WorldWideScience

Sample records for directives rolls-royce plc

  1. 75 FR 16655 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 700 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    .... Definition (l) For the purpose of this AD, an engine shop visit is induction of the engine into the engine... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 700 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 700 series turbofan engines. That AD...

  2. 78 FR 17297 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... installation. (f) Definitions For the purpose of this AD, a shop visit is the induction of an engine into the... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211 Trent 500 series turbofan engines. That AD currently requires...

  3. 78 FR 6749 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine... more information about this AD, contact Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office... Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION...

  4. 77 FR 6668 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... fuel pump to the fuel-oil-heat exchanger, and the clips holding the LP fuel tube run from the LP filter... pump to the fuel-oil-heat exchanger, and the LP fuel tube run from the LP filter to the HP fuel pump... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  5. 77 FR 13485 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ..., the term shop visit means the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance where the front... the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance where the front combustion liner is exposed... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  6. 77 FR 39157 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... visit is the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance involving the separation of pairs of... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...-84, and 980-84 turbofan engines. That AD currently requires inspecting the intermediate-pressure (IP...

  7. 77 FR 73268 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... certain Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 series turbofan engines. This AD requires inspection of the.... (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 970-84 and 972-84 series... this AD using RR Technical Variance (TV) 125436, issue 2, dated July 27, 2012, you met the requirements...

  8. 77 FR 32007 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 800 series turbofan engines. This AD requires removal from service of certain critical engine parts based on reduced life limits. This AD was prompted by RR adding a new flight profile and an associated set of life limits. We are issuing this AD to prevent the failure of critical rotating parts, which could result in uncontained failure of the engine and damage to the airplane.

  9. 78 FR 34550 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbojet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Viper Mk. 601-22 turbojet engines. This AD requires reducing the life of certain critical parts. This AD was prompted by a review carried out by RR of the lives of these parts. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure of life-limited parts, damage to the engine, and damage to the airplane.

  10. 78 FR 54152 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... For the purpose of this AD, a shop visit is the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...; -535C-37; -535E4-37; - 535E4-B-37, and -535E4-B-75 turbofan engines, and all RB211-524G2-19; - 524G3-19...

  11. 78 FR 17080 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... certain Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710 series turbofan engines. This AD requires... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH, and BMW Rolls-Royce plc...

  12. 77 FR 56760 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 800 series turbofan engines. This AD requires removing from service certain intermediate pressure (IP) turbine discs that have a serial number listed in this AD. This AD was prompted by RR performing an evaluation that determined that the current lives for certain IP turbine discs with a steel inclusion may fail before they reach their current mandatory life limits. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure of the IP turbine disc, which could result in uncontained failure of the engine and damage to the airplane.

  13. 78 FR 70487 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Rolls- Royce plc (RR) RB211-535E4-37, -535E4-B-37, -535E4-C-37, RB211Trent 768-60, 772-60, and 772B-60 turbofan engines. This AD requires removal of certain high-pressure (HP) and intermediate-pressure (IP) turbine discs before their accumulated cyclic lives have reached the revised limits. This AD was prompted by a report of an HP disc contaminated with a steel inclusion. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure of the HP or IP turbine disc, uncontained engine failure, and damage to the airplane.

  14. 75 FR 49368 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance involving the separation of pairs of major mating... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: Wear, beyond Engine Manual...

  15. 76 FR 30529 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... proposed AD to ``For the purpose of this AD, an ``engine shop visit'' is the induction of an engine into... service. Definitions (f) For the purpose of this AD, an ``engine shop visit'' is: (1) Induction of an... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  16. 77 FR 4648 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...'' is induction of an engine into the shop for any purpose where: (1) All the blades are removed from... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation... engines. That AD currently requires performing initial and repetitive visual and fluorescent penetrant...

  17. 78 FR 68360 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ..., DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification... Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction.... That AD applies to all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535E4-B-37 series turbofan engines. The AD number is...

  18. 77 FR 20508 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ...We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 875-17, RB211-Trent 877-17, RB211-Trent 884-17, RB211-Trent 884B-17, RB211-Trent 892-17, RB211- Trent 892B-17, and RB211-Trent 895-17 turbofan engines. That AD currently requires initial and repetitive ultrasonic inspections (UIs) of certain low-pressure (LP) compressor blades identified by serial number (S/N). This AD requires the same actions but expands the population of blades. This AD was prompted by RR concluding that additional blades affected must be inspected. We are issuing this AD to prevent LP compressor blades from failing due to blade root cracks, which could lead to uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane.

  19. 77 FR 75831 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain serial numbers (S/Ns) of Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 768-60, 772- 60, and 772B-60 turbofan engines. This AD requires initial and repetitive on-wing or in-shop inspections of the high pressure/ intermediate pressure (HP/IP) turbine bearing support oil feed tube outer heat shield. This AD also requires installation of a revised HP/ IP turbine bearing support structure as terminating action to the repetitive inspections of the HP/IP turbine bearing support oil feed tube outer heat shield. This AD was prompted by a report of high oil consumption due to an oil leak from the HP/IP turbine bearing support oil feed tube. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure of the HP turbine disc, uncontained engine failure, and damage to the airplane.

  20. 77 FR 26216 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ...We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 875-17, RB211-Trent 877-17, RB211-Trent 884-17, RB211-Trent 884B-17, RB211- Trent 892-17, RB211-Trent 892B-17, and RB211-Trent 895-17 turbofan engines. The existing AD currently requires initial and repetitive ultrasonic inspections (UIs) of certain low-pressure (LP) compressor blades identified by serial number (S/N). This proposed AD would require the same actions but expands the population of blades. We are proposing this AD to prevent LP compressor blades from failing due to blade root cracks, which could lead to uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane.

  1. 78 FR 17079 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... certain Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) models Tay 620-15 and Tay 650-15 turbofan engines. This... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) (formerly Rolls-Royce plc): Docket No. FAA-2012-1167...

  2. 77 FR 58762 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ...We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 875-17, RB211-Trent 877-17, RB211-Trent 884-17, RB211-Trent 884B-17, RB211-Trent 892-17, RB211- Trent 892B-17, and RB211-Trent 895-17 turbofan engines. That AD currently requires initial and repetitive ultrasonic inspections (UIs) of certain low-pressure (LP) compressor blades identified by serial number (S/N). This new AD requires the same actions but expands the population of blades. This AD was prompted by the need to add the inspections of the LP compressor blades listed by S/N in Appendices 3H through 3L of RR plc Alert Service Bulletin (ASB) No. RB.211-72-AG244, Revision 4, dated December 22, 2011. We are issuing this AD to prevent multiple LP compressor blades from failing due to blade root cracks, which could lead to uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane.

  3. 78 FR 28161 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) model RB211 Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2-61, 556B-61, 556B2-61, 560-61, and 560A2-61; and RB211 Trent 768-60, 772-60, and 772B-60; and RB211-Trent 875-17, 877-17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B-17, and 895-17; and RB211-524G2- T-19, -524G3-T-19, -524H-T-36, and -524H2-T-19 turbofan engines that have a high-pressure (HP) compressor stage 1 to 4 rotor disc installed, with a certain part number (P/N) installed. The existing AD requires repetitive inspections of the axial dovetail slots, and follow-on corrective action depending on findings. This proposed AD expands the population of affected parts. This proposed AD also changes, for the purposes of this AD, the definition of ``engine shop visit.'' We are proposing this AD to detect cracks in the HP compressor stage 1 and 2 disc posts, which could result in failure of the disc post and HP compressor blades, damage to the engine, and damage to the airplane.

  4. 78 FR 17300 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ...We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2-61, 556B-61, 556B2-61, 560-61, 560A2-61, 768-60, 772-60, 772B-60, 875-17, 877-17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B-17, and 895-17 turbofan engines. The existing AD currently requires inspection of the intermediate-pressure (IP) compressor rotor shaft rear balance land for cracks. Since we issued that AD, a crack was detected in a Trent 500 IP compressor rotor shaft rear balance land during a shop visit, and further engineering evaluation done by RR concluded that the cracking may also exist in Trent 900 engines. This proposed AD would require inspections of the IP compressor rotor shaft as required by the existing AD while adding on-wing inspections for the Trent 500 engines, and on-wing and in-shop inspections for the Trent 900 engines. We are proposing this AD to detect cracking on the IP compressor rotor shaft rear balance land, which could lead to uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane.

  5. 78 FR 60658 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...We are superseding airworthiness directive (AD) AD 2012-04-13, for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) model RB211 Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556- 61, 556A2-61, 556B-61, 556B2-61, 560-61, and 560A2-61; and RB211 Trent 768-60, 772-60, and 772B-60; and RB211-Trent 875-17, 877-17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B-17, and 895-17; and RB211-524G2-T-19, -524G3-T- 19, -524H-T-36, and -524H2-T-19 turbofan engines that have a high- pressure (HP) compressor stage 1 to 4 rotor disc installed, with a certain part number (P/N) installed. AD 2012-04-13 required repetitive inspections of the axial dovetail slots and follow-on corrective action depending on findings. This new AD expands the population of affected parts. This AD also changes, for the purposes of this AD, the definition of ``engine shop visit.'' This AD was prompted by reports of additional affected HP compressor rotor discs that require the same action. We are issuing this AD to detect cracks in the HP compressor stage 1 and 2 disc posts, which could result in failure of the disc post and HP compressor blades, damage to the engine, and damage to the airplane.

  6. 75 FR 51654 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... engine shop visit is the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance involving the separation of... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal... in the associated engine manual. The cracks have been found to initiate from corrosion pits...

  7. 78 FR 20507 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ..., business, labor union, etc.). You may review the DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... carried out by Rolls-Royce revealed changes to the thermal profile and stresses in certain features of the... engines installed on airplanes of U.S. registry. The average labor rate is $85 per hour. We do not...

  8. 75 FR 67611 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG. (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG. (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay 651-54 Turbofan... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) (formerly Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, England): Amendment 39-16489.; Docket No. FAA... information. Contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlwitz, 15827 Blankenfelde-Mahlow...

  9. 78 FR 11976 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification... plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request... plc (RR) RB211-524 series turbofan engines. That AD currently requires removal and repair of certain...

  10. 75 FR 61343 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Models Tay 620-15, Tay 650-15...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Models Tay 620-15, Tay 650-15, and Tay 651... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce plc): Amendment 39-16457. Docket No. FAA-2010...-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) models Tay 620-15, Tay 650-15, and Tay 651-54 turbofan engines...

  11. 78 FR 69316 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH, Formerly... (AD) 2012-26-14 that applies to all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-715A1-30, BR700... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde- Mahlow, Germany; phone: 49 0 33-7086...

  12. 77 FR 20987 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ...The FAA is correcting an airworthiness directive (AD) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to RB211-Trent 800 series turbofan engines. The last comment response in the preamble and the first sentence of regulatory text paragraph (g)(1) are incorrect. The repetitive inspection interval should be 2,000 flight cycles, not 1,000 flight cycles. This document corrects those errors. In all other respects, the original document remains the same.

  13. 76 FR 65136 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all RR model RB211-524G2-T-19, -524G3-T-19, -524H- T-36, and -524H2-T-19; and RB211-Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2- 61, 556B-61, 556B2-61, 560-61, 560A2-61; RB211-Trent 768-60, 772-60, 772B-60; and RB211-Trent 875-17, 877-17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B- 17, and 895-17 turbofan engines that have a high-pressure (HP) compressor stage 1 to 4 rotor disc with a part number (P/N) listed in Table 1 of this proposed AD. The existing AD currently requires repetitive inspections of the axial dovetail slots, and follow-on corrective action depending on findings. Since we issued that AD, we determined that the definition of shop visit is too restrictive in the existing AD. This proposed AD would continue to require those repetitive inspections and follow-on corrective actions, and it would change the definition of a shop visit to be less restrictive. We are proposing this AD to detect cracks in the HP compressor stage 1 and 2 disc posts, which could result in failure of the disc post and HP compressor blades, release of uncontained engine debris, and damage to the airplane.

  14. 76 FR 64283 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all RR RB211-Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2-61, 556B-61, 556B2-61, 560-61, 560A2-61, 768-60, 772-60, 772B-60, 875-17, 877-17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B-17, and 895-17 turbofan engines. The existing AD currently requires inspecting the intermediate-pressure (IP) compressor rotor shaft rear balance land for cracks. Since we issued that AD, we received reports of one RB211-Trent 700 and two additional RB211-Trent 800 IP compressor rotor shafts that have been found cracked. This proposed AD would continue to require initial inspections, add additional inspections, and an optional terminating action. The cracking identified above could lead to IP compressor rotor shaft failure, uncontained engine failure, and damage to the airplane. We are proposing this AD to correct the unsafe condition on these products.

  15. 78 FR 54149 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...We are superseding airworthiness directive (AD) 2012-10-12 for all RR RB211-Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2-61, 556B-61, 556B2- 61, 560-61, 560A2-61, 768-60, 772-60, 772B-60, 875-17, 877-17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B-17, and 895-17 turbofan engines. AD 2012-10-12 required inspecting the intermediate-pressure (IP) compressor rotor shaft rear balance land for cracks. We are issuing this AD to require inspections of the IP compressor rotor shaft, as required by AD 2012- 10-12, to add on-wing inspections for the Trent 500 engines, and to add on-wing and in-shop inspections for the Trent 900 engines. This AD was prompted by detection of a crack in a Trent 500 IP compressor rotor shaft rear balance land during a shop visit. Further engineering evaluation, done by RR, concluded that the cracking may also exist in Trent 900 engines. We are issuing this AD to detect cracking on the IP compressor rotor shaft rear balance land, which could lead to uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane.

  16. 77 FR 2932 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ...We are revising an earlier proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for all RR RB211-Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2-61, 556B- 61, 556B2-61, 560-61, 560A2-61, 768-60, 772-60, 772B-60, 875-17, 877- 17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B-17, and 895-17 turbofan engines. That NPRM proposed to supersede an existing AD that requires inspecting the intermediate-pressure (IP) compressor rotor shaft rear balance land for cracks, which could lead to engine failure. This action revises that NPRM by changing the optional terminating action for RB211-Trent 700 and RB211-Trent 800 engines to mandatory terminating action. Since these actions impose an additional burden over that proposed in the NPRM, we are reopening the comment period to allow the public the chance to comment on these proposed changes.

  17. 77 FR 31176 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all RR RB211-Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2-61, 556B-61, 556B2-61, 560-61, 560A2-61, 768-60, 772-60, 772B-60, 875-17, 877-17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B-17, and 895-17 turbofan engines. That AD currently requires inspecting the intermediate-pressure (IP) compressor rotor shaft rear balance land for cracks. This new AD continues to require initial inspections, adds additional inspections, and a mandatory terminating action. This AD was prompted by additional cracking on RB211-Trent 700 and RB211-Trent 800 IP compressor rotor shafts found since the existing AD was issued. We are issuing this AD to detect cracking on the IP compressor rotor rear balance land. IP compressor rotor rear balance land cracking can lead to uncontained failure of the rotor and damage to the airplane.

  18. 77 FR 13483 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all RR model RB211-524G2-T-19, -524G3-T-19, -524H-T-36, and -524H2- T-19; and RB211-Trent 553-61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2-61, 556B-61 556B2-61, 560-61, 560A2-61; RB211-Trent 768-60, 772-60, 772B-60; and RB211-Trent 875-17, 877-17, 884-17, 884B-17, 892-17, 892B-17, and 895- 17 turbofan engines that have a high-pressure (HP) compressor stage 1 to 4 rotor disc with a part number (P/N) listed in Table 1 of the AD. That AD currently requires repetitive inspections of the axial dovetail slots, and follow-on corrective action depending on findings. Since we issued that AD, we determined that the definition of shop visit is too restrictive in the existing AD. This continues to require those repetitive inspections and follow-on corrective actions. This new AD changes the definition of a shop visit to be less restrictive. This AD was prompted by our determination that the definition of ``shop visit'' in the existing AD is too restrictive, in that it would require operators to inspect more often than required to ensure safety. We are issuing this AD to detect cracks in the HP compressor stage 1 and 2 disc posts, which could result in failure of the disc post and HP compressor blades, release of uncontained engine debris, and damage to the airplane.

  19. 77 FR 67582 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Tay 611-8 turbofan engines... service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg...

  20. 78 FR 35752 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-725A1-12 turbofan engines with fuel..., contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Germany...

  1. 78 FR 70198 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) model Tay 620-15, 650-15, and 651-54 turbofan engines... directive (AD): 2013-23-01 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG: Amendment 39-17656; Docket No. FAA-2013-0397...

  2. 77 FR 71085 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... directive (AD) for certain serial number (S/N) Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) TAY 620- 15... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827...

  3. 78 FR 35574 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) model Tay 650-15 turbofan engines... proposed AD, contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde...

  4. 78 FR 17075 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... certain Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Tay 611-8 turbofan engines. This AD requires inspection... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG: Amendment 39-17391; Docket No. FAA-2012-1031; Directorate...

  5. 78 FR 17082 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbojet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbojet Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... certain Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Spey 511-8 turbojet engines. This AD requires inspection.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2013-05-20 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co...

  6. 78 FR 2195 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... (AD) for all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG BR700-715A1-30, BR700-715B1-30, and BR700-715C1-30... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827...

  7. 77 FR 39156 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 39-15860 (74 FR 12086, March 23, 2009): 2009-07-01 R1 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (formerly... applies to Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG BR700- 715A1-30, BR700-715B1-30, and BR700-715C1-30...

  8. 78 FR 10501 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710A1-10 and BR700- 710A2-20 turbofan engines, and... [Amended] 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2013-03-17 Rolls-Royce Deutschland...

  9. 75 FR 51651 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG. (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG. (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay 651-54 Turbofan... airworthiness directive, Amendment 39-16404, to read as follows: 2010-17-12 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG..., dated April 14, 2010, for related information. Contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11...

  10. 76 FR 64791 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710 Series Turbofan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY... data carried out by Rolls-Royce Deutschland has shown that the effect of touch-and-go and overshoot on... service data carried out by Rolls-Royce Deutschland has shown that the effect of touch-and-go and...

  11. 76 FR 39033 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710 Series Turbofan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY... unsafe condition as: Analysis of service data carried out by Rolls-Royce Deutschland has shown that the... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11...

  12. 75 FR 76624 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2-20; and BR700.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-25-05 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH, formerly BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH): Amendment 39- 16538...

  13. 76 FR 78808 - Airworthiness Directives; Teledyne Continental Motors (TCM) and Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd. (R-RM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Teledyne Continental Motors (TCM) and Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd. (R-RM) Series... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain TCM and R-RM series reciprocating engines... adds R-RM C-125, C- 145, O-300, IO-360, TSIO-360, and LTSIO-520-AE series reciprocating engines to the...

  14. 78 FR 71532 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. [[Page 71533... (AD) 2007-03- 02 for all Rolls-Royce Deutschland (RRD) Tay 620-15, Tay 650-15, and Tay 651-54 turbofan... AD, contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, D-15827 Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Germany...

  15. 78 FR 59291 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co. KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co. KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co. KG (RRD) Tay 620-15, 650-15, and 651- 54 turbofan engines. This... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11...

  16. 76 FR 37682 - Airworthiness Directives; Teledyne Continental Motors (TCM) and Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd. (R-RM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Continental Motors (TCM) and Rolls-Royce Motors Ltd. (R-RM) Series Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain TCM and R-RM series reciprocating... range of magneto S/ Ns affected, and of the need to include certain engines made by R-RM, under license...

  17. 77 FR 9869 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION..., Amendment 39-15860 (74 FR 12086, March 23, 2009): Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (formerly BMW Rolls... applies to Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG BR700- 715A1-30, BR700-715B1-30, and BR700-715C1-30...

  18. 77 FR 11019 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-715A1-30, BR700-715B1-30, and BR700-715C1-30 turbofan... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11...

  19. 77 FR 66771 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710 series turbofan engines. This proposed AD was... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Germany; telephone: 49 0 33-7086...

  20. 77 FR 68714 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-710A1-10 and BR700- 710A2-20 turbofan engines, and certain.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG...

  1. 77 FR 66769 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbojet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbojet Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Spey 511-8 turbojet engines. This proposed AD was prompted by...-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Germany; telephone...

  2. 77 FR 74123 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) models Tay 620-15 and Tay 650-15 turbofan engines. This... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11-15827 Dahlewitz, Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Germany; phone: +49 0 33-7086-1944...

  3. 78 FR 12255 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited, Bristol Engine Division Turbojet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine...) Limited, Bristol Engine Division Turbojet Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for all Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited, Bristol Engine Division (RR) Viper Mk. 601- 22 turbojet...

  4. 75 FR 24825 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay 651-54 Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlwitz, 15827... examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rolls-Royce Deutschland has issued Alert...

  5. Engineering excellence at Rolls-Royce; a taste of English culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schnelders, J.

    2013-01-01

    Rolls-Royce is one of the most well-known brands in the world and synonymous with the highest engineering quality. Amongst Aerospace Engineers, Rolls-Royce is directly associated with the Trent turbofan aircraft engines. The engines power the world’s newest passenger aircraft, including the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the large Airbus A380. A Rolls-Royce powered aircraft takes o! or lands every 2.5 seconds.

  6. 75 FR 14379 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Models Tay 620-15, Tay 650-15...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Models Tay 620-15, Tay 650-15, and Tay 651-54 Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG; Eschenweg 11, D-15827... the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG has issued Alert...

  7. Engineering excellence at Rolls-Royce; a taste of English culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnelders, J.

    2013-01-01

    Rolls-Royce is one of the most well-known brands in the world and synonymous with the highest engineering quality. Amongst Aerospace Engineers, Rolls-Royce is directly associated with the Trent turbofan aircraft engines. The engines power the world’s newest passenger aircraft, including the Boeing

  8. 78 FR 70489 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... cycles since last leading edge profile blade repair (FCSLR). This AD was prompted by reports of erosion... specified products. The MCAI states: Erosion of the leading edge profile of Trent 500 engines' low pressure... erosion of the leading edge profile of the low-pressure (LP) compressor blade set contributing to fan...

  9. 78 FR 61168 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... changes to the thermal profile and stresses in certain features of the low pressure turbine (LPT) Stage 2... Change the Costs of Compliance AAL requested that we change the costs of compliance to include the labor... will result in additional labor costs to access and replace those parts. We disagree. We consider the...

  10. 76 FR 2605 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... in increased fatigue life usage which is considered to have led to crack initiation and propagation... Web site, anyone can find and read the comments in any of our dockets, including, if provided, the... fatigue life usage which is considered to have led to crack initiation and propagation prior to reaching...

  11. 78 FR 20509 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... CONTACT: Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller... Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) RB211-535E4-B-37 series turbofan engines. This proposed AD was prompted by recalculating the life of...

  12. 78 FR 5126 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Information (1) For more information about this AD, contact Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine... Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for...-Trent 970-84, 970B-84, 972-84, 972B-84, 977- 84, 977B-84, and 980-84 turbofan engines. This AD requires...

  13. 78 FR 6206 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office... Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for... 977B-84 and RB211-Trent 980-84 turbofan engines. This AD requires on-wing inspections of low-pressure...

  14. 78 FR 61171 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller... Information (1) For more information about this AD, contact Robert Green, Aerospace Engineer, Engine... Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are...

  15. 78 FR 20505 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance or overhaul. The separation of engine flanges solely... Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...; - 535E4-37; -535E4-B-37, and -535E4-B-75 turbofan engines, and all RB211- 524G2-19; -524G3-19; -524H2-19...

  16. 78 FR 22180 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... requires inspection of the intermediate pressure compressor rear stub shaft (IPC RSS) piston ring. This AD... found to be the piston ring seal, which fits in the groove of the Intermediate Pressure Compressor Rear... a piston ring seal that was not seated properly in the intermediate pressure compressor rear stub...

  17. 78 FR 37703 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... subject of this AD. You may examine this AD on the Internet at http://ad.easa.europa.eu/ad/2013-0060 . (3... Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov ; or in person at the...

  18. 78 FR 5 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... will be magnetized as part of the Superconductive Quantitative Inductive Device (SQUID) inspection... Superconductive Quantitative Inductive Device (SQUID) inspection of the disc at the next shop visit or before the... A, Subpart III, Section 44701: General requirements.'' Under that section, Congress charges the FAA...

  19. 77 FR 40820 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... requirements.'' Under that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in... perform a Superconductive Quantitative Inductive Device (SQUID) inspection of the disc at the next shop...

  20. 75 FR 51693 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2-20; and BR700-710C4-11 Turbofan Engines AGENCY... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Germany, telephone: +49 (0) 33... condition may exist on Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Models BR700-710A1-10; BR700-710A2-20; and BR700...

  1. Rolls-Royce digital Rod Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouillot, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of Rod Control System, based on 40 years of experience. The fifth-generation Rod Control System (RCS) from Rolls-Royce offers a reliable, modular design with adaptability to your preferred platform, for modernization projects or new reactors. Flexible implementation provides the option for you to keep existing cabinets, which permits you to optimize installation approach. Main features for the power part: - Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) type: 3-coil. - Independent control of each sub-bank. - Each sub-bank is controlled by a cycler unit and 3 identical power racks, each including 4 identical power modules and a common power-supply module. - Coil-per-coil digital control: each power module embeds power-conversion, current-control, and current-monitoring functions for one coil. Control and monitoring are carried out by separate electronics in the module. Current is digitized and fully monitored by means of min-max templates. - A double-hold function is included: a power module assigned to a gripper will activate its coil if a fault risking to cause a reactor trip occurs. - Power modules are standardized, hot-pluggable and self-configured: a power module includes a set of parameters for each type of coil SG, MG, LC. The module recognizes the rack it is plugged in, and chooses automatically parameters to be used. Main benefits: - Reduced operational, maintenance, training, and inventory costs: standardization of power modules and integration of control and monitoring on the same PC-card lead to a drastic reduction of spare part types, and simplification of the system. - Easy maintenance: - Replacement of a power module solves nearly all failures due to current control or monitoring for a coil. It is done instantly thanks to hot-plug capability. - On the front plate of power-modules, LEDs provide useful information for diagnostic: current setpoint from cycler, output current bar

  2. 75 FR 69611 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768, 772, and 772B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... certification testing which revealed that stresses on the thrust reverser hinge were higher than had been... sent the comment (or signed the comment on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You...

  3. 75 FR 58290 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211 Trent 700 and Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... results in increased vulnerability of the part to tensile stresses, which could reduce the life of the.... Removal of the shot peened layer results in increased vulnerability of the part to tensile stresses, which... 8 work-hours per product to comply with this AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour...

  4. 76 FR 72650 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211 Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... of this AD, the term shop visit means the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance where...) RB211 Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... this AD to prevent uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane. DATES: We must receive...

  5. 76 FR 65997 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...'' is induction of an engine into the shop for any purpose where: (1) All the blades are removed from...) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... applies to all RR RB211-535E4-37, -535E4-B-37, -535E4-B-75, and -535E4-C-37 turbofan engines. The existing...

  6. 75 FR 61361 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... ``engine shop visit'' is the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance involving the separation...) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... containment capabilities of the engine casings. Thus, cracking at the firtrees of LP Turbine discs constitutes...

  7. 76 FR 14797 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...: Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), which is the Technical Agent for the Member States of... Protection System (IPTOS). The purpose of the IPTOS functionality is to detect engine conditions that may.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to RR model RB211-Trent 970-84, 970B-84, 972-84, 972B-84, 977-84, 977B-84, and...

  8. 75 FR 27964 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... before further flight. Definitions (4) For the purpose of this AD, an engine shop visit is the induction...) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...) technique defined in the associated engine manual. The cracks have been found to initiate from corrosion...

  9. 76 FR 24793 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series and RB211 Trent 500, 700, and 800...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... visit'' is the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance involving the separation of pairs of... Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are... beyond the containment capabilities of the engine casings. Thus, these anomalies present at the disc...

  10. 75 FR 33738 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series and RB211 Trent 500, 700, and 800...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ..., an ``engine shop visit'' is the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance involving the...) RB211-524 Series and RB211 Trent 500, 700, and 800 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... containment capabilities of the engine casings. Thus, these anomalies present at the disc posts constitute a...

  11. 76 FR 24798 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 875-17, RB211-Trent 877-17, RB211...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... reporting requirements by specifying only the paragraphs needed to perform the inspections in the AD... number from the top of row 3E to the bottom of row 3D, in that table. We partially agree. We reviewed the... perform the inspections in one year's time. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. We estimate that...

  12. Na Saaremaa budut proizvodit detali dlja Rolls-Royce / Dmitri Kulikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulikov, Dmitri

    2006-01-01

    Saaremaal Kuressaares asuv Volex Estonia OÜ valmistab korporatsioonile Rolls-Royce toodetavate lennukimootori jaoks detaile, mis paigaldatakse Ameerika lennukitele Boeing ja Euroopa Airbusile. Volex Estonia OÜ on Saaremaal suurim tööandja

  13. 76 FR 70336 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524G2-19; -524G2-T-19; -524G3-19; -524G3-T-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: Several instances of fan blade cracking have... caused by fan blade flutter at certain engine settings during prolonged ground running. This condition, if not corrected, could affect the integrity of the fan blades, leading to cracking of multiple fan...

  14. Precision engineering for future propulsion and power systems: a perspective from Rolls-Royce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Sam

    2012-08-28

    Rolls-Royce today is an increasingly global business, supplying integrated power systems to a wide variety of customers for use on land, at sea and in the air. Its reputation for 'delivering excellence' to these customers has been built largely on its gas turbine technology portfolio, and this reputation relies on the quality of the company's expertise in design, manufacture and delivery of services. This paper sets out to examine a number of examples, such as the high-pressure turbine blade, of the company's reliance on precision design and manufacture, highlighting how this precision contributes to customer satisfaction with its products. A number of measures the company is taking to accelerate its competitiveness in precision manufacture are highlighted, not least its extensive relationships with the academic research base. The paper finishes by looking briefly at the demands of the company's potential future product portfolio.

  15. Rolls-Royce I and C long term support a dedicated solution to manage plant condition, optimize operating life and maximize plant value while improving safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillonmartos, F.

    2010-01-01

    Rolls-Royce supplied safety I and C equipment as Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for 200 reactors in operation from 1970', including various technological steps (analog to digital hardware). The hardware scope covers various systems, either more than 500 hardware references, either more than 150000 parts in operation. Rolls-Royce contributes to life time extension ensuring system availability and reliability on long term basis by determining the optimum solution between different maintenance approaches: maintenance and repair with limited retrofit or major system retrofit. Based on Long Term Support (LTS) agreement with customers, Rolls-Royce commits to maintain the capability to manufacture, modify, repair, test, at board, rack and systems level over a long time period. This means finding solution to hardware ageing, technology evolution, skills and tools maintenance. This paper describes how Rolls-Royce has built a global process based on delivering a package of services and developing long term support engineering solutions and tools. Our main experience on EDF partnership will serve to illustrate Rolls-Royce I and C Long Term Support activity. (authors)

  16. 78 FR 2197 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... AD requires a one-time inspection of the low-pressure compressor (LPC) fan blades and if erosion is... edge erosion of the LPC fan blades on certain Tay 620-15 engines. We are issuing this AD to prevent... evidence of excessive leading edge erosion. Excessive material removal during the maintenance reduces the...

