy was that a gene network associated to granulosa cell development was increased over 100%, suggesting that this transcriptome network may be important for monitoring estrogenic exposures. Other cell processes rapidly downregulated by EE2 at the transcript level included glucose homeostasis, response to heavy metal, amino acid catabolism, and the cyclooxygenase pathway. Conversely, lymphocyte chemotaxis, intermediate filament polymerization, glucocorticoid metabolism, carbohydrate utilization, and anterior/posterior axis specification were increased. These data provide new insight into the transcriptional responses that are perturbed prior to gonadal remodeling and intersex following exposure to estrogens. These data demonstrate that low concentrations of EE2 (1) rapidly suppresses male hormone production, (2) down-regulate molecular networks related to male sex differentiation, and (3) induce transcriptional networks related to granulosa cell development in the adult testis. These responses are hypothesized to be key molecular initiating events that occur prior to the development of the intersex phenotype following estrogenic exposures.

  3. Differential Item Functioning (DIF): Current Problems and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    With the rising concerns over the fairness of language tests, Differential Item Functioning (DIF) has been increasingly applied in bias analysis. Despite its widespread use in psychometric circles, DIF is facing a number of serious problems. This paper is an attempt to shed light on a number of the issues involved in DIF analysis. Specifically,…

  4. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell differentiation in 3D too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Allison; Rehfeldt, Florian; Discher, Dennis

    2009-03-01

    Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tissues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown here to specify lineage andcommit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During the initial week in culture, reprogramming of these lineages is possible with addition of soluble induction factors, but after several weeks in culture, the cells commit to the lineage specified by matrix elasticity, consistent with the elasticity-insensitive commitment of differentiated cell types. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks all elasticitydirected lineage specification--without strongly perturbing many other aspects of cell function and shape. The results have significant implications for understanding physical effects of the in vivo microenvironment and also for therapeutic uses of stem cells.

  5. On semi-G-V-type I concepts for directionally differentiable multiobjective programming problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Antczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of nonconvex nonsmooth multiobjective programming problems with directionally differentiable functions is considered. The so-called G-V-type I objective and constraint functions and their generalizations are introduced for such nonsmooth vector optimization problems. Based upon these generalized invex functions, necessary and sufficient optimality conditions are established for directionally differentiable multiobjective programming problems. Thus, new Fritz John type and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type necessary optimality conditions are proved for the considered directionally differentiable multiobjective programming problem. Further, weak, strong and converse duality theorems are also derived for Mond-Weir type vector dual programs.

  6. Emotional consequences of collective action participation: differentiating self-directed and outgroup-directed emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia C; Tausch, Nicole; Wagner, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    The present research examines the emotional and behavioral consequences of collective action participation. It demonstrates that "positive" and "negative" emotions can be experienced simultaneously as a result of collective action participation, yet it is important to distinguish outgroup-directed from self-directed emotions. Results of two experiments (N = 71 and N = 101) that manipulated participation in collective action illustrate that whereas collective action participants experience more outgroup-directed anger and contempt, they feel more self-directed positive affect. Furthermore, collective action participation predicted willingness to engage in moderate and radical collective actions in the future. These relations were mediated by outgroup-directed, but not by self-directed, emotions, suggesting that outgroup-directed rather than self-directed emotions play a crucial role in the maintenance of protest behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Sperm Production Rate, Gonadal and Extragonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) rams, 1.5 to 2.5 years of age and weighing between 15 kg to 20 kg were used to determine daily sperm production, gonadal and exragonadal sperm reserves. Gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserves were estimated by the haemocytometric method, while the daily sperm production ...

  8. Gonadal shielding and collimation information for pelvic radiography in podiatric practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalin, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pelvic x-rays are often necessary in podiatric practice, to aid in the diagnosis of podiatric and foot-related disorders. The disorders which warrant such x-rays are reviewed. The author urges caution in the administration of pelvic x-rays, citing the possible genetic effects of gonadal exposure to x-rays. Various methods of dose reduction are discussed, with special emphasis on collimators to confine radiation to the smallest body area and gonadal shields to protect the gonads when they fall within the direct x-ray beam.

  9. Microanatomical Study of Embryonic Gonadal Development in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittipon Intarapat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal development of quail embryos was examined histologically using histological and histochemical methods. In the present study, quail embryos were studied at various stages of incubation period based on phases of gonadogenesis. Germ cell migration was observed on day 3-4 but gonadal differentiation and gonadal function were observed on day 6–8 and day 11–14, respectively. During germ cell migration, quail primordial germ cells (qPGCs were successfully detected in both left and right genital ridges as well as the dorsal mesentery by lectin histochemistry. Unexpectedly, qPGCs-like cells were found next to the neural tube by Mallory-AZAN stain. During gonadal differentiation, embryonic sex can be distinguished histologically since day 8 of incubation. Embryonic testis exhibited a thin cortex, whereas embryonic ovary exhibited a thick cortex. Testicular cord formation was found in the medulla of embryonic testes while the lacunae and fat-laden cells were found in the medulla of embryonic ovary during gonadal function. This is the first report on a comparison of phases of gonadogenesis and histochemical study of quail embryonic gonads in both sexes.

  10. Disorders of sexual development and associated changes in the pituitary-gonadal axis in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtels, J.J.C.W.M.; de Gier, J.; Kooistra, H.S.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Naan, E.C.; Zijlstra, C.; Okkens, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual differentiation depends on completion of chromosomal sex determination, gonadal differentiation, and development of the phenotypic sex. An irregularity in any of these three steps can lead to a disorder in sexual development (DSD). We examined nine dogs with DSD by abdominal

  11. Incubation temperature and gonadal sex affect growth and physiology in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, A; Crews, D

    1995-05-01

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), in which the temperature at which an egg incubates determines the sex of the individual, occurs in egg-laying reptiles of three separate orders. Previous studies have shown that the embryonic environment can have effects lasting beyond the period of sex determination. We investigated the relative roles of incubation temperature, exogenous estradiol, and gonadal sex (testis vs. ovary) in the differentiation of adult morphological and physiological traits of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. The results indicate that incubation temperature, steroid hormones, and gonads interact in the development of morphological and physiological characters with incubation temperature resulting in the greatest differences in adult phenotype. Incubation temperature did not affect reproductive success directly, but may influence offspring survival in natural situations through effects on adult female body size. Postnatal hormones seem to be more influential in the formation of adult phenotypes than prenatal hormones. These results demonstrate that TSD species can be used to investigate the effects of the physical environment on development in individuals without a predetermined genetic sex and thus provide further insight into the roles of gonadal sex and the embryonic environment in sexual differentiation.

  12. Analysis of meiosis regulators in human gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    and to investigate a possible role of DMRT1 in the regulation of meiotic entry. The expression pattern of DMRT1, STRA8, SCP3, DMC1, NANOS3, CYP26B1 and NANOS2 was investigated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in a series of human testis samples from fetal life to adulthood, and in fetal ovaries. DMRT1...... was expressed in testes throughout development but with marked spatio-temporal changes. At the early fetal period of 8-20 gestational weeks (GW) and at infantile mini-puberty, DMRT1 was predominantly expressed in Sertoli cells, whereas at later stages of gestation (22-40 GW), during childhood and in post......The mitosis-meiosis switch is a key event in the differentiation of germ cells. In humans, meiosis is initiated in fetal ovaries, whereas in testes meiotic entry is inhibited until puberty. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of meiosis regulators in human gonads...

  13. Expression of PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor during rat gonadal development in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Ghosh, Pamela; Roy, Sib Sankar

    2011-01-01

    PITX2, a multifunctional Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor, plays obligatory role during development of organs like heart, brain and pituitary. It regulates differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Although we earlier reported the Pitx2/PITX2 expression in gonad, but the expression pattern of its different isoforms in mammalian gonads especially during development is still not known. As PITX2 participates in the development of multiple organs and different homeobox genes have been shown to control gonadal functions, we wanted to investigate the role of PITX2 in gonadal development and its function. The objective of our study was to know the expression profile of different Pitx2/PITX2 isoforms and its localization throughout the development of gonads. Here we show the temporal and spatial expression pattern of Pitx2/PITX2 and its localization throughout the embryonic and postnatal stages of rat gonads. Pitx2/PITX2 expression profile reveals the differential and dimorphic expression pattern of its two isoforms PITX2B2 and-Cβ throughout the embryonic development stages and also in the postnatal stages, where it becomes more prominent. This is the first report where PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor shows isoform-specific sexually dimorphic expression. In addition, PITX2 localization was found in the embryonic ovarian primordial germ cell clusters and germ cells inside the testicular cords and also in somatic cells. In adults, ovarian granulosa and theca cells as well as germ cells inside the seminiferous tubules in testis express PITX2. All the evidences suggest that the differential expression of PITX2 might be associated with sex-specific embryonic and postnatal gonadal development and the physiological processes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The union of somatic gonad precursors and primordial germ cells during C. elegans embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrschneider, Monica R.; Nance, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Somatic gonadal niche cells control the survival, differentiation, and proliferation of germline stem cells. The establishment of this niche-stem cell relationship is critical, and yet the precursors to these two cell types are often born at a distance from one another. The simple C. elegans gonadal primordium, which contains two somatic gonad precursors (SGPs) and two primordial germ cells (PGCs), provides an accessible model for determining how stem cell and niche cell precursors first assemble during development. To visualize the morphogenetic events that lead to formation of the gonadal primordium, we generated transgenic strains to label the cell membranes of the SGPs and PGCs and captured time-lapse movies as the gonadal primordium formed. We identify three distinct phases of SGP behavior: posterior migration along the endoderm towards the PGCs, extension of a single long projection around the adjacent PGC, and a dramatic wrapping over the PGC surfaces. We show that the endoderm and PGCs are dispensable for SGP posterior migration and initiation of projections. However, both tissues are required for the final positioning of the SGPs and the morphology of their projections, and PGCs are absolutely required for SGP wrapping behaviors. Finally, we demonstrate that the basement membrane component laminin, which localizes adjacent to the developing gonadal primordium, is required to prevent the SGPs from over-extending past the PGCs. Our findings provide a foundation for understanding the cellular and molecular regulation of the establishment of a niche-stem cell relationship. PMID:23562590

  15. Differential correction system of laser beam directional dithering based on symmetrical beamsplitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwei, Yang; Wei, Tao; Xiaoqia, Yin; Hui, Zhao

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a differential correction system with a differential optical path and a symmetrical beamsplitter for correcting the directional dithering of the laser beams. This system can split a collimated laser beam into two laser beams with equal and opposite movements. Thus, the positional averages of the two split laser beams remain constant irrespective of the dithering angle. The symmetrical beamsplitter designed based on transfer matrix principle is to balance the optical paths and irradiances of the two laser beams. Experimental results show that the directional dithering is reduced to less than one-pixel value. Finally, two examples show that this system can be widely used in one-dimensional measurement.

  16. Development of retroviral vectors for tissue-restricted expression in chicken embryonic gonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available The chicken embryo has long been a useful model organism for studying development, including sex determination and gonadal differentiation. However, manipulating gene expression specifically in the embryonic avian gonad has been difficult. The viral vector RCASBP can be readily used for embryo-wide transgene expression; however global mis-expression using this method can cause deleterious off-target effects and embryo-lethality. In an attempt to develop vectors for the over-expression of sequences in chicken embryonic urogenital tissues, the viral vector RCANBP was engineered to contain predicted promoter sequences of gonadal-expressed genes. Several promoters were analysed and it was found that although the SF1 promoter produced a tissue-restricted expression pattern that was highest in the mesonephros and liver, it was also higher in the gonads compared to the rest of the body. The location of EGFP expression from the SF1 promoter overlapped with several key gonad-expressed sex development genes; however expression was generally low-level and was not seen in all gonadal cells. To further validate this sequence the key testis determinant DMRT1 was over-expressed in female embryos, which due to insufficient levels had no effect on gonad development. The female gene aromatase was then over-expressed in male embryos, which disrupted the testis pathway as demonstrated by a reduction in AMH protein. Taken together, although these data showed that the SF1 promoter can be used for functional studies in ovo, a stronger promoter sequence would likely be required for the functional analysis of gonad genes that require high-level expression.

  17. The differentiation directions of the bone marrow stromal cells under modeling microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, Olga; Rodionova, Natalia; Katkova, Olena

    Within experiments on rats simulating microgravity by base load remove from back limbs (duration of the experiment 1,5 months) on marrow stromal cells cultures (ex vivo, in vitro) comprising osteogenic cells-predecessors, extracted from femurs, studied their peculiarities of the colony formation ablity, the cell structure, some cytological and ultra-structural characteristics and differentiation direction. It was found that that under microgravity conditions there is a decline of the stromal cells colony formation intensity, decrease of the colonies size and cells mitotic activity that indicates decrease of their growth potential. Both in control and in experiment the colonies were presented by population of low-differentiated cells, differentiated cells and mature cells. The comparative cytological and morphometric analysis have shown that the studied stromal cells in colonies have the smaller sizes, more elongated shape, and higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Cells composition in the experiment colonies is reliably different by the ratio of the low-differentiating to being differentiated cells; a ratio of low-differentiated to already differentiated cells; ratio of differentiated cells to total number of all cells. In comparison with control group, amount of the cells passed trough a differentiation stage and mature cells in colonies is decreased by 3 to 4 times. Among the differentiated stromal cells in colonies increasing amount of adipocytes was revealed. The analysis of electron microscope microphotographs showed that in osteogenic cells differentiated under microgravity conditions, there is a reduction of the specific volume of a granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi's complex and quantity of nuclei reduction that indicates depression of the specific biosyntheses process intensity in cells. The increase of lysosomes and myelinic structures quantity is linked to organelles partial reduction. Consolidation of mitochondrias is an evidence of the cells’ energy

  18. Gonadal sex chromosome complement in individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase-positive innervation is present at undifferentiated stages of the sea turtle Lepidochelis olivacea embryo gonads: implications for temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ospina, G; Jiménez-Trejo, F J; Favila, R; Moreno-Mendoza, N A; Granados Rojas, L; Barrios, F A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Merchant-Larios, H

    1999-07-19

    In embryos of different reptile species, incubation temperature triggers a cascade of endocrine events that lead to gonad sex differentiation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which temperature sets in motion this process are still controversial. Here, we begin evaluating the possible participation of the nervous system in temperature-dependent sex determination by showing the existence and origin of acetylcholinesterase (AchE)-positive nerve fibers in undifferentiated gonads of the Lepidochelys olivacea (L. olivacea) sea turtle putative male and female embryos, along the thermosensitive period for sex determination (TPSD; stages 20-27). AChE-positive nerve bundles and fibers were readily visualized until developmental stage 24 and thereafter. DiI injections and confocal imaging showed that some of these gonadal nerves arise from the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord levels, and might thus be sensory in nature. Because the vertebrate spinal cord is capable of integrating by itself thermoregulatory responses with no intervention of uppermost levels of the central nervous system, we also evaluated spinal cord maturation during the TPSD. The maturation of the spinal cord was more advanced in putative female than in male embryos, when sex determination is taking place for each sex; this process starts and ends earlier in male than in female embryos. Together these observations open the possibility that the spinal cord and the innervation derived from it could play a direct role in driving or modulating the process of temperature-dependent gonad sex determination and/or differentiation, particularly in female L. olivacea embryos.

  20. Fenotip Pada Kelainan Gonadal Disgenesis 46, Xy

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Prima Chaerunisa; Faradz, Sultana MH; Ariani, Mahayu Dewi

    2016-01-01

    Latar belakang: Fenotip pada pasien Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XY bervariasi dari wanita normal sampai ambigus genitalia hingga pria dengan undervirilisasi. Berdasarkan variasi fenotip ini, beberapa pasien dapat diidentifikasi sejak bayi, namun diagnosis juga dapat terlambat hingga usia pubertas.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui fenotip pada penderita Gonadal Dysgenesis 46,XY di CEBIOR Semarang.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain deskriptif retrospektif untuk mengetahui hasil gambaran fenotip pada p...

  1. Effects of oestradiol-enriched diet and of feeding with porcine testicular tissue on macroscopic gonadal sex in European eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.

    1996-01-01

    and 78% of oestradiol-treated eels developed female-gonads. Minced porcine testicular tissue fed to 2-g eels for up to 371 days had effects similar to oestradiol-enriched food (68% with female-gonads), whereas feeding for only 91 days had no effect during the next 8 months. Oestradiol-enriched food...... in porcine testicular tissue may also exert a feminizing influence. In all experiments the hormone-fed groups showed a tendency (not significant) towards increased growth rate. In small eels early rapid growth and differentiation of female-gonads were clearly correlated, both in hormone treated...

  2. Automatic differentiation of u- and n-serrated patterns in direct immunofluorescence images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Chenyu; Guo, Jiapan; Azzopardi, George; Meijer, Joost; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease of the skin. Manual u- and n-serrated patterns analysis in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) images is used in medical practice to differentiate EBA from other forms of pemphigoid. The manual analysis of serration

  3. 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) in direct detection optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Tokle, Torger; Jensen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact...

  4. Localization and distribution of gonadal proteins in the oviparous lizard Sceloporus aeneus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivia Rocio, Antonio-Rubio; Maricela, Villagrán-SantaCruz; Norma, Moreno-Mendoza

    2017-06-01

    Among vertebrates, several specific proteins are involved in the function and development of gonads. Several genes such as SOX9, FOXL2, DDX4, IFITM3, and DPPA3, are active during embryonic differentiation and maintain their expression in adult tissues, playing important roles in the function and development of the line cell, where these are produced. Among reptiles, molecular mechanisms for sex differentiation have been analyzed in turtles, crocodiles, and some lizards, while in adult stages such studies are scarce. The aim of this study was to locate and analyze the distribution of important gonadal proteins in adult and embryonic ovaries and testes of the oviparous lizard Sceloporus aeneus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Adult specimens and embryos of the lizard S. aeneus were collected in Milpa Alta, a suburb located Southwest of Mexico City. Expression of gonadal proteins was analyzed using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that SOX9 is located in Sertoli cells of embryonic and adult testes. FOXL2 is expressed in follicular cells of adult ovaries. DDX4 and IFITM3 are located in germ line cells as well as in follicular cells of adult ovaries. DPPA3 was observed in somatic and germ line cells of adult and embryonic gonads. Our observations show that important molecules of vertebrate ovaries and testes are conserved in S. aeneus and it is suggested that these may have a similar role during gonadal development and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. PRECO-D2: program for calculating preequilibrium and direct reaction double differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbach, C.

    1985-02-01

    The code PRECO-D2 uses the exciton model for preequilibrium nuclear reactions to describe the emission of particles with mass numbers of 1 to 4 from an equilibrating composite nucleus. A distinction is made between open and closed configurations in this system and between the multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components of the preequilibrium cross section. Additional MSD components are calculated semi-empirically to account for direct nucleon transfer reactions and direct knockout processes involving cluster degrees of freedom. Evaporation from the equilibrated composite nucleus is included in the full MSC cross section. Output of energy differential and double differential cross sections is provided for the first particle emitted from the composite system. Multiple particle emission is not considered. This report describes the reaction models used in writing PRECO-D2 and explains the organization and utilization of the code. 21 refs.

  6. Direct application of Padé approximant for solving nonlinear differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Benhammouda, Brahim; Filobello-Nino, Uriel; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Garcia-Gervacio, Jose Luis; Huerta-Chua, Jesus; Morales-Mendoza, Luis Javier; Gonzalez-Lee, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a direct procedure to apply Padé method to find approximate solutions for nonlinear differential equations. Moreover, we present some cases study showing the strength of the method to generate highly accurate rational approximate solutions compared to other semi-analytical methods. The type of tested nonlinear equations are: a highly nonlinear boundary value problem, a differential-algebraic oscillator problem, and an asymptotic problem. The high accurate handy approximations obtained by the direct application of Padé method shows the high potential if the proposed scheme to approximate a wide variety of problems. What is more, the direct application of the Padé approximant aids to avoid the previous application of an approximative method like Taylor series method, homotopy perturbation method, Adomian Decomposition method, homotopy analysis method, variational iteration method, among others, as tools to obtain a power series solutions to post-treat with the Padé approximant. 34L30.

  7. Retinoic acid receptor signalling directly regulates osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.C. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Kocovski, P.; Jovic, T.; Walia, M.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Chandraratna, R.A.S. [IO Therapeutics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA 92705 (United States); Martin, T.J.; Baker, E.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Purton, L.E., E-mail: lpurton@svi.edu.au [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2017-01-01

    Low and high serum retinol levels are associated with increased fracture risk and poor bone health. We recently showed retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Here we show RARs are also negative regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. The pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), directly inhibited differentiation and mineralisation of early osteoprogenitors and impaired the differentiation of more mature osteoblast populations. In contrast, the pan-RAR antagonist, IRX4310, accelerated differentiation of early osteoprogenitors. These effects predominantly occurred via RARγ and were further enhanced by an RARα agonist or antagonist, respectively. RAR agonists similarly impaired adipogenesis in osteogenic cultures. RAR agonist treatment resulted in significant upregulation of the Wnt antagonist, Sfrp4. This accompanied reduced nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin protein and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2, suggesting impaired Wnt/β-catenin signalling. To determine the effect of RAR inhibition in post-natal mice, IRX4310 was administered to male mice for 10 days and bones were assessed by µCT. No change to trabecular bone volume was observed, however, radial bone growth was impaired. These studies show RARs directly influence osteoblast and adipocyte formation from mesenchymal cells, and inhibition of RAR signalling in vivo impairs radial bone growth in post-natal mice. - Graphical abstract: Schematic shows RAR ligand regulation of osteoblast differentiation in vitro. RARγ antagonists±RARα antagonists promote osteoblast differentiation. RARγ and RARα agonists alone or in combination block osteoblast differentiation, which correlates with upregulation of Sfrp4, and downregulation of nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2. Red arrows indicate effects of RAR agonists on mediators of Wnt signalling.

  8. Plasma treatment of biomaterials to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Erik

    In this work, we explore how embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation patterns are affected by surface interactions with plasma-processed materials. We hypothesize that mouse embryonic stem-cell exposure to certain plasma-polymerized tetraglyme surfaces will direct their differentiation into endothelial cells. R1 mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were plated on surfaces onto which tetraglyme was deposited by plasma polymerization. In addition, tissue-treated polystyrene and control glass cover slips were also examined. Some samples were fixed three days after plating and immunofluorescence stained with platelet endothelial-cell adhesion molecule, while the others were fixed seven days after plating and immunofluorescence stained with von Willebrand Factor. Positive results seen by ES cell derivatives precociously expressing the vWF and PECAM genetic markers on the plasma-polymerized tetraglyme treated surfaces suggest that the plasma-polymerized surfaces direct differentiation of ES cells into endothelial cells. Research goals of this dissertation include: characterization of the material properties of the plasma-polymerized tetraglyme surfaces that induce directed differentiation of ES cells into endothelial cells, optimization of the plasma-polymerization process to maximize the number of endothelial cells derived from R1 ES cells, and biological experimentation to characterize properties of the mechanism of directed differentiation. A potential application of this work is in the design and construction of an artificial blood vessel. Current small-scale arterial substitutes have proved inadequate because of thrombogenicity and infection. Moreover, the lower blood flow velocities of smaller vessels pose a different set of design criteria and introduce new problems not encountered in large arterial substitutes. By utilizing a tissue engineering approach that incorporates embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells, the longevity of the prosthesis can be ensured.

  9. Biomimetic hydrogels direct spinal progenitor cell differentiation and promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Sydney A.; Sabin, Alexandra L.; Besser, Rachel R.; Gooden, Olivia M.; Shirk, Bryce D.; Nguyen, Quan M.; Khaing, Zin Z.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Demyelination that results from disease or traumatic injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), can have a devastating effect on neural function and recovery. Many researchers are examining treatments to minimize demyelination by improving oligodendrocyte availability in vivo. Transplantation of stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is a promising option, however, trials are plagued by undirected differentiation. Here we introduce a biomaterial that has been optimized to direct the differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward oligodendrocytes as a cell delivery vehicle after SCI. Approach. A collagen-based hydrogel was modified to mimic the mechanical properties of the neonatal spinal cord, and components present in the developing extracellular matrix were included to provide appropriate chemical cues to the NPCs to direct their differentiation toward oligodendrocytes. The hydrogel with cells was then transplanted into a unilateral cervical contusion model of SCI to examine the functional recovery with this treatment. Six behavioral tests and histological assessment were performed to examine the in vivo response to this treatment. Main results. Our results demonstrate that we can achieve a significant increase in oligodendrocyte differentiation of NPCs compared to standard culture conditions using a three-component biomaterial composed of collagen, hyaluronic acid, and laminin that has mechanical properties matched to those of neonatal neural tissue. Additionally, SCI rats with hydrogel transplants, with and without NPCs, showed functional recovery. Animals transplanted with hydrogels with NPCs showed significantly increased functional recovery over six weeks compared to the media control group. Significance. The three-component hydrogel presented here has the potential to provide cues to direct differentiation in vivo to encourage regeneration of the central nervous system.

  10. Direct Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Haploid Spermatogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Easley, IV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have been shown to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs but not into spermatogonia, haploid spermatocytes, or spermatids. Here, we show that hESCs and hiPSCs differentiate directly into advanced male germ cell lineages, including postmeiotic, spermatid-like cells, in vitro without genetic manipulation. Furthermore, our procedure mirrors spermatogenesis in vivo by differentiating PSCs into UTF1-, PLZF-, and CDH1-positive spermatogonia-like cells; HIWI- and HILI-positive spermatocyte-like cells; and haploid cells expressing acrosin, transition protein 1, and protamine 1 (proteins that are uniquely found in spermatids and/or sperm. These spermatids show uniparental genomic imprints similar to those of human sperm on two loci: H19 and IGF2. These results demonstrate that male PSCs have the ability to differentiate directly into advanced germ cell lineages and may represent a novel strategy for studying spermatogenesis in vitro.

  11. A direct differential method for measuring thermal conductivity of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuqiang; Marconnet, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Over the past two decades, significant progress in the thermal metrology for thin films and wires has enabled new understanding of the thermal conductivity of nanostructures. However, a large variation in the measured thermal conductivity of similar nanostructured samples has been observed. In addition to potential differences from sample-to-sample, measurement uncertainty contributes to the observed variation in measured properties. Many now standard micro/nanoscale thermal measurement techniques require extensive calibration of the properties of the substrate and support structures and this calibration contributes to uncertainty. Within this work, we develop a simple, direct differential electrothermal measurement of thermal conductivity of micro/nanoscale sample films by extending conventional steady state electrothermal approaches. Specifically, we leverage a cross-beam measurement structure consisting of a suspended, composite heater beam (metal on silicon) with the sample structure (silicon) extending at a right angle from the center of the heater beam, in a configuration similar to the T-type measurements used for fibers and nanotubes. To accurately resolve the thermal conductivity of the sample, the steady-state Joule heating response of the cross-beam structure is measured. Then, the sample is detached from the heater beam with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) tool enabling direct characterization of the composite heater beam thermal properties. The differential measurement of the structure before and after FIB cut enables direct extraction of the sample thermal conductivity. The effectiveness of this differential measurement technique is demonstrated by measuring thermal conductivity of a 200 nm silicon layer. Additionally, this new method enables investigation of the accuracy of conventional approaches for extracting sample thermal conductivity with the composite beam structure and conventional comparative approaches. The results highlight the benefits of the

  12. A direct differential method for measuring thermal conductivity of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuqiang; Marconnet, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Over the past two decades, significant progress in the thermal metrology for thin films and wires has enabled new understanding of the thermal conductivity of nanostructures. However, a large variation in the measured thermal conductivity of similar nanostructured samples has been observed. In addition to potential differences from sample-to-sample, measurement uncertainty contributes to the observed variation in measured properties. Many now standard micro/nanoscale thermal measurement techniques require extensive calibration of the properties of the substrate and support structures and this calibration contributes to uncertainty. Within this work, we develop a simple, direct differential electrothermal measurement of thermal conductivity of micro/nanoscale sample films by extending conventional steady state electrothermal approaches. Specifically, we leverage a cross-beam measurement structure consisting of a suspended, composite heater beam (metal on silicon) with the sample structure (silicon) extending at a right angle from the center of the heater beam, in a configuration similar to the T-type measurements used for fibers and nanotubes. To accurately resolve the thermal conductivity of the sample, the steady-state Joule heating response of the cross-beam structure is measured. Then, the sample is detached from the heater beam with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) tool enabling direct characterization of the composite heater beam thermal properties. The differential measurement of the structure before and after FIB cut enables direct extraction of the sample thermal conductivity. The effectiveness of this differential measurement technique is demonstrated by measuring thermal conductivity of a 200 nm silicon layer. Additionally, this new method enables investigation of the accuracy of conventional approaches for extracting sample thermal conductivity with the composite beam structure and conventional comparative approaches. The results highlight the benefits of the

  13. Androgen insensitivity syndrome: gonadal androgen receptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulam, C.B.; Graham, M.L.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of the androgen receptor previously observed in skin fibroblasts from patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome also occur in the gonads of affected individuals, androgen receptor activity in the gonads of a patient with testicular feminization syndrome was investigated. Using conditions for optimal recovery of androgen receptor from human testes established by previous studies, we detected the presence of a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 3.2 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (4.2 X 10(-12) mol/mg DNA), androgen-binding protein when tritium-labeled R1881 was incubated at 4 degrees C with nuclear extracts from the gonads of control patients or from a patient with testicular feminization syndrome but not when incubated at 37 degrees C. Thus this patient has an androgen receptor with a temperature lability similar to that of receptors from normal persons

  14. Gonadal ecdysteroidogenesis in arthropoda: occurrence and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark R; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Rees, Huw H

    2009-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are multifunctional hormones in male and female arthropods and are stored in oocytes for use during embryogenesis. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis and its hormonal regulation are demonstrated for insect gonads, but not for the gonads of other arthropods. The Y-organ in the cephalothorax of crustaceans and the integument of ticks are sources of secreted ecdysteroids in adults, as in earlier stages, but the tissue source is not known for adults in many arthropod groups. Ecdysteroid metabolism occurs in several tissues of adult arthropods. This review summarizes the evidence for ecdysteroid biosynthesis by gonads and its metabolism in adult arthropods and considers the apparent uniqueness of ecdysteroid hormones in arthropods, given the predominance of vertebrate-type steroids in sister invertebrate groups and vertebrates.

  15. Speed-variable Switched Differential Pump System for Direct Operation of Hydraulic Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    may seriously influence the dynamics and hence the performance during operation. This paper presents an analysis of these properties, and a redesign of the hydraulic system concept is proposed. Here the area- and displacement ratios are deliberately mismatched, causing inherent pressure build......Efforts to overcome the inherent loss of energy due to throttling in valve driven hydraulic systems are many, and various approaches have been proposed by research communities as well as the industry. Recently, a so-called speed-variable differential pump was proposed for direct drive of hydraulic......-up or cavitation in the return chamber, depending on the direction of motion. In order to avoid cavitation, a third gear pump is introduced, which provides a flow in the relevant cylinder chamber in one direction of motion, while operating in idle mode in the opposite motion direction. Together with two 2/2 way...

  16. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdi Yusuf E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0–15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to assist the attending radiologist in the decision to utilize such male gonadal shields in pediatric imaging practice. Methods The dose reduction to the gonads was measured for both direct radiation and for indirect scattered radiation from the abdomen. A 6 cm3 ion chamber (Model 10X5-6, Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA was placed on a Humanoid real bone pelvic phantom at a position of the male gonads. When exposure measurements with shielding were made, a 1 mm lead wrap-around gonadal shield was placed around the ion chamber sensitive volume. Results The use of the shields reduced scatter dose to the gonads by a factor of about 2 with no appreciable loss of image quality. The shields reduced the direct beam dose by a factor of about 35 at the expense of extremely poor CT image quality due to severe streak artifacts. Conclusion Images in the direct exposure case are not useful due to these severe artifacts and the difficulties in positioning these shields on patients in the scatter exposure case may not be warranted by the small absolute reduction in scatter dose unless it is expected that the patient will be subjected to numerous future CT scans.

  17. Exogenous estradiol alters gonadal growth and timing of temperature sex determination in gonads of sea turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Merchant-Larios, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Temperature sex determining species offer a model for investigating how environmental cues become integrated to the regulation of patterning genes and growth, among bipotential gonads. Manipulation of steroid hormones has revealed the important role of aromatase in the regulation of the estrogen levels involved in temperature-dependent sex determination. Estradiol treatment counteracts the effect of male-promoting temperature, but the resulting ovarian developmental pattern differs from that manifested with the female-promoting temperature. Hypoplastic gonads have been reported among estradiol-treated turtles; however the estradiol effect on gonadal size has not been examined. Here we focused on the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, which develops hypoplastic gonads with estradiol treatment. We studied the effect of estradiol on cell proliferation and on candidate genes involved in ovarian pattern. We found this effect is organ specific, causing a dramatic reduction in gonadal cell proliferation during the temperature-sensitive period. Although the incipient gonads resembled tiny ovaries, remodeling of the medullary cords and down-regulation of testicular factor Sox9 were considerably delayed. Contrastingly, with ovarian promoting temperature as a cue, exogenous estradiol induced the up-regulation of the ovary factor FoxL2, prior to the expression of aromatase. The strong expression of estrogen receptor alpha at the time of treatment suggests that it mediates estradiol effects. Overall results indicate that estradiol levels required for gonadal growth and to establish the female genetic network are delicately regulated by temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii Reveals Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hucheng; Xing, Zhijun; Lu, Wei; Qian, Zhaojun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    Background The red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, has become one of the most economically important cultured species in China. Currently, little is known about the gonadal development of this species. Isolation and characterization of genes are an initial step towards understanding gonadal development of P. clarkii. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we obtained a total of 1,134,993 high quality sequence reads from the crawfish testis and ovary libraries. We aimed to identify different genes with a potential role in gonad development. The assembly formed into 22,652 isotigs, distributed by GO analysis across 55 categories in the three ontologies, ‘molecular function’, ‘cellular component’, and ‘biological processes’. Comparative transcript analysis showed that 1,720 isotigs in the ovary were up-regulated and 2138 isotigs were down-regulated. Several gonad development related genes, such as vitellogenin, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinases 2, Dmc1 and ubiquitin were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the expression profiles of 14 differentially expressed genes, and confirmed the reliability of the 454 pyrosequencing. Conclusions Our findings provide an archive for future research on gonadal development at a molecular level in P. clarkii and other crustacean. This data will be helpful to develop new ideas for artificial regulation of the reproductive process in crawfish aquaculture. PMID:25118947

  19. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Potential Players of Left-Right Asymmetry in Female Chicken Gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhiyi; Lu, Yanan; Rui, Lei; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Fang; Tu, Chengfang; Li, Zandong

    2017-06-20

    Most female birds develop only a left ovary, whereas males develop bilateral testes. The mechanism underlying this process is still not completely understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of female chicken gonads and identify novel candidate side-biased genes. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on total RNA harvested from the left and right gonads on embryonic day 6 (E6), E12, and post-hatching day 1 (D1). By comparing the gene expression profiles between the left and right gonads, 347 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained on E6, 3730 were obtained on E12, and 2787 were obtained on D1. Side-specific genes were primarily derived from the autosome rather than the sex chromosome. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that the DEGs were most enriched in the Piwi-interactiing RNA (piRNA) metabolic process, germ plasm, chromatoid body, P granule, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, microbial metabolism in diverse environments, and methane metabolism. A total of 111 DEGs, five gene ontology (GO) terms, and three pathways were significantly different between the left and right gonads among all the development stages. We also present the gene number and the percentage within eight development-dependent expression patterns of DEGs in the left and right gonads of female chicken.

  20. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  1. A rare case report of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Arora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old person, reared as female presented with complaints of genital ambiguity and primary amenorrhoea along with lack of secondary sexual characters, but without short stature and Turner′s stigmata. She was taking steroids after being misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Karyotype analysis revealed 46XY karyotype. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia (cortisol 9.08 μg/dl, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] 82.5 pg/ml or elevated level of 17-OH-progesterone (0.16 ng/ml. Pooled luteinizing hormone (LH was 11.79 mIU/ml and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH was 66.37 mIU/ml. Serum estradiol level was 25 pg/ml (21-251. Basal and 72 h post beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG levels of androstenedione and testosterone levels were done (basal testosterone of 652 ng/dl and basal androstenedione of 1.17 ng/ml; 72 h post hCG testosterone of 896 ng/dl and androstenedione of 1.34 ng/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI pelvis (with ultrasonogrphy [USG] correlation revealed uterus didelphys with obstructed right moiety and bilateral ovarian-like structures. Right sided gonads and adjacent tubal structures were visualized laparoscopically and removed. Left sided gonads were not visualized and Mullerian remnants were adhered to sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination revealed presence of testicular tissue showing atrophic seminiferous tubules with hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue was seen. Based on these results a diagnosis of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD was made, which is rare and is difficult to distinguish from 46XY ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (OT-DSD. The patient was managed with a multidisciplinary approach and fertility issues discussed with the patient′s caregivers.

  2. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  3. Early gonad development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... secondary gonadogenesis. While the mechanisms of this phenomenon in zebrafish ovaries are not well addressed, here it can be seen in the context of an apoptotic regulation. Key words: Danio rerio, gonad, mitotic/meiotic transition, development, sex inversion. INTRODUCTION. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is ...

  4. gonads of Cheimerius nufar (Ehrenberg, 1820)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.S. Coetzee. Zoology Department, University of Port Elizabeth. Seasonal histological and macroscopic changes in the gonads of the hermaphroditic fish, Cheimerius .... 1983, 18(2). Table 1 Classification of oogonia and oocyte stages based on both nuclear and cytoplasmic changes with special reference to vitellogenesis.

  5. PERCEPTION OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AS A RESULT OF CULTURAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian D. TOCAR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of foreign direct investment (FDI on the economy is difficult to overestimate. The influence of cultural factors on FDI is recognized in the scientific community. There are attempts to approach the subject, although they are usually superficial and focused on a certain side of the relation, qualitative analysis is rarely used. The paper presents a qualitative approach to the link between the country's culture and FDI. We propose the results of content analysis of the articles published in three countries: Romania, Ukraine and Moldova, which aim to highlight differences in the vision of FDI as a result of cultural differentiation and cohere with the amount of FDI. The research results aim to underline the role of cultural differentiation between the countries.

  6. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The measurement of gonadal and bone-marrow doses from dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Morris, N.D.

    1980-06-01

    The method of calculation of the radiation doses to the gonads and to the active bone marrow arising from dental radiography is described. The bone-marrow doses have been calculated using a computer model of X-ray depth doses within the skull for typical dental radiographic examinations as performed in Australia. The ovarian and testicular doses, as a percentage of skin dose have been determined experimentally. The dependence of the gonadal doses on X-ray tube voltage, face to cone distance and direction of the X-ray beam relative to the face is detailed

  8. On Direct Transformation Approach to Asymptotical Analytical Solutions of Perturbed Partial Differential Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongzhun; Pan Zuliang; Li Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we will derive an equality, where the Taylor series expansion around ε = 0 for any asymptotical analytical solution of the perturbed partial differential equation (PDE) with perturbing parameter ε must be admitted. By making use of the equality, we may obtain a transformation, which directly map the analytical solutions of a given unperturbed PDE to the asymptotical analytical solutions of the corresponding perturbed one. The notion of Lie-Baecklund symmetries is introduced in order to obtain more transformations. Hence, we can directly create more transformations in virtue of known Lie-Baecklund symmetries and recursion operators of corresponding unperturbed equation. The perturbed Burgers equation and the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation are used as examples.

  9. Direct numerical simulation and modeling of turbulent natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjemadi, R.

    1996-03-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*10 5 and 5.4*10 5 . A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends

  10. Examination of the Individual Competencies that Differentiate Results in Direct Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Sypniewska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of knowledge and skills in meeting new challenges in production and distribution is particularly evident in today’s market, which is characterized by a saturation of products and strong competition. To be successful in the market, companies must stand out and be creative and communicative. The leading factor in providing these features is the human potential, which represents both opportunities and threats to the operation and development of the companies. For companies involved in sales, especially direct sales, this factor is expressed in the specific competencies of individual employees. The importance of individual competence in direct sales is reflected in the demand for research in this field. This article presents the results of research the author conducted on a group of 455 direct sales vendors that operate in the form of direct sales known as multilevel marketing (MLM. The respondents represented three groups: group I - inexperienced sellers that are starting work; group II - sellers who reach significant sales results; and group III - the leaders that achieve the highest sales results. The article presents the results of two analyses, namely discriminant and correlation analysis. The purpose of the discriminant analysis was to identify the set of competencies that particularly distinguish each group. The analysis was performed to indicate the factors that differentiate the surveyed groups. The purpose of the correlation analysis was to identify the correlation between particular competencies in the surveyed groups. Intercorrelations between the individual competencies were analyzed. The results identified the competences that best differentiate the surveyed sellers groups and also showed that most competencies strongly correlate with one another. The results indicate that by influencing the development of one competency, another set of competencies can be developed. This is an important aspect of the development of

  11. Endocrine disruption by environmental gestagens in amphibians - A short review supported by new in vitro data using gonads of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziková, Andrea; Lorenz, Claudia; Hoffmann, Frauke; Kleiner, Wibke; Lutz, Ilka; Stöck, Matthias; Kloas, Werner

    2017-08-01

    Endocrine disruption caused by various anthropogenic compounds is of persisting concern, especially for aquatic wildlife, because surface waters are the main sink of these so-called endocrine disruptors (ED). In the past, research focused on (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, and (anti)thyroidal substances, affecting primarily reproduction and development in vertebrates; however, other endocrine systems might be also targeted by ED. Environmental gestagens, including natural progestogens (e.g. progesterone (P4)) and synthetic progestins used for contraception, are supposed to affect vertebrate reproduction via progesterone receptors. In the present paper, we review the current knowledge about gestagenic effects in amphibians, focussing on reproduction and the thyroid system. In addition, we support the literature data with results of recent in vitro experiments, demonstrating direct impacts of the gestagens levonorgestrel (LNG) and P4 on sexually differentiated gonads of larval Xenopus laevis. The results showed a higher susceptibility of female over male gonads to gestagenic ED. Only in female gonads LNG, but not P4, had direct inhibitory effects on gene expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and P 450 side chain cleavage enzyme, whereas aromatase expression decreased in reaction to both gestagens. Surprisingly, beyond the expected ED effects of gestagens on reproductive physiology in amphibians, LNG drastically disrupted the thyroid system, which resembles direct effects on thyroid glands and pituitary along the pituitary-thyroid axis disturbing metamorphic development. In amphibians, environmental gestagens not only affect the reproductive system but at least LNG can impact also development by disruption of the thyroid system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary study on directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into thyrocyte-like cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiongying; Jiang Ningyi; Hu Yinyin; Liu Xingguang; Zhang Hong; Liu Sheng; Zhou Dunhua; Meng Ying; Huang Shaoliang; Zhang Xuchao; Chen Guibing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into thyrocyte-like cells in vitro. Methods: Murine E14 ESCs were cultured in methylcellulose semisolid medium to form embryoid bodies (EBs). These EBs were transferred for further inductive culture with the stepwise addition of growth factors (TSH, insulin and KI) into the culture medium. During differentiation, cell morphology was observed through phase contrast microscopy and compared with the normal thyroid cells from mouse. The molecular markers of thyroid cells were performed by indirect immunofluorescent analysis under fluorescent microscopy. Gene expressions of thyroid specific mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR for molecules TSH receptor (TSHR), paired box gene 8 (PAX8), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg). Results: After EBs formation, on day six of further culture added with inductive factors TSH, insulin and KI, ESCs-derived cells expressed thyroid-specific genes such as PAX8, NIS, TPO, Tg and TSHR. On the 8th day, these ESCs-derived thyrocyte-like cells overexpressed TSHR, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) whereas PAX8, thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2) remained in a housekeeping level. On the 10th day, all the molecular markers (including TSHR, PAX8, NIS, TPO and Tg) were overexpressed. Morphology of these markers positive differentiated cells was similar to those normal thyroid cells. Conclusions: ESCs can differentiate into thyrocyte-like cells under certain inductive conditions and is possibly related to growth factors in vitro. This study suggests that a renewable source of thyroid follicular cells derived from ESCs holds great therapeutic potential for future cell replacement therapy in clinic. (authors)

  13. Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-05-08

    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.

  14. [Peripheral precocious puberty: 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalha, M; Amaral, B; Pereira, J; Ribeiro, L; João Oliveira, M; Figueiredo, S; Cardoso, H; Peixoto, C; Borges, T; Cidade-Rodrigues, J A

    2014-10-01

    Despite standard clinical definitions and availability of diagnostic tests for precocious puberty, an intensive and structured investigation is needed in order to diagnose the aetiology in particular cases. A 4-year-old, phenotypically female child was referred to paediatric endocrinology consultation for premature pubarche and thelarche. There was an acceleration of growth velocity with high levels of estradiol and testosterone, and prepubertal FSH and LH measurements. Investigation showed bilateral gonadoblastoma as the cause of the peripheral precocious puberty. Genetic studies revealed 46 XY karyotype with mutation c.89G> T (p.Arg30Ile) in exon 1 of the SRY gene, confirming the diagnosis of complete gonadal dysgenesis. Disorders of sexual differentiation must be considered in the approach and investigation of peripheral precocious puberty, especially in the presence of ovarian tumours, such as gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Definitive and differential diagnosis of desquamative gingivitis through direct immunofluorescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Lakshmanan; Neiders, Mirdza E

    2012-10-01

    would have been otherwise missed if H & E studies had not been performed. This study has the largest cohort of patients with DG suspected of VBD reported in the literature. The patients were predominantly females who had most often been seen by a periodontist. The definitive diagnosis of DG was most accurately achieved when H & E along with two biopsies for direct IF studies were submitted for testing. H & E studies were particularly important for definitive diagnosis of negative cases. Oral lichen planus was the most common disease presenting as DG, which is consistent with recent studies. Systemic connective tissue disorders that present as DG at initial clinical examination require direct IF and serum studies for a conclusive diagnosis. Clinical pathologic correlation, including history, presentation, H & E, and direct IF studies, are essential in establishing a definitive and differential diagnosis for cases presenting with DG.

  16. Adaptive Differential Thrust Methodology for Lateral/Directional Stability of an Aircraft with a Completely Damaged Vertical Stabilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Long K.; Turkoglu, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the utilization of differential thrust to help a commercial aircraft with a damaged vertical stabilizer in order to regain its lateral/directional stability. In the event of an aircraft losing its vertical stabilizer, the consequential loss of the lateral/directional stability and control is likely to cause a fatal crash. In this paper, an aircraft with a completely damaged vertical stabilizer is investigated, and a unique differential thrust-based adaptive control app...

  17. Angiographic investigation of the male gonadal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Boehm, K.; Horvath, L.; Molnar, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Retrograde angiography of the gonadal vein was carried out in 110 cases. Because of valve-insufficience the left vena spermatica interna filled spontaneously from the vena renalis in the majority (88%) of the cases. In the cases of well functioning valves superselective angiography was carried out. The examination is advised in cases of the following syndromes: varicokele, abdominal tumours, determination of the place of non-palpable testes, Klinefelter syndrome. (L.E.)

  18. Increased levels of sodium chloride directly increase osteoclastic differentiation and resorption in mice and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Luthringer, B J C; Feyerabend, F; Zhang, Z; Machens, H G; Maeda, M; Taipaleenmäki, H; Hesse, E; Willumeit-Römer, R; Schilling, A F

    2017-11-01

    To better understand the association between high salt intake and osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on mice and human osteoclastogenesis. The results suggest a direct, activating role of NaCl supplementation on bone resorption. High NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary calcium elimination and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion which in turn stimulates the release of calcium from the bone, resulting in increased bone resorption. However, while calciuria after NaCl loading could be shown repeatedly, several studies failed to reveal a significant increase in PTH in response to a high-sodium diet. Another possible explanation that we investigated here could be a direct effect of high-sodium concentration on bone resorption. Mouse bone marrow macrophage and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) driven towards an osteoclastogenesis pathway were cultivated under culture conditions mimicking hypernatremia environments. In this study, a direct effect of increased NaCl concentrations on mouse osteoclast differentiation and function was observed. Surprisingly, in a human osteoclast culture system, significant increases in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts, calcitonin receptor (CTR)-positive osteoclasts, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) gene expression, and areal and volumetric resorptions were observed for increasing concentrations of NaCl. This suggests a direct, activating, cell-mediated effect of increased concentrations of NaCl on osteoclasts. The reported that enhanced bone resorption after high-sodium diets may not only be secondary to the urinary calcium loss but may also be a direct, cell-mediated effect on osteoclastic resorption. These findings allow us to suggest an explanation for the clinical findings independent of a PTH-mediated regulation.