  17. 78 FR 48339 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Corporation Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... replaced during engine shop visit at no additional labor cost. Based on these figures, we estimate the... maintain their existing approved life limits. (d) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by stress and...

  18. 78 FR 77382 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... shop visit'' is the induction of an engine into the shop for maintenance involving the separation of... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-715A1-30, BR700-715B1- 30, and BR700-715C1-30 turbofan engines...

  19. 76 FR 67591 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Corporation Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... compressor wheels have chrome-carbide coated knife edge seals, use the compliance times listed in Table 2 of... knife edge seals, use the compliance times listed in Table 3 of this AD. (1) Perform a one-time... (ECI) of certain 6th-through-13th stage compressor wheel knife edge seals, and initial and repetitive...

  20. Mejora del plan de mantenimiento de motores de combustión interna de gas natural Rolls-royce KVGS-18G4

    OpenAIRE

    García Ginés, Óscar

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es mejorar el plan de mantenimiento de motores de combustión interna de gas natural Rolls-Royce KVGS-18G4 vigente. En la actualidad se utiliza un plan de mantenimiento basado en la experiencia en motores marinos. Debido a las diferencias existentes entre un motor marino (motor diesel) y un motor para la cogeneración (gas natural), he creído necesario realizar un nuevo plan de mantenimiento acorde a un motor que combustiona una mezcla de aire y gas natural. E...

  1. 78 FR 40060 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...-0468; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-147-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company... Boeing Company Model 777-200 and -300 series airplanes equipped with Rolls-Royce engines. The existing AD... identified in this AD, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC...

  2. 76 FR 63159 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-243F Airplanes Equipped With Rolls Royce Trent 700...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... inspections for cracks of the hinge assemblies and along the beam structure of the right and left engine..., unexpected fatigue high loads were measured on the hinges integrated on the 12 o'clock beam which form the... hinges integrated on the 12 o'clock beam which form the upper extreme edge of the thrust reverser unit C...

  3. 75 FR 46864 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... 9DZ Northern Ireland; telephone +44(0)2890-462469; fax +44(0)2890- 468444; e-mail michael.mulholland.... Revision History: PAD [proposed airworthiness directive] 06- 018R1 has been issued to endorse comments...

  4. Solucions PLC obertes

    OpenAIRE

    López Llauradó, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Treball que, després de revisar el concepte de PLC i d'exposar la necessitat de solucions obertes, defineix el concepte de PLC obert, basat en programari lliure i presenta alguns projectes interessants de PLC obert. Trabajo que, después de revisar el concepto de PLC y de exponer la necesidad de soluciones abiertas, define el concepto de PLC abierto, basado en el software libre y presenta algunos proyectos interesantes de PLC abierto. Study that, after looking at the concept of PLC and s...

  5. General and Versatile Autoinhibition of PLC Isozymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Stephanie N.; Jezyk, Mark R.; Gershburg, Svetlana; Seifert, Jason P.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John (UNC)

    2008-10-31

    Phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are directly activated by heterotrimeric G proteins and Ras-like GTPases to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Although PLCs play central roles in myriad signaling cascades, the molecular details of their activation remain poorly understood. As described here, the crystal structure of PLC-{beta}2 illustrates occlusion of the active site by a loop separating the two halves of the catalytic TIM barrel. Removal of this insertion constitutively activates PLC-{beta}2 without ablating its capacity to be further stimulated by classical G protein modulators. Similar regulation occurs in other PLC members, and a general mechanism of interfacial activation at membranes is presented that provides a unifying framework for PLC activation by diverse stimuli.

  6. Slovak Electric, Plc., 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, Plc., abbrevation 'SE, a.s.') is the Slovak electricity generating utility, incorporated on November 1, 1994 as one of new companies formed from substantially all of the assets and a legal successor of Slovensky energeticky podnik, s.p., founded on January 1, 1969 in the form of SEP group. From its predecessor, Slovak Electric, Plc., took over generation of power, operation of 220 kV and 400 kV power system, transit, import, export, and sale of electricity. It is also involved in generation, distribution, and sale of heat. At present, SE's share of electriciry sales in the Slovak Republic is 88.47%. Electricity is delivered to three regional distribution companies and directly to several major industrial enterprises. SE, a.s. operates one nuclear power station, three thermal power plants, and 30 hydro power plants. The second nuclear power plant is under construction (state up tu June 1997) and SE is participating in the construction of two hydro power plants and one combined cycle power plant. The efforts of SE, s.a. focus on the generation of power and heat with minimal environmental impacts. Ecology is given priority in the SE, a.s. development programmes. SE's mission is to permanently satisfy customers' needs, for an acceptable price and with minimal environmental impact. On this CD ROM next chapters are presented: (1) The structure of the Company; (2) Production units; (3) The economic power of the Company; (4) The operation culture; (5) The strategic plans of the Company

  7. 77 FR 67263 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Inspection US Airways recommended a simpler re-inspection management plan of inspecting any engine inlet cowl... of air intake cowls on Rolls-Royce Trent engines, worn and detached attachment [[Page 67264

  8. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  9. Can your software engineer program your PLC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrowman, Alastair J.; Taylor, Philip

    2016-07-01

    modular PLC programs based upon reusable functions capable of being unit tested without the PLC connected to hardware. Emphasis has been placed on designing an interface between EPICS and SCL that enforces correct operation of hardware through stringent separation of PC accessible PLC memory and hardware I/O addresses used only by the PLC. The paper also introduces the method used to automate the creation, from the same source document, the PLC memory structure (tag) definitions (defining memory used to access hardware I/O and that accessed by the PC) and creation of the PC program data structures (EPICS database records) used to access the permitted PLC addresses. From direct experience this paper demonstrates the advantages of PLC program development being shared between electronic and software engineers, to enable use of the most appropriate processes from both the perspective of the hardware and the higher-level software used to control it.

  10. Kosovan refugees in the UK: the Rolls Royce or rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bloch

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the different reception and support entitlements offered to spontaneous asylum seekers from Kosovo and their UNHCR programme counterparts, plus the operation of the Kosovo reception programme. It also discusses the Asylum and Immigration Bill and itsimplications for asylum seekers to the UK.

  11. PLC communication and application

    OpenAIRE

    Lobski, Artturi

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was assigned by Landis+Gyr, and its aim was to investigate PLC communication and implement a test environment. The objective was to bring up PLC communication and make a diverse and working test environment, which will be later on used to test devices, their reception, transmission and behavior of a device’s signal in this test environment. For executing this task the first demand was to study the devices and programs to be used in the project which was carried on with the help ...

  12. PLC-bestuurde robotcel

    OpenAIRE

    Top, van den, Henry

    2017-01-01

    In dit verslag kunt u lezen hoe het ontwerp en de realisatie van een door een PLC bestuurde robotcel gegaan is. Het verslag begint met de inleiding, waar de lezer in grote lijnen meegenomen wordt door het verslag. Deze samenvatting zal er wat dieper op ingaan. In de probleemstelling wordt de opdracht behandeld. Deze opdracht is de volgende: ‘’Jansen Techniek ziet graag een robot gerealiseerd die kratten of dozen kan beladen’’. Deze robot moet door een PLC bestuurd worden, omdat men bij Jansen...

  13. During capacitation in bull spermatozoa, actin and PLC-ζ undergo dynamic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Flores, Itzayana; Chiquete-Félix, Natalia; Palma-Lara, Icela; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; de Lourdes Juárez-Mosqueda, María

    2017-10-01

    The migration pattern of sperm-specific phospholipase C-ζ (PLC-ζ) was followed and the role of this migration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics was determined. We investigated whether PLC-ζ exits sperm, opening the possibility that PLC-ζ is the 'spermatozoidal activator factor' (SOAF). As capacitation progresses, the highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton bound different proteins to regulate their location and activity. PLC-ζ participation at the start of fertilization was established. In non-capacitated spermatozoa, PLC-ζ is in the perinuclear theca (PT) and in the flagellum, therefore it was decided to determine whether bovine sperm actin interacts with PLC-ζ to direct its relocation as it progresses from non-capacitated (NC) to capacitated (C) and to acrosome-reacted (AR) spermatozoa. PLC-ζ interacted with actin in NC spermatozoa (100%), PLC-ζ levels decreased in C spermatozoa to 32% and in AR spermatozoa to 57% (P < 0.001). The level of actin/PLC-ζ interaction was twice as high in G-actin (P < 0.001) that reflected an increase in affinity. Upon reaching the AR spermatozoa, PLC-ζ was partially released from the cell. It was concluded that actin cytoskeleton dynamics control the migration of PLC-ζ during capacitation and leads to its partial release at AR spermatozoa. It is suggested that liberated PLC-ζ could reach the egg and favour fertilization.

  14. The Parametric Model for PLC Reference Chanells and its Verification in Real PLC Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Roka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the expansion of PLC systems, it is necesssary to have a detailed knowledge of the PLC transmission channel properties. This contribution shortly discusses characteristics of the PLC environment and a classification of PLC transmission channels. A main part is focused on the parametric model for PLC reference channels and its verification in the real PLC environment utilizing experimental measurements.

  15. PLC Support Software at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Chevtsov; S. Higgins; S. Schaffner; D. Seidman

    2002-10-01

    Several Automation Direct (DirectNet) Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have been integrated into the accelerator control system at Jefferson Lab. The integration is based on new software that consists of three main parts: a PLC driver with a state machine control block, a device support module, and a common serial driver. The components of new software and experience gained with the use of this software for beam dump systems at Jefferson Lab are presented.

  16. Reliability analysis of PLC safety equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.; Kim, J. Y. [Chungnam Nat. Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    FMEA analysis for Nuclear Safety Grade PLC, failure rate prediction for nuclear safety grade PLC, sensitivity analysis for components failure rate of nuclear safety grade PLC, unavailability analysis support for nuclear safety system.

  17. Reliability analysis of PLC safety equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.; Kim, J. Y.

    2006-06-01

    FMEA analysis for Nuclear Safety Grade PLC, failure rate prediction for nuclear safety grade PLC, sensitivity analysis for components failure rate of nuclear safety grade PLC, unavailability analysis support for nuclear safety system

  18. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  19. PLC CHANNEL MODELLING

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGO SILVA MELLO

    2005-01-01

    O crescente interesse na utilização das redes de distribuição de energia elétrica como uma alternativa para o fornecimento de serviços de telecomunicações, tem motivado a pesquisa e o desenvolvimento de sistemas capazes de superar as características hostis deste ambiente como canal de comunicação. Com esta finalidade, este trabalho procura estimar o comportamento da rede PLC através da modelagem da função de transferência do canal, para a faixa de fre...

  20. The Futility of PLC Lite

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Rick; Reeves, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many schools around the world have claimed to embrace the Professional Learning Community process, it would be more accurate to describe the current state of affairs in many schools as PLC Lite. Educators rename their traditional faculty or department meetings as PLC meetings, engage in book studies that result in no action, or devote…

  1. Pneumatic, PLC Controlled, Automotive Gear Shifting Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a gear shifting mechanism was designed and applied to make the shifting process faster and less destructible for the driver. The new device must be reliable, has a small dimensions, low construction and maintenance cost. This paper aims to improve gear shifting process using devices as: a manual four speed gear box, four pneumatic double acting cylinders, four pneumatic two position five ways directional control valves, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) LOGO unit, an electric...

  2. Investigation of PLC band nucleation in AA5754

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X., E-mail: Xiaoqun.Feng@tu-dortmund.de [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Fakultaet Maschinenbau, Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstofftechnologie, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Fischer, G., E-mail: Gottfried.Fischer@rif-ev.de [RIF e.V., Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 20, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Zielke, R., E-mail: Reiner.Zielke@tu-dortmund.de [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Fakultaet Maschinenbau, Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstofftechnologie, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Svendsen, B., E-mail: Bob.Svendsen@udo.edu [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Fakultaet Maschinenbau, Lehrstuhl fuer Mechanik, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Tillmann, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Tillmann@udo.edu [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Fakultaet Maschinenbau, Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstofftechnologie, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous propagation of bands in transverse and longitudinal directions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PLC band nucleation at the back front of Lueders bands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic time of critical strain decreases with strain rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous existence of two type-B bands at specimen shoulder. - Abstract: The purpose of the present work is the experimental investigation of the nucleation of PLC deformation bands in the aluminium alloy AA5754. The PLC bands are investigated using both mechanical methods and infrared (IR) thermography. The latter employs a high-speed IR camera which captures local changes of radiated power resulting from mechanical dissipation and heating due to the nucleation of PLC bands. The resulting IR images are used to determine spatio-temporal power field variations via image subtraction. Furthermore, band trajectories obtained from the IR images are used to study possible correlations between the spatio-temporal evolution of stress and radiated power in the specimens and PLC band development.

  3. Efficient Implementation of a Symbol Timing Estimator for Broadband PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nombela, Francisco; García, Enrique; Mateos, Raúl; Hernández, Álvaro

    2015-08-21

    Broadband Power Line Communications (PLC) have taken advantage of the research advances in multi-carrier modulations to mitigate frequency selective fading, and their adoption opens up a myriad of applications in the field of sensory and automation systems, multimedia connectivity or smart spaces. Nonetheless, the use of these multi-carrier modulations, such as Wavelet-OFDM, requires a highly accurate symbol timing estimation for reliably recovering of transmitted data. Furthermore, the PLC channel presents some particularities that prevent the direct use of previous synchronization algorithms proposed in wireless communication systems. Therefore more research effort should be involved in the design and implementation of novel and robust synchronization algorithms for PLC, thus enabling real-time synchronization. This paper proposes a symbol timing estimator for broadband PLC based on cross-correlation with multilevel complementary sequences or Zadoff-Chu sequences and its efficient implementation in a FPGA; the obtained results show a 90% of success rate in symbol timing estimation for a certain PLC channel model and a reduced resource consumption for its implementation in a Xilinx Kyntex FPGA.

  4. Efficient Implementation of a Symbol Timing Estimator for Broadband PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Nombela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Broadband Power Line Communications (PLC have taken advantage of the research advances in multi-carrier modulations to mitigate frequency selective fading, and their adoption opens up a myriad of applications in the field of sensory and automation systems, multimedia connectivity or smart spaces. Nonetheless, the use of these multi-carrier modulations, such as Wavelet-OFDM, requires a highly accurate symbol timing estimation for reliably recovering of transmitted data. Furthermore, the PLC channel presents some particularities that prevent the direct use of previous synchronization algorithms proposed in wireless communication systems. Therefore more research effort should be involved in the design and implementation of novel and robust synchronization algorithms for PLC, thus enabling real-time synchronization. This paper proposes a symbol timing estimator for broadband PLC based on cross-correlation with multilevel complementary sequences or Zadoff-Chu sequences and its efficient implementation in a FPGA; the obtained results show a 90% of success rate in symbol timing estimation for a certain PLC channel model and a reduced resource consumption for its implementation in a Xilinx Kyntex FPGA.

  5. Translation of PLC Programs to x86 for Simulation and Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Sallai, Gyula

    2017-01-01

    PLC programs are written in special languages, variants of the languages defined in the IEC 61131 standard. These programs cannot be directly executed on personal computers (on x86 architecture). To perform simulation of the PLC program or diagnostics during development, either a real PLC or a PLC simulator has to be used. However, these solutions are often inflexible and they do not provide appropriate performance. By generating x86-representations (semantically equivalent programs which can be executed on PCs, e.g. written in C, C++ or Java) of the PLC programs, some of these challenges could be met. PLCverif is a PLC program verification tool developed at CERN which includes a parser for Siemens PLC programs. In this work, we describe a code generator based on this parser of PLCverif. This work explores the possibilities and challenges of generating programs in widely-used general purpose languages from PLC programs, and provides a proof-of-concept code generation implementation. The presented solution dem...

  6. PLC VE PLC ILE ROTORU SARGILI ASENKRON MOTORA YOL VERME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İSMAİL COŞKUN

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Günilinüzde tcknoloj i hızla ilerlemekte ve bw1a paralel olarak kullanılan sistcnıler de değişmektedir. Bu değişim tasarıını kolay. ckonoınik. luzlı tepkili sistemi elde etıneye yönelik alınaktadır. Değişim zinciri içerisinde Otoınas\\on ve Otoınatik Kumanda sektörü önemli bir halka� ı teşkil etıncktcdir. Bu sektörde, Programlanabilir Mantık Kontrol ( PLC hızla kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Bu çalışınada PLC' ·ı cr genel olarak değerlendirilmiş olup. PLC ilc rotoru sargılı asenkron ınotora yol veııne işleıni ele alınınıştır.

  7. Equity valuation of Tesco Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to value the British retailer Tesco Plc. The objective was to determine a target price for the company and as a consequence determine a buy or sell recommendation when comparing it to the current market price. After the state of the art of literature regarding equity valuation has been assessed, the retail industry as well as Tesco have been analysed in more detail. Based on this, the retail business of Tesco has been valued using the Adjusted Present Va...

  8. PLC Based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System

    OpenAIRE

    Amogh Tayade; Anuja Chitre

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have implemented a PLC based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System for Casting Department of Victory Precisions Pvt. Ltd. Chakan, Pune. This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System. Aluminium pouring is the key process in Casting and Forging industry. Different products are manufactured by the company for automobile sector using aluminium. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is used for the automation of pouring process. Au...

  9. Implementation of a Fractional Model-Based Fault Detection Algorithm into a PLC Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Ryszard

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results related to the implementation of model-based fault detection and diagnosis procedures into a typical PLC controller. To construct the mathematical model and to implement the PID regulator, a non-integer order differential/integral calculation was used. Such an approach allows for more exact control of the process and more precise modelling. This is very crucial in model-based diagnostic methods. The theoretical results were verified on a real object in the form of a supercapacitor connected to a PLC controller by a dedicated electronic circuit controlled directly from the PLC outputs.

  10. Integration of the HVCM PLC into the PEFP Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) for the 100-MeV accelerator was installed to drive the 20-MeV linac. There are two klystrons in the 20-MeV linac and one modulator was used to drive two klystrons simultaneously. The HVCM for the 20-MeV linac area in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is shown in Fig. 1. We were faced with the necessity of integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for the HVCM into the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) control system. At the PEFP, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has become the most widely used solution for building control systems for 100MeV proton accelerator. The EPICS as a standard development tool is a distributed architecture that provides several solutions such as independent programming tools for operating system, operator interface tools, and archiving tools. Although EPICS is used directly in our control system, HVCMs were delivered with the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix as a PLC. The industrial PLC has been verified for safety systems. We need to connect an interface from our EPICS control system to AB-PLC using Ethernet/IP (ControlNet over Ethernet) protocol over Ethernet. In this paper, we will present the communication protocol and EPICS IOC installation for the EPICS based PLC control system

  11. A Classification of PLC Models and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Boel, R.; Stremersch, G.

    In the past years there is an increasing interest in analysing PLC applications with formal methods. The first step to this end is to get formal models of PLC applications. Meanwhile, various models for PLCs have already been introduced in the literature. In our paper we discuss several

  12. Parameters Evaluation of PLC Dependability and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Zdansky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on evaluation of dependability and safety parameters of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller. Achievement of requested level of these parameters is an application assumption for using PLC in control of safety critical processes. Evaluation of these parameters can be made on the base of suitable model and it can be influenced by system architecture when necessary.

  13. Plc-модем

    OpenAIRE

    Брылёва, О. А.; Колбун, В. С.

    2012-01-01

    Power line communication (PLC) is a cost effective solution for communicating and controlling a group of standalone units for many applications including lighting control, e-metering etc. Developing and deploying reliable PLC-systems is a notoriously hard problem in advanced technologies. And it is important to understand the nature of all challenges in this sphere.

  14. Modelling and Formal Verification of Timing Aspects in Large PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Blanco Vinuela, E; Tournier, J-C; Gonzalez Suarez, V M; Blech, J O

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacle that prevents model checking from being widely used in industrial control systems is the complexity of building formal models out of PLC programs, especially when timing aspects need to be integrated. This paper brings an answer to this obstacle by proposing a methodology to model and verify timing aspects of PLC programs. Two approaches are proposed to allow the users to balance the trade-off between the complexity of the model, i.e. its number of states, and the set of specifications possible to be verified. A tool supporting the methodology which allows to produce models for different model checkers directly from PLC programs has been developed. Verification of timing aspects for real-life PLC programs are presented in this paper using NuSMV.

  15. WideCells Group PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Peter

    2017-07-01

    WideCells Group PLC (Manchester, UK) is a global stem cell services company with the aim of leading a transformation in cord blood banking and stem cell treatment. There are three key divisions: WideCells, WideAcademy and CellPlan. WideCells provides contract, collaborative and in-house research, and stem cell processing and storage facilities for a wide range of human tissues. WideAcademy, the education and training branch of the WideCells Group, aims to become the thought leader in stem cell technology, influencing and informing the next generation of healthcare professionals working in stem cell technology. CellPlan is a first-of-its-kind medical insurance plan to make stem cell treatment accessible and affordable by providing access to renowned specialists and hospitals globally with financial cover for cord blood transplantation and for participation in clinical trials using cord blood.

  16. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  17. De-coupling filters for PLC applications; Entkopplungsfilter fuer PLC-Anwendungen. Datensicherheit im Netzwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, D.; Kull, P. [Schaffner EMV AG, Luterbach (Switzerland)

    2001-04-23

    Where, why and how to use a de-coupling filter for PLC applications in the right way? These are questions which are being asked now and will become even more important in the near future. In this article you will find the answers to these and other questions regarding PLC systems and the use of decoupling filters. (orig.) [German] Im Zusammenhang mit PLC (Power Line Communication) Anwendungen stellen sich immer oefter die Fragen, wo, zu welchem Zweck und wie man ein Entkopplungsfilter richtig einsetzt? Die Verfasser diskutieren diese und andere Fragen rund um PLC-Anwendungen und den Einsatz von Entkopplungsfiltern. (orig.)

  18. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  19. Using of Finite Automation at Programming PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerning with systematic advances at programming programmable logic controllers (PLC, which comes out from algebraic description of behaviour of sequential circuit, in the way of finite automaton. This kind of access is streamlining the work of a programmer and enabling to use formalisms in the of whole process of system development, that is from process of analysing demands to process of verification and validation created program. The paper considers about using of ladder diagram at programming PLC.

  20. Creating communities of practices to manage technological knowledge : An evaluation study at Rolls-Royce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwesen, Bas; Berends, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - In large companies, technological knowledge lies dispersed over individual specialists, business units and locations. Communities of practice (CoPs) are a structure for sharing this dispersed knowledge. However, CoPs are usually seen as being emergent, evolving and elusive. This study aims

  1. Theoretical postulation of PLC channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Ionuţ Chiuţă

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to supply atheoretical basis for modelling the communicationlinks over powerlines. A comprehensive summary oftransmission properties and the noise scenario onpublic mains supply when used for data transmissionare given.Different PLC models - PLC channel, noise inPLC channel, coupling units, filters and conditioningdevices – will be created and they will be used tosimulate the PLC channel.PLC applications will have to work at veryunusual channels, solely designed for optimalelectrical power transportation, completelydisregarding signal transmission at high frequencies.It is shown that the typical properties aredescribed by transfer functions and noise scenariostypical for access and inhouse networks. The generaltransfer function for different channel types is derivedand, since an emulation system should reproducetypical classes of channels rather than singlemeasurements, the transfer function is concretisedwith reference channels. These are later serving asbasis for development of channel simulators andchannel emulators. Special attention is paid tomodelling of aperiodic impulsive noise since PLCsystems are reacting very sensitive to them and thisclass of noise has been insufficiently considered so far.

  2. Users` demands narrow PLC-DCS gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Fauci, J.

    1997-02-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) operator interface (OI) software has propelled programmable logic controllers (PLCs) into areas where they can successfully compete with distributed control systems (DCSs) for many control applications. As a result, automation engineers are struggling to develop guidelines to help determine which is best for batch operations and other applications. There is no clear answer to this issue. There are, however, decision tools such as Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) that can be applied by engineers as a structured approach to decision analysis and system selection. Other factors such as business environment, pressure to reduce project cost, validation, and predicting new technology direction all play a critical role for engineers in choosing between a PLC- or DCS-based control system. Higher-level business issues, however, are seldom considered by engineers during control system selection. Engineers should try to better understand their company`s business objectives and mission statement and how company business direction may affect control system selection. For instance, the pharmaceutical industry can be broken up into the following five basic application groups: bulk chemicals, finishing, biotech, pilot plant, and utilities. Each has a unique set of functional and process-control requirements. Understanding needs and differences of these five basic application groups and applying the optimum control system solution will place the company in a more competitive position. A financial analysis should be one of the first steps in the control system evaluation process. This may include early agreement of contractual terms and conditions as well as a nondisclosure agreement. Other financial considerations may include requesting a financial report on the control system manufacturer or systems integrator that will be performing the work to determine its financial stability. 3 figs.

  3. Automated turn pike using PLC and SCADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpa Sreedhar, P.; Aiswarya, P.; Kathirvelan, J.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a smart turnpike based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) in this paper. In this work, the basic idea is to measure the weight of the vehicles and classify them according to its weight to the respective lanes. It is difficult for the turnpike people to monitor the whole process all the time. So, this PLC based diversion system can be implemented in turnpikes to reduce the difficulties. This method will work based on weight sensors (piezo-resistive) whose output will be fed to a PLC, which will control the vehicle diversion. Using SCADA software, the whole process can be monitored from a remote area. The algorithm developed in this successfully installed in real time system.

  4. Empirical P-L-C relations for delta Scuti stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    Separate P-L-C relations have been empirically derived by sampling the delta Scuti stars according to their pulsation modes. The results based on these relations have been compared with those estimated from the model based P-L-C relations and the other existing empirical P-L-C relations. It is found that a separate P-L-C relation for each pulsation mode provides a better correspondence with observations. (Auth.)

  5. Evaluation of PLC Channel Capacity and ABER Performances for OFDM-Based Two-Hop Relaying Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ezzine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Powerline network is recognized as a favorable infrastructure for Smart Grid to transmit information in the network thanks to its broad coverage and low cost deployment. The existing works are trying to improve and adapt transmission techniques to reduce Powerline Communication (PLC channel attenuation and exploit the limited bandwidth to support high data rate over long distances. Two-hop relaying BroadBand PLC (BB-PLC system, in which Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is used, is considered in this paper. We derive and compare the PLC channel capacity and the end-to-end Average BER (ABER for OFDM-based direct link (DL BB-PLC system and for OFDM-based two-hop relaying BB-PLC system for Amplify and Forward (AF and Decode and Forward (DF protocols. We analyze the improvements when we consider the direct link in a cooperative communication when the relay node only transmits the correctly decoded signal. Maximum ratio combining is employed at the destination node to detect the transmitted signal. In addition, in this paper, we highlight the impact of the relay location on the channel capacity and ABER for AF and DF transmission protocols. Moreover, an efficient use of the direct link was also investigated in this paper.

  6. PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers for mode division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Fujisawa, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoko; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-02-01

    Recently developed PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers (MUX/DEMUXs) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission are reviewed. We firstly show the operation principle and basic characteristics of PLC-based MUX/DEMUXs with an asymmetric directional coupler (ADC). We then demonstrate the 3-mode (2LP-mode) multiplexing of the LP01, LP11a, and LP11b modes by using fabricated PLC-based mode MUX/DEMUX on one chip. In order to excite LP11b mode in the same plane, a PLC-based LP11 mode rotator is introduced. Finally, we show the PLC-based 6-mode (4LP-mode) MUX/DEMUX with a uniform height by using ADCs, LP11 mode rotators, and tapered waveguides. It is shown that the LP21a mode can be excited from the LP11b mode by using ADC, and the two nearly degenerated LP21b and LP02 modes can be (de)multiplexed separately by using tapered mode converter from E13 (E31) mode to LP21b (LP02) mode.

  7. Amersham International plc. Report and Accounts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Annual Report and Accounts for Amersham International plc for the year 1995 are presented. This leading health science company develops products, services and technologies based on its expertise in labelling and detection at the molecular level. Recent work in the fields of life science research, nuclear medicine and industrial quality and safety assurance are described. (UK)

  8. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  9. Powerline Communication (PLC). Telecommunication via 50 Hz networks; Powerline Communication (PLC). Telekommunikation ueber 50-Hz-Netze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    PLC systems offer the same services as other access technologies, but beyond that they offer extensive electricity-related services (power supply services, remote control, telemetric data services, building automation, data linking in buildings). The brochure presents information on PLC systems and lists the demands of power network operators, i.e. conditions and specifications for operation of PLC systems within the electricity grid. [German] Powerline-Communication-Systeme (PLC-Systeme) nutzen als Medium zur Datenuebertragung die vorhandenen Verteilungsnetze oder die kundeneigene Niederspannungsinstallation. Als Kundenaccess-Technologie bieten PLC-Systeme zunaechst die gleichen vielfaeltigen Dienstleistungsangebote aus dem Telekommunikationsbereich wie andere Accesstechnologien auch. Darueber hinaus ermoeglichen PLC-Systeme aber umfangreiche Dienstleistungen rund um den Strom (z.B. reine Energiedienstleistungen oder Fernsteuerungen, Telemetrie-Datendienste, Hausautomatisierung, Datenvernetzung von Gebaeuden). Ziel dieser Broschuere ist es einerseits, Informationen ueber die PLC-Technik fuer Netzbetreiber zusammenzustellen. Andererseits werden aktuelle Anforderungen an die PLC-Technik aus Sicht der Netzbetreiber an die Hersteller von PLC-Systemen formuliert. Dabei werden Bedingungen und Anforderungen, unter denen die PLC-Systeme im Verteilungsnetz betrieben werden sollen, eingehend erlaeutert. (orig.)

  10. Reliability Analysis for Safety Grade PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Chul; Hwang, Sung Jae; Jung, Tae Hyok; Kim, Tae Hee; Song, Seung Whan [POSCO ICT Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, describe reliability analysis for digital safety grade PLC which developed with the aim to use the operating nuclear power plants and new plants by POSCO ICT co., POSAFE-Q consist of the Sub Rack, power modules, processor modules, communication modules, digital input / output module (DI / DO), analog input / output modules (AI / AO), pulse counter module, TC (Thermocouple), RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector), Local Repeater

  11. Evaluation of PLC systems for smart metering; Evaluation von PLC-Uebertragungssystemen fuer Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Michael; Sigle, Martin; Dostert, Klaus [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industrielle Informationstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Information and communication technologies are the basis for implementing Smart Grids. Currently, there is great demand for communications solutions that allow for interconnecting smart energy meters in particular. The users' interests focus on Power Line Communication due to economic considerations. Despite a large and even growing number of PLC-based data transmission technology, however, only few reliable information about the system performance is available to potential users. As a first step, it is therefore necessary to identify the actually achievable system performance of different communication systems. In this article, we describe two approaches for evaluating the performance of PLC systems taking into account the unique physical properties of the transmission channel. In addition, we present evaluation results that provide a basis for a realistic assessment of the potential of communication technology based on PLC. (orig.)

  12. On Construction and Verification of PLC-Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some methods and approaches to programming discrete problems for Programmable Logic Controllers on the example of constructing PLC-programs for controling a code lock. For these approaches we evaluate the usability of the model checking method for the analysis of program correctness with respect to the automatic verification tool Cadence SMV. Some possible PLC-program vulnerabilities arising at a number approaches to programming of PLC are revealed.

  13. Practical application with plc in manipulation of a robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Barz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a robotic arm PLC Siemens in order not using CNC commands. This is done by programming the PLC ladder diagram language that makes movement on the three axes of the arm by means of stepper motors. Required command console PLC is built with the help of a touch screen HMI Weintek. In the user interface are introduced distances and displacement speeds on the three axes.

  14. Power Line Communication (PLC) in Space - Current Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Power Line Communication (PLC) technology as known from various terrestrial applications, e.g. in building automation, in the automotive sector and on aircraft, appears to be a promising technology for the use on spacecraft. Starting from a critical overview on existing terrestrial PLC applications with their pros and cons, the paper gives a motivation for the introduction of the PLC technology on spacecraft, discusses the potential areas where it can be applied and is highlighting the potential problem areas. A short overview of on-going ESA PLC activities is provided and an outlook is given.

  15. Development of tools for automatic generation of PLC code

    CERN Document Server

    Koutli, Maria; Rochez, Jacques

    This Master thesis was performed at CERN and more specifically in the EN-ICE-PLC section. The Thesis describes the integration of two PLC platforms, that are based on CODESYS development tool, to the CERN defined industrial framework, UNICOS. CODESYS is a development tool for PLC programming, based on IEC 61131-3 standard, and is adopted by many PLC manufacturers. The two PLC development environments are, the SoMachine from Schneider and the TwinCAT from Beckhoff. The two CODESYS compatible PLCs, should be controlled by the SCADA system of Siemens, WinCC OA. The framework includes a library of Function Blocks (objects) for the PLC programs and a software for automatic generation of the PLC code based on this library, called UAB. The integration aimed to give a solution that is shared by both PLC platforms and was based on the PLCOpen XML scheme. The developed tools were demonstrated by creating a control application for both PLC environments and testing of the behavior of the code of the library.

  16. Design and Implementation of Mobile Robotic Manipulator for Welding Using PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin TOM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Robotics is a rapidly growing field in the area of science and technology. With the growth of industrialization and automation one requires a better precision of work with improved productivity and less expenditure. It has reduced additional effort of production line though; it reduces man power and provides faster response as well as better precision of working. It has become the vital sector for all automobile industries specializing in the works considered to be difficult such as welding and assembly. In this work, we have been implemented a mobile robotic manipulator for welding using programmable logic controller (PLC. A manipulator with two links is designed to move in horizontal and vertical directions. The end effector is provided with ac supplied welding torch. The manipulator is made movable with the help of microcontroller based line follower. This paper gives the idea how efficiently welding can be done by synchronizing PLC and microcontroller. PLC is an added advantage to this work as almost all the industries are automated which thereby prevents the installation of new PLC for the proposed system. This manipulator along with sensors can be used to detect the cracks or damages in underground pipelines. It can also be used to weld the corroded furnace or bins in steel or cement plants.

  17. Development of multifunctional radiation monitoring instrument based on PLC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziqiang; Zhu Yuye; Zhuang Min

    2007-01-01

    This eight-channel multifunctional Radiation Monitoring Instrument is developed by making use of the built-in high-speed counters and the powerful instruction system of the SIEMES SIMATICS S7 series Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to record and process the pulse signal output by the detectors. The instrument with functions, such as analog and digital display, digital storage of digital data, pulse signal generator, network communication, can connect various types of pulse detectors. The initial process can be translated between Graduation Apparatus method and Formula method. the logicality of the high-dosage warning system is processed itself. The signal output will drive the alarm lights and bell directly. This paper mainly describes the configuration, programming and feature of the instrument. (authors)

  18. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  19. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengia-Seraina Rioult-Pedotti

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA, leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  20. The Novel Functions of the PLC/PKC/PKD Signaling Axis in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Chemotaxis of Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis, a directional cell migration guided by extracellular chemoattractant gradients, plays an essential role in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Chemotaxis is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathway. Extracellular stimuli trigger activation of the PLC/PKC/PKD signaling axis, which controls several signaling pathways. Here, we concentrate on the novel functions of PLC/PKC/PKD signaling in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils.

  1. The Novel Functions of the PLC/PKC/PKD Signaling Axis in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Chemotaxis of Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuehua; Jin, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a directional cell migration guided by extracellular chemoattractant gradients, plays an essential role in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Chemotaxis is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Extracellular stimuli trigger activation of the PLC/PKC/PKD signaling axis, which controls several signaling pathways. Here, we concentrate on the novel functions of PLC/PKC/PKD signaling in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils.

  2. Alkane Energy plc annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Alkane Energy plc (Alkane) is the UK's leading commercial producer of methane gas from abandoned coal mines. It currently operates five Green Energy Parks in the East Midlands and Yorkshire two of which were opened in the reporting year. Two agreements have been signed to develop sites to supply sites with a capacity of 50 MW of electricity. The annual report outlines achievements and plans and describes the technologies developed to capture methane. It discusses the environmental benefits of producing coal mine methane (CMM), particularly in reducing global warming, and benefits to the deprived former mining communities of the UK.

  3. Alkane Energy plc annual report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Alkane Energy plc (Alkane) is the UK's leading commercial producer of methane gas from abandoned coal mines. It currently operates five Green Energy Parks in the East Midlands and Yorkshire two of which began delivering gas in the reporting year. In March 2003 a contract was signed to develop a 2.7 MW generation facility in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. The annual report outlines achievements and plans and describes the technologies developed to capture methane. It discusses the environmental benefits of producing coal mine methane (CMM), particularly in reducing global warming, and benefits to the deprived former mining communities of the UK.

  4. Full-automatic Special Drill Hydraulic System and PLC Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xue Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydraulic-driven and PLC full-automatic special drill is introduced, working principle of the hydraulic system and PLC control system are analyzed and designed, this equipment has the advantages of high efficiency, superior quality and low cost etc.

  5. Modeling, Specification and Construction of PLC-programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to construction of reliable discrete PLC-programs with timers — programming based on specification and verification — is proposed. Timers are modelled in a discrete way. For the specification of a program behavior we use the linear-time temporal logic LTL. Programming is carried out in the ST-language according to a LTLspecification. A new approach to programming of PLC is shown by an example. The proposed programming approach provides an ability of a correctness analysis of PLC-programs using the model checking method. The programming requires fulfillment of the following two conditions: 1 a value of each variable should be changed not more than once per one full PLC-program implementation (per one full working cycle of PLC; 2 a value of each variable should only be changed in one place of a PLC-program. Under the proposed approach the change of the value of each program variable is described by a pair of LTL-formulas. The first LTL-formula describes situations that increase the value of the corresponding variable, the second LTL-formula specifies conditions leading to a decrease of the variable value. The LTL-formulas (used for specification of the corresponding variable behavior are constructive in the sense that they construct the PLC-program, which satisfies temporal properties expressed by these formulas. Thus, the programming of PLC is reduced to the construction of LTL-specification of the behavior of each program variable.

  6. Reliability Analysis for Safety Grade PLC(POSAFE-Q)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Chul; Song, Seung Whan; Park, Gang Min; Hwang, Sung Jae

    2012-01-01

    Safety Grade PLC(Programmable Logic Controller), POSAFE-Q, was developed recently in accordance with nuclear regulatory and requirements. In this paper, describe reliability analysis for digital safety grade PLC (especially POSAFE-Q). Reliability analysis scope is Prediction, Calculation of MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure), FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis), PFD (Probability of Failure on Demand). (author)

  7. Heating systems with PLC and frequency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, Salah; Abu-Mallouh, Riyad [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Applied Science University, Amman 11931 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    In this work, medium capacity controlled heating system is designed and constructed. The programming method of control of heating process is achieved by means of integrated programmable logic controller (PLC) and frequency inverter (FI). The PLC main function is to determine the required temperatures levels and the related time intervals of the heating hold time in the furnace. FI is used to control the dynamic change of temperature between various operating points. The designed system shows the capability for full control of temperature from zero to maximum for any required range of time in case of increasing or decreasing the temperature. All variables of the system will be changed gradually until reaching their needed working points. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of tempering temperature and tempering time on hardness and fatigue resistance of 0.4% carbon steel. It was found that increasing tempering temperature above 550 C or tempering time decreases the hardness of the material. It was also found that there is a maximum number of cycles to which the specimen can survive what ever the applied load was. (author)

  8. Heating systems with PLC and frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Salah; Abu-Mallouh, Riyad

    2008-01-01

    In this work, medium capacity controlled heating system is designed and constructed. The programming method of control of heating process is achieved by means of integrated programmable logic controller (PLC) and frequency inverter (FI). The PLC main function is to determine the required temperatures levels and the related time intervals of the heating hold time in the furnace. FI is used to control the dynamic change of temperature between various operating points. The designed system shows the capability for full control of temperature from zero to maximum for any required range of time in case of increasing or decreasing the temperature. All variables of the system will be changed gradually until reaching their needed working points. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of tempering temperature and tempering time on hardness and fatigue resistance of 0.4% carbon steel. It was found that increasing tempering temperature above 550 deg. C or tempering time decreases the hardness of the material. It was also found that there is a maximum number of cycles to which the specimen can survive what ever the applied load was

  9. Modeling a Consistent Behavior of PLC-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article extends the cycle of papers dedicated to programming and verificatoin of PLC-programs by LTL-specification. This approach provides the availability of correctness analysis of PLC-programs by the model checking method.The model checking method needs to construct a finite model of a PLC program. For successful verification of required properties it is important to take into consideration that not all combinations of input signals from the sensors can occur while PLC works with a control object. This fact requires more advertence to the construction of the PLC-program model.In this paper we propose to describe a consistent behavior of sensors by three groups of LTL-formulas. They will affect the program model, approximating it to the actual behavior of the PLC program. The idea of LTL-requirements is shown by an example.A PLC program is a description of reactions on input signals from sensors, switches and buttons. In constructing a PLC-program model, the approach to modeling a consistent behavior of PLC sensors allows to focus on modeling precisely these reactions without an extension of the program model by additional structures for realization of a realistic behavior of sensors. The consistent behavior of sensors is taken into account only at the stage of checking a conformity of the programming model to required properties, i. e. a property satisfaction proof for the constructed model occurs with the condition that the model contains only such executions of the program that comply with the consistent behavior of sensors.

  10. Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Explicit Instruction Dengan Trainer PLC Untuk Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Merakit Sistem PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suroto Suroto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to implement the Explicit Instruction Learning Model using trainer PLC media to improve the students’ learning achievement and motivation in assembling PLC system subject. The research methodology used classroom action research with XII TOI students of SMK Negeri 2 Depok as the sample. The research instruments used were formative tests and practice job sheets. The result of research showed that the average formative test in cycle I was 76,10 ; in cycle II was 80,32 and in cycle III was 83,77. Based on the findings, it means that the students ‘scores were higher than the provided minimum requirement score after using the Explicit Instruction Model using trainer PLC media in cycle I,II and III. The students’ learning motivation in cycle I, II and III were 67, 82 ,and 85 respectively. It can be concluded that the students’ learning motivation was improving from (≤ 75 to ( ≥ 75 at the second and third cycles.

  11. Trends in Control Area of PLC Reliability and Safety Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Zdansky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension of the PLC application possibilities is closely related to increase of reliability and safety parameters. If the requirement of reliability and safety parameters will be suitable, the PLC could by implemented to specific applications such the safety-related processes control. The goal of this article is to show the way which producers are approaching to increase PLC`s reliability and safety parameters. The second goal is to analyze these parameters for range of present choice and describe the possibility how the reliability and safety parameters can be affected.

  12. Analysis of the PLC object model in the PF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Isamu; Shirakawa, Akihiro; Nakahara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Masahiko

    1995-01-01

    Device controllers (front end) for the KEK PF Linac, which has been operated for more than ten years, had to be renewed, because there is no longer support from hardware manufacturer. To reduce maintenance costs, device controllers are planed to be replaced by PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). Investigations launched in the late 1994s for the PLC have carried out in order to make sure of the I/O stability and network possibilities. In this paper, the software for the PLC is discussed based on the OOP concept. (author)

  13. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-09-26

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia-ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway.

  14. Components importance analysis of PLC networks for the power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PLC) system connected to the Nigerian national electricity grid for a period of eleven (11) years. Bimbaum's component importance technique is used to derive the components' reliability, importance functions of phase-to-earth, phaseto- phase ...

  15. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  16. Programmable logic controller (PLC) for safety systems of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.K.; Karmakar, G.; Joseph, Jose; Patil, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A programmable logic controller (PLC) has been developed by RCnD, BARC for use in the safety critical systems in nuclear power plants. This PLC uses qualified hardware developed in RCnD for use in NPP. The programming software conforms to IEC-61131 part 3. The application programming is done on function block diagram (FBD) editor and the FBD is automatically converted into code in high level language (C / C++). This feature makes the application easily decipherable and therefore easily subjected to reviews and other validation techniques. The key to make quality software for use in nuclear systems is to enforce various standards in the design and development of the software, something, which is not possible to do with a commercially available PLC. This PLC with its software completely transparent lends itself to rigorous verification and validation easily

  17. PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for MDM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, N.; Saitoh, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Matsui, T.; Tsujikawa, K.; Koshiba, M.; Yamamoto, F.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a PLC-based multi/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) with a mode conversion function for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission applications. The PLC-based mode MUX/DEMUX can realize a low insertion loss and a wide working wavelength bandwidth. We designed and demonstrated a two-mode (LP01 and LP11 modes) and a three-mode (LP01, LP11, and LP21 modes) MUX/DEMUX for use in the C-band.

  18. Silencing of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (SlPLC2) reduces plant susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonorazky, Gabriela; Guzzo, María Carla; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.; Laxalt, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    The tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene family is composed of six members, named SlPLC1 to SlPLC6, differentially regulated on pathogen attack. We have previously shown that the fungal elicitor xylanase induces a raise of SlPLC2 and SlPLC5

  19. Melatonin Promotes Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression and Anti-Apoptotic Effects in Neonatal Hemolytic Hyperbilirubinemia via a Phospholipase (PLC)-Mediated Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Peng, Mei; Wei, Hong

    2017-12-16

    BACKGROUND Melatonin therapy shows positive effects on neuroprotective factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and neuronal apoptosis in neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia. We hypothesized that melatonin promotes BDNF expression and anti-apoptotic effects in neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia through a phospholipase (PLC)-mediated mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS A phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ)-induced neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia model was constructed in neonatal rats. Four experimental groups - a control group (n=30), a PHZ group (n=30), a PHZ + melatonin group (n=30), and a PHZ + melatonin+U73122 (a PLC inhibitor) group (n=30) - were constructed. Trunk blood was assayed for serum hemoglobin, hematocrit, total and direct bilirubin, BDNF, S100B, and tau protein levels. Brain tissue levels of neuronal apoptosis, BDNF expression, PLC activity, IP3 content, phospho- and total Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMKIV) expression, and phospho- and total cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) expression were also assayed. RESULTS PHZ-induced hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia was validated by significantly decreased serum hemoglobin and hematocrit as well as significantly increased total and direct serum bilirubin (p<0.05). Neonatal bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity was validated by significantly decreased serum BDNF, brain BDNF, and serum S100B, along with significantly increased serum tau protein (p<0.05). PHZ-induced hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia significantly decreased serum BDNF, brain BDNF, and PLC/IP3/Ca2+ pathway activation while increasing neuronal apoptosis levels (p<0.05), all of which were partially rescued by melatonin therapy (p<0.05). Pre-treatment with the PLC inhibitor U73122 largely abolished the positive effects of melatonin on PLC/IP3/Ca2+ pathway activation, downstream BDNF levels, and neuronal apoptosis (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Promotion of BDNF expression and anti-apoptotic effects in neonatal

  20. The development of direct core monitoring in Nuclear Electric plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.F.; Jones, S. Reed, J.; Wickham, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of graphite behaviour in Nuclear Electric Magnox and AGR reactors is necessary to support operating safety cases and to ensure that reactor operation is optimized to sustain the necessary core integrity for the economic life of the reactors. The monitoring programme combines studies for pre-characterized ''installed'' samples with studies on samples trepanned from within the cores and also with studies of core and channel geometry using specially designed equipment. Nuclear Electric has two trepanning machines originally designed for Magnox-reactor work which have been used for a substantial programme over many years. They have recently been upgraded to improve sampling speed, safety and versatility - the last being demonstrated by their adaptation for a recently-won contract associated with decommissioning the Windscale piles. Radiological hazards perceived when the AGR trepanning system was designed resulted in very cumbersome equipment. This has worked well but has been inconvenient in operation. The development of a smaller and improved system for deploying the equipment is now reported. Channel dimension monitoring equipment is discussed in detail with examples of data recovered from both Magnox and AGR cores. A resolution of ± 2 of arc (tilt) and ± 0.01 mm change in diameter in attainable. It is also theoretically possible to establish brick stresses by measuring geometry changes which result from trepanning. Current development work on a revolving scanning laser rangefinder which will enable the measurement of diameters to a resolution of 0.001 mm will also be discussed. This paper also discusses non-destructive techniques for crack detection employing ultrasound or resistance networks, the use of special manipulators to deliver inspection and repair equipment and recent developments to install displacement monitors in peripheral regions of the cores, to aid the understanding of the interaction of the restraint system with the core - the region subject to the greatest stresses in normal operation. (author). 6 figs

  1. Heating systems with PLC and frequency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, S.; Abu-Malouh, R. [Applied Science Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Heat treatment involves the controlled heating and cooling of metals to alter their physical and mechanical properties without changing the product shape. Heat treatment is frequently associated with increasing the strength of material, but it can also be utilized to alter certain manufacturability objectives such as improve machining, improve formability, and restoring ductility after a cold working operation. Heat treatment is an enabling process that can help other manufacturing processes, as well as improve product performance by increasing strength or other desirable characteristics. This paper discussed the design and construction of a medium capacity controlled heating system. The programming method of control of the heating process was achieved using an integrated programmable logic controller (PLC) and frequency inverter. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of temperature and tempering time on hardness and fatigue resistance of 0.4 per cent carbon steel. The paper discussed the heating system design and control and provided a mathematical description of the frequency controlled heating system. The modeling of the frequency converter and of the furnace was explained. It was concluded that increasing the tempering temperature above 550 degrees Celsius or tempering time decreased the hardness of the material. 26 refs., 16 figs.

  2. An Experimental Study of Water Injection into a Rolls-Royce Model 250-C20B Turboshaft Gas Turbine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golden, Daniel L

    2008-01-01

    Environmental responsibility is a focus of researchers in many fields. In the field of engine and propulsion research this is manifested in a focus on minimization of emissions while maximizing efficiency and performance...

  3. Prospective radiological dose assessment. Amersham plc (Amersham site) variation application December 1998[Dosimetry; Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allott, R

    2001-09-01

    Amersham plc (previously Nycomed-Amersham plc) submitted an application to the Environment Agency in December 1998 for a variation to their radioactive waste discharge authorisations granted under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. The application requested a reduction in the discharge limits for certain radionuclides and no change for the remaining radionuclides. Amersham plc undertook a further review of their discharge requirements and submitted a new assessment for revised limits in January 2001. This report provides an assessment of the radiological implications of discharges at these revised limits requested by Amersham plc and the limits proposed by the Agency. It has been prepared by the National Compliance Assessment Service at the request of Thames Region to support their determination of the application. Four candidate critical groups were identified who could be exposed to discharges from the Amersham site: 1) Sewage workers at the Maple Lodge sewage works who might be exposed to external radiation from discharges contained within sewage and inadvertently inhale or ingest sewage. 2) Anglers on the Grand Union Canal who eat a small proportion of their annual catch of freshwater fish, who drink water abstracted solely from the River Colne and eat vegetables irrigated by water from the canal. 3) Persons living closest to site who eat locally produced food. 4) Dog walkers living near to site who eat locally produced food. For continuous discharges at the Agency's proposed annual limits, the highest dose of 160 {mu}Sv/y is predicted to be received by infants who live closest to the site and eat locally produced food. Therefore, this has been identified as the critical group. Children and adults living at the same location and eating locally produced food receive doses of 140 {mu}Sv/y and 130 {mu}Sv/y respectively. The critical group dose is less than the source constraint of 300 {mu}Sv/y. The dose is dominated by direct radiation from the site (110

  4. SISTEM KOREKSI OTOMATIS PADA MESIN PACKAGING DENGAN PENGENDALI PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrial Saputra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu kecacatan produk dalam kemasan pouch apabila produk tersebut ditemukan overlap. Overlap pada produk sabun refill (isi ulang merupakan salah satu kecacatan produk yang dapat menyebabkan minat konsumen menurun. Sistem Autocorrection (Pengoreksi-Otomatis merupakan sistem kendali berbasis PLC (Programmable Logic Controller yang dirancang untuk mengatasi overlap pada produk pouch. Sensor photo electric amplifier ditanamkan pada sistem ini yang berfungsi sebagai trigger input ke PLC (Programmable Logic Controller sekaligus pendeteksi overlap yang kemudian sinyal input dari sensor tersebut diolah oleh PLC (Programmable Logic Controller. Output yang dihasilkan berupa gerakan pada sidelay motor (actuator dengan motor AC sebagai penggeraknya untuk bergeser ke arah kiri atau ke arah kanan tergantung salah satu sensor aktif terlebih dahulu.

  5. Prototype of Automated PLC Model Checking Using Continuous Integration Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Lettrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To deal with the complexity of operating and supervising large scale industrial installations at CERN, often Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are used. A failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic loses, environmental damages or human losses. Therefore the requirements to software quality are very high. To provide PLC developers with a way to verify proper functionality against requirements, a Java tool named PLCverif has been developed which encapsulates and thus simplifies the use of third party model checkers. One of our goals in this project is to integrate PLCverif in development process of PLC programs. When the developer changes the program, all the requirements should be verified again, as a change on the code can produce collateral effects and violate one or more requirements. For that reason, PLCverif has been extended to work with Jenkins CI in order to trigger automatically the verication cases when the developer changes the PLC program. This prototype has been...

  6. Construction of PLC IL-Programs by LTL-Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ryabukhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the construction and verification of PLC IL-programs for discrete problems is proposed. For the specification of the program behavior, we use the linear-time temporal logic LTL. Programming is carried out in the IL-language (Instruction List according to an LTL-specification. The correctness analysis of an LTL-specification is carried out by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV. A new approach to programming and verification of PLC IL-programs is shown by an example. For a discrete problem, we give an IL-program and its LTL-specification.The purpose of the article is to describe an approach to programming PLC, which would provide a possibility of IL-program correctness analysis by the model checking method.Under the proposed approach, the change of the value of each program variable is described by a pair of LTL-formulas. The first LTL-formula describes situations which increase the value of the corresponding variable, the second LTL-formula specifies conditions leading to a decrease of the variable value. The LTL-formulas (used for speci- fication of the corresponding variable behavior are constructive in the sense that they construct the PLC-program (IL-program, which satisfies temporal properties expressed by these formulas. Thus, the programming of PLC is reduced to the construction of LTLspecification of the behavior of each program variable. In addition, an SMV-model of a PLC IL-program is constructed according to LTL-specification. Then, the SMV-model is analysed by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV.

  7. Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (PLC2) is required for female gametogenesis and embryo development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Fino, L.M.; D'Ambrosio, J.M.; Tejos, R.; van Wijk, R.; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Munnik, T.; Pagnussat, G.C.; Laxalt, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    MAIN conclusion: AtPLC2 is an essential gene in Arabidopsis, since it is required for female gametogenesis and embryo development. AtPLC2 might play a role in cell division during embryo-sac development and early embryogenesis. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an important

  8. Voltage Control System of A DC Generator Using PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata CHATTOPADHYAY

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The voltage control system of a DC generator may suffer from high frequency oscillations without offset or low frequency oscillation with offset. A PID controller can eliminate both these errors. In the present paper, the voltage control system of a DC generator using a PLC based PID controller has been designed. Operation of PLC as a continuous controller has been described and the load characteristic of DC generator with and without controller have been determined experimentally and reported in this paper.

  9. Transforming PLC Programs into Formal Models for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Blanco, E

    2013-01-01

    Most of CERN’s industrial installations rely on PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems developed using the UNICOS framework. This framework contains common, reusable program modules and their correctness is a high priority. Testing is already applied to find errors, but this method has limitations. In this work an approach is proposed to transform automatically PLC programs into formal models, with the goal of applying formal verification to ensure their correctness. We target model checking which is a precise, mathematical-based method to check formalized requirements automatically against the system.

  10. Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S

    2014-01-01

    Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.

  11. Development and Application of POSAFE-Q PLC Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, MyeongKyun; Song, SeungWhan; Yun, DongHwa

    2012-01-01

    The Safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Platform named POSAFE-Q was developed so that it meets the requirements of the Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. Development process of the POSAFE-Q software developed in accordance with software life cycles. The POSAFE-Q meets safety and suitability for design are based on digital I and C laws, guidelines and technical standards. The POSAFE-Q PLC obtained approval for Topical Report from the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission in Korea. (author)

  12. PLC-γ1 Regulates Fibronectin Assembly and Cell Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Cornelia E.; Pozzi, Ambra; Carpenter, Graham F.

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) mediates cell adhesion and migration through an undefined mechanism. Here, we examine the role of PLC-γ1 in cell-matrix adhesion in a hanging drop assay of cell aggregation. Plcg1 Null (−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts formed aggregates that were larger and significantly more resistant to dissociation than cells in which PLC-γ1 is re-expressed (Null + cells). Aggregate formation could be disrupted by inhibition of fibronectin interaction with integrins, indicating that fibronectin assembly may mediate aggregate formation. Fibronectin assembly was mediated by integrin α5β1 in both cell lines, while assays measuring fibronectin assembly revealed increased assembly in the Null cells. Null and Null + cells exhibited equivalent fibronectin mRNA levels and equivalent levels of fibronectin protein in pulse-labeling experiments. However, levels of secreted fibronectin in the conditioned medium were increased in Null cells. The data implicates a negative regulatory role for PLC-γ1 in cell aggregation by controlling the secretion of fibronectin into the media and its assembly into fibrils. PMID:19379731

  13. E-meter with PLC-based automated meter reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, M. [Texas Instruments, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    Data can be transferred from electronic meters (e-meters) to a concentrator or other device in a variety of ways. However, new ways of communication are needed for automated meter reading (AMR) in order to avoid visits by utility officials to properties where meters are installed. In addition to remote meter reading, e-meters can have functions implemented to lower costs for electricity providers or to provide new features for end customers. This would only be possible if the meter could also receive data via a 2-way communication link. This article presented powerline communication (PLC), a completely different technique for AMR in which the power lines are used as the communication media. The major technologies used in PLC in Europe were discussed along with the challenges of overcoming quality problems. The ability to integrate all required functionality for a complex e-meter with PLC modem into small central processing units (CPUs) was also discussed. Texas Instruments offers a digital signal processor (DSP) that ensures reliable PLC. The way in which these microcomputers process electrical signals was also outlined in this article, with particular reference to how the information is made accessible for the CPUs and for metering devices. 3 figs.

  14. PowerGen plc report and accounts 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The annual report and accounts of PowerGen plc for the year 1994 are presented. Financial highlights are quoted, followed by the Chairman's statement, reviews by the Chief Executive and Financial Directors, reports by the Auditors and Directors, balance sheets and details of the consolidated profit and loss account and principal accounting policies. A four year summary and shareholder information are included. (UK)

  15. Multiprog Virtual Laboratory Applied to PLC Programming Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a Multiprog virtual laboratory for a mechatronics education designed to teach how to programme a programmable logic controller (PLC). The study was carried out with 34 students in the Department of Industry Education and Technology at National Changhua University of Education in Taiwan. In total, 17 students were assigned to…

  16. Regulation of Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity in smooth muscle: inhibitory phosphorylation of PLC-β3 by PKA and PKG and stimulatory phosphorylation of Gαi-GTPase-activating protein RGS2 by PKG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalli, Ancy D; Kumar, Divya P; Al-Shboul, Othman; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S

    2014-11-01

    In gastrointestinal smooth muscle, agonists that bind to Gi-coupled receptors activate preferentially PLC-β3 via Gβγ to stimulate phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) leading to IP3-dependent Ca(2+) release and muscle contraction. In the present study, we identified the mechanism of inhibition of PLC-β3-dependent PI hydrolysis by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, caused an increase in PI hydrolysis in a concentration-dependent fashion; stimulation was blocked by expression of the carboxyl-terminal sequence of GRK2(495-689), a Gβγ-scavenging peptide, or Gαi minigene but not Gαq minigene. Isoproterenol and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) induced phosphorylation of PLC-β3 and inhibited CPA-induced PI hydrolysis, Ca(2+) release, and muscle contraction. The effect of isoproterenol on all three responses was inhibited by PKA inhibitor, myristoylated PKI, or AKAP inhibitor, Ht-31, whereas the effect of GSNO was selectively inhibited by PKG inhibitor, Rp-cGMPS. GSNO, but not isoproterenol, also phosphorylated Gαi-GTPase-activating protein, RGS2, and enhanced association of Gαi3-GTP and RGS2. The effect of GSNO on PI hydrolysis was partly reversed in cells (i) expressing constitutively active GTPase-resistant Gαi mutant (Q204L), (ii) phosphorylation-site-deficient RGS2 mutant (S46A/S64A), or (iii) siRNA for RGS2. We conclude that PKA and PKG inhibit Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity by direct phosphorylation of PLC-β3. PKG, but not PKA, also inhibits PI hydrolysis indirectly by a mechanism involving phosphorylation of RGS2 and its association with Gαi-GTP. This allows RGS2 to accelerate Gαi-GTPase activity, enhance Gαβγi trimer formation, and inhibit Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity.

  17. Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (PLC2) is required for female gametogenesis and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fino, Luciano M; D'Ambrosio, Juan Martín; Tejos, Ricardo; van Wijk, Ringo; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Munnik, Teun; Pagnussat, Gabriela C; Laxalt, Ana M

    2017-04-01

    AtPLC2 is an essential gene in Arabidopsis, since it is required for female gametogenesis and embryo development. AtPLC2 might play a role in cell division during embryo-sac development and early embryogenesis. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an important role in signal transduction during plant development and in the response to various biotic- and abiotic stresses. The Arabidopsis PI-PLC gene family is composed of nine members, named PLC1 to PLC9. Here, we report that PLC2 is involved in female gametophyte development and early embryogenesis. Using two Arabidopsis allelic T-DNA insertion lines with different phenotypic penetrations, we observed both female gametophytic defects and aberrant embryos. For the plc2-1 mutant (Ws background), no homozygous plants could be recovered in the offspring from self-pollinated plants. Nonetheless, plc2-1 hemizygous mutants are affected in female gametogenesis, showing embryo sacs arrested at early developmental stages. Allelic hemizygous plc2-2 mutant plants (Col-0 background) present reduced seed set and embryos arrested at the pre-globular stage with abnormal patterns of cell division. A low proportion (0.8%) of plc2-2 homozygous mutants was found to escape lethality and showed morphological defects and disrupted megagametogenesis. PLC2-promoter activity was observed during early megagametogenesis, and after fertilization in the embryo proper. Immunolocalization studies in early stage embryos revealed that PLC2 is restricted to the plasma membrane. Altogether, these results establish a role for PLC2 in both reproductive- and embryo development, presumably by controlling mitosis and/or the formation of cell-division planes.