  19. Differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Bo; Li, Jie; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses interact with their insect vectors directly and indirectly via host plants, and this tripartite interaction may produce fitness benefits to both the vectors and the viruses. Our previous studies show that the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex improved its performance on tobacco plants infected by the Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), which it transmits, although virus infection of the whitefly per se reduced its performance. Here, we use electrical penetration graph recording to investigate the direct and indirect effects of TYLCCNV on the feeding behaviour of MEAM1. When feeding on either cotton, a non-host of TYLCCNV, or uninfected tobacco, a host of TYLCCNV, virus-infection of the whiteflies impeded their feeding. Interestingly, when viruliferous whiteflies fed on virus-infected tobacco, their feeding activities were no longer negatively affected; instead, the virus promoted whitefly behaviour related to rapid and effective sap ingestion. Our findings show differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus, and help to unravel the behavioural mechanisms underlying a mutualistic relationship between an insect vector and a plant virus that also has features reminiscent of an insect pathogen. PMID:25567524

  20. Neuroscientists as cartographers: mapping the crossroads of gonadal hormones, memory and age using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A; Acosta, Jazmin I; Talboom, Joshua S

    2010-08-31

    Cognitive function is multidimensional and complex, and research in multiple species indicates it is considerably impacted by age and gonadal hormone milieu. One domain of cognitive function particularly susceptible to age-related decrements is spatial memory. Gonadal hormones can alter spatial memory, and they are potent modulators of brain microstructure and function in many of the same brain areas affected by aging. In this paper, we review decades of animal and human literature to support a tertiary model representing interactions between gonadal hormones, spatial cognition and age given that: 1) gonadal hormones change with age, 2) age impacts spatial learning and memory, and 3) gonadal hormones impact spatial learning and memory. While much has been discovered regarding these individual tenets, the compass for future aging research points toward clarifying the interactions that exist between these three points, and understanding mediating variables. Indeed, identifying and aligning the various components of the complex interactions between these tenets, including evaluations using basic science, systems, and clinical perspectives, is the optimal approach to attempt to converge the many findings that may currently appear contradictory. In fact, as discoveries are being made it is becoming clear that the findings across studies that appear contradictory are not contradictory at all. Rather, there are mediating variables that are influencing outcome and affecting the extent, and even the direction, of the effects that gonadal hormones have on cognition during aging. These mediating variables are just starting to be understood. By aligning basic scientific discoveries with clinical interpretations, we can maximize the opportunities for discoveries and subsequent interventions to allow individuals to "optimize their aging" and find their own map to cognitive health as aging ensues.

  1. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Alleles Demonstrate Extreme Directional Differentiation among Human Populations, Compared to Other Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Corona, Erik; Sikora, Martin; Dudley, Joel T.; Morgan, Alex A.; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Nilsen, Geoffrey B.; Ruau, David; Lincoln, Stephen E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Butte, Atul J.

    2012-01-01

    Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may contribute to the observed

  2. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  3. Sex Reversal and Analyses of Possible Involvement of Sex Steroids in Scallop Gonadal Development in Newly Established Organ-Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Ayano; Nakajima, Tadaaki; Okumura, Tomomi; Fujii, Shiro; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Many molluscs perform sex reversal, and sex hormones may be involved in the process. In adult scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, gonadotropin releasing hormone and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) are involved in male sexual maturation, however, little is known about the effects of E 2 and testosterone (T) on the gonadal differentiation in young scallops. In the present study, scallop gonadal development was analyzed to determine the sex reversal stage in Funka bay, and effects of E 2 and T were examined. In Funka bay, almost all scallops were male at month 12. Scallops equipped with ambiguous gonads were 61.1% at month 16 and disappeared at month 18. Therefore, sex reversal in Funka bay occurs at around month 16. For establishment of organ culture systems for bivalves, Manila clam gonads were cultured in 15% L-15 medium diluted with HBSS containing 10% KSR on agarose gel at 10°C, and the gonads survived for 14 days. Scallop gonads were also able to be cultured in 30% L15 medium diluted with ASW containing 10% KSR on agarose gel for seven days. At mature stage, Foxl2 and Tesk were predominantly expressed in ovary and testis, respectively. When scallop gonads at sex reversal stage were organ-cultured, sex steroid treatment decreased Tesk expression in the majority of scallop gonads at sex reversal stage. However, no obvious change in Foxl2 and Tesk expression was detected in mature gonads in response to either E 2 or T in culture, suggesting sex steroid treatment might affect gonadal development at sex reversal stage.

  4. A directional cylindrical anemometer with four sets of differential pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Du, L; Zhao, Z

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a solid-state directional anemometer for simultaneously measuring the speed and direction of a wind in a plane in a speed range 1-40 m/s. This instrument has a cylindrical shape and works by detecting the pressure differences across diameters of the cylinder when exposed to wind. By analyzing our experimental data in a Reynolds number regime 1.7 × 10(3)-7 × 10(4), we figure out the relationship between the pressure difference distribution and the wind velocity. We propose a novel and simple solution based on the relationship and design an anemometer which composes of a circular cylinder with four sets of differential pressure sensors, tubes connecting these sensors with the cylinder's surface, and corresponding circuits. In absence of moving parts, this instrument is small and immune of friction. It has simple internal structures, and the fragile sensing elements are well protected. Prototypes have been fabricated to estimate performance of proposed approach. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 0.5 W, and the sample rate is up to 31 Hz. The test results in a wind tunnel indicate that the maximum relative speed measuring error is 5% and the direction error is no more than 5° in a speed range 2-40 m/s. In theory, it is capable of measuring wind up to 60 m/s. When the air stream goes slower than 2 m/s, the measuring errors of directions are slightly greater, and the performance of speed measuring degrades but remains in an acceptable range of ±0.2 m/s.

  5. Adaptive Differential Thrust Methodology for Lateral/Directional Stability of an Aircraft with a Completely Damaged Vertical Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long K. Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the utilization of differential thrust to help a commercial aircraft with a damaged vertical stabilizer in order to regain its lateral/directional stability. In the event of an aircraft losing its vertical stabilizer, the consequential loss of the lateral/directional stability and control is likely to cause a fatal crash. In this paper, an aircraft with a completely damaged vertical stabilizer is investigated, and a unique differential thrust-based adaptive control approach is proposed to achieve a stable flight envelope. The propulsion dynamics of the aircraft is modeled as a system of differential equations with engine time constant and time delay terms to study the engine response time with respect to a differential thrust input. The proposed differential thrust control module is then presented to map the rudder input to differential thrust input. Model reference adaptive control based on the Lyapunov stability approach is implemented to test the ability of the damaged aircraft to track the model aircraft’s (reference response in an extreme scenario. Investigation results demonstrate successful application of such differential thrust approach to regain lateral/directional stability of a damaged aircraft with no vertical stabilizer. Finally, the conducted robustness and uncertainty analysis results conclude that the stability and performance of the damaged aircraft remain within desirable limits and demonstrate a safe flight mission through the proposed adaptive control methodology.

  6. Carbamazepine directly inhibits adipocyte differentiation through activation of the ERK 1/2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, E; Muscat, A; Vatier, C; Chetrite, G; Corruble, E; Moldes, M; Fève, B

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Carbamazepine (CBZ), known for its anti-epileptic, analgesic and mood-stabilizing properties, is also known to induce weight gain but the pathophysiology of this adverse effect is still largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that CBZ could have a direct effect on adipocyte development and metabolism. Experimental Research We studied the effects of CBZ on morphological biochemical and molecular markers of adipogenesis, using several pre-adipocyte murine cell lines (3T3-L1, 3T3-F442A and T37i cells) and primary cultures of human pre-adipocytes. To delineate the mechanisms underlying the effect of CBZ, clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes, pro-adipogenic transcription factors, glucose uptake and lipolysis were also examined. Key Results CBZ strongly inhibited pre-adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in all models. Pleiotropic mechanisms were at the basis of the inhibitory effects of CBZ on adipogenesis and cell lipid accumulation. They included suppression of both clonal expansion and major adipogenic transcription factors such as PPAR-γ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, activation of basal lipolysis and decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Conclusions and Implications The effect of CBZ on adipogenesis involves activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Our results show that CBZ acts directly on pre-adipocytes and adipocytes to alter adipose tissue development and metabolism. PMID:22889231

  7. Differential C3NET reveals disease networks of direct physical interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowetz Florian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes might have different gene interactions in different cell conditions, which might be mapped into different networks. Differential analysis of gene networks allows spotting condition-specific interactions that, for instance, form disease networks if the conditions are a disease, such as cancer, and normal. This could potentially allow developing better and subtly targeted drugs to cure cancer. Differential network analysis with direct physical gene interactions needs to be explored in this endeavour. Results C3NET is a recently introduced information theory based gene network inference algorithm that infers direct physical gene interactions from expression data, which was shown to give consistently higher inference performances over various networks than its competitors. In this paper, we present, DC3net, an approach to employ C3NET in inferring disease networks. We apply DC3net on a synthetic and real prostate cancer datasets, which show promising results. With loose cutoffs, we predicted 18583 interactions from tumor and normal samples in total. Although there are no reference interactions databases for the specific conditions of our samples in the literature, we found verifications for 54 of our predicted direct physical interactions from only four of the biological interaction databases. As an example, we predicted that RAD50 with TRF2 have prostate cancer specific interaction that turned out to be having validation from the literature. It is known that RAD50 complex associates with TRF2 in the S phase of cell cycle, which suggests that this predicted interaction may promote telomere maintenance in tumor cells in order to allow tumor cells to divide indefinitely. Our enrichment analysis suggests that the identified tumor specific gene interactions may be potentially important in driving the growth in prostate cancer. Additionally, we found that the highest connected subnetwork of our predicted tumor specific network

  8. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Duygu Özpolat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi. Results We found that gonad presence and size in asexual adult P. leidyi are highly variable across individuals and identified several factors that influence these structures. An extrinsic factor, food availability, and two intrinsic factors, individual age and parental age, strongly influence the presence and size of gonads in P. leidyi. We also found that following head amputation in this species, gonads can develop by morphallactic regeneration in previously non-gonadal segments. We also identified a sexually mature individual from our laboratory culture that demonstrates that, although our laboratory strain reproduces only asexually, it retains the potential to become fully sexual. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that gonads in P. leidyi display high phenotypic plasticity and flexibility with respect to their presence, their size, and the segments in which they can form. Considering our findings along with relevant data from other species, we find that, as a group, clitellate annelids can form gonads in at least four different contexts: post-starvation refeeding, fission, morphallactic regeneration, and epimorphic regeneration. This group is thus particularly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in gonad formation and the evolution of post-embryonic phenotypic plasticity.

  9. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Ignacio; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J.; Lin, Lin; Barenco, Martino; Parnaik, Rahul; Shah, Sonia; Hubank, Mike; Gerrelli, Dianne; Achermann, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control). Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3) and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1), which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2), as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1). We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5), but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders. PMID:28459107

  10. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  11. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Andersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine...

  12. Direct quantitative differentiation between Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmür, Rudolf; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2002-05-01

    This paper describes a quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the differential identification of Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens in clinical samples, and compares its performance with less discriminatory culture and quantitative immunofluorescence (IF) assays. Fluorescence-labelled oligonucleotide probes directed to specific 16S rRNA sequences of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, Prevotella pallens and Prevotella denticola were hybridized under stringent conditions with cultured reference strains or plaque samples from deep periodontal pockets. Probe specificity was defined with strains from multiple oral Prevotella species. The lower detection level of the assays was approximately 3x10(3) target cells per ml of plaque-sample suspension. P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, P. pallens and P. denticola were detected in plaques with prevalences of 69, 67, 0 and 28%, respectively. On average, 3.9 x 10(6) P. intermedia, 3.1 x 10(6) P. nigrescens and 5.6 x 10(5) P. denticola cells were counted per positive sample. All three species were found almost exclusively in dense mixed aggregates. Quantitative FISH data agreed satisfactorily with corresponding IF data (r=0.711). Both FISH and IF enumerations of the sum of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens markedly exceeded the c.f.u. counts of black-pigmented colonies in Porphyromonas gingivalis-free cultured subgingival plaques. The results demonstrate the validity of this new assay. Unlike established IF, culture, PCR or checkerboard DNA hybridization assays, this FISH assay differentiates quantitatively between P. intermedia and P. nigrescens, provides visual accuracy control, and offers insights into the spatial distribution of the target cells within a clinical sample.

  13. Expression profiling of c-kit and its impact after esiRNA silencing during gonadal development in catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laldinsangi, C; Senthilkumaran, B

    2018-04-03

    C-kit receptor is a member of a family of growth factor receptors that have tyrosine kinase activity, and are involved in the transduction of growth regulatory signals across plasma membrane by activation of its ligand, kitl/scf. The present study analysed mRNA and protein expression profiles of c-kit in the gonads of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, using real time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Tissue distribution analysis revealed higher expression mainly in the catfish gonads. Ontogeny studies showed minimal expression during early developmental stages and highest during 50-75 days post hatch, and the dimorphic expression in gonads decreased gradually till adulthood, which might suggest an important role for this gene around later stages of sex differentiation and gonadal development. Expression of C-kit was analysed at various phases of gonadal cycle in both male and female, which showed minimal expression during the resting phase, and higher expression in male compared to females during the pre-spawning phase. In vitro and in vivo induction using human chorionic gonadotropin elevated the expression of c-kit indicating the regulatory influence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. In vivo transient gene silencing using c-kit-esiRNA in adult catfish during gonadal recrudescence showed a decrease in c-kit expression, which affected the expression level of germ cell meiotic marker sycp3, as well as several factors and steroidogenic enzyme genes involved in germ cell development. Decrease in the levels of serum 11-KT and T were also observed after esiRNA silencing. The findings of this study suggest that c-kit has an important role in the process of germ cell proliferation, development and maturation during gonadal development and recrudescence in catfish. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes: sex differences in regulation of stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mario G; Handa, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism's response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status. Although the acute HPA response to stressors is a beneficial response, constant activation of this circuitry by chronic or traumatic stressful episodes may lead to a dysregulation of the HPA axis and cause pathology. Compared to males, female mice and rats show a more robust HPA axis response, as a result of circulating estradiol levels which elevate stress hormone levels during non-threatening situations, and during and after stressors. Fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids in females across the estrous cycle are a major factor contributing to sex differences in the robustness of HPA activity in females compared to males. Moreover, gonadal steroids may also contribute to epigenetic and organizational influences on the HPA axis even before puberty. Correspondingly, crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and HPA axes could lead to abnormalities of stress responses. In humans, a dysregulated stress response is one of the most common symptoms seen across many neuropsychiatric disorders, and as a result, such interactions may exacerbate peripheral pathologies. In this review, we discuss the HPA and HPG axes and review how gonadal steroids interact with the HPA axis to regulate the stress circuitry during all stages in life.

  15. Differential and directional estrogenic signaling pathways induced by enterolignans and their precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhu

    Full Text Available Mammalian lignans or enterolignans are metabolites of plant lignans, an important category of phytochemicals. Although they are known to be associated with estrogenic activity, cell signaling pathways leading to specific cell functions, and especially the differences among lignans, have not been explored. We examined the estrogenic activity of enterolignans and their precursor plant lignans and cell signaling pathways for some cell functions, cell cycle and chemokine secretion. We used DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to examine the similarities, as well as the differences, among enterolignans, enterolactone and enterodiol, and their precursors, matairesinol, pinoresinol and sesamin. The profiles showed moderate to high levels of correlation (R values: 0.44 to 0.81 with that of estrogen (17β-estradiol or E2. Significant correlations were observed among lignans (R values: 0.77 to 0.97, and the correlations were higher for cell functions related to enzymes, signaling, proliferation and transport. All the enterolignans/precursors examined showed activation of the Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, indicating the involvement of rapid signaling through the non-genomic estrogen signaling pathway. However, when their effects on specific cell functions, cell cycle progression and chemokine (MCP-1 secretion were examined, positive effects were observed only for enterolactone, suggesting that signals are given in certain directions at a position closer to cell functions. We hypothesized that, while estrogen signaling is initiated by the enterolignans/precursors examined, their signals are differentially and directionally modulated later in the pathways, resulting in the differences at the cell function level.

  16. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yanci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT. The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i the higher level group (G1, n = 20: 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years; and ii the lower level group (G2, n = 21: Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years. Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s, while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests.

  17. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  18. Efficient Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Corneal Endothelial Cells by Directed Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L McCabe

    Full Text Available To generate human embryonic stem cell derived corneal endothelial cells (hESC-CECs for transplantation in patients with corneal endothelial dystrophies.Feeder-free hESC-CECs were generated by a directed differentiation protocol. hESC-CECs were characterized by morphology, expression of corneal endothelial markers, and microarray analysis of gene expression.hESC-CECs were nearly identical morphologically to primary human corneal endothelial cells, expressed Zona Occludens 1 (ZO-1 and Na+/K+ATPaseα1 (ATPA1 on the apical surface in monolayer culture, and produced the key proteins of Descemet's membrane, Collagen VIIIα1 and VIIIα2 (COL8A1 and 8A2. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed expression of all corneal endothelial pump transcripts. hESC-CECs were 96% similar to primary human adult CECs by microarray analysis.hESC-CECs are morphologically similar, express corneal endothelial cell markers and express a nearly identical complement of genes compared to human adult corneal endothelial cells. hESC-CECs may be a suitable alternative to donor-derived corneal endothelium.

  19. The C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 is a permissive signal for gonad development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottee, Pauline A; Cole, Tim; Schultz, Jessica; Hoang, Hieu D; Vibbert, Jack; Han, Sung Min; Miller, Michael A

    2017-06-15

    VAMP/synaptobrevin-associated proteins (VAPs) contain an N-terminal major sperm protein domain (MSPd) that is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VAPs have an intracellular housekeeping function, as well as an extracellular signaling function mediated by the secreted MSPd. Here we show that the C. elegans VAP homolog VPR-1 is essential for gonad development. vpr-1 null mutants are maternal effect sterile due to arrested gonadogenesis following embryo hatching. Somatic gonadal precursor cells and germ cells fail to proliferate fully and complete their respective differentiation programs. Maternal or zygotic vpr-1 expression is sufficient to induce gonadogenesis and fertility. Genetic mosaic and cell type-specific expression studies indicate that vpr-1 activity is important in the nervous system, germ line and intestine. VPR-1 acts in parallel to Notch signaling, a key regulator of germline stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Neuronal vpr-1 expression is sufficient for gonadogenesis induction during a limited time period shortly after hatching. These results support the model that the secreted VPR-1 MSPd acts at least in part on gonadal sheath cell precursors in L1 to early L2 stage hermaphrodites to permit gonadogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Temporal transcriptional profiling of somatic and germ cells reveals biased lineage priming of sexual fate in the fetal mouse gonad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A Jameson

    Full Text Available The divergence of distinct cell populations from multipotent progenitors is poorly understood, particularly in vivo. The gonad is an ideal place to study this process, because it originates as a bipotential primordium where multiple distinct lineages acquire sex-specific fates as the organ differentiates as a testis or an ovary. To gain a more detailed understanding of the process of gonadal differentiation at the level of the individual cell populations, we conducted microarrays on sorted cells from XX and XY mouse gonads at three time points spanning the period when the gonadal cells transition from sexually undifferentiated progenitors to their respective sex-specific fates. We analyzed supporting cells, interstitial/stromal cells, germ cells, and endothelial cells. This work identified genes specifically depleted and enriched in each lineage as it underwent sex-specific differentiation. We determined that the sexually undifferentiated germ cell and supporting cell progenitors showed lineage priming. We found that germ cell progenitors were primed with a bias toward the male fate. In contrast, supporting cells were primed with a female bias, indicative of the robust repression program involved in the commitment to XY supporting cell fate. This study provides a molecular explanation reconciling the female default and balanced models of sex determination and represents a rich resource for the field. More importantly, it yields new insights into the mechanisms by which different cell types in a single organ adopt their respective fates.

  1. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Male and Female Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination.

  2. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal.

  3. Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    site sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the C. versicolor. [Shanbhag B A, Radder R S and Saidapur S K 2002 Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the lizard Ca- lotes versicolor (Agamidae); J. Biosci. 27 529–537]. 1. Introduction. Reproduction in vertebrates involves successful ...

  4. Maturity Gonad Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra Under The Month Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penina Tua Rahantoknam, Santi

    2017-10-01

    Gonad maturity level of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is important to note for selection of parent ready spawn. Sea cucumbers are giving a reaction to the treatment of excitatory spawn mature individuals only. For the determination of the level of maturity of gonads of sea cucumbers, the necessary observation of the gonads are microscopic, macroscopic and gonad maturity gonado somatic indeks (GSI). GSI value is important to know the changes that occur in the gonads quantitatively, so that time can be presumed spawning (Effendie, 1997). Reproductive cycle can be determined by observing the evolution of GSI. The study of sea cucumbers Holothuria scabra gonad maturity conducted in Langgur, Southeast Maluku. Observations were made at every cycle of the moon is the full moon phase (BP) and new moon (BB) in the period January 29, 2017 until July 23, 2017. Observations H. scabra gonad maturity level is done with surgery, observation and calculation GSI gonad histology. GSI highest value obtained in May that full moon cycle at 90% of individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5), then 70% of the individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5) in March that the full moon cycle. The results obtained show that the peak spawning H. scabra period January 2017 to July 2017 occurred on the full moon cycle in May.

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Poised Regeneration of Zebrafish Melanocytes Involves Direct Differentiation and Concurrent Replenishment of Tissue-Resident Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Sharanya; Kasheta, Melissa; Ceol, Craig J

    2015-06-22

    Efficient regeneration following injury is critical for maintaining tissue function and enabling organismal survival. Cells reconstituting damaged tissue are often generated from resident stem or progenitor cells or from cells that have dedifferentiated and become proliferative. While lineage-tracing studies have defined cellular sources of regeneration in many tissues, the process by which these cells execute the regenerative process is largely obscure. Here, we have identified tissue-resident progenitor cells that mediate regeneration of zebrafish stripe melanocytes and defined how these cells reconstitute pigmentation. Nearly all regeneration melanocytes arise through direct differentiation of progenitor cells. Wnt signaling is activated prior to differentiation, and inhibition of Wnt signaling impairs regeneration. Additional progenitors divide symmetrically to sustain the pool of progenitor cells. Combining direct differentiation with symmetric progenitor divisions may serve as a means to rapidly repair injured tissue while preserving the capacity to regenerate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Direct Test of the Differentiation Mechanism: REM, BCDMEM, and the Strength-Based Mirror Effect in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; White, Corey N.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2010-01-01

    We explore competing explanations for the reduction in false alarm rate observed when studied items are strengthened. Some models, such as Retrieving Effectively from Memory (REM; Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997), attribute the false alarm rate reduction to differentiation, a process in which strengthening memory traces at study directly reduces the…

  8. Gonadal Hormones and Retinal Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AimGonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular.MethodsEpidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed.ResultsAnalysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues. Sex hormones can have a neuroprotective action on the retina and modulate ocular blood flow. There are differences between the male and the female retina; moreover, sex hormones can influence the development (or not of certain disorders. For example, exposure to endogenous estrogens, depending on age at menarche and menopause and number of pregnancies, and exposure to exogenous estrogens, as in hormone replacement therapy and use of oral contraceptives, appear to protect against age-related macular degeneration (both drusenoid and neurovascular types, whereas exogenous testosterone therapy is a risk factor for central serous chorioretinopathy. Macular hole is more common among women than men, particularly in postmenopausal women probably owing to the sudden drop in estrogen production in later middle age. Progestin therapy appears to ameliorate the course of retinitis pigmentosa. Diabetic retinopathy, a complication of diabetes, may be more common among men than women.ConclusionWe observed a correlation between many retinopathies and sex, probably as a result of the protective effect some gonadal hormones may exert against the development of certain disorders. This may have ramifications for the use of hormone therapy in the treatment of eye disease and of retinal disorders in particular.

  9. Differential effects of speech situations on mothers' and fathers' infant-directed and dog-directed speech: An acoustic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Anna; Faragó, Tamás; Galambos, Ágoston; Topál, József

    2017-10-23

    There is growing evidence that dog-directed and infant-directed speech have similar acoustic characteristics, like high overall pitch, wide pitch range, and attention-getting devices. However, it is still unclear whether dog- and infant-directed speech have gender or context-dependent acoustic features. In the present study, we collected comparable infant-, dog-, and adult directed speech samples (IDS, DDS, and ADS) in four different speech situations (Storytelling, Task solving, Teaching, and Fixed sentences situations); we obtained the samples from parents whose infants were younger than 30 months of age and also had pet dog at home. We found that ADS was different from IDS and DDS, independently of the speakers' gender and the given situation. Higher overall pitch in DDS than in IDS during free situations was also found. Our results show that both parents hyperarticulate their vowels when talking to children but not when addressing dogs: this result is consistent with the goal of hyperspeech in language tutoring. Mothers, however, exaggerate their vowels for their infants under 18 months more than fathers do. Our findings suggest that IDS and DDS have context-dependent features and support the notion that people adapt their prosodic features to the acoustic preferences and emotional needs of their audience.

  10. $H \\to \\gamma\\gamma$ search and direct photon pair production differential cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Xuebing [Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China)

    2010-06-01

    context of the particular fermiophobic Higgs model. The corresponding results have reached the same sensitivity as a single LEP experiement, setting a lower limit on the fermiophobic Higgs of Mhf > 102.5 GeV (Mhf > 107.5 GeV expected). We are slightly below the combined LEP limit (Mhf > 109.7 GeV). We also provide access to the Mhf > 125 GeV region which was inaccessible at LEP. During the study, we found the major and irreducible background direct γγ (DPP) production is not well modelled by the current theoretical predictions: RESBOS, DIPHOX or PYTHIA. There is ~20% theoretical uncertainty for the predicted values. Thus, for our Higgs search, we use the side-band fitting method to estimate DPP contribution directly from the data events. Furthermore, DPP production is also a significant background in searches for new phenomena, such as new heavy resonances, extra spatial dimensions, or cascade decays of heavy new particles. Thus, precise measurements of the DPP cross sections for various kinematic variables and their theoretical understanding are extremely important for future Higgs and new phenomena searches. In this thesis, we also present a precise measurement of the DPP single differential cross sections as a function of the diphoton mass, the transverse momentum of the diphoton system, the azimuthal angle between the photons, and the polar scattering angle of the photons, as well as the double differential cross sections considering the last three kinematic variables in three diphoton mass bins, using 4.2 fb-1 data. These results are the first of their kind at D0 Run II, and in fact the double differential measurements are the first of their kind at Tevatron. The results are compared with different perturbative QCD predictions and event generators.

  11. Directly Solving Special Second Order Delay Differential Equations Using Runge-Kutta-Nyström Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mechee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Runge-Kutta-Nyström (RKN method is adapted for solving the special second order delay differential equations (DDEs. The stability polynomial is obtained when this method is used for solving linear second order delay differential equation. A standard set of test problems is solved using the method together with a cubic interpolation for evaluating the delay terms. The same set of problems is reduced to a system of first order delay differential equations and then solved using the existing Runge-Kutta (RK method. Numerical results show that the RKN method is more efficient in terms of accuracy and computational time when compared to RK method. The methods are applied to a well-known problem involving delay differential equations, that is, the Mathieu problem. The numerical comparison shows that both methods are in a good agreement.

  12. An engineered cell-imprinted substrate directs osteogenic differentiation in stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamguyan, Khorshid; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    A cell-imprinted poly(dimethylsiloxane)/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrate was fabricated to engage topographical, mechanical, and chemical signals to stimulate and boost stem cell osteogenic differentiation. The physicochemical properties of the fabricated substrates, with nanoscale resoluti...

  13. Histopathological pattern of gonads in cases of sex abnormalities in dogs: An attempt of morphological evaluation involving potential for neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimira, Stanislaw; Nizanski, Wojciech; Ochota, Malgorzata; Madej, Janusz A

    2015-10-01

    Disturbances in sex differentiation (DSD - disorder of sexual development) may result from disturbances in sex chromosomes or a disturbed development of gonads, or from genotypic disturbances. The objective of this article is to describe the histological structure of gonads in dogs showing sexual disturbances and a case of a cancer resembling gonadoblastoma in one of the animals. Among the 10 examined dogs with disturbances of sex development only a single case of a gonadoblastoma was observed. In animals with sex disturbances, similarly to humans, there exists a potential tendency for neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic gonads. As a rule, its frequency in population is confined due to the early procedure of castration of non-breeding dogs. In the present study dogs demonstrated phenotypical traits of bitches with developmental anomalies such as hyperplastic clitoris with vestigial os penis (baculum), or abnormalities in the location and structure of the vulva. The material for the study included canine gonads of various breeds, sampled from phenotypical bitches, aged 7 months to 4 years - patients of the Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Wroclaw (Poland) in years 2006-2013. The organs were surgically removed from the abdomen and sent for histopathological examination for the purpose of determining their histological structure. The 10 examined cases of altered gonads included 6 bilateral cases of testes (60%), 2 cases of bilateral ovotestis (20%), one case of co-manifestation of testis and ovotestis (10%), and a single case of a testis and a neoplastically altered gonad (gonadoblastoma) (10%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Timing of SOX9 downregulation and female sex determination in gonads of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Maldonado, L; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Landa, A; Merchant-Larios, H

    2001-09-15

    The SRY-related gene SOX9 is involved in the differentiation of Sertoli cells in male gonads of vertebrates with different kinds of sex determination. In the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature sex determination (TSD), the SOX9 protein is expressed at stages 21-24 in medullary cells in gonads of embryos incubated at both male-(MPT) or female-promoting temperatures (FPT). However, at FPT the expression of SOX9 protein decreases at stage 25 and disappears at stage 26, suggesting this as the critical period for SOX9 regulation by temperature. Here, we used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect SOX9 transcripts in gonads of embryos switched from MPT to FPT at stage 23 and sampled at days 6-14. Simultaneously, groups of embryos were switched back to MPT and gonadal sex was established. SOX9 transcripts were detected at days 6-12 of switching, when embryos reached stage 25 and were no longer detected at day 14, when the embryos were at stage 26. Embryos switched back to MPT at days 6 or 8 formed testes, whereas embryos switched at days 10 or 14 developed ovaries. Results suggest that at MPT the male sex-determining pathway that maintains SOX9 expression in male gonads is established at stage 24. In contrast, at FPT, the female sex-determining pathway involved in downregulation of SOX9 in female gonads occurs within two days at stage 25. J. Exp. Zool. 290:498-503, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Serum AMH in Physiology and Pathology of Male Gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Matuszczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMH is secreted by immature Sertoli cells (SC and is responsible for the regression of Müllerian ducts in the male fetus as part of the sexual differentiation process. AMH is also involved in testicular development and function. AMHs are at their lowest levels in the first days after birth but increase after the first week, likely reflecting active SC proliferation. AMH rises rapidly in concentration in boys during the first month, reaching a peak level at about 6 months of age, and then slowly declines during childhood, falling to low levels in puberty. Basal and FSH-stimulated levels of AMH, might become a useful predictive marker of the spermatogenic response to gonadotropic treatment in young patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After puberty, AMH is released preferentially by the apical pole of the SC towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, resulting in higher concentrations in the seminal plasma than in the serum. Defects in AMH production and insensitivity to AMH due to receptor defects result in the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. A measurable value of AMH in a boy with bilateral cryptorchidism is predictive of undescended testes, while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia or ovaries, as would be the case in girls with female pseudohermaphroditism and pure gonadal dysgenesis. Lower serum AMH concentrations in otherwise healthy boys with cryptorchidism, who were compared with their age-matched counterparts with palpable testes, have been reported previously. AMH levels are higher in prepubertal patients with varicocele than in controls. This altered serum profile of AMH in boys with varicoceles may indicate an early abnormality in the regulation of the seminiferous epithelial function. Serum AMH is known to be valuable in assessing gonadal function. As compared to testing involving the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, the measurement of AMH is more sensitive and equally specific

  16. Promotion of haematopoietic activity in embryonic stem cells by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krassowska, Anna; Gordon-Keylock, Sabrina; Samuel, Kay; Gilchrist, Derek; Dzierzak, Elaine; Oostendorp, Robert; Forrester, Lesley M.; Ansell, John D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into haematopoietic progenitors could be enhanced by exposure to the aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) microenvironment that is involved in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during embryonic development. We established a co-culture system that combines the requirements for primary organ culture and differentiating ES cells and showed that exposure of differentiating ES cells to the primary AGM region results in a significant increase in the number of ES-derived haematopoietic progenitors. Co-culture of ES cells on the AM20-1B4 stromal cell line derived from the AGM region also increases haematopoietic activity. We conclude that factors promoting the haematopoietic activity of differentiating ES cells present in primary AGM explants are partially retained in the AM20.1B4 stromal cell line and that these factors are likely to be different to those required for adult HSC maintenance

  17. The molecular and cellular basis of gonadal sex reversal in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Nick; Greenfield, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gonad is adapted for the production of germ cells and is an endocrine gland that controls sexual maturation and fertility. Gonadal sex reversal, namely, the development of ovaries in an XY individual or testes in an XX, has fascinated biologists for decades. The phenomenon suggests the existence of genetic suppressors of the male and female developmental pathways and molecular genetic studies, particularly in the mouse, have revealed controlled antagonism at the core of mammalian sex determination. Both testis and ovary determination represent design solutions to a number of problems: how to generate cells with the right properties to populate the organ primordium; how to produce distinct organs from an initially bipotential primordium; how to pattern an organ when the expression of key cell fate determinants is initiated only in a discrete region of the primordium and extends to other regions asynchronously; how to coordinate the interaction between distinct cell types in time and space and stabilize the resulting morphology; and how to maintain the differentiated state of the organ throughout the adult period. Some of these, and related problems, are common to organogenesis in general; some are distinctive to gonad development. In this review, we discuss recent studies of the molecular and cellular events underlying testis and ovary development, with an emphasis on the phenomenon of gonadal sex reversal and its causes in mice and humans. Finally, we discuss sex-determining loci and disorders of sex development in humans and the future of research in this important area. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cell population structure prior to bifurcation predicts efficiency of directed differentiation in human induced pluripotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargaje, Rhishikesh; Trachana, Kalliopi; Shelton, Martin N; McGinnis, Christopher S; Zhou, Joseph X; Chadick, Cora; Cook, Savannah; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Huang, Sui; Hood, Leroy

    2017-02-28

    Steering the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) toward specific cell types is crucial for patient-specific disease modeling and drug testing. This effort requires the capacity to predict and control when and how multipotent progenitor cells commit to the desired cell fate. Cell fate commitment represents a critical state transition or "tipping point" at which complex systems undergo a sudden qualitative shift. To characterize such transitions during iPSC to cardiomyocyte differentiation, we analyzed the gene expression patterns of 96 developmental genes at single-cell resolution. We identified a bifurcation event early in the trajectory when a primitive streak-like cell population segregated into the mesodermal and endodermal lineages. Before this branching point, we could detect the signature of an imminent critical transition: increase in cell heterogeneity and coordination of gene expression. Correlation analysis of gene expression profiles at the tipping point indicates transcription factors that drive the state transition toward each alternative cell fate and their relationships with specific phenotypic readouts. The latter helps us to facilitate small molecule screening for differentiation efficiency. To this end, we set up an analysis of cell population structure at the tipping point after systematic variation of the protocol to bias the differentiation toward mesodermal or endodermal cell lineage. We were able to predict the proportion of cardiomyocytes many days before cells manifest the differentiated phenotype. The analysis of cell populations undergoing a critical state transition thus affords a tool to forecast cell fate outcomes and can be used to optimize differentiation protocols to obtain desired cell populations.

  19. Coxsackievirus B3 Directly Induced Th17 Cell Differentiation by Inhibiting Nup98 Expression in Patients with Acute Viral Myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qi; Liao, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yu; Liang, Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Yuan, Jing; Yu, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Th17 cells play a key role in the progression of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced acute viral myocarditis (AVMC). However, the direct effect of virus on Th17 cell differentiation is still unknown. Recently, nucleoporin (Nup) 98 has been proved to be associated with lymphocyte differentiation. Therefore, we investigated whether Nup98 mediated Th17 cell differentiation in AVMC. In our study, patients with AVMC and healthy controls were recruited. The results showed that CVB3 could enter into the CD4 + T cells in AVMC patients and healthy controls. After transfecting purified CD4 + T cells with CVB3 in vitro , the Th17 cell frequency, IL-17 secretion, and RORγT synthesis were increased while the Nup98 levels were decreased. Furthermore, down-regulating Nup98 expression by siRNA-Nup98 in CD4 + T cells resulted in the elevated Th17 cell frequency and IL-17 secretion, along with enhanced levels of RORγT, dissociative p300/CBP, and acetylated Stat3. Up-regulation of Nup98 expression by pcDNA3.1-Nup98 showed the opposite effects. Our results suggested that CVB3 directly induced CD4 + T cell differentiation into Th17 cells by inhibiting Nup98 expression, representing a therapeutic target in AVMC.

  20. Coxsackievirus B3 directly induced Th17 cell differentiation by inhibiting Nup98 expression in patients with acute viral myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Long

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Th17 cells play a key role in the progression of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3-induced acute viral myocarditis (AVMC. However, the direct effect of virus on Th17 cell differentiation is still unknown. Recently, nucleoporin (Nup 98 has been proved to be associated with lymphocyte differentiation. Therefore, we investigated whether Nup98 mediated Th17 cell differentiation in AVMC. In our study, patients with AVMC and healthy controls were recruited. The results showed that CVB3 could enter into the CD4+ T cells in AVMC patients and healthy controls. After transfecting purified CD4+ T cells with CVB3 in vitro, the Th17 cell frequency, IL-17 secretion, and RORγT synthesis were increased while the Nup98 levels were decreased. Furthermore, down-regulating Nup98 expression by siRNA-Nup98 in CD4+ T cells resulted in the elevated Th17 cell frequency and IL-17 secretion, along with enhanced levels of RORγT, dissociative p300/CBP, and acetylated Stat3. Up-regulation of Nup98 expression by pcDNA3.1-Nup98 showed the opposite effects. Our results suggested that CVB3 directly induced CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th17 cells by inhibiting Nup98 expression, representing a therapeutic target in AVMC.

  1. Tie Point Extraction for SAR Images with Same Side-looking Direction from Different Trajectories Based on Differential Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Guowang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extract tie points for SAR image block adjustment automatically and steadily,a method of tie point extraction based on differential constraints for SAR images with same side-looking direction from different trajectories is presented.It is aiming at SAR images with same side-looking direction and approximately parallel tracks,whose relative geometric distortion is small in azimuth and large in range.Firstly,image pyramids are built for two SAR images,and then these images are matched with correlation coefficient calculated by rectangular window with increased azimuth side from the top layer to the bottom layer.Mismatched points are removed by RANSAC algorithm with differential constraints.Coordinates for points in lower pyramid images are estimated with global bilinear transformation model in azimuth and local bilinear transformation model in range.Experiments performed on Envisat ASAR images and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the proposed method.

  2. Efficacy of direct Gram stain in differentiating staphylococci from streptococci in blood cultures positive for gram-positive cocci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, W A; Maki, D G

    1978-01-01

    A preponderance of clusters seen on direct Gram stain of blood cultures positive for gram-positive cocci was 98% sensitive and 100% specific for identification of staphylococcal species or of Peptococcus. A preponderance of chains, pairs, or both was 100% sensitive and 98% specific for identifying streptococci. Further presumptive identification of either staphylococci or streptococci based on microscopic morphology was unreliable. The direct Gram stain is highly reliable for differentiating staphylococci from streptococci and should be of considerable value to clinicians selecting initial antimicrobial therapy. PMID:75888

  3. Case of microgastria in association with splenic-gonadal fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, G.A.; Alavi, A.; Heyman, S.; Ziegler, M.M.

    1983-03-01

    Microgastria is a rare congenital anomaly usually associated with asplenia. In this 2 1/2-year-old presenting with left hydrocele and inguinal hernia multiple accessory spleens were found in the inguinal-scrotal region compatible with splenic-gonadal fusion. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid scanning is helpful in microgastria searching for the presence of splenic tissue and in splenic-gonadal fusion for the location of accessory heterotopic spleens.

  4. Directed differentiation of rhesus monkey ES cells into pancreatic cell phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauert Brian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ES can self-replicate and differentiate into all cell types including insulin-producing, beta-like cells and could, therefore, be used to treat diabetes mellitus. To date, results of stem cell differentiation into beta cells have been debated, largely due to difficulties in defining the identity of a beta cell. We have recently differentiated non-human primate (rhesus embryonic stem (rES cell lines into insulin producing, beta-like cells with the beta cell growth factor, Exendin-4 and using C-peptide as a phenotype marker. Cell development was characterized at each stage by gene and protein expression. Insulin, NKX6.1 and glucagon mRNA were expressed in stage 4 cells but not in early undifferentiated cells. We concluded that rES cells could be differentiated ex vivo to insulin producing cells. These differentiated rES cells could be used to develop a non-human primate model for evaluating cell therapy to treat diabetes. To facilitate the identification of beta-like cells and to track the cells post-transplantation, we have developed a marker gene construct: fusing the human insulin promoter (HIP to the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene. This construct was transfected into stage 3 rES derived cells and subsequent GFP expression was identified in C-peptide positive cells, thereby substantiating endogenous insulin production by rES derived cells. Using this GFP detection system, we will enrich our population of insulin producing rES derived cells and track these cells post-transplantation in the non-human primate model.

  5. Laparoscopic Removal of Streak Gonads in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelberger, Adrienne; Mathews, Shyama; Andikyan, Vaagn; Chuang, Linus

    To demonstrate the skills necessary for complete resection of bilateral streak gonads in Turner syndrome. Video case presentation with narration highlighting the key techniques used. The video was deemed exempt from formal review by our institutional review board. Turner syndrome is a form of gonadal dysgenesis that affects 1 in 2500 live births. Patients often have streak gonads and may present with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian failure. Patients with a mosaic karyotype that includes a Y chromosome are at increased risk for gonadoblastoma and subsequent transformation into malignancy. Gonadectomy is recommended for these patients, typically at adolescence. Streak gonads can be difficult to identify, and tissue margins are often in close proximity to critical retroperitoneal structures. Resection can be technically challenging and requires a thorough understanding of retroperitoneal anatomy and precise dissection techniques to ensure complete removal. Laparoscopic approach to bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of streak gonads. Retroperitoneal dissection and ureterolysis are performed, with the aid of the Ethicon Harmonic Ace, to ensure complete gonadectomy. Careful and complete resection of gonadal tissue in the hands of a skilled laparoscopic surgeon is key for effective cancer risk reduction surgery in Turner syndrome mosaics. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA-24 promotes 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by directly targeting the MAPK7 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Min, E-mail: min_jin@zju.edu.cn [Division of Reproductive Medicine & Infertility, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 88#, Jiefang Rd., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009 (China); Wu, Yutao; Wang, Jing [School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 288# Yuhangtang Rd, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003 (China); Chen, Jian; Huang, Yiting; Rao, Jinpeng; Feng, Chun [Division of Reproductive Medicine & Infertility, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 88#, Jiefang Rd., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Over the past years, MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a vital role in harmony with gene regulation and maintaining cellular homeostasis. It is well testified that miRNAshave been involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, cell fate decision, and cellular differentiation. Adipogenesis is an organized process of cellular differentiation by which pre-adipocytes differentiate towards mature adipocytes, and it is tightly modulated by a series of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and sterol regulatory-element binding proteins 1 (SREBP1). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the connection between miRNAs and adipogenesis-related transcription factors remain obscure. In this study, we unveiled that miR- 24 was remarkably upregulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Overexpression of miR-24 significantly promoted 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, as evidenced by its ability to increase the expression of PPAR-γ and SREBP1, lipid droplet formation and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Furthermore, we found that neither ectopic expression of miR-24nor miR-24 inhibitor affect cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Finally, we demonstrated that miR-24 plays the modulational role by directly repressing MAPK7, a key number in the MAPK signaling pathway. These data indicate that miR-24 is a novel positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation by targeting MAPK7, which provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of miRNA-mediated cellular differentiation. -- Highlights: •We firstly found miR-24 was upregulated in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation. •miR-24 promoted 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation while silencing the expression of miR-24 had an opposite function. •miR-24 regulated 3T3-L1 differentiation by directly targeting MAPK7 signaling pathway. •miR-24did not affect 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes cellular proliferation.

  7. Ontogeny of gender-specific responsiveness to stress and glucocorticoids in the rat and its determination by the neonatal gonadal steroid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchev, V K; Hayashi, S; Orikasa, C; Almeida, O F

    1999-08-01

    The neuroendocrine response to stress in the rat displays gender-specific characteristics resulting from both sex hormone-dependent organization of neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms and the modulatory action of circulating gonadal steroids. To define the role of gonadal steroid-mediated brain differentiation in the emergence of sex-specific differences in pituitary-adrenal function, and the necessity of physiological gonadal secretions for the manifestation of these differences, we examined the ontogeny of diurnal and stress-induced corticosterone (B) secretion, and suppressibility of the latter by dexamethasone (DEX) in intact male and female rats, and in animals that were subject to neonatal manipulations of the gonadal steroid environment (orchidectomy in males and neonatal estrogenization in females). Further, gene expression of corticosteroid receptors (MR and GR), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) under basal conditions, and following adrenalectomy (ADX) and chronic supplementation with high doses of B, were investigated in adult male and female rats, and individuals of both sexes which have been exposed to alterations of the gonadal steroid milieu during early development. The results demonstrate that: i) gender-specific differences in basal and stress-induced adrenocortical secretion are present at birth, but are still maleable by neonatal alterations of the gonadal steroid environment; ii) gender-specific dichotomy in the sensitivity of the secretory stress response to glucocorticoid feedback becomes fully manifest in adulthood; iii) sex differences in basal adrenocortical secretion become fully expressed only in the presence of intact gonads, whereas, once established by the neonatal hormonal milieu, differential sensitivity of the stress response to glucocorticoids persists in the absence of functioning gonads; iv) neonatal hormone manipulations alter sex-specific characteristics of CRH, AVP, MR and GR gene

  8. Living biointerfaces based on non-pathogenic bacteria to direct cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Rico, Patricia; Saadeddin, Anas; Garcia, Andres J.; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified Lactococcus lactis, non-pathogenic bacteria expressing the FNIII7-10 fibronectin fragment as a protein membrane have been used to create a living biointerface between synthetic materials and mammalian cells. This FNIII7-10 fragment comprises the RGD and PHSRN sequences of fibronectin to bind α5β1 integrins and triggers signalling for cell adhesion, spreading and differentiation. We used L. lactis strain to colonize material surfaces and produce stable biofilms presenting the FNIII7-10 fragment readily available to cells. Biofilm density is easily tunable and remains stable for several days. Murine C2C12 myoblasts seeded over mature biofilms undergo bipolar alignment and form differentiated myotubes, a process triggered by the FNIII7-10 fragment. This biointerface based on living bacteria can be further modified to express any desired biochemical signal, establishing a new paradigm in biomaterial surface functionalisation for biomedical applications.

  9. Origin of somatic cells and histogenesis in the primordial gonad of the Japanese tree frog Rhacophorus arboreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, A; Iwasawa, H

    1989-01-01

    Gonadal development in Rhacophorus arboreus, a sexually semidifferentiated type of tree frog, was observed by means of the electron microscope, and cell proliferation kinetics were examined autoradiographically. The genital ridge consisted of coelomic epithelial cells and primordial germ cells. The gonadal medulla was formed by the segregation of epithelial cells within the primordial gonad. Thereafter, the medullary cell mass was well developed and oogenesis began in the gonadal cortex, irrespective of genetic sex. During metamorphosis, the ovarian cavity was formed in the medullary mass. This ovarian structure developed further in females. In males, on the other hand, a layer of medullary cells comprising the epithelium of the ovarian cavity proliferated rapidly and reformed a large cell mass. The degeneration of ovarian follicles and the formation of cell cords (rudimentary seminiferous tubules) were seen in the cortex. These cell cords were separated from the superficial epithelium and continued to the medullary mass (rudimentary testicular rete). These results clearly indicate that both the cortical and medullary cells are derived from the coelomic epithelium and that the development of the cortex and medulla is not always antagonistic in the course of sexual differentiation.