  18. Úzkopásmová PLC komunikace se standardy G3-PLC, PRIME a IEEE-1901.2

    OpenAIRE

    Skrášek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Diplomová práce pojednává o standardech úzkopásmové PLC komunikace. V teoretické části jsou popsány všechny dostupné OFDM standardy, mezi něž patří G3-PLC, PRIME, IEEE-1901.2 a G.hnem. Praktická část se zabývá standardy PRIME a G3-PLC. Dále je také porovnán systém OFDM se systémem komunikace na jedné nosné frekvenci v prostředí s reálným rušením. V poslední části je popsán návrh dvou firmware pro PLC modemy Texas Instruments TMDSPLCKIT-V3, které umožňují UART komunikaci a dálkový sběr dat. K ...

  19. Realization of PLC to the Variable Frequency Speed Regulation System of Mine Local Ventilator based on RS-485 Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Li, Jian; Yun, Yichong

    2018-03-01

    The article first introduces the merits of serial communication in the PLC to the variable frequency speed regulation system of mine local ventilator, and then sets up a hardware application development platform of PLC and inverter based on RS-485 communication technology, next presents communication initialization of the PLC and Inverter. Finally according to the control requirements, PLC send run operation & monitoring instruction to Inverter, realizes the serial communication control between the PLC and Inverter.

  20. The phenotype of a phospholipase C (plc-1) mutant in a filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Roger R; Giblon, Rachel E; Lorenti, Miranda S H

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, phospholipase C may play a role in hyphal extension at the growing tips as part of a growth-sensing mechanism that activates calcium release from internal stores to mediate continued expansion of the hyphal tip. One candidate for a tip-localized phospholipase C is PLC-1. We characterized morphology and growth characteristics of a knockout mutant (KO plc-1) and a RIP mutated strain (RIP plc-1) (missense mutations and a nonsense mutation render the gene product non-functional). Growth and hyphal cytology of wildtype and KO plc-1 were similar, but the RIP plc-1 mutant grew slower and exhibited abnormal membrane structures at the hyphal tip, imaged using the fluorescence dye FM4-64. To test for causes of the slower growth of the RIP plc-1 mutant, we examined its physiological poise compared to wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. The electrical properties of all three strains and the electrogenic contribution of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (identified by cyanide inhibition) were the same. Responses to high osmolarity were also similar. However, the RIP plc-1 mutant had a significantly lower turgor, a possible cause of its slower growth. While growth of all three strains was inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor 3-nitrocoumarin, the RIP plc-1 mutant did not exhibit hyphal bursting after addition of the inhibitor, observed in both wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. Although the plc-1 gene is not obligatory for tip growth, the phenotype of the RIP plc-1 mutant - abnormal tip cytology, lower turgor and resistance to inhibitor-induced hyphal bursting - suggest it does play a role in tip growth. The expression of a dysfunctional plc-1 gene may cause a shift to alternative mechanism(s) of growth sensing in hyphal extension. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic control model of water filling system with Allen Bradley Micrologix 1400 PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, R.; Adyatma, AF; Fahmi, F.

    2018-02-01

    Programmable Logic Controller or PLC today plays an important role in most industrial control systems. PLC usage can be encountered in almost all fields of industry, not only in the manufacturing world but also on many other things such as elevators in office buildings, hotels hospitals, and others. PLC is an electronic control tool that operates in logic that its programming can be modified with relative ease. As with any controller in general, the PLC processes input signals to further discharge output according to the desired program. PLC usage is very broad because of its high reliability, can be reprogrammed or modified with relative ease, and very helpful in the tracking troubleshooting. One type of existing PLC is Allen Bradley PLC. Allen Bradley PLC program is commonly used in various industries. PLC Allen Bradley (AB) has several types, and one of them is the type of Micrologic 1400. In this study we design a system as a comparison with the conventional system. For that to explore the use of a PLC program which will be supported by a simulator tool, including a program to RSLogic 500, how to programming, monitoring via RSView32, and modification. It is expected to understand the application aspect of operation and programming of this specific PLC and its potential. The purpose of this research is to design water filling automation system by using Allen Bradley Micrologic 1400 type 1766-L32BXB PLC, empowering the use of Allen Bradley Micrologic 1400 PLC and to regulate the desired process to obtain efficiency and effectiveness compared with conventional system arrangement using Relay.

  2. 76 FR 44079 - M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC), Mayfair Mining & Minerals, Inc., MM2 Group, Inc., Nayna...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC), Mayfair Mining & Minerals, Inc.,MM2 Group, Inc., Nayna Networks, Inc., NCT Group, Inc., and Neptune Industries, Inc. (f/k/a Move Films, Inc.); Order of Suspension of Trading July 20, 2011. It appears to the...

  3. Development of the safety PLC for plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hwoi; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The safety PLC (POSAFE-Q) is developing in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The software such as RTOS and firmware are developed according to safety critical software life cycle. Especially, the formal method is applied to design SRS (Software Requirement Spec.) and SDS (Software Design Specification.) for error-free. The developed software according to software life cycle is verified by independent software V and V team. The overall response time from an input to the outputs shall be 50ms or less. The prototype for the POSAFE-Q was developed and functional testing and equipment qualification tests have been underway.

  4. Research on Sewage Treatment System by Configuration Software and PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guoqing

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The automation products have been applied in various industries, especially in the water disposing industry. This paper describes the design of the hardware and the software of the monitoring system of sewage treatment which is based on S7-300 PLC (Programmable Logic Controller and the Profibus bus technology. The hardware of PLC includes the power supply, CPU (Central Processing Unit, analog- digital conversion module. Through the management of the configuration software MCGS (Monitor and Control Generated System, the system realizes the main functions, such as the multi analog signals’ testing, the control of the driving output, the display of the digital information collection, the parameters enactment, the manual debugging control, etc. Then, the monitoring and management of the disposing of sewage plant is completed.

  5. Bringing Automated Formal Verification to PLC Program Development

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, Borja; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Automation is the field of engineering that deals with the development of control systems for operating systems such as industrial processes, railways, machinery or aircraft without human intervention. In most of the cases, a failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic losses, environmental damages or human losses. For that reason, providing safe, reliable and robust control systems is a first priority goal for control engineers. Ideally, control engineers should be able to guarantee that both software and hardware fulfill the design requirements. This is an enormous challenge in which industry and academia have been working and making progresses in the last decades. This thesis focuses on one particular type of control systems that operates industrial processes, the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) - based control systems. Moreover it targets one of the main challenges for these systems, guaranteeing that PLC programs are compliant with their specifications. Traditionally ...

  6. British Nuclear Fuels plc: report and accounts 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Energy Committee has considered the report and accounts of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels PLC) for the year 1987-88. The report looks at BNFL as a government owned PLC - its activities and financial performance. Various questions are raised about the underlying financial position justifying the optimism portrayed in the report and accounts. The impact of cost-plus contracts on UK customers is examined. The economics of THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) are also examined especially as the escalation in the cost of constructing THORP means that a substantial loss will be made in the reprocessing of waste for which contracts were signed in the late 1960s or early 1970s. The main conclusions of the report are summarized. One of these is that the UK must be cautious about becoming a repository of foreign nuclear waste. Other specific recommendations are made - some about the decommissioning of BNFL plant. (UK)

  7. Photonic integrated circuits based on silica and polymer PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, T.; Fujita, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Sui, B.; Lin, W.; Grek, B.

    2013-03-01

    Various methods of hybrid integration of photonic circuits are discussed focusing on merits and challenges. Material platforms discussed in this report are mainly polymer and silica. We categorize the hybridization methods using silica and polymer waveguides into two types, chip-to-chip and on-chip integration. General reviews of these hybridization technologies from the past works are reviewed. An example for each method is discussed in details. We also discuss current status of our silica PLC hybrid integration technology.

  8. Performance Evaluation of CE-OFDM in PLC Channel

    OpenAIRE

    El ghzaoui Mohammed, Belkadid Jamal, Benbassou Ali

    2011-01-01

    One major drawback associated with an OFDM system is that the transmitter’soutput signal may have a high peak-to-average ratio (PAPR). High levels of PARmay be a limiting factor for power line communication (PLC) where regulatorybodies have fixed the maximum amount of transmit power. To overcome thisproblem, many approaches have been presented in the literature. One potentialsolution for reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in an OFDMsystem is to utilize a constant envelope OFDM (C...

  9. Implementation of PID autotuning procedure in PLC controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniun Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the automatic PID tuning procedure based on the Method of Moments and AMIGO tuning rules. The advantage of the Method of Moments is that the time constant and transport delay are estimated at the areas rather than on the individual points. This results in high resistance to the measurement noises. The sensitivity to measurement noises is a serious problem in other autotuning methods. The second advantage of this method is that it approximates plant during identification process to first order model with time delay. We combined the Method of Moments with the AMIGO tuning rules and implemented this combination as a stand-alone autotuning procedure in Siemens S7-1200 PLC controller. Next, we compared this method with two built-in PID autotuning procedures which were available in Siemens S7-1200 PLC controller. The procedure was tested for three types of plant models: with lag-dominated, balanced, and delay-dominated dynamics. We simulated the plants on a PC in Matlab R2013a. The connection between the PC and PLC was maintained through a National Instruments data acquisition board, NI PCI-6229. We conducted tests for step change in the set point, trajectory tracking, and load disturbances. To assess control quality, we used IAE index. We limited our research to PI algorithm. The results prove that proposed method was better than two built-in tuning methods provided by Siemens, oscillating between a few and even a dozen percent in most cases. The proposed method is universal and can be implemented in any PLC controller.

  10. Aplikasi Programmable Logic Controller (PLC Omron CPM2A Sebagai Komponen Utama Sistem Pengukur Kecepatan Putar (RPM Motor DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Gunawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak PLC (Programmable Logic Control banyak dipakai dalam dunia industri sebagai unit kontrol utama pada mesin-mesin produksi. PLC merupakan sekumpulan saklar elektronik yang dapat diatur kapan harus ON dan kapan harus OFF sesuai dengan hukum-hukum kontrol logic yang telah diprogram. Salah satu keunggulan dari PLC adalah dapat digunakan menjadi Alat Pengatur mesin yang berlainan hanya dengan mengubah program yang ada dalam PLC tanpa harus mengubah perangkat kerasnya. Pada penelitian ini akan dirancang bangun penggunaan PLC untuk menggerakkan motor DC 12 Volt Sekaligus membaca kecepatan putarnya (RPM dengan menggunakan sebuah piringan yang berlubang yang akan dibaca oleh sensor LDR. Kata kunci : PLC, motor, control, RPM, sensor

  11. Research of communication quality assessment algorithm according to the standard G3-PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotayev, Pavel; Klimenko, Aleksey; Myakochin, Yuri; Polyakov, Igor; Shelupanov, Alexander; Urazayev, Damir; Zykov, Dmitriy

    2017-11-01

    The present paper deals with the quality assessment of PLC channel which is a part of fault-tolerant self-organizing heterogeneous communication system. The PLC implementation allows to reduce exploitation costs when constructing new info-communication networks. PLC is used for transmitting information between various devices in alternating current mains. There exist different approaches to transfer information over power lines. Their differences resulted from the requirements of typical apps which use PLC as a data transmission channel. In the process of research described in this paper, the simulation of a signal in AC mains with regard to different kinds of noise caused by power line loads was performed.

  12. A study of PLC system vulnerability checklists in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ki Jong; Cho, Gi Ho; Ahn, Jaeh Young [Convergence technology Research Commercialization Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mi; Kwon, Yong Il [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Because the design of the PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller) in the I and C (Instrument and Control) systems for NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) were carried out independently, the problems of cyber security were not addressed in the PLC system designs. Recently, the analysis and the countermeasure development for the PLC systems became mandatory due to the developments in cyber attack techniques and the increasingly revealed vulnerability to such attacks. A comparative analysis on the cyber security checklist of PLC in industry control system and in NPP systems was carried out, and in this paper, the cyber security regulatory trend and the PLC usage status are described.

  13. Is PLC repair of a peel-off femoral lesion an effective option in a multiligament setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Zhang, Hui; Song, Guan-Yang; Zhang, Jin; Signorelli, Cecilia; Feng, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Treatment of posterolateral corner (PLC) injury in the multiligament-injured knee is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of acute or sub-acute surgical repair of Type 1 and 2 PLC peel-off lesions in a multiligament setting. Mini-open direct repair of the PLC was performed in 13 patients. Combined PCL, ACL and MCL injuries were simultaneously managed. Telos valgus and varus stress radiographs at 30° of flexion with 150 N load were used to investigate medial and lateral joint opening. Posterior stress radiograph with 150 N load was used to investigate the function of the PCL. External rotational laxity was assessed with a dial test at 30° of knee flexion, and photographs were taken to measure angles. Anterior displacement was examined using the manual maximum test performed with a KT-1000 arthrometer. A statistically significant reduction between pre- and postoperative laxity values was achieved for every test. Particularly, lateral joint opening side-to-side difference reduced from 10.3 ± 4.0 to 1.0 ± 3.2 mm and external rotation reduced from 15 ± 8° to 0° ± 6° more than that of the contralateral uninjured knee. The medial joint opening side-to-side difference reduced from 11.5 ± 5.6 to 2.6 ± 2.7 mm in the 7 patients surgically managed for MCL lesion. The anterior tibial displacement side-to-side difference reduced from 14.0 ± 5.0 to 3.0 ± 5.0 mm in the 9 patients surgically managed for ACL lesion. The posterior tibial translation side-to-side difference reduced from 11.1 ± 5.1 to 4.4 ± 3.9 mm in the 11 patients treated for PCL lesion. The main finding of the current study is that acute repair of Type 1 and 2 PLC peel-off injury proved to be an effective procedure to restore PLC function in a multiligament-injured knee. These data enabled the current literature with an effective treatment option to face such a complex and various scenarios such as multiligament-injured knee. IV.

  14. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  15. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  16. Astable multivibrator circuits made with low capacity PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, I.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.; Deaconu, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents three versions of astable multivibrator structures that can be made with PS-3 (Klöckner-Moeller) PLCs. They have, in their composition, two time-on delay timers (TR type) that can be found in PS-3 PLC. For each astable multivibrator circuits present the principle accompanied by graphic representations of the main signals of the astable multivibrator circuits and the mode of operation of these circuits using time diagrams. These astable multivibrator strucures can be used, special, for teaching PLCs.

  17. Online Monitoring of PLC Based Pressure Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Maria Sabu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the online monitoring of pressure control system using OPC servers. Here, the pressure from a pressure control system is transmitted to a Siemens PLC which is being monitored and controlled remotely by using OPC servers thereby offering a provision of debugging and changing process parameters easily. OLE for Process Control (OPC is the industry standard that incorporates real time software technology for industrial automation and process control. Online monitoring of these parameters is accomplished using the web publishing tool.

  18. Performance Evaluation of CE-OFDM in PLC Channel

    OpenAIRE

    El Ghzaoui Mohammed; Belkadid Jamal; Benbassou Ali

    2011-01-01

    One major drawback associated with an OFDM system is that the transmitter’s output signal may have a high peak-to-average ratio (PAPR). High levels of PAR may be a limiting factor for power line communication (PLC) where regulatory bodies have fixed the maximum amount of transmit power. To overcome this problem, many approaches have been presented in the literature. One potential solution for reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in an OFDM system is to utilize a constant envelope O...

  19. Cybersecurity Vulnerability Analysis of the PLC PRIME Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Seijo Simó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in critical infrastructures such as the power grid is of vital importance. The Smart Grid puts power grid classical security approach on the ropes, since it introduces cyberphysical systems where devices, communications, and information systems must be protected. PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution (PRIME is a Narrowband Power-Line Communications (NB-PLC protocol widely used in the last mile of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI deployments, playing a key role in the Smart Grid. Therefore, this work aims to unveil the cybersecurity vulnerabilities present in PRIME standard, proposing solutions and validating and discussing the results obtained.

  20. Embedded PLC Webserver and Possibilities of its Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopček Michal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept Industry 4.0 is a top theme of recent times. Even if it represents the so-called 4th industrial revolution its main ideas could be used also to support the education of subjects from IT and automation. Furthermore, the basic IT and web technologies inherited by this concept are very well known to students. This paper introduces the embedded webserver of PLC and the options for its optimal utilization. The web server is essentially a simple and widely well-known technology, therefore it was chosen as an example.

  1. Embedded PLC Webserver and Possibilities of its Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopček, Michal

    2016-12-01

    The concept Industry 4.0 is a top theme of recent times. Even if it represents the so-called 4th industrial revolution its main ideas could be used also to support the education of subjects from IT and automation. Furthermore, the basic IT and web technologies inherited by this concept are very well known to students. This paper introduces the embedded webserver of PLC and the options for its optimal utilization. The web server is essentially a simple and widely well-known technology, therefore it was chosen as an example.

  2. Embedded PLC Webserver and Possibilities of its Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Kopček Michal

    2016-01-01

    The concept Industry 4.0 is a top theme of recent times. Even if it represents the so-called 4th industrial revolution its main ideas could be used also to support the education of subjects from IT and automation. Furthermore, the basic IT and web technologies inherited by this concept are very well known to students. This paper introduces the embedded webserver of PLC and the options for its optimal utilization. The web server is essentially a simple and widely well-known technology, therefo...

  3. Evaluation of PAWP and PLC? Expression in Infertile Men with Previous ICSI Fertilization Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Nahid; Nazarian, Hamid; Nazari, Leila; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Piryaei, Abbas; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Sadjadpour, Seyedeh Susan

    2018-02-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postacrosomal sheet WW domain binding protein (PAWP) and phospholipase C ? (PLC?) protein expression in patients with fertilization failure. Semen samples were collected from 15 fertile men (control group) and 15 patients with previous fertilization failure following ICSI (FF group) and were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The mean percentages of PAWP and PLC? positive sperm and the total level of PAWP and PLC? proteins were assessed using immunofluorescence staining. A significantly lower level and lower percentage of PAWP positive sperm in patients with fertilization failure was found compared to the control group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). The mean percentage ofPLC? positive sperm and level of PLC? protein were significantly lower in FF group compared to the control group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.04, respectively). Significant positive correlations was observed between PAWP and PLC? positive sperms (r = 0.4, P = 0.008) and also total level of expression of PLC? and PAWP proteins (r = 0.4, P = 0.02) in all participants in the study. This is the first study that evaluates two main candidates for sperm-borne oocyte activating factors (SOAFs) simultaneously in patients with fertilization failure. Considering lower expression of PAWP and PLC? proteins in such patients, it seems like both factors might have the potential to be considered as SOAFs and diagnostic markers for the oocyte activation ability.

  4. File list: Pol.Plc.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. Upgradation in SCADA and PLC of existing LN2 control system for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, Pradip; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Rohit; Patel, Rakesh; Sonara, Dashrath; Pitroda, Dipen; Nimavat, Hiren; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The control system of LN 2 Management System of SST-1 is designed on PLC and SCADA. • The implementation and results of up-gradation in PLC and SCADA are reported. • The up-gradation in PLC and SCADA has improved the reliability & availability of SST-1 LN 2 system. - Abstract: Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier system of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) incorporates Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2 ) pre-cooling system. LN 2 is used for 80 K thermal shields of SST-1, current feeder system and integrated flow distribution and control system. The LN 2 management system is distributed system and requires automatic control. Initially LN 2 control system had Citect based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Koyo make Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). With the passage of time and due to unavailability of their hardware, it is being obsoleted. So, the requirements of new PLC and SCADA systems have been envisaged to make uninterruptable operation of SST-1 cryogenic system. Therefore, Wonderware SCADA and Schneider Electric make PLC is programmed to replace Citect SCADA and Koyo PLC. New control features have been added in upgraded control system for better management of LN 2 system. This upgradation of SCADA and PLC is completed, tested successfully and in operation. Operational performance highlights of the new upgraded system are presented in this paper.

  19. Upgradation in SCADA and PLC of existing LN{sub 2} control system for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Pradip, E-mail: pradip@ipr.res.in; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Rohit; Patel, Rakesh; Sonara, Dashrath; Pitroda, Dipen; Nimavat, Hiren; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The control system of LN{sub 2} Management System of SST-1 is designed on PLC and SCADA. • The implementation and results of up-gradation in PLC and SCADA are reported. • The up-gradation in PLC and SCADA has improved the reliability & availability of SST-1 LN{sub 2} system. - Abstract: Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier system of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) incorporates Liquid Nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) pre-cooling system. LN{sub 2} is used for 80 K thermal shields of SST-1, current feeder system and integrated flow distribution and control system. The LN{sub 2} management system is distributed system and requires automatic control. Initially LN{sub 2} control system had Citect based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Koyo make Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). With the passage of time and due to unavailability of their hardware, it is being obsoleted. So, the requirements of new PLC and SCADA systems have been envisaged to make uninterruptable operation of SST-1 cryogenic system. Therefore, Wonderware SCADA and Schneider Electric make PLC is programmed to replace Citect SCADA and Koyo PLC. New control features have been added in upgraded control system for better management of LN{sub 2} system. This upgradation of SCADA and PLC is completed, tested successfully and in operation. Operational performance highlights of the new upgraded system are presented in this paper.

  20. The Integration of DCS I/O to an Existing PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debashis; Mihevic, John

    2013-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Existing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) I/O was replaced with Distributed Control System (DCS) I/O, while keeping the existing PLC sequence Logic. The reason for integration of the PLC logic and DCS I/O, along with the evaluation of the resulting system is the subject of this paper. The pros and cons of the old system and new upgrade are described, including operator workstation screen update times. Detail of the physical layout and the communication between the PLC, the DCS I/O and the operator workstations are illustrated. The complex characteristics of a central process control system and the plan to remove the PLC processors in future upgrades is also discussed.

  1. PENGENDALIAN MESIN HOIST HANGER DALAM PROSES PTC/ED MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology demands efficient and work speed, so it needs a system which can handleseveral things.This problem can be covered with PLC (Programmable Logic Control that can integrateseveral self standing component to be an integrated control system and can be changed the configurationwithout change all instrument. Modify the ladder program can alter system of PLC. This paper showsHoist Hanger system in PTC/ED (Pre Treatment Chemical/Electrocoat Dispotition process that controlledby PLC. Above input from limit switch, sensor, or the other input, PLC system drives the motorrelay Hoist Hanger machine. That cause the motor relay Hoist Hanger change its condition, so the movingof Hoist Hanger machine will be suitable with PLC program.

  2. Comparison of listeriolysin O and phospholipases PlcA and PlcB activities, and initial intracellular growth capability among food and clinical strains of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, M; Naruse, H; Kawatsu, K

    2018-03-01

    We investigated whether Listeria monocytogenes strains differ in their ability to escape from the primary phagosome after internalization into human intestinal epithelial cells. Food and clinical strains were used to study specific alleles; the activities of listeriolysin O (LLO) and phospholipases PlcA and PlcB, which promote rupture of the phagocytic vacuole; and initial intracellular bacterial growth in Caco-2 cells. Results showed no difference in LLO activities between food and clinical strains or among serotypes. In contrast, the LLO truncation mutant lacked detectable haemolytic activity and intracellular growth. PlcA and PlcB produced by the strains of serotypes 4b/4e and 1/2b exhibited significantly lower activities than those of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2c. In contrast, the strains of serotype 1/2b grew significantly faster than those of serotypes 4b/4e and 1/2a. Moreover, the PrfA truncation mutants lacked LLO and phospholipases activities and did not show intracellular growth. We determined that LLO and PrfA mutants exert a significant effect on intracellular growth, although it was unclear from this study whether PlcA and PlcB alleles affect escape from vacuoles. This study estimates that low-virulence L. monocytogenes strains associated with escape ability from the primary vacuoles are not widely distributed among food strains. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Model úzkopásmové komunikace PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Sekot, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce pojednává o datové komunikaci v silových rozvodech nízkého napětí (PLC). Rozebírá rušení v úzkopásmových systémech, které se používají například pro dálkový sběr dat. Úvodem se práce zabývá rozborem zadání, principem PLC (injektováním signálu) a následně popisuje měřicí pracoviště, jeho zapojení, použití měřicích přístrojů apod. Následující kapitoly definují jednotlivé druhy rušení, možné zdroje rušení komunikace, provoz zařízení z hlediska EMC a další charakteristiku přenosové tra...

  4. Normal and pathological NMR imaging aspects of the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardieu, M.; Lazennec, J.Y.; Christel, P.; Brasseur, J.L.; Roger, B.; Grenier, P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare normal PLC (limits lateral condyle anterior sub luxation) anatomy and its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance, with the various lesions observed in MRI, from the simple popliteus tendinous contusion to the complete PLC rupture. For this specific work on PLC lesions, we selected 61 examinations among the traumatic knees explored during the last 3 years. Surgical correlation is obtained for the 61 patients. MRI examinations are performed on a 0.5 T. unit. Normal PLC anatomy is compared to the dissection of 4 anatomic subjects. Normal MRI slices are evaluated with this reference analysis. The principle anatomical structures of the PLC include the lateral collateral ligament, the popliteus tendon, the arcuate ligament, the fabello fibular ligament, the posterolateral condylar capsule, and the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus. Surgical findings confirm PLC lesion for 58 patients with 3 false positive. Diagnosis of these lesions is important because chronical posterolateral laxity is secondary to the destabilization of lateral condyle. Unrecognized and untreated posterolateral instability may result in failure of ACL (limits lateral condyle posterior sub-luxation) reconstruction. When clinical tests are doubtful or complex, or the examination very painful, MRI evaluates completely the traumatic knee and particularly the PLC. (authors). 3 refs., 26 figs

  5. Control Systems of Rubber Dryer Machinery Components Using Programmable Logic Control (PLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendra; Yulianto, A. S.; Indriani, A.; Hernadewita; Hermiyetti

    2018-02-01

    Application of programmable logic control (PLC) is widely used on the control systems in the many field engineering such as automotive, aviation, food processing and other industries [1-2]. PLC is simply program to control many automatic activity, easy to use, flexible and others. PLC using the ladder program to solve and regulated the control system component. In previous research, PLC was used for control system of rotary dryer machine. In this paper PLC are used for control system of motion component in the rubber dryer machinery. Component of rubber dryer machine is motors, gearbox, sprocket, heater, drying chamber and bearing. Principle working of rubber dryer machinery is wet rubber moving into the drying chamber by sprocket. Sprocket is driven by motors that conducted by PLC to moving and set of wet rubber on the drying chamber. Drying system uses greenhouse effect by making hanger dryer design in the form of line path. In this paper focused on motion control system motors and sensors drying rubber using PLC. The results show that control system of rubber dryer machinery can work in accordance control input and the time required to dry the rubber.

  6. Knowledge-based engineering of a PLC controlled telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans; Deconinck, Geert

    2016-08-01

    As the new control system of the Mercator Telescope is being finalized, we can review some technologies and design methodologies that are advantageous, despite their relative uncommonness in astronomical instrumentation. Particular for the Mercator Telescope is that it is controlled by a single high-end soft-PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). Using off-the-shelf components only, our distributed embedded system controls all subsystems of the telescope such as the pneumatic primary mirror support, the hydrostatic bearing, the telescope axes, the dome, the safety system, and so on. We show how real-time application logic can be written conveniently in typical PLC languages (IEC 61131-3) and in C++ (to implement the pointing kernel) using the commercial TwinCAT 3 programming environment. This software processes the inputs and outputs of the distributed system in real-time via an observatory-wide EtherCAT network, which is synchronized with high precision to an IEEE 1588 (PTP, Precision Time Protocol) time reference clock. Taking full advantage of the ability of soft-PLCs to run both real-time and non real-time software, the same device also hosts the most important user interfaces (HMIs or Human Machine Interfaces) and communication servers (OPC UA for process data, FTP for XML configuration data, and VNC for remote control). To manage the complexity of the system and to streamline the development process, we show how most of the software, electronics and systems engineering aspects of the control system have been modeled as a set of scripts written in a Domain Specific Language (DSL). When executed, these scripts populate a Knowledge Base (KB) which can be queried to retrieve specific information. By feeding the results of those queries to a template system, we were able to generate very detailed "browsable" web-based documentation about the system, but also PLC software code, Python client code, model verification reports, etc. The aim of this paper is to

  7. Report detailing personal radiation dose statistics resulting from operations of Nuclear Electric plc during 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, P.; Varcoe, I.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides details of doses received by all Nuclear Electric plc employees and contractors whose work involved exposure to ionising radiations at Nuclear Electric plc sites during the calendar year 1995. Details of collective doses for previous years for the nuclear licensed sites are also included. It should be noted that Nuclear Electric plc was formed on 1 April 1990 as one of the successor companies to the Central Electricity Generating Board. This report will be the last to be produced by Nuclear Electric plc, as, from 31 March 1996, the AGR and PWR business and assets of Nuclear Electric plc transferred to Nuclear Electric Ltd and Nuclear Electric plc now trades as Magnox Electric plc. It is intended that these companies will separately produce their own Annual Dose Statistics Reports in the future. All results are compiled from the information supplied by the sites to the Central Dose Record Service (NE plc Approved Dosimetry Service for Co-ordination and Record Keeping) via Approved Dosimetry Services for Assessments. For all sites the total annual whole body dose equivalent for 1995 is 5.67 manSv which includes 0.16 manSv as the contribution for commissioning of Sizewell B. The total collective dose varies from year to year for operational reasons (see below). Table 4 shows that over a period of 6 years there has been a general decreasing trend in the collective dose. The collective dose for 1995 was not significantly different from the 1994 value. In 1995 no employee received a dose in excess of 15 mSv and less than 1% of Nuclear Electric plc staff on licensed sites received a dose of more than 5 mSv. (UK)

  8. Silencing of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (SlPLC2) reduces plant susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonorazky, Gabriela; Guzzo, María Carla; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Laxalt, Ana María

    2016-12-01

    The tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene family is composed of six members, named SlPLC1 to SlPLC6, differentially regulated on pathogen attack. We have previously shown that the fungal elicitor xylanase induces a raise of SlPLC2 and SlPLC5 transcripts and that SlPLC2, but not SlPLC5, is required for xylanase-induced expression of defense-related genes. In this work we studied the role of SlPLC2 in the interaction between tomato and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Inoculation of tomato leaves with B. cinerea increases SlPLC2 transcript levels. We knocked-down the expression of SlPLC2 by virus-induced gene silencing and plant defense responses were analyzed upon B. cinerea inoculation. SlPLC2 silenced plants developed smaller necrotic lesions concomitantly with less proliferation of the fungus. Silencing of SlPLC2 resulted as well in a reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Upon B. cinerea inoculation, transcript levels of the salicylic acid (SA)-defense pathway marker gene SlPR1a were diminished in SlPLC2 silenced plants compared to non-silenced infected plants, while transcripts of the jasmonic acid (JA)-defense gene markers Proteinase Inhibitor I and II (SlPI-I and SlPI-II) were increased. This implies that SlPLC2 participates in plant susceptibility to B. cinerea. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. PLC-Based Pressure Control in Multi-Pump Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodovozov Valery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the centrifugal pumps represented the most popular type of pumping equipment used in different areas. The pressure control approach for variable speed driven (VSD parallel connected centrifugal pumps is reported. The goal of the study is optimization of some quality indices, such as efficiency, consumed power, productivity, energy carrier temperature, heat irradiation, etc. One of them – efficiency – has been studied in the paper more carefully. The mathematical model of pumping process is discussed and a vector-matrix description of the multi-pump application is given. The program-based pressure control system is developed which productivity is changed by regulating the number of working pumps. The paper introduces new pressure control algorithms based on the working point estimation intended for programmable logical controllers (PLC. Experiments prove correctness of the offered methodology.