  10. Establishment and directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from glycogen storage disease type Ib patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Daisuke; Maeda, Tohru; Ito, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yoko; Ohte, Mariko; Ukai, Akane; Nakamura, Katsunori; Enosawa, Shin; Toyota, Masashi; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Okita, Hajime; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Akutsu, Hidenori; Umezawa, Akihiro; Matsunaga, Tamihide

    2013-12-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSDIb) is caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT), which leads to neutrophil dysfunction. However, the underlying causes of these dysfunctions and their relationship with glucose homeostasis are unclear. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold a great promise for advances in developmental biology, cell-based therapy and modeling of human disease. Here, we examined the use of iPSCs as a model for GSDIb. In this study, one 2-year-old patient was genetically screened and diagnosed with GSDIb. We established iPSCs and differentiated these cells into hepatocytes and neutrophils, which comprise the main pathological components of GSDIb. Cells that differentiated into hepatocytes exhibited characteristic albumin secretion and indocyanine green uptake. Moreover, iPSC-derived cells generated from patients with GSDIb metabolic abnormalities recapitulated key pathological features of the diseases affecting the patients from whom they were derived, such as glycogen, lactate, pyruvate and lipid accumulation. Cells that were differentiated into neutrophils also showed the GSDIb pathology. In addition to the expression of neutrophil markers, we showed increased superoxide anion production, increased annexin V binding and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, consistent with the GSDIb patient's neutrophils. These results indicate valuable tools for the analysis of this pathology and the development of future treatments. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Gonad Shielding for Patients Undergoing Conventional Radiological Examinations: Is There Cause for Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Gonad shielding is one of the fundamental methods by which to protect reproductive organs in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations. A lack of or inadequate shielding of the gonads may increase the exposure of these organs and result in malignancies future generations. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of gonad shielding in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations and the availability of gonad shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments. Materials and Methods A retrospective, observational cross-sectional study on the application of gonad shielding, the availability of gonad shields and the existence of gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments was performed in five different hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Results The highest application of gonad shielding was 6.6% for the pediatric hospital. The prevalence of gonad shielding was less than 0.2%. In 64.3% of the radiography rooms, at least one flat-contact gonad shield of a large size was available. Only large-sized gonad shields were available. Curved-contact and shadow gonad shields did not exist. Gonad shielding protocols were not existence in any of the fourteen radiography rooms investigated. Conclusions Comprehensive protection programs with on-the-job training courses for staff members are strongly recommended, as well as, the provision of radiological shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments to reduce the patient’s radiation dose during radiological examinations.

  12. Identification of X Monosomy Cells From a Gonad of Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis With a 46,XY Karyotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina-Uchida, Noriko; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Morison, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a disorder of sexual development that typically has a mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype. A 1-year-old infant with 46,XY identified by peripheral blood karyotype demonstrated clinical manifestations and gonadal pathologic features of MGD. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes and immunofluorescence for SRY along with testicular and ovarian lineage markers SOX9 and FOXL2, respectively, were performed on paraffin sections from the gonad to ascertain the somatic mosaic state for 45,X monosomy and 46,XY cells. The gonad consisted of cells with X and XY signals, which were further quantified in comparison with a normal control testis by a digital image analysis program. The average percentages of 45,X cells of this patient's gonad and a control testis were 39.0% and 5.7%, respectively (χ2 test, P < 0.001). SRY expression was absent in approximately 10% of precursor granulosa cells (FOXL2 positive) and precursor Sertoli/granulosa cells (both SOX9 and FOXL2 positive) within gonadoblastomas, confirming the involvement of 45,X cells. A combination of analysis of FISH and immunofluorescence for SRY in the gonadal tissue could identify 45,X cells in MGD with 46,XY. PMID:25860218

  13. Identification of X monosomy cells from a gonad of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with a 46,XY karyotype: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina-Uchida, Noriko; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Morison, Ian M

    2015-04-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a disorder of sexual development that typically has a mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype. A 1-year-old infant with 46,XY identified by peripheral blood karyotype demonstrated clinical manifestations and gonadal pathologic features of MGD. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes and immunofluorescence for SRY along with testicular and ovarian lineage markers SOX9 and FOXL2, respectively, were performed on paraffin sections from the gonad to ascertain the somatic mosaic state for 45,X monosomy and 46,XY cells. The gonad consisted of cells with X and XY signals, which were further quantified in comparison with a normal control testis by a digital image analysis program. The average percentages of 45,X cells of this patient's gonad and a control testis were 39.0% and 5.7%, respectively (χ2 test, P < 0.001). SRY expression was absent in approximately 10% of precursor granulosa cells (FOXL2 positive) and precursor Sertoli/granulosa cells (both SOX9 and FOXL2 positive) within gonadoblastomas, confirming the involvement of 45,X cells. A combination of analysis of FISH and immunofluorescence for SRY in the gonadal tissue could identify 45,X cells in MGD with 46,XY.

  14. A general theory of sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Arthur P

    2017-01-02

    A general theory of mammalian sexual differentiation is proposed. All biological sex differences are the result of the inequality in effects of the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors that differ in XX vs. XY zygotes. This inequality leads to male-specific effects of the Y chromosome, including expression of the testis-determining gene Sry that causes differentiation of testes. Thus, Sry sets up lifelong sex differences in effects of gonadal hormones. Y genes also act outside of the gonads to cause male-specific effects. Differences in the number of X chromosomes between XX and XY cells cause sex differences in expression (1) of Xist, (2) of X genes that escape inactivation, and (3) of parentally imprinted X genes. Sex differences in phenotype are ultimately the result of multiple, independent sex-biasing factors, hormonal and sex chromosomal. These factors act in parallel and in combination to induce sex differences. They also can offset each other to reduce sex differences. Other mechanisms, operating at the level of populations, cause groups of males to differ on average from groups of females. The theory frames questions for further study, and directs attention to inherent sex-biasing factors that operate in many tissues to cause sex differences, and to cause sex-biased protection from disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Differential control of abdominal muscles during multi-directional support-surface translations in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark G; Tokuno, Craig D; Thorstensson, Alf; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2008-07-01

    The current study aimed to understand how deep and superficial abdominal muscles are coordinated with respect to activation onset times and amplitudes in response to unpredictable support-surface translations delivered in multiple directions. Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded intra-muscularly using fine-wire electrodes inserted into the right rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles. Twelve young healthy male subjects were instructed to maintain their standing balance during 40 support surface translations (peak acceleration 1.3 m s(-2); total displacement 0.6 m) that were counter-balanced between four different directions (forward, backward, leftward, rightward). Differences between abdominal muscles in EMG onset times were found for specific translation directions. The more superficial RA (backward translations) and OE (forward and leftward translations) muscles had significantly earlier EMG onsets compared to TrA. EMG onset latencies were dependent on translation direction in RA, OE and OI, but independent of direction in TrA. EMG amplitudes in RA and OE were dependent on translation direction within the first 100 ms of activity, whereas responses from the two deeper muscles (TrA and OI) were independent of translation direction during this interval. The current results provide new insights into how abdominal muscles contribute to postural reactions during human stance. Response patterns of deep and superficial abdominal muscles during support surface translations are unlike those previously described during upper-body perturbations or voluntary arm movements, indicating that the neural mechanisms controlling individual abdominal muscles are task-specific to different postural demands.

  16. Differential contribution of visual and auditory information to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of a visual stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kim, Seonjin; Kwon, MinHyuk; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-03-01

    Vision and auditory information are critical for perception and to enhance the ability of an individual to respond accurately to a stimulus. However, it is unknown whether visual and auditory information contribute differentially to identify the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus based on visual and auditory information. In this study, we recruited 9 expert table-tennis players and used table-tennis service as our experimental model. Participants watched recorded services with different levels of visual and auditory information. The goal was to anticipate the direction of the service (left or right) and the rotational motion of service (topspin, sidespin, or cut). We recorded their responses and quantified the following outcomes: (i) directional accuracy and (ii) rotational motion accuracy. The response accuracy was the accurate predictions relative to the total number of trials. The ability of the participants to predict the direction of the service accurately increased with additional visual information but not with auditory information. In contrast, the ability of the participants to predict the rotational motion of the service accurately increased with the addition of auditory information to visual information but not with additional visual information alone. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that visual information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction of the stimulus, whereas additional auditory information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the rotational motion of stimulus.

  17. Directing Stem Cell Differentiation via Electrochemical Reversible Switching between Nanotubes and Nanotips of Polypyrrole Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan; Mo, Xiaoju; Zhang, Pengchao; Li, Yingying; Liao, Jingwen; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Jinxing; Ning, Chengyun; Wang, Shutao; Deng, Xuliang; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-27

    Control of stem cell behaviors at solid biointerfaces is critical for stem-cell-based regeneration and generally achieved by engineering chemical composition, topography, and stiffness. However, the influence of dynamic stimuli at the nanoscale from solid biointerfaces on stem cell fate remains unclear. Herein, we show that electrochemical switching of a polypyrrole (Ppy) array between nanotubes and nanotips can alter surface adhesion, which can strongly influence mechanotransduction activation and guide differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The Ppy array, prepared via template-free electrochemical polymerization, can be reversibly switched between highly adhesive hydrophobic nanotubes and poorly adhesive hydrophilic nanotips through an electrochemical oxidation/reduction process, resulting in dynamic attachment and detachment to MSCs at the nanoscale. Multicyclic attachment/detachment of the Ppy array to MSCs can activate intracellular mechanotransduction and osteogenic differentiation independent of surface stiffness and chemical induction. This smart surface, permitting transduction of nanoscaled dynamic physical inputs into biological outputs, provides an alternative to classical cell culture substrates for regulating stem cell fate commitment. This study represents a general strategy to explore nanoscaled interactions between stem cells and stimuli-responsive surfaces.

  18. Highly efficient reprogramming to pluripotency and directed differentiation of human cells with synthetic modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Luigi; Manos, Philip D; Ahfeldt, Tim; Loh, Yuin-Han; Li, Hu; Lau, Frank; Ebina, Wataru; Mandal, Pankaj K; Smith, Zachary D; Meissner, Alexander; Daley, George Q; Brack, Andrew S; Collins, James J; Cowan, Chad; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Rossi, Derrick J

    2010-11-05

    Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is limited by the low efficiency of iPSC derivation and the fact that most protocols modify the genome to effect cellular reprogramming. Moreover, safe and effective means of directing the fate of patient-specific iPSCs toward clinically useful cell types are lacking. Here we describe a simple, nonintegrating strategy for reprogramming cell fate based on administration of synthetic mRNA modified to overcome innate antiviral responses. We show that this approach can reprogram multiple human cell types to pluripotency with efficiencies that greatly surpass established protocols. We further show that the same technology can be used to efficiently direct the differentiation of RNA-induced pluripotent stem cells (RiPSCs) into terminally differentiated myogenic cells. This technology represents a safe, efficient strategy for somatic cell reprogramming and directing cell fate that has broad applicability for basic research, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The relative contribution of paracine effect versus direct differentiation on adipose-derived stem cell transplantation mediated cardiac repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that transplantation of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC can improve cardiac function in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the paracrine effect of transplanted ADSC and investigated its relative importance versus direct differentiation in ADSC transplantation mediated cardiac repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MI was experimentally induced in mice by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Either human ADSC, conditioned medium (CM collected from the same amount of ADSC or control medium was injected into the peri-infarct region immediately after MI. Compared with the control group, both ADSC and ADSC-CM significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac function. The therapeutic efficacy of ADSC was moderately superior to ADSC-CM. ADSC-CM significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarct border zone, to a similar degree with ADSC treatment. ADSC enhanced angiogenesis in the infarct border zone, but to a stronger degree than that seen in the ADSC-CM treatment. ADSC was able to differentiate to endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell in post-MI heart; these ADSC-derived vascular cells amount to about 9% of the enhanced angiogenesis. No cardiomyocyte differentiated from ADSC was found. CONCLUSIONS: ADSC-CM is sufficient to improve cardiac function of infarcted hearts. The therapeutic function of ADSC transplantation is mainly induced by paracrine-mediated cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while ADSC differentiation contributes a minor benefit by being involved in angiogenesis. Highlights 1 ADSC-CM is sufficient to exert a therapeutic potential. 2. ADSC was able to differentiate to vascular cells but not cardiomyocyte. 3. ADSC derived vascular cells amount to about 9% of the enhanced angiogenesis. 4. Paracrine effect is the major

  20. Response of diencephalon but not the gonad to female-promoting temperature with elevated estradiol levels in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame-Mendez, A; Herrera-Munoz, J; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Merchant-Larios, H

    1998-03-01

    Although temperature sex determination is well known in several reptile species, the physiological mechanism underlying this process remains to be elucidated. In the current work, we analyzed the levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) in the gonads; two brain regions--telencephalon (Te) and diencephalon/mesencephalon (Di)--and the serum of developing embryos of the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea incubated at male- or female-promoting temperatures. Conversion of pregnenolone (P5) to T and T to E2 were studied in the gonads and brain. The analyses were performed during three periods: the thermosensitive period (TSP), histologically undifferentiated gonads (UDG), and differentiated gonads (DG). In the gonads, serum, and brain, T concentrations were higher at the female-promoting temperature during the three periods, whereas in the gonads and serum, E2 levels were similar at the female and male-promoting temperature. In Di, the concentration of E2 was significantly higher at the female-promoting temperature. Biotransformation of P5 to T in gonadal tissues were slightly higher at the female-promoting temperature in TSP and increased during UDG and DG. Conversion of T to E2, however, was similar at the two temperatures during the three periods. In the brain, the Di showed a higher efficiency for transforming T to E2 at the female-promoting temperature. Our present results do not allow us to decide whether the diencephalon is the cause or the effect, but they conclusively demonstrate that, in L. olivacea, this region of the brain senses temperature during sex determination.

  1. Histological study of the gonadal development of Ruditapes decussates (L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia and its relationship with available food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Delgado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the effects of food availability on the sexual maturation of Ruditapes decussates through histological examination of the gonadal tissue. Three food rations were tested: High (H: 1 mg. organic matter. g live weight–1.day-1 of the microalgae Isochrysis galbana clone T-ISO, intermediate (I: 0.5 mg OM g live weight-1 day-1 and nutritionally restricted (R: 0.25 mg OM g live weight-1 day-1. The tests were carried out at a constant temperature of 18°C for a period of 70 days for diets H and I, and 120 days for diet R. The results showed that in R. decussatus the energy from ingestion was mainly channelled to reproductive processes, especially when food was restricted. The clams matured sexually under all the conditions tested, both with a somatic growth and with a loss of body mass. The available food was directly related to the rate of the gonadal development and with the total quantity of gonad generated. Equally, food restrictions limited gonadal recovery after spawning episodes. Food quantity also affected the dry weight of soft tissues (DW, which increased with the highest ration (H and decreased notably with the lowest ration (R. Decreases in DW when food was scarce appeared to be more related to loss of reserve tissue rather than to variations in the quantity of reproductive tissue.

  2. Current levels of gonadal irradiation from a selection of routine diagnostic X-ray examinations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Fisher, E.S.; Shrimpton, P.C.; Rae, S.

    1980-07-01

    The gonadal doses from 13 types of diagnostic examination have been measured at 21 hospitals throughout the country in preparation for a new assessment of the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. Thermoluminescent dosemeters, consisting of lithium borate powder contained in adhesive polythene sachets, were used for the measurements. They were attached to patients to monitor the testes dose directly or the entrance skin dose at the level of the ovaries. Skin doses were converted to ovarian doses using factors obtained by measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom exposed to a range of typical diagnostic X-ray fields. The results indicate that for some types of examination there has been an increase and for others there has been a reduction in the mean gonadal dose delivered per examination since a similar survey was made 20 years ago. Individual gonadal doses for the same examination still ranged over 3 or 4 orders of magnitude throughout the country with distributions described by coefficients of variation that were no less than those found in the late 1950s. This large variability in patient exposure, together with the observation that examinations were satisfactorily conducted on children with a much higher degree of gonadal protection than that offered to young adults, indicates that many patients must be receiving doses that are unnecessarily high. (author)

  3. Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Rathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients.

  4. The use of gonad shielding in biomedical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for specified rules for gonad shielding in X-ray diagnostics have been stressed by staff members in Norwegian hospitals and health institutions. Variable practice has also caused some distress among patients. In order to have a common recommendation for gonad shielding in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in Norway formulated a proposal for a ''Code of practice''. The recommendation was drafted by a working group with members from the five Nordic countries and was approved by the Nordic radiation protection authorities with a minor changes. The report is divided in two parts. The first part contains the recommeded Code of practice for gonad shielding in medical X-ray diagnostics. The second part contains data and background material. 23 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E.; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen. Here, we investigated the function of the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 in tendon formation, healing, and repair using rodent animal models and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adult tendons of Egr1–/– mice displayed a deficiency in the expression of tendon genes, including Scx, Col1a1, and Col1a2, and were mechanically weaker compared with their WT littermates. EGR1 was recruited to the Col1a1 and Col2a1 promoters in postnatal mouse tendons in vivo. Egr1 was required for the normal gene response following tendon injury in a mouse model of Achilles tendon healing. Forced Egr1 expression programmed MSCs toward the tendon lineage and promoted the formation of in vitro–engineered tendons from MSCs. The application of EGR1-producing MSCs increased the formation of tendon-like tissues in a rat model of Achilles tendon injury. We provide evidence that the ability of EGR1 to promote tendon differentiation is partially mediated by TGF-β2. This study demonstrates EGR1 involvement in adult tendon formation, healing, and repair and identifies Egr1 as a putative target in tendon repair strategies. PMID:23863709

  6. Characterization of dendritic cells and macrophages generated by directed differentiation from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Satoru; Haruta, Miwa; Matsunaga, Yusuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tokunori; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Okita, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nishimura, Yasuharu

    2009-05-01

    Methods have been established to generate dendritic cells (DCs) from mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells. We designated them as ES-DCs and mouse models have demonstrated the induction of anti-cancer immunity and prevention of autoimmune disease by in vivo administration of genetically engineered ES-DCs. For the future clinical application of ES-DCs, the histoincompatibility between patients to be treated and available human ES cells and the ethical concerns associated with human ES cells may be serious obstacles. However, recently developed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology is expected to resolve these issues. This report describes the generation and characterization of DCs derived from mouse iPS cells. The iPS cell-derived DCs (iPS-DCs) possessed the characteristics of DCs including the capacity of T-cell-stimulation, antigen-processing and presentation and cytokine production. DNA microarray analyses revealed the upregulation of genes related to antigen-presenting functions during differentiation into iPS-DCs and similarity in gene expression profile in iPS-DCs and bone marrow cell-derived DCs. Genetically modified iPS-DCs expressing antigenic protein primed T-cells specific to the antigen in vivo and elicited efficient antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity. In addition, macrophages were generated from iPS cells (iPS-MP). iPS-MP were comparable with bone marrow cell-derived macrophages in the cell surface phenotype, functions, and gene expression profiles.

  7. Specific Intensity Direct Current (DC) Electric Field Improves Neural Stem Cell Migration and Enhances Differentiation towards βIII-Tubulin+ Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiping; Steiger, Amanda; Nohner, Mitch; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Control of stem cell migration and differentiation is vital for efficient stem cell therapy. Literature reporting electric field–guided migration and differentiation is emerging. However, it is unknown if a field that causes cell migration is also capable of guiding cell differentiation—and the mechanisms for these processes remain unclear. Here, we report that a 115 V/m direct current (DC) electric field can induce directional migration of neural precursor cells (NPCs). Whole cell patching revealed that the cell membrane depolarized in the electric field, and buffering of extracellular calcium via EGTA prevented cell migration under these conditions. Immunocytochemical staining indicated that the same electric intensity could also be used to enhance differentiation and increase the percentage of cell differentiation into neurons, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The results indicate that DC electric field of this specific intensity is capable of promoting cell directional migration and orchestrating functional differentiation, suggestively mediated by calcium influx during DC field exposure. PMID:26068466

  8. Differential tolerance to direct and indirect density-dependent costs of viral infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Israel; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    Population density and costs of parasite infection may condition the capacity of organisms to grow, survive and reproduce, i.e. their competitive ability. In host-parasite systems there are different competitive interactions: among uninfected hosts, among infected hosts, and between uninfected and infected hosts. Consequently, parasite infection results in a direct cost, due to parasitism itself, and in an indirect cost, due to modification of the competitive ability of the infected host. Theory predicts that host fitness reduction will be higher under the combined effects of costs of parasitism and competition than under each factor separately. However, experimental support for this prediction is scarce, and derives mostly from animal-parasite systems. We have analysed the interaction between parasite infection and plant density using the plant-parasite system of Arabidopsis thaliana and the generalist virus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Plants of three wild genotypes grown at different densities were infected by CMV at various prevalences, and the effects of infection on plant growth and reproduction were quantified. Results demonstrate that the combined effects of host density and parasite infection may result either in a reduction or in an increase of the competitive ability of the host. The two genotypes investing a higher proportion of resources to reproduction showed tolerance to the direct cost of infection, while the genotype investing a higher proportion of resources to growth showed tolerance to the indirect cost of infection. Our findings show that the outcome of the interaction between host density and parasitism depends on the host genotype, which determines the plasticity of life-history traits and consequently, the host capacity to develop different tolerance mechanisms to the direct or indirect costs of parasitism. These results indicate the high relevance of host density and parasitism in determining the competitive ability of a plant, and stress

  9. Differential tolerance to direct and indirect density-dependent costs of viral infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Population density and costs of parasite infection may condition the capacity of organisms to grow, survive and reproduce, i.e. their competitive ability. In host-parasite systems there are different competitive interactions: among uninfected hosts, among infected hosts, and between uninfected and infected hosts. Consequently, parasite infection results in a direct cost, due to parasitism itself, and in an indirect cost, due to modification of the competitive ability of the infected host. Theory predicts that host fitness reduction will be higher under the combined effects of costs of parasitism and competition than under each factor separately. However, experimental support for this prediction is scarce, and derives mostly from animal-parasite systems. We have analysed the interaction between parasite infection and plant density using the plant-parasite system of Arabidopsis thaliana and the generalist virus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Plants of three wild genotypes grown at different densities were infected by CMV at various prevalences, and the effects of infection on plant growth and reproduction were quantified. Results demonstrate that the combined effects of host density and parasite infection may result either in a reduction or in an increase of the competitive ability of the host. The two genotypes investing a higher proportion of resources to reproduction showed tolerance to the direct cost of infection, while the genotype investing a higher proportion of resources to growth showed tolerance to the indirect cost of infection. Our findings show that the outcome of the interaction between host density and parasitism depends on the host genotype, which determines the plasticity of life-history traits and consequently, the host capacity to develop different tolerance mechanisms to the direct or indirect costs of parasitism. These results indicate the high relevance of host density and parasitism in determining the competitive ability of a

  10. C/ebpα controls osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation, function, and postnatal bone homeostasis through direct regulation of Nfatc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Guochun; Tang, Jun; Zhou, Hou-De; Li, Yi-Ping

    2018-03-01

    Osteoclast lineage commitment and differentiation have been studied extensively, although the mechanism by which transcription factor(s) control osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation, and function remains unclear. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) has been reported to be a key regulator of osteoclast cell lineage commitment, yet C/ebpα's roles in osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation and function, and bone homeostasis, under physiological or pathological conditions, have not been studied because newborn C/ebpα-null mice die within several hours after birth. Furthermore, the function of C/ebpα in osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation, and function is largely unknown. Herein, we generated and analyzed an osteoclast-specific C/ebpα conditional knockout (CKO) mouse model via Ctsk-Cre mice and found that C/ebpα-deficient mice exhibited a severe osteopetrosis phenotype due to impaired osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation, and function, including mildly reduced osteoclast number, impaired osteoclast polarization, actin formation, and bone resorption, which demonstrated the novel function of C/ebpα in cell function and terminal differentiation. Interestingly, C/ebpα deficiency did not affect bone formation or monocyte/macrophage development. Our results further demonstrated that C/ebpα deficiency suppressed the expression of osteoclast functional genes, e.g. encoding cathepsin K (Ctsk), Atp6i (Tcirg1), and osteoclast regulator genes, e.g. encoding c-fos (Fos), and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 (Nfatc1), while having no effect on Pu.1 (Spi1) expression. Promoter activity mapping and ChIP assay defined the critical cis-regulatory element (CCRE) in the promoter region of Nfatc1, and also showed that the CCREs were directly associated with C/ebpα, which enhanced the promoter's activity. The deficiency of C/ebpα in osteoclasts completely blocked ovariectomy-induced bone loss, indicating that C/ebpα is a

  11. Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography: Effectiveness and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warlow, Thomas; Walker-Birch, Peter; Cosson, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of Gonad Shields (GS) has been advocated during pelvic radiography since the 1950's, particularly in children where the risks from radiation are higher. Previous literature reports that GS are often omitted and rarely used correctly. Objectives: Presentation of findings concerning use of GS in the context of previous data in the literature, and recommend any appropriate actions. Method: A retrospective analysis of images from an existing DICOM Digital Teaching Library (DTL) was conducted. Images of the pelvis from paediatric patients were reviewed and scored on whether a GS was present and (if present) whether the shield was considered to adequately protect the gonads. Results: 130 images were reviewed. 70 male and 60 female. The gonads were deemed to be protected by a shield in 22 images (17%), inadequately protected when a shield was used in 44 images (34%) with the remaining 64 images (49%) having no shield at all. A lack of adequate protection for the gonads was found, with females more likely to be inadequately protected than males (χ 2  = 19.009, df = 1, p < 0.001). These findings become more clinically significant when reports of ovaries lying outside of the pelvic basin (in paediatric patients) are considered. Conclusions: The current practice of gonad shielding is neither effective nor beneficial for female paediatric patients, incorrect shield placement can often require repeat exposures. This finding is commensurate with previous literature. Therefore, gonad shielding is no longer an appropriate optimization tool for female paediatric patients during conventional radiography of the pelvis, and should be abandoned

  12. Lung mechanical changes following bronchoaspiration in a porcine model: differentiation of direct and indirect mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Gergely H; Peták, Ferenc; Erces, Dániel; Balogh, Adám L; Babik, Barna

    2014-08-01

    Bronchoaspiration results in local deterioration of lung function through direct damage and/or indirect systemic effects related to neurohumoral pathways. We distinguished these effects by selectively intubating the two main bronchi in pigs while a PEEP of 4 or 10cm H2O was maintained. Gastric juice was instilled only into the right lung. Lung mechanical and ventilation defects were assessed by measuring unilateral pulmonary input impedance (ZL,s) and the third phase slope of the capnogram (SIII) for each lung side separately before the aspiration and for 120min thereafter. Marked transient elevations in ZL,s parameters and SIII were observed in the affected lung after aspiration. Elevating PEEP did not affect these responses in the ZL,s parameters, whereas it prevented the SIII increases. None of these indices changed in the intact left lung. These findings furnish evidence of the predominance of the local direct damage over the indirect systemic effects in the development of the deterioration of lung function, and demonstrate the benefit of an initially elevated PEEP following aspiration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in chronic alcoholic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallo, R; Fermoso, J; Ramos, F; González-Calvo, V; Marañón, Y A

    1979-01-01

    Eleven male chronic alcoholics without cirrhosis but with clinical features of alcoholism were studied. Ten healthy men of similar age served as controls. After suppressing hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-beta-oestradiol (E2) and testosterone were determined in basal conditions and after administration of clomiphene citrate in each case. Basal levels of FSH, LH and E2 were higher and the testosterone level lower in the alcoholic group. After stimulation, there was no difference in gonadal hormone levels between both groups, suggesting a normal hypothalamic-pituitary axis with an adequate gonadal response.

  14. Bioreactor systems for tissue engineering II. Strategies for the expansion and directed differentiation of stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Cornelia [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Griensven, Martijn van [Ludwig Boltzmann Institut fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Traumatologie, Wien (Austria); Poertner, Ralf (eds.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. Biotechnologie und Verfahrenstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane, by S. Wolbank, M. van Griensven, R. Grillari-Voglauer, and A. Peterbauer-Scherb; - Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications, by P. Moretti, T. Hatlapatka, D. Marten, A. Lavrentieva, I. Majore, R. Hass and C. Kasper; - Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation, and Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, by J. W. Kuhbier, B. Weyand, C. Radtke, P. M. Vogt, C. Kasper and K. Reimers; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Characteristics and Perspectives, by T. Cantz and U. Martin; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology, by D. Pei, J. Xu, Q. Zhuang, H.-F. Tse and M. A. Esteban; - Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells, by C. Weber, S. Pohl, R. Poertner, P. Pino-Grace, D. Freimark, C. Wallrapp, P. Geigle and P. Czermak; - Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells, by C. Goepfert, A. Slobodianski, A.F. Schilling, P. Adamietz and R. Poertner; - Outgrowth Endothelial Cells: Sources, Characteristics and Potential Applications in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, by S. Fuchs, E. Dohle, M. Kolbe, C. J. Kirkpatrick; - Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine, by I. Ribitsch, J. Burk, U. Delling, C. Geissler, C. Gittel, H. Juelke, W. Brehm; - Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Clinical Application: Harnessing Paracrine Roles and Niche Mechanisms, by R. M. El Backly, R. Cancedda; - Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System, C. Stamm, K. Klose, Y.-H. Choi. (orig.)

  15. Pod-1/Capsulin shows a sex- and stage-dependent expression pattern in the mouse gonad development and represses expression of Ad4BP/SF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, M; Kanno, Y; Chuma, S; Saito, T; Nakatsuji, N

    2001-04-01

    Mammalian sex-determination and differentiation are controlled by several genes, such as Sry, Sox-9, Dax-1 and Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), but their upstream and downstream genes are largely unknown. Ad4BP/SF-1, encoding a zinc finger transcription factor, plays important roles in gonadogenesis. Disruption of this gene caused disappearance of the urogenital system including the gonad. Ad4BP/SF-1, however, is also involved in the sex differentiation of the gonad at later stages, such as the regulation of steroid hormones and MIS. Pod-1/Capsulin, a member of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, is expressed in a pattern closely related but mostly complimentary to that of the Ad4BP/SF-1 expression in the developing gonad. In the co-transfection experiment using cultured cells, overexpression of Pod-1/Capsulin repressed expression of a reporter gene that carried the upstream regulatory region of the Ad4BP/SF-1 gene. Furthermore, forced expression of Pod-1/Capsulin repressed expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 in the Leydig cell-derived I-10 cells. These results suggest that Pod-1/Capsulin may play important roles in the development and sex differentiation of the mammalian gonad via transcriptional regulation of Ad4BP/SF-1.

  16. gonads of Cheimerius nufar (Ehrenberg, 1820)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the hermaphroditic fish, Cheimerius nutar are described. The ovo-testis of the immature fish differentiates into ... sexuality, from synchronous hermaphroditism to gonochorism, have been reported for teleosts in ..... Formation of the lipid droplet initiates the pro- cess of nuclear migration in the next stage, when it displaces.

  17. Longitudinal bone growth is impaired by direct involvement of caffeine with chondrocyte differentiation in the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeonhae; Choi, Yuri; Kim, Jisook; Bae, Jaeman; Roh, Jaesook

    2017-01-01

    We showed previously that caffeine adversely affects longitudinal bone growth and disrupts the histomorphometry of the growth plate during the pubertal growth spurt. However, little attention has been paid to the direct effects of caffeine on chondrocytes. Here, we investigated the direct effects of caffeine on chondrocytes of the growth plate in vivo and in vitro using a rapidly growing young rat model, and determined whether they were related to the adenosine receptor signaling pathway. A total of 15 male rats (21 days old) were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and two groups fed caffeine via gavage with 120 and 180 mg kg -1  day -1 for 4 weeks. After sacrifice, the tibia processed for the analysis of the long bone growth and proliferation of chondrocytes using tetracycline and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Caffeine-fed animals showed decreases in matrix mineralization and proliferation rate of growth plate chondrocytes compared with the control. To evaluate whether caffeine directly affects chondrocyte proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation, primary rat chondrocytes were isolated from the growth plates and cultured in either the presence or absence of caffeine at concentrations of 0.1-1 mm, followed by determination of the cellular proliferation or expression profiles of cellular differentiation markers. Caffeine caused significant decreases in extracellular matrix production, mineralization, and alkaline phosphatase activity, accompanied with decreases in gene expression of the cartilage-specific matrix proteins such as aggrecan, type II collagen and type X. Our results clearly demonstrate that caffeine is capable of interfering with cartilage induction by directly inhibiting the synthetic activity and orderly expression of marker genes relevant to chondrocyte maturation. In addition, we found that the adenosine type 1 receptor signaling pathway may be partly involved in the detrimental effects of caffeine on chondrogenic

  18. Differential Intraocular Pressure Measurements by Tonometry and Direct Cannulation After Treatment with Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Jarel K; Roy Chowdhury, Uttio; Manzar, Zahid; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R; Fautsch, Michael P; Marmorstein, Alan D

    2017-10-01

    To validate the increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) caused by soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) inhibitors and determine reasons behind variation in IOP measurements performed by tonometry. C57BL/6J mice were administered DMSO solubilized sAC inhibitors (KH7 or LRE-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Two hours post-treatment, mice were anesthetized with avertin or ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine (KXA). IOP was measured by a rebound tonometer or direct cannulation of the anterior chamber. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to measure anterior chamber depth and corneal thickness in live mice. Outflow facility was measured in perfused, enucleated mouse eyes. Compared with DMSO controls, KH7 treatment caused an increased IOP in avertin- and KXA-anesthetized mice when measured by direct cannulation [avertin: 14.4 ± 2.1 mmHg vs. 11.1 ± 1.0 mmHg (P = 0.003); KXA: 14.4 ± 1.0 mmHg vs. 11.3 ± 0.8 mmHg (P < 0.001)] and tonometry [avertin: 10.8 ± 1.4 mmHg vs. 7.4 ± 0.6 mmHg (P < 0.001); KXA: 11.9 ± 0.9 mmHg vs. 10.3 ± 1.7 mmHg (P = 0.283)]. However, treatment with KH7 in nonanesthetized mice showed a significant decrease in IOP measured by tonometry and compared with DMSO-treated animals [13.1 ± 2.6 mmHg vs. 15.6 ± 0.5 mmHg (P = 0.003)]. Both KH7- and DMSO-treated groups anesthetized with avertin showed increased corneal thickness, whereas KH7-treated mice anesthetized with KXA exhibited a shallower anterior chamber compared with untreated mice. KH7 decreased outflow facility by 85.1% in nonanesthetized, enucleated eyes (P < 0.003). Systemically administered DMSO and anesthesia have significant effects on anterior chamber characteristics, resulting in altered IOP readings measured by tonometry. In the presence of DMSO and anesthesia, tonometry IOP readings should be confirmed with direct cannulation.

  19. Reactions to threat and personality: psychometric differentiation of intensity and direction dimensions of human defensive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Adam M; Corr, Philip J

    2006-04-25

    Gray and McNaughton [Gray JA, McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000] predict that fear is associated with orientation away from threat whereas anxiety is associated with orientation towards threat; this first dimension of 'defensive direction' is independent of a second dimension of 'defensive intensity'. Defensive reactions were measured using a threat scenario questionnaire developed by Blanchard et al. [Blanchard DC, Hynd AL, Minke KA, Minemoto T, Blanchard RJ. Human defensive behaviours to threat scenarios show parallels to fear- and anxiety-related defence patterns of non-human mammals. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2001;25:761-70] who found that responses paralleled the defensive reactions of rodents faced with real threats. In a sample of 141 participants we replicated Blanchard et al.'s findings as well as confirming the Gray and McNaughton hypotheses. As predicted, trait anxiety was associated with a tendency to orientate towards threat. In addition, the personality trait of psychoticism (tough-mindedness) was related to defensive intensity with low scorers on psychoticism being more sensitive to threat in general and high scorers being more threat insensitive. A well-established personality measure of general punishment sensitivity, namely the Carver and White [Carver CS, White TL. Behavioural inhibition, behavioural activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol 1994;67:319-33] BIS scale, was positively correlated with both defensive intensity and direction. These data indicate that the threat scenario questionnaire has some validity as a measure of human reactions to threat.

  20. Using geometric morphometric visualizations of directional selection gradients to investigate morphological differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D; Gunz, Philipp

    2018-03-06

    Researchers studying extant and extinct taxa are often interested in identifying the evolutionary processes that have lead to the morphological differences among the taxa. Ideally, one could distinguish the influences of neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) from natural selection, and in situations for which selection is implicated, identify the targets of selection. The directional selection gradient is an effective tool for investigating evolutionary process, because it can relate form (size and shape) differences between taxa to the variation and covariation found within taxa. However, although most modern morphometric analyses use the tools of geometric morphometrics (GM) to analyze landmark data, to date, selection gradients have mainly been calculated from linear measurements. To address this methodological gap, here we present a GM approach for visualizing and comparing between-taxon selection gradients with each other, associated difference vectors, and "selection" gradients from neutral simulations. To exemplify our approach, we use a dataset of 347 three-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks recorded on the crania of 260 primate specimens (112 humans, 67 common chimpanzees, 36 bonobos, 45 gorillas). Results on this example dataset show how incorporating geometric information can provide important insights into the evolution of the human braincase, and serve to demonstrate the utility of our approach for understanding morphological evolution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Endocannabinoids are Involved in Male Vertebrate Reproduction: Regulatory Mechanisms at Central and Gonadal Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolin, Patrizia; Cottone, Erika; Pomatto, Valentina; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Cobellis, Gilda; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are natural lipids regulating a large array of physiological functions and behaviors in vertebrates. The eCB system is highly conserved in evolution and comprises several specific receptors (type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors), their endogenous ligands (e.g., anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), and a number of biosynthetic and degradative enzymes. In the last few years, eCBs have been described as critical signals in the control of male and female reproduction at multiple levels: centrally, by targeting hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-secreting neurons and pituitary, and locally, with direct effects on the gonads. These functions are supported by the extensive localization of cannabinoid receptors and eCB metabolic enzymes at different levels of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in mammals, as well as bonyfish and amphibians. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that eCBs centrally regulate gonadal functions by modulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone–gonadotropin–steroid network through direct and indirect mechanisms. Several proofs of local eCB regulation have been found in the testis and male genital tracts, since eCBs control Sertoli and Leydig cells activity, germ cell progression, as well as the acquisition of sperm functions. A comparative approach usually is a key step in the study of physiological events leading to the building of a general model. Thus, in this review, we summarize the action of eCBs at different levels of the male reproductive axis, with special emphasis, where appropriate, on data from non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:24782832

  2. Transcription of key genes regulating gonadal steroidogenesis in control and ketoconazole- or vinclozolin-exposed fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Brodin, Jeffrey; Greene, Katie J.; Knoebl, Iris; Miracle, Ann L.; Martinovic, Dalma; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in male fathead minnows exposed to ketoconazole (KTC) or vinclozolin (VZ) for 21 days. The aim was to evaluate links between molecular changes and higher level outcomes after exposure to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action. To aid our analysis and interpretation of EAC-related effects, we first examined variation in the relative abundance of steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts in the gonads of male and female fathead minnows as a function of age, gonad development, and spawning status, independent of EAC exposure. Gonadal expression of several genes varied with age and/or gonadal somatic index in either males or females. However, with the exception of aromatase, steroidogenesis-related gene expression did not vary with spawning status. Following the baseline experiments, expression of the selected genes in male fathead minnows exposed to KTC or VZ was evaluated in the context of effects observed at higher levels of organization. Exposure to KTC elicited changes in gene transcription that were consistent with an apparent compensatory response to the chemical's anticipated direct inhibition of steroidogenic enzyme activity. Exposure to VZ, an antiandrogen expected to indirectly impact steroidogenesis, increased pituitary expression of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit as well as testis expression of 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and luteinizing hormone receptor transcripts. Results of this study contribute to ongoing research aimed at understanding responses of the teleost hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to different types of EACs and how changes in molecular endpoints translate into apical outcomes reflective of either adverse effect or compensation.

  3. Chemometric brand differentiation of commercial spices using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew J; Dunn, Emily E; Hall, Adam B

    2016-05-15

    Commercial spices represent an emerging class of fuels for improvised explosives. Being able to classify such spices not only by type but also by brand would represent an important step in developing methods to analytically investigate these explosive compositions. Therefore, a combined ambient mass spectrometric/chemometric approach was developed to quickly and accurately classify commercial spices by brand. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was used to generate mass spectra for samples of black pepper, cayenne pepper, and turmeric, along with four different brands of cinnamon, all dissolved in methanol. Unsupervised learning techniques showed that the cinnamon samples clustered according to brand. Then, we used supervised machine learning algorithms to build chemometric models with a known training set and classified the brands of an unknown testing set of cinnamon samples. Ten independent runs of five-fold cross-validation showed that the training set error for the best-performing models (i.e., the linear discriminant and neural network models) was lower than 2%. The false-positive percentages for these models were 3% or lower, and the false-negative percentages were lower than 10%. In particular, the linear discriminant model perfectly classified the testing set with 0% error. Repeated iterations of training and testing gave similar results, demonstrating the reproducibility of these models. Chemometric models were able to classify the DART mass spectra of commercial cinnamon samples according to brand, with high specificity and low classification error. This method could easily be generalized to other classes of spices, and it could be applied to authenticating questioned commercial samples of spices or to examining evidence from improvised explosives. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Optimization of Eva Green real-time mPCR for differentiating C. jejuni/coli directly from feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, M; Velev, V; Dobreva, E; Asseva, G; Ivanov, I; Petrov, P; Mangarov, A; Tomova, I; Kantardjiev, T

    2017-01-01

    To develop and optimize a rapid molecular method for diagnosing campylobacteriosis directly from a clinical fecal sample and at the same time for determining the most common causing agents - C. jejuni/coli. 38 clinical fecal samples from hospitalized patients with diarrheal syndrome were tested using a rapid immunochromatographic test. All positive samples were tested for confirmation by culturing in a microaerophilic atmosphere. The Eva Green real-time mPCR reaction of a direct fecal sample was conducted using the "IQ5TM Real-Time PCR System" apparatus. Out of 38 clinical fecal samples which were ICT positive, 18 strains were isolated by culture, namely, 17 of C. jejuni and 1 of C. coli. The Eva Green real-time mPCR reaction also reported 18 positive samples for Campylobacter, out of which 17 were of C. jejuni and only one of C.coli. We developed and optimized the Eva Green real-time mPCR for the detection and species differentiation of C. jejuni/coli directly from a clinical fecal sample. The molecular analysis we described has a 100% sensitivity and specificity when comparing the results obtained by it to those of the culture method, which is currently the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 6).

  5. Assessment of health aspects in some X-ray examination types from gonad dose measurements on phantoms with or without shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermendzhiev, Kh.; Velikov, V.; Katerinov, E.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray mass screening examinations have been found to lead, particularly in countries with a welldeveloped medical service, to substantial population exposure, namely in the range of 20 to 150 mrad per year versus 100 mrad per year from natural radiation background. A substantial share of this exposure stems from gonad doses delivered to patients in the course of various types of diagnostic X-ray procedures. The magnitude of doses absorbed by the gonads depends to a large extent on shielding devices used to protect the patient during the examination, on the nature of the examination - whether gonads lie directly under the beam - and a number of other factors. For the present study, four phantoms corresponding to a selection of ages (2, 7, 14, and 25 years of age) were prepared. Dosimetric measurements were performed on a ''Hoffmann SR 700 D'' X-ray apparatus, with simulation of various types of diagnostic procedures: roentgenoscopic examinations or films, with or without shielding, with or without use of image converters. The data obtained indicated that the X-ray procedure types investigated may be grouped, in descending order or associated radiation exposures, as follows: roentgenoscopy of GI tract in children or women, roentgenography of lumbar vertebrae, pelvic organs, kidneys, thighs. There are cases where shielding is unfeasible (roentgenoscopy of GI tract in children or women, pelvic organ and kidney examination in women). In other cases, gonad shielding is of low efficiency: roentgenoscopy of lumbar vertebrae, skull or chest films in men. With use of image converters, a gonad-dose reduction by a factor of 2 to 9 is achieved. In terms of gonad dose level to the patient, X-ray procedure types may be distributed into three main groups: (1) low level (skull or chest films, etc.); (2) intermediate level (lung roentgenoscopy, thigh film, etc.); (3) high level, with gonads lying in the primary-beam field (GI tract roentgenoscopy, pelvic film, etc.). (author)

  6. Sex ratio, gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt, Pomadasys jubelini in the New Calabar-Bonny River were investigated. P. jubelini had a sex ratio of 1: 2.1 (male to female). Gonadosomatic index ranged from 0.33 to 7.29% with a mean of 2.89+0.08%. High gonadosomatic ...

  7. Sublethal effects of carbaryl on embryonic and gonadal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbaryl is a broad-spectrum insecticide used to control insect pests. In aquatic environments, it can disrupt the endocrine system and adversely affect the reproductive function of aquatic animals. This study investigated sublethal impacts of carbaryl on embryos and gonads of zebrafish Danio rerio in order to assess the ...

  8. Metamorphosis and gonad maturation in the horn fly Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Alicia L; Forneris, Natalia S; Filiberti, Adrián; Argaraña, Carlos E; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The bloodsucking horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most damaging pests of pasture cattle in many areas of the world. Both male and female imagoes spend their adult stage on the host, while immature stages develop in dung. Our goal was to determine if the progress of H. irritans gonad maturation can be correlated with eye and cuticle pigmentation events that occur during development of the imago within the puparium. The progression of germline cell divisions in immature gonads was analyzed from the beginning of the third larval instar (48 hours after egg hatch) until imago ecdysis. In the developing male larval gonad, meiosis began 72 hours after egg hatch, whereas in females oogonia were premeiotic at 72 hours. Meiosis was not detected in females until the mid-pharate adult stage, 120 hours after puparium formation. Therefore, gonad maturation in females appears to be delayed 144 hours with respect to that in males. In the stages within the puparium, the timing of germline cell division events was correlated with the progress of pigmentation of the eyes and cuticle as external markers.

  9. Anomalous Gonadal Arteries in Relation to the Renal Vein: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in ovarian arteries on the right side; 37 (64%) of testicular arteries and 3 (27%) of ovarian arteries on the left side. Partial occlusion or compression of the renal vein due to the arching gonadal arteries could result in varicocele and hypertension. The knowledge of such anomalous is useful in surgery and human anatomy

  10. AMPK : a master energy regulator for gonadal functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBertoldo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From c.elegans to mammals (including humans, nutrition and energy metabolism strongly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity, or poor (diet restriction. One of these detectors is AMPK (5 'AMP-activated protein kinase, a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome.

  11. Differential modulation of corticospinal excitability by different current densities of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andisheh Bastani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have been developed in recent years. TDCS-induced corticospinal excitability changes depend on two important factors current intensity and stimulation duration. Despite clinical success with existing tDCS parameters, optimal protocols are still not entirely set. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The current study aimed to investigate the effects of four different anodal tDCS (a-tDCS current densities on corticospinal excitability. METHODS: Four current intensities of 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2 mA resulting in current densities (CDs of 0.013, 0.029, 0.058 and 0.083 mA/cm(2 were applied on twelve right-handed (mean age 34.5±10.32 yrs healthy individuals in different sessions at least 48 hours apart. a-tDCS was applied continuously for 10 minute, with constant active and reference electrode sizes of 24 and 35 cm(2 respectively. The corticospinal excitability of the extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR was measured before and immediately after the intervention and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. RESULTS: Post hoc comparisons showed significant differences in corticospinal excitability changes for CDs of 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.029 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.003. There were no significant differences between excitability changes for the 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.058 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.080 or 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.083 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.484 conditions. CONCLUSION: This study found that a-tDCS with a current density of 0.013 mA/cm(2 induces significantly larger corticospinal excitability changes than CDs of 0.029 mA/cm(2. The implication is that might help to avoid applying unwanted amount of current to the cortical areas.

  12. Direct hydrogel encapsulation of pluripotent stem cells enables ontomimetic differentiation and growth of engineered human heart tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerscher, Petra; Turnbull, Irene C; Hodge, Alexander J; Kim, Joonyul; Seliktar, Dror; Easley, Christopher J; Costa, Kevin D; Lipke, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    Human engineered heart tissues have potential to revolutionize cardiac development research, drug-testing, and treatment of heart disease; however, implementation is limited by the need to use pre-differentiated cardiomyocytes (CMs). Here we show that by providing a 3D poly(ethylene glycol)-fibrinogen hydrogel microenvironment, we can directly differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into contracting heart tissues. Our straight-forward, ontomimetic approach, imitating the process of development, requires only a single cell-handling step, provides reproducible results for a range of tested geometries and size scales, and overcomes inherent limitations in cell maintenance and maturation, while achieving high yields of CMs with developmentally appropriate temporal changes in gene expression. We demonstrate that hPSCs encapsulated within this biomimetic 3D hydrogel microenvironment develop into functional cardiac tissues composed of self-aligned CMs with evidence of ultrastructural maturation, mimicking heart development, and enabling investigation of disease mechanisms and screening of compounds on developing human heart tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Case of Swyer Syndrome Associated with Advanced Gonadal Dysgerminoma Involving Long Survival

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    Salete Da Silva Rios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Swyer syndrome is caused by abnormal sex differentiation during the embryonic period, resulting in incomplete intrauterine masculinization and undifferentiated gonads. The current case report describes a patient with Swyer syndrome associated with stage 3 gonadal dysgerminoma who has survived for 23 years. At age 18, this patient sought assistance for primary amenorrhea from the Gynecological Services Department of the University of Brasília Hospital. A physical examination revealed that the patient was at Tanner stage 4 with respect to axillary hair, breasts, and pubic hair; she presented with a eutrophic vagina and a small cervix. She was treated with a combination of estrogens and progestogens to induce cycling. Approximately 4 years later, a complex tumor was found and resected; a histopathological analysis revealed that this tumor was a right adnexal dysgerminoma with peritoneal affection. The patient was also subjected to chemotherapy. Her follow-up has continued to the present time, with no signs of tumor recurrence. In conclusion, this report describes an extremely rare case in which Swyer syndrome was associated with ovarian dysgerminoma; relative to similar patients, the described patient has survived for an unusually prolonged time.

  14. Does early onset of criminal behavior differentiate for whom serious mental illness has a direct or indirect effect on recidivism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejkowski, Jason; Conrad, Aaron; Ostermann, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The involvement of people with serious mental illness (SMI) with the justice system may be a direct result of their disruptive/unsafe expression of psychiatric symptoms being responded to by law enforcement. SMI may also indirectly contribute to justice involvement, through exposure to environmental and social learning processes that place people with SMI at risk for criminal behavior. This study addresses the question: For whom does SMI directly or indirectly relate to criminal behavior? Mediation and conditional effects testing were used to examine the potential of early onset of criminal behavior to distinguish those groups for whom SMI displays a direct effect or an indirect effect on criminal recidivism. This study utilized a disproportionate random sample of 379 inmates released from New Jersey Department of Corrections; 190 of whom had SMI and 189 of whom did not have SMI. Data were collected from clinical and administrative records. Results indicate that criminal risk mediated the relationship between SMI and recidivism. This indirect effect was conditioned by whether the individual had a juvenile conviction. Specifically, for early start offenders, criminal risk was positively related to recidivism while this relationship was not observed for late start offenders. Juvenile criminal onset did not condition the direct effects of SMI on recidivism. A juvenile history of criminal involvement may signal the presence of heightened criminogenic need among adults with SMI. This simple indicator could function to differentiate for clinicians those adults who are good candidates for exploring further, and targeting for amelioration, criminogenic needs to reduce further criminal involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  16. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  17. SOX9 regulates microRNA miR-202-5p/3p expression during mouse testis differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Elanor N; Jorgensen, Joan S; Kim, Youngha

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of developmental gene expression, but their contribution to fetal gonad development is not well understood. We have identified the evolutionarily conserved gonadal microRNAs miR-202-5p and miR-202-3p as having a potential role in regulating mouse embryonic gonad...... differentiation. These microRNAs are expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern as the primordial XY gonad differentiates into a testis, with strong expression in Sertoli cells. In vivo, ectopic expression of pri-miR-202 in XX gonads did not result in molecular changes to the ovarian determination pathway...... findings indicate that expression of the conserved gonad microRNA, miR-202-5p/3p, is downstream of the testis-determining factor SOX9, suggesting an early role in testis development....

  18. Effects of gonadal sex and incubation temperature on the ontogeny of gonadal steroid concentrations and secondary sex structures in leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David

    2005-07-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Incubation temperature and gonadal sex jointly influence the display of sexual and agonistic behavior in adult leopard geckos. These differences in adult behavior are organized prior to sexual maturity, and it is plausible that post-natal hormones influence neural and behavioral differentiation. Here we assessed incubation temperature and sex effects on sex steroid levels in leopard geckos at 2, 10, and 25 weeks of age and monitored the development of male secondary sex structures. Males had significantly higher androgen concentrations at all time points, whereas females had significantly higher 17beta-estradiol (E2) concentrations only at 10 and 25 weeks. Within males, age but not incubation temperature affected steroid levels and morphological development. Male androgen levels increased modestly by 10 and dramatically by 25 weeks of age, whereas E2 levels remained unchanged over this period. Most males had signs of hemipenes at 10 weeks of age, and all males had hemipenes and open preanal pores by 25 weeks of age. In females, age and incubation temperature affected E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but not T concentrations. Controlling for age, females from 34 degrees C have higher DHT and lower E2 levels than females from 30 degrees C. Further, E2 concentrations increased significantly from 2 to 10 weeks, after which E2 levels remained steady. Together, these results indicate that sexually dimorphic levels of steroids play a major role in the development of leopard gecko behavior and morphology. Furthermore, these data suggest that the organizational effects of incubation temperature on adult female phenotype could be, in part, mediated by incubation temperature effects on steroid hormone levels during juvenile development.

  19. Expression profiles of Dax1, Dmrt1, and Sox9 during temperature sex determination in gonads of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Maldonado, L C; Landa Piedra, A; Moreno Mendoza, N; Marmolejo Valencia, A; Meza Martínez, A; Merchant Larios, H

    2002-10-15

    Sex determination is controlled either by genetic or environmental factors. In mammals Sry initiates determination but no homologue of this gene exists in non-mammalian species. Other genes of the mammalian sex-determining pathway have been identified in gonads of different vertebrates. Sox9, Dax1, and Dmrt1 are expressed at the onset of gonadal development in birds and reptiles. In the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature sex determination (TSD), Sox9 is expressed in undifferentiated gonads at male- (MPT) or female-promoting temperatures (FPT). At MPT, Sox9 remains expressed in male gonads, but at FPT it is downregulated coinciding with the onset of the ovarian morphologic differentiation and female sex determination. At MPT however, male sex is determined early than at FPT in still undifferentiated gonads suggesting that other genes maintain Sox9 expression in testis. Here we used RT-PCR to study the expression profiles of Dax1, Dmrt1, and Sox9 in gonads of embryos of L. olivacea incubated at MPT or at FPT. The profiles were correlated with sex determination during and after the temperature-sensitive period (TSP). Dax1 maintained similar levels at both temperatures during the TSP. The Dax1 expression level increased significantly in ovaries compared to testes at stage 27, once they were morphologically distinct. The expression levels of Dmrt1 were higher at MPT than at FPT at all stages, in contrast with Sox9 levels which were similar at both temperatures at stages 23-25. Together, current results suggest that, whereas Dax1 is not involved in TSD in L. olivacea, upregulation of Dmrt1 and downregulation of Sox9 may play a role in male and female sex determination, respectively.

  20. De novo assembly and comparison of the ovarian transcriptomes of the common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica with different gonadal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Lü

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica has been considered one of the most economically important marine Cephalopod species in East Asia and seed breeding technology has been established for massive aquaculture and stock enhancement. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the ovary tissues of S. japonica for the first time. A total of 53,116,650 and 53,446,640 reads were obtained from the immature and matured ovaries, respectively (NCBI SRA database SRX1409472 and SRX1409473, and 70,039 contigs (N50 = 1443 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 47,288 contigs show differential expression profile and 793 contigs are highly expressed in the immature ovary, while 38 contigs are highly expressed in the mature ovary with FPKM >100. We hope that the ovarian transcriptome and those stage-enriched transcripts of S. japonica can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of cuttlefish gonad tissue and give useful information in cuttlefish gonad development. Keywords: Cuttlefish, Gonad development, Transcriptome

  1. Gonad Maturation of Clown Loach (Botia macracanthus in Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to know the gonad maturation of clown loach {Botia macracanthus reared in pond. Two groups contain 4 female broodstock; I carried and II non-carried egg broodstock were reared in two separated hapas which placed in pond. Each hapa was also stocked nine males. The fish were fed pellet (32,33% protein 10% biomass, daily in three times. After 20 days, the broodstocks were implanted by LHRH-a 100 u.g/kg of body weight. In the group I, diameter of egg in gonad were developed from 1,028 mm at the beginning of implantation to 1,071 and 1,106 mm at day of 15 and 30 after implantation respectively. In the group II, only one female has developed her gonad successfully. The egg was developed to 0,937 and 1,026 mm after 15 and 30 day implantation respectively. Key words : Gonad maturation, clown loach, Botia macracanthus, pond   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pematangan gonad induk ikan botia (Botia macracanthus yang dipelihara di kolam. Dua kelompok induk betina; I sudah mengandung telur dan II belum mengandung telur masing-masing sebanyak 4 ekor dipelihara masing-masing dalam 2 hapa. Ke dalam setiap hapa juga ditempatkan induk jantan sebanyak 9 ekor. Induk diberi pakan berupa pelet (protein, 32,33% sebanyak 10% dari bobot biomasa per hari, 3 kali sehari, dan diberi LHRH-a dengan dosis 100 ng/kg bobot tubuh secara implantasi pada hari ke 20 pemeliharaan. Induk dalam kelompok pertama telurnya berkembang dari rata-rata 1,028 pada saat pemberian LHRH-a menjadi rata-rata 1,071 dan 1,106 mm masing-masing pada hari ke 15 dan 30 setelah pemberian. Pada kelompok kedua hanya satu ekor induk yang berkembang gonadnya setelah diberi LHRH-a. telur induk ikan tersebut berkembang dari 0,937 menjadi 1,026 mm masing pada hari ke 15 dan 30 setelah implantasi. Kata kunci : Pematangan gonad, ikan botia, Botia macracanthus, kolam

  2. OVEX1, a novel chicken endogenous retrovirus with sex-specific and left-right asymmetrical expression in gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magre Solange

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chickens, as in most birds, female gonad morphogenesis is asymmetrical. Gonads appear first rather similarly, but only the left one undergoes full differentiation and gives rise to a functional ovary. The right gonad, in which the cortex does not develop, remains restricted to the medulla and finally regresses. Opportunity was taken of this left-right asymmetry to perform a suppression subtractive hybridization screening to select for transcripts preferentially expressed in the developing left ovary as compared to the right one, and thus identify genes that are potentially involved in the process of ovarian differentiation. Results One of these transcripts, named Ovex1 according to its expression profile, corresponds to an endogenous retrovirus that has not been previously characterized. It is transcribed as full-length and singly spliced mRNAs and contains three uninterrupted open reading frames coding potentially for proteins with homology to Gag and Pro-Pol retroviral polyproteins and a third protein showing only a weak similarity with Env glycoproteins. Ovex1 is severely degenerated; it is devoid of typical long terminal repeats and displays some evidence of recombination. An orthologous Ovex1 locus was identified in the genome of zebra finch, a member of a different bird order, and similar sequences were detected in turkey, guinea fowl, and duck DNA. The relationship between these sequences follows the bird phylogeny, suggesting vertical transmission of the endogenous retrovirus for more than 100 million years. Ovex1 is transcribed in chicken gonads with a sex-dependent and left-right asymmetrical pattern. It is first expressed in the cortex of the left indifferent gonads of both sexes. Expression is transient in the left testis and absent in the right one. In developing ovaries, Ovex1 transcription increases sharply in the left cortex and is weakly detected in the medulla. After folliculogenesis, Ovex1-expressing

  3. Pituitary-gonadal function in adolescent males born appropriate or small for gestational age with or without intrauterine growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Vielwerth, Signe; Larsen, Torben Kjeldgaard

    2007-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function.......Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function....

  4. Body size correlates with fertilization success but not gonad size in grass goby territorial males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin Pujolar

    Full Text Available In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003-2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995-1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers. Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males.

  5. Primary gonadal damage following treatment of brain tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.R.; Shalet, S.M.; Campbell, R.H.; Deakin, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Gonadal function was studied in two groups of children previously treated for medulloblastoma with surgery followed by postoperative craniospinal irradiation. In group 1 but not in group 2, the children also received adjuvant chemotherapy for one to two years. All children in group 1 received a nitrosourea (BCNU or CCNU), plus vincristine in four and procarbazine in three patients. The nine children in group 1 showed clinical and biochemical evidence of gonadal damage with elevated serum FSH concentrations and, in the boys, small testes for their stage of pubertal development. In group 2 (n . 8), each child had completed pubertal development normally, the boys had adult sized testes and the girls regular menses. Gonadotropin values were normal in all eight children. We conclude that nitrosoureas were responsible for the gonadal damage in the children in group 1, with procarbazine also contributing to the damage in the three children who received this drug. In view of the limited proved value of adjuvant chemotherapy with nitrosoureas in the treatment of medulloblastoma, recognition of this serious complication of cytotoxic drug therapy may necessitate reassessing in which subgroups of children with medulloblastoma the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy outweigh the complications

  6. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Neuroendocrine (NE) Differentiation in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (GCTs): Use of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) to Demonstrate Direct NE Differentiation from GCTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaki, Nobue; Umemura, Shinobu; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Itoh, Johbu; Itoh, Yoshiko; Osamura, R.Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation is infrequent in testicular tumors and its histogenesis is not well understood. The present study is aimed at elucidating the pathway of neuroendocrine differentiation in germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis. In the analysis of 46 germ cell tumor components from 23 testicular tumors, we focused on GCTs with neuroendocrine differentiation, 7 teratoma, 1 embryonal carcinoma and 1 neuroendocrine carcinoma by immunohistochemical study and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis. NE marker positive cells were noted in the tumor with collision of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma (E&T tumor), in the immature columnar cells of transitional form of embryonal carcinoma to teratoma (E-T cells) and neuroendocrine carcinoma cells, in addition to the well known mature intestinal mucosa in teratoma. Double staining for a NE marker (CGA) and a germ cell marker (PLAP) demonstrated the localization of both proteins in the same E-T cells confirmed by CLSM. Another finding, indicating the intimate relation between embryonal carcinoma and neuroendcrine differentiation, is that neuroendocrine carcinoma expressed a marker of embryonal carcinoma, CD30. The present results indicated that the NE cells might be differentiated from embryonal carcinoma, a view that has not been proposed before, but that is made in the present study using CLSM

  7. Direct differentiation of the quasi-incompressible fluid formulation of fluid-structure interaction using the PFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minjie; Scott, Michael H.

    2017-07-01

    Accurate and efficient response sensitivities for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations are important for assessing the uncertain response of coastal and off-shore structures to hydrodynamic loading. To compute gradients efficiently via the direct differentiation method (DDM) for the fully incompressible fluid formulation, approximations of the sensitivity equations are necessary, leading to inaccuracies of the computed gradients when the geometry of the fluid mesh changes rapidly between successive time steps or the fluid viscosity is nonzero. To maintain accuracy of the sensitivity computations, a quasi-incompressible fluid is assumed for the response analysis of FSI using the particle finite element method and DDM is applied to this formulation, resulting in linearized equations for the response sensitivity that are consistent with those used to compute the response. Both the response and the response sensitivity can be solved using the same unified fractional step method. FSI simulations show that although the response using the quasi-incompressible and incompressible fluid formulations is similar, only the quasi-incompressible approach gives accurate response sensitivity for viscous, turbulent flows regardless of time step size.

  8. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Absorption and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on airborne CO2 column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 810 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  9. Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct-detection integrated path differential absorption lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R; Hasselbrack, William E; Browell, Edward V

    2013-07-01

    We report on airborne CO(2) column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO(2) line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 8-10 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  10. Differentiation and sarcomere formation in skeletal myocytes directly prepared from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a sphere-based culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwlawat, Saowanee; Lynch, Eileen; Glaser, Jennifer; Smit-Oistad, Ivy; Jeffrey, Jeremy; Van Dyke, Jonathan M; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    Human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising resource for propagation of myogenic progenitors. Our group recently reported a unique protocol for the derivation of myogenic progenitors directly (without genetic modification) from human pluripotent cells using free-floating spherical culture. Here we expand our previous efforts and attempt to determine how differentiation duration, culture surface coatings, and nutrient supplements in the medium influence progenitor differentiation and formation of skeletal myotubes containing sarcomeric structures. A long differentiation period (over 6 weeks) promoted the differentiation of iPSC-derived myogenic progenitors and subsequent myotube formation. These iPSC-derived myotubes contained representative sarcomeric structures, consisting of organized myosin and actin filaments, and could spontaneously contract. We also found that a bioengineering approach using three-dimensional (3D) artificial muscle constructs could facilitate the formation of elongated myotubes. Lastly, we determined how culture surface coating matrices and different supplements would influence terminal differentiation. While both Matrigel and laminin coatings showed comparable effects on muscle differentiation, B27 serum-free supplement in the differentiation medium significantly enhanced myogenesis compared to horse serum. Our findings support the possibility to create an in vitro model of contractile sarcomeric myofibrils for disease modeling and drug screening to study neuromuscular diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid Change of Microbiota Diversity in the Gut but Not the Hepatopancreas During Gonadal Development of the New Shrimp Model Neocaridina denticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Man Kit; Yip, Ho Yin; Nong, Wenyan; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Chu, Ka Hou; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Hui, Jerome Ho Lam

    2015-12-01

    During evolution of animals, their co-evolution with bacteria has generally been ignored. Recent studies have provided evidences that the symbiotic bacteria in the animal gut can either be essential or contributing to the plasticity of the host. The Crustacea includes crab, crayfish, lobster, and shrimp and represents the second largest subphylum on the planet. Although there are already studies investigating the intestinal bacterial communities in crustaceans, none of them has examined the microbiota in different parts of the digestive system during the gonad development of the host. Here, we utilized a new shrimp model Neocaridina denticulata and sequenced the 16S rRNA using the Ion Torrent platform to survey the bacterial populations colonizing the hepatopancreas, foregut, and intestine, including midgut and hindgut, of the early, mid, and late ovarian maturation stages of the shrimp. The predominant bacteria phylum was found to be Proteobacteria, with more than 80 % reads from the gut flora at the early gonad development belonged to a Coxiella-type bacterium. Distinct bacterial communities can be detected between the hepatopancreas and gut, although no significant difference could be revealed between the different regions of the gut investigated. Surprisingly, during the gonad development, bacterial diversity changed rapidly in the gut but not the hepatopancreas. This study provides the first evidence that microbiota modified differentially in specific regions of the digestive tract during gonadal development of crustaceans.

  12. SOX9 governs differentiation stage-specific gene expression in growth plate chondrocytes via direct concomitant transactivation and repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Y L Leung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage and endochondral bone development require SOX9 activity to regulate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation, and transition to a non-mitotic hypertrophic state. The restricted and reciprocal expression of the collagen X gene, Col10a1, in hypertrophic chondrocytes and Sox9 in immature chondrocytes epitomise the precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression as chondrocytes progress through phases of differentiation, but how this is achieved is not clear. Here, we have identified a regulatory element upstream of Col10a1 that enhances its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vivo. In immature chondrocytes, where Col10a1 is not expressed, SOX9 interacts with a conserved sequence within this element that is analogous to that within the intronic enhancer of the collagen II gene Col2a1, the known transactivation target of SOX9. By analysing a series of Col10a1 reporter genes in transgenic mice, we show that the SOX9 binding consensus in this element is required to repress expression of the transgene in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. Forced ectopic Sox9 expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vitro and in mice resulted in down-regulation of Col10a1. Mutation of a binding consensus motif for GLI transcription factors, which are the effectors of Indian hedgehog signaling, close to the SOX9 site in the Col10a1 regulatory element, also derepressed transgene expression in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. GLI2 and GLI3 bound to the Col10a1 regulatory element but not to the enhancer of Col2a1. In addition to Col10a1, paired SOX9-GLI binding motifs are present in the conserved non-coding regions of several genes that are preferentially expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes and the occurrence of pairing is unlikely to be by chance. We propose a regulatory paradigm whereby direct concomitant positive and negative transcriptional control by SOX9 ensures differentiation phase-specific gene expression in chondrocytes. Discrimination between

  13. Karyotype differentiation in Chromaphyosemion killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes, Nothobranchiidae)II: Cytogenetic and mitochondrial DNA analyses demostrate karyotype differentiation and its evolutionary direction in C. riggenbachi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Völker, M.; Sonnenberg, R.; Ráb, Petr; Kullmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 115, 1 (2006), s. 70-83 ISSN 1424-8581 Grant - others:DFG Ku-1469/2-1; DFG Mi-649/2-1; DAAD D/03/44465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : karyotype differentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.993, year: 2006

  14. Effect of Gonadal Hormones on Neurotransmitters Implicated in the Pathophysiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Marta; Mattina, Gabriella Francesca; Steiner, Meir

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common neuropsychiatric disorder affecting between 1.6 and 3.2% of the population. A number of studies have previously reported increased incidence of OCD, or exacerbation of preexisting symptoms in females during reproductive events. Since these periods are known to involve fluctuating levels of gonadal hormones, these steroids have been suggested to be involved in modulating the course of the disorder. However, to date, only a few studies have measured hormone levels and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms concurrently; thus, direct evidence for this relationship is limited. In turn, investigations into neurotransmission in OC individuals have been more extensive, and have implicated the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in OCD pathology. There is evidence suggesting that reproductive hormones estrogens and progesterone can modulate neurotransmission in the aforementioned signaling pathways by regulating the expression of receptors and channels, as well as the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter itself. Overall, estrogen and progesterone appear to enhance serotonin signaling, which has been associated with improved OC symptoms. The effect of the gonadal hormones in dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling is much more variable, highlighting the need for further research in this field. The existing evidence shows that gonadal hormones can have profound impacts on neurotransmission in the brain, leading to the conclusion that the hormonal fluctuations during reproductive events are a plausible factor contributing to the change in OCD course during these times. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The n- vs. u-serration is a learnable criterion to differentiate pemphigoid from epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in direct immunofluorescence serration pattern analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, J. B.; Meijer, J. M.; Jonkman, M. F.; Diercks, G. F. H.

    Background Serration pattern analysis of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) allows the differentiation of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita from other subtypes of pemphigoid. In daily practice its use is limited due to lack of experience and unfamiliarity. Objectives To test the learnability of DIF

  16. The management of metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer requires an integrated approach including both directed and systemic therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamil D Cooray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old man with metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC presented with left thigh and right flank numbness. He had known progressive and widespread bony metastases, for which he received palliative radiotherapy, and multiple bilateral asymptomatic pulmonary metastases. CT scan and MRI of the spine revealed metastases at right T10–L1 vertebrae with extension into the central canal and epidural disease at T10 and T11 causing cord displacement and canal stenosis but retention of spinal cord signal. Spinal surgery was followed by palliative radiotherapy resulting in symptom resolution. Two months later, sorafenib received approval for use in Australia and was commenced and up-titrated with symptomatic management of mild adverse effects. Follow-up CT scan three months after commencement of sorafenib revealed regression of pulmonary metastases but no evident change in most bone metastases except for an advancing lesion eroding into the right acetabulum. The patient underwent a right total hip replacement, intra-lesional curettage and cementing. After six months of sorafenib therapy, CT scanning showed enlarging liver lesions with marked elevation of serum thyroglobulin. Lenvatinib was commenced and sorafenib was ceased. He now has stable disease with a falling thyroglobulin more than 5 years after metastatic radioiodine-refractory DTC was diagnosed. In DTC, 5% of distant metastases become radioiodine-refractory, resulting in a median overall survival of 2.5–3.5 years. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy has recently been demonstrated to increase progression-free survival in these patients but poses some unique management issues and is best used as part of an integrated approach with directed therapy.

  17. Direct Detection and Differentiation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species Using a Multi-Gene Targeted Real Time PCR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Costa, Pedro; Rocha, Teresa; Amaro, Ana; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Ahmed, Ahmed; Thompson, Gertrude; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a growing public and veterinary health concern caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira. Rapid and reliable laboratory tests for the direct detection of leptospiral infections in animals are in high demand not only to improve diagnosis but also for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. In this work we describe a novel and simple TaqMan-based multi-gene targeted real-time PCR approach able to detect and differentiate Leptospira interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpeteresenii and L. noguchii, which constitute the veterinary most relevant pathogenic species of Leptospira. The method uses sets of species-specific probes, and respective flanking primers, designed from ompL1 and secY gene sequences. To monitor the presence of inhibitors, a duplex amplification assay targeting both the mammal β-actin and the leptospiral lipL32 genes was implemented. The analytical sensitivity of all primer and probe sets was estimated to be <10 genome equivalents (GE) in the reaction mixture. Application of the amplification reactions on genomic DNA from a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leptospira strains and other non-related bacteria revealed a 100% analytical specificity. Additionally, pathogenic leptospires were successfully detected in five out of 29 tissue samples from animals (Mus spp., Rattus spp., Dolichotis patagonum and Sus domesticus). Two samples were infected with L. borgpetersenii, two with L. interrogans and one with L. kirschneri. The possibility to detect and identify these pathogenic agents to the species level in domestic and wildlife animals reinforces the diagnostic information and will enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of leptopirosis. PMID:25398140

  18. The management of metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer requires an integrated approach including both directed and systemic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Shamil D; Topliss, Duncan J

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) presented with left thigh and right flank numbness. He had known progressive and widespread bony metastases, for which he received palliative radiotherapy, and multiple bilateral asymptomatic pulmonary metastases. CT scan and MRI of the spine revealed metastases at right T10-L1 vertebrae with extension into the central canal and epidural disease at T10 and T11 causing cord displacement and canal stenosis but retention of spinal cord signal. Spinal surgery was followed by palliative radiotherapy resulting in symptom resolution. Two months later, sorafenib received approval for use in Australia and was commenced and up-titrated with symptomatic management of mild adverse effects. Follow-up CT scan three months after commencement of sorafenib revealed regression of pulmonary metastases but no evident change in most bone metastases except for an advancing lesion eroding into the right acetabulum. The patient underwent a right total hip replacement, intra-lesional curettage and cementing. After six months of sorafenib therapy, CT scanning showed enlarging liver lesions with marked elevation of serum thyroglobulin. Lenvatinib was commenced and sorafenib was ceased. He now has stable disease with a falling thyroglobulin more than 5 years after metastatic radioiodine-refractory DTC was diagnosed. In DTC, 5% of distant metastases become radioiodine-refractory, resulting in a median overall survival of 2.5-3.5 years. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has recently been demonstrated to increase progression-free survival in these patients but poses some unique management issues and is best used as part of an integrated approach with directed therapy. Directed therapies may have greater potential to control localised disease and related symptoms when compared to systemic therapies.Consider TKI therapy in progressive disease where benefits outweigh risks.Active surveillance and

  19. Retinoic Acid signalling and the control of meiotic entry in the human fetal gonad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Childs

    Full Text Available The development of mammalian fetal germ cells along oogenic or spermatogenic fate trajectories is dictated by signals from the surrounding gonadal environment. Germ cells in the fetal testis enter mitotic arrest, whilst those in the fetal ovary undergo sex-specific entry into meiosis, the initiation of which is thought to be mediated by selective exposure of fetal ovarian germ cells to mesonephros-derived retinoic acid (RA. Aspects of this model are hard to reconcile with the spatiotemporal pattern of germ cell differentiation in the human fetal ovary, however. We have therefore examined the expression of components of the RA synthesis, metabolism and signalling pathways, and their downstream effectors and inhibitors in germ cells around the time of the initiation of meiosis in the human fetal gonad. Expression of the three RA-synthesising enzymes, ALDH1A1, 2 and 3 in the fetal ovary and testis was equal to or greater than that in the mesonephros at 8-9 weeks gestation, indicating an intrinsic capacity within the gonad to synthesise RA. Using immunohistochemistry to detect RA receptors RARα, β and RXRα, we find germ cells to be the predominant target of RA signalling in the fetal human ovary, but also reveal widespread receptor nuclear localization indicative of signalling in the testis, suggesting that human fetal testicular germ cells are not efficiently shielded from RA by the action of the RA-metabolising enzyme CYP26B1. Consistent with this, expression of CYP26B1 was greater in the human fetal ovary than testis, although the sexually-dimorphic expression patterns of the germ cell-intrinsic regulators of meiotic initiation, STRA8 and NANOS2, appear conserved. Finally, we demonstrate that RA induces a two-fold increase in STRA8 expression in cultures of human fetal testis, but is not sufficient to cause widespread meiosis-associated gene expression. Together, these data indicate that while local production of RA within the fetal ovary may

  20. The Potential of Gait Analysis to Contribute to Differential Diagnosis of Early Stage Dementia: Current Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra; Funk, Melanie; Crossley, Margaret; Basran, Jenny; Kirk, Andrew; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal

    2007-01-01

    Early differential diagnosis of dementia is becoming increasingly important as new pharmacologic therapies are developed, as these treatments are not equally effective for all types of dementia. Early detection and differential diagnosis also facilitates informed family decision making and timely access to appropriate services. Information about…

  1. [Pure gonad dysgenesia or Swyer sindrome. A case report having tumoral development: melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, D; Blanco, M; Falke, G; Rocca Rivarola, M; Séller, R; Puigdevall, J C; Bergada, C

    2006-10-01

    A 14 year old girl having 10-days lumbar pain, polaquiuria and moderate pain to palpation is reported. Blood and urine analysis were normal. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed cavity free and solid, rounded, heterogeneous, intrapelvic mass compressing bladder and uterus. Magnetic resonance image was performed showing right gonad compromise with extensive liver and sacro-lumbar spine invasion. Tumoral markers were ruled out. During surgery, primary tumor mass localizad in the right gonad was completely excised. Melanotic peritoneal and hepatic disemination were observed. The patient had left streak gonad and infantile uterus (2 x 3 cm). As gonad dysgenesia was suspected, high resolution cromosomic study was performed and resulted in cariotype 46 XY. Microscopy of the resected gonad showed primary gonad melanoma. Chemotherapy was instituted with no tumor response and the patient died two month later.

  2. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement

    OpenAIRE

    Manwani, Bharti; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Benashski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Xu, Yan; Arnold, Arthur P; McCullough, Louise D

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown sex differences in ischemic stroke. The four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, in which the testes determining gene, Sry, has been moved from Y chromosome to an autosome, was used to dissociate the effects of sex hormones from sex chromosome in ischemic stroke outcome. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in gonad intact FCG mice revealed that gonadal males (XXM and XYM) had significantly higher infarct volumes as compared with gonadal females (XXF and XYF)....

  3. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamei Yue

    Full Text Available The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis.The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected.This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy management of

  4. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del Valle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc, such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control. Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3 and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1, which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2, as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1. We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5, but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  5. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development [version 2; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del Valle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc, such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control. Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3 and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1, which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2, as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1. We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5, but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  6. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

  7. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing

  8. Organochlorine Pesticides in Gonad, Brain, and Blood of Mice in Two Agricultural Areas of Sinaloa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Ernestina; Osuna-Martinez, Ulises-Giovanni; Herrera-Moreno, Maria-Nancy; Rodriguez-Meza, Guadalupe-Durga; Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector-A; Bucio-Pacheco, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    The adverse effect of pesticides on non-target wildlife and human health is a primary concern in the world, but in Mexico, we do not know which wildlife species are at the greatest risk. The aim of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticides in mice of two agricultural fields in Sinaloa, Culiacan and Guasave. Procedures of extraction, analysis, and quantification were followed according to the modified EPA 8081b method. In three mouse tissues (gonad, brain, and blood), γBHC and decachlorobiphenyl with a frequency higher than 50% and endosulfan sulfate with 43% were observed. The wildlife fauna living in agricultural areas are at great risk due to: (1) diversity of the chemicals used for pest control, like mice, and (2) variety of organochlorine pesticides in direct or indirect contact with non-target organisms, affecting the health of animals and humans (toxic effects and accumulation).

  9. Tachykinins and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaga, Mercedes; Debeljuk, Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Tachykinins play a critical role in neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction. The best known members of the family are substance P (SP), neurokinin A and neurokinin B. Tachykinins mediate their biological actions through three G protein-coupled receptors, named NK1, NK2, and NK3. SP was suggested to play an important role in the ovulatory process in mammals and humans. Recent findings suggest a role of tachykinins in the aging of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. A high presence of SP was found in the sheep pars tuberalis and evidence indicates that it may have some role in the control of prolactin secretion. The presence of SP was confirmed in Leydig cells of the rat testes of animals submitted to constant light or treated with estrogens. Tachykinins were found to increase the motility of human spermatozoa. Tachykinins were also found to be present in the mouse ovary and more specifically, in the granulose cells. It is possible that tachykinins may play an important role in the ovarian function. NKB has been implicated in the steroid feedback control of GnRH release. Human mutations in the gene encoding this peptide or its receptor (TACR3) lead to a defect in the control of GnRH. A specific subset of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, colocalized three neuropeptides, kisspeptin, NKB and dynorphin. This subpopulation of neurons mediates the gonadal hormone feedback control of GnRH secretion. NKB/NK3 signaling plays a role in puberty onset and fertility in humans. This minireview summarizes the recent data about the action of tachykinins on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of thyroid and gonadal function in liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH, chronic liver disease (CLD, and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT. Materials and Methods: Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1 and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2, and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls. Results: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16% and 24 (28% patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%, followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%, subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3% and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50% followed by LT (3; 33%, CLD-1 (4; 20%, and AH (3; 14%. Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism.

  11. Evaluation of the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, V.; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Sarikhani, S. [Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Gonad shielding has been advocated to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. A retrospective study was performed on 1230 anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 939 children under 16 years old. All the radiographs were reviewed to determine the frequency of gonad shielding and to evaluate whether gonad shields were correctly positioned when they are used. The gonad shield was present in 82 radiographs (30 girls and 52 boys) and was completely disregarded in 1148 radiographs. From 82 images which shield was present, the gonad shields adequately positioned in 28 radiographs (3 girls and 25 boys) and in the remaining 54 radiographs, the shield did not adequately protected the gonads due to incorrect placement of the shield. The inaccuracy placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than boys (P-value < 0.05). More care should be taken to correctly positioning of the gonad shields in boys and its usage should be encouraged. However, the practice of ovarian shielding is not an effective way to reduce radiation exposure in girls undergoing pelvis radiography. (author)

  12. Dysgerminoma in a case of 46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (swyer syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Anguang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simple 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, also called Swyer syndrome, is known as pure gonadal dysgenesis. Individuals with the syndrome are characterized by 46, XY karyotype and phenotypically female with female genital appearance, normal Müllerian structures and absent testicular tissue. The condition usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea due to the gonads have no hormonal or reproductive potential. Herein, we report a case of dysgerminoma diagnosed in a dysgenetic gonad of a 21-year-old patient with Swyer syndrome.

  13. Chronic irradiation of the gonads of rats: first experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Guy; Maas, Jean.

    1979-12-01

    The first experimental results obtained after acute (0.5 MeV neutrons) and chronic ( 60 Co gamma rays) irradiation of male rats are presented. The biological criterion was the weight loss of male gonads a parameter strongly correlated to germ-cell survivals. The purpose of this study was, to determine the RBE of 0.5 MeV neutrons for this particular criterion and to obtain new dynamic equilibrium in the germinal tissue after continuous exposure leading to the determination of the recovery and cell-renewal factors they imply [fr

  14. Genome-wide analysis of brain and gonad transcripts reveals changes of key sex reversal-related genes expression and signaling pathways in three stages of Monopterus albus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chi

    Full Text Available The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus. How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process.Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes. These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes' expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary.This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of brain and gonad transcripts reveals changes of key sex reversal-related genes expression and signaling pathways in three stages of Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wei; Gao, Yu; Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male) from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process. Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes). These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes' expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary. This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms.

  16. Concentrations of 17 elements in muscle, gills, liver and gonads of five economically important fish species from the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhardt M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River in the vicinity of the city of Belgrade receives large amounts of untreated or poorly treated communal and industrial waste waters. The aim of this study was to assess elemental accumulation patterns in a number of economically important fish species in this area that belong to different trophic levels. Concentrations of 17 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were assessed in liver, muscle, gills and gonads of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, white bream (Blicca bjoerkna, common carp (Cyprinus carpio and wels catfish (Silurus glanis from the Danube River in Serbia by the use of ICP-OES. Silver carp specimens were differentiated from the other four species by high concentrations of Al and Fe in the liver. Common carp specimens were differentiated by high concentrations of Zn in gills, muscle and liver. Distribution of elements among different tissues had a consistent pattern among the species. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Fe in muscle were at acceptable levels for human consumption, while concentrations of Fe and Zn were above maximum acceptable concentrations in liver and gonads.

  17. Germline activating MTOR mutation arising through gonadal mosaicism in two brothers with megalencephaly and neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroske, Cameron; Rasmussen, Kristen; Shinde, Deepali N; Huether, Robert; Powis, Zoe; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Baxter, Ruth M; McPherson, Elizabeth; Tang, Sha

    2015-11-05

    In humans, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (MTOR) encodes a 300 kDa serine/ threonine protein kinase that is ubiquitously expressed, particularly at high levels in brain. MTOR functions as an integrator of multiple cellular processes, and in so doing either directly or indirectly regulates the phosphorylation of at least 800 proteins. While somatic MTOR mutations have been recognized in tumors for many years, and more recently in hemimegalencephaly, germline MTOR mutations have rarely been described. We report the successful application of family-trio Diagnostic Exome Sequencing (DES) to identify the underlying molecular etiology in two brothers with multiple neurological and developmental lesions, and for whom previous testing was non-diagnostic. The affected brothers, who were 6 and 23 years of age at the time of DES, presented symptoms including but not limited to mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), megalencephaly, gross motor skill delay, cryptorchidism and bilateral iris coloboma. Importantly, we determined that each affected brother harbored the MTOR missense alteration p.E1799K (c.5395G>A). This exact variant has been previously identified in multiple independent human somatic cancer samples and has been shown to result in increased MTOR activation. Further, recent independent reports describe two unrelated families in whom p.E1799K co-segregated with megalencephaly and intellectual disability (ID); in both cases, p.E1799K was shown to have originated due to germline mosaicism. In the case of the family reported herein, the absence of p.E1799K in genomic DNA extracted from the blood of either parent suggests that this alteration most likely arose due to gonadal mosaicism. Further, the p.E1799K variant exerts its effect by a gain-of-function (GOF), autosomal dominant mechanism. Herein, we describe the use of DES to uncover an activating MTOR missense alteration of gonadal mosaic origin that is likely to be the causative mutation in two brothers who present

  18. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in several cancers and during normal adult male germ cell differentiation. Little is known about their role in fetal development of human germ cells. METHODS: We examined expression of the CTAs MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 in fetal gonads...... with highly proliferating germ cells, whereas GAGE proteins have a more general function in germ cells unrelated to any specific developmental stage. The recognition of differential cellular expression of GAGE, MAGE-A1, NY-ESO-1 and OCT4 may help define biologically distinct germ cell subpopulations....... cells and the staining intensity of all three CTAs peaked during the second trimester and gradually decreased towards birth in both male and female germ cells. In oocytes, MAGE-A1 expression terminated around birth, whereas NY-ESO-1 expression persisted through the neonatal stage and GAGE expression...

  19. Non-gonadal mediated effect of photoperiod on hibernation and body weight cycles of the European hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canguilhem, B; Masson-Pévet, M; Koehl, C; Pévet, P; Bentz, I

    1988-01-01

    1. Sexually active male European hamsters raised under short photoperiod display high levels of plasma testosterone, high body weight and do not hibernate. 2. Castrated males in May, raised under the same conditions, do not hibernate and do not present the physiological body weight rhythm. 3. Normal and castrated animals under natural conditions enter hibernation and display a normal body weight rhythm. 4. Normal and castrated animals not submitted to the natural succession of long and short days do not enter hibernation. 5. Photoperiod directly controls body weight and hibernation gonadal interactions.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation.

  1. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  2. Decision Processes During Development of Molecular Biomarkers for Gonadal Phenotypic Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular biomarkers for determination of gonadal phenotypic sex in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), will serve as a case study. The medaka has unique features that aid in the development of appropriate molecular biomarkers of gonad phenotype, a) genetic sex can be determin...

  3. Sex differences in murine myocardium are not exclusively regulated by gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuring, Franz; Neumann, Boris; Scheler, Christian; Jungblut, Peter R; Schwab, Karima

    2017-12-19

    We investigated sex differences in cardiac protein patterns of intact and castrated mice using proteomics and 1D and 2D immunoblotting. To exclude differences concerning developmental aspects gonadectomy was conducted in mature mice at the age of three months. The main sex-related regulation in the protein pattern of the myocardium occurred for proteins involved in metabolic processes whereas only few proteins involved in other pathways underwent a regulation. Many regulated proteins (2/3) displayed a characteristic V form, which means that these proteins are up- or down-regulated in sexually mature compared to young mice and are back-regulated after castration, emphasizing a direct regulation by gonadal hormones. Several other spots (1/3) showed the same male/female regulation or a drastic increase in male/female spot intensity ratio after castration, suggesting either a regulation independent of sex hormones or a removal of an inhibiting feedback mechanism by gonadectomy. Technically, we found that it cannot be expected that a single spot contains only one protein species and that one protein is present in only one spot. We thus propose for proteomic investigations to identify/quantify all spots of a 2-DE pattern to obtain information about protein speciation and its potential importance for function and pathology. Sex related differences in cardiovascular disease, including risk factors, disease manifestation and outcomes, are far from being well understood, and improved biological understanding of these differences in the healthy myocardium is of great importance. We investigated sex related changes of myocardial protein pattern in intact and castrated mice at different ages and found metabolic proteins to be highly regulated, some of which independently from gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Osteoporosis and its association with non-gonadal hormones involved in hypertension, adiposity and hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a high-prevalence disease, particularly in developed countries, and results in high costs both to the individual and to society through associated fragility fractures. There is an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and development of new anti-osteoporotic agents. Between 30 and 80% of osteoporotic fractures cannot be prevented despite current treatments achieving relative fracture risk reduction of up to 20%, 50%, and 70% for non-vertebral, hip and spine fractures, respectively. Traditionally, the decline in gonadal hormones has been studied as the sole hormonal determinant for the loss of bone mineral density in osteoporosis. However, recent studies have identified receptors for numerous non-gonadal hormones such as PTH, angiotensin II, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 on the osteoblast lineage cells that directly regulate bone turnover. These hormones are also involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome risk factors, particularly hypertension, type-II diabetes and obesity. By activating their respective receptors on osteoblastic lineage cells, these hormones appear to act through a common mechanism by down-regulating receptors for activation of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and up-regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) with inverse responses for adiponectin. Receptors for amylin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and ghrelin and have also been identified on the osteoblast lineage cells although the roles of these receptors in bone turnover are controversial or poorly studied. Moreover, bone turnover may be independently regulated by modulation of osteoclast-osteoblast function and bone marrow adiposity. Leptin appears to be the only hormone that is a known regulator of both bone mineralisation and bone adiposity.

  5. TCR signal strength alters T-DC activation and interaction times and directs the outcome of differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eVan Panhuys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into effector subsets underpins their ability to shape the immune response and mediate host protection. During T cell receptor induced activation of CD4+ T cells both the quality and quantity of specific activatory peptide/MHC ligands have been shown to control the polarization of naïve CD4+ T cells in addition to co-stimulatory and cytokine based signals. Recently, advances in two photon microscopy and tetramer based cell tracking methods have allowed investigators to greatly extend the study of the role of TCR signaling in effector differentiation under in vivo conditions. In this review we consider data from recent in vivo studies analyzing the role of TCR signal strength in controlling the outcome of CD4+ T cell differentiation and discuss the role of the TCR in controlling the critical nature of CD4+ T cell interactions with dendritic cells during activation. We further propose a model whereby TCR signal strength controls the temporal aspects of T:DC interactions and the implications for this in mediating the downstream signaling events which influence the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of effector differentiation.

  6. Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Prostate Organoids In Vitro and its Perturbation by Low-Dose Bisphenol A Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther L Calderon-Gierszal

    Full Text Available Studies using rodent and adult human prostate stem-progenitor cell models suggest that developmental exposure to the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA can predispose to prostate carcinogenesis with aging. Unknown at present is whether the embryonic human prostate is equally susceptible to BPA during its natural developmental window. To address this unmet need, we herein report the construction of a pioneer in vitro human prostate developmental model to study the effects of BPA. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC into prostatic organoids in a spatial system was accomplished with precise temporal control of growth factors and steroids. Activin-induced definitive endoderm was driven to prostate specification by combined exposure to WNT10B and FGF10. Matrigel culture for 20-30 days in medium containing R-Spondin-1, Noggin, EGF, retinoic acid and testosterone was sufficient for mature prostate organoid development. Immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis confirmed that organoids exhibited cytodifferentiation and functional properties of the human prostate. Exposure to 1 nM or 10 nM BPA throughout differentiation culture disturbed early morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with 1 nM BPA increasing and 10 nM BPA reducing the number of branched structures formed. While differentiation of branched structures to mature organoids seemed largely unaffected by BPA exposure, the stem-like cell population increased, appearing as focal stem cell nests that have not properly entered lineage commitment rather than the rare isolated stem cells found in normally differentiated structures. These findings provide the first direct evidence that low-dose BPA exposure targets hESC and perturbs morphogenesis as the embryonic cells differentiate towards human prostate organoids, suggesting that the developing human prostate may be susceptible to disruption by in utero BPA exposures.

  7. Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Prostate Organoids In Vitro and its Perturbation by Low-Dose Bisphenol A Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Gierszal, Esther L; Prins, Gail S

    2015-01-01

    Studies using rodent and adult human prostate stem-progenitor cell models suggest that developmental exposure to the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA) can predispose to prostate carcinogenesis with aging. Unknown at present is whether the embryonic human prostate is equally susceptible to BPA during its natural developmental window. To address this unmet need, we herein report the construction of a pioneer in vitro human prostate developmental model to study the effects of BPA. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into prostatic organoids in a spatial system was accomplished with precise temporal control of growth factors and steroids. Activin-induced definitive endoderm was driven to prostate specification by combined exposure to WNT10B and FGF10. Matrigel culture for 20-30 days in medium containing R-Spondin-1, Noggin, EGF, retinoic acid and testosterone was sufficient for mature prostate organoid development. Immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis confirmed that organoids exhibited cytodifferentiation and functional properties of the human prostate. Exposure to 1 nM or 10 nM BPA throughout differentiation culture disturbed early morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with 1 nM BPA increasing and 10 nM BPA reducing the number of branched structures formed. While differentiation of branched structures to mature organoids seemed largely unaffected by BPA exposure, the stem-like cell population increased, appearing as focal stem cell nests that have not properly entered lineage commitment rather than the rare isolated stem cells found in normally differentiated structures. These findings provide the first direct evidence that low-dose BPA exposure targets hESC and perturbs morphogenesis as the embryonic cells differentiate towards human prostate organoids, suggesting that the developing human prostate may be susceptible to disruption by in utero BPA exposures.