  10. Formal verification of complex properties on PLC programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Voros, A; Bartha, T; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Formal verification has become a recommended practice in the safety-critical application areas. However, due to the complexity of practical control and safety systems, the state space explosion often prevents the use of formal analysis. In this paper we extend our former verification methodology with effective property preserving reduction techniques. For this purpose we developed general rule-based reductions and a customized version of the Cone of Influence (COI) reduction. Using these methods, the verification of complex requirements formalised with temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) can be orders of magnitude faster. We use the NuSMV model checker on a real-life PLC program from CERN to demonstrate the performance of our reduction techniques.

  11. Amersham plc UK Replacement Dose Record Keeping System (DRS2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tattam, D.; George, T.; MacHardy, J.; Perkins, D.; Densyer, S

    2004-07-01

    The Dose Record Keeping System used for Amersham plc Classified persons in the UK has recently been replaced. This paper describes the system developed, to satisfy the UK legislation (IRR99 [1], RADS3 [2]) and allow the Radiation Protection Advisers quick and easy access to relevant information. The system has a fully featured security structure, allowing different individuals to have different levels of access and is run across four sites in the UK. The number of users at any one time is unlimited and the system is designed in such a way as to be fully expandable to any size of operation. An audit trail is employed to allow the tracking of all actions, from who logged on to who issued a dosimeter. All different components of dose are accounted for and the system is flexible enough to incorporate new dose levels / limits should they be introduced in the future. Historical data from the previous system has been migrated allowing seventeen years of dose information to be called onto the screen instantly. The entire dose history, down to individual dosimeter measurements, can be called up at any time. Operational information can also be stored along side Dose Record entries to assist the Radiation Protection Advisers in their duties (e.g. activity in urine, electronic dosimeter readings). The project was completed in close collaboration with a third party contractor and Amersham plc holds the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). The architecture employed uses an Oracle database with a Windows XP application front end. The final developed system is fully configurable and has proved an invaluable tool for both the Radiation Protection Adviser and the Amersham Dosimetry Service. (Author) 2 refs.

  12. Amersham plc UK Replacement Dose Record Keeping System (DRS2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattam, D.; George, T.; MacHardy, J.; Perkins, D.; Densyer, S

    2004-01-01

    The Dose Record Keeping System used for Amersham plc Classified persons in the UK has recently been replaced. This paper describes the system developed, to satisfy the UK legislation (IRR99 [1], RADS3 [2]) and allow the Radiation Protection Advisers quick and easy access to relevant information. The system has a fully featured security structure, allowing different individuals to have different levels of access and is run across four sites in the UK. The number of users at any one time is unlimited and the system is designed in such a way as to be fully expandable to any size of operation. An audit trail is employed to allow the tracking of all actions, from who logged on to who issued a dosimeter. All different components of dose are accounted for and the system is flexible enough to incorporate new dose levels / limits should they be introduced in the future. Historical data from the previous system has been migrated allowing seventeen years of dose information to be called onto the screen instantly. The entire dose history, down to individual dosimeter measurements, can be called up at any time. Operational information can also be stored along side Dose Record entries to assist the Radiation Protection Advisers in their duties (e.g. activity in urine, electronic dosimeter readings). The project was completed in close collaboration with a third party contractor and Amersham plc holds the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). The architecture employed uses an Oracle database with a Windows XP application front end. The final developed system is fully configurable and has proved an invaluable tool for both the Radiation Protection Adviser and the Amersham Dosimetry Service. (Author) 2 refs

  13. Outils d'acces aux donnees d'un PLC "Automate Web Access (AWA)"

    CERN Document Server

    Palluel, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    Cette note presente un moniteur d'acces aux donnees d'un PLC Schneider ou Siemens, pouvant fonctionner sur n'importe quelle plateforme (Windows, Linux...) equipee d'un navigateur WEB sans telechargement de logiciel ("Applets").

  14. PLAT: An Automated Fault and Behavioural Anomaly Detection Tool for PLC Controlled Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational faults and behavioural anomalies associated with PLC control processes take place often in a manufacturing system. Real time identification of these operational faults and behavioural anomalies is necessary in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we present an automated tool, called PLC Log-Data Analysis Tool (PLAT that can detect them by using log-data records of the PLC signals. PLAT automatically creates a nominal model of the PLC control process and employs a novel hash table based indexing and searching scheme to satisfy those purposes. Our experiments show that PLAT is significantly fast, provides real time identification of operational faults and behavioural anomalies, and can execute within a small memory footprint. In addition, PLAT can easily handle a large manufacturing system with a reasonable computing configuration and can be installed in parallel to the data logging system to identify operational faults and behavioural anomalies effectively.

  15. The YvfTU Two-component System is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-the Christophe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative role of YvfTU in the expression of the PlcR regulon was therefore investigated. Results Expression of the plcR gene was monitored using a transcriptional fusion with a lacZ reporter gene in a yvfTU mutant and in its B. cereus ATCC 14579 parental strain. Two hours after the onset of the stationary phase, a stage at which the PlcR regulon is highly expressed, the plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant was only 50% of that of its parental strain. In addition to the reduced plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant, a few members of the PlcR regulon showed a differential expression, as revealed by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. The virulence of the yvfTU mutant in a Galleria mellonella insect model was slightly lower than that of the parental strain. Conclusion The YvfTU two-component system is not required for the expression of most of the virulence factors belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, YvfTU is involved in expression of plcR, a major regulator of virulence in B. cereus.

  16. The YvfTU two-component system is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillard, Julien; Susanna, Kim; Michaud, Caroline; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Gohar, Michel; Nielsen-Leroux, Christina; Ramarao, Nalini; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Broussolle, Véronique

    2008-10-16

    Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative role of YvfTU in the expression of the PlcR regulon was therefore investigated. Expression of the plcR gene was monitored using a transcriptional fusion with a lacZ reporter gene in a yvfTU mutant and in its B. cereus ATCC 14579 parental strain. Two hours after the onset of the stationary phase, a stage at which the PlcR regulon is highly expressed, the plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant was only 50% of that of its parental strain. In addition to the reduced plcR expression in the yvfTU mutant, a few members of the PlcR regulon showed a differential expression, as revealed by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. The virulence of the yvfTU mutant in a Galleria mellonella insect model was slightly lower than that of the parental strain. The YvfTU two-component system is not required for the expression of most of the virulence factors belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, YvfTU is involved in expression of plcR, a major regulator of virulence in B. cereus.

  17. Performance analysis of the PLC (Power Line Communication) in medium voltage electrical networks; Analise de desempenho de sistemas PLC em redes eletricas de media tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, A.A.; Paleta, R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: amota@puc-campinas.edu.br; Mota, L.T.M.; Ricardo, R.A. [Indelmatec Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mota@indelmatec.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, the information access in communication networks is widely explored due to the increase of Internet users. In this context, the PLC (Power Line Communication) technology is an alternative for data transmission. This technology is based on the usage of transmission/distribution power lines for data transmission. However there are some problems related to the usage of this technology: adequate data transmission rates and generation of acceptable levels of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This work had the objective of studying the performance of PLC systems in medium voltage electrical networks, through the assess of data transmission rates and the generated EMI. Tests were carried out in a test field that corresponded to a medium voltage electrical network and the obtained results show that, under some circumstances, the PLC system does not reach the existent technical recommendations. (author)

  18. Innovative PLC design concepts for a petroleum pipeline and terminal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A.L. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Day, D.C. [DCD Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Enbridge Inc. owns and operates Enbridge Pipelines Inc, the Canadian portion of the Enbridge crude oil mainline, the world's longest crude oil and refined liquids pipeline system. Several major terminals are part of the pipeline system and serve as storage, injection or receipt points for petroleum products from producing companies serviced by Enbridge. The terminals run on a continuous basis and are operated remotely from a central control centre in Edmonton, Alberta. Maintenance shutdowns are scheduled to coincide with lower-throughput periods in order to minimize pipeline downtime. However, due to expansion at each terminal facility, Enbridge was finding it difficult to perform normal maintenance functions. Adding a new programmable logic controller or processor (PLC) to these facilities was a challenge since existing terminal control systems were based on single large PLC controllers in a hot-standby configuration, thereby becoming a single point of failure for the entire terminal. In addition, existing PLC controllers were often situated too far from new expansion facilities to reliably connect to the expanding input/output devices (I/O) or communications network. As such, in 2000 Enbridge launched a systematic multi-year replacement of the existing PLC equipment used in its pipeline control systems. Phase 1 involved replacement of mainline pump station PLC processors, followed by the replacement of terminal PLC processors and PLC I/O subsystems. This paper described inter-PLC communications, Ethernet communications, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and remote access communications, slave communications, and power and cable routing requirements. It was concluded that the large scale control system change-out was successfully executed despite several challenges, such as limitations in available technology, the need to deliver a more reliable and robust system within budgetary and time constraints, and commissioning a new system without

  19. Bit rate maximization for multicast LP-OFDM systems in PLC context

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga , Ali; Baudais , Jean-Yves; Hélard , Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    ISBN: 978-88-900984-8-2.; International audience; In this paper, we propose a new resource allocation algorithm based on linear precoding technique for multicast OFDM systems. Linear precoding technique applied to OFDM systems has already proved its ability to significantly increase the system throughput in a powerline communication (PLC) context. Simulations through PLC channels show that this algorithm outperforms the classical multicast method (up to 7.3% bit rate gain) and gives better pe...

  20. Year 2003 - year of improving behaviour of Slovenske elektrarne, Plc. towards environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaly, B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the participants about reached results of Slovenske elektrarne, Plc in the field of the environment management for the year 2003 and point out the increasing legislation pressure on environmental behaviour of the industrial companies. Another purpose is to inform about the environmental operation conditions of resources base of SE, Plc in the period from 2004 to 2008. (author)

  1. PENINGKATAN KETRAMPILAN PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC PADA GURU SMKN DI PURWOREJO, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Wuri Harini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Untuk bisa membekali lulusan dengan ketrampilan yang memadai, perlu disiapkan pengajar yang berkualitas, serta memliki ketrampilan yang baik. Salah satu ketrampilan yang perlu dimiliki oleh guru SMK bidang elektro adalah Programmable Logic Controller (PLC. Pelatihan PLC dilaksanakan selama 4 hari berturut-turut pada tanggal 12 – 15 Mei 2016 di SMKN 1 Purworejo. Pelatihan ini diikuti oleh 19 guru dari SMKN 1 dan SMKN 7 Purworejo. Pelatihan terdiri dari 8 modul, mulai dari Pengenalan PLC, Pengenalan PLC M221 Training Kit, pemrograman dan wiring. Untuk mengetahui seberapa besar peningkatan kemampuan PLC, maka sebelum dan sesudah pelatihan dilaksanakan tes. Di akhir pelatihan dilaksanakan evaluasi kegiatan untuk mengetahui kualitas pelatihan. Nilai rata-rata Pre Test adalah 31,44 sedangkan nilai rata-rata Post Test adalah 69,08. Dengan demikian terjadi peningkatan sebesar 119,7%. Rata-rata penilaian evaluasi kegiatan adalah 4,095 dari skala 5. Dari nilai tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa pelatihan ini telah berhasil dalam meningkatkan ketrampilan guru dalam bidang PLC.

  2. Development of Multipurpose PLC trainer for the simulator of reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri; Deswandri; Ahmad Abtokhi

    2014-01-01

    PLC becomes one of the essential components for the current type of reactor which based on digital instrumentation and control. Several studies have demonstrated the promising results including the implementation of PLC's for RSG-GAS research reactor. However, research for the safety and reliability analysis can not be carried out freely in the existing systems.Therefore, this research aims to develop a PLC trainer employing micro PLC OMRON CP1MA which can be useful for simulator of various topics in reactor safety. Two experimental tests were carried out to show the PLC’s performances. The first experimental testing implementing reactor protection system of research reactor RSG-GAS shows the capacity of PLC system to identify the initiator of the SCRAM logic as well as giving a promptly response. Secondly, the application of PLC to controls the water level in dual reservoir system simulation, demonstrates the simplicity of the operation and design while maintaining the best performances. (author)

  3. A Review of Wireless and PLC Propagation Channel Characteristics for Smart Grid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Güzelgöz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless, power line communication (PLC, fiber optic, Ethernet, and so forth are among the communication technologies on which smart grid communication infrastructure is envisioned to be built. Among these, wireless and PLC-based solutions are attractive considering the cost of initial deployment. Wireless communication deployment in smart grid covers a variety of environments such as indoor, outdoor, and electric-power-system facilities. Similar diversity is expected in PLC deployment as well covering low voltage (LV, medium voltage (MV, and high voltage (HV segments of the grid. In spite of being attractive, wireless and PLC channels are very harsh posing great challenges to performance of communication systems. In proposing solutions to smart grid communication needs, two approaches are likely to be followed. One is based on the use of existing wireless and PLC technologies with some modifications, and the other relies upon developing novel communication protocols particularly addressing the smart grid needs. Both of these approaches require an in-depth knowledge of communication channel characteristics. The aim of this study is to reveal the wireless and PLC channel characteristics of smart grid environments in terms of several parameters such as path loss and attenuation, time dispersion, time selectivity, amplitude statistics, and noise characteristics.

  4. Arbitration Award of ICSID on the Investment Disputes of Churchill Mining PLC v. Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Gunawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at analyzing the ICSID (International Centre Settlement Investment Dispute decision in solving a dispute between Churchill Mining PLC and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. The case brought to the public attention, because mining license owned by PT. Ridlatama which acquired from Churchill Mining PLC had been revocated. Churchill Mining PLC holds 75% share of PT. Ridlatama and it suffered losses caused by the revocation of its mining license. Churchill Mining PLC filed the case to the local court but it failed. Churchill Mining PLC then sought ruling from International arbitration or ICSID. On December 6, 2016, ICSID issued a decision that clearly threw out Churchill Mining PLC claim. ICSID, the World Bank court, ordered the firm to pay a total of US$.9.446.528 in cost to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. It is based on the evidences that the UK-Australia company did the fraud and had document forgery of coal mining permit in East Kutai, Indonesia. So the firm has violated the Bilateral Investment Treaties between Indonesia-UK and Indonesia-Australia.

  5. Connecting programmable logic controllers (PLC) to control and data acquisition a comparison of the JET and Wendelstein 7-X approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Hennig@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kneupner, Klaus; Kinna, David [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe 2 ways connecting PLCs to fusion control and data acquisition software. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At W7-X standardization of the PLC type eases the maintenance of the software. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At JET PLCs are interfaced with a daemon that hides the PLC specific part. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is potential to unify the approaches towards a common fusion PLC interface. - Abstract: The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for automation of electromechanical processes is an industrial control system technology. It is more and more in use within the fusion community. Traditionally PLC based systems are operated and maintained using proprietary SCADA systems (supervisory control and data acquisition). They are hardly ever integrated with the fusion control and data acquisition systems. An overview of the state of the art in fusion is given in the article. At JET an inhouse 'black box protocol' approach has been developed to communicate with any external system via a dedicated http based protocol. However, a PLC usually cannot be modified to implement this special protocol. Hence, a software layer has been developed that interfaces a PLC by implementing the PLC specific communication part on one side and the black box protocol part on the other side. The software is completely data driven i.e. editing the data structure changes the logic accordingly. It can be tested using the web capability of the black box protocol. Multiple PLC types from different vendors are supported, thus multiple protocols to interface the PLC are in use. Depending on the PLC type and available tools it can be necessary to program the PLC accordingly. Wendelstein 7-X uses another approach. For every single PLC a dedicated communication from and to CoDaC is implemented. This communication is projected (programmed) in the PLC and configurable (data driven) on the CoDaC side. The protocol is UDP based and

  6. Developing a PLC-friendly state machine model: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Deconinck, Geert; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    Modern Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have become an attractive platform for controlling real-time aspects of astronomical telescopes and instruments due to their increased versatility, performance and standardization. Likewise, vendor-neutral middleware technologies such as OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) have recently demonstrated that they can greatly facilitate the integration of these industrial platforms into the overall control system. Many practical questions arise, however, when building multi-tiered control systems that consist of PLCs for low level control, and conventional software and platforms for higher level control. How should the PLC software be structured, so that it can rely on well-known programming paradigms on the one hand, and be mapped to a well-organized OPC UA interface on the other hand? Which programming languages of the IEC 61131-3 standard closely match the problem domains of the abstraction levels within this structure? How can the recent additions to the standard (such as the support for namespaces and object-oriented extensions) facilitate a model based development approach? To what degree can our applications already take advantage of the more advanced parts of the OPC UA standard, such as the high expressiveness of the semantic modeling language that it defines, or the support for events, aggregation of data, automatic discovery, ... ? What are the timing and concurrency problems to be expected for the higher level tiers of the control system due to the cyclic execution of control and communication tasks by the PLCs? We try to answer these questions by demonstrating a semantic state machine model that can readily be implemented using IEC 61131 and OPC UA. One that does not aim to capture all possible states of a system, but rather one that attempts to organize the course-grained structure and behaviour of a system. In this paper we focus on the intricacies of this seemingly simple task, and on the lessons that we

  7. A Study in Child Care (Case Study from Volume II-A): "A Rolls-Royce of Day Care." Day Care Programs Reprint Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Brigid

    The Amalgamated Day Care Center is an independent trust established through a collective bargaining agreement between the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, AFL-CIO, and the employers of the garment industry. The free center, open from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., is located near the Chicago garment industries to minimize transportation problems…

  8. A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Post-Compression Water Injection in a Rolls-Royce M250 Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Brian Ray 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...for his continued help and support throughout the last four years as both his student and advisee. Additionally, I would like to thank Mr. Charles ...Daggett, David L., Silvio Ortanderl, David Eames , Jeffrey J. Berton, and Christopher A. Snyder. Revisiting Water Injection for Commercial Aircraft

  9. MODIFIKASI MESIN GREASE FILLING MENJADI BERBASIS PLC FX2N-48MR DI PT. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindin Komarudin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesin grease filling adalah mesin yang digunakan untuk memberikan lapisan grease pada oil seal. Pemberian lapisan grease merupakan proses tambahan sesuai dengan permintaan pelanggan. Hampir seluruh mesin grease filling existing di PT. X, menggunakan kontrol konvensional (menggunakan relay. Sedangkan untuk saat ini hampir seluruh mesin yang dibuat untuk PT. X menggunakan PLC. Sehingga pada permintaan mesin selanjutnya dibuat dengan kontrol PLC. Namun dalam pembuatannya tidak ada perubahan langkah kerja mesin. Tujuan utama dari perancangan adalah merancang kontrol mesin grease filling menjadi berbasis PLC FX2N-48MR. Dan mengetahui unjuk kerja hasil rancangan atau modifikasi. Fungsi kontrol mesin ini secara umum adalah untuk membuka dan menutup metering valve. Metering valve berfungsi ketika mendapat tekanan udara dari solenoid valve. Membuka dan menutupnya katup udara bertekanan pada solenoid valve di kontrol langsung oleh PLC. Berdasarkan fungsi tersebut dibuatlah program berupa diagram ladder dengan software programing GX-Developer. Kemudian software tersebut di download ke PLC FX2N-48MR yang sebelumnya telah di rangkai dengan komponen mesin lainnya. Setelah itu, fungsi dari setiap komponen dan program diuji untuk memastikan fungsi dari masing-masing komponen. Pada modifikasi kontrol mesin Grease Filling menjadi berbasis PLC FX2N-48MR, diketahui telah mengurangi komponen timer sebanyak 3 buah dan limit switch 1 buah. Komponen yang tidak digunakan digantikan oleh program pada PLC FX2N-48MR. Penggunaan kontrol mesin dengan PLC FX2N-48MR juga meingkatkan unjuk kerja mesin dibanding versi kontrol mesin konvensional. Pada mode bleeding nilai unjuk kerja menjadi 2,04 detik, disbanding versi konvensional 2,23 detik. Dan pada mode normal cycle – manual nilai unjuk kerja menjadi 2,18 detik, dibanding mode konvensional 2,24 detik. Dan pada mode normal cycle – otomatis nilai unjuk kerja menjadi 2,02 detik, dibanding mode konvensional 2,22 detik

  10. Evaluation of PLC Channel Capacity and ABER Performances for OFDM-Based Two-Hop Relaying Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzine, Sana; Abdelkefi, Fatma; Cances, Jean Pierre; Meghdadi, Vahid; Bouallégue, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Powerline network is recognized as a favorable infrastructure for Smart Grid to transmit information in the network thanks to its broad coverage and low cost deployment. The existing works are trying to improve and adapt transmission techniques to reduce Powerline Communication (PLC) channel attenuation and exploit the limited bandwidth to support high data rate over long distances. Two-hop relaying BroadBand PLC (BB-PLC) system, in which Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is u...

  11. Virtual Modular Redundancy of Processor Module in the PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang-Il; Hwang, SungJae; Yoon, DongHwa [SOOSAN ENS Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dual Modular Redundancy (DMR) is mainly used to implement these safety control systems. DMR is conveyed when components of a system are duplicated, providing another component in case one should fault or fail. This feature has a high availability and large fault tolerant. It provides zero downtime that is required for nuclear power plants. So nuclear power plant has been commercialized by multiple redundant systems. The following paper, we propose a Virtual Modular Redundancy (VMR) rather than physical triple of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) processor module to ensure the reliability of the nuclear power plant control system. VMR implementation minimizes design changes to continue to use the commercially available redundant system. Also, the purpose of the VMR is to improve the efficiency and reliability in many ways, such as fault tolerant and fail-safe and cost. VMR guarantees a wide range of reliable fault recovery, fault tolerance, etc. It is prevented before it causes great damages due to the continuous failure of the two modules. The reliable communication speed is slow and also it has a small bandwidth. It is a great loss in the safety control system. However, VMR aims to avoid nuclear power plants that were suspended due to fail-safe. It is not for the purpose of commonly used. Application of VMR is actually expected to require a lot of research and trial and error until they adapt to the nuclear regulatory and standards.

  12. Úzkopásmový modem PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá úzkopásmovým PLC modemem pro sítí 230/400 V. V první kapitole se nachází základní teorie o používaných modulacích, rušení, impedanci vedení, komunikaci, kapacitním a induktivním vazebním členu. Další kapitola se zabývá návrhem a simulací kapacitního vazebního členu, vysílacího obvodu, přijímacího obvodu, napájecí části a obvodu pro synchronizaci modemu s frekvencí sítě. V této kapitole práce se dále nachází informace o sestavení převodníku z UART na USB. Třetí ...

  13. Virtual Modular Redundancy of Processor Module in the PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Il; Hwang, SungJae; Yoon, DongHwa

    2016-01-01

    Dual Modular Redundancy (DMR) is mainly used to implement these safety control systems. DMR is conveyed when components of a system are duplicated, providing another component in case one should fault or fail. This feature has a high availability and large fault tolerant. It provides zero downtime that is required for nuclear power plants. So nuclear power plant has been commercialized by multiple redundant systems. The following paper, we propose a Virtual Modular Redundancy (VMR) rather than physical triple of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) processor module to ensure the reliability of the nuclear power plant control system. VMR implementation minimizes design changes to continue to use the commercially available redundant system. Also, the purpose of the VMR is to improve the efficiency and reliability in many ways, such as fault tolerant and fail-safe and cost. VMR guarantees a wide range of reliable fault recovery, fault tolerance, etc. It is prevented before it causes great damages due to the continuous failure of the two modules. The reliable communication speed is slow and also it has a small bandwidth. It is a great loss in the safety control system. However, VMR aims to avoid nuclear power plants that were suspended due to fail-safe. It is not for the purpose of commonly used. Application of VMR is actually expected to require a lot of research and trial and error until they adapt to the nuclear regulatory and standards

  14. The PI-PLC inhibitor U-73122 is a potent inhibitor of the SERCA pump in smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollywood, MA; Sergeant, GP; Thornbury, KD; McHale, NG

    2010-01-01

    In this issue MacMillan and McCarron in 2010 demonstrated that the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 can potently inhibit Ca2+ release from isolated smooth muscle cells independent of its effect on PLC. Their data suggest that the PLC inhibitor can block the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase pump in smooth muscle and cast doubt on the reliability of U-73122 as the main pharmacological tool to assess the role of the phosphotidyl inositol-PLC pathway in cellular signalling. PMID:20590620

  15. An Architecture Of Plc Ls Xbc-Dr30e Based Clean Water Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Jusuf Jamanawar Purba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial field the good controlling system is definitely required to improve the working efficiency of a system. The type of controller PLC Programmable Logic Controller used in Clean Water Controlling System in Electrical Workshop with PLC LS XBC-DR30E. Furthermore such system consistently uses two types of component they are Relay and Timer. The clean water pump control aims to pump the water in well A to storage tank B. The pump will work when water-contained well A is marked by sensor level well A on and the water inside storage tank B is under level 3. When the water inside storage tank B is under level 2 both pumps M1 and M2 will work to fill storage tank B. on the contrary when storage tank B is above level 2 only one pump M1 works until the tank reach level 3. In addition when storage tank B is above level 3 both pumps will stop working. However along with the advancement of recent technology the above system can be controlled by using PLC Programmable Logic Controller. Therefore it is possible to apply the controlling method of PLC as the semester Vs practical module. Based on the trial performed the PLC-based clean water system is well-functioned as the working description compiled before the operation of the tool.

  16. The Design and Realization of Virtual Machine of Embedded Soft PLC Running System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhao Zeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently soft PLC has been the focus of study object for many countries. Soft PLC system consists of the developing system and running system. A Virtual Machine is an important part in running system even in the whole soft PLC system. It explains and performs intermediate code generated by the developing system and updates I/O status of PLC in order to complete its control function. This paper introduced the implementation scheme and execution process of the embedded soft PLC running system Virtual Machine, and mainly introduced its software implementation method, including the realization of the input sampling program, the realization of the instruction execution program and the realization of output refresh program. Besides, an operation code matching method was put forward in the instruction execution program design. Finally, the test takes PowerPC/P1010 (Freescale as the hardware platform and Vxworks as the operating system, the system test result shows that accuracy, the real-time performance and reliability of Virtual Machine.

  17. PLC/DTAM Software Programs for Pumping Instrumentation & Control Skid X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HORNER, T.M.

    2001-07-30

    This document describes the software programs for the Allen-Bradley SLC 500 programmable logic controller (PLC) and the Allen-Bradley DTAM PLUS operator interface module used on Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid ''X''. The software programs for the SLC 500 and DTAM Plus are based on the core programs provided by Allen-Bradley. The PLC and DTAM software programs on skid ''D'' for SX-104 are the baseline programs. These baselines will be tailored for each individual BY-farm skid. An Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) and an Operational Test Procedure (OTP) verify that the software programs meet the specific requirements for BY-105 pumping. This document represents the final PLC and DTAM programs for PIC skid ''X'' at BY-105. These programs were printed out after the performance of the OTP. The OTP acts as the final qualification test for the software programs. Functional requirements and details of the PLC ladder logic are described in this document. The final programs entered into the PLC and DTAM Plus are included as Appendices to this document.

  18. PLC/DTAM Software Programs for Pumping Instrumentation & Control Skid U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HORNER, T.M.

    2001-08-01

    This document describes the software programs for the Allen-Bradley SLC 500 programmable logic controller (PLC) and the Allen-Bradley DTAM PLUS operator interface module used on Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid ''U''. The software programs for the SLC 500 and DTAM Plus are based on the core programs provided by Allen-Bradley. The PLC and DTAM software programs on skid ''D'' for SX-104 are the baseline programs. These baselines will be tailored for each individual BY-farm skid. An Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) and an Operational Test Procedure (OTP) verify that the software programs meet the specific requirements for BY-106 pumping. This document represents the final PLC and DTAM programs for PIC skid ''U'' at BY-106. These programs were printed out after the performance of the OTP. The OTP acts as the final qualification test for the software programs. Functional requirements and details of the PLC ladder logic are described in this document. The final programs entered into the PLC and DTAM Plus are included as Appendices to this document.

  19. On the PLC Effect in a Particle Reinforced AA2017 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Härtel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Portevin–Le Châtelier (PLC effect often results in serrated plastic flow during tensile testing of aluminum alloys. Its magnitude and characteristics are often sensitive to a material’s heat treatment condition and to the applied strain rate and deformation temperature. In this study, we analyze the plastic deformation behavior of an age-hardenable Al-Cu alloy (AA2017 and of a particle reinforced AA2017 alloy (10 vol. % SiC in two different conditions: solid solution annealed (W and naturally aged (T4. For the W-condition of both materials, pronounced serrated flow is observed, while both T4-conditions do not show distinct serrations. It is also found that a reduction of the testing temperature (−60 °C, −196 °C shifts the onset of serrations to larger plastic strains and additionally reduces their amplitude. Furthermore, compressive jump tests (with alternating strain rates at room temperature confirm a negative strain rate sensitivity for the W-condition. The occurring PLC effect, as well as the propagation of the corresponding PLC bands in the W-condition, is finally characterized by digital image correlation (DIC and by acoustic emission measurements during tensile testing. The formation of PLC bands in the reinforced material is accompanied by distinct stress drops as well as by perceptible acoustic emission, and the experimental results clearly show that only type A PLC bands occur during testing at room temperature (RT.

  20. PLC and DTAM Software Programs for Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document describe the software programs for the Programmable Logic Controller and the Datable Access Module for Pumping Instrumentation and Control skid ''N''. The Appendices contains copies of the printouts of these software programs. This document describes the software programs for the Allen-Bradley SLC 500 programmable logic controller (PLC) and the Allen-Bradley DTAM PLUS operator interface module used on Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid ''N''. The software programs for the SLC 500 and DTAM Plus are based on the core programs provided by Allen-Bradley. The PLC and DTAM software programs on skid ''D'' for SX-104 are the baseline programs. These baselines have been tailored for U-farm skids. The skid ''N'' program for U-109 is similar to the skid ''M'' program for U-102. An Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) and an Operational Test Procedure (OTP) verify that the software programs meet the specific requirements for U-109 pumping. This document represents the final PLC and DTAM programs for PIC skid ''N'' at U-109. These programs were printed out after the performance of the OTP. The OTP acts as the final qualification test for the software programs. Functional requirements and details of the PLC ladder logic are described in this document. The final programs entered into the PLC and DTAM Plus are included as Appendices to this document

  1. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauban, Joseph R H; Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-06-15

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K(+) concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca(2+) waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca(2+) entry and promote vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. The upgrade of an educational observatory control system with a PLC-based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Galeotta, S.; Iafrate, G.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.

    2014-07-01

    A Celestron C14 telescope equipped with a robotic Paramount ME equatorial mount is being used for public outreach at the Basovizza site of the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. Although the telescope could be fully remotely controlled, the control of the instrumentations and the movement of the main motor of the dome requires the physical presence of an operator. To overcome this limitation the existing control system has been upgraded using a Beckhoff PLC to allow the remote control of the whole instrumentation, including the management of the newly installed weather sensor and the access to the telescope area. Exploiting the decentralization features typical of a PLC based solution, the PLC modules are placed in two different racks, according to the function to be controlled. A web interface is used for the communication between the user and the instrumentation. The architecture of this control system will be presented in detail in this paper.

  3. MultiController: the PLC-SCADA object for advanced regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ortola, J

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, industrial solutions with PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers) have basic control loop features. The SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system is a key point of the process control system due to an efficient HMI (Human Machine Interfaces) that provides an open method of tuning and leading possibilities. As a consequence, advanced control algorithms have to be developed and implemented for those PLC-SCADA solutions in order to provide perspectives in solving complex and critical regulation problems. The MultiController is an object integrated for a large scale project at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) named LHC-GCS (Large Hadron Collider - Gas Control System). It is developed for a Framework called CERN-UNICOS based on PLC-SCADA facilities. The MultiController object offers various advanced control loop strategies. It gives to the user advanced control algorithms like PID, Smith Predictor, PFC, GPC and RST. It is implemented as a monolithic entity (in PLC and SCA...

  4. Technical considerations for the development of an engineering safety features control system with PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. K.; Kim, C. H.; Han, J. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.; Lee, S. S. [BNF Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    Technical considerations are summarized for the development of an ESFCS(Engineered Safety Features Control System) with PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The ESFCS is required for the mitigation of plant accident conditions and therefore developed in conformance with the design requirements applied to the safety critical system. The design of ESFCS primarily considered its safety, and the system has an architecture that will be able to minimize spurious actuation. The PLC based functional distribution and redundant design features are adopted, and the fieldbus is applied in the communication of information and control signals between PLC processors. It is expected that the ESFCS will have several advanced design features compared with the conventional systems supplied by foreign vendors.

  5. Bringing Automated Model Checking to PLC Program Development - A CERN Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. Model checking appears to be an appropriate approach for this purpose. However, this technique is not widely used in industry yet, due to some obstacles. The main obstacles encountered when trying to apply formal verification techniques at industrial installations are the difficulty of creating models out of PLC programs and defining formally the specification requirements. In addition, models produced out of real-life programs have a huge state space, thus preventing the verification due to performance issues. Our work at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) focuses on developing efficient automatic verification methods for industrial critical installations based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems. In this paper, we present a tool generating automatically formal models out of PLC code. The tool implements a general methodology which can support several input languages, ...

  6. Reliability Analysis of Safety Grade PLC(POSAFE-Q) for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lyou, J. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. Y.; Choi, J. G.; Park, W. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The Part Count Method of the military standard MILHDK- 217F has been used for the reliability prediction of the nuclear field. This handbook determines the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) failure rate by summing the failure rates of the individual component included in the PLC. Normally it is easily predictable that the components added for the fault detection improve the reliability of the PLC. But the application of this handbook is estimated with poor reliability because of the increased component number for the fault detection. To compensate this discrepancy, the quantitative reliability analysis method is suggested using the functional separation model in this paper. And it is applied to the Reactor Protection System (RPS) being developed in Korea to identify any design weak points from a safety point of view.

  7. Development of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) and Performance Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hwoi; Park, Won Man; Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); No, Young Hun; Song, Seung Hwan [POSCON, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The software such as the RTOS and firmware are being developed according to the safety critical software life cycle. Especially, the formal method is applied to design the SRS (Software Requirement Spec.) and the SDS (Software Design Specification.) to be error-free. The POSAFE-Q has several modules such as processor module, input and output modules, communication modules, redundant processor module, redundant power modules, etc,. To verify the function and performance, several tests such as CT, IT and ST were performed. And also, the equipment qualification test for environment, EMI and EMC, and seismic ware performed. All tests are satisfied with the requirements and specification for safety grade PLC, and the criteria for safety system in nuclear power plants.

  8. NB-PLC channel modelling with cyclostationary noise addition & OFDM implementation for smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Togis; Gupta, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Power line communication (PLC) technology can be a viable solution for the future ubiquitous networks because it provides a cheaper alternative to other wired technology currently being used for communication. In smart grid Power Line Communication (PLC) is used to support communication with low rate on low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose the channel modelling of narrowband (NB) PLC in the frequency range 5 KHz to 500 KHz by using ABCD parameter with cyclostationary noise addition. Behaviour of the channel was studied by the addition of 11KV/230V transformer, by varying load location and load. Bit error rate (BER) Vs signal to noise ratio SNR) was plotted for the proposed model by employing OFDM. Our simulation results based on the proposed channel model show an acceptable performance in terms of bit error rate versus signal to noise ratio, which enables communication required for smart grid applications.

  9. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  10. Biochemical characterization of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family and its role in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Vossen, J.H.; Zeijl, van Arjan; Dezhsetan, Sara; Testerink, Christa; Seidl, M.F.; Beck, Martina; Strutt, James; Robatzek, Silke; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants possess effective mechanisms to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. The rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes occurs early after the stimulation of plant immune-receptors. Genomes of different plant species encode multiple PLC homologs

  11. The YvfTU Two-component System is involved in plcR expression in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brillard, Julien; Susanna, Kim; Michaud, Caroline; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Gohar, Michel; Nielsen-Leroux, Christina; Ramarao, Nalini; Kolsto, Anne-Brit; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Broussolle, Veronique

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most extracellular virulence factors produced by Bacillus cereus are regulated by the pleiotropic transcriptional activator PlcR. Among strains belonging to the B. cereus group, the plcR gene is always located in the vicinity of genes encoding the YvfTU two-component system. The putative

  12. Construction and Verification of PLC-programs by LTL-specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to construction and verification of PLC-programs for discrete tasks is proposed. For the specification of a program behavior we use the linear-time temporal logic LTL. Programming is carried out in the ST-language according to an LTL-specification. The correctness analysis of an LTL-specification is carried out by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV. A new approach to programming and verification of PLCprograms is shown by an example. For a discrete problem we give a ST-program, its LTL-specification and an SMV-model.A purpose of the article is to describe an approach to programming PLC, which would provide a possibility of PLC-program correctness analysis by the model checking method.Under the proposed approach the change of the value of each program variable is described by a pair of LTL-formulas. The first LTL-formula describes situations that increase the value of the corresponding variable, the second LTL-formula specifies conditions leading to a decrease of the variable value. The LTL-formulas (used for specification of the corresponding variable behavior are constructive in the sense that they construct the PLC-program, which satisfies temporal properties expressed by these formulas. Thus, the programming of PLC is reduced to the construction of LTL-specification of the behavior of each program variable. In addition, an SMV-model of a PLC-program is constructed according to LTL-specification. Then, the SMV-model is analysed by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV.

  13. Construction and Verification of PLC LD-programs by LTL-specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to construction and verification of PLC LD-programs for discrete problems is proposed. For the specification of the program behavior, we use the linear-time temporal logic LTL. Programming is carried out in the LD-language (Ladder Diagram according to an LTL-specification. The correctness analysis of an LTL-specification is carried out by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV. A new approach to programming and verification of PLC LD-programs is shown by an example. For a discrete problem, we give a LD-program, its LTL-specification and an SMV-model. The purpose of the article is to describe an approach to programming PLC, which would provide a possibility of LD-program correctness analysis by the model checking method. Under the proposed approach, the change of the value of each program variable is described by a pair of LTL-formulas. The first LTL-formula describes situations which increase the value of the corresponding variable, the second LTL-formula specifies conditions leading to a decrease of the variable value. The LTL-formulas (used for speci- fication of the corresponding variable behavior are constructive in the sense that they construct the PLC-program (LD-program, which satisfies temporal properties expressed by these formulas. Thus, the programming of PLC is reduced to the construction of LTLspecification of the behavior of each program variable. In addition, an SMV-model of a PLC LD-program is constructed according to LTL-specification. Then, the SMV-model is analysed by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV.

  14. Data loss for PLC of nonlinear systems Iterative Learning Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yinjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When we use power line as data carrier, due to the complexity of the PLC network environment, data packet loss frequently, so the paper deal with the iterative learning control for a class of nonlinear systems with measurement dropouts in the PLC, and studies the P-type iterative learning control algorithm convergence issues, the data packet loss is described as a stochastic Bernoulli process, on this basis we given convergence conditions for the P-type iterative learning control algorithm. The theoretically analysis is supported by the simulation of a numerical example; the convergence of ILC can be guaranteed when some output measurements are missing.

  15. PLC and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling in disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follo, Matilde Y; Manzoli, Lucia; Poli, Alessandro; McCubrey, James A; Cocco, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell metabolism is deregulated, and signalling pathways can be involved. For instance, PI3K/Akt/mTOR is associated with normal proliferation and differentiation, and its alteration is detectable in cancer cells, that exploit the normal mechanisms to overcome apoptosis. On the other hand, also the family of Phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes play a critical role in cell growth, and any change concerning these enzymes or their downstream targets can be associated with neoplastic transformation. Here, we review the role of PLC and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal transduction pathways in pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Research about Embedded Soft PLC Running System Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the overall construction and operational principle of soft PLC. Considering the real time request of the system, we use Linux+RTAI dual core system as software platform. In this platform, the implementation method of soft PLC operational system is introduced. Especially, the design of instruction analysis module is emphasized. On the basis of energy flow concept, the logic algorithm is established, aligning to the left bus. Finally, the system is tested to evaluate the desired control behavior.

  17. An Integrated Software Development Framework for PLC and FPGA based Digital I and Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jun Beom; Kim, Eui Sub; Lee, Dong Ah [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Gyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    NuDE 2.0 (Nuclear Development Environment) is a model-based software development environment for safety- critical digital systems in nuclear power plants. It makes possible to develop PLC-based systems as well as FPGA-based systems simultaneously from the same requirement or design specifications. The case study showed that the NuDE 2.0 can be adopted as an effective method of bridging the gap between the existing PLC and upcoming FPGA-based developments as well as a means of gaining diversity.

  18. The Testing Strategy for the Embedded Software implemented in I/O module of KNICS PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Park, Won Man; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The safety Grade PLC (POSAFE) is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC is being designed for satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The embedded software for implementation in I/O module such as the pIAOS and pOAOS is being developed according to the safety critical software life cycle. The developed software according to the software life cycle is tested for verification and validation by an independent software testing team. This paper describes the software testing strategy to find the faults that may exist in software design and code effectively.

  19. A fast PID controller Design for Modern PLC for Process Control Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.; Nafis, A.; Anees, R.M.; Idris, S.

    2004-01-01

    PID is the most widely used control scheme in the process industry. Pill controllers are utilized for the control of such varied parameters as pressure, flow, temperature, etc. One characteristic of these parameters is that they posses slow dynamics. Most of the available digital controllers can manipulate only a single parameter- multiple controllers are required for control of more than one parameter. The Fast PID Controller for Modem PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) developed by the authors, provides control of several parameters at a time (through a single Pill control element), enhanced programmability including variable sampling period, parameter monitoring and data storage, which may be easily implemented in a PLC. (author)

  20. Enterprise network with software Asterisk PBX based on the PLC technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Maar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the software Asterisk PBX solution design in enterprise PLC network (Power Line Communication. The description of the installation and configuration of software Asterisk PBX is involved in the design. The secure interconnection of two enterprise PLC network is implemented via the telecommunication tunnel with security grant using the Cisco routers. The connection between two Asterisk PBXs is designed in context of the establishment of the tunnel. The subject of the article is also cross/connection of exchanges Asterisk PBX and hardware PBX - IP Panasonic PBX K-NS500.

  1. The Application of PLC (Powerline Communications) in Brazil in the regulatory viewpoint; A aplicacao do PLC no Brasil do ponto de vista regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Daniel; Silva Filho, Armando [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Regulacao dos Servicos de Distribuicao

    2010-07-01

    The Powerline Communications technology - PLC allows transmission of data, voice, image and access to high speed internet by the grid, so that a power plug can also be an access point to the network communication. Considering that the electric grid reaches the vast majority of households, there is great potential in using this technology as a tool to achieve the reality of digital inclusion in the country. However, its implementation must be accompanied by effective regulation, both through policies with respect to the conditions of use of radio frequencies, as in regulating the use of distribution networks of electricity as a means of transport for communication signal. In this context, the present article deals with the fundamental rules governing the application of PLC technology from the standpoint of the distributors and consumers of electricity, with attention to quality assurance of electrical energy and facility security.

  2. Dealing with Phrase Level Co-Articulation (PLC) in speech recognition: a first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; van Leeuwen, David A.; Robinson, Tony; Renals, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Whereas nowadays within-word co-articulation effects are usually sufficiently dealt with in automatic speech recognition, this is not always the case with phrase level co-articulation effects (PLC). This paper describes a first approach in dealing with phrase level co-articulation by applying these

  3. What is the method in applying formal methods to PLC applications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Engel, S.; Wupper, Hanno; Kowalewski, S.; Zaytoon, J.

    2000-01-01

    The question we investigate is how to obtain PLC applications with confidence in their proper functioning. Especially, we are interested in the contribution that formal methods can provide for their development. Our maxim is that the place of a particular formal method in the total picture of system

  4. A Research on Seamless Platform Change of Reactor Protection System From PLC to FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Junbeom; Lee, Jonghoon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) has been widely used to implement real-time controllers in nuclear RPSs (Reactor Protection Systems). Increasing complexity and maintenance cost, however, are now demanding more powerful and cost-effective implementation such as FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array). Abandoning all experience and knowledge accumulated over the decades and starting an all-new development approach is too risky for such safety-critical systems. This paper proposes an RPS software development process with a platform change from PLC to FPGA, while retaining all outputs from the established development. This paper transforms FBD designs of the PLC-based software development into a behaviorally-equivalent Verilog program, which is a starting point of a typical FPGA-based hardware development. We expect that the proposed software development process can bridge the gap between two software developing approaches with different platforms, such as PLC and FPGA. This paper also demonstrates its effectiveness using an example of a prototype version of a real-world RPS in Korea.

  5. A PLC generic requirements and specification for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jea Bok; Lee, C. K.; Lee, D. Y. [and others

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the requirements and specification to be applied to the generic qualification of programmable Logic Controller(PLC), which is being developed as part of the KNICS project, 'Development of the Digital Reactor Safety Systems' of which purpose is the application to safety-related instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. This report defines the essential and critical characteristics that shall be included as part of a PLC design for safety-related application. The characteristics include performance, reliability, accuracy, the overall response time from an input to the PLC exceeding it trip condition to the resulting outputs, and the specification of processors and memories in digital controller. It also specifies the quality assurance process for software development, dealing with executive software, firmware, application software tools for developing the application software, and human machine interface(HMI). In addition, this report reviews the published standards and guidelines that are required for the PLC development and the quality assurance processes such as environment requirements, seismic withstand requirements, EMI/RFI withstand requirements, and isolation test.

  6. Methods of Certification tests PLC-Networks in Compliance Safety Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was description of the methodology of the audit plc-network to meet the requirements of information security. The technique is based on the provisions of the guidance documents and model FSTEC Russia test object methods of information on safety information.

  7. PENGGUNAAN PC SEBAGAI SISTEM MONITORING MESIN DAUR ULANG PLASTIK BEKAS DENGAN PLC SEBAGAI KONTROL OTOMATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Warsito

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pada dunia industri dan automatisasi, kebutuhan akan sistem dan kontroler yang baik, efektif dan efisien adalahsuatu keharusan. Sebagai suatu kontroler PLC dapat memberikan solusi yang diinginkan. PLC memiliki kelebihan,diantaranya dapat diprogram, mudah diprogram, program dapat diubah-ubah, sederhana dalam wiring, kompak,lebih kuat terhadap kondisi lingkungan dan mudah dalam troubleshooting.Dalam penelitian ini , PLC digunakan sebagai kontroler pada sistem mesin daur ulang plastik bekas. Dimana nantinya akan menghasilkan biji plastik dengan proses produksi menggunakan auto loader sebagai pengisian bahan baku secara automatis, heater untuk melelehkan bahan, screw untuk membawa bahan dari heater ke nozzle, pompa membuat sirkulasi air tetap terjaga suhunya dan penarik, menarik tali plastik untuk dipotong. Borland Delphi 6.0digunakan sebagai sistem monitoring, yang dapat mengontrol dan memonitor sistem kerja mesin daur ulang secarareal time.Dari pembuatan dan analisa didapat hasil bahwa dengan menggunakan kontrol automasi akan mempermudah operator untuk memonitoring sistem kerja mesin secara real time. Delphi dapat berkomunikasi dengan baik pada PLC sebagai pembuatan visual simulasi mesin.

  8. Applying Hamming Code to Memory System of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) Processor Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehee; Hwang, Sungjae; Park, Gangmin [POSCO Nuclear Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    If some errors such as inverted bits occur in the memory, instructions and data will be corrupted. As a result, the PLC may execute the wrong instructions or refer to the wrong data. Hamming Code can be considered as the solution for mitigating this mis operation. In this paper, we apply hamming Code, then, we inspect whether hamming code is suitable for to the memory system of the processor module. In this paper, we applied hamming code to existing safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q). Inspection data are collected and they will be referred for improving the PLC in terms of the soundness. In our future work, we will try to improve time delay caused by hamming calculation. It will include CPLD optimization and memory architecture or parts alteration. In addition to these hamming code-based works, we will explore any methodologies such as mirroring for the soundness of safety grade PLC. Hamming code-based works can correct bit errors, but they have limitation in multi bits errors.

  9. Trust and Collaboration in PLC Teams: Teacher Relationships, Principal Support, and Collaborative Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Pamela R.; Smith, Henry R.; Hite, Julie M.; Hite, Steven J.; Wilcox, Bradley R.

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) are being recognized as effective in improving teacher collaboration and student achievement. Trust is critical in effectively implementing the PLC model, and the school principal is best positioned to influence school trust levels. Using five facets of trust, this research sought to clarify the impact of…

  10. RANCANG BANGUN SIMULATOR KONTROL LAMPU RAMBU LALU LINTAS BERBASIS PLC OMRON CPM1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Udy Ariawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan permasalahan arus lalu lintas / kemacetan di jalan raya khususnya di kota-kota besar Indonesia maka penulis mencoba merancang sistem simulasi lampu rambu lalu lintas yang berbasis PLC Omron CPM1A dengan menggunakan sensor kepadatan  atau sering disebut Traffic Actuated Signal, untuk mengurangi kepadatan arus lalu lintas di kota-kota besar di Indonesia. Proses simulasi rambu lampu lalu lintas yang berbasis PLC Omron CPM1A menggunakan dua sistem kerja yaitu: sistem manual dan sistem otomatis. Dimana sistem manual bekerja dengan menggunakan waktu (timer yang sudah ditentukan, sedangkan sistem otomatis bekerja dengan menggunakan sensor, sensor bekerja bila suatu kendaraan melintasi sensor tersebut dengan selang waktu 40 detik. Pada rancang bangun simulator lampu rambu lalu lintas berbasis PLC Omron CPM1A hasil simulasi baik itu pengukuran tegangan input atau output dan pengukuran arus input atau output sesuai dengan sistem alat yang dibuat. Tingkat kegagalan pada sistem alat sensor yang diuji 1/12 X 100% = 8,33%, sedangkan tingkat keberhasilan alat sensor yang diuji 11/12 X 100% = 91,66%. Kinerja sistem rancang bangun simulator lampu rambu lalu lintas berbasis PLC Omron CPM1A sangat dipengaruhi oleh tingkat sensitivitas dari sensor yang digunakan, oleh karena itu sensor yang digunakan sebaiknya sensor yang mendeteksi bahan logam seperti kendaraan umum.

  11. Homeplug AV and IEEE 1901 a handbook for PLC designers and users

    CERN Document Server

    Latchman, Haniph A; Yonge, Larry; Gavette, Sherman

    2013-01-01

      The only authorized book explaining the HomePlug networking standards HomePlug is a growing technology for creating high-speed Power Line Communication (PLC) networks by transmitting data over in-home or in-office power lines. Users only need to plug adapters into wall outlets to create an instant network of computers, printers, routers, home entertainment

  12. Wavelet-OFDM Signal Transmission Characteristics with High-Speed PLC Modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kenichi; Tokuda, Masamitsu; Igata, Yuji

    In this paper, we measured the interference immunity characteristics of high-speed PLC system using Wavelet-OFDM when the narrowband conducted interference wave signal was injected. As the results, it was clear that (1) measured PHY rate at the all frequency band hardly decreased in C/I (Carrier to Interference ratio) of above 20dB, but began to decrease rapidly in C/I of below 0dB when the interference signal was injected in the frequency band of high-speed PLC signal, (2) when C/I became from 0dB to -20dB, the measured PHY rate at the frequency existing the notch band were improved around 10Mbps than that at the frequency not existing the notch band, (3) when the narrowband interference wave was injected outside of frequency band of high-speed PLC signal, the measured PHY rate did not decrease than that in each notch band. Therefore, it was revealed that high-speed PLC system using Wavelet-OFDM had good interference immunity characteristics.

  13. Five Year Retrospective Study of the Financial Situation of Northern Foods Plc., United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie DACOSTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as a retrospective analysis of Northern Foods Plc., once a major player in FTSE 350 Food Sector, to evaluate its financial situation over a five year period. The ex post factor research design was used for this study. Annual reports and databases on Northern Foods Plc., and Associated British Foods Plc., were used to perform a series of ratio analyses. The results revealed that Northern Foods Plc.’s performance has been declining as evidenced in the profitability ratios calculated. Also, financial strength was weak and working capital has not been effectively managed, hence affecting its cash and profit generation potentials. The company was limited in its ability to grow and expand as it needed to regularly fund its pension deficit, and finance its high levels of debt. The study concludes that Northern Foods was not in a very strong financial position, yet it was not making the required investments to improve, hence its takeover though this paper will not rule out non-financial issues. Furthermore, the study prescribed five generic points to improve the financial health of any organisation.

  14. Fuel cycle and waste management: A perspective from British nuclear fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.; Fairhall, G.A.; Robbins, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The phrase fuel cycle and waste management implies two separate and distinct activities. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has adopted a holistic approach to the fuel cycle that integrates the traditional fuel cycle activities of conversion to uranium hexafluoride, fuel fabrication, power generation, and reprocessing with waste arisings, its subsequent treatment, and disposal

  15. Characterization of a small PlcR-regulated gene co-expressed with cereolysin O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lereclus Didier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the human pathogen Bacillus cereus, the expression of most extracellular virulence factors is controlled by the transcriptional activator PlcR. Among these virulence factors, cereolysin O (Clo is an haemolysin belonging to the cholesterol-dependant cytolysins, a protein family extensively studied in Gram-positive bacteria. Results In the genomes of bacteria belonging to the B. cereus group, including Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis, a small gene encoding a 26-amino acid peptide was present in multicopy. One copy was always found upstream from the gene encoding Clo. In B. cereus ATCC 14579, the small gene and the clo gene are co-transcribed. Transcriptional fusions showed that the three paralogues identified in this strain were expressed in a PlcR-dependent manner. We propose to name these peptides Spp for small PlcR-regulated peptides. We show that a synthetic peptide corresponding to the deduced product of the spp genes displayed antibacterial activity. Conclusion The co-expression of spp, a small PlcR-regulated multicopy gene with clo suggests a yet unidentified relationship between Spp and the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin in bacteria belonging to the B.cereus group.

  16. A Remote PLC Laboratory (RLab) for Distance Practical Work of Industrial Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritman, E.; Somantri, Y.; Wahyudin, D.; Mulyana, E.

    2018-02-01

    A laboratory is an essential equipment for engineering students to do a useful practical work. Therefore, universities should provide an adequate facility for practical work. On the other hand, industrial automation laboratory would offer students beneficial experience by using various educational PLC kits. This paper describes the development of Web-based Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) remote laboratory called RLab. It provides an environment for learners to study PLC application to control the level of the non-interacting tank. The RLab architecture is based on a Moodle and Remote Desktop, which also manages the booking system of the schedule of practical work in the laboratory. The RLab equipped by USB cameras providing a real-time view of PLC environment. To provide a secured system, the RLab combines Moodle and Remote Desktop application for the authentication system and management of remote users. Moodle will send PartnerID and password to connect to TeamViewer. It has been examined that the laboratory requirement, time and flexibility restrictions constitute a significant obstacle facing traditional students desiring to finish the course. A remote access laboratory can be eliminating time and flexibility restrictions. The preliminary study of RLab usability proved that such system is adequate to give the learners a distance practical work environment.

  17. Applying Hamming Code to Memory System of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) Processor Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Hwang, Sungjae; Park, Gangmin

    2013-01-01

    If some errors such as inverted bits occur in the memory, instructions and data will be corrupted. As a result, the PLC may execute the wrong instructions or refer to the wrong data. Hamming Code can be considered as the solution for mitigating this mis operation. In this paper, we apply hamming Code, then, we inspect whether hamming code is suitable for to the memory system of the processor module. In this paper, we applied hamming code to existing safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q). Inspection data are collected and they will be referred for improving the PLC in terms of the soundness. In our future work, we will try to improve time delay caused by hamming calculation. It will include CPLD optimization and memory architecture or parts alteration. In addition to these hamming code-based works, we will explore any methodologies such as mirroring for the soundness of safety grade PLC. Hamming code-based works can correct bit errors, but they have limitation in multi bits errors

  18. Application of PLC to dynamic control system for liquid He cryogenic pumping facility on JT-60U NBI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, A. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyayama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: honda.atsushi@jaea.go.jp; Okano, F.; Ooshima, K.; Akino, N.; Kikuchi, K.; Tanai, Y.; Takenouchi, T.; Numazawa, S.; Ikeda, Y. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyayama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    The control system of the cryogenic facility in the JT-60 NBI system has been replaced by employing the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system. The original control system was constructed about 20 years ago by specifying the DCS (Distributed Control System) computer to deal with {approx}400 feedback loops. Recently, troubles on this control system have increased due to its age-induced deterioration. To maintain the high reliability of the cryogenic facility, a new control system has been planned with the PLC and SCADA systems. Their attractive features include high market availability and cost-effectiveness, however, the use of PLC for such a large facility with {approx}400 feedback loops has not been established because of insufficient processing capability of the early PLC. Meanwhile, the recent progress in the PLC enables to use the FBD (function block diagram) programming language for 500 function blocks. By optimizing the function blocks and connecting them in the FBD language, the feedback loops have been successfully replaced from DCS to PLC without a software developer. Moreover, an oscillation of the liquid He level, which often occurs during the cooldown mode of the cryopumps, can be automatically stabilized by easily adding a new process program in the PLC. At present, the new control system has worked well.

  19. The ability of Listeria monocytogenes PI-PLC to facilitate escape from the macrophage phagosome is dependent on host PKCβ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Mathilde A.; Leitges, Michael; Goldfine, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria that can infect macrophages as well as non-professional phagocytes. After entry in the host cell, the bacteria escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm. In murine macrophages and in cell lines derived from these cells, escape of L. monocytogenes from the phagosome is absolutely dependent on listeriolysin O (LLO) and facilitated by a secreted phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) Work in this laboratory has previously demonstrated a LLO and PI-PLC-dependent translocation of host PKCβ isoforms. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCβ resulted in a significant reduction in permeabilization of the phagosome, and in the number of bacteria reaching the cytosol. These findings led to the prediction that the bacterial PI-PLC promotes escape through the production of diacylglycerol leading to the activation of host PKCβ. To test this hypothesis, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMφ) obtained from PKCβ knockout (PKCβKO) or C57Bl/6 mice were infected with L. monocytogenes. We observed that wild type L. monocytogenes escapes from the phagosome of PKCβKO BMMφ as well as they do from C57Bl/6 BMMφ. However, in PKCβKO BMMφ, L. monocytogenes uses a PI-PLC-independent, but phosphatidylcholine-preferring PLC (PC-PLC)-dependent pathway to facilitate escape. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that PI-PLC promotes escape through mobilization of host PKCβ PMID:18996181

  20. Physical Education PLC: Neoliberalism, Curriculum and Governance. New Directions for PESP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2014-01-01

    How might Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy (PESP) communities in the UK, Europe, Australasia and elsewhere go about researching the implications of neoliberalism and increasing privatisation of Education for the entitlements of young people to a common, comprehensive, high quality, equitable Physical Education (PE)? Our analyses suggest that…

  1. 75 FR 12154 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...)2890-462469; fax +44(0)2890- 468444; e-mail [email protected] ; Internet http... docket on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov ; or in person at the Docket Operations office... 2005/CPRO, www.easa.eu.int/home/cert_policy_statements_en.html ) that also included the EASA...

  2. 76 FR 1985 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... those in the MCAI to ensure the AD is clear for U.S. operators and is enforceable in a U.S. court of law..., Belfast, BT3 9DZ Northern Ireland; telephone +44(0)2890-462469; fax +44(0)2890-468444; e-mail michael...

  3. PLC-controlled cryostats for the BlackGEM and MeerLICHT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Gert; Morren, Johan; Pessemier, Wim; Bloemen, Steven; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Roelfsema, Ronald; Groot, Paul; Aerts, Conny

    2016-08-01

    BlackGEM is an array of telescopes, currently under development at the Radboud University Nijmegen and at NOVA (Netherlands Research School for Astronomy). It targets the detection of the optical counterparts of gravitational waves. The first three BlackGEM telescopes are planned to be installed in 2018 at the La Silla observatory (Chile). A single prototype telescope, named MeerLICHT, will already be commissioned early 2017 in Sutherland (South Africa) to provide an optical complement for the MeerKAT radio array. The BlackGEM array consists of, initially, a set of three robotic 65-cm wide-field telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a single STA1600 CCD detector with 10.5k x 10.5k 9-micron pixels that covers a 2.7 square degrees field of view. The cryostats for housing these detectors are developed and built at the KU Leuven University (Belgium). The operational model of BlackGEM requires long periods of reliable hands-off operation. Therefore, we designed the cryostats for long vacuum hold time and we make use of a closed-cycle cooling system, based on Polycold PCC Joule-Thomson coolers. A single programmable logic controller (PLC) controls the cryogenic systems of several BlackGEM telescopes simultaneously, resulting in a highly reliable, cost-efficient and maintenance-friendly system. PLC-based cryostat control offers some distinct advantages, especially for a robotic facility. Apart of temperature monitoring and control, the PLC also monitors the vacuum quality, the power supply and the status of the PCC coolers (compressor power consumption and temperature, pressure in the gas lines, etc.). Furthermore, it provides an alarming system and safe and reproducible procedures for automatic cool down and warm up. The communication between PLC and higher-level software takes place via the OPC-UA protocol, offering a simple to implement, yet very powerful interface. Finally, a touch-panel display on the PLC provides the operator with a user-friendly and robust

  4. Design and Implementation of an over Current Protection Laboratory for Electrical Power Transmission Systems Based on PLC Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Th. H. Thabet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modern approach for the protection of transmission lines to ensure theirsafety against the faults occurred in power systems. Our approach uses a Programmable LogicController (PLC to realize a transmission line as an over current protection relay. A conditioningcircuit was designed, implemented and tested to collect data obtained from Hall Effect sensors which convert them to suitable analog values compatible with PLC's inputs. Results obtained by our PLC control system are very similar to those obtained by the conventional relays but more efficient. An Automatic Reclosing System (ARS for remote faults is also included in this approach. Our PLC control system and its algorithm are illustrated in this paper also. This approach is designed to be used in electrical networks laboratories as an educational unit in electrical departments of engineering collages and technical institutes; it can be used also in real power systems through suitable interfacing facilities.