  8. Differential engagement of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex by goal-directed and habitual behavior toward food pictures in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; Corlett, P.R.; Aitken, M.R.; Dickinson, A.; Fletcher, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    According to dual-system accounts, instrumental learning is supported by both a goal-directed and a habitual system. Although behavioral control by the goal-directed system, through outcome-action associations, dominates with moderate training, stimulus-response associations are thought to form

  9. Effects of tamoxifen on the sex determination gene and the activation of sex reversal in the developing gonad of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingxi; Wang, Jingyun; Liu, Wei; Qin, Junwen; Zhou, Quan; Wang, Yongan; Huang, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Ma, Chao

    2014-07-03

    Tamoxifen, as well as most endocrine-disrupting chemicals, affects the reproductive system and sexual development, but little is known about its disruption of the molecular pathways regulating mammalian sex determination. In fetal mice, the expression levels and pattern of key genes involved in controlling sexually dimorphic balance were analyzed both in vivo and in vitro by using whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative-PCR. Developmental tamoxifen exposure induced abnormal up-regulation of the testis differentiation marker Pdfgra in Leydig cells and of Sox9 and Fgf9 in Sertoli cells in XX gonad. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the over-expression of SOX9 protein. Accordingly, the ovary development marker Foxl2 was depressed at both the mRNA and protein levels. The increase in testosterone and the reduction in 17β-estradiol and progesterone were observed by using the in vitro assay with organotypic cultures. Taken together, results indicated that tamoxifen induced the ectopic expression of well-established sex-specific genes during the critical developmental period, thus resulting in abnormal testicular development in the XX gonad of mammals. This study facilitates a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of antiestrogens and possibly of compounds that interrupt estrogen signaling by other modes of action, and the association with the pathogenesis of human sexual developmental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation of protein kinase A and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP promotes adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Jia

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells are primary multipotent cells capable of differentiating into several cell types including adipocytes when cultured under defined in vitro conditions. In the present study we investigated the role of cAMP signaling and its downstream effectors, protein kinase A (PKA and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac in adipocyte conversion of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (hMADS. We show that cAMP signaling involving the simultaneous activation of both PKA- and Epac-dependent signaling is critical for this process even in the presence of the strong adipogenic inducers insulin, dexamethasone, and rosiglitazone, thereby clearly distinguishing the hMADS cells from murine preadipocytes cell lines, where rosiglitazone together with dexamethasone and insulin strongly promotes adipocyte differentiation. We further show that prostaglandin I(2 (PGI(2 may fully substitute for the cAMP-elevating agent isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX. Moreover, selective activation of Epac-dependent signaling promoted adipocyte differentiation when the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK was inhibited. Unlike the case for murine preadipocytes cell lines, long-chain fatty acids, like arachidonic acid, did not promote adipocyte differentiation of hMADS cells in the absence of a PPARγ agonist. However, prolonged treatment with the synthetic PPARδ agonist L165041 promoted adipocyte differentiation of hMADS cells in the presence of IBMX. Taken together our results emphasize the need for cAMP signaling in concert with treatment with a PPARγ or PPARδ agonist to secure efficient adipocyte differentiation of human hMADS mesenchymal stem cells.

  11. Nonmuscle myosin IIA and IIB differentially contribute to intrinsic and directed migration of human embryonic lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuragano, Masahiro; Murakami, Yota; Takahashi, Masayuki

    2018-03-25

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) plays an essential role in directional cell migration. In this study, we investigated the roles of NMII isoforms (NMIIA and NMIIB) in the migration of human embryonic lung fibroblasts, which exhibit directionally persistent migration in an intrinsic manner. NMIIA-knockdown (KD) cells migrated unsteadily, but their direction of migration was approximately maintained. By contrast, NMIIB-KD cells occasionally reversed their direction of migration. Lamellipodium-like protrusions formed in the posterior region of NMIIB-KD cells prior to reversal of the migration direction. Moreover, NMIIB KD led to elongation of the posterior region in migrating cells, probably due to the lack of load-bearing stress fibers in this area. These results suggest that NMIIA plays a role in steering migration by maintaining stable protrusions in the anterior region, whereas NMIIB plays a role in maintenance of front-rear polarity by preventing aberrant protrusion formation in the posterior region. These distinct functions of NMIIA and NMIIB might promote intrinsic and directed migration of normal human fibroblasts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioconcentration of (15)N-tamoxifen at environmental concentration in liver, gonad and muscle of Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orias, Frédéric; Simon, Laurent; Mialdea, Gladys; Clair, Angéline; Brosselin, Vanessa; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems. In addition to the direct ecotoxicological risk presented by certain PCs, others can accumulate inside organisms and along trophic webs, subsequently contaminating whole ecosystems. We studied the bioconcentration of a bioaccumulative PC already found several times in the environment: tamoxifen. To this end, we exposed Danio rerio for 21d to (15)N-tamoxifen concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10µg/L and used an analytic method based on stable isotopes to evaluate the tamoxifen content in these organisms. The evolution of the (15)N/(14)N ratio was thus measured in liver, muscle and gonads of exposed fish compared to control fish. We succeeded in quantifying (15)N-tamoxifen bioconcentrations at all the exposure concentrations tested. The highest bioconcentration factors of tamoxifen measured were 14,920 in muscle, 73,800 in liver and 85,600 in gonads of fish after 21d exposure at a nominal concentration of 10µg/L. However, these bioconcentration factors have to be considered as maximal values (BCFMAX). Indeed, despite its proven stability, tamoxifen can be potentially partially degraded during experiments. We now need to refine these results by using a direct analytic method (i.e. LC-MS/MS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Photoactivation of endogenous latent transforming growth factor-β1 directs dental stem cell differentiation for regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arany, Praveen R; Cho, Andrew; Hunt, Tristan D; Sidhu, Gursimran; Shin, Kyungsup; Hahm, Eason; Huang, George X; Weaver, James; Chen, Aaron Chih-Hao; Padwa, Bonnie L; Hamblin, Michael R; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Kulkarni, Ashok B; J Mooney, David

    2014-05-28

    Rapid advancements in the field of stem cell biology have led to many current efforts to exploit stem cells as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. However, current ex vivo cell manipulations common to most regenerative approaches create a variety of technical and regulatory hurdles to their clinical translation, and even simpler approaches that use exogenous factors to differentiate tissue-resident stem cells carry significant off-target side effects. We show that non-ionizing, low-power laser (LPL) treatment can instead be used as a minimally invasive tool to activate an endogenous latent growth factor complex, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), that subsequently differentiates host stem cells to promote tissue regeneration. LPL treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner, which, in turn, activated latent TGF-β1 (LTGF-β1) via a specific methionine residue (at position 253 on LAP). Laser-activated TGF-β1 was capable of differentiating human dental stem cells in vitro. Further, an in vivo pulp capping model in rat teeth demonstrated significant increase in dentin regeneration after LPL treatment. These in vivo effects were abrogated in TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII) conditional knockout (DSPP(Cre)TGF-βRII(fl/fl)) mice or when wild-type mice were given a TGF-βRI inhibitor. These findings indicate a pivotal role for TGF-β in mediating LPL-induced dental tissue regeneration. More broadly, this work outlines a mechanistic basis for harnessing resident stem cells with a light-activated endogenous cue for clinical regenerative applications. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Cortisol-induced masculinization: does thermal stress affect gonadal fate in pejerrey, a teleost fish with temperature-dependent sex determination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S Hattori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gonadal fate in many reptiles, fish, and amphibians is modulated by the temperature experienced during a critical period early in life (temperature-dependent sex determination; TSD. Several molecular processes involved in TSD have been described but how the animals "sense" environmental temperature remains unknown. We examined whether the stress-related hormone cortisol mediates between temperature and sex differentiation of pejerrey, a gonochoristic teleost fish with marked TSD, and the possibility that it involves glucocorticoid receptor- and/or steroid biosynthesis-modulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Larvae maintained during the period of gonadal sex differentiation at a masculinizing temperature (29 degrees C; 100% males consistently had higher cortisol, 11-ketotestoterone (11-KT, and testosterone (T titres than those at a feminizing temperature (17 degrees C; 100% females. Cortisol-treated animals had elevated 11-KT and T, and showed a typical molecular signature of masculinization including amh upregulation, cyp19a1a downregulation, and higher incidence of gonadal apoptosis during sex differentiation. Administration of cortisol and a non-metabolizable glucocorticoid receptor (GR agonist (Dexamethasone to larvae at a "sexually neutral" temperature (24 degrees C caused significant increases in the proportion of males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest a role of cortisol in the masculinization of pejerrey and provide a possible link between stress and testicular differentiation in this gonochoristic TSD species. Cortisol role or roles during TSD of pejerrey seem(s to involve both androgen biosynthesis- and GR-mediated processes. These findings and recent reports of cortisol effects on sex determination of sequential hermaphroditic fishes, TSD reptiles, and birds provide support to the notion that stress responses might be involved in various forms of environmental sex determination.

  15. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma, E-mail: dalma@stthomas.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); University of St. Thomas, 2115 Summit Ave, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Wang Ronglin [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecological Exposure Research Division, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Villeneuve, Daniel L. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Bencic, David C.; Lazorchak, Jim [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecological Exposure Research Division, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Ankley, Gerald T. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96 h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4 x 44 K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals.

  16. Activation of protein kinase A and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP promotes adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Bingbing; Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed

    2012-01-01

    ) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in adipocyte conversion of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (hMADS). We show that cAMP signaling involving the simultaneous activation of both PKA- and Epac-dependent signaling is critical for this process even in the presence......Human mesenchymal stem cells are primary multipotent cells capable of differentiating into several cell types including adipocytes when cultured under defined in vitro conditions. In the present study we investigated the role of cAMP signaling and its downstream effectors, protein kinase A (PKA...... results emphasize the need for cAMP signaling in concert with treatment with a PPARγ or PPARδ agonist to secure efficient adipocyte differentiation of human hMADS mesenchymal stem cells....

  17. Effect of Intermittent Feeding on Gonadal Function in Male And Female NMRI Mice During Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Zarrin Ehteram

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stress can inhibit gonadal activity via Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad (HPG axis activity suppression. In the present study, effects of intermittent feeding (IF on gonadal function under stress in male and female mice were evaluated. Twenty eight male and twenty eight female mice's were divided into four groups. The control group received adequate food and water without stress. The second group received four days of electric shock without food deprivation. The third group was deprived of food two hours/day for a week, and the fourth group was deprived of food (2 hours/day for seven consecutive days and then electric foot shock stress was applied to them for four days. Blood samples were collected from all animals for plasma testosterone, estrogen and/or Interlukin-6 (IL-6 evaluation. The animals’ gonads were also removed and fixed for the measure of their weight. Results showed that stress reduces both testosterone and estrogen levels, whereas IF did not change the hormone levels. In addition, stress increases blood IL-6 concentration. The combination of IF and stress, increased the hormone levels in animals. Stress and IF alone had no significant effect on gonadal weight in the male mice, whereas stress decreased gonadal weight in the females. Combination of stress with IF increased gonadal weight in both male and female mice. In conclusion stress showed a negative effect on gonadal function in both animals with more effect on females. Intermittent feeding inhibits the stress effect and even promotes the gonadal function in both sexes. The effect may be due to IL-6 reduction.

  18. Identification of a novel mutation (Ala66Thr) of SRY gene causes XY pure gonadal dysgenesis by affecting DNA binding activity and nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Xue, Mei; Zhao, Minggang; He, Fang; Li, Cui; Li, Xu

    2018-04-20

    Sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene plays a crucial role in male sexual differentiation and development. Several mutations in the SRY gene have been reported in the high mobility group (HMG) box domain and can cause gonadal dysgenesis symptoms. In this study, we report that a novel missense mutation in the SRY gene, a G to A transition within the HMG box, causes the Ala66Thr amino acid substitution in a female patient presenting 46,XY karyotype with pure gonadal dysgenesis. The G to A base transition was not found in the SRY sequence after the screening of 100 normal males. Furthermore, Ala66Thr mutation drastically reduced the binding capacity of SRY to DNA sequences, whereas wild-type SRY protein showed the normal binding capacity to DNA sequences in vitro. We also found that the mutant SRY protein was partly localized in cytoplasm, whereas wild-type SRY protein was strictly localized in cell nucleus. In addition, we analyzed the three-dimensional structure of SRY protein by homology modeling methods. In conclusion, we identified a novel SRY mutation in a 46,XY female patient with pure gonadal dysgenesis, demonstrating the importance of the Ala66Thr mutation in DNA binding activity and nuclear transport. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oestrogens are Not Related to Emotional Processing: a Study of Regional Brain Activity in Female-to-Male Transsexuals Under Gonadal Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleman, R S; Staphorsius, A S; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Lambalk, C B; Veltman, D J; van Trotsenburg, M A A; Hompes, P G A; Drent, M L; de Ronde, W P; Kreukels, B P C

    2016-02-01

    Although the prevailing opinion is that emotional processes are influenced by sex hormones, the literature is still inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of gonadal suppression on brain activity during affective picture processing. Twenty-one female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals and 19 control women were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while rating emotional pictures adapted from the International Affective Picture System. The gonadal hormone production of the FtMs was suppressed for 8 weeks, the control group did not receive any treatment before scanning. Under gonadal suppression, FtMs showed less brain activation in the superior temporal lobe compared with female controls during perception of positive affective pictures. Regression analysis showed that during processing of positive affective images, brain activity within the right superior temporal lobe was not correlated with levels of estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. In the absence of associations with hormonal levels, the difference in activation in the superior temporal lobe during positive emotional stimuli between FtMs and control women may be attributed to a priori differences between the 2 groups. Future studies should clarify if these differences are a result of atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in FtMs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Bioprinting of human pluripotent stem cells and their directed differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells for the generation of mini-livers in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner-Jones, Alan; Cornelissen, Dirk-Jan; Shu, Wenmiao; Fyfe, Catherine; Gardner, John; King, Jason; Courtney, Aidan

    2015-01-01

    We report the first investigation into the bioprinting of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), their response to a valve-based printing process as well as their post-printing differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). HLCs differentiated from both hiPSCs and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) sources were bioprinted and examined for the presence of hepatic markers to further validate the compatibility of the valve-based bioprinting process with fragile cell transfer. Examined cells were positive for nuclear factor 4 alpha and were demonstrated to secrete albumin and have morphology that was also found to be similar to that of hepatocytes. Both hESC and hiPSC lines were tested for post-printing viability and pluripotency and were found to have negligible difference in terms of viability and pluripotency between the printed and non-printed cells. hESC-derived HLCs were 3D printed using alginate hydrogel matrix and tested for viability and albumin secretion during the remaining differentiation and were found to be hepatic in nature. 3D printed with 40-layer of HLC-containing alginate structures reached peak albumin secretion at day 21 of the differentiation protocol. This work demonstrates that the valve-based printing process is gentle enough to print human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) (both hESCs and hiPSCs) while either maintaining their pluripotency or directing their differentiation into specific lineages. The ability to bioprint hPSCs will pave the way for producing organs or tissues on demand from patient specific cells which could be used for animal-free drug development and personalized medicine. (paper)

  1. Wired on steroids: Sexual differentiation of the brain and its role in the expression of sexual partner preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Mae Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rats, ferrets, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods results in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity.

  2. Migration-driven aggregate behaviors of human mesenchymal stem cells on a dendrimer-immobilized surface direct differentiation toward a cardiomyogenic fate commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuuki; Kim, Mee-Hae; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic behaviors of cell aggregates on a dendrimer surface were investigated to drive the directed differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) toward a cardiomyogenic lineage. Cell aggregates on the polyamidoamine dendrimer surface with fifth-generation (G5) of dendron structure showed dynamic changes in morphology associated with repetitive stretching and contracting during migration. Spatial-temporal observations revealed cellular movement in single aggregates by their morphological change through stretching and contracting on the G5 surface, suggesting that the dynamic behavior of aggregate causes mixing of cells. However, aggregates without cell-substrate adhesions on the low-binding culture surface sustained their spherical morphology without cellular movement within a single aggregate. Furthermore, β-catenin was observed at nuclei in aggregates on the G5 surface, and expression of the cardiomyocyte marker cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) was detected. However, β-catenin localized to the nuclei only in the outer region of the aggregate on the low-binding culture surface, and cTnT expression was restricted at the exterior surface of the aggregates. These observations indicate that cell mixing within aggregates on the G5 surface induced the directed differentiation of hMSCs toward a cardiomyogenic lineage by nuclear translocation of β-catenin through dissociation of cell-cell adhesions. These results suggest that migration-driven aggregate behaviors on the dendrimer surface caused repeated morphological changes of aggregate through stretching and contracting, leading to the directed differentiation of hMSCs toward a cardiomyogenic fate commitment. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasmodium Detection and Differentiation by Direct-on-Blood PCR Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Immunoassay Development, Validation, and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, Johanna M.; de Bes, Laura; Sawa, Patrick; Omweri, George; Osoti, Victor; Oberheitmann, Boris; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Mens, Pètra F.

    2018-01-01

    Decreasing malaria transmission warrants the search for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings. The direct-on-blood PCR nucleic add lateral flow immunoassay (db-PCR-NALFIA) is a simplified PCR-based technique with a lateral flow readout that does not

  4. Differential loggerhead by-catch and direct mortality due to surface longlines according to boat strata and gear type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Camiñas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface longline gears are used to fish different species, mainly albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre, 1788, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758, and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, and are considered highly dangerous for threatened marine turtles. Loggerheads Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758 can be incidentally captured by surface longlines. A number of captured individuals die during the fishing operation, which we consider direct mortality due to fishing. We analysed the relative loggerhead by-catch and direct mortality associated with each type of boat and gear from April to December during the period 1999-2004 in the Spanish surface longline fleet that fishes in the western Mediterranean Sea, an important fishing area for this fleet. We used different indices to compute the catch per unit effort (CPUE according to the number of hooks and to the number of fishing operations for each type of boat and gear. Both by-catch and direct mortality differed significantly according to the type of boat and gear. With respect to the number of hooks, boats longer than 12 m not using a roller and targeting bluefin tuna captured the highest number of loggerheads, whereas boats longer than 12 m with a roller that targeted swordfish caused the highest direct mortality. With respect to the number of fishing operations, boats longer than 12 m without a roller that targeted albacore captured the highest number of loggerheads; the highest direct mortality was caused by this type of boat and by boats longer than 12 m using a roller and targeting swordfish.

  5. A synthetic, xeno-free peptide surface for expansion and directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Jin

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. The realization of this potential, however, depends on the availability of culture methods that are robust, scalable, and use chemically defined materials. Despite significant advances in hiPSC technologies, the expansion of hiPSCs relies upon the use of animal-derived extracellular matrix extracts, such as Matrigel, which raises safety concerns over the use of these products. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of expanding and differentiating hiPSCs on a chemically defined, xeno-free synthetic peptide substrate, i.e. Corning Synthemax(® Surface. We demonstrated that the Synthemax Surface supports the attachment, spreading, and proliferation of hiPSCs, as well as hiPSCs' lineage-specific differentiation. hiPSCs colonies grown on Synthemax Surfaces exhibit less spread and more compact morphology compared to cells grown on Matrigel™. The cytoskeleton characterization of hiPSCs grown on the Synthemax Surface revealed formation of denser actin filaments in the cell-cell interface. The down-regulation of vinculin and up-regulation of zyxin expression were also observed in hiPSCs grown on the Synthemax Surface. Further examination of cell-ECM interaction revealed that hiPSCs grown on the Synthemax Surface primarily utilize α(vβ(5 integrins to mediate attachment to the substrate, whereas multiple integrins are involved in cell attachment to Matrigel. Finally, hiPSCs can be maintained undifferentiated on the Synthemax Surface for more than ten passages. These studies provide a novel approach for expansion of hiPSCs using synthetic peptide engineered surface as a substrate to avoid a potential risk of contamination and lot-to-lot variability with animal derived materials.

  6. Gonadal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cecchetto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCT are rare tumors: 80% are benign, 20% malignant (2-3% of all malignant pediatric tumors. The gonadal sites (ovary and testis account for 40% of cases. Ovarian GCTs: Represent 30% of GCTs and 70% of neoplastic ovarian masses, being the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and teenagers. Benign and immature forms (teratomas constitute about 80% of all ovarian GCTs, malignant forms represent 20% increasing during adolescence. The most common malignant entity in children is the yolk sac tumors (YST; dysgerminoma is frequent during adolescence and being bilateral in 10% of cases. Presentation is similar in malignant and benign lesions; abdominal pain (70-80% and lower abdominal mass are common symptoms. Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein (αFP or beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG is essential to address the nature of the tumors: Their elevation means presence of malignancy. Surgery includes intraoperative staging procedures and requires ovariectomy or ovarosalpingectomy for malignant lesions, but may be conservative in selected benign tumors. Since malignant GCTs are very chemosensitive, primary chemotherapy is recommended in metastatic or locally advanced tumors. Testicular GCT: Represent 10% of pediatric GCT, and about 30% of malignant GCT with two age peaks: Children <3 years may experience mature teratoma and malignant GCTs, represented almost exclusively by YST, while adolescents may also show seminomas or other mixed tumors. The main clinical feature is a painless scrotal mass. Surgery represents the cornerstone of the management of testicular GCTs, with an inguinal approach and a primary high orchidectomy for malignant tumors, while a testis-sparing surgery can be considered for benign lesions. A retroperitoneal lymph node (LN biopsy may be necessary to define the staging when the involvement of retroperitoneal LN is uncertain at imaging investigations. Conclusion: Patients with gonadal

  7. [Cytological State of Gonads and Level of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax Pall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Cytological state of the gonads and hormonal state of hatchery Black Sea trout before differentiation into resident and anadromous forms (parr) at an age of 15 months have been examined. It has been shown that the hormonal changes associated with the choice of life strategy in the Black Sea trout females and males are pronounced to different degrees. As compared with the resident and anadromous individuals; the female parr display a low rate of oogenesis and similar hormonal status, while characteristic of the male parr are an intermediate rate of spermatogenesis, a low level of thyroid hormones and estradiol, and a medium testosterone level. As has been found, the undifferentiated Black Sea trout individuals predominantly develop into the resident form.

  8. Arabidopsis TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 is directly regulated by R2R3 MYB transcription factors and is involved in regulation of GLABRA2 transcription in epidermal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tetsuya; Hattori, Sayoko; Sano, Ryosuke; Inoue, Kayoko; Shirano, Yumiko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Shibata, Daisuke; Sato, Shusei; Kato, Tomohiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Wada, Takuji

    2007-08-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 (TTG2) encodes a WRKY transcription factor and is expressed in young leaves, trichomes, seed coats, and root hairless cells. An examination of several trichome and root hair mutants indicates that MYB and bHLH genes regulate TTG2 expression. Two MYB binding sites in the TTG2 5' regulatory region act as cis regulatory elements and as direct targets of R2R3 MYB transcription factors such as WEREWOLF, GLABRA1, and TRANSPARENT TESTA2. Mutations in TTG2 cause phenotypic defects in trichome development and seed color pigmentation. Transgenic plants expressing a chimeric repressor version of the TTG2 protein (TTG2:SRDX) showed defects in trichome formation, anthocyanin accumulation, seed color pigmentation, and differentiation of root hairless cells. GLABRA2 (GL2) expression was markedly reduced in roots of ProTTG2:TTG2:SRDX transgenic plants, suggesting that TTG2 is involved in the regulation of GL2 expression, although GL2 expression in the ttg2 mutant was similar to that in the wild type. Our analysis suggests a new step in a regulatory cascade of epidermal differentiation, in which complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH transcription factors regulate the expression of TTG2, which then regulates GL2 expression with complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH in the differentiation of trichomes and root hairless cells.

  9. Atomic force microscopy reveals a morphological differentiation of chromobacterium violaceum cells associated with biofilm development and directed by N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anara A Kamaeva

    Full Text Available Chromobacterium violaceum abounds in soil and water ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions and occasionally causes severe and often fatal human and animal infections. The quorum sensing (QS system and biofilm formation are essential for C. violaceum's adaptability and pathogenicity, however, their interrelation is still unknown. C. violaceum's cell and biofilm morphology were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM in comparison with growth rates, QS-dependent violacein biosynthesis and biofilm biomass quantification. To evaluate QS regulation of these processes, the wild-type strain C. violaceum ATCC 31532 and its mini-Tn5 mutant C. violaceum NCTC 13274, cultivated with and without the QS autoinducer N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, were used. We report for the first time the unusual morphological differentiation of C. violaceum cells, associated with biofilm development and directed by the QS autoinducer. AFM revealed numerous invaginations of the external cytoplasmic membrane of wild-type cells, which were repressed in the mutant strain and restored by exogenous C6-HSL. With increasing bacterial growth, polymer matrix extrusions formed in place of invaginations, whereas mutant cells were covered with a diffusely distributed extracellular substance. Thus, quorum sensing in C. violaceum involves a morphological differentiation that organises biofilm formation and leads to a highly differentiated matrix structure.

  10. A direct method for numerical solution of a class of nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations and its application to the nonlinear fission and fusion reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yasuaki; Ise, Takeharu; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1975-12-01

    A new method has been developed for numerical solution of a class of nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations with quadratic nonlinearity. After dividing the domain of the variable into subintervals, piecewise approximations are applied in the subintervals. The equation is first integrated over a subinterval to obtain the piecewise equation, to which six approximate treatments are applied, i.e. fully explicit, fully implicit, Crank-Nicolson, linear interpolation, quadratic and cubic spline. The numerical solution at each time step is obtained directly as a positive root of the resulting algebraic quadratic equation. The point reactor kinetics with a ramp reactivity insertion, linear temperature feedback and delayed neutrons can be described by one of this type of nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations. The algorithm is applied to the Argonne benchmark problem and a model problem for a fast reactor without delayed neutrons. The fully implicit method has been found to be unconditionally stable in the sense that it always gives the positive real roots. The cubic spline method is divergent, and the other four methods are intermediate in between. From the estimation of the stability, convergency, accuracy and CPU time, it is concluded that the Crank-Nicolson method is best, then the linear interpolation method comes closely next to it. Discussions are also made on the possibility of applying the algorithm to the fusion reactor kinetics in the form of a nonlinear partial differential equation. (auth.)

  11. Effects of cadmium, estradiol-17β and their interaction on gonadal condition and metamorphosis of male and female African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2010-01-01

    To assess interaction effects between cadmium (Cd, a putative xenoestrogen) and estradiol-17?? (E2) on sex differentiation and metamorphosis, Xenopus laevis were exposed to solvent-control (0.005% ethanol), Cd (10 ??g L-1), E2 (1 ??g L-1), or Cd and E2 (Cd + E2) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 75 d postfertilization. Each treatment was applied to four aquaria, each with 30 fertilized eggs. Mortality was recorded and animals were sampled as they completed metamorphosis (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 66). Gonadal sex of individuals (including tadpoles ???NF stage 55 at day 75) was determined gross-morphologically and used to compute sex ratios. Time course and percent completion of metamorphosis, snout-vent length (SVL), hindlimb length (HLL) and weight were analyzed for each gender separately. Survival rates did not differ among treatments. The E2 and Cd + E2 treatments significantly skewed sex ratios towards females; however, no sex-ratio differences were observed between the control and Cd treatments or between the E2 and Cd + E2 treatments. Time course of metamorphosis was generally delayed and percent completion of metamorphosis was generally reduced in males and females exposed to Cd, E2 or their combination compared to control animals. In males, but not females, the effect of Cd + E2 was greater than that of individual chemicals. Weight at completion of metamorphosis was reduced only in females and only by the Cd + E2 treatment. In conclusion, although Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration did not exhibit direct or indirect feminizing effects in Xenopus tadpoles, the metal and E2 both had similar inhibitory effects on metamorphosis that were of greater magnitude in males than females.

  12. Effects of cadmium, estradiol-17beta and their interaction on gonadal condition and metamorphosis of male and female African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2010-01-01

    To assess interaction effects between cadmium (Cd, a putative xenoestrogen) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) on sex differentiation and metamorphosis, Xenopus laevis were exposed to solvent-control (0.005% ethanol), Cd (10microgL(-1)), E(2) (1microgL(-1)), or Cd and E(2) (Cd+E(2)) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 75d postfertilization. Each treatment was applied to four aquaria, each with 30 fertilized eggs. Mortality was recorded and animals were sampled as they completed metamorphosis (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 66). Gonadal sex of individuals (including >or= tadpoles NF stage 55 at day 75) was determined gross-morphologically and used to compute sex ratios. Time course and percent completion of metamorphosis, snout-vent length (SVL), hindlimb length (HLL) and weight were analyzed for each gender separately. Survival rates did not differ among treatments. The E(2) and Cd+E(2) treatments significantly skewed sex ratios towards females; however, no sex-ratio differences were observed between the control and Cd treatments or between the E(2) and Cd+E(2) treatments. Time course of metamorphosis was generally delayed and percent completion of metamorphosis was generally reduced in males and females exposed to Cd, E(2) or their combination compared to control animals. In males, but not females, the effect of Cd+E(2) was greater than that of individual chemicals. Weight at completion of metamorphosis was reduced only in females and only by the Cd+E(2) treatment. In conclusion, although Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration did not exhibit direct or indirect feminizing effects in Xenopus tadpoles, the metal and E(2) both had similar inhibitory effects on metamorphosis that were of greater magnitude in males than females.

  13. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-08-24

    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  14. A brief history of the pathology of the gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H

    2005-02-01

    Our understanding of gonadal pathology has reached its current state as a result of the contributions of numerous outstanding investigators. Knowledge of testicular tumor pathology dates back to the great British workers Percival Pott and Sir Astley Cooper but the single greatest early stride was made with the description in 1906 by the French urologist Maurice Chevassu of the seminoma. The seminal 1946 paper of Nathan B Friedman and Robert A Moore, which segregated out as a distinct entity embryonal carcinoma, is, however, the foundation for the current classification of testicular tumors. In that year Pierre Masson described the distinctive neoplasm, the spermatocytic seminoma. The 1950s saw the publication of an important paper by Frank J Dixon and Dr Moore and they also wrote the first series fascicle on testicular tumors. In this same timeframe, and thereafter, Robert E Scully made significant contributions to testicular pathology, writing the first English language paper on spermatocytic seminoma, describing several subtypes of sex cord tumor, and also the distinctive lesion of intersex, the gonadoblastoma, as well as playing a major role in 1980 in formulating the current classification of premalignant lesions of the testis. The current classification of testicular tumors was arrived at in the early 1970s when the World Health Organization, under the leadership of Dr FK Mostofi, who himself made notable contributions to testicular pathology, devised what is fundamentally the current classification of neoplasms of the male gonad. Although comments on ovarian pathology were made by such legendary figures of earlier times as Giovanni Battista Morgagni and Matthew Baillie, it is only in the mid to later years of the 19th century that contributions, mostly in Europe, began to move knowledge of ovarian pathology to its current state. Thomas Hodgkin, Richard Bright, and Sir James Paget all wrote extensively on ovarian neoplasms. In 1870, Heinrich Waldeyer, and

  15. A case of microgastria in association with splenic-gonadal fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, G.A.; Alavi, A.; Heyman, S.; Ziegler, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    Microgastria is a rare congenital anomaly usually associated with asplenia. In this 2 1/2-year-old presenting with left hydrocele and inguinal hernia multiple accessory spleens were found in the inguinal-scrotal region compatible with splenic-gonadal fusion. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid scanning is helpful in microgastria searching for the presence of splenic tissue and in splenic-gonadal fusion for the location of accessory heterotopic spleens. (orig.)

  16. Highly efficient reprogramming to pluripotency and directed differentiation of human cells using synthetic modified mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Luigi; Manos, Philip D.; Ahfeldt, Tim; Loh, Yuin-Han; Li, Hu; Lau, Frank; Ebina, Wataru; Mandal, Pankaj; Smith, Zachary D.; Meissner, Alexander; Daley, George Q.; Brack, Andrew S.; Collins, James J.; Cowan, Chad; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is limited by the low efficiency of iPS derivation and the fact that most protocols modify the genome to effect cellular reprogramming. Moreover, safe and effective means of directing the fate of patient-specific iPS cells towards clinically useful cell types are lacking. Here we describe a simple, non-integrating strategy for reprogramming cell fate based on administration of synthetic mRNA modified to overcome innate anti-viral re...

  17. Effect of an Experimental Direct Pulp-capping Material on the Properties and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fan; Dong, Yan; Yang, Yan-Wei; Lin, Ping-Ting; Yu, Hao-Han; Sun, Xiang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Zhou, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Effective pulp-capping materials must have antibacterial properties and induce dentin bridge formation; however, many current materials do not satisfy clinical requirements. Accordingly, the effects of an experiment pulp-capping material (Exp) composed of an antibacterial resin monomer (MAE-DB) and Portland cement (PC) on the viability, adhesion, migration, and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined. Based on a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, hDPSCs exposed to Exp extracts showed limited viability at 24 and 48 h, but displayed comparable viability to the control at 72 h. hDPSC treatment with Exp extracts enhanced cellular adhesion and migration according to in vitro scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. Exp significantly upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The hDPSCs cultured with Exp exhibited higher ALP activity and calcium deposition in vitro compared with the control group. The novel material showed comparable cytocompatibility to control cells and promoted the adhesion, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, indicating excellent biocompatibility. This new direct pulp-capping material containing MAE-DB and PC shows promise as a potential alternative to conventional materials for direct pulp capping.

  18. Modeling and Validation of Multilayer Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Scaffolds for In Vitro Directed Differentiation of Juxtaposed Cartilage and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, George X; Arany, Praveen R; Mooney, David J

    2015-08-01

    Polymeric scaffolds, which release growth factors in a temporally controlled manner, have successfully directed the differentiation of stem cells into monolithic tissues of a single lineage. However, engineering precise boundaries in multilineage functional tissues, such as the juxtaposed cartilaginous and osseous tissue present in articulated joints, often remains a challenge. This work demonstrates a precise materials system for in vitro reconstruction of the three-dimensional architecture of these types of human tissues. Multilayer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds were used to produce spatiotemporal gradients to direct the differentiation of an initially uniform population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into juxtaposed cartilage and bone. Specifically, growth factors (chondrogenic transforming growth factor-β3 and osteogenic bone morphogenetic protein-4) and their neutralizing antibodies were incorporated within distinct layers of the PLG scaffolds to create spatially segregated morphogen fields within the scaffold volume. The multilayer PLG scaffold designs were optimized by mathematical modeling, and generation of spatially segregated morphogen gradients was validated by assessing activity of luciferase reporter cell lines responsive to each growth factor. Scaffolds seeded with MSCs demonstrated production of juxtaposed cartilage and bone, as evaluated by biochemical staining and western blotting for tissue-specific matrix proteins. This work demonstrates a significant advance for the engineering of implantable constructs comprising tissues of multiple lineages, with potential applications in orthopedic regenerative medicine.

  19. Simultaneous delivery of hydrophobic small molecules and siRNA using Sterosomes to direct mesenchymal stem cell differentiation for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhong-Kai; Sun, Justin A; Baljon, Jessalyn J; Fan, Jiabing; Kim, Soyon; Wu, Benjamin M; Aghaloo, Tara; Lee, Min

    2017-08-01

    The use of small molecular drugs with gene manipulation offers synergistic therapeutic efficacy by targeting multiple signaling pathways for combined treatment. Stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with osteoinductive small molecule phenamil combined with suppression of noggin is a promising therapeutic strategy that increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and bone repair. Our cationic Sterosome formulated with stearylamine (SA) and cholesterol (Chol) is an attractive co-delivery system that not only forms stable complexes with small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules but also solubilizes hydrophobic small molecules in a single vehicle, for directing stem cell differentiation. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of SA/Chol Sterosomes to simultaneously deliver hydrophobic small molecule phenamil and noggin-directed siRNA to enhance osteogenic differentiation of MSCs both in in vitro two- and three-dimensional settings as well as in a mouse calvarial defect model. These results suggest a novel liposomal platform to simultaneously deliver therapeutic genes and small molecules for combined therapy. Application of phenamil, a small molecular bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) stimulator, combined with suppression of natural BMP antagonists such as noggin is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance bone regeneration. Here, we present a novel strategy to co-deliver hydrophobic small molecule phenamil and noggin-targeted siRNA via cationic Sterosomes formed with stearylamine (SA) and high content of cholesterol (Chol) to enhance osteogenesis and bone repair. SA/Chol Sterosomes demonstrated high phenamil encapsulation efficiency, supported sustained release of encapsulated drugs, and significantly reduced drug dose requirements to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Simultaneous deliver of phenamil and noggin siRNA in a single vehicle synergistically enhanced MSC osteogenesis and calvarial bone repair. This study suggests

  20. Expression profile of amh/Amh during bi-directional sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Chung Wu

    Full Text Available Gonadal differentiation is tightly regulated by the initial sex determining gene and the downstream sex-related genes in vertebrates. However, sex change in fish can alter the sexual fate from one sex to the other. Chemical-induced maleness in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper is transient, and a reversible sex change occurs after the chemical treatment is withdrawn. We used these characteristics to study Amh signaling during bi-directional sex change in the grouper. We successfully induced the female-to-male sex change by chemical (aromatase inhibitor, AI, or methyltestosterone, MT treatment. A dormant gonad (a low proliferation rate of early germ cells and no characteristics of both sexes was found during the transient phase of reversible male-to-female sex change after the withdrawal of chemical administration. Our results showed that amh (anti-mullerian hormone and its receptor amhr2 (anti-mullerian hormone receptor type 2 were significantly increased in the gonads during the process of female-to-male sex change. Amh is expressed in the Sertoli cells surrounding the type A spermatogonia in the female-to-male grouper. Male-related gene (dmrt1 and sox9 expression was immediately decreased in MT-terminated males during the reversible male-to-female sex change. However, Amh expression was found in the surrounding cells of type A spermatogonia-like cells during the transient phase of reversible male-to-female sex change. This phenomenon is correlated with the dormancy of type A spermatogonia-like cells. Thus, Amh signaling is suggested to play roles in regulating male differentiation during the female-to-male sex change and in inhibiting type-A spermatogonia-like cell proliferation/differentiation during the reversible male-to-female sex change. We suggest that Amh signaling might play dual roles during bi-directional sex change in grouper.

  1. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis following treatment with GnRH analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Senderovitz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Aims To develop a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis describing the changes in luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations following treatment with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triptorelin...... for the population PK/PD data analysis. A systematic population PK/PD model-building framework using stochastic differential equations was applied to the data to identify nonlinear dynamic dependencies and to deconvolve the functional feedback interactions of the HPG axis. Results In our final PK/PD model of the HPG...

  2. The organizing actions of adolescent gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by dramatic changes in cognition, risk-taking and social behavior. Although gonadal steroid hormones are well-known mediators of these behaviors in adulthood, the role gonadal steroid hormones play in shaping the adolescent brain and behavioral development has only come to light in recent years. Here we discuss the sex-specific impact of gonadal steroid hormones on the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, the effects of gonadal steroid hormones during adolescence on brain structure and behavioral outcomes differs markedly between the sexes. Research findings suggest that adolescence, like the perinatal period, is a sensitive period for the sex-specific effects of gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development. Furthermore, evidence from studies on male sexual behavior suggests that adolescence is part of a protracted postnatal sensitive period that begins perinatally and ends following adolescence. As such, the perinatal and peripubertal periods of brain and behavioral organization likely do not represent two discrete sensitive periods, but instead are the consequence of normative developmental timing of gonadal hormone secretions in males and females. PMID:27497718

  3. Dopamine Receptors Differentially Control Binge Alcohol Drinking-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity of the Core Nucleus Accumbens Direct and Indirect Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xincai; Saha, Sucharita; Kolpakova, Jenya; Guildford, Melissa; Tapper, Andrew R; Martin, Gilles E

    2017-05-31

    Binge alcohol drinking, a behavior characterized by rapid repeated alcohol intake, is most prevalent in young adults and is a risk factor for excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence. Although the alteration of synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to this behavior, there is currently little evidence that this is the case. We used drinking in the dark (DID) as a model of binge alcohol drinking to assess its effects on spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the core nucleus accumbens (NAc) by combining patch-clamp recordings with calcium imaging and optogenetics. After 2 weeks of daily alcohol binges, synaptic plasticity was profoundly altered. STDP in MSNs expressing dopamine D1 receptors shifted from spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD), the predominant form of plasticity in naive male mice, to spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (tLTP) in DID mice, an effect that was totally reversed in the presence of 4 μm SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist. In MSNs presumably expressing dopamine D2 receptors, tLTP, the main form of plasticity in naive mice, was inhibited in DID mice. Interestingly, 1 μm sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist, restored tLTP. Although we observed no alterations of AMPA and NMDA receptor properties, we found that the AMPA/NMDA ratio increased at cortical and amygdaloid inputs but not at hippocampal inputs. Also, DID effects on STDP were accompanied by lower dendritic calcium transients. These data suggest that the role of dopamine in mediating the effects of binge alcohol drinking on synaptic plasticity of NAc MSNs differs markedly whether these neurons belong to the direct or indirect pathways. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We examined the relationship between binge alcohol drinking and spike timing-dependent plasticity in nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons. We found that repeated drinking bouts modulate differently synaptic plasticity in medium spiny neurons of the

  4. Strongly directional and differential swimming behavior of an adult female white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae from Guadalupe Island, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Bonfil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an adult female white shark tracked for 288 days and 7,100 km in the NE Pacific Ocean. The shark, tagged with a real-time satellite tag off Guadalupe Island, Mexico in October 2006, remained around the island for 3.5 months but left in early February 2007 for a ca. 3,900 km westward migration. Heading and swimming speed data showed that: a the arc-like route followed by this shark during oceanic travel involved strongly directional rapid movement, and b once the shark arrived to a specific (ca. 680 km wide area located 790 km north-northeast of the Hawaiian Islands, it switched into a distinct roaming behavior. The shark remained in this roaming area from late March to at least late July 2007. We show that real-time satellite tags can provide unique and valuable information about the migratory behavior of white sharks.

  5. Temporal expression pattern of genes during the period of sex differentiation in human embryonic gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn S.; Ernst, Emil H.; Borup, Rehannah

    2017-01-01

    (IHC). SRY/SOX9 expression initiated in testis around day 40 pc, followed by initiation of AMH and steroidogenic genes required for androgen production at day 53 pc. In ovaries, gene expression of RSPO1, LIN28, FOXL2, WNT2B, and ETV5, were significantly higher than in testis, whereas GLI1...... was significantly higher in testis than ovaries. Gene expression was confirmed by IHC for GAGE, SOX9, AMH, CYP17A1, LIN28, WNT2B, ETV5 and GLI1. Gene expression was not associated with the maternal smoking habits. Collectively, a precise temporal determination of changes in expression of key genes involved in human...

  6. Epigenetic regulation of the transcription factor Foxa2 directs differential elafin expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Kyung Sook [Therapeutic Antibody Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Ji Yoon; Kim, Su Jin [Therapeutic Antibody Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yangsoon [Therapeutic Antibody Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong Hwan [NeoPharm Co. Ltd., Daejeon 305-510 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa [Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, BK21 Nanofusion Technology Team, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok, E-mail: sskoh@kribb.re.kr [Therapeutic Antibody Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Elafin expression is epigenetically silenced in human melanoma cells. {yields} Foxa2 expression in melanoma cells is silenced by promoter hypermethylation. {yields} Foxa2 directs activation of the elafin promoter in vivo. {yields} Foxa2 expression induces apoptosis of melanoma cells via elafin re-expression. -- Abstract: Elafin, a serine protease inhibitor, induces the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human melanoma cells, where its expression is transcriptionally silenced. However, it remains unknown how the elafin gene is repressed in melanoma cells. We here demonstrate that elafin expression is modulated via epigenetically regulated expression of the transcription factor Foxa2. Treatment of melanoma cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor induced elafin expression, which was specifically responsible for reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. Suppression of Foxa2 transcription, mediated by DNA hypermethylation in its promoter region, was released in melanoma cells upon treatment with the demethylating agent. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that the Foxa2 binding site in the elafin promoter was critical for the activation of the promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed that Foxa2 bound to the elafin promoter in vivo. Analyses of melanoma cells with varied levels of Foxa2 revealed a correlated expression between Foxa2 and elafin and the ability of Foxa2 to induce apoptosis. Our results collectively suggest that, in melanoma cells, Foxa2 expression is silenced and therefore elafin is maintained unexpressed to facilitate cell proliferation in the disease melanoma.

  7. Differential effects of bifrontal and occipital nerve stimulation on pain and fatigue using transcranial direct current stimulation in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Wing Ting; James, Evan; Ost, Jan; Hart, John; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2017-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain frequently accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue. Moderate improvement from pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have proposed non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the occipital nerve (more specifically the C2 area) or to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as potential treatments. We aimed to explore the effectiveness of repeated sessions of tDCS (eight sessions) targeting the C2 area and DLPFC in reducing fibromyalgia symptoms, more specifically pain and fatigue. Forty-two fibromyalgia patients received either C2 tDCS, DLPFC tDCS or sham procedure (15 C2 tDCS-11 DLPFC tDCS-16 sham). All groups were treated with eight sessions (two times a week for 4 weeks). Our results show that repeated sessions of C2 tDCS significantly improved pain, but not fatigue, in fibromyalgia patients, whereas repeated sessions of DLPFC tDCS significantly improved pain as well as fatigue. This study shows that eight sessions of tDCS targeting the DLPFC have a more general relief in fibromyalgia patients than when targeting the C2 area, suggesting that stimulating different targets with eight sessions of tDCS can lead to benefits on different symptom dimensions of fibromyalgia.

  8. Can transcranial direct current stimulation be useful in differentiating unresponsive wakefulness syndrome from minimally conscious state patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, Antonino; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Russo, Margherita; Leo, Antonino; Pollicino, Patrizia; Quartarone, Angelo; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of consciousness (DOC) diagnosis relies on the presence or absence of purposeful motor responsiveness, which characterizes the minimally conscious state (MCS) and the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), respectively. Functional neuroimaging studies have raised the question of possible residual conscious awareness also in clinically-defined UWS patients. The aim of our study was to identify electrophysiological parameters, by means of a transcranial magnetic stimulation approach, which might potentially express the presence of residual networks sustaining fragmentary behavioral patterns, even when no conscious behavior can be observed. We enrolled 25 severe DOC patients, following post-anoxic or traumatic brain injury and 20 healthy individuals (HC) as control group. Baseline electrophysiological evaluation evidenced, in comparison to HC, a partial preservation of cortical effective connectivity and excitability in clinically defined MCS, whereas these components were absent in clinically defined UWS. Then, we applied an anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) protocol over the orbitofrontal cortex. a-tDCS was able to boost cortical connectivity and excitability in all HC, MCS, and to unmask such excitability/connectivity in some UWS patients. a-tDCS could be useful in identifying residual connectivity markers in clinically-defined UWS, who may lack of purposeful behavior as a result of a motor-output failure.

  9. Differential sensory cortical involvement in auditory and visual sensorimotor temporal recalibration: Evidence from transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytemür, Ali; Almeida, Nathalia; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk

    2017-02-01

    Adaptation to delayed sensory feedback following an action produces a subjective time compression between the action and the feedback (temporal recalibration effect, TRE). TRE is important for sensory delay compensation to maintain a relationship between causally related events. It is unclear whether TRE is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon. In 3 experiments employing a sensorimotor synchronization task, we investigated this question using cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). We found that cathodal tDCS over the visual cortex, and to a lesser extent over the auditory cortex, produced decreased visual TRE. However, both auditory and visual cortex tDCS did not produce any measurable effects on auditory TRE. Our study revealed different nature of TRE in auditory and visual domains. Visual-motor TRE, which is more variable than auditory TRE, is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon, modulated by the auditory cortex. The robustness of auditory-motor TRE, unaffected by tDCS, suggests the dominance of the auditory system in temporal processing, by providing a frame of reference in the realignment of sensorimotor timing signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rspo1-activated signalling molecules are sufficient to induce ovarian differentiation in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyan; Charkraborty, Tapas; Zhou, Qian; Mohapatra, Sipra; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Zhang, Yueguang

    2016-01-19

    In contrast to our understanding of testicular differentiation, ovarian differentiation is less well understood in vertebrates. In mammals, R-spondin1 (Rspo1), an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, is located upstream of the female sex determination pathway. However, the functions of Rspo1 in ovarian differentiation remain unclear in non-mammalian species. In order to elucidate the detailed functions of Rspo/Wnt signaling pathway in fish sex determination/differentiation, the ectopic expression of the Rspo1 gene was performed in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes). The results obtained demonstrated that the gain of Rspo1 function induced femininity in XY fish. The overexpression of Rspo1 enhanced Wnt4b and β-catenin transcription, and completely suppressed the expression of male-biased genes (Dmy, Gsdf, Sox9a2 and Dmrt1) as well as testicular differentiation. Gonadal reprograming of Rspo1-over-expressed-XY (Rspo1-OV-XY) fish, induced the production of female-biased genes (Cyp19a1a and Foxl2), estradiol-17β production and further female type secondary sexuality. Moreover, Rspo1-OV-XY females were fertile and produced successive generations. Promoter analyses showed that Rspo1 transcription was directly regulated by DM domain genes (Dmy, the sex-determining gene, and Dmrt1) and remained unresponsive to Foxl2. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that Rspo1 is sufficient to activate ovarian development and plays a decisive role in the ovarian differentiation in medaka.