  5. The effect of a dynamic PCL brace on patellofemoral compartment pressures in PCL-and PCL/PLC-deficient knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Tyler; Keller, Thomas; Maldonado, Ruben; Metzger, Melodie; Mohr, Karen; Kvitne, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The natural history of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency includes the development of arthrosis in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the hypothesis that dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knees. Controlled Laboratory Study. Eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees with intact cruciate and collateral ligaments were included. PFJ pressures and force were measured using a pressure mapping system via a lateral arthrotomy at knee flexion angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° in intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL/PLC-deficient knees under a combined quadriceps/hamstrings load of 400 N/200 N. Testing was then repeated in PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees after application of a dynamic PCL brace. Application of a dynamic PCL brace led to a reduction in peak PFJ pressures in PCL-deficient knees. In addition, the brace led to a significant reduction in peak pressures in PCL/PLC-deficient knees at 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Application of the dynamic brace also led to a reduction in total PFJ force across all flexion angles for both PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees. Dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/PLC-deficient knees, particularly at high degrees of knee flexion.

  6. Developing a Novel USB-PLC Controller for a Mechatronics Cloud Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jye Shyr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the development and implementation of a novel Universal Serial Bus (USB-Programmable Logic Controller (PLC, called a USB-PLC controller, for a mechatronics cloud laboratory. The aim of a mechatronics cloud laboratory is to provide state of the art research quality equipment to students, allowing them to conduct hands-on experiments via the Internet. One objective of the cloud laboratory is to not only provide equipment for conducting set experiments, but also to provide a means for students to access research equipment in order to conduct individual research experiments. The proposed controller for these cloud laboratory experiments has been chosen in order to expose the students to as many different engineering and technology disciplines as possible.

  7. Development of a PLC modem for data transmission over a PWM power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batard, Christophe; Ginot, Nicolas; Mannah, Marc Anthony; Millet, Christophe; Poitiers, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    In variable-speed electrical drive and online conditioning monitoring, a feedback loop is required in order to transmit the sensor information from the motor to the controller close to the inverter. Additional cabling is used for signalling. This extra cabling has a significant cost and data transmission may not be reliable. Thus, the use of power line communication (PLC) technology to transmit data in motor drive application is quite interesting. The use of a PLC modem dedicated to the home network in a three-phase inverter-fed motor power cable does not work. Therefore, specific coupling interfaces are developed to transmit data through a pulse-width modulated power supply. Laboratory tests have shown that the couplers are operating properly. They ensure reliable data transmission in a motor drive application.

  8. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  9. An Automatic Networking and Routing Algorithm for Mesh Network in PLC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jiasheng; Xu, Dianguo

    2017-05-01

    Power line communication (PLC) is considered to be one of the best communication technologies in smart grid. However, the topology of low voltage distribution network is complex, meanwhile power line channel has characteristics of time varying and attenuation, which lead to the unreliability of power line communication. In this paper, an automatic networking and routing algorithm is introduced which can be adapted to the "blind state" topology. The results of simulation and test show that the scheme is feasible, the routing overhead is small, and the load balance performance is good, which can achieve the establishment and maintenance of network quickly and effectively. The scheme is of great significance to improve the reliability of PLC.

  10. Evaluation and application of a fast module in a PLC based interlock and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaera-Sanz, M [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Higher School of Technical Sciences CEU, Universidad Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: manzaesan@yahoo.es

    2009-08-15

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of {mu}seconds. Siemens has introduced a 'so called' fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor). It provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This paper publishes the results of this study. As well, this paper could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  11. Evaluation of a fast PLC module in prospect of the LHC beam interlock system

    CERN Document Server

    Zaera-Sanz, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of mseconds. Siemens has introduced a “so called” fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor) that provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This note publishes the results of this study. As well, this note could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  12. Development of Application Programming Tool for Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kyungmo; You, Byungyong; Kim, Tae-Wook; Cho, Sengjae; Lee, Jin S. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The pSET (POSAFE-Q Software Engineering Tool) is an application programming tool of the POSAFE-Q which is a safety graded programmable logic controller (PLC) developed for the reactor protect system of the nuclear power plant. The pSET provides an integrated development environment (IDE) which includes editors, compiler, simulator, down loader, debugger, and monitor. The pSET supports the IEC61131-3 standard software model and languages such as LD (ladder diagram) and FBD (function block diagram) which are two of the most widely used PLC programming languages in industry fields. The pSET will also support SFC (sequential function chart) language. The pSET is developed as a part of a Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) project.

  13. Integrated software environment dedicated for implementation of control systems based on PLC controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon SURMA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes’ control systems based on PLC controllers play today a very important role in all fields of transport, including also sea transport. Construction of control systems is the field of engineering, which has been continuously evolving towards maximum simplification of system design path. Up to now the time needed forthe system construction from the design to commissioning had to be divided into a few stages. A mistake made in an earlier stage caused that in most cases the next stages had to be restarted. Available debugging systems allows defect detection at an early stage of theproject implementation. The paper presents general characteristic of integrated software for implementation of complex control systems. The issues related to the software use for programming of the visualisation environment, control computer, selection oftransmission medium and transmission protocol as well as PLC controllers’ configuration, software and control have been analysed.

  14. Comportamiento de la Tecnología PLC en la Red Eléctrica

    OpenAIRE

    García Guibout, J.; García Garino, Carlos; Fusario, Rubén J.; Castro Lechtaler, Antonio; Sevilla, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    La tecnología PLC1 - PowerLine Communications- está referida a la transmisión de datos utilizando la red eléctrica, tanto domiciliaria, como la red de distribución de baja tensión. Dependiendo del tipo de red que se utilice como soporte esta tecnología se divide en PLC indoor y outdoor. La primera se refiere a la utilización de la red domiciliaria y utiliza las frecuencias más altas de 5 MHz a 30 ó 40 MHz. La segunda, outdoor, usa la red de distribución y las frecuencias bajas de 1 MHz a 5 ó ...

  15. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309/Rev.1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis

  16. Development of Application Programming Tool for Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kyungmo; You, Byungyong; Kim, Tae-Wook; Cho, Sengjae; Lee, Jin S.

    2006-01-01

    The pSET (POSAFE-Q Software Engineering Tool) is an application programming tool of the POSAFE-Q which is a safety graded programmable logic controller (PLC) developed for the reactor protect system of the nuclear power plant. The pSET provides an integrated development environment (IDE) which includes editors, compiler, simulator, down loader, debugger, and monitor. The pSET supports the IEC61131-3 standard software model and languages such as LD (ladder diagram) and FBD (function block diagram) which are two of the most widely used PLC programming languages in industry fields. The pSET will also support SFC (sequential function chart) language. The pSET is developed as a part of a Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) project

  17. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309, Rev. 1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  18. Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell PIC Skids as required by LMH-PRO-309/Rev. 0, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.6, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell PIC Skid PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis

  19. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  20. PEMBUATAN SISTEM KONTROL MESIN CAULKING ROD GUIDE OTOMATIS MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON CPM1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenaikan tingkat produksi shock absorber perusahaan manufaktur membuat proses produksi harus berjalan dengan baik . Pipa proses pemotongan pada mendempul panduan mesin batang memiliki beberapa masalah yang harus diatasi . Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut kemudian melakukan modifikasi mesin batang mendempul yang secara otomatis dapat mengurangi waktu siklus pada proses mendempul batang dari 4,5 detik per potong sehingga tingkat produksi memotong garis pipa dapat ditingkatkan . Sistem kontrol otomatis mendempul mesin batang panduan ini dirancang untuk menggunakan Programmable Logic Controller (PLC

  1. On Verification of PLC-Programs Written in the LD-Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some questions connected with the construction of a technology of analysing correctness of Programmable Logic Controller programs. We consider an example of modeling and automated verification of PLC-programs written in the Ladder Diagram language (including timed function blocks of the IEC 61131-3 standard. We use the Cadence SMV for symbolic model checking. Program properties are written in the linear-time temporal logic LTL.

  2. Based on the Hardware Resources Configurable Shanke PLC Building Energy Consumption Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Guanghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the actual situation of the comprehensive office building and the functional requirements of the building energy consumption monitoring and management system, the office building energy consumption monitoring and management system is designed by using the hardware resource configurable Shanke PLC(SKPLC as the data collector. The system uses data bus technology and field data acquisition technology to achieve the building energy consumption data acquisition and management. Practice has proved that energy-saving effect is good.

  3. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    Full Text Available Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  4. Capital Discipline and Financial Market Relations in Retail Globalization: Insights from the Case of Tesco plc

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Steven; Wrigley, N; Coe, NM

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth study of leading transnational food retailer Tesco plc to explore how its financial management and relations with the investment community – notably its reputation for capital discipline – underpinned successful expansion. Informed by close dialogue with equity analysts, we investigate how this model deteriorated since the late 2000s with declining returns, leading to high-profile international divestitures. The analysis assesses the drivers of these difficulti...

  5. Business strategy and the environment Tesco Plc's declining financial performance and underlying issues

    OpenAIRE

    Haddock-Millar, Julie; Rigby, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The case presents a teaching tool which requires students to: 1) analyze the financial performance of Tesco Plc over the last four years; 2) compare Tesco’s market position with key competitors; 3) identify and evaluate Tesco’s business strategy; 4) evaluate the causes of Tesco’s decline in performance; 5) develop recommendations to address declining performance; 6) identify and evaluate the Human Resource strategic role in addressing and supporting performance. The case is suitable for a bus...

  6. 160 Gb/s OFDM transmission utilizing an all-optical symbol generator based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Qiao, Yaojun; Li, Wei; Mei, Junyao; Qin, Yi

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a 160 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system using an all-optical symbol generator based on planar light circuit (PLC) technology. Excellent bit error rate (BER) is observed after long-distance transmission. The proposed symbol generator fundamentally eliminates the processing speed limits introduced by electronics and is suitable for high integration, making it physically realizable to build high-speed all-optical OFDM systems with a large number of subcarriers.

  7. Increase in Multicast OFDM Data Rate in PLC Network using Adaptive LP-OFDM

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga , Ali; Baudais , Jean-Yves; Hélard , Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    ISBN: 978-1-4244-3523-4; International audience; Linear precoding (LP) technique applied to OFDM systems has already proved its ability to significantly increase the system throughput in a powerline communication (PLC) context. In this paper, we propose resource allocation algorithms based on the LP technique to increase the multicast OFDM systems bit rate. The conventional multicast capacity is limited by the user which experiences the worst channel conditions. To increase the multicast bit ...

  8. Experimental Study of 6LoPLC for Home Energy Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous connectivity is already transforming residential dwellings into smart homes. As citizens continue to embrace the smart home paradigm, a new generation of low-rate and low-power communication systems is required to leverage the mass market presented by energy management in homes. Although Power Line Communication (PLC technology has evolved in the last decade, the adaptation of PLC for constrained networks is not fully charted. By adapting some features of IEEE 802.15.4 and IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN into power lines, this paper demonstrates a low-rate, low-power PLC system over the IPv6 network (referred to as 6LoPLC, for Home Energy Management System (HEMS applications. The overall idea is to provide a framework for assessing various scenarios that cannot be easily investigated with the limited number of evaluation hardware available. In this respect, a network model is developed in NS-3 (Version 21 to measure several important characteristics of the designed system and then validated with experimental results obtained using the Hanadu evaluation kits. Following the good agreement between the two, the NS-3 model is utilised to investigate more complex scenarios and various use-cases, such as the effects of impulsive noise, the number of nodes and packet size on the latency and Bit Error Rate (BER performances. We further demonstrate that for different network and application configurations, optimal data sizes exist. For instance, the results reveal that in order to guarantee 99% system reliability, the HEMS application data must not exceed 64 bytes. Finally, it is shown that with impulsive noise in a HEMS network comprising 50 appliances, provided the size of the payload does not exceed 64 bytes, monitoring and control applications incur a maximum latency of 238.117 ms and 248.959 ms, respectively; both of which are within acceptable limits.

  9. Praksisnær skoleudvikling og PLC som strategisk udviklingsaktør

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Bach, Anna

    2017-01-01

    I det følgende belyses, hvorledes PLC kan udvikles som strategisk udviklingsaktør og understøtte praksisnær skoleudvikling. Vi ønsker at belyse hvorledes Bekendtgørelsens overordnede intentioner kan få retning og rammer og dermed medvirke til, at hele det pædagogiske personale indgår i skoleudvik......I det følgende belyses, hvorledes PLC kan udvikles som strategisk udviklingsaktør og understøtte praksisnær skoleudvikling. Vi ønsker at belyse hvorledes Bekendtgørelsens overordnede intentioner kan få retning og rammer og dermed medvirke til, at hele det pædagogiske personale indgår i...... skoleudviklingen. I den forbindelse er det vores erfaring, at PLC kan spille en central rolle i forbindelse med den praksisnære og lokale skoleudvikling. Erfaringerne bygger især på udviklings- og forskningsprojekter fra kommunerne Kolding, København, Roskilde og Tårnby. Der har været tale om praksisnære...

  10. Diethylstilbestrol regulates mouse gubernaculum testis cell proliferation via PLC-Ca2+-CREB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ping, Hong-Yan; Li, Jian-Hong; Duan, Shou-Xin; Jiang, Xue-Wu

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a positive correlation between environmental estrogens (EEs) and high incidence of abnormalities in male urogenital system, but the mechanism remains unclear. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen that disrupts the morphology and proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, mouse gubernaculum testis cells were pretreated with phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 and then treated with DES. The results demonstrated that U-73122 impaired DES-evoked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in gubernaculum testis cells and inhibited DES-induced proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells. Mechanistically, we found that U-73122 inhibited DES-induced activation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in gubernaculum testis cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of DES on mouse gubernaculum testis cells are mediated by PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB pathway. Environmental estrogens remain a serious threat to male reproductive health, and it is important to understand the mechanism by which EEs affect the male productive system. Here we explore potential mechanisms how the proliferation and contractility of gubernaculum testis cells are regulated by diethylstilbestrol. Our findings provide the first evidence that PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB signalling pathway mediates the nongenomic effects of diethylstilbestrol on gubernaculum testis cells. These findings provide new insight into the role of diethylstilbestrol in the aetiology of male reproductive dysfunction and will help develop better approaches for the prevention and therapy of male reproductive malformation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Identifying techno-economic criteria in PLC/BPL applications and commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.A. [White Box Associates Ltd., Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Several techno-economic research and commercialization issues for power line communications (PLC) and broadband over power lines (BPL) were reviewed in this conference panel presentation by way of a number of personal computer based spreadsheet modelling examples. These examples illustrate the dependencies, interactivity, and trends in a variety of related techno-economic data. The presentation identified some criteria such as dimensioning of network, reach, repeaters, customers, bandwidth provisioning, and return on investment. An illustration of a theoretical and practical network infrastructure was provided. In addition, a typical medium voltage electricity distribution network in North America and a North American distribution substation were illustrated. Distribution components were shown in picture format. Other illustrations included low voltage transformers and secondary distribution, a typical underground service entrance, and a pad mount distribution transformer. Customer densities in Europe and Asia and North America per low voltage transformer were provided. The presentation then discussed network trade-offs versus system characteristics. A single PLC substation cell topography was provided and propagation models were presented. Field strength regression was also analysed. The presentation addressed the issue of multiple PLC substation cells, the incremental increase in noise floor, service penetration, bandwidth provisioning, and a review of BPL expenditures and profits. 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. The role and mechanism of action of sperm PLC-zeta in mammalian fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikos, Michail; Kashir, Junaid; Lai, F Anthony

    2017-10-23

    At mammalian fertilisation, the fundamental stimulus that triggers oocyte (egg) activation and initiation of early embryonic development is an acute rise of the intracellular-free calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration inside the egg cytoplasm. This essential Ca 2+ increase comprises a characteristic series of repetitive Ca 2+ oscillations, starting soon after sperm-egg fusion. Over the last 15 years, accumulating scientific and clinical evidence supports the notion that the physiological stimulus that precedes the cytosolic Ca 2+ oscillations is a novel, testis-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isoform, known as PLC-zeta (PLCζ). Sperm PLCζ catalyses the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate triggering cytosolic Ca 2+ oscillations through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signalling pathway. PLCζ is the smallest known mammalian PLC isoform with the most elementary domain organisation. However, relative to somatic PLCs, the PLCζ isoform possesses a unique potency in stimulating Ca 2+ oscillations in eggs that is attributed to its novel biochemical characteristics. In this review, we discuss the latest developments that have begun to unravel the vital role of PLCζ at mammalian fertilisation and decipher its unique mechanism of action within the fertilising egg. We also postulate the significant potential diagnostic and therapeutic capacity of PLCζ in alleviating certain types of male infertility. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel–space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods.

  14. The low PLC-δ1 expression in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells induces upregulation of TRPV6 channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachel, Laura; Norez, Caroline; Jayle, Christophe; Becq, Frédéric; Vandebrouck, Clarisse

    2015-01-01

    Increase of Ca(2+) influx in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) cells has been reported to be related to Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC6) channel, which is implicated in a functional coupling with Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR). Several members of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) channels family have already been described as emerging target for respiratory diseases. Two specific isoforms, TRPV5 and TRPV6 are of particular interest in the context of CF Ca(2+) homeostasis as they are highly selective toward Ca(2+) and constitutively activated. Thus, we investigated the involvement of these channels in Ca(2+) influx in CF and non-CF human bronchial epithelial cell lines. 16HBE14o-, CFBE41o- cell lines, primary human airway epithelial cells (hAEC) and freshly isolated human airway epithelial cells from CF and non-CF individuals were used. We showed that both channels are expressed in CF and non-CF cells and constitutive Ca(2+) influx was significantly higher (85%) in cells from CF individuals compared to cells from non-CF ones. Using the selective inhibitor of TRPV6 channel SOR-C27 and a siRNA strategy, our results revealed that TRPV6 was mostly involved in the increase of Ca(2+) influx. TRPV6 channel is negatively regulated by the PLC-PIP2 pathway. We measured the Ca(2+) influx in the presence of the non-specific PLC inhibitor, U73122, in non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells. Ca(2+) influx was increased by 33% with U73122 and this increase was largely reduced in the presence of SOR-C27. PLC inhibition in CF cells by U73122 had no effect on Ca(2+) influx. These results showed that PLC-PIP2 pathway is dysregulated in CF cells and leads to the increase of TRPV6 activity. The regulation of TRPV6 by PLC-PIP2 pathway implicates the specific PLC isoform, PLC-δ1. Immunoblot experiments revealed that expression of PLC-δ1 was decreased by 70% in CF cells. TRPV6 activity was normalized but not the level of expression of PLC-δ1

  15. 70Z/3 Cbl induces PLC gamma 1 activation in T lymphocytes via an alternate Lat- and Slp-76-independent signaling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Laurie J; Verí, Maria-Concetta; DeBell, Karen E; Noviello, Cristiana; Rawat, Rashmi; Jen, Sandy; Bonvini, Ezio; Rellahan, Barbara

    2003-04-24

    The oncoprotein 70Z/3 Cbl signals in an autonomous fashion or through blockade of endogenous c-Cbl, a negative regulator of signaling. The mechanism of 70Z/3 Cbl-induced signaling was investigated by comparing the molecular requirements for 70Z/3 Cbl- and TCR-induced phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) activation. 70Z/3 Cbl-induced PLC gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation required, in addition to the PLC gamma 1 N-terminal SH2 domain, the C-terminal SH2 and SH3 domains that were dispensable for TCR-induced phosphorylation. Deletion of the leucine zipper of 70Z/3 Cbl did not eliminate 70Z/3 Cbl-induced PLC gamma 1 phosphorylation, suggesting that blockage of c-Cbl via dimerization with 70Z/3 Cbl cannot fully explain 70Z/3 Cbl activating characteristics. The complete elimination of PLC gamma 1 phosphorylation required deleting the SH3 domain-binding region of 70Z/3 Cbl, consistent with 70Z/3 Cbl binding the PLC gamma 1 SH3 domain. 70Z/3 Cbl-induced PLC gamma 1 phosphorylation required Zap-70, as for the TCR, and the tyrosine kinase binding domain of 70Z/3 Cbl, which binds Zap-70, but did not require PLC gamma 1 binding to Lat, a crucial interaction in TCR-induced PLC gamma 1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, 70Z/3 Cbl-induced activation of NFAT, a PLC gamma 1/Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional event, required Zap-70, but was independent of Slp-76, an adapter required for TCR-induced NFAT activation. These results suggest that 70Z/3 Cbl and PLC gamma 1 form a TCR-, Lat- and Slp-76-independent complex that leads to PLC gamma 1 phosphorylation and activation.

  16. GRB2 nucleates T cell receptor–mediated LAT clusters that control PLC-γ1 activation and cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yousif Bilal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available GRB2 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein required for signaling downstream of multiple receptors. To address the role of GRB2 in receptor-mediated signaling, the expression of GRB2 was suppressed in human CD4+ T cells and its role downstream of the T cell receptor was examined. Interestingly, GRB2 deficient T cells had enhanced signaling from complexes containing the TCR. However, GRB2 deficient T cells had substantially reduced production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. This defect was attributed to diminished formation of LAT signaling clusters, which resulted in reduced MAP kinase activation, calcium flux and PLC-γ1 recruitment to LAT signaling clusters. Add back of wild-type GRB2 but not a novel N-terminal SH3 domain mutant rescued LAT microcluster formation, calcium mobilization, and cytokine release, providing the first direct evidence that GRB2, and its ability to bind to SH3 domain ligands, is required for establishing LAT microclusters. Our data demonstrate that the ability of GRB2 to facilitate protein clusters is equally important in regulating TCR-mediated functions as its capacity to recruit effector proteins. This highlights that GRB2 regulates signaling downstream of adaptors and receptors by both recruiting effector proteins and regulating the formation of signaling complexes.

  17. Csseverin inhibits apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathways triggered by Ca2 + dyshomeostasis in hepatocarcinoma PLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mengchen; Zhou, Lina; Zhao, Lu; Shang, Mei; He, Tongtong; Tang, Zeli; Sun, Hengchang; Ren, Pengli; Lin, Zhipeng; Chen, Tingjin; Yu, Jinyun; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing; Huang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) as well as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The underlying molecular mechanism involved in the malignancy of CCA and HCC has not yet been addressed. Csseverin, a component of the excretory/secretory products of C. sinensis (CsESPs), was confirmed to cause obvious apoptotic inhibition in the human HCC cell line PLC. However, the antiapoptotic mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the cellular features of the antiapoptotic mechanism upon transfection of the Csseverin gene. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Csseverin gene overexpression on the apoptosis of PLC cells using an Annexin PE/7-AAD assay. Western blotting was applied to quantify the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, the mitochondrial translocation of Bax and the release of Cyt c upon Csseverin overexpression in PLC cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to analyze the changes of intracellular calcium. Fluorescence assay and immunofluorescence assays were performed to observe the changes of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The overexpression of Csseverin in PLC cells showed apoptosis resistance after the induction of apoptosis. Additionally, the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was specifically weakened in Csseverin overexpression PLC cells. The overexpression of Csseverin reduced the increase in intracellular free Ca2+, thereby inhibiting MPTP opening in PLC cells. Moreover, Bax mitochondrial translocation and the subsequent release of Cyt c were downregulated in apoptotic Csseverin overexpression PLC cells. The present findings suggest that Csseverin, a component of CsESPs, confers protection from human HCC cell apoptosis via the inactivation of membranous Ca2+ channels. Csseverin might be involved in the process of HCC through C. sinensis infestation in affected patients.

  18. Up-modulation of PLC-β2 reduces the number and malignancy of triple-negative breast tumor cells with a CD133+/EpCAM+phenotype: a promising target for preventing progression of TNBC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoli, Federica; Grassilli, Silvia; Lanuti, Paola; Marchisio, Marco; Al-Qassab, Yasamin; Vezzali, Federica; Capitani, Silvano; Bertagnolo, Valeria

    2017-09-04

    The malignant potential of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is also dependent on a sub-population of cells with a stem-like phenotype. Among the cancer stem cell markers, CD133 and EpCAM strongly correlate with breast tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that simultaneous targeting of the two surface antigens may be beneficial in treatment of TNBC. Since in TNBC-derived cells we demonstrated that PLC-β2 induces the conversion of CD133 high to CD133 low cells, here we explored its possible role in down-modulating the expression of both CD133 and EpCAM and, ultimately, in reducing the number of TNBC cells with a stem-like phenotype. A magnetic step-by-step cell isolation with antibodies directed against CD133 and/or EpCAM was performed on the TNBC-derived MDA-MB-231 cell line. In the same cell model, PLC-β2 was over-expressed or down-modulated and cell proliferation and invasion capability were evaluated by Real-time cell assays. The surface expression of CD133, EpCAM and CD44 in the different experimental conditions were measured by multi-color flow cytometry immunophenotyping. A CD133 + /EpCAM + sub-population with high proliferation rate and invasion capability is present in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Over-expression of PLC-β2 in CD133 + /EpCAM + cells reduced the surface expression of both CD133 and EpCAM, as well as proliferation and invasion capability of this cellular subset. On the other hand, the up-modulation of PLC-β2 in the whole MDA-MB-231 cell population reduced the number of cells with a CD44 + /CD133 + /EpCAM + stem-like phenotype. Since selective targeting of the cells with the highest aggressive potential may have a great clinical importance for TNBC, the up-modulation of PLC-β2, reducing the number of cells with a stem-like phenotype, may be a promising goal for novel therapies aimed to prevent the progression of aggressive breast tumors.

  19. High-speed narrowband PLC - High-performance Access Powerline Communication structures in smart grid; High-Speed Narrowband PLC. Leistungsfaehige Access-Powerline-Kommunikationsstrukturen im Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Georg [devolo AG, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The smart grid provides a stable operation of a decentralized power system which is fed more and more by small providers by means of solar technology and wind power technology. Furthermore, commercial and private clients profit from the smart grid, as they may capture information about their current consumption in real time or can obtain these data from the Internet. The author of the contribution under consideration presents new approaches to access powerline communications that enable efficient communication between IPv6 based household meter and network station. The contribution under consideration describes the technologies used as well as practical experiences and initial results from field tests. Here insights from the integration of G3-PLC are in the foreground.

  20. Relax and refill: xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements favours embolism repair in stems and generates artificially low PLC values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), with recorded values being higher at midday than on the following morning, have been interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of cycles of xylem conduits' embolism and repair. Recent reports have suggested that diurnal PLC changes might arise as a consequence of an experimental artefact, that is, air entry into xylem conduits upon cutting stems, even if under water, while under substantial tension generated by transpiration. Rehydration procedures prior to hydraulic measurements have been recommended to avoid this artefact. In the present study, we show that xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements might favour xylem refilling and embolism repair, thus leading to PLC values erroneously lower than those actually experienced by transpiring plants. When xylem tension relaxation procedures were performed on stems where refilling mechanisms had been previously inhibited by mechanical (girdling) or chemical (orthovanadate) treatment, PLC values measured in stems cut under native tension were the same as those measured after sample rehydration/relaxation. Our data call for renewed attention to the procedures of sample collection in the field and transport to the laboratory, and suggest that girdling might be a recommendable treatment prior to sample collection for PLC measurements. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Data communication between Panasonic PLC and PC using SerialPort control in C#.NET environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Gan, Xiaochuan; Ma, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    With the gradual promotion of Microsoft.NET platform, C# as an object-oriented programming language based on the platform has been widely used. Therefore, more attention is concentrated on how to achieve the communication between Panasonic PLC and PC efficiently and fast in C#.NET environment. In this paper, a method of using SerialPort control which could be used for achieving communication between PLC and PC is introduced. Meanwhile, the reason of abnormal thread when displayed the receiving data in form is analyzed and the programming method to solve the problem of thread safety is designed. Achieving the communication of Panasonic PLC and PC in C#.NET environment can give full play to the advantages of the .NET framework. It is practical, easy communication, high reliability and can combine with other measurement and calibration procedures effectively and conveniently. Configuration software is expensive and can only communicate with PLC separately, but these shortcomings can be solved in C#.NET environment. A well-designed user interface realized real-time monitoring of PLC parameters and achieved management and control integration. The experiment show that this method of data transfer is accurate and the program' running is stable.

  2. Peptide microarray profiling identifies phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) as a potential target for t(8;21) AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Hasan; Scherpen, Frank J G; de Boer, Tiny Meeuwsen; Lourens, Harm-Jan; Schoenherr, Caroline; Eder, Matthias; Scherr, Michaela; Guryev, Victor; De Bont, Eveline S

    2017-09-15

    The t(8;21) (q22;q22) chromosomal translocation is one of the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which has a need for improved therapeutic strategies. We found PLC-γ1 as one of the highest phosphorylated peptides in t(8;21) AML samples compared to NBM or CN-AML in our previous peptide microarray. PLC-γ1 is known to play a role in cancer progression, however, the impact of PLC-γ1 in AML is currently unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the functional role of PLC-γ1 by investigating the cellular growth, survival and its underlying mechanism in t(8;21) AML. In this study, PLC-γ1 expression was significantly higher in t(8;21) AML compared to other karyotypes. The PLC-γ1 protein expression was suppressed in AML1-ETO knock down cells indicating that it might induce kasumi-1 cell death. ShRNA-mediated PLC-γ1 knockdown in kasumi-1 cells significantly blocked cell growth, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest which was explained by the increased activation of apoptotic related and cell cycle regulatory protein expressions. Gene expression array analysis showed the up-regulation of apoptotic and DNA damage response genes together with the downregulation of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation genes in the PLC-γ1 suppressed kasumi-1 cells, consistent with the observed phenotypic effects. Importantly, PLC-γ1 suppressed kasumi-1 cells showed higher chemosensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug treatments and lower cell proliferation upon hypoxic stress. Taken together, these in vitro finding strongly support an important role for PLC-γ1 in the survival of t(8;21) AML mimicking kasumi-1 cells and identify PLC-γ1 as a potential therapeutic target for t(8;21) AML treatment.