  11. Sexual differentiation of the brain: a model for drug-induced alterations of the reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of the sexual differentiation of the brain represents a valuable model system for the study of the chemical modification of the mammalian brain. Although there are numerous functional and structural sex differences in the adult brain, these are imposed on an essentially feminine or bipotential brain by testicular hormones during a critical phase of perinatal development in the rat. It is suggested that a relatively marked structural sex difference in the rat brain, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA), is a morphological signature of the permanent or organizational action of estradiol derived from the aromatization of testicular testosterone. The SDN-POA of the male rat is severalfold larger in volume and is composed of more neurons than that of the female. The observation that the mitotic formation of the neurons of the SDN-POA is specifically prolonged has enabled us to identify the time course and pathway of neuronal migration into the nucleus. Study of the development of the SDN-POA suggests that estradiol in the male increases the number of neurons which survive a phase of neuronal death by exerting a neurite growth promoting action and/or a direct neuronotrophic action. Finally, although it is clear that gonadal hormones have dramatic permanent effects on the brain during perinatal development, even after puberty and in adulthood gonadal steroids can alter neuronal structure and, perhaps as a corollary to this, have permanent effects on reproductive function. Although the brain may be most sensitive to gonadal hormones or exogenous chemical factors during perinatal development, such as sensitivity does not appear limited to this period

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates cognitive multi-task performance differentially depending on anode location and subtask.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eScheldrup

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to facilitate acquisition of real world cognitive multi-tasks that require long periods of training (e.g., air traffic control, intelligence analysis, medicine. Non-invasive brain stimulation – specifically transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS – has promise as a method to speed multi-task training. We hypothesized that during acquisition of the complex multi-task Space Fortress, subtasks that require focused attention on ship control would benefit from tDCS aimed at the dorsal attention network while subtasks that require redirection of attention would benefit from tDCS aimed at the right hemisphere ventral attention network. We compared effects of 30 min prefrontal and parietal stimulation to right and left hemispheres on subtask performance during the first 45 min of training. The strongest effects both overall and for ship flying (control and velocity subtasks were seen with a right parietal (C4 to left shoulder montage, shown by modeling to induce an electric field that includes nodes in both dorsal and ventral attention networks. This is consistent with the re-orienting hypothesis that the ventral attention network is activated along with the dorsal attention network if a new, task-relevant event occurs while visuospatial attention is focused (Corbetta et al., 2008. No effects were seen with anodes over sites that stimulated only dorsal (C3 or only ventral (F10 attention networks. The speed subtask (update memory for symbols benefited from an F9 anode over left prefrontal cortex. These results argue for development of tDCS as a training aid in real world settings where multi-tasking is critical.

  13. Dynamics of gonadal development of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae Dinâmica do desenvolvimento gonadal de Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to estimate gonadal development through the reproductive cycle is to observe the growth of the gonads related to the organs used to store energy. The aim of this study was to follow the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes during annual cycle of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Adult animals were collected in Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Males and females were initially weighed and dissected and had their gonads and hepatopancreas (HP removed and weighed in order to estimate the Gonadosomatic (GI and hepatosomatic (HI indexes. In females, the indexes were also compared to the degree of development of the ovaries. In males the GI showed a peak of gonadal development in the autumn (p Uma maneira de estimar o desenvolvimento gonadal ao longo do ciclo reprodutivo é observar o crescimento das gônadas em relação aos órgãos utilizados para o estoque de energia. O objetivo desse estudo foi acompanhar os índices gonadossomático e hepatossomático durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Animais adultos foram coletados em Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Machos e fêmeas foram pesados e dissecados, gônadas e hepatopâncreas (HP foram retirados e pesados para obtenção dos índices gonadossomático (IG e hepatossomático (IH. Nas fêmeas, os índices também foram comparados com o grau de desenvolvimento dos ovários. Nos machos o IG mostrou um pico de desenvolvimento gonadal no outono (p < 0,05, quando os valores do IH diminuíram (p < 0,05. Fêmeas mostraram um aumento do IG no final do verão e início do outono (p < 0,05 e os valores do IG aumentaram à medida que o ovário tornava-se maduro. Em A. platensis, tanto nos machos como nas fêmeas, os valores do IH nunca mostraram valores mais baixos que o IG, o que pode indicar que esses aeglídeos apresentam um padrão de utilização de energia diferente dos outros decápodos, onde à medida que o desenvolvimento

  14. Temperature Shift Alters DNA Methylation and Histone Modification Patterns in Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a1 Gene in Species with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuiko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The environment surrounding the embryos has a profound impact on the developmental process and phenotypic outcomes of the organism. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, gonadal sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs. A mechanistic link between temperature and transcriptional regulation of developmental genes, however, remains elusive. In this study, we examine the changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns of the aromatase (cyp19a1 gene in embryonic gonads of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta subjected to a temperature shift during development. Shifting embryos from a male-producing temperature (MPT to a female-producing temperature (FPT at the beginning of the temperature-sensitive period (TSP resulted in an increase in aromatase mRNA expression while a shift from FPT to MPT resulted in decreased expression. DNA methylation levels at CpG sites in the promoter of the aromatase gene were high (70-90% at the beginning of TSP, but decreased in embryos that were incubated at constant FPT and those shifted from MPT to the FPT. This decrease in methylation in the promoter inversely correlated with the expected increase in aromatase expression at the FPT. The active demethylation under the FPT was especially prominent at the CpG site upstream of the gonad-specific TATA box at the beginning of TSP and spread downstream of the gene including exon1 as the gonad development progressed. In embryos incubated at FPT, the promoter region was also labeled by canonical transcriptional activation markers, H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II. A transcriptional repression marker, H3K27me3, was observed in temperature-shifted gonads of both temperature groups, but was not maintained throughout the development in either group. Our findings suggest that DNA hypomethylation and H3K4me3 modification at the aromatase promoter may be a primary mechanism that releases a transcriptional block of aromatase to

  15. Evaluation of the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride on reproduction and gonadal development in medaka, Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael R; Loux-Turner, Jana R; Oliveira, Kenneth

    2015-05-15

    5-α reductase (5αR) inhibitors have an anti-androgenic effect in mammals because they inhibit the conversion of testosterone to the potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone. Finasteride is a type-2 5αR inhibitor that is used as a human pharmaceutical for the treatment of prostate cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern baldness. This study evaluated the impacts of finasteride (50, 500 and 5000μg/L) on the development and reproduction of medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed continuously over multiple generations (F0, F1 and F2). The exposure was initiated with reproductively mature fish (F0 generation) and continued until the hatching of the F2 generation. There were no significant effects on survival, fecundity or fertility in the F0 (50, 500, 5000μg/L) and F1 (50, 500μg/L) generations. The F1 generation exposed to 5000μg/L exhibited significant mortality. Histopathology of the gonads demonstrated that medaka and pre-clinical species respond similarly to finasteride exposure. Intersex condition and maldeveloped gonads were observed in F0 generation males exposed to 5000μg/L and F1 generation males exposed to 500μg/L. F1 generation males exposed to 500μg/L displayed reduced gonadosomatic index with an increased incidence of testicular degeneration. Males in both generations exhibited an increased incidence of Leydig cell hyperplasia at concentrations ⩾500μg/L. F0 generation females exposed to 5000μg/L exhibited increased gonadosomatic index. An increased prevalence of accelerated post-ovulatory follicle involution was observed in females at concentrations ⩾500μg/L in both generations. The gonadal changes induced by finasteride support the idea that 5-α reductase inhibition impacts androgen signaling in fish. Results from this study are discussed in the context of differential expression of the androgen receptor between species of fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disorders of sexual differentiation as seen at Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) are a group of congenital anomalies characterised by discordance between genetic, gonadal and phenotypic sex. There has been remarkable evolution in management over the last decade, including nomenclature, diagnosis and management. There has also been ...

  17. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Differential diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, Marinus Cornelis

    1978-01-01

    This thesis describes a method enabling a prospecrive differential diagnosis to be made berween delayed puberty (DP) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The influence of androgen administration on the gonadal feedback sysrem of patients with delayed puberty was also studied. ... Zie: Summary

  18. A Comparison of Tissue Spray and Lipid Extract Direct Injection Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Differentiation of Eutopic and Ectopic Endometrial Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagovets, Vitaliy; Wang, Zhihao; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtseva, Natalia; Borisova, Anna; Salimova, Dinara; Popov, Igor; Kozachenko, Andrey; Chingin, Konstantin; Chen, Huanwen; Frankevich, Vladimir; Adamyan, Leila; Sukhikh, Gennady

    2018-02-01

    Recent research revealed that tissue spray mass spectrometry enables rapid molecular profiling of biological tissues, which is of great importance for the search of disease biomarkers as well as for online surgery control. However, the payback for the high speed of analysis in tissue spray analysis is the generally lower chemical sensitivity compared with the traditional approach based on the offline chemical extraction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection. In this study, high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of endometrium tissues of different localizations obtained using direct tissue spray mass spectrometry in positive ion mode is compared with the results of electrospray ionization analysis of lipid extracts. Identified features in both cases belong to three lipid classes: phosphatidylcholines, phosphoethanolamines, and sphingomyelins. Lipids coverage is validated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry of lipid extracts. Multivariate analysis of data from both methods reveals satisfactory differentiation of eutopic and ectopic endometrium tissues. Overall, our results indicate that the chemical information provided by tissue spray ionization is sufficient to allow differentiation of endometrial tissues by localization with similar reliability but higher speed than in the traditional approach relying on offline extraction.

  19. Emergence of a Stage-Dependent Human Liver Disease Signature with Directed Differentiation of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin-Deficient iPS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Wilson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide an inexhaustible source of cells for modeling disease and testing drugs. Here we develop a bioinformatic approach to detect differences between the genomic programs of iPSCs derived from diseased versus normal human cohorts as they emerge during in vitro directed differentiation. Using iPSCs generated from a cohort carrying mutations (PiZZ in the gene responsible for alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT deficiency, we find that the global transcriptomes of PiZZ iPSCs diverge from normal controls upon differentiation to hepatic cells. Expression of 135 genes distinguishes PiZZ iPSC-hepatic cells, providing potential clues to liver disease pathogenesis. The disease-specific cells display intracellular accumulation of mutant AAT protein, resulting in increased autophagic flux. Furthermore, we detect beneficial responses to the drug carbamazepine, which further augments autophagic flux, but adverse responses to known hepatotoxic drugs. Our findings support the utility of iPSCs as tools for drug development or prediction of toxicity.

  20. A Comparison of Tissue Spray and Lipid Extract Direct Injection Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Differentiation of Eutopic and Ectopic Endometrial Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagovets, Vitaliy; Wang, Zhihao; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtseva, Natalia; Borisova, Anna; Salimova, Dinara; Popov, Igor; Kozachenko, Andrey; Chingin, Konstantin; Chen, Huanwen; Frankevich, Vladimir; Adamyan, Leila; Sukhikh, Gennady

    2017-09-01

    Recent research revealed that tissue spray mass spectrometry enables rapid molecular profiling of biological tissues, which is of great importance for the search of disease biomarkers as well as for online surgery control. However, the payback for the high speed of analysis in tissue spray analysis is the generally lower chemical sensitivity compared with the traditional approach based on the offline chemical extraction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection. In this study, high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of endometrium tissues of different localizations obtained using direct tissue spray mass spectrometry in positive ion mode is compared with the results of electrospray ionization analysis of lipid extracts. Identified features in both cases belong to three lipid classes: phosphatidylcholines, phosphoethanolamines, and sphingomyelins. Lipids coverage is validated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry of lipid extracts. Multivariate analysis of data from both methods reveals satisfactory differentiation of eutopic and ectopic endometrium tissues. Overall, our results indicate that the chemical information provided by tissue spray ionization is sufficient to allow differentiation of endometrial tissues by localization with similar reliability but higher speed than in the traditional approach relying on offline extraction. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. The Differential Effect of Two Types of Direct Written Corrective Feedback on Noticing and Uptake: Reformulation vs. Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Manchón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Framed in a cognitively-oriented strand of research on corrective feedback (CF in SLA, the controlled three- stage (composition/comparison-noticing/revision study reported in this paper investigated the effects of two forms of direct CF (error correction and reformulation on noticing and uptake, as evidenced in the written output produced by a group of 8 secondary school EFL learners. Noticing was operationalized as the amount of corrections noticed in the comparison stage of the writing task, whereas uptake was operationally defined as the type and amount of accurate revisions incorporated in the participants’ revised versions of their original texts. Results support previous research findings on the positive effects of written CF on noticing and uptake, with a clear advantage of error correction over reformulation as far as uptake was concerned. Data also point to the existence of individual differences in the way EFL learners process and make use of CF in their writing. These findings are discussed from the perspective of the light they shed on the learning potential of CF in instructed SLA, and suggestions for future research are put forward.Enmarcado en la investigación de orden cognitivo sobre la corrección (“corrective feedback”, en este trabajo se investigó la incidencia de dos tipos de corrección escrita (corrección de errores y reformulación en los procesos de detección (noticing e incorporación (“uptake”. Ocho alumnos de inglés de Educción Secundaria participaron en un experimento que constó de tres etapas: redacción, comparación-detección y revisión. La detección se definió operacionalmente en términos del número de correcciones registradas por los alumnos durante la etapa de detección-comparación, mientras que la operacionalización del proceso de incorporación fue el tipo y cantidad de revisiones llevadas a cabo en la última etapa del experimento. Nuestros resultados confirman los hallazgos de la

  2. Dietary-Induced Signals That Activate the Gonadal Longevity Pathway during Development Regulate a Proteostasis Switch in Caenorhabditis elegans Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netta Shemesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell-non-autonomous signals dictate the functional state of cellular quality control systems, remodeling the ability of cells to cope with stress and maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis. One highly regulated cell-non-autonomous switch controls proteostatic capacity in Caenorhabditis elegans adulthood. Signals from the reproductive system down-regulate cyto-protective pathways, unless countered by signals reporting on germline proliferation disruption. Here, we utilized dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA that depletes the C. elegans germline to ask when cell-non-autonomous signals from the reproductive system determine somatic proteostasis and whether such regulation is reversible. We found that diet supplementation of DGLA resulted in the maintenance of somatic proteostasis after the onset of reproduction. DGLA-dependent proteostasis remodeling was only effective if animals were exposed to DGLA during larval development. A short exposure of 16 h during the second to fourth larval stages was sufficient and required to maintain somatic proteostasis in adulthood but not to extend lifespan. The reproductive system was required for DGLA-dependent remodeling of proteostasis in adulthood, likely via DGLA-dependent disruption of germline stem cells. However, arachidonic acid (AA, a somatic regulator of this pathway that does not require the reproductive system, presented similar regulatory timing. Finally, we showed that DGLA- and AA-supplementation led to activation of the gonadal longevity pathway but presented differential regulatory timing. Proteostasis and stress response regulators, including hsf-1 and daf-16, were only activated if exposed to DGLA and AA during development, while other gonadal longevity factors did not show this regulatory timing. We propose that C. elegans determines its proteostatic fate during development and is committed to either reproduction, and thus present restricted proteostasis, or survival, and thus present robust

  3. Differential transcription directed by discrete gamma interferon promoter elements in naive and memory (effector) CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, T M; Penix, L A; Rincón, M R; Flavell, R A

    1997-01-01

    Acquisition of the ability to produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is a fundamental property of memory T cells and enables one subset (T helper 1 [TH1]) to deliver its effector functions. To examine regulation of IFN-gamma gene expression in a model system which recapitulates TH1 differentiation, we prepared reporter transgenic mice which express the luciferase gene under the control of proximal and distal regulatory elements (prox.IFN gamma and dist.IFN gamma) from the IFN-gamma promoter. Memory T cells, but not naive T cells, secreted IFN-gamma and expressed both prox.IFN gamma and dist.IFN gamma transcriptional activities. Naive T cells required priming to become producers of IFN-gamma and to direct transcription by these elements. While both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells produced IFN-gamma, only CD4+ T cells expressed prox.IFN gamma transcriptional activity. Induction of transcriptional activity was inhibited by known antagonists of effector T-cell populations. Cyclosporin A inhibited transcriptional activity directed by both elements in effector T cells. Elevated cyclic AMP inhibited transcriptional activity directed by prox.IFN gamma in primed CD4+ T cells but enhanced transcriptional activity directed by dist.IFN gamma in primed CD8+ T cells. Taken together, these data show that prox.IFN gamma and dist.IFN gamma transcriptional activities mirror IFN-gamma gene expression in naive and memory CD4+ T cells but suggest that differences exist in regulation of IFN-gamma gene expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets.

  4. Axitinib for preoperative downstaging of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation and direct invasion of the duodenum and inferior vena cava: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki H

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hideo Yuki,1,* Takao Kamai,1,* Keiichi Kubota,2 Hideyuki Abe,1 Daisaku Nishihara,1 Tomoya Mizuno,1 Akinori Masuda,1 Hironori Betsunoh,1 Masahiro Yashi,1 Yoshitatsu Fukabori,1 Ken-Ichiro Yoshida1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this manuscript Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation is invasive, refractory to treatment, and has a higher mortality. Therefore, systemic therapy is still challenging, and the curative resection of localized or locally advanced RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation is very important. Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with improved safety and tolerability. Axitinib is generally recommended as second-line therapy for advanced RCC because the phase III axitinib versus sorafenib in advanced RCC (AXIS trial demonstrated that it achieved longer progression-free survival than sorafenib in patients with metastatic RCC after failure of an approved first-line regimen. Methods: We present a 73-year-old man who had a large (13 cm in diameter right RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation that directly invaded the duodenum and inferior vena cava. The patient presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, was unable to eat solid food, and had become emaciated. Thus, his classification was poor risk with anemia, hypercalcemia, and poor performance status, according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center criteria. He seemed unlikely to survive if radical nephrectomy, cavotomy with thrombectomy, and pancreatoduodenectomy were performed. To reduce the tumor burden and potential operative complications, we administered axitinib as first-line neoadjuvant therapy. Results: Six weeks of treatment reduced the tumor burden without causing severe toxicities. Subsequently, radical right nephrectomy, cavotomy

  5. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders

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    Orff HJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health

  6. Characterization of the Epigenetic Changes During Human Gonadal Primordial Germ Cells Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguizabal, C; Herrera, L; De Oñate, L; Montserrat, N; Hajkova, P; Izpisua Belmonte, J C

    2016-09-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming is a central process during mammalian germline development. Genome-wide DNA demethylation in primordial germ cells (PGCs) is a prerequisite for the erasure of epigenetic memory, preventing the transmission of epimutations to the next generation. Apart from DNA demethylation, germline reprogramming has been shown to entail reprogramming of histone marks and chromatin remodelling. Contrary to other animal models, there is limited information about the epigenetic dynamics during early germ cell development in humans. Here, we provide further characterization of the epigenetic configuration of the early human gonadal PGCs. We show that early gonadal human PGCs are DNA hypomethylated and their chromatin is characterized by low H3K9me2 and high H3K27me3 marks. Similarly to previous observations in mice, human gonadal PGCs undergo dynamic chromatin changes concomitant with the erasure of genomic imprints. Interestingly, and contrary to mouse early germ cells, expression of BLIMP1/PRDM1 persists in through all gestational stages in human gonadal PGCs and is associated with nuclear lysine-specific demethylase-1. Our work provides important additional information regarding the chromatin changes associated with human PGCs development between 6 and 13 weeks of gestation in male and female gonads. Stem Cells 2016;34:2418-2428. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Population density does not influence male gonadal investment in the Least Killifish, Heterandria formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Matthew; Apodaca, Joseph J; Macrae, Pamela S D; Travis, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Comparative studies documenting a relationship between male gonadal investment and the degree of sperm competition (SC) have usually considered the association between these traits to be driven by qualitative differences in the mating system, such as whether spawning occurs in pairs or groups. However, ecological and demographic differences between conspecific populations may also generate variation in the importance of SC that can drive the evolution of male gonadal investment. In this study, we examined whether variation in population density, which is predicted to influence the level of SC in many animals, is correlated with male gonadal investment among populations of the least killifish, Heterandria formosa, a species with internal fertilization in which multiple mating is common. We complemented this field study by testing whether males respond plastically to experimentally increased levels of SC by increasing investment in testis. This experiment involved two treatments. In the first, we eliminated the potential for sperm competition (NSC) by housing a single male with a single female. In the second, we created a high risk of SC by housing five males with two females. In the field survey, we found significant differences among populations in density and relative testis mass. However, there was no evidence for a correlation between population density and relative testis mass. In our lab experiment, males did not adjust their gonadal investment in response to experiencing different levels of SC for 4 weeks. Our combined results indicate that gonadal investment in male H. formosa is not related to variation in population density.

  8. EEG gamma band oscillations differentiate the planning of spatially directed movements of the arm versus eye: multivariate empirical mode decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheolsoo; Plank, Markus; Snider, Joseph; Kim, Sanggyun; Huang, He Crane; Gepshtein, Sergei; Coleman, Todd P; Poizner, Howard

    2014-09-01

    The neural dynamics underlying the coordination of spatially-directed limb and eye movements in humans is not well understood. Part of the difficulty has been a lack of signal processing tools suitable for the analysis of nonstationary electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. Here, we use multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD), a data-driven approach that does not employ predefined basis functions. High-density EEG, and arm and eye movements were synchronously recorded in 10 subjects performing time-constrained reaching and/or eye movements. Subjects were allowed to move both the hand and the eyes, only the hand, or only the eyes following a 500-700 ms delay interval where the hand and gaze remained on a central fixation cross. An additional condition involved a nonspatially-directed "lift" movement of the hand. The neural activity during a 500 ms delay interval was decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using MEMD. Classification analysis revealed that gamma band (30 Hz) IMFs produced more classifiable features differentiating the EEG according to the different upcoming movements. A benchmark test using conventional algorithms demonstrated that MEMD was the best algorithm for extracting oscillatory bands from EEG, yielding the best classification of the different movement conditions. The gamma rhythm decomposed using MEMD showed a higher correlation with the eventual movement accuracy than any other band rhythm and than any other algorithm.

  9. Is the ICRP-26 weighting factor for gonadal dose appropriate for new federal regulations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1977 the ICRP recommended that computation of the occupational whole body effective dose equivalent include individual organ dose weighting factors derived from risk coefficients for stochastic effects. The-preeminent weighting factor of 0.25 was assigned to irradiation of the gonads in order to account for heritable genetic effects manifest in later generations. As of 1990, there exists no positive significant evidence for the occurrence of transmitted genetic effects in humans after radiation of any form, dose, or dose rate. To assign to gonads 25% of the health detriment from radiation has no basis in medical experience. It establishes a policy that may underestimate the proportion of real mortality from other more radiosensitive organs, and the policy could compromise unreasonably the occupational stability of workers whose activities may involve gonadal irradiation

  10. Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone during normal and pathological gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Graem, N

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was examined by immunohistochemistry in 135 human gonadal tissue specimens of various developmental age, ranging from 6 weeks of fetal development to 38 yr of postnatal age. The series included specimens from normal testes and ovaries...... and from individuals either with pathological conditions affecting gonadal development or with idiopathic infertility manifested as azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. AMH expression was found only in Sertoli and granulosa cells. A 6-week-old fetal testis at the indifferent gonad stage did not yet...... express AMH. The protein was first visible at 8.5 weeks of development, when sex cords have not yet been formed. Afterward, a majority of testicular specimens, including those from pathological conditions, strongly expressed AMH through fetal development and childhood until puberty. Markedly prolonged...

  11. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er ( Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  13. Copy number variation in patients with disorders of sex development due to 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan White

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development (DSD, ranging in severity from mild genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, represent a major concern for patients and their families. DSD are often due to disruption of the genetic programs that regulate gonad development. Although some genes have been identified in these developmental pathways, the causative mutations have not been identified in more than 50% 46,XY DSD cases. We used the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 to analyse copy number variation in 23 individuals with unexplained 46,XY DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis (GD. Here we describe three discrete changes in copy number that are the likely cause of the GD. Firstly, we identified a large duplication on the X chromosome that included DAX1 (NR0B1. Secondly, we identified a rearrangement that appears to affect a novel gonad-specific regulatory region in a known testis gene, SOX9. Surprisingly this patient lacked any signs of campomelic dysplasia, suggesting that the deletion affected expression of SOX9 only in the gonad. Functional analysis of potential SRY binding sites within this deleted region identified five putative enhancers, suggesting that sequences additional to the known SRY-binding TES enhancer influence human testis-specific SOX9 expression. Thirdly, we identified a small deletion immediately downstream of GATA4, supporting a role for GATA4 in gonad development in humans. These CNV analyses give new insights into the pathways involved in human gonad development and dysfunction, and suggest that rearrangements of non-coding sequences disturbing gene regulation may account for significant proportion of DSD cases.

  14. Scattered dose to gonads and associated risks from radiotherapy for common pediatric malignancies. A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonakis, M.; Zacharopoulou, F.; Damilakis, J.; Kachris, S.; Varveris, C.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the scattered dose to ovaries and testes from radiotherapy for common pediatric malignancies and to assess the relevant risks for radiation-induced gonadal damage and hereditary disorders in future generations. Material and Methods: Radiotherapy for central nervous system tumors, acute leukemia, neuroblastoma, Hodgkin's disease, Wilms' tumor, and sarcoma was simulated on three humanoid phantoms representing patients of 5, 10, and 15 years of age. Ovarian and testicular dose measurements were performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters on a linear accelerator with multileaf collimator (MLC) producing 6-MV X-rays. The effect of lead block introduction into the primary beam on the gonadal dose was evaluated. Gonadal dose from radiotherapy for abdominal tumors was measured using an 18-MV photon beam. Results: For a tumor dose range of 12-55 Gy, the scattered dose to ovaries was 0.5-62.4 cGy depending upon the patient's age (corresponding phantom) and treatment site. The corresponding dose to testes was 0.4-145.0 cGy. The use of blocks for field shaping can increase the gonadal dose up to a factor of 2.0 compared to that measured using MLC. Abdominal irradiation with 18-MV instead of 6-MV X-rays reduced the gonadal dose by more than 1.3 times. For female and male patients, the risk for induction of hereditary disorders was less than 81 x 10 -4 and 188 x 10 -4 , respectively. Conclusion: The present dosimetric data suggest that pediatric radiotherapy is not associated with a risk for permanent damage to gonads excluded from the treatment volume. The risk for development of hereditary disorders in offspring conceived after exposure is low. (orig.)

  15. Scattered dose to gonads and associated risks from radiotherapy for common pediatric malignancies. A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, M.; Zacharopoulou, F.; Damilakis, J. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics; Kachris, S.; Varveris, C. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology; Gourtsoyiannis, N. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: To measure the scattered dose to ovaries and testes from radiotherapy for common pediatric malignancies and to assess the relevant risks for radiation-induced gonadal damage and hereditary disorders in future generations. Material and Methods: Radiotherapy for central nervous system tumors, acute leukemia, neuroblastoma, Hodgkin's disease, Wilms' tumor, and sarcoma was simulated on three humanoid phantoms representing patients of 5, 10, and 15 years of age. Ovarian and testicular dose measurements were performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters on a linear accelerator with multileaf collimator (MLC) producing 6-MV X-rays. The effect of lead block introduction into the primary beam on the gonadal dose was evaluated. Gonadal dose from radiotherapy for abdominal tumors was measured using an 18-MV photon beam. Results: For a tumor dose range of 12-55 Gy, the scattered dose to ovaries was 0.5-62.4 cGy depending upon the patient's age (corresponding phantom) and treatment site. The corresponding dose to testes was 0.4-145.0 cGy. The use of blocks for field shaping can increase the gonadal dose up to a factor of 2.0 compared to that measured using MLC. Abdominal irradiation with 18-MV instead of 6-MV X-rays reduced the gonadal dose by more than 1.3 times. For female and male patients, the risk for induction of hereditary disorders was less than 81 x 10{sup -4} and 188 x 10{sup -4}, respectively. Conclusion: The present dosimetric data suggest that pediatric radiotherapy is not associated with a risk for permanent damage to gonads excluded from the treatment volume. The risk for development of hereditary disorders in offspring conceived after exposure is low. (orig.)

  16. Determination of gonad doses during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for various tumor sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorlu, Faruk; Dugel, Gozde; Ozyigit, Gokhan; Hurmuz, Pervin; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yildiz, Ferah; Akyol, Fadil; Gurkaynak, Murat [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the absorbed dose received by the gonads during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of different tumor localizations. Methods: The authors measured the gonad doses during the treatment of head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic tumors in both RANDO phantom and actual patients. The computerized tomography images were transferred to the treatment planning system. The contours of tumor and critical organs were delineated on each slice, and treatment plans were generated. Measurements for gonad doses were taken from the geometric projection of the ovary onto the skin for female patients, and from the scrotal skin for male patients by attaching films and Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). SRS was delivered with CyberKnife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Results: The median gonadal doses with TLD and film dosimeter in actual patients were 0.19 Gy (range, 0.035-2.71 Gy) and 0.34 Gy (range, 0.066-3.18 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median ovarian doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.08 Gy (range, 0.03-0.159 Gy) and 0.05 Gy (range, 0.015-0.13 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median testicular doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.134 Gy (range 0.056-1.97 Gy) and 0.306 Gy (range, 0.065-2.25 Gy). Conclusions: Gonad doses are below sterility threshold in robotic SRS for different tumor localizations. However, particular attention should be given to gonads during robotic SRS for pelvic tumors.

  17. "Brain sex differentiation" in teleosts: Emerging concepts with potential biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Mamta, Sajwan-Khatri; Raghuveer, Kavarthapu; Swapna, Immani; Murugananthkumar, Raju

    2015-09-01

    "Brain sex differentiation" in teleosts is a contentious topic of research as most of the earlier reports tend to suggest that gonadal sex differentiation drives brain sex differentiation. However, identification of sex-specific marker genes in the developing brain of teleosts signifies brain-gonadal interaction during early sexual development in lower vertebrates. In this context, the influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-gonadotropin (GTH) axis on gonadal sex differentiation, if any requires in depth analysis. Presence of seabream (sb) GnRH immunoreactivity (ir-) in the brain of XY Nile tilapia was found as early as 5days post hatch (dph) followed by qualitative reduction in the preoptic area-hypothalamus region. In contrast, in the XX female brain a steady ir- of sbGnRH was evident from 15dph. Earlier studies using sea bass already implied the importance of hypothalamic gonadotropic axis completion during sex differentiation period. Such biphasic pattern of localization was also seen in pituitary GTHs using heterologous antisera in tilapia. However, more recent analysis in the same species could not detect any sexually dimorphic pattern using homologous antisera for pituitary GTHs. Detailed studies on the development of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in teleosts focusing on hypothalamic monoamines (MA) and MA-related enzymes demonstrated sex-specific differential expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) in the early stages of developing male and female brains of tilapia and catfish. The changes in Tph expression was in agreement with the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxytryptophan in the preoptic area-hypothalamus. Considering the stimulatory influence of 5-HT on GnRH and GTH release, it is possible to propose a network association between these correlates during early development, which may bring about brain sex dimorphism in males. A recent study from our laboratory during female brain sex development demonstrated high expression of

  18. Genome-wide mapping of Sox6 binding sites in skeletal muscle reveals both direct and indirect regulation of muscle terminal differentiation by Sox6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chung-Il

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox6 is a multi-faceted transcription factor involved in the terminal differentiation of many different cell types in vertebrates. It has been suggested that in mice as well as in zebrafish Sox6 plays a role in the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle by suppressing transcription of slow fiber specific genes. In order to understand how Sox6 coordinately regulates the transcription of multiple fiber type specific genes during muscle development, we have performed ChIP-seq analyses to identify Sox6 target genes in mouse fetal myotubes and generated muscle-specific Sox6 knockout (KO mice to determine the Sox6 null muscle phenotype in adult mice. Results We have identified 1,066 Sox6 binding sites using mouse fetal myotubes. The Sox6 binding sites were found to be associated with slow fiber-specific, cardiac, and embryonic isoform genes that are expressed in the sarcomere as well as transcription factor genes known to play roles in muscle development. The concurrently performed RNA polymerase II (Pol II ChIP-seq analysis revealed that 84% of the Sox6 peak-associated genes exhibited little to no binding of Pol II, suggesting that the majority of the Sox6 target genes are transcriptionally inactive. These results indicate that Sox6 directly regulates terminal differentiation of muscle by affecting the expression of sarcomere protein genes as well as indirectly through influencing the expression of transcription factors relevant to muscle development. Gene expression profiling of Sox6 KO skeletal and cardiac muscle revealed a significant increase in the expression of the genes associated with Sox6 binding. In the absence of the Sox6 gene, there was dramatic upregulation of slow fiber-specific, cardiac, and embryonic isoform gene expression in Sox6 KO skeletal muscle and fetal isoform gene expression in Sox6 KO cardiac muscle, thus confirming the role Sox6 plays as a transcriptional suppressor in muscle development

  19. Gonadal steroid modulation of the limbic-hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis is influenced by social status in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E; Legendre, Ariadne; Pazol, Karen; Fisher, Jeffrey; Chikazawa, Kathy

    2005-03-01

    Chronic stress can have a deleterious effect on the re-productive axis that, for females, is manifested in an increased incidence of infertility. However, gonadal steroids may, in turn, affect a female's response to stress as measured by activity within the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis. What is not clear is whether a history of exposure to stress modifies the effect of gonadal steroids on LHPA responsivity. Rhesus monkeys present a unique opportunity to assess LHPA responsivity when housed socially in groups. Under these situations, monkeys exhibit a rich network of affiliation and have established social status hierarchies. Previous work indicates that socially subordinate macaque females are hypercortisolemic due to diminished gluco-corticoid negative feedback. The present study tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E2) would decrease gluco-corticoid negative feedback, assessed from a dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test, and increase the response to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and that these effects would be attenuated by co-treatment with P4. In addition, we also determined whether E2 and P4 would differentially affect LHPA responsiveness to pharmacological challenge in socially dominant compared with subordinate females. Endogenous gonadal hormone secretion in female rhesus monkeys (n = 7) was suppressed by continuous treatment with a sustained release formulation of the GnRH analog leuprolide acetate (Lupron Depot). The response to a combined DEX suppression-CRF stimulation test was assessed using a counterbalanced design during a placebo (control) treatment condition and during E2, P4, and E2 + P4 re-placement therapy. Females who were members of a large breeding group of 140 adults and juveniles of both sexes, were classified as dominant (n = 4) or subordinate (n = 3) based on the relative social dominance positions within the group. Plasma levels of cortisol were significantly higher during E2 replacement compared to the other

  20. DNA methylation of the gonadal aromatase (cyp19a promoter is involved in temperature-dependent sex ratio shifts in the European sea bass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Navarro-Martín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb, a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of females in the promoter of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a, the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens. Exposure to high temperature increased the cyp19a promoter methylation levels of females, indicating that induced-masculinization involves DNA methylation-mediated control of aromatase gene expression, with an observed inverse relationship between methylation levels and expression. Although different CpGs within the sb cyp19a promoter exhibited different sensitivity to temperature, we show that the increased methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter, which occurs in the gonads but not in the brain, is not a generalized effect of temperature. Importantly, these effects were also observed in sexually undifferentiated fish and were not altered by estrogen treatment. Thus, methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter is the cause of the lower expression of cyp19a in temperature-masculinized fish. In vitro, induced methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter suppressed the ability of SF-1 and Foxl2 to stimulate transcription. Finally, a CpG differentially methylated by temperature and adjacent to a Sox transcription factor binding site is conserved across species. Thus, DNA methylation of the aromatase promoter may be an essential component of the long-sought-after mechanism connecting environmental temperature and sex ratios in vertebrate species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

  1. Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus, 16 and 12 (pituitary, 119 and 93 (ovary, respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the

  2. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset...

  3. Tata Laksana Kasus Perempuan dengan Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XY (Sindrom Swyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanadi Sumapradja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development (DSD adalah kelainan medis yang dikaitkan dengan ketidakcocokan antara kromosom, gonad dan fenotip. Sindrom Swyer adalah kelainan berupa disgenesis gonad 46,XY dan diikuti dengan tidak terjadinya pelepasan anti-mullerian hormone (AMH dari gonad yang mengalami disgenesis sehingga mengakibatkan berkembangnya duktus muller menjadi uterus. Keadaan tersebut mengakibatkan pasien mengeluh amenorea primer dan organ seks sekunder tidak berkembang. Orientasi gender umumnya adalah sebagai perempuan, karena kurangnya paparan hormon androgen terhadap otak. Tatalaksana kasus Disorders of sex development (DSD sangat mementingkan pasien (patient-centered sehingga tatalaksana medikamentosa maupun pembedahan harus berdasarkan pemahaman pasien terhadap orientasi gendernya. Pada makalah ini dilaporkan kasus sindrom swyer pada seorang perempuan usia 29 tahun dengan keluhan amenorea primer. Hasil analisis kromosom 46,XY (20 metafase dengan hormon follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 31.5miu/ml, luteinizing hormone (LH 10.8miu/ml, estradiol (E2 <5pg/ml, testosteron total (T <0.0025ng/ml. Tatalaksana medikamentosa adalah memberikan terapi hormon estrogen untuk membantu proses feminisasi. Karena risiko tinggi terjadinya tumor pada kasus disgenesis gonad intra-abdomen dengan kromosom Y, maka direncanakan tindakan gonadektomi. Kata kunci: Tatalaksana, Sindrom Swyer, pure gonadal dysgenesis Case Management of Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XY (Sindrom Swyer Abstract Disorders of sex development (DSD are medical conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex varies from normal and may be incongruent with each other. Swyer syndrome is a condition caused by pure gonadal dysgenesis 46,XY, which followed by inadequate anti-mullerian (AMH production results in maintenance and further development of mullerian duct into uterus. Therefore, many patients who suffer from this condition initially come with chief complaint of primary

  4. Robust and scalable hierarchical matrix-based fast direct solver and preconditioner for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2017-07-10

    This dissertation introduces a novel fast direct solver and preconditioner for the solution of block tridiagonal linear systems that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations on a Cartesian product mesh, such as the variable-coefficient Poisson equation, the convection-diffusion equation, and the wave Helmholtz equation in heterogeneous media. The algorithm extends the traditional cyclic reduction method with hierarchical matrix techniques. The resulting method exposes substantial concurrency, and its arithmetic operations and memory consumption grow only log-linearly with problem size, assuming bounded rank of off-diagonal matrix blocks, even for problems with arbitrary coefficient structure. The method can be used as a standalone direct solver with tunable accuracy, or as a black-box preconditioner in conjunction with Krylov methods. The challenges that distinguish this work from other thrusts in this active field are the hybrid distributed-shared parallelism that can demonstrate the algorithm at large-scale, full three-dimensionality, and the three stressors of the current state-of-the-art multigrid technology: high wavenumber Helmholtz (indefiniteness), high Reynolds convection (nonsymmetry), and high contrast diffusion (inhomogeneity). Numerical experiments corroborate the robustness, accuracy, and complexity claims and provide a baseline of the performance and memory footprint by comparisons with competing approaches such as the multigrid solver hypre, and the STRUMPACK implementation of the multifrontal factorization with hierarchically semi-separable matrices. The companion implementation can utilize many thousands of cores of Shaheen, KAUST\\'s Haswell-based Cray XC-40 supercomputer, and compares favorably with other implementations of hierarchical solvers in terms of time-to-solution and memory consumption.

  5. Identification of Sex and Female's Reproductive Stage in Commercial Fish Species through the Quantification of Ribosomal Transcripts in Gonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Rojo-Bartolomé

    Full Text Available The estimation of maturity and sex of fish stocks in European waters is a requirement of the EU Data Collection Framework as part of the policy to improve fisheries management. On the other hand, research on fish biology is increasingly focused in molecular approaches, researchers needing correct identification of fish sex and reproductive stage without necessarily having in house the histological know-how necessary for the task. Taking advantage of the differential gene transcription occurring during fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis, the utility of 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA and General transcription factor IIIA (gtf3a in the molecular identification of sex and gametogenic stage was tested in different economically-relevant fish species from the Bay of Biscay. Gonads of 9 fish species (, Atlantic, Atlantic-chub and horse mackerel, blue whiting, bogue, European anchovy, hake and pilchard and megrim, collected from local commercial fishing vessels were histologically sexed and 5S and 18S rRNA concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis to calculate a 5S/18S rRNA index. Degenerate primers permitted cloning and sequencing of gtf3a fragments in 7 of the studied species. 5S rRNA and gtf3a transcript levels, together with 5S/18S rRNA index, distinguished clearly ovaries from testis in all of the studied species. The values were always higher in females than in males. 5S/18S rRNA index values in females were always highest when fish were captured in early phases of ovary development whilst, in later vitellogenic stages, the values decreased significantly. In megrim and European anchovy, where gonads in different oogenesis stages were obtained, the 5S/18S rRNA index identified clearly gametogenic stage. This approach, to the sexing and the quantitative non-subjective identification of the maturity stage of female fish, could have multiple applications in the study of fish stock dynamics, fish reproduction and fecundity and fish

  6. Two-stage implantation of the skin- and bone-integrated pylon seeded with autologous fibroblasts induced into osteoblast differentiation for direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A; Galibin, Oleg V; Yudintceva, Nataliya M; Blinova, Miralda I; Pinaev, George P; Ivanova, Anna A; Savchenko, Olga N; Suslov, Dmitriy N; Potokin, Igor L; Pitkin, Emil; Raykhtsaum, Grigory; Pitkin, Mark R

    2014-09-01

    Angio- and osteogenesis following the two-stage (TS) implantation of the skin- and bone-integrated pylon seeded with autologous fibroblasts was evaluated. Two consecutive animal substudies were undertaken: intramedullary subcutaneous implantation (15 rabbits) and a TS transcutaneous implantation (12 rabbits). We observed enhanced osseointegrative properties of the intramedullary porous component seeded with fibroblasts induced into osteoblast differentiation, as compared to the untreated porous titanium pylon. The three-phase scintigraphy and subsequent histological analysis showed that the level of osteogenesis was 1.5-fold higher than in the control group, and significantly so (p < 0.05). The biocompatibility was further proved by the absence of inflammatory response or encapsulation and sequestration on the histology assay. Treatment of the transcutaneous component with autologous fibroblasts was associated with nearly a 2-fold decrease in the period required for the ingrowth of dermal and subdermal soft tissues into the implant surface, as compared to the untreated porous titanium component. Direct dermal attachment to the transcutaneous implant prevented superficial and deep periprosthetic infections in rabbits in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measurement of neutron-production double-differential cross sections for 8 and 15 GeV proton incidence in the most-forward directions

    CERN Document Server

    Shigyo, N; Iwamoto, Y; Ishimoto, S; Kawasaki, Y; Takayama, Y; Tenzou, H; Ishibashi, K; Nakamoto, T; Numajiri, M; Meigo, S

    2002-01-01

    Neutron-production double-differential cross sections in the most- forward directions were measured for proton-induced reactions on Fe and Pb targets at 0.8 and 1.5 GeV. The experiment was performed at the pi 2 beam line of the 12 GeV proton synchrotron in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). Neutrons were measured by time-of-flight technique with two different flight path lengths, i.e. 3.5 and 5.0 in at 0.8 and 1.5 GeV, respectively. NE213 liquid organic scintillators 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm in thickness were set at 0 degrees and 5 degrees as neutron detectors. For the improvement of the energy resolution, the scintillator at 0 degrees was connected with three Hamamatsu H2431 photomultipliers 5.1 cm in diameter. The neutron detection efficiencies were obtained by the SCINFUL-QMD code. The experimental data were compared with the calculation results of the intranuclear-cascade-evaporation and QMD models. (15 refs).

  8. A differential optical absorption spectroscopy method for retrieval from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers measurements of the direct solar beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yanfeng; Duan, Minzheng; Tian, Wenshou; Min, Qilong

    2015-08-01

    A differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)-like algorithm is developed to retrieve the column-averaged dryair mole fraction of carbon dioxide from ground-based hyper-spectral measurements of the direct solar beam. Different to the spectral fitting method, which minimizes the difference between the observed and simulated spectra, the ratios of multiple channel-pairs—one weak and one strong absorption channel—are used to retrieve from measurements of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. Based on sensitivity tests, a super channel-pair is carefully selected to reduce the effects of solar lines, water vapor, air temperature, pressure, instrument noise, and frequency shift on retrieval errors. The new algorithm reduces computational cost and the retrievals are less sensitive to temperature and H2O uncertainty than the spectral fitting method. Multi-day Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measurements under clear-sky conditions at two sites (Tsukuba and Bremen) are used to derive xxxx for the algorithm evaluation and validation. The DOAS-like results agree very well with those of the TCCON algorithm after correction of an airmass-dependent bias.

  9. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  10. Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma : Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, Inge M; Opstal-van Winden, Annemieke W J; Aleman, Berthe M P; Janus, Cécile P M; van Eggermond, Anna M; De Bruin, Marie L; Hauptmann, Michael; Krol, Augustinus D G; Schaapveld, Michael; Broeks, Annegien; Kooijman, Karen R; Fase, Sandra; Lybeert, Marnix L; Zijlstra, Josée M; van der Maazen, Richard W M; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Russell, Nicola S; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study

  11. Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, I.M.; Opstal-van Winden, A.W.J.; Aleman, B.M.P.; Janus, C.P.; Eggermond, A.M. van; Bruin, M.L. De; Hauptmann, M.; Krol, A.D.; Schaapveld, M.; Broeks, A.; Kooijman, K.R.; Fase, S.; Lybeert, M.L.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Kesminiene, A.; Diallo, I.; Vathaire, F. de; Russell, N.S.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study

  12. The Drosophila actin regulator ENABLED regulates cell shape and orientation during gonad morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sano

    Full Text Available Organs develop distinctive morphologies to fulfill their unique functions. We used Drosophila embryonic gonads as a model to study how two different cell lineages, primordial germ cells (PGCs and somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs, combine to form one organ. We developed a membrane GFP marker to image SGP behaviors live. These studies show that a combination of SGP cell shape changes and inward movement of anterior and posterior SGPs leads to the compaction of the spherical gonad. This process is disrupted in mutants of the actin regulator, enabled (ena. We show that Ena coordinates these cell shape changes and the inward movement of the SGPs, and Ena affects the intracellular localization of DE-cadherin (DE-cad. Mathematical simulation based on these observations suggests that changes in DE-cad localization can generate the forces needed to compact an elongated structure into a sphere. We propose that Ena regulates force balance in the SGPs by sequestering DE-cad, leading to the morphogenetic movement required for gonad compaction.

  13. Identification of 2 novel genes developmentally regulated in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio; E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at embryonic day 10.5 prior to their appearance in the yolk sac and fetal liver. Although several genes are implicated in the regulation of HSCs, there

  14. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A. Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments...

  15. Analysis of transcription factors, microRNAs and cytokines involved in T lymphocyte differentiation in patients with tuberculosis after directly observed treatment short-course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Fernández, Nancy Elizabeth; Cortes-García, Juan Diego; Bruno, Rivas-Santiago; Romano-Moreno, Silvia; Medellín-Garibay, Susanna E; Magaña-Aquino, Martín; Salazar-González, Raúl A; González-Amaro, Roberto; Portales-Pérez, Diana Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Tuberculosis (Tb) is an infectious disease in which the immune system plays an important role. MicroRNAs are involved in the development and maintenance of CD4 + T lymphocyte subpopulations. miR-326 regulates the differentiation to Th17 cells and miR-29 correlates with the Th1 response. The aim of this study was to determine the role of microRNAs, Transcription Factors, and cytokines in Th differentiation before and after the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum from Tb patients were collected at times 0 (before therapy), 2 (after the intensive phase), and 6 months (after the holding phase). The cells were cultivated in presence or absence of ESAT-6 (10 μg/ml) and CFP-10 (10 μg/ml). Transcription Factor and microRNA expressions were analyzed by qPCR and cytokine production in both serum and culture supernatant using ELISA. A decrease in Th1 response with a diminishing in the relative expression of TBET and miR-29a at 2 and 6 months after the anti-Tb therapy (p < 0.01) were found. The miR-326 levels decreased after the intensive phase of the DOTS scheme. However, subdivision of the Tb patients according to gender, showed increased levels of miR-29a and miR-155 in females after the intensive phase of the therapeutic treatment when compared to time 0 and similar increased levels of miR-326 at time 6 versus time 0. In contrast, we observed a decrease in miR-326 levels in males at 6 months when compared to before therapy (time 0). In addition, high production of IL-17 in the culture supernatant was found at 2 and 6 months (p < 0.05) while in serum IL-17 was decreased. A positive correlation between IL-17 and RORC2 at time 6 was detected (p = 0.0202, r = 0.7880). In conclusion, these data suggest a reduction in Th1 and an induction of Th17 response after the anti-Tb therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of treatment with radioiodine (131 I) on the gonadal function of the hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Nnsari-Gilani, K.; Akhzari, F.; Fard-Esfahani, A.; Beiki, D.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: hyperthyroidism is a relatively common disorder caused by different etiologies, Graves' disease and toxic-nodular goiter(Plummer's disease) are among the most common causes. Treatment with radioiodine is considered to be the treatment of choices in many of the patients. Higher biological half-life of 13I in hyperthyroid patients as compared with patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who have undergone thyroidectomy, may lead to a higher frequency of complications with radioiodine at similar dosage. Therefore gonadal dysfunction in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine is not likely. Materials and methods: hyperthyroid patients with the clinical diagnosis of Graves' disease , toxic multi nodular goiter and toxic adenoma were entered the study. Their age distribution was 16-40 years in women and 17-70 years in men (reproductive years). Patients were euthyroid at the time of radioiodine treatment. FSH, LH, testosterone and semen analysis in men; and FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone in women were measured before and 3 months after radioiodine therapy. All patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, those with known sexual hormone abnormalities, women with a history of tube ligation and men with a history of vasectomy, as well as those women who were receiving OCP contraception were excluded from the study. results: From 104 enrolled patients, 40(38.5%) were men and 64(61.5%) were women. The case of hyperthyroidism was Graves' disease in 66 cases(63.5%), toxic multi nodular goiter in 28 cases (26.9%), and toxic adenoma in 10 others (9.6%). Hormonal status was normal in all patients before therapy while this became abnormal in 20(19.2%) of patients after treatment. Semen analysis became abnormal in 8/20(40%) of the patients after treatment. Conclusion: among different variables which were analyzed during study, meaningful correlation was found in the following situations: FSH values in men and women were found to be

  17. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: factors influencing gonadal histology including germ cell pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprova-Pleskacova, Jana; Stoop, Hans; Brüggenwirth, Hennie; Cools, Martine; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Drop, Stenvert L S; Snajderova, Marta; Lebl, Jan; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-05-01

    Patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are at an increased risk for the development of gonadal germ cell cancer. Residual androgen receptor (AR) activity and abnormal gonadal location may influence the survival of atypical germ cells and the development of other histopathological features. To assess this, we evaluated 37 gonads from 19 patients with complete androgen insensitivity (ranging in age from 3 months to 18 years). Histological abnormalities were examined using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and sections stained for POU5F1 and KITLG, markers of early changes in germ cells at risk for malignant transformation. Hamartomatous nodules (HNs), Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH), decreased germ cells, tubular atrophy and stromal fibrosis were more pronounced as age increased (Peffect of inguinal versus abdominal position of the gonads was difficult to assess because inguinal gonads were present primarily in the youngest individuals. In conclusion, many histological changes occur increasingly with age. Expected residual AR activity contributes to better survival of the general germ cell population in (post)pubertal age; however, it did not seem to have an important role in the survival of the germ cells at risk for malignant transformation (defined by POU5F1 positivity and KITLG overexpression) in complete androgen insensitivity. Comparison of the high percentage of patients in our study that were carrying germ cells with delayed maturation or pre-intratubular germ cell neoplasia with previously reported cumulative risk of tumor development in adult patients indicates that not all such precursor lesions in complete androgen insensitivity will progress to invasive germ cell cancer.

  18. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess, as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF, affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF or a high fat-high glucose (HFG diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  19. Intra-articular Injected synovial stem cells differentiate into meniscal cells directly and promote meniscal regeneration without mobilization to distant organs in rat massive meniscal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2009-04-01

    Osteoarthritis in the knees, which can be caused by meniscal defect, constitutes an increasingly common medical problem. Repair for massive meniscal defect remains a challenge owing to a lack of cell kinetics for the menisci precursors in knee joint. The synovium plays pivotal roles during the natural course of meniscal healing and contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with high chondrogenic potential. Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injected synovium-MSCs enhanced meniscal regeneration in rat massive meniscal defect. To track the injected cells, we developed transgenic rats expressing dual luciferase (Luc) and LacZ. The cells derived from synovium of the rats demonstrated colony-forming ability and multipotentiality, both characteristics of MSCs. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that gene expression of meniscal cells was closer to that of synovium-MSCs than to that of bone marrow-MSCs. Two to 8 weeks after five million Luc/LacZ+ synovium-MSCs were injected into massive meniscectomized knee of wild-type rat, macroscopically, the menisci regenerated much better than it did in the control group. After 12 weeks, the regenerated menisci were LacZ positive, produced type 2 collagen, and showed meniscal features by transmission electron microscopy. In in-vivo luminescence analysis, photons increased in the meniscus-resected knee over a 3-day period, then decreased without detection in all other organs. LacZ gene derived from MSCs could not be detected in other organs except in synovium by real-time PCR. Synovium-MSCs injected into the massive meniscectomized knee adhered to the lesion, differentiated into meniscal cells directly, and promoted meniscal regeneration without mobilization to distant organs.

  20. The n- vs. u-serration is a learnable criterion to differentiate pemphigoid from epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in direct immunofluorescence serration pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, J B; Meijer, J M; Jonkman, M F; Diercks, G F H

    2013-07-01

    Serration pattern analysis of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) allows the differentiation of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita from other subtypes of pemphigoid. In daily practice its use is limited due to lack of experience and unfamiliarity. To test the learnability of DIF serrated-pattern recognition in groups with various a priori levels of competence. An online nversusu-test (www.nversusu.umcg.nl) was created, which contained 26 DIF images of the epidermal basement membrane zone, IgG stained and photographed with a magnification of × 40 and × 63. All images represented patients with a form of subepidermal autoimmune bullous disease. Thirteen DIF images were presented before and 13 DIF images after an instruction video about n- and u-serrated patterns. There were three options to choose from: n-serrated, u-serrated or undetermined. The test was completed by three groups of professionals: dermatology residents in training at the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), international experts on bullous diseases, and dermatologists and pathologists who had participated in the Groningen blistering course during the past 10 years. The overall number of correct answers of serration patterns was significantly higher after instruction than before instruction (median 9.0 correct answers vs. 11.0 correct answers, P < 0.001). Participants showed a mean improvement after instruction of 15.4% in the UMCG group (66.7% vs. 82.1%), 16.2% in the international expert group (67.2% vs. 83.4%) and 12.1% in the blistering course group (60.7% vs. 72.8%). The u-serrated pattern was better recognized than the n-serrated pattern. Serration pattern analysis by DIF can be learned irrespective of background of expertise. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid direct detection and differentiation of nonpathogenic and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in beef and bovine faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakos, A Ch; Linton, M; Millington, S; Grant, I R

    2017-03-01

    To develop a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay capable of quantifying Escherichia coli and differentiating verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC). Primer sets were selected to amplify the phoA gene (all E. coli strains) and stx1 and/or stx2 genes (VTEC strains only). LAMP calibration curves demonstrated good quantification capability compared with conventional culture. The limits of detection 50% (LOD 50 ) of the multiplex LAMP assay were 2·8 (95% CI 2·4-3·3), 3·2 (95% CI 2·5-3·9) and 2·8-3·2 (95% CI 2·1-3·5) log CFU per g for the phoA, stx1 and stx2 genes, respectively. When validated by testing retail beef and bovine faeces samples, good correlation between E. coli counts indicated by the LAMP assay and culture was observed; however, false-negative LAMP assay results were obtained for 12·5-14·7% of samples. A rapid, multiplex LAMP assay for direct quantification of E. coli and specific detection of VTEC in beef and faeces was successfully developed. Further optimisation of the assay would be needed to improve detection sensitivity. The multiplex LAMP assay represents a rapid alternative to culture for monitoring E. coli levels on beef for hygiene monitoring purposes, and, potentially, a method for detection of VTEC in beef and faeces. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Transcriptome analysis revealed the possible regulatory pathways initiating female geese broodiness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehe Liu

    Full Text Available Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese. Expression changes of hypocretin (HCRT and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC in the hypothalamus of nesting geese may cause appetite reduction, which is possibly the first step and a prerequisite to initiate broodiness. In addition to prolactin (PRL, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, genes including oxytocin-neurophysin (OXT, chordin-like protein 1 (CHRDL1 and growth hormone (GH, expressed in the pituitary gland, are new candidate molecules that may be involved in broodiness in geese. Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 in the pituitary gland, the proto-oncogene c-Fos (FOS, heat shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90AA, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 in the ovary that may consolidate and transduce signals regulating the HPGA during broodiness in geese.

  3. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  4. Gonadal hormone modulation of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception and metabolism in female versus male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, R M; Haas, A E; Wiley, J L; Yu, Z; Clowers, B H

    2017-01-01

    The gonadal hormones testosterone (T) in adult males and estradiol (E2) in adult females have been reported to modulate behavioral effects of ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study determined whether activational effects of T and E2 are sex-specific, and whether hormones modulate production of the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and the inactive metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). Adult male and female rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and treated with nothing (0), T (10-mm Silastic capsule/100g body weight), or E2 (1-mm Silastic capsule/rat). Three weeks later, saline or the cytochrome P450 inhibitor proadifen (25mg/kg; to block THC metabolism and boost THC's effects) was injected i.p.; 1h later, vehicle or THC (3mg/kg females, 5mg/kg males) was injected i.p., and rats were tested for antinociceptive and motoric effects 15-240min post-injection. T did not consistently alter THC-induced antinociception in males, but decreased it in females (tail withdrawal test). Conversely, T decreased THC-induced catalepsy in males, but had no effect in females. E2 did not alter THC-induced antinociception in females, but enhanced it in males. The discrepant effects of T and E2 on males' and females' behavioral responses to THC suggests that sexual differentiation of THC sensitivity is not simply due to activational effects of hormones, but also occurs via organizational hormone or sex chromosome effects. Analysis of serum showed that proadifen increased THC levels, E2 increased 11-OH-THC in GDX males, and T decreased 11-OH-THC (and to a lesser extent, THC) in GDX females. Thus, hormone modulation of THC's behavioral effects is caused in part by hormone modulation of THC oxidation to its active metabolite. However, the fact that hormone modulation of metabolism did not alter THC sensitivity similarly on all behavioral measures within each sex suggests that other mechanisms also play a role in gonadal hormone modulation of THC sensitivity in adult rats

  5. Two-dimensional proteomic analysis of gonads of air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus after the exposure of endosulfan and malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laldinsangi, C; Vijayaprasadarao, K; Rajakumar, A; Murugananthkumar, R; Prathibha, Y; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals have raised public concern, since their effects have been found to interfere with the physiological systems of various organisms, especially during critical stage of development and reproduction. Endosulfan and malathion, pesticides widely used for agricultural purposes, have been known to disrupt physiological functions in aquatic organisms. The current work analyzes the effects of endosulfan (2.5 parts per billion [ppb]) and malathion (10 ppb) on the reproductive physiology of catfish (Clarias batrachus) by evaluating protein expression profiles after 21 days of exposure. The proteomic profile of testis and ovary after exposure to endosulfan showed downregulation of proteins such as ubiquitin and Esco2, and upregulation in melanocortin-receptor-2 respectively. Malathion exposed ovary showed upregulated prolactin levels. Identification of proteins differentially expressed in gonads due to the exposure to these pesticides may serve as crucial indications to denote their disruptive effects at the level of proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Peripheral kisspeptin reverses short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression in Syrian hamsters by promoting GNRH release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bentsen, A H; Ancel, C

    2011-01-01

    In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronised by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. In short winter days (short day, SD), the Syrian hamster displays a complete gonadal atrophy together with a marked reduction in expression of kisspeptins (Kp), a family of potent hypothalamic...... stimulators of GNRH neurons. Both central and peripheral acute injections of Kp have been reported to activate the gonadotropic axis in mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if and how peripheral administration of Kp54 could restore gonadal function in photo-inhibited hamsters. Testicular activity...... of hamsters kept in SD was reactivated by two daily i.p. injections of Kp54 but not by chronic subcutaneous delivery of the same peptide via mini-pumps. Acute i.p. injection of Kp54-induced FOS (c-Fos) expression in a large number of GNRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs together with a strong increase...

  7. Sex differences in the activity of mice: modulation by postnatal gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Svare, B

    1984-03-01

    A series of six experiments was performed to examine the influence of postnatal-gonadal-hormone exposure on home-cage activity in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. Intact females were more active than their male counterparts and gonadectomy in adulthood, while reducing levels of the behavior in both sexes, did not eliminate the gender difference. Males that were castrated on the day of birth were more active than animals castrated 5, 10, or 25 days later. Also, females treated with testosterone propionate on the day of birth were less active than oil-treated controls and females exposed to the steroid 10 days after birth. Thus, perinatal exposure to gonadal hormones suppresses adult levels of home-cage activity in mice.

  8. The evaluation and presentation of a rare case of gonadal dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnejad M

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A seventeen-years old woman was presented with infertility and primary amenorrhea. She had normal stature, femate phenotype and normal development of breasts, external genitalia, vagina and cervix. Pelvic examination showed a large lobulated mass. On sonography there was a mass with probable origin of ovary. Paraclinic tests were carried out. Gonadotropins were in postmeno pausal limits. Alpha Fetoprotein, Beta Subunit (B-HCG assay were normal Laparotomy revealed a gonadat mass on right side, normal uterus and left streak gonad. Pathologic report of tumor was dysgerminoma and teratoma. Due to pathology of tumor and Y chromosome, we advised the patient to remove the other streak gonad and have irradiatio

  9. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  10. Malignant tumour stroma gonads Sertoli-Leydig:a communication clinic case and bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krygier Waltier, G.; Rodriguez Lemes, R.; Carlevaro Elizondo, T.

    1995-01-01

    The malignant tumors of the stroma gonads represent 0.2% of all the tumors of the testicle, and they are almost exclusive of the relatively refractory to the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy, and the medium survive of the illness is of two years. it presents a clinical case of tumour to cells of Sertoli-Leydig in a 45 year-old man that heI consulted for sterility . A review of the literature it is made for finish [es

  11. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kowalczykiewicz

    Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  12. Influence of physical factors on sexual function and pituitary gland-gonads system. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Chapter 3 it is noted, that different physical factors even with low intensity (vibration, noise, electromagnetic oscillations of s.h.f. and u.h.f range, laser radiation, temperature changes) predictably lead to spermatogenesis dysfunctions and functional shift in hypothalamus-pituitary gland-gonads system with examined animals and man. The sexual function of men changing in the result of contact with unfavourable physical factors arise early and quite often they preceding the manifestation of occupational diseases pattern

  13. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kulczykowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops: masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT and isotocin (IT, counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates.

  14. Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization libraries for the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Shang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Cui; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

    2014-04-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate gene transcription profiles of the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) in an attempt to uncover genes involved in sex reversal and gonad development. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using mRNA from the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis. In total 100 positive clones from the libraries were selected at random and sequenced, and then expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to search against sequences in the GenBank database using the BLASTn and BLASTx search algorithms. High quality SSH cDNA libraries and 90 ESTs were obtained. Of these ESTs, 43 showed high homology with genes of known function and these are associated with energy metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation and so on. The remaining 47 ESTs shared no homology with any genes in GenBank and are thus considered to be hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the four genes F11, F63, R11, and R47 from the forward and reverse libraries were analyzed in gonad, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. The results showed that the transcription of the F11 and F63 genes was significantly increased while the expression of the R11 and R47 genes was significantly decreased from IV or V ovary. In addition, the results also indicated that the four genes' expression was not gonad-tissue specific. This results strongly suggested that they may be involved in the rice field eel gonad development and/or sex reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of latitude on photoperiodic control of gonadal maturation, regression and molt in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Alistair

    2013-09-01

    Photoperiod is the major cue used by birds to time breeding seasons and molt. However, the annual cycle in photoperiod changes with latitude. Within species, for temperate and high latitude species, gonadal maturation and breeding start earlier at lower latitudes but regression and molt both occur at similar times at different latitudes. Earlier gonadal maturation can be explained simply by the fact that considerable maturation occurs before the equinox when photoperiod is longer at lower latitudes - genetic differences between populations are not necessary to explain earlier breeding at lower latitudes. Gonadal regression is caused either by absolute photorefractoriness or, in some species with long breeding seasons, relative photorefractoriness. In either case, the timing of regression and molt cannot be explained by absolute prevailing photoperiod or rate of change in photoperiod - birds appear to be using more subtle cues from the pattern of change in photoperiod. However, there may be no difference between absolute and relative photorefractory species in how they utilise the annual cycle in photoperiod to time regression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. cep-1/p53-dependent dysplastic pathology of the aging C. elegans gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Mathew D; Day, Nicholas; Graham, Jill; Melov, Simon

    2012-04-01

    The C. elegans germline and somatic gonad are actively developing until the animal reaches adulthood, and then continue to undergo striking changes as the animal ages. Reported changes include a depletion of available sperm, a decrease in oocyte quality up till mid-life, a reduction in germline nuclei, a decrease in fertility, and an accumulation of DNA in the midbody of aging C. elegans. Here, we have focused on the aging gonad in old animals, and show in detail that the aging gonad undergoes a massive uterine growth composed of endoreduplicating oocytes, yolk, and expanses of chromatin. We use a novel series of imaging techniques in combination with histological methodology for reconstructing aged worms in 3-dimensions, and show in old animals growing masses swelling inside the uterus to occupy most of the diameter of the worm. We link this accelerated growth to the cep-1/p53 tumor suppressor. Because cep-1 is required for DNA damage induced apoptosis, and daf-2 limits longevity, these results suggest a role for age-related DNA damage in dysplastic uterine growths, which in some respects resemble premalignant changes that can occur in aging mammals.

  17. Profil Gonad Kodok Lembu Betina yang Diberi Human Chorionic Gonadotropin dan Ekstrak Hipofisis Kodok Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Mudite Adnyane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulllfrog (Rana catesbeiana are naturally reach sexual maturity at the age of 3 years aftermetamorphosis. This research aims to study the gonad growth of female bullfrog. given human chorionicgonadotropin (hCG and hipofise extract of local frog in order to accelerate the maturity. There were 40female bullfrog used in this study and divided into four treatment groups and one control. The treatmentswere injections of 150 IU hCG, 200 IU hCG, 8 hipofise, 16 extract of hipofise and controls. The injectionswere conducted once a month for four months. Every month after the first injection, two of bullfrogs fromeach group were measured their body and gonad weight, in addition, the stage of ovary was also observedeither in macroscopically and microscopically. The results showed that hCG treatment group gave betterresults compared with the treatment of hipofise extract of local frog. The injection of 200 IU hCG gave thebest result of gonad maturity index (IKG 4.9%, compared with other treatment groups. Giving a dose of200 IU hCG and 16 hipofise exctract of local frog can be used to accelerate the maturity of female bullfrog

  18. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients.

  19. Histopathological analyses of the liver and gonads of Vardar river fish Barbus peloponnesius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nexhbedin BEADINI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Barbus pelopnnesius is a typical benthophagous fish, feeding on the zoobenthos and plant components and thanks to its sensitivity to the changes in surrounding area is an ideal tool for indication of the health of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was histopathological analysis of the liver and gonad tissue of Barbus peloponnesius fish of Vardar River. Liver and gonad of 25 fish individuals collected from two research stations, at the exit point of Veles city during 2013, were excited and proccesed for standart histopathological analysis. Microscopically analysis revealed pathological changes in the liver and gonad tissue including hypertrophy of epithelial cell nuclei in bile ducts and proliferation of their epithelium, presence of hemosiderin, hemorrhage in the hepatocellular parenchyma, bacterial and verminous infection, as well as macrophagous aggregation. Estimation of water quality from two points of vardar River near Veles on the basis of physic-chemical and microbiological indicate that waste water have negative impact to the natural fish population.

  20. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Li

    Full Text Available The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and antizyme (AZ are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  1. The ecological and physiological bases of variation in the phenology of gonad growth in an urban and desert songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Lane, Samuel; Meddle, Simone L; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Deviche, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Birds often adjust to urban areas by advancing the timing (phenology) of vernal gonad growth. However, the ecological and physiological bases of this adjustment are unclear. We tested whether the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth phenology of male Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, is due to greater food availability in urban areas of Phoenix, Arizona USA or, alternatively, a habitat-related difference in the phenology of key food types. To better understand the physiological mechanism underlying variation in gonad growth phenology, we compared the activity of the reproductive system at all levels of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We found no habitat-associated difference in food availability (ground arthropod biomass), but, in contrast to the seasonal growth of leaves on desert trees, the leaf foliage of urban trees was already developed at the beginning of our study. Multiple estimates of energetic status did not significantly differ between the non-urban and urban towhees during three years that differed in the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth and winter precipitation levels. Thus, our results provide no support for the hypothesis that greater food abundance in urban areas of Phoenix drives the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth phenology in Abert's towhees. By contrast, they suggest that differences in the predictability and magnitude of change in food availability between urban and desert areas of Phoenix contribute to the observed habitat-related disparity in gonad growth. Endocrine responsiveness of the gonads may contribute to this phenomenon as desert - but not urban - towhees had a marked plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurements of Serum Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones and Investigation of Sexual and Reproductive Functions in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guang-chun; Zheng, Jun-hua; Xu, Long-gen; Min, Zhi-lian; Zhu, You-hua; Qi, Jun; Duan, Qiang-lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To investigate changes in serum pituitary-gonadal hormones and restoration of sexual and reproductive functions after successful kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods. Serum pituitary-gonadal hormones before and after kidney transplantation were measured in 78 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 30 healthy adults. Pre- and postoperative semen specimens of 46 male recipients and 15 male controls were collected and compared. Additional 100 married kidney transp...

  3. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) duringzebrafishgonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E.; Nielsen, Betina F.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E-2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found ...

  4. Histological and histochemical analysis of the gonadal development of males and females of Armases rubripes (Rathbun 1897 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Santos

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to provide information on the histological characteristics of the gonads of male and female Armases rubripes crabs, and to try to establish a relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic stages previously identified. Thirty-six crabs were collected by hand between February 2003 and January 2004 in banks of Spartina alterniflora on Sahy Beach in Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The histological analysis of the ovaries of A. rubripes demonstrated a gradual process of development of the oocytes. According to their cellular characteristics, five types of cells were distinguished: oogonia, oocyte I, oocyte II, oocyte III and oocyte IV. The ovaries showed four stages during gonadal activity: stage I (rudimentary, stage II (developing or maturing, stage III (developed or mature and stage IV (resting. The results of the histochemical analyses showed that the ovaries vary according to the gonad development stage. The histological aspect of one section of the male gonad was always the same in all of the seminiferous tubules, where the lumen of these tubules always contained spermatozoa and/or spermatids. It was not possible to characterize the three stages of gonad development in the males. This agrees with previous reports in the literature. However, in the females there was a relationship between the gonad stages distinguished macroscopically and the results obtained through the histological and histochemical analysis, due to the presence of different cell types, as well as the lysis process and reabsorption of the oocytes in spent females.

  5. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827 as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tancioni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  6. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  7. Loss of p300 and CBP disrupts histone acetylation at the mouse Sry promoter and causes XY gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Siggers, Pam; Xipolita, Marilena; Brindle, Paul; Lutz, Beat; Wells, Sara; Greenfield, Andy

    2018-01-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP, CREBBP, KAT3A) and its closely related paralogue p300 (EP300, KAT3B), together termed p300/CBP, are histone/lysine acetyl-transferases that control gene expression by modifying chromatin-associated proteins. Here, we report roles for both of these chromatin-modifying enzymes in mouse sex determination, the process by which the embryonic gonad develops into a testis or an ovary. By targeting gene ablation to embryonic gonadal somatic cells using an inducible Cre line, we show that gonads lacking either gene exhibit major abnormalities of XY gonad development at 14.5 dpc, including partial sex reversal. Embryos lacking three out of four functional copies of p300/Cbp exhibit complete XY gonadal sex reversal and have greatly reduced expression of the key testis-determining genes Sry and Sox9. An analysis of histone acetylation at the Sry promoter in mutant gonads at 11.5 dpc shows a reduction in levels of the positive histone mark H3K27Ac. Our data suggest a role for CBP/p300 in testis determination mediated by control of histone acetylation at the Sry locus and reveal a novel element in the epigenetic control of Sry and mammalian sex determination. They also suggest possible novel causes of human disorders of sex development (DSD). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. A microarray analysis of sex- and gonad-biased gene expression in the zebrafish: Evidence for masculinization of the transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Qianxing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many taxa, males and females are very distinct phenotypically, and these differences often reflect divergent selective pressures acting on the sexes. Phenotypic sexual dimorphism almost certainly reflects differing patterns of gene expression between the sexes, and microarray studies have documented widespread sexually dimorphic gene expression. Although the evolutionary significance of sexual dimorphism in gene expression remains unresolved, these studies have led to the formulation of a hypothesis that male-driven evolution has resulted in the masculinization of animal transcriptomes. Here we use a microarray assessment of sex- and gonad-biased gene expression to test this hypothesis in zebrafish. Results By using zebrafish Affymetrix microarrays to compare gene expression patterns in male and female somatic and gonadal tissues, we identified a large number of genes (5899 demonstrating differences in transcript abundance between male and female Danio rerio. Under conservative statistical significance criteria, all sex-biases in gene expression were due to differences between testes and ovaries. Male-enriched genes were more abundant than female-enriched genes, and expression bias for male-enriched genes was greater in magnitude than that for female-enriched genes. We also identified a large number of genes demonstrating elevated transcript abundance in testes and ovaries relative to male body and female body, respectively. Conclusion Overall our results support the hypothesis that male-biased evolutionary pressures have resulted in male-biased patterns of gene expression. Interestingly, our results seem to be at odds with a handful of other microarray-based studies of sex-specific gene expression patterns in zebrafish. However, ours was the only study designed to address this specific hypothesis, and major methodological differences among studies could explain the discrepancies. Regardless, all of these studies agree

  9. Usability evaluation through gonad shielding production of pediatric patients by gender and age rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Park, Jung Eun; Chun, Woon Kwan; Ju, Yong Jin; Yang, Nam Hee; Dong, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    The gonad shielding is used to minimize the impact of the exposure to gonads when Abdomen, Plevis and Hip X-ray inspections are conducted on radiation impressionable pediatric patients. By the way, the gonad is palpable difficult and impossible to check visually because it's a sensitive area, so tests are conducted with the approximate location of shielding, thereby appearing problems of not shielding gonads accurately. Accordingly, this study produced shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and studied the method of positioning shields with ASIS as a reference point without palpable sensitive areas, and tried to evaluate its usability. The study surveyed 30 pediatric patients by gender and age, who came and got inspected in Department of Radiology, our hospital from February 2012 to January 2014 and obtained the value of tolerance by measuring the average size of the pelvis using the distance measurement function of Infinitt Piview with the images stored in the PACS and producing shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and specifying the areas at random for the comparative analysis of pre- and post-using. It calculated the technology statistics (mean±SD) with the value of tolerance measured the length using SPSS 12.0 statistical program. As for boys, differences in the tolerance range of pre- and post-using shields were 2.69 mm in case of 1 year old, 2.58 mm in 2 years, 2.37 mm in 3 years, 2.815 mm in 4-5 years, 2.043 mm in 7-10 years, and as for girls,1.92 mm in 1-2 years, 1.75 mm in 3-4 years, 2.52 mm in 5-6 years and 1.93 mm in 7-10. After analyzing the pre- and post-using shields for all of boys and girls, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.050). It is considered that we can minimize the exposure to gonads and get a better video for diagnosis in testing high biological impressionable pediatric, if we use shields correctly with ASIS as a reference point considering its shape and size by age and gender in Abdomen, Plevis

  10. Usability evaluation through gonad shielding production of pediatric patients by gender and age rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Park, Jung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Ju, Yong Jin; Yang, Nam Hee [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The gonad shielding is used to minimize the impact of the exposure to gonads when Abdomen, Plevis and Hip X-ray inspections are conducted on radiation impressionable pediatric patients. By the way, the gonad is palpable difficult and impossible to check visually because it's a sensitive area, so tests are conducted with the approximate location of shielding, thereby appearing problems of not shielding gonads accurately. Accordingly, this study produced shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and studied the method of positioning shields with ASIS as a reference point without palpable sensitive areas, and tried to evaluate its usability. The study surveyed 30 pediatric patients by gender and age, who came and got inspected in Department of Radiology, our hospital from February 2012 to January 2014 and obtained the value of tolerance by measuring the average size of the pelvis using the distance measurement function of Infinitt Piview with the images stored in the PACS and producing shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and specifying the areas at random for the comparative analysis of pre- and post-using. It calculated the technology statistics (mean±SD) with the value of tolerance measured the length using SPSS 12.0 statistical program. As for boys, differences in the tolerance range of pre- and post-using shields were 2.69 mm in case of 1 year old, 2.58 mm in 2 years, 2.37 mm in 3 years, 2.815 mm in 4-5 years, 2.043 mm in 7-10 years, and as for girls,1.92 mm in 1-2 years, 1.75 mm in 3-4 years, 2.52 mm in 5-6 years and 1.93 mm in 7-10. After analyzing the pre- and post-using shields for all of boys and girls, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.050). It is considered that we can minimize the exposure to gonads and get a better video for diagnosis in testing high biological impressionable pediatric, if we use shields correctly with ASIS as a reference point considering its shape and size by age and gender in Abdomen, Plevis

  11. Comparison of hormonally induced sex direction in two strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in percentage sex direction in the two strains. Nucleated oocytes could be distinguished clearly from oogonia in fish weighing 2 g and above. Gonadal development however, commenced earlier in the TR strain group with nucleated oocytes being observed from fish of 2 g ...

  12. Developmental and contextual considerations for adrenal and gonadal hormone functioning during adolescence: Implications for adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone-behavior associations during key developmental transitions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stem Cell Education for Medical Students at Tongji University: Primary Cell Culture and Directional Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Caixia; Tian, Haibin; Li, Jiao; Jia, Song; Li, Siguang; Xu, Guo-Tong; Xu, Lei; Lu, Lixia

    2018-01-01

    Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types under certain conditions. Stem cells have great potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy for the treatment of certain diseases. To deliver knowledge about this frontier in science and technology to medical undergraduate students, we designed an…

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profile of kisspeptin1 and kisspeptin1 receptor at brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of golden mahseer, Tor putitora (Hamilton, 1822) during gonadal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Neetu; Singh, Atul Kumar; Sahoo, Monalisa; Mallik, Sumanta Kumar; Thakuria, Dimpal

    2017-03-01

    Complete cDNA sequences of kiss1 (gmkiss1) and its receptor kiss1r (gmkiss1r) were cloned and characterized from brain tissue of adult golden mahseer (Tor putitora). Thereafter, quantification of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r mRNA expression in brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of male and female golden mahseer was carried out using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR assay during an annual reproductive cycle, at different gonadal development stages. The gmkiss1 cDNA was 508bp, with 330bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a precursor protein of 109 amino acids, whereas gmkiss1r cDNA was 1383bp with an ORF of 1004bp, which encodes a 334 amino acid protein residue. The qRT-PCR study shows that gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r are expressed in brain, pituitary and gonads of both the sexes of golden mahseer. An apparent sexual dimorphism in transcript level of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r in brain and gonads was evident during the reproductive cycle. Overall, in brain, testis and ovary, the gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r mRNA expression level was comparatively higher during the initial stages of gonadal development, than that of spermiation or ovulation stage. In pituitary of both the sexes, throughout the gonadal development, consistently low transcript level of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r was observed. The gmkiss1 mRNA expression level in brain and ovary of female golden mahseer was several folds higher than the brain and testis of male fish. In conclusion, we confirm the presence of kiss1 and its receptor in golden mahseer, and results of our study strongly suggested the involvement of kisspeptin1 system in gonadal development and annual reproductive cycle of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microarray gene expression profiles from mature gonad tissues of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Luke D; Jayasundara, Nishad; Castilho, Pedro C; Block, Barbara

    2012-10-05

    Bluefin tunas are highly prized pelagic fish species representing a significant economic resource to fisheries throughout the world. Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) populations have significantly declined due to overexploitation. As a consequence of their value and population decline, T. thynnus has been the focus of considerable research effort concerning many aspects of their life history. However, in-depth understanding of T. thynnus reproductive biology is still lacking. Knowledge of reproductive physiology is a very important tool for determining effective fisheries and aquaculture management. Transcriptome techniques are proving powerful and provide novel insights into physiological processes. Construction of a microarray from T. thynnus ESTs sourced from reproductive tissues has provided an ideal platform to study the reproductive physiology of bluefin tunas. The aim of this investigation was to compare transcription profiles from the ovaries and testes of mature T. thynnus to establish sex specific variations underlying their reproductive physiology. Male and females T. thynnus gonad tissues were collected from the wild and histologically staged. Sub-samples of sexually mature tissues were also measured for their mRNA differential expression among the sexes using the custom microarray design BFT 4X44K. A total of 7068 ESTs were assessed for differential expression of which 1273 ESTs were significantly different (p2 fold change in expression according to sex. Differential expression for 13 of these ESTs was validated with quantitative PCR. These include genes involved in egg envelope formation, hydration, and lipid transport/accumulation more highly expressed in ovaries compared with testis, while genes involved in meiosis, sperm motility and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in testis compared with ovaries. This investigation has furthered our knowledge of bluefin tunas reproductive biology by using a contemporary transcriptome approach

  16. Microarray gene expression profiles from mature gonad tissues of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Luke D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bluefin tunas are highly prized pelagic fish species representing a significant economic resource to fisheries throughout the world. Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus populations have significantly declined due to overexploitation. As a consequence of their value and population decline, T. thynnus has been the focus of considerable research effort concerning many aspects of their life history. However, in-depth understanding of T. thynnus reproductive biology is still lacking. Knowledge of reproductive physiology is a very important tool for determining effective fisheries and aquaculture management. Transcriptome techniques are proving powerful and provide novel insights into physiological processes. Construction of a microarray from T. thynnus ESTs sourced from reproductive tissues has provided an ideal platform to study the reproductive physiology of bluefin tunas. The aim of this investigation was to compare transcription profiles from the ovaries and testes of mature T. thynnus to establish sex specific variations underlying their reproductive physiology. Results Male and females T. thynnus gonad tissues were collected from the wild and histologically staged. Sub-samples of sexually mature tissues were also measured for their mRNA differential expression among the sexes using the custom microarray design BFT 4X44K. A total of 7068 ESTs were assessed for differential expression of which 1273 ESTs were significantly different (p2 fold change in expression according to sex. Differential expression for 13 of these ESTs was validated with quantitative PCR. These include genes involved in egg envelope formation, hydration, and lipid transport/accumulation more highly expressed in ovaries compared with testis, while genes involved in meiosis, sperm motility and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in testis compared with ovaries. Conclusions This investigation has furthered our knowledge of bluefin tunas

  17. Testicular impact of the treatment with I-131 in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebel, G.; Gutierrez, S.; Fadel, A.; Suarez, S.; Levalle, O.

    2007-01-01

    Young patients carriers differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) are treated with high doses of I-131 for much of his life with very good prognosis and projects with paternity. However, there is scarce information on the effect of radioiodine on the male gonad and their future fertility. This therapy may compromise on a temporary and / or definitively the role of the germinal cells. The testicular irradiation depends on the blood flow, the dose of I-131 administered and of the presence or absence of metastasis pelvic near to the gonads. A single dose of 100 mCi of I-131 throws an absorbed dose at gonadal level of 50-150 cGy. It has been reported that absorbed doses of 50 cGy can produce transitory decrease spermatogenesis and higher doses can also affect the function of the Leydig cells [es

  18. Cellular Adjuvant Properties, Direct Cytotoxicity of Re-differentiated Vα24 Invariant NKT-like Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kitayama

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vα24 invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are a subset of T lymphocytes implicated in the regulation of broad immune responses. They recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d on antigen-presenting cells and induce both innate and adaptive immune responses, which enhance effective immunity against cancer. Conversely, reduced iNKT cell numbers and function have been observed in many patients with cancer. To recover these numbers, we reprogrammed human iNKT cells to pluripotency and then re-differentiated them into regenerated iNKT cells in vitro through an IL-7/IL-15-based optimized cytokine combination. The re-differentiated iNKT cells showed proliferation and IFN-γ production in response to α-galactosylceramide, induced dendritic cell maturation and downstream activation of both cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells, and exhibited NKG2D- and DNAM-1-mediated NK cell-like cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. The immunological features of re-differentiated iNKT cells and their unlimited availability from induced pluripotent stem cells offer a potentially effective immunotherapy against cancer.

  19. Manifestation of x-radiation induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutation impairing the development of imaginal disks and gonads in Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeleva, Eh.A.; Ivanov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of Drosophila melanogaster mutations impairing the development of imaginal disks. The state of gonads in these mutants was not studied. Using X-radiation a lethal mutation in X chromosome was obtained that induced degeneration of imaginal disks at the 3d stage of larva development. The gonads of the mutants at this stage of development vary in size. The transplantation tests showed that the mutation manifests itself in both the imaginal disks and the gonads

  20. Sex-Specific Effects of Chronic Administration of Relaxin-3 on Food Intake, Body Weight and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvez, J; de Ávila, C; Guèvremont, G; Timofeeva, E

    2016-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of chronic central administration of relaxin-3 (RLN3) on food intake, body weight and fat mass in intact and sterilised male and female rats, as well as on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in intact male and female rats that received i.c.v. infusions of RLN3 (400 pmol/day) or vehicle during a 14-day period. The intact RLN3-injected rats displayed a higher body weight than the vehicle-treated groups, and this increase was statistically significantly stronger in female rats compared to male rats. In addition, feed efficiency and gonadal white adipose tissue weight were higher in female RLN3-injected rats. Chronic i.c.v. administration of RLN3 activated the HPG axis in intact male rats, whereas inhibition of the HPG axis was observed in intact female rats. RLN3 significantly increased the plasma levels of luteinising hormone and follicular-stimulating hormone in male rats but not in female rats. Conversely, hypothalamic expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA was decreased by RLN3 in female rats but not in male rats. In addition, the plasma levels of oestradiol were significantly decreased by RLN3 administration in female rats. Consequently, intact RLN3-injected female rats failed to display phasic inhibition of eating during oestrus. Sex-specific effects of RLN3 on food intake and body weight were also observed in ovariectomised female and orchidectomised male rats, suggesting that the sex-specific effects of RLN3 on energy metabolism are independent on the differential effects of RLN3 on HPG axis activity in male and female rats. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Effects of 17α-Methyltestosterone and Aromatase Inhibitor Letrozole on Sex Reversal, Gonadal Structure, and Growth in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Qi-Xue; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Monosex populations are in demand in many fish species with sexual dimorphism, e.g., better growth performance, higher gonad value, superior ornamental value. From the point of view of research, a monosex population is one of the best materials for investigating sex-determining mechanisms, sex differentiation, and sex-linked markers. Sex reversal of females (phenotypic reversal from XX female to XX male) is the first step in all-female production in species with an XX/XY system for sex determination. In the present study, masculinization of yellow catfish, a species with XX/XY sex determination, was investigated by oral administration of various doses of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) or an aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (LZ); effects on survival, growth performance, sex ratio, and changes in gonadal structure were evaluated. Three doses (20, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) diet) of oral MT or LZ were administered to fry from 10 days post-hatching (DPH) to 59 DPH. Oral administration of MT at all doses did not significantly change the ratio of males (45.8%, 33.3%, and 50.0% respectively) compared to the control group (37.5%), while yielding intersex fish at all doses (4.2% to 8.3%). Oral administration of LZ produced a significantly higher proportion of males in all doses (75.5%, 83.3%, and 75.0%, respectively). Additionally, the lowest dose of LZ improved the growth of treated fish compared to the control, and all doses of LZ enhanced spermatogenesis in treated males. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  2. Gonad Transcriptome Analysis of High-Temperature-Treated Females and High-Temperature-Induced Sex-Reversed Neomales in Nile Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue Sun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, the molecular mechanisms governing TSD (temperature-dependent sex determination or GSD + TE (genotypic sex determination + temperature effects remain a mystery in fish. Methods: We developed three all-female families of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and the family with the highest male ratio after high-temperature treatment was used for transcriptome analysis. Results: First, gonadal histology analysis indicated that the histological morphology of control females (CF was not significantly different from that of high-temperature-treated females (TF at various development stages. However, the high-temperature treatment caused a lag of spermatogenesis in high-temperature-induced neomales (IM. Next, we sequenced the transcriptome of CF, TF, and IM Nile tilapia. 79, 11,117, and 11,000 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected in the CF–TF, CF–IM, and TF–IM comparisons, respectively, and 44 DEGs showed identical expression changes in the CF–TF and CF–IM comparisons. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that three individuals in CF and three individuals in TF formed a cluster, and three individuals in IM formed a distinct cluster, which confirmed that the gonad transcriptome profile of TF was similar to that of CF and different from that of IM. Finally, six sex-related genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusions: This study identifies a number of genes that may be involved in GSD + TE, which will be useful for investigating the molecular mechanisms of TSD or GSD + TE in fish.

  3. Induction of gonadal maturation of eel using PMSG, antidopamine, and estradiol-17β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprelia Martina Tomasoa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was aimed to induce gonadal maturation of eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor by hormonal treatment using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, antidopamine (AD, dan estradiol-17β (E2. The research used complete randomized design with five hormone combination treatments consisted of PK (NaCl 0.95% as control, P10A (PMSG 10 IU + AD 10 ppm, P20A (PMSG 20 IU + AD 10 ppm, P10BE (PMSG 10 IU + AD 10 ppm + E2 150 µg, and P20BE (PMSG 20 IU + AD 10 ppm + E2 150 µg, with three individual replications for each treatment. Hormonal induction was applied through intramuscular injection weekly during eight weeks at initial body weight of 200 g. The result showed that P10BE treatment has obtained highest level on E2 (0.43 ng/mL, FSH (2.68 mIU/mL has increased in week-4 and level on T (1.2 ng/mL, LH (2.80 mIU/mL has increased in week-8. P10BE has affected spermatogenesis and the increased of GSI (2.46% in fourth and sixth week compared to PK (1.28%, P10A (1.58%, P20A (1.34%, and P20BE (2.12%. In conclusion, combination of PMSG, AD, and E2 hormones could stimulate the gonadal maturation of eel at the size of 200 g into male. Keywords: Anguilla bicolor bicolor, gonadal growth, hormone, maturation  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menginduksi pematangan gonad ikan sidat Anguilla bicolor bicolor secara hormonal dengan menggunakan pregnant mare serum gonadothropin (PMSG, antidopamin (AD, dan estradiol-17β (E2. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima perlakuan kombinasi hormon, yaitu PK (larutan NaCl 0,95% sebagai kontrol, P10A (PMSG 10 IU + AD 10 ppm, P20A (PMSG 20 IU + AD 10 ppm, P10BE (PMSG 10 IU + AD 10 ppm + E2 150 µg, dan P20BE (PMSG 10 IU+AD 10 ppm+E2 150 µg, dengan tiga ulangan individu pada masing-masing perlakuan. Induksi hormonal dilakukan dengan metode penyutikan secara intramuskuler setiap minggu selama delapan minggu dengan bobot ikan yang berukuran 200 g. Hasil penelitian

  4. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Anderson, Lloyd L.; Beasley, Val R.; de Solla, Shane R.; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S.; Luque, Enrique H.; McCoy, Krista A.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A.; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called “Hill criteria” (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause–effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis – demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals – represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the “Hill criteria”. PMID:21419222

  5. Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula (Echinodermata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pita, Inés; García, Francisco J.; Pita, María-Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 was higher in testes than in ovaries. These differences between sexes probably indicate different requirements of males and females during gametogenesis although the presence of a large number of gametes in the mature gonad may also have influences on fatty acid composition. Significant differences in gonad fatty acid profiles where also found when individuals of P. lividus collected at a location of the Mediterranean region were compared with specimens collected at the Atlantic coast. The most remarkable changes were the lower levels of 14:0, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 and the higher values of 20:1n-11, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 found in males and females of the Mediterranean specimens compared to those of the Atlantic coast. These differences probably reflect the differences in potential food sources at each location.

  6. Live imaging of Drosophila gonad formation reveals roles for Six4 in regulating germline and somatic cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarman Andrew P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement of cells, either as amoeboid individuals or in organised groups, is a key feature of organ formation. Both modes of migration occur during Drosophila embryonic gonad development, which therefore provides a paradigm for understanding the contribution of these processes to organ morphogenesis. Gonads of Drosophila are formed from three distinct cell types: primordial germ cells (PGCs, somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs, and in males, male-specific somatic gonadal precursors (msSGPs. These originate in distinct locations and migrate to associate in two intermingled clusters which then compact to form the spherical primitive gonads. PGC movements are well studied, but much less is known of the migratory events and other interactions undergone by their somatic partners. These appear to move in organised groups like, for example, lateral line cells in zebra fish or Drosophila ovarian border cells. Results We have used time-lapse fluorescence imaging to characterise gonadal cell behaviour in wild type and mutant embryos. We show that the homeodomain transcription factor Six4 is required for the migration of the PGCs and the msSGPs towards the SGPs. We have identified a likely cause of this in the case of PGCs as we have found that Six4 is required for expression of Hmgcr which codes for HMGCoA reductase and is necessary for attraction of PGCs by SGPs. Six4 affects msSGP migration by a different pathway as these move normally in Hmgcr mutant embryos. Additionally, embryos lacking fully functional Six4 show a novel phenotype in which the SGPs, which originate in distinct clusters, fail to coalesce to form unified gonads. Conclusion Our work establishes the Drosophila gonad as a model system for the analysis of coordinated cell migrations and morphogenesis using live imaging and demonstrates that Six4 is a key regulator of somatic cell function during gonadogenesis. Our data suggest that the initial association of SGP clusters

  7. Mutations of the SRY-responsive enhancer of SOX9 are uncommon in XY gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, I; Bagheri-Fam, S; Knower, K C; Wieacker, P; Scherer, Gerd; Harley, V R

    2010-01-01

    During mouse sex determination, SRY upregulates the core testis-specific enhancer of Sox9, TESCO. Mutations in human SRY are found in one third of cases with XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (XY GD; Swyer syndrome), while two thirds remain unexplained. Heterozygous SOX9 mutations can cause XY GD in association with the skeletal malformation syndrome campomelic dysplasia. We hypothesized that human TESCO mutations could cause isolated XY GD. Sixty-six XY GD cases with an intact SRY were analyzed for TESCO point mutations or deletions. No mutations were identified. We conclude that TESCO mutations are not a common cause of XY GD. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. IMPORTÂNCIA DA VITAMINA C NO CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO GONADAL EM PEIXES

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Tamyres Pereira Araújo; UnB; Ferreira, Thalita Milo Simões; UnB; Gomides, Pedro Fellipe Vieira; UPIS; Navarro, Fernanda Keley Silva Pereira; UnB; Murata, Luci Sayori; UnB; Navarro, Rodrigo Diana; Universidade de Brasília

    2014-01-01

    O crescimento saudável dos peixes bem como, a melhora nos índices reprodutivos, é alcançado com o balanceamento de dietas em função da exigência nutricional em cada fase de desenvolvimento. A vitamina C atua em diversos processos fisiológicos no peixe, sendo, portanto, de suma importância o conhecimento dos seus efeitos no organismo do animal. O presente trabalho aborda os efeitos da vitamina C no crescimento e no desenvolvimento gonadal dos peixes.

  9. First gonadal maturation of Pinirampus pirinampu (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peixer

    Full Text Available Information regarding the reproductive cycle of commercially exploited fish species is extremely important for their appropriate management. The reproductive size of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix, 1829 was determined for a population studied in the Pantanal wetlands of western Brazil. Samples were taken in September, October, and December 1997, and in February and March 1998. Gonadal stages were macroscopically determined and a monthly gonadossomatic index (GSI was used to determine the breeding period. The length of the first gonadal maturation was determined by classifying male and female adults and immature fish into length classes. The data on the adult individuals were plotted on graphs and the median values estimated to find the length at which 50% of the individuals reached maturity (L50. L100 was also determined. Males and females in the gonadal maturation process were recorded from October on, and the highest frequency was found to occur in February. Individuals with empty gonads occurred from February onwards. The GSI showed that gonadal development began in September and reached its peak in February. The L50 was 574 mm for females and 536 mm for males, while the L100 was 590 mm for females and 580 mm for males.

  10. Gonadal Irradiation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    division either by mitosis or meiosis show the least degree of radiation tolerance. This can be readily demonstrated histologically. Two hours after irradiation the spermatogenetic cell column starts to shrink because of a reduction in the number of spermatogonia, some of which are undergoing abnormal mitosis. Four days ...