  3. Construction of a multi-vender fieldbus system for PC-based control using soft PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Park, Y. J.; Choi, J. M.; Park, J. S. [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The relationship between the IEC 61131-3 programming language and the fieldbus application that became necessary as an outcome of the recent automation technology was described.An educational text for the field users on the integration of the Input/Output (I/O) modules and on the IEC 61131-3 programming language was prepared. An attempt was made to include description of the various kind of the fieldbuses and promote understanding of the CAN and the AS-I bus using a practical approach. The profibus is most widely used in the world, and thus is an important and a standardized tool in the area of the process control. A method of integrating the profibus with the most commonly used I/O modules in the field was suggested. The most essential characteristics of the IEC 61131-3 programming language was also described. A method for the construction of the multi-vender I/O modules by the Soft PLC 4C of the softings was suggested. Various technical steps are necessary for the integration of the I/O modules by the soft PLC. An additional software is needed for the more intelligent devises possessing complex technical functions, such as the control valve, the AC driver among others. The 4C control by the softing which is an important industrial solution for the soft PLC was specifically designed for the profibus. So, an OPC server is needed to exchange between the other fieldbuses while the optimum performance is only achieved by using the profibus card by softing. This implies that the business aspect has played a major role for developing the profibus by softing and the domestic users need to pay careful attention to this point additional software tools, such as the PDM or the comuwinn II, are necessary in the process control area to operate a complex and instruments using the DP/PA segment coupler. 13 refs., 46 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  4. CB1 receptors down-regulate a cAMP/Epac2/PLC pathway to silence the nerve terminals of cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Beatris; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Ferrero, José Javier; Ramírez-Franco, Jorge; Torres, Magdalena; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2017-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptors mediate short-term retrograde inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at excitatory synapses. The responses of individual nerve terminals in VGLUT1-pHluorin transfected cerebellar granule cells to cannabinoids have shown that prolonged activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) silences a subpopulation of previously active synaptic boutons. Adopting a combined pharmacological and genetic approach to study the molecular mechanisms of CB1R-induced silencing, we found that adenylyl cyclase inhibition decreases cAMP levels while it increases the number of silent synaptic boutons and occludes the induction of further silencing by the cannabinoid agonist HU-210. Guanine nucleotide exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac proteins) mediate some of the presynaptic effects of cAMP in the potentiation of synaptic transmission. ESI05, a selective Epac2 inhibitor, and U-73122, the specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC), both augment the number of silent synaptic boutons. Moreover, they abolish the capacity of the Epac activator, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate monosodium hydrate, to prevent HU-210-induced silencing consistent with PLC signaling lying downstream of Epac2 proteins. Furthermore, Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM)1α KO cells have many more basally silent synaptic boutons (12.9 ± 3.5%) than wild-type cells (1.1 ± 0.5%). HU-210 induced further silencing in these mutant cells, although 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate monosodium hydrate only awoke the HU-210-induced silence and not the basally silent synaptic boutons. This behavior can be rescued by expressing RIM1α in RIM1α KO cells, these cells behaving very much like wild-type cells. These findings support the hypothesis that a cAMP/Epac/PLC signaling pathway targeting the release machinery appears to mediate cannabinoid

  5. Software design analysis technique for the development of PLC-based safety-critical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    To develop and implement a safety-critical system, the requirements of the system must be analyzed thoroughly during the phases of a software development's life cycle because a single error in the requirements can generate serious software faults. In this study, a nuclear FBD-style design specification and analysis (NuFDS) approach was proposed for PLC based safety-critical systems. The NuFDS approach is suggested in a straightforward manner for the effective and formal specification and analysis of software designs. Accordingly, the proposed NuFDS approach comprises one technique for specifying the software design and another for analyzing the software design.

  6. The Interface Between Redundant Processor Modules Of Safety Grade PLC Using Mass Storage DPRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Jae; Song, Seong Hwan; No, Young Hun; Yun, Dong Hwa; Park, Gang Min; Kim, Min Gyu; Choi, Kyung Chul; Lee, Ui Taek [POSCO ICT Co., Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Processor module of safety grade PLC (hereinafter called as POSAFE-Q) developed by POSCO ICT provides high reliability and safety. However, POSAFEQ would have suffered a malfunction when we think taking place of abnormal operation by exceptional environmental. POSAFE-Q would not able to conduct its function normally in such case. To prevent these situations, the necessity of redundant processor module has been raised. Therefore, redundant processor module, NCPU-2Q, has been developed which has not only functions of single processor module with high reliability and safety but also functions of redundant processor

  7. Design and realization of the waster level system based on PLC and configuration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Kaiming; Ge Yuanxiang; Fu Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    The process control experimental system takes the water level as the controlled object. In this system PLC is adopted as a controller and the electric valve for the actuator. Based on the water level system in the establishment of the mathematical model, the system uses PID algorithm, the PID parameters are tuning, MCGS configuration environment is built and debugs in the environment. Experiments show that the system is running smoothly, the overshoot is 18%, the setting time is about 3 min. The control indicators have reached the engineering requirements and the control effect is good. (authors)

  8. Realization of Intelligent Measurement and Control System for Limb Rehabilitation Based on PLC and Touch Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    According to the treatment needs of patients with limb movement disorder, on the basis of the limb rehabilitative training prototype, function of measure and control system are analyzed, design of system hardware and software is completed. The touch screen which is adopt as host computer and man-machine interaction window is responsible for sending commands and training information display; The PLC which is adopt as slave computer is responsible for receiving control command from touch screen, collecting the sensor data, regulating torque and speed of motor by analog output according to the different training mode, realizing ultimately active and passive training for limb rehabilitation therapy.

  9. Operación de un PLC Mediante un PDA Vía ZIGBEE

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Zuluaga-Botero; Jorge Aurelio Herrera-Cuartas; Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garcés

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se muestra la parte preliminar de interconexión de un módulo ZigBee con un Asistente Digital Personal (PDA) a través de la red del Sistema de telefonía Móvil Global (GSM), para aplicación futura de comunicación con un Controlador Lógico Programable (PLC). Esta aplicación permite realizar monitoreo y control del sistema, de manera remota y con dispositivos móviles siendo el alcance del proyecto de investigación. Para este proyecto inicialmente se realizan comunicaciones que pe...

  10. Genetic algorithms optimized fuzzy controller for the indoor environmental management in buildings implemented using PLC and local operating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotsa, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Engineering; Stavrakakis, G.S.; Kalaitzakis, K. [Technical University of Crete (Greece). Dept. of Electronics and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [University of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, an optimized fuzzy controller is presented for the control of the environmental parameters at the building zone level. The occupants' preferences are monitored via a smart card unit. Genetic algorithm optimization techniques are applied to shift properly the membership functions of the fuzzy controller in order to satisfy the occupants' preferences while minimizing energy consumption. The implementation of the system integrates a smart card unit, sensors, actuators, interfaces, a programmable logic controller (PLC), local operating network (LON) modules and devices, and a central PC that monitors the performance of the system. The communication of the PLC with the smart card unit is performed using an RS 485 port, while the PLC-PC communication is performed via the LON network. The integrated system is installed and tested in the building of the Laboratory of Electronics of the Technical University of Crete. (author)

  11. The electromagnetic compatibility of the PLC technology; La compatibilite electromagnetique de la technologie CPL. Des donnees sur les lignes electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, J.-L.; Marthe, E.; Rachidi, F.; Rubinstein, M.; Vukicevic, A.

    2006-07-01

    PLC (Power Line Communications) in Europe or BPL (Broadband over Power Lines) in the US are techniques that allows the utilization of low and middle voltage power lines for the transmission of high frequencies by coupling electrical signals to them. In this way, unshielded power lines may be used for the transmission of numerical information similar to the well known xDSL-techniques using telephone lines. Typically, the frequency range used by PLC is between 9 kHz and 30 MHz. The authors describe the general principles and investigate possible electromagnetic interference with existing radio frequency equipment like xDSL, CATV (Cable Television) and Wireless (GSM, Bluetooth, WiFi). Finally, they present theoretical and experimental results of techniques allowing the reduction of such interference by reducing the emission of electromagnetic signals from PLC systems. The preferred method is based on an active control by injecting an auxiliary signal into the third conductor (ground)

  12. Perancangan Prototype Early Warning System pada Kontrol On/Off Belt Conveyor Menggunakan PLC Siemens S7-300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Taufik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, automation system become an important aspect of the manufacturing process because could make integration manufacturing process on it more effective and more efficient. PLC or Programmable Logic Controller is one kind of automation system. Many industries use PLC as automation control device in the manufacturing process to control all kind of process. For example at transportation process of coals in generator industry. Coals could be burned because main elements of coals are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Base on this prototype early warning system design, we get the result if sensor thermocouple detects temperature larger than setpoint temperature (it is 2000C, then PLC will give an order to shut down the output, that is a belt conveyor. The result of this prototype design could use at coals transportation as an early warning system. The design of prototype early warning system could detect and prevent fire because of the consequence of burned coals until spreading of fire could be avoided.

  13. A Modification of Gamma Surveymeter Dosemeter 3007A for Monitoring Use Ethernet by PLC T100MD Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikhsan Shobari; Subchan, M.; Syahrudin Yusuf; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    It has been modified a gamma surveymeter Dosemeter 3007A. The Surveymeter represents analogous surveymeter, so that an interface for data acquisition is required. Acquisition system from surveymeter is added to the voltage amplifier module from 0 - 200 mV to 0 - 5 V. This voltage value will represent of doses 0 - 5 mR/hour. Hereinafter the analogous signal 0 - 5 V as signal of input to peripheral of PLC T100MD series. Data in the form of processed analogous signal presented at local display of PLC. For long distance monitoring, data have been sent to a computer from PLC by ethernet. After this modification, the surveymeter can be used to monitor from long distance. By using Internet Service Provider, monitoring can be done at any time and any where as long as network internet is available. (author)

  14. A PLC-γ1 Feedback Pathway Regulates Lck Substrate Phosphorylation at the T-Cell Receptor and SLP-76 Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Judson; Gu, Tao; Mudd, Ashley; Salomon, Arthur R

    2017-08-04

    Phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) occupies a critically important position in the T-cell signaling pathway. While its functions as a regulator of both Ca 2+ signaling and PKC-family kinases are well characterized, PLC-γ1's role in the regulation of early T-cell receptor signaling events is incompletely understood. Activation of the T-cell receptor leads to the formation of a signalosome complex between SLP-76, LAT, PLC-γ1, Itk, and Vav1. Recent studies have revealed the existence of both positive and negative feedback pathways from SLP-76 to the apical kinase in the pathway, Lck. To determine if PLC-γ1 contributes to the regulation of these feedback networks, we performed a quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of PLC-γ1-deficient T cells. These data revealed a previously unappreciated role for PLC-γ1 in the positive regulation of Zap-70 and T-cell receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Conversely, PLC-γ1 negatively regulated the phosphorylation of SLP-76-associated proteins, including previously established Lck substrate phosphorylation sites within this complex. While the positive and negative regulatory phosphorylation sites on Lck were largely unchanged, Tyr 192 phosphorylation was elevated in Jgamma1. The data supports a model wherein Lck's targeting, but not its kinase activity, is altered by PLC-γ1, possibly through Lck Tyr 192 phosphorylation and increased association of the kinase with protein scaffolds SLP-76 and TSAd.

  15. Sequence variation in the alpha-toxin encoding plc gene of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from diseased and healthy chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, L; Engberg, RM; Pedersen, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity of the alpha-toxin encoding plc gene and the variation in a-toxin production of Clostridium perfringens type A strains isolated from presumably healthy chickens and chickens suffering from either necrotic enteritis (NE) or cholangio......-hepatitis. The a-toxin encoding plc genes from 60 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (strains) of C perfringens were sequenced and translated in silico to amino acid sequences and the a-toxin production was investigated in batch cultures of 45 of the strains using an enzyme...

  16. Model to Counter the Threats in the Data Transmission System PLC-based Technology with the Use of Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the most important aspects of information security technology Power Line Communica tions, namely the provision of conditions accessibility and integrity, are considered. It is shown that these aspects of the PLC-Technology has some internal “potential” counter, at least, such a widespread threat to both natural disturbances and/or artificial origin. The possibility of such an implementation using the simplified mathematical model of the PLC-based technologies of the theory of Petri nets is presented.

  17. Design and construction of a VHGT-attached WDM-type triplex transceiver module using polymer PLC hybrid integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerábek, Vitezslav; Hüttel, Ivan; Prajzler, Václav; Busek, K.; Seliger, P.

    2008-11-01

    We report about design and construction of the bidirectional transceiver TRx module for subscriber part of the passive optical network PON for a fiber to the home FTTH topology. The TRx module consists of a epoxy novolak resin polymer planar lightwave circuit (PLC) hybrid integration technology with volume holographic grating triplex filter VHGT, surface-illuminated photodetectors and spot-size converted Fabry-Pérot laser diode in SMD package. The hybrid PLC has composed from a two parts-polymer optical waveguide including VHGT filter section and a optoelectronic microwave section. The both parts are placed on the composite substrate.

  18. Calmodulin regulates a TRP channel (ADF1) and phospholipase C (PLC) to mediate elevation of cytosolic calcium during acidic stress that induces deflagellation in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Gao, Kang; Zheng, Shuzhi; Zhu, Xin; Liang, Yinwen; Pan, Junmin

    2018-01-29

    Calcium has been implicated in the motility, assembly, disassembly, and deflagellation of the eukaryotic flagellum or cilium (exchangeable terms). Calmodulin (CaM) is known to be critical for flagellar motility; however, it is unknown whether and how CaM is involved in other flagella-related activities. We have studied CaM in Chlamydomonas, a widely used organism for ciliary studies. CaM is present in the cell body and the flagellum, with enrichment in the basal body region. Loss of CaM causes shortening of the nucleus basal body connector and impairs flagellar motility and assembly but not flagellar disassembly. Moreover, the cam mutant is defective in pH shock-induced deflagellation. The mutant deflagellates, however, upon mechanical shearing and treatment with mastoparan or detergent undergo permeabilization in the presence of calcium, indicating the cam mutant is defective in elevations of cytosolic calcium induced by pH shock, rather than by the deflagellation machinery. Indeed, the cam mutant fails to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Biochemical and genetic analysis showed that CaM does not directly activate PLC. Furthermore, CaM interacts with ADF1, a transient receptor channel that functions in acid-induced calcium entry. Thus, CaM is a critical regulator of flagellar activities especially those involved in modulating calcium homeostasis during acidic stress.-Wu, Q., Gao, K., Zheng, S., Zhu, X., Liang, Y., Pan, J. Calmodulin regulates a TRP channel (ADF1) and phospholipase C (PLC) to mediate elevation of cytosolic calcium during acidic stress that induces deflagellation in Chlamydomonas.

  19. PlcRa, a new quorum-sensing regulator from Bacillus cereus, plays a role in oxidative stress responses and cysteine metabolism in stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Eugénie; Tempelaars, Marcel H; André-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Wanapaisan, Pagakrong; Bridoux, Ludovic; Makhzami, Samira; Panbangred, Watanalai; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Abee, Tjakko; Lereclus, Didier

    2012-01-01

    We characterized a new quorum-sensing regulator, PlcRa, which is present in various members of the B. cereus group and identified a signaling heptapeptide for PlcRa activity: PapRa(7). We demonstrated that PlcRa is a 3D structural paralog of PlcR using sequence analysis and homology modeling. A comparison of the transcriptomes at the onset of stationary phase of a ΔplcRa mutant and the wild-type B. cereus ATCC 14579 strain showed that 68 genes were upregulated and 49 genes were downregulated in the ΔplcRa mutant strain (>3-fold change). Genes involved in the cysteine metabolism (putative CymR regulon) were downregulated in the ΔplcRa mutant strain. We focused on the gene with the largest difference in expression level between the two conditions, which encoded -AbrB2- a new regulator of the AbrB family. We demonstrated that purified PlcRa bound specifically to the abrB2 promoter in the presence of synthetic PapRa(7), in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We further showed that the AbrB2 regulator controlled the expression of the yrrT operon involved in methionine to cysteine conversion. We found that the ΔplcRa mutant strain was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide- and disulfide-induced stresses than the wild type. When cystine was added to the culture of the ΔplcRa mutant, challenged with hydrogen peroxide, growth inhibition was abolished. In conclusion, we identified a new RNPP transcriptional regulator in B. cereus that activated the oxidative stress response and cysteine metabolism in transition state cells.

  20. PlcRa, a new quorum-sensing regulator from Bacillus cereus, plays a role in oxidative stress responses and cysteine metabolism in stationary phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénie Huillet

    Full Text Available We characterized a new quorum-sensing regulator, PlcRa, which is present in various members of the B. cereus group and identified a signaling heptapeptide for PlcRa activity: PapRa(7. We demonstrated that PlcRa is a 3D structural paralog of PlcR using sequence analysis and homology modeling. A comparison of the transcriptomes at the onset of stationary phase of a ΔplcRa mutant and the wild-type B. cereus ATCC 14579 strain showed that 68 genes were upregulated and 49 genes were downregulated in the ΔplcRa mutant strain (>3-fold change. Genes involved in the cysteine metabolism (putative CymR regulon were downregulated in the ΔplcRa mutant strain. We focused on the gene with the largest difference in expression level between the two conditions, which encoded -AbrB2- a new regulator of the AbrB family. We demonstrated that purified PlcRa bound specifically to the abrB2 promoter in the presence of synthetic PapRa(7, in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We further showed that the AbrB2 regulator controlled the expression of the yrrT operon involved in methionine to cysteine conversion. We found that the ΔplcRa mutant strain was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide- and disulfide-induced stresses than the wild type. When cystine was added to the culture of the ΔplcRa mutant, challenged with hydrogen peroxide, growth inhibition was abolished. In conclusion, we identified a new RNPP transcriptional regulator in B. cereus that activated the oxidative stress response and cysteine metabolism in transition state cells.

  1. Consumer market survey of last-mile communication services using PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Olsson, M. [Sydkraft Bredband, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes, in short, the results from a market survey performed during spring 2001 in the Netherlands. A much more extensive analysis has been given elsewhere. The survey had a large response rate, which enabled us to make statistically valid conclusions for the whole Dutch market. The aim was (1) to investigate household member's interest and attitudes concerning services distributed by last-mile access techniques like PLC (Power Line Communication); (2) to explore the strategies for service offerings with a focus on distributed services, based on PLC only, or in combination with other access techniques as well as an exploration of capacity demands; (3) to draw conclusions what type of segmentation model is useful to analyze the market for communication service offerings; and (4) to present an overall strategy advice based on the market survey and on the strategy models discussed in this report, as well as other market oriented deliverables. The questionnaire, containing 30 questions, focussed on customer loyalty in a liberalised market, new possible services to be added by utility companies and the customer's assessment of energy issues, especially with regard to renewables. The data are analysed using three different segmentation schemes. A demographic, customer loyalty and decision style segmentation of the results are presented.

  2. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  3. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  4. Real time control “es-dawet” mixer using dasboard based on PLC and WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Pandapotan; Hutauruk, Sindak; Kisno

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to monitor and acquire the remote parameters like Speed control a DC Motor, IR Sensor, Temperature of pasteurize mix of ice cream, and send these real values over wireless network. A proposed system is dashboard monitoring system for PLC based system wirelessly using ZigBee protocol. To implement this a ZigBee model is connected to a programmed digital signal controller which would transmit the data to Zigbee coordinator which is connected to a PC through RS232 serial communication. Person can need only to send the reply about the process that is to be carried out and PLC will check the status of the web base sent by person and take the action according to it where wired communication is either more expensive or impossible due to physical conditions. A low cost system for measured the parameters of motor such as IR Sensor, Speed control a DC Motor by PWM and temperature with Zigbee protocol connectivity. A database is built to execute monitoring and to save the motor parameters received by radio frequency (RF) data acquisition system. Experimental results show that the proposed system is less costly, provides higher accuracy as well as safe and gives visual environment.

  5. Meaning-making from CPD - developing practice in own classroom and as a peer in the local science PLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    network seminars, collaborative inquiries organized by the local professional learning community (PLC), and individual inquiries. Research questions for the case study are about how the teacher’s reflections and new enactments in own classroom and in collaboration with colleagues developed over time...

  6. The Cish SH2 domain is essential for PLC-γ1 regulation in TCR stimulated CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittard, Geoffrey; Dios-Esponera, Ana; Palmer, Douglas C; Akpan, Itoro; Barr, Valarie A; Manna, Asit; Restifo, Nicholas P; Samelson, Lawrence E

    2018-03-28

    Cish, participates within a multi-molecular E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which ubiquitinates target proteins. It has an inhibitory effect on T cell activation mediated by PLC-γ1 regulation, and it functions as a potent checkpoint in CD8 + T cell tumor immunotherapy. To study the structural and functional relationships between Cish and PLC-γ1 during CD8 + T cell activation, we tested mutants of the Cish-SH2 (R107K) and D/BC (L222Q, C226Q) domains. We confirmed that Cish-SH2-specific binding was essential for PLC-γ1 ubiquitination and degradation. This domain was essential for the Cish-mediated inhibition of Ca 2+ release upon TCR stimulation. No effect on inhibition of cytokine release was observed with SH2 or D/BC mutants, although the absence of Cish led to an increased release of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Using imaging we showed that Cish was expressed mostly in the cytoplasm and we did not see any Cish clustering at the plasma membrane upon stimulation. We conclude that the Cish-SH2 domain is essential for PLC-γ1 regulation in TCR-stimulated CD8 + T cells.

  7. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on biological characteristics and drug resistance mechanisms of liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Kangwen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the changes in biological characteristics of a liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5 after repeated exposure to a chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouraci (5-FU, and to investigate the relationship between drug-resistant liver cancer cells and liver cancer stem cells. MethodsA low concentration of 5-FU (1 μg/ml was used to treat the human liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5 repeatedly to establish the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cell line. Morphological differences between the two types of cells were observed. The inhibitory effects of different concentrations of 5-FU (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/ml on the proliferation of the two types of cells were determined using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis of the two types of cells after exposure to different concentrations of 5-FU (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/ml for 48 h was analyzed using flow cytometry. The proportions of side population cells in both types of cells were measured using flow cytometry. The colony-forming ability was compared between the two types of cells by the plate colony-forming assay. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, ABCG2, and FoxM1 proteins in both types of cells was examined by Western blot. Between-group comparison was performed by t test. ResultsThe PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cell line was successfully established using the chemotherapy drug 5-FU. Compared with the PLC/RAF/5 cells, the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cells had a larger volume, fewer protrusions, a changed shape of a long shuttle, and enhanced refractivity. Moreover, compared with the parent cells, the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cells had a significantly lower sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on proliferation, a significantly lower proportion of cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, significantly higher proportions of cells at the S and G2/M phases, significantly higher resistance to apoptosis, a significantly higher proportion of side population cells, and significantly enhanced proliferation (P<0.05. According to the results of Western blot assay, the

  8. The pleiotropic vegetative and sexual development phenotypes of Neurospora crassa arise from double mutants of the calcium signaling genes plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ananya; Tamuli, Ranjan

    2017-10-01

    We investigated phenotypes of the double mutants of the calcium (Ca 2+ ) signaling genes plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 encoding for a phospholipase C1 (PLC-1), a secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ), and a Ca 2+ /H + exchanger (CPE-1), respectively, to understand the cell functions regulated by their genetic interactions. Mutants lacking plc-1 and either splA2 or cpe-1 exhibited numerous defects including reduced colonial growth, stunted aerial hyphae, premature conidiation on plates with delayed germination, inappropriate conidiation in submerged culture, and lesser mycelial pigmentation. Moreover, the ∆plc-1; ∆splA2 and ∆plc-1; ∆cpe-1 double mutants were female-sterile when crossed with wild type as the male parent. In addition, ∆plc-1, ∆splA2, and ∆cpe-1 single mutants displayed higher carotenoid accumulation and an increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the pleiotropic phenotype of the double mutants of plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 suggested that the genetic interaction of these genes plays a critical role for normal vegetative and sexual development in N. crassa.

  9. A Component-Based Modeling and Validation Method for PLC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic controllers (PLCs are complex embedded systems that are widely used in industry. This paper presents a component-based modeling and validation method for PLC systems using the behavior-interaction-priority (BIP framework. We designed a general system architecture and a component library for a type of device control system. The control software and hardware of the environment were all modeled as BIP components. System requirements were formalized as monitors. Simulation was carried out to validate the system model. A realistic example from industry of the gates control system was employed to illustrate our strategies. We found a couple of design errors during the simulation, which helped us to improve the dependability of the original systems. The results of experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach.

  10. Fault tree synthesis for software design analysis of PLC based safety-critical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, S. R.; Cho, C. H. [Corporate R and D Inst., Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., 39-3, Seongbok-Dong, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 449-795 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, P. H. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-3 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    As a software verification and validation should be performed for the development of PLC based safety-critical systems, a software safety analysis is also considered in line with entire software life cycle. In this paper, we propose a technique of software safety analysis in the design phase. Among various software hazard analysis techniques, fault tree analysis is most widely used for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant systems. Fault tree analysis also has the most intuitive notation and makes both qualitative and quantitative analyses possible. To analyze the design phase more effectively, we propose a technique of fault tree synthesis, along with a universal fault tree template for the architecture modules of nuclear software. Consequently, we can analyze the safety of software on the basis of fault tree synthesis. (authors)

  11. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  12. The PLC-based Industrial Temperature Control System: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fanjie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting at the problem of slow response and low accuracy of the automatic temperature control system for material processing and boiler heating, a new design method is proposed to work with the PLC-based temperature control system, where the box temperature control may be achieved through the fan and the heating plate. The hardware design and software design of the system are analyzed in detail. In this paper, a combination of the traditional PID control and the more popular fuzzy control is taken as the control program to achieve the overall design of the control algorithm. Followed by the simulation in the MATLAB software, the designed system is highlighted by its the characteristics of impressive stability, precision and robustness.

  13. A compact 1×64 optical power splitter using silica-based PLC on quartz substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangliang; An, Junming; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Jiashun; Li, Jianguang; Wang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Pan, Pan; Dai, Hongqing; Qi, Ying; Zhong, Fei; Zha, Qiang; Hu, Xiongwei; Zhao, Degang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a compact and low wavelength-dependence loss (WDL) 1×64 optical power splitter is fabricated using silica-based PLC technology on quartz substrate. The cascaded Y-branch structures are optimized in detail, and a compact 1×64 optical power splitter layout is obtained. The measured results show that the insertion loss (IL), the uniformity and WDL of the best results of all splitters are less than 19.2 dB, 1.0 dB and 0.5 dB, respectively, in the wavelength range from 1.26 μm to 1.65 μm, and the total product ratio of Standard grade in a whole 6 in. wafer is more than 80%. The results imply that our technology completely satisfies the need of mass manufacture.

  14. Supervision of the operations including work with radioactive sources in Kozloduy NPP, plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the operations with radioactive sources, their movement, transport and the methods of control during the work. Control during their usage is described in company instructions and include all stages of sources life: needs and requires, buying, transport and receive, storage, work, their leave off exploitation and transfer to long term source-storage. Radioactive sources in Kozloduy NPP, Plc are used for metrology assurance of devices for radiation protection measurements and quality control of measurements. That is why we pay attention mainly on this kind of sources. In article is described also requirements to qualification of people who do this work and the radiation protection control during the operations. In article take place operations with sources with short half life, liquid and gaseous, and sources for single use. (author)

  15. Decommissioning of the gaseous diffusion plant at BNF plc Capenhurst in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, D.W.; Cross, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1982, a gaseous diffusion plant located at the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) site at Capenhurst in the United Kingdom, has been undergoing decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. By March 1994, the decontamination and decommissioning activities will be complete with 99% of the materials used to construct the plant recycled to the environment as clean material. This paper describes the history of the decontamination, decommissioning, dismantling, and disposal program. Reference is made to the scale of the project and to the special techniques developed, particularly in the areas of size reduction, decontamination, and protection of personnel and the environment. The quantities of material involved that require decontamination and release levels for recycling materials in the U.K. metals market are discussed

  16. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross monitors Payload Specialist Walter's Anthrorack activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter breathes into Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) device for Pulmonary Perfusion and Ventilation During Rest and Exercise experiment while working inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Seated on the bicycle ergometer, Walter utilizes the respiratory monitoring system, part of a broad battery of experiments designed to investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. In the background, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross monitors Walter's activity. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day SL-D2 mission. Visible on the aft end cone are a fire extinguisher and the Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE) Macintosh portable computer mounted on an adjustable work platform.

  17. Dynamics of plc gene transcription and α-toxin production during growth of Clostridium perfringens strains with contrasting α-toxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Schramm, Andreas; Rudi, Knut

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate transcription dynamics of the α-toxin-encoding plc gene relative to two housekeeping genes (gyrA and rplL) in batch cultures of three Clostridium perfringens strains with low, intermediate, and high levels of α-toxin production, respectively. The plc...... transcript level was always low in the low α-toxin producing strain. For the two other strains, plc transcription showed an inducible pattern and reached a maximum level in the late exponential growth phase. The transcription levels were however inversely correlated to α-toxin production for the two strains....... We propose that this discrepancy is due to differences in plc translation rates between the strains and that strain-specific translational rates therefore must be determined before α-toxin production can be extrapolated from transcript levels in C. perfringens....

  18. Lyn- and PLC-β3–dependent regulation of SHP-1 phosphorylation controls Stat5 activity and myelomonocytic leukemia-like disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenbin; Ando, Tomoaki; Wang, Huan-You; Kawakami, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the transcription factor Stat5 leads to various leukemias. Stat5 activity is regulated by the protein phosphatase SHP-1 in a phospholipase C (PLC)–β3-dependent manner. Thus, PLC-β3–deficient mice develop myeloproliferative neoplasm, like Lyn (Src family kinase)– deficient mice. Here we show that Lyn/PLC-β3 doubly deficient lyn−/−;PLC-β3−/− mice develop a Stat5-dependent, fatal myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, similar to human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). In hematopoietic stem cells of lyn−/−;PLC-β3−/− mice that cause the CMML-like disease, phosphorylation of SHP-1 at Tyr536 and Tyr564 is abrogated, resulting in reduced phosphatase activity and constitutive activation of Stat5. Furthermore, SHP-1 phosphorylation at Tyr564 by Lyn is indispensable for maximal phosphatase activity and for suppression of the CMML-like disease in these mice. On the other hand, Tyr536 in SHP-1 can be phosphorylated by Lyn and another kinase(s) and is necessary for efficient interaction with Stat5. Therefore, we identify a novel Lyn/PLC-β3–mediated regulatory mechanism of SHP-1 and Stat5 activities. PMID:20858858

  19. The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-PLC in Trypanosoma brucei Forms a Linear Array on the Exterior of the Flagellar Membrane Before and After Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Orla; Webb, Helena; O'Byrne, Robert; Brabazon, Elaine; Treumann, Achim; Sunter, Jack D.; Carrington, Mark; Voorheis, H