  11. Gonadal Irradiation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromosomes is reduced to the haploid number of 23, and so are transformed into secondary spermatocytes. These in turn undergo a normal mitotic division to form two spermatoids, which mature by a series of morphological steps to spermatozoa. The duration of this entire process has been estimated as being about 40 ...

  12. IL-12 inhibits the TGF-beta-dependent T cell developmental programs and skews the TGF-beta-induced differentiation into a Th1-like direction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Jana; Pokorná, Kateřina; Holáň, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 1 (2012), s. 74-82 ISSN 0171-2985 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GAP304/11/0653; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/1568; GA ČR GD310/08/H077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cytokines * T cell differentiation * T cell subsets Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.814, year: 2012

  13. Differential processing of the direction and focus of expansion of optic flow stimuli in areas MST and V3A of the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Samantha L; Silson, Edward H; Gouws, André D; Morland, Antony B; McKeefry, Declan J

    2017-06-01

    Human neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have raised the possibility that different attributes of optic flow stimuli, namely radial direction and the position of the focus of expansion (FOE), are processed within separate cortical areas. In the human brain, visual areas V5/MT+ and V3A have been proposed as integral to the analysis of these different attributes of optic flow stimuli. To establish direct causal relationships between neural activity in human (h)V5/MT+ and V3A and the perception of radial motion direction and FOE position, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to disrupt cortical activity in these areas while participants performed behavioral tasks dependent on these different aspects of optic flow stimuli. The cortical regions of interest were identified in seven human participants using standard functional MRI retinotopic mapping techniques and functional localizers. TMS to area V3A was found to disrupt FOE positional judgments but not radial direction discrimination, whereas the application of TMS to an anterior subdivision of hV5/MT+, MST/TO-2 produced the reverse effects, disrupting radial direction discrimination but eliciting no effect on the FOE positional judgment task. This double dissociation demonstrates that FOE position and radial direction of optic flow stimuli are signaled independently by neural activity in areas hV5/MT+ and V3A. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Optic flow constitutes a biologically relevant visual cue as we move through any environment. With the use of neuroimaging and brain-stimulation techniques, this study demonstrates that separate human brain areas are involved in the analysis of the direction of radial motion and the focus of expansion in optic flow. This dissociation reveals the existence of separate processing pathways for the analysis of different attributes of optic flow that are important for the guidance of self-locomotion and object avoidance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Teach It, Don’t Preach It: The Differential Effects of Directly-communicated and Self-generated Utility Value Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Elizabeth A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Social-psychological interventions in education have used a variety of “self-persuasion” or “saying-is-believing” techniques to encourage students to articulate key intervention messages. These techniques are used in combination with more overt strategies, such as the direct communication of messages in order to promote attitude change. However, these different strategies have rarely been systematically compared, particularly in controlled laboratory settings. We focus on one intervention based in expectancy-value theory designed to promote perceptions of utility value in the classroom and test different intervention techniques to promote interest and performance. Across three laboratory studies, we used a mental math learning paradigm in which we varied whether students wrote about utility value for themselves or received different forms of directly-communicated information about the utility value of a novel mental math technique. In Study 1, we examined the difference between directly-communicated and self-generated utility-value information and found that directly-communicated utility-value information undermined performance and interest for individuals who lacked confidence, but that self-generated utility had positive effects. However, Study 2 suggests that these negative effects of directly-communicated utility value can be ameliorated when participants are also given the chance to generate their own examples of utility value, revealing a synergistic effect of directly-communicated and self-generated utility value. In Study 3, we found that individuals who lacked confidence benefited more when everyday examples of utility value were communicated, rather than career and school examples. PMID:26495326

  15. PENGARUH RANGSANGAN HORMON AROMATASE INHIBITOR DAN OODEV TERHADAP PERUBAHAN KELAMIN DAN PERKEMBANGAN GONAD IKAN KERAPU SUNU, Plectropomus leopardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirmawan Tirta Yudha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan utama yang dihadapi dalam penyediaan calon induk ikan kerapu sunu Plectropomus leopardus hasil budidaya yang bersifat hermaprodit sekuensial adalah keterlambatan dalam perkembangan gonad dan perubahan gonad dari betina menjadi jantan. Manipulasi hormonal merupakan cara yang paling efektif dan efisien dalam memacu perkembangan reproduksi dan pematangan gonad. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan dosis hormon aromatase inhibitor dan oodev yang tepat untuk memacu perubahan kelamin dan perkembangan gonad ikan kerapu sunu. Ikan uji yang digunakan sebanyak 35 ekor F-1 dengan bobot rerata 2,3 ± 0,28 kg. Penelitian dilakukan selama dua bulan. Induksi hormon dilakukan melalui penyuntikan setiap dua minggu sekali dengan empat dosis aromatase inhibitor dan oodev yang berbeda; A (aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan, O (oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, AO1 (aromatase inhibitor 0,1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, AO2 (aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, dan K (plasebo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan dan oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan efektif untuk merangsang perubahan kelamin. Perlakuan tersebut dapat meningkatkan konsentrasi testosteron dalam darah (2,819 ng/mL setelah delapan minggu pemeliharaan. Berdasarkan hasil histologi gonad dan observasi terhadap ekspresi gen terkait reproduksi menggunakan gen target DMRT1 dan SOX3 menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan hormon AO2 (Aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan terbukti dapat memacu perubahan kelamin dari betina menjadi jantan dan kematangan gonad pada ikan kerapu sunu Plectropomus leopardus. The main problems faced in providing prospective broodstock of protogynous hermaphrodite coral trout grouper Plectropomus leopardus are lateness of gonadal development and gonadal sex reversal from female to male. Hormonal manipulation is the most effective way to induce reproductive development and gonadal maturation. The present

  16. Effect of anti-glycosphingolipid monoclonal antibodies in pathogenic fungal growth and differentiation. Characterization of monoclonal antibody MEST-3 directed to Manpα1→3Manpα1→2IPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Anita H

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies carried out during the 1990's demonstrated the presence of fungal glycoinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs with unique structures, some of them showed reactivity with sera of patients with histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis or aspergillosis. It was also observed that fungal GIPCs were able to inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation "in vitro", and studies regarding the importance of these molecules to fungal survival showed that many species of fungi are vulnerable to inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Results In this paper, we describe a detailed characterization of an IgG2a monoclonal antibody (mAb, termed MEST-3, directed to the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis glycolipid antigen Pb-2 (Manpα1→3Manpα1→2IPC. mAb MEST-3 also recognizes GIPCs bearing the same structure in other fungi. Studies performed on fungal cultures clearly showed the strong inhibitory activity of MEST-3 on differentiation and colony formation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Sporothrix schenckii. Similar inhibitory results were observed when these fungi where incubated with a different mAb, which recognizes GIPCs bearing terminal residues of β-D-galactofuranose linked to mannose (mAb MEST-1. On the other hand, mAb MEST-2 specifically directed to fungal glucosylceramide (GlcCer was able to promote only a weak inhibition on fungal differentiation and colony formation. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that mAbs directed to specific glycosphingolipids are able to interfere on fungal growth and differentiation. Thus, studies on surface distribution of GIPCs in yeast and mycelium forms of fungi may yield valuable information regarding the relevance of glycosphingolipids in processes of fungal growth, morphological transition and infectivity.

  17. Reactivity of various leishmanial antigens in a direct agglutination test and their value in differentiating post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis from leprosy and other skin conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harith, A.; Chowdhury, S.; Al-Masum, A.; Semião-Santos, S.; Das, P. K.; Akhter, S.; Vetter, J. C.; Haq, I.

    1996-01-01

    A direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) was evaluated in conditions that simulate the disease clinically or immunologically. A reference strain of Leishmania donovani (LEM 1399), and antigen preparations from Leishmania isolates from

  18. Effects of photoperiod on somatic growth and gonadal development in male nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diana Navarro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotation and translation of the Earth subject the living organisms to cyclic changes of environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of photoperiod on growth and gonadal development in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In a completely randomized design experiment, juvenile males were distributed into nine tanks (10 fish per tank and maintained for 60 days under three different light treatments with three repetitions each. The treatments were: T1 - 0 h photoperiod (tanks covered with lids and black plastic; T2 - 12 hours photoperiod (tanks uncovered during photoperiod to provide natural light; and T3 - 24 hours photoperiod (tanks covered with lids equipped with lamps. No significant differences were found between treatments for body length, gonad weight or gonadosomatic index, but body weight was higher in fish subjected to T3 compared with other treatments. Furthermore, significant increases in tubular lumen and germinal epithelium were observed in fish exposed to T1 and T3, respectively. Thus, the manipulation of photoperiod in Nile tilapia culture systems can improve production and consequently increase the economic return on investment.

  19. Morphometics and gonadal development of the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic H Martini

    Full Text Available Hagfishes have been the target of commercial fisheries in many areas of the world, with the catch processed for leather and for human consumption. A fishery has been operating in New Zealand waters for the last six years, harvesting the bearded hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus. The fishery has thus far been unregulated. Based on samples collected dockside over a two-year period, this report expands the morphometric database for this species, provides information on the size and weight of the harvested animals, determines the sizes at the onset of gonadal development and the minimum sizes at sexual maturation for males and females, and indicates that E. cirrhatus, like most other hagfish species, has no specific breeding season. Although females appear in the population at smaller sizes, the sex ratio for mature animals is 1:1 and the sizes of the largest males and females are comparable. The changes observed in sex ratio as a function of TL suggest differences in the timing and rates of gonadal development in females versus males rather than protogyny. Based on the size of the eggs, the number of eggs per female, the proportion of the population that contains large eggs, and the number of postovulatory females, it is clear that E. cirrhatus, like other hagfish species, are potentially vulnerable to overexploitation.

  20. A mutation in the nucleoporin-107 gene causes XX gonadal dysgenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg-Shukron, Ariella; Renbaum, Paul; Kalifa, Rachel; Zeligson, Sharon; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Dreifuss, Amatzia; Abu-Rayyan, Amal; Maatuk, Noa; Fardian, Nilly; Rekler, Dina; Kanaan, Moien; Samson, Abraham O.; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Gerlitz, Offer; Zangen, David

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian development and maintenance are poorly understood; however, diseases that affect these processes can offer insights into the underlying mechanisms. XX female gonadal dysgenesis (XX-GD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by underdeveloped, dysfunctional ovaries, with subsequent lack of spontaneous pubertal development, primary amenorrhea, uterine hypoplasia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Here, we report an extended consanguineous family of Palestinian origin, in which 4 females exhibited XX-GD. Using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a recessive missense mutation in nucleoporin-107 (NUP107, c.1339G>A, p.D447N). This mutation segregated with the XX-GD phenotype and was not present in available databases or in 150 healthy ethnically matched controls. NUP107 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and the NUP107-associated protein SEH1 is required for oogenesis in Drosophila. In Drosophila, Nup107 knockdown in somatic gonadal cells resulted in female sterility, whereas males were fully fertile. Transgenic rescue of Drosophila females bearing the Nup107D364N mutation, which corresponds to the human NUP107 (p.D447N), resulted in almost complete sterility, with a marked reduction in progeny, morphologically aberrant eggshells, and disintegrating egg chambers, indicating defective oogenesis. These results indicate a pivotal role for NUP107 in ovarian development and suggest that nucleoporin defects may play a role in milder and more common conditions such as premature ovarian failure. PMID:26485283

  1. Gonadal mosaicism in ARID1B gene causes intellectual disability and dysmorphic features in three siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Salem, Salma; Sobreira, Nara; Akawi, Nadia A; Al-Shamsi, Aisha M; John, Anne; Pramathan, Thachillath; Valle, David; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding the AT-rich interaction domain-containing protein 1B (ARID1B) has recently been shown to be one of the most frequently mutated genes in patients with intellectual disability (ID). The phenotypic spectrums associated with variants in this gene vary widely ranging for mild to severe non-specific ID to Coffin-Siris syndrome. In this study, we evaluated three children from a consanguineous Emirati family affected with ID and dysmorphic features. Genomic DNA from all affected siblings was analyzed using CGH array and whole-exome sequencing (WES). Based on a recessive mode of inheritance, homozygous or compound heterozygous variants shared among all three affected children could not be identified. However, further analysis revealed a heterozygous variant (c.4318C>T; p.Q1440*) in the three affected children in an autosomal dominant ID causing gene, ARID1B. This variant was absent in peripheral blood samples obtained from both parents and unaffected siblings. Therefore, we propose that the most likely explanation for this situation is that one of the parents is a gonadal mosaic for the variant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gonadal mosaicism inheritance of an ARID1B variant leading to familial ID recurrence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Radioprotection to the Gonads in Pediatric Pelvic Radiography: Effectiveness of Developed Bismuth Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use and effectiveness of traditional lead gonad shields in pediatric pelvic radiography has been challenged by several literatures over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to develop a new radioprotective gonad shields to be use in pediatric pelvic radiography. Materials and Methods: The commercially available 0.06 mm lead equivalent bismuth garment has cropped squarely and used as ovarian shield to cover the entire region of pelvis. In order to prevent deterioration of image quality due to beam hardening artifacts, a 1-cm foam as spacer was located between the shield and patients pelvis. Moreover, we added a lead piece at the cranial position of the bismuth garment to absorb the scatter radiations to the radiosensitive organs. In girls, 49 radiographs with shield and 46 radiographs without shield was taken. The radiation dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs. Image quality assessments were performed using the European guidelines. For boys, the lead testicular shields was developed using 2 cm bismuth garment, added to the sides. The prevalence and efficacy of testicular shields was assessed in clinical practice fromFebruary 2016 to June 2016. Results: Without increasing the dose to the breast, thyroid and the lens of the eyes, the use of bismuth shield has reduced the entrance skin dose(ESD of the pelvis and radiation dose to the ovaries by 62.2% and 61.7%, respectively (P

  3. Estrogen accelerates gonadal recrudescence in photo-regressed male siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Toni R; Lynch, G Robert; Tsai, Pei-San

    2002-10-01

    Seasonal gonadal recrudescence in the male Siberian hamster is accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis, weight gain, and darkening of coat color. The downstream endocrine regulators responsible for these changes have been definitively identified. We have previously shown that the administration of exogenous 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to adult male Siberian hamsters kept under long-day photoperiod increased testicular mass without altering spermatogenesis. In this study, we examine if E(2) can initiate testicular growth in photo-regressed adult Siberian hamsters and if this testicular growth is accompanied by weight gain and pelage color change. Photo-regressed adult male Siberian hamsters were subcutaneously implanted with a 1 mm silastic capsule containing E(2) or cholesterol control. After 15 days, robust initiation of spermatogenesis was observed in E(2)-implanted animals in the absence of body weight and pelage color change. While circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) remained undetected in both control and E(2)-treated animals, E(2) significantly reduced pituitary gonadotropin stores. Overall, we showed E(2) stimulated gonadal recrudescence via a pathway that has diverged from body weight and pelage color change. Further, we demonstrated a novel role of E(2) in the initiation of spermatogenesis, possibly via a mechanism independent of FSH.

  4. Life history traits influence in gonad composition of two sympatric species of flatfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Gadea Alvarez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractParalichthys orbignyanus and Paralichthys patagonicus are flatfish with different life history traits, having in common the condition of breeding in seawater. Paralichthys patagonicus remain their whole life in open seawater and Paralichthys orbignyanus are sometimes found in brackish water bodies. As marine and estuarine food webs have different fatty acid (FA compositions, the aim of this study was to characterize the gonadal maturation of P. orbignyanus and P. patagonicus females through the analysis of lipid content and FA profile in order to understand to what extent life history traits are reflected in the ovarian composition. During gonadal maturation lipid content increased and FA profiles changed in both species, but the lipid increase was greater in P. orbignyanus. The N-3FA and n-3HUFA proportions increased in both species but were higher in P. orbignyanus. The differences between the lifestyles of these species were reflected in the ovarian FA profile mainly as a result of differences in their FA metabolism, causing a greater accumulation of n-3FA and n-3HUFA in P. orbignyanus than in P. patagonicus. The higher lipid accumulation in P. orbignyanus’ ovaries could indicate that this species, feeding in brackish water bodies, has the possibility of storing more energy than P. patagonicus.

  5. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  6. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Praveen; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3' monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc.) from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C), exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin), while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of flavonoids in C

  7. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Awasthi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B and flavonoid 3′ monooxygenase (CYP706C are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc. from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C, exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin, while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of

  8. In Silico analysis of perturbed steroidogenesis and gonad growth in fathead minnows (P. promelas) exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, David; Petersen, Lene H; Martinović, Dalma; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-06-01

    The multi-factorial nature of adverse reproductive effects mediated by endocrine disrupting compounds (or EDCs) makes understanding the mechanistic basis of reproductive dysfunction a highly pertinent area of research. As a consequence, a main motivator for continued research is to integrate 'multi-leveled' complexity (i.e., from genes to phenotype) using mathematical methods capable of encapsulating properties of physiological relevance. In this study, an in silico stoichiometric model of piscine steroidogenesis was augmented with a 'biomass' reaction associating the underlying stoichiometry of steroidogenesis with a reaction representative of gonad growth. The ability of the in silico model to predict perturbed steroidogenesis and subsequent effects on gonad growth was tested by exposing reproductively active male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to 88 ng/L of the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). The in silico model was parameterized (or constrained) with experimentally quantified concentrations of selected steroid hormones (using mass spectrometry) and fold changes in gene expression (using RT-qPCR) for selected steroidogenic enzyme genes, in gonads of male and female fish. Once constrained, the optimization framework of flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to calculate an optimal flux through the biomass reaction (analogous to gonad growth) and associated steroidogenic flux distributions required to generate biomass. FBA successfully predicted effects of EE2 exposure on fathead minnow gonad growth (%gonadosomatic index or %GSI) and perturbed production of steroid hormones. Specifically, FBA accurately predicted no effects of exposure on male %GSI and a significant reduction for female %GSI. Furthermore, in silico simulations accurately identified disrupted reaction fluxes catalyzing productions of androgens (in male fish) and progestogens (in female fish), an observation which agreed with in vivo experimentation. The analyses

  9. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus discus: Identification of Genes Involved in Germ Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyun; Xu, Dongdong; Ye, Huan; Yue, Huamei; Ooka, Shioh; Kondo, Hidehiro; Yazawa, Ryosuke; Takeuchi, Yutaka

    2018-04-03

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing gonadal developmental processes in abalones. Here, we conducted transcriptome analysis of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus discus for gene discovery in the brain, ovary, testis, and unfertilized eggs. Among the annotated unigenes, 48.6% of unigenes were identified by Venn diagram analysis as having universal or tissue-specific expression. Twenty-three genes with gonad-biased gene ontology (GO) terms were first obtained. Secondly, 36 genes were found by screening known gene names related to germ cell development. Finally, 17 genes were obtained by querying the annotated unigene database for zygotically expressed gonadal genes (ovary and testis) and maternally expressed gonadal genes (ovary, testis, and unfertilized eggs) using keywords related to reproduction. To further verify tissue distribution pattern and subcellular localization of these genes, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were performed using a unigene encoding a germ cell marker, vasa, as control. The results showed that vasa was expressed mainly in the early developmental stages of germ cells in both sexes. One of the candidate genes, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein 12 (ZP12), was expressed in the primordial germ cells of immature gonad and early developmental stages of germ cells of the adult female. The results obtained from the present study suggest that vasa and ZP12 are involved in germ cell development of Pacific abalone and that ZP12 is an especially useful germ cell-specific marker in immature adults. The current gonadal transcriptome profile is an extensive resource for future reproductive molecular biology studies of this species.

  10. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  12. [Male gonadal dose in adjuvant 3-d-pelvic irradiation after anterior resection of rectal cancer. Influence to fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroth, Marc D; Hensley, Frank; Wannenmacher, Michael; Zierhut, Dietmar

    2003-11-01

    Rectal cancer is a common malignant disease and occurs not infrequently in younger men. We verified the dose to the testes from scattered radiation in adjuvant pelvic irradiation following anterior resection of rectal cancer. We measured the scattered gonadal dose of 18 patients in vivo with thermoluminescence detectors, which were fixed on four defined points on the scrotum during radiation on three consecutive days. All patients were treated three-dimensionally planned using a three-field box lying in prone position in a bellyboard. A total dose of 50.4 Gy was given in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy. From 45 up to 50.4 Gy the radiation fields were modified to lateral-opposing fields which were shortened from the top to protect the small bowel. The mean gonadal dose per fraction of all patients was 0.057 Gy (median 0.05 Gy) with a range between 0.035 and 0.114 Gy. The standard deviation was 0.02 Gy. The calculated cumulative mean gonadal dose after 28 fractions was 1.60 Gy (0.98-3.19 Gy). Germinal epithelium is very sensitive to low-dose irradiation, according to a negative fractionation effect. It is known that gonadal total doses of 1 Gy with single doses of 0.03-0.05 Gy can result in a temporary azoospermia with following recovery in most cases. If gonadal total doses exceed 1.5 Gy a substantial increase in irreversible azoospermia must be expected. With respect to the data reported in the literature our measured mean gonadal total dose of 1.60 Gy will lead with high probability to an irreversible infertility. Because of the small number of patients in our study, the data must be interpreted with caution, however, it is very important in patient's informed consent to draw attention to the high risk of infertility. The possibility of sperm cryoconservation should be discussed with the patient.

  13. Measurement of the differential cross sections for isolated direct photon pair production in ppˉ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 725, 1-3 (2013), s. 6-14 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : anti-p p * interaction * pair production * photon * direct production * mass spectrum * angular correlation * two-photon * D0 * Fermilab Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 6.019, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037026931300511X

  14. Differential expression of SOX9 in gonads of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea at male- or female-promoting temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mendoza, N; Harley, V R; Merchant-Larios, H

    1999-11-01

    In mouse and chick embryos, the SOX9 gene is down-regulated in genetic females whereas in genetic males it remains in the Sertoli cells. We studied the distribution of SOX9 protein in developing genital ridges of embryos of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea incubated at male- or female-promoting temperatures, using the antibody for detection. At stages 22-24, cells in medullary cords show SOX9 positive nuclei, while coelomic epithelial cells appear negative. At stage 25 however, most medullary cells are SOX9 negative and at the female-promoting temperature, and from stage 26 onwards, SOX9 protein is not detected. At the male-promoting temperature, medullary cords remain SOX9-positive at all stages. These results suggest that SOX9 is up-regulated in Sertoli cells irrespective of primary sex-determining switch. Sex is irreversibly determined at stage 24 or 26 at the male- or female-promoting temperature, respectively (Merchant-Larios et al.,'97). The present results suggest that there is a correlation between SOX9 expression and sex determination in the olive ridley. At the male-promoting temperature, Sertoli cells expressing SOX9 become committed at stage 24 and male sex is determined, whereas at the female-promoting temperature, SOX9 is down-regulated at stage 26 and female sex is determined. J. Exp. Zool. 284:705-710, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Arabidopsis TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 Is Directly Regulated by R2R3 MYB Transcription Factors and Is Involved in Regulation of GLABRA2 Transcription in Epidermal Differentiation[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tetsuya; Hattori, Sayoko; Sano, Ryosuke; Inoue, Kayoko; Shirano, Yumiko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Shibata, Daisuke; Sato, Shusei; Kato, Tomohiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Wada, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 (TTG2) encodes a WRKY transcription factor and is expressed in young leaves, trichomes, seed coats, and root hairless cells. An examination of several trichome and root hair mutants indicates that MYB and bHLH genes regulate TTG2 expression. Two MYB binding sites in the TTG2 5′ regulatory region act as cis regulatory elements and as direct targets of R2R3 MYB transcription factors such as WEREWOLF, GLABRA1, and TRANSPARENT TESTA2. Mutations in TTG2 cause phenotypic defects in trichome development and seed color pigmentation. Transgenic plants expressing a chimeric repressor version of the TTG2 protein (TTG2:SRDX) showed defects in trichome formation, anthocyanin accumulation, seed color pigmentation, and differentiation of root hairless cells. GLABRA2 (GL2) expression was markedly reduced in roots of ProTTG2:TTG2:SRDX transgenic plants, suggesting that TTG2 is involved in the regulation of GL2 expression, although GL2 expression in the ttg2 mutant was similar to that in the wild type. Our analysis suggests a new step in a regulatory cascade of epidermal differentiation, in which complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH transcription factors regulate the expression of TTG2, which then regulates GL2 expression with complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH in the differentiation of trichomes and root hairless cells. PMID:17766401

  16. The effects of sex steroid treatments on sexual differentiation in a unisexual lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens (Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy, A J; Crews, D

    1986-02-01

    Cnemidophorus uniparens is a parthenogenetic unisexual species of lizard in which each individual develops as a female, making it a unique animal model for the study of sexual differentiation. In one study, administration of exogenous testosterone before and/or after hatching influenced the development of the gonads, the accessory reproductive ducts, the renal sex segment of the mesonephric kidney, and the femoral glands, a secondary sex character. Testosterone treatment also affected the cross-sectional area of the gonad and the proportions of cortical and medullary tissues present in the developing gonad. The oviducts and femoral glands of testosterone-treated individuals were hypertrophied; the collecting tubules of the kidney of these animals contained granules, an androgen-dependent, sexually dimorphic character in squamate reptiles. In another study, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol were administered to C. uniparens embryos. No treatment effects on gonadal development were detected on the day of hatching. However, estradiol, but not testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, stimulated development of the oviducts. Taken together these studies suggest that androgen aromatization may play a role in sexual differentiation in lizards.

  17. Gonad doses for male patients from stomach examination and oral cholegraphy using the X-ray image intensifying technique and television fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, W.; Richter, K.; Koenig, W.; Menzel, B.; Reisinger, W.; Uhlich, F.

    1979-01-01

    The gonad dose was measured for male patients undergoing stomach examinations and oral cholegraphy by means of a diagnostic twelve pulse generator (TuR D 1500) and an X-ray apparatus 'Diagnost 100' (Philips-Mueller). In a small group of patients the gonad dose was ascertained per exposure to a 70 mm single spot film, to a 24 cm x 30 cm full size radiograph, and per minute of exposure to image intensifier fluoroscopy. The total gonad dose in both the diagnostic techniques was determined seperately in larger groups of patients. In stomach examination large size radiography led to a gonad dose 20 times higher than that obtained with the spot film technique, while exposure from cholegraphy was 10 times higher. The gonad dose per exposure of a single spot film was about 0.5 mrad. In examinations of the stomach the gonad dose from one minute fluroscopy was 18 times higher than the doses determined for a single spot film, and in cholegraphy it was 10 times higher. Supposing mean values of the number of radiographs and of the fluoroscopy time according to the conditions applied, the gonad dose in stomach examination from the film-screen technique is about twice that from the television image-intensifying technique. By comparison, oral cholegraphy exclusively performed by large-size radiography yielded about the same gonad dose as the spot film television technique. Total dose values determined separately confirmed these evaluations. (author)

  18. Dose measurements in panoramic magnification exposures with the X-ray devices Stat Oralix and Status X with special consideration of gonade dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient's radiation exposition was investigated by means of an Alderson-phantom at the mucous membrane surface, at the skin surface as well as at male and female gonades in dependence of the projection methods. The gonade dose is decisively influenced by the projection method, in which the half-side method yields the least irradiation. (HP) [de

  19. Activation of natriuretic peptides and the sympathetic nervous system following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with gonadal adipose tissues browning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Neinast

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Upregulation of Nppb, Npr1, Npr2, and β3-adrenergic receptors in gonadal adipose tissue following RYGB was associated with increased markers of browning. This browning of gonadal adipose tissue may underpin the positive effect of RYGB on metabolic parameters and may in part be mediated through upregulation of natriuretic peptides.

  20. Proliferation and Glia-Directed Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells in the Subventricular Zone of the Lateral Ventricle and the Migratory Pathway to the Lesions after Cortical Devascularization of Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Bai, Hua-Jing; Liu, Jun-Qi; Tian, Mo; Wang, Yong-Xue; Niu, Xin; Si, Yin-Chu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cortical devascularization on the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rats. 60 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and devascularized group. At 15 and 30 days after cerebral cortices were devascularized, rats were euthanized and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The number of PCNA-, Vimentin-, and GFAP-positive cells in the bilateral SVZ of the lateral wall and the superior wall of the lateral ventricles of 15- and 30-day devascularized groups increased significantly compared with the control group (P cells in cortical lesions of 15- and 30-day devascularized groups increased significantly compared with the control group (P cells in the SVZ migrated through the rostral migratory stream (RMS), and PCNA-, GFAP-, and Vimentin-positive cells from both the ipsilateral and contralateral dorsolateral SVZ (dl-SVZ) migrated into the corpus callosum (CC) and accumulated, forming a migratory pathway within the CC to the lesioned site. Our study suggested that cortical devascularization induced proliferation, glia-directed differentiation, and migration of NSCs from the SVZ through the RMS or directly to the corpus callosum and finally migrating radially to cortical lesions. This may play a significant role in neural repair.

  1. Gonadal maldevelopment as risk factor for germ cell cancer: towards a clinical decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Yvonne G; Biermann, Katharina; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Cools, Martine; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2015-04-01

    A disturbed process of gonadal formation and maintenance may result in testicular dysgenesis syndrome or disorders of sex development (DSDs), with an increased germ cell cancer (GCC) risk. Early diagnosis and treatment requires the identification of relevant risk factors and initial pathologic stages. To evaluate current knowledge and novel insights regarding GCC risk in patients with DSDs, with the aim of providing a model for clinical use. A Medline search was conducted to identify all original and review articles assessing the aetiology of GCC, GCC risk in DSD patients, new predictive markers related to GCC, and possible clinical scenarios related to GCC and DSDs. Embryonic development is controlled by orchestrated patterns of gene and subsequent protein expression. Knowledge of these networks is essential to understand the mechanisms of disturbed development including GCC formation. GCCs are subdivided into seminomas and nonseminomas, and they all arise from embryonic germ cells that have failed to mature appropriately. The precursor is known as carcinoma in situ (also referred to as testicular intratubular neoplasia and intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified) in a testicular microenvironment and gonadoblastoma in a dysgenetic/ovarian microenvironment. GCCs mimic embryonic development, resulting in the identification of diagnostic markers (eg, OCT3/4, SRY [sex determining region Y]-box 2 [SOX2], and [sex determining region Y]-box 17 [SOX17]). Novel insights indicate a subtle interplay of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms, environmental factors, and epigenetic aberrations in the aetiology of GCCs. A genvironmental model combining these factors is presented, proposed as a guideline for clinical management by an experienced multidisciplinary team. The goal is individualised treatment including preservation of gonadal function (if possible) and prevention of malignant transformation. A hypothesis is presented in which combined interactions of

  2. Electrochemical Behaviour of Tinidazole at 1,4-Benzoquinone Modified Carbon Paste Electrode and Its Direct Determination in Pharmaceutical Tablets and Urine by Differential Pulse Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Nikodimos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical method based on a 1,4-benzoquinone modified carbon paste electrode (1,4-BQMCPE was described for the determination of tinidazole (TDZ. In Britton Robinson buffer solution, TDZ yields well-defined irreversible reduction peak at −0.344 V on a 1,4-BQMCPE. Compared with that on a bare CPE, the reduction peak of TDZ increased significantly on the modified CPE and the effects of different parameters on the voltammetric responses were also investigated. Differential pulse voltammetric method was proposed and optimized for TDZ determination and its reductive peak current response at 1,4-BQMCPE was found to show linear dependence on the concentration of TDZ in the range of 1.0 × 10−6 to 5.0 × 10−4 M with a linear regression equation, correlation coefficient, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantification (LOQ of IPC (μA = 0.19958 + 0.02657C (μM, 0.99486, 1.10 × 10−7 M, and 3.77 × 10−7, respectively. Excellent recovery results for spiked TDZ in pharmaceutical tablet samples ranging within 97.44–97.51% and in urine ranging within 95.37–96.91% were observed. The selectivity of the method for TDZ was further studied in the presence of selected potential interferents and confirmed the potential applicability of the developed method for the determination of TDZ.

  3. Benih Keturunan Induk Ikan Nila yang Divaksinasi pada Tingkat Kematangan Gonad-2 Lebih Tahan Terhadap Infeksi Streptococcus agalactiae (RESISTANCE OF TILAPIA (OREOCHRIMIS NILOTICUS FRY VACCINATED AT DIFFERENT GONADAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES TOWARD STREPTOCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairun Nissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination based on gonad maturationstages on tilapia brood stocks in which the released antibodies was able to be transferred to the seed.Vaccine composed with whole cells and extracellular product (ECP was injected at stage 2 and stage 3 ofthe gonad development stages at concentration of 109 CFU mL1 as much as 4 mL to 1 kg of brood fish.Control fish was unvaccinated treatment. Challenge study at seed was conducted by immersing S. agalactiaefor 30 minutes at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post hatching (DPH in 107 CFU/mL. Antibody levels on broodstocks, eggs, and body fluids of seed, and relative percentage survival (RPS of seed post challenge studywere evaluated. The results showed that stage 2 of gonad developmental stages was found on 7 days postinitial spawning and stage 3 found on 14 days post initial spawning of brood fish. Vaccinated done in stage 2 of gonad developmental stages gave immunoglobulin serum in brood (0,166±0,001, egg (0,165±0,002,and seed aged 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post hatching (0,164±0,002, 0,162±0,005, 0,155±0,006, and 0,14±0,008respectively were significantly higher (P<0,05 compared to other treatment. Challenged test that doneby immersing with S. agalactiae suspension on larval aged 7, 14, 21, and 28 days had highest RPS(95,24%, 83,33%, 72,22%, and 56,02% respectively formed on seed from brood stock vaccination in gonaddevelopment stage 2. Vaccination in tilapia brood stocks at stage 2 of gonad developmental stages gavehighest protection by maternal immunity to the seed against S. agalactiae.

  4. The direct determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium, lead and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of a voltammetric procedure for the direct, simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in three SAROC reference materials (carbonatite, magnesite, and quartz). The electrolyte was a mixture of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. No interferences were encountered from Fe(III), As(III), Sb(V), Tl(I), or In(III) at the concentrations present in the samples. Intermetallic interferences were eliminated by the use of thin mercury-film electrodes not less than 80nm thick. Limits of detection were determined by the degree to which the supporting electrolyte could be purified, and were estimated to be 10ng/g, 250ng/g, and 150ng/g for cadmium, lead, and copper respectively

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 Vpr induces differential regulation of T cell costimulatory molecules: Direct effect of Vpr on T cell activation and immune function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachari, Narasimhan J.; Majumder, Biswanath; Ayyavoo, Velpandi

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral proteins disrupt the normal host cellular immune pathways thus exploiting the cellular machinery for replication, survival and to escape host immune attack. Here we evaluated the direct effects of HIV-1 Vpr-mediated immune modulation of infected T cells. Vpr specifically downregulated the expression of CD28 and increased the expression of CTLA-4, whereas no significant difference in the expression of CD25 and HLA-DR was observed. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in T cells was evaluated as a measure of the downstream effector functions. Results indicate that Vpr significantly inhibited IFN-γ production and this may, in part, due to Vpr's ability to inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and its transcriptional regulation. Together these results support that HIV-1 Vpr selectively dysregulates the immune functions at multiple levels and exerts its inhibitory effects in the presence of other viral proteins

  6. Differential effects of climate and species interactions on range limits at a hybrid zone: potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Michael A; Rice, Amber M

    2015-11-01

    The relative contributions of climate versus interspecific interactions in shaping species distributions have important implications for closely related species at contact zones. When hybridization occurs within a contact zone, these factors regulate hybrid zone location and movement. While a hybrid zone's position may depend on both climate and interactions between the hybridizing species, little is known about how these factors interact to affect hybrid zone dynamics. Here, we utilize SDM (species distribution modeling) both to characterize the factors affecting the current location of a moving North American avian hybrid zone and to predict potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on future distributions. We focus on two passerine species that hybridize where their ranges meet, the Black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina (P. carolinensis) chickadee. Our contemporary climate models predict the occurrence of climatically suitable habitat extending beyond the hybrid zone for P. atricapillus only, suggesting that interspecific interactions primarily regulate this range boundary in P. atricapillus, while climatic factors regulate P. carolinensis. Year 2050 climate models predict a drastic northward shift in suitable habitat for P. carolinensis. Because of the greater importance of interspecific interactions for regulating the southern range limit of P. atricapillus, these climate-mediated shifts in the distribution of P. carolinensis may indirectly lead to a range retraction in P. atricapillus. Together, our results highlight the ways climate change can both directly and indirectly affect species distributions and hybrid zone location. In addition, our study lends support to the longstanding hypothesis that abiotic factors regulate species' poleward range limits, while biotic factors shape equatorial range limits.

  7. A Novel igf3 Gene in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Evidence for Its Role in Regulating Gonadal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feibiao; Wang, Lanmei; Zhu, Wenbin; Fu, Jianjun; Dong, Juanjuan; Dong, Zaijie

    2016-01-01

    Since the insulin-like growth factor 3 (igf3) gene was recently discovered in fish ovary, its function in the gonads has received much attention. In this study, we isolated two igf3 subtypes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which comprised full-length cDNA of 707 and 1153 nucleotides encoding 205 and 198 amino acids (aa), respectively. The Igf3 aa sequence had the highest gene homology of 72% with the corresponding sequence in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Phylogenetic tree construction revealed that the C. carpio igf3 gene was first clustered with D. rerio and then with other teleost species. Igf3 mRNA was widely expressed, with expression being highest in the gonads and blood. In the gonad development stage, igf3a mRNA expression was highest in the maturity and recession stage of the ovary, and decline phase of the testis, while igf3b was highest in the recession and fully mature periods of the ovaries and testes, respectively. Western blotting of testis protein samples showed two bands of approximately 21 kDa and 34 kDa corresponding to the calculated molecular mass of the two Igf3 subtypes; no signal was detected in the ovary. The Igf3 protein was localized in the ovary granulosa cells and testis spermatogonium and spermatids. 17β-Ethinylestradiol treatment increased both ovary and testis igf3 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that Igf3 may play an important role in C. carpio gonadal development.

  8. The Histological And Histochemical Changes In The Gonads Of The Cotton Leaf Worm SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAZAA, M.A.M.; ALM EL-DIN, M.M.S.; EL-AKHDAR, E.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sub-sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (125 Gy) alone or in combination with different concentrations of Tafla leaves extract (Nerium oleander) on the histology and histochemistry of the male and female reproductive systems were studied. The treatment caused histopathological changes in the ovaries including vacuolation, absence of nurse cells, shrinkage of oocyte tissue, clumped of chromatin material and thickness of epithelial cells at some areas. The vacuolation of the testes and absorbation of sperm bundles also represent the damage of germ cells, and disintegration of spermatocytes was most prominent in these organs. Histochemical studies showed clear increment in the protein content of male testes while it showed clear decrement in the female ovaries. The ribonucleic acid (RNA) showed a pronounced increase in both male and female gonads in spite of DNA showed a pronounced decrement.

  9. Gonad maturation of Haemulon plumieri (Teleostei: Haemulidae in Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Shinozaki-Mendes

    Full Text Available To elucidate the reproductive cycle of any animal, it is first necessary to understand the development of the germ cells and how this process occurs throughout the reproductive tract. Thus, the aim of the present study was to understand the oogenesis and spermatogenesis, as well as the ovarian and testis maturation and type of spawning, of Haemulon plumieri. A total of 119 females and 136 males were analysed. Based on micro and macroscopic characteristics of gonads, the following stages of maturation for females were determined: immature, maturing, ripe, partially spawning, spawning and resting. For males, only the stages immature, maturing, ripe and spent were observed. We can conclude that the ovarian development occurs cyclically, in which the female can spawn more than two times during the reproductive season with the spawning “synchronous in more than two groups”. Since males do not present the “rest” stage after copulation, the maturation process is continuous.

  10. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlman, S

    2015-01-01

    , member X (γH2AX) (meiosis marker), doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) (meiosis regulator), cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved Caspase 3 (apoptosis markers) and Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67) (proliferation marker). Also, proliferation was determined using a 5'-bromo-2...... at gestational week (GW) 7-12. Gonads were cultured for 2 weeks with and without addition of 1 µM RA. Samples were subsequently formalin-fixed and investigated by immunohistochemistry and cell counting. Proteins investigated and quantified included; octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), transcription...... treated with RA, an increased number of meiotic germ cells (P 1-positive oogonia initiating meiosis (P

  11. The combination between cations and sulfated polysaccharide from abalone gonad (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiming; Cong, Shuang; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Yingying; Li, Tingting; Zhu, Beiwei; Song, Shuang; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-05-15

    Effects of cations (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ) on the structure of abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide (AGSP) were studied by means of Congo red test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the local ordered helical conformation was observed in AGSP. The cations could combine with anionic groups in AGSP by ionic bonds, which caused the weakening of electrostatic repulsion and crosslinking of molecular chains. Furthermore, the effects of divalent cations on the conformation were more obvious than that of monovalent cations, and divalent cations led to the aggregation of AGSP due to the more interaction sites. In short, AGSP molecular chains were crosslinked through ionic bonds after adding cations, and, divalent cations could induce the aggregation of AGSP by electrostatic interactions. This study will provide valuable insights for the further research on AGSP conformation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) in gonads and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Niels A; Hansen, Thomas v O; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2005-01-01

    . In the mouse, IMPs were expressed in male and female gonadal cells at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5). From E16.5, IMP1 and IMP3 became restricted to the developing germ cells, whereas IMP2 expression persisted in the interstitial cells. In mature mouse and human ovaries, IMP1, IMP2 and IMP3 were detected...... in resting and growing oocytes and in the granulosa cells. In testis, IMP1 and IMP3 were found mainly in the spermatogonia, whereas IMP2 was expressed in the immature Leydig cells. Moreover, all three IMPs were detected in human semen. The developmental expression pattern of IMP1 and IMP3 in the human testis...

  13. Radioimmunoassay of hormonal secretion of the gonadal axis in patients with puberty metrorrhagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balova, V.; Maleeva, A.; Khristov, L. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Thirty two girls aged 10 to 16 years, admitted to the Institute of Obstetries and Genecology, are investigated. The concentration levels of gonadal axis hormones are determined, and the obtained results are compared with the hormonal concentrations in normal girls of comparable age. It is established that the luteinizing hormone level is considerably and statistically significantly increased (P> 0.001), exceeding as much as four times average the level of the follicle-stimulating hormone (LH:FSH = 4:1), whereas in normal conditions there is a 2:1 ratio. Presumably, in cases of puberty metrorrhagia the uterine bleedings are associated with enhanced and disturbed secretion of Gonadotropic hormones, occurring as a result of the altered immunoreactivity of the organism.

  14. Release of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance from starfish radial nerves by lonomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2013-07-01

    In starfish, the peptide hormone gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) secreted from nervous tissue stimulates oocyte maturation to induce 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde) production by ovarian follicle cells. Recently, GSS was purified from radial nerves of the starfish Asterina pectinifera and identified as a relaxin-like peptide. This study examines the mechanism of GSS secretion from radial nerves. When radial nerves isolated from A. pectinifera were incubated in artificial seawater containing ionomycin as a calcium ionophore, GSS release increased in a dose-dependent manner; 50% activity of GSS release was obtained with approximately 10 µM ionomycin. Another calcium ionophore, A23187, also stimulated GSS release from radial nerves. In contrast, membrane permeable cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP analogs failed to induce GSS release. These results suggest that GSS secretion is induced by intracellular Ca(2+) as a second messenger.

  15. Radioimmunological determination of follicle stimulating hormone in the serum of patients with various gonadal disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, P.

    1982-01-01

    A new kit for FSH determination in the serum was tested: the precision, sensitivity and specificity of this kit were adequate. With 185 men and 99 women with various hypophyseal and gonadal disorders the serum FSH was determined in radioimmunoassay as a supplement for diagnostic. Patients with hypophyseal tumors had to some extent pre-operatively increased and after hypophysectomy in general subnormal FSH values. Male patients with primary hypogonadism had without substitution therapy inclusively distinct to pronounced FSH level increases. With young patients with gynecomastia FSH values which lay primarily in the normal range were measured. Female patients with primary ovarial insufficiency often indicated very sharp increases in FSH levels. Female patients with Turner syndrome showed high FSH values at puberty age. In girls with hyposomia and hypogonadism high FSH levels refer accordingly to such a syndrome. (orig.) [de

  16. Effects of Microcystis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal-Liver Axis in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhang; Meng, Shunlong; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangyang

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used to assess the endocrine disruption potential of Microcytis aeruginosa. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to lyophilized M. aeruginosa or purified microcystin-LR (8.3 μg/L) for 28 days. The levels of serum hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) and transcripts of selected genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were analyzed. The results showed that serum hormones were significantly up-regulated, and transcripts of 13 genes (GHRH, PACAP, GH, GHR1, GHR2, IGF1, IGF2, CYP19a, CYP19b, 3β-HSD1, 20β-HSD, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD8) were significantly altered after Microcytis exposure. These results indicate that fish reproduction can be altered in a Microcystis bloom-contaminated aquatic environment.

  17. Direct and Indirect Effects of Resource P-Limitation Differentially Impact Population Growth, Life History and Body Elemental Composition of a Zooplankton Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Zhou

    2018-02-01

    effects have a differential impact on major fitness components and may as such also determine the population dynamics and demographic structure of consumer populations.

  18. Direct and Indirect Effects of Resource P-Limitation Differentially Impact Population Growth, Life History and Body Elemental Composition of a Zooplankton Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libin; Lemmen, Kimberley D; Zhang, Wei; Declerck, Steven A J

    2018-01-01

    One of the central tenets of ecological stoichiometry is that consumer growth rate is strongly determined by food phosphorus (P) content. In planktonic organisms population growth rates of zooplankton have repeatedly been shown to be reduced when fed with P-limited algal food sources. However, P-limitation may also affect other quality-related aspects of algae, such as biochemical composition or palatability. We studied the population growth, detailed life history and body elemental composition of the herbivorous rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus , in response to three different food quality treatments: algae cultured in high phosphorus conditions (average algal molar C:P ≈ 112, 'HP'), algae cultured in low P conditions (molar C:P ≈ 631, 'LP') and low-P cultured algae spiked with P just before feeding (molar C:P ≈ 113, 'LP+P'). LP+P algae thus combined high P content with a history of growth under P-limited conditions. Total P content and the C:P ratio of rotifers in the LP+P treatment equaled those of rotifers in the HP treatment. Rotifer population growth rates were higher in HP than in LP and intermediate in the LP+P treatment. Similarly, many life history traits observed for animals in the LP+P treatment, such as somatic growth rate, age at maturity, and egg production rate were also intermediate to those observed in the LP and HP treatments. However, there were important deviations from this pattern: size at first reproduction and egg mortality in the LP+P treatment equaled the HP treatment, whereas size and development time of the first eggs equaled those of the LP treatment. Our results indicate that elemental limitation cannot fully explain reduced performance of consumers fed with P-limited algae and strongly suggest that indirect, non-stoichiometric effects of P-limitation, e.g., via changes in biochemical composition or morphology of the algae also play a major role. Furthermore, our study highlights that such indirect effects have a differential

  19. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function

  20. Effect of gonadal hormones on hypophagic property of opioid antagonist Naloxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargate Ashwini R, Kulkarni Dushant V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that hormonal fluctuations that occur over the estrous cycle in rats affect food intake. It is possible that estrogen affects food intake via Opioid system and other brain areas which are involved in regulation of food intake. Therefore it may affect the sensitivity of female rats to hypophagic effect of Opioid antagonist Naloxone. Testosterone in male rats also changes food intake. However, little is known about hoe these Gonadal hormones interact with Opioid receptors to modulate food intake. Objective: The aim of the study was to find out how Gonadal hormones affect hypophagic property of Naloxone. Methods: Basal food intake of 40 healthy adult females and 20 healthy adult male rats was recorded. Then they were injected intraperitoneally with Naloxone after fasting for 24 hrs. In female rats food intake was measured during different phases of the estrous cycle. All the rats were then subjected to gonadectomy. The food intake was measured after gonadectomy. The effect of Naloxone was also measured in deprivation paradigm after gonadectomy. Results: Female rats showed decreased food intake during proestrous and estrous phases. In female rats there was no hypophagia after Naloxone injection during these phases. Male rats showed hypophagia on Naloxone injection. Male rats showed increased food intake after gonadectomy. In female rats the increase in food intake was not significant when gonadectomy was done during metestrous and diestrous. However, Naloxone could induce hypophagia in all female rats after gonadectomy. Conclusion: Estrogen decreases food intake, it decreases sensitivity of female rats to hypophasic effects of Naloxone. Testosterone decreases food intake. Testosterone does not interfere with hypophagic effect of Naloxone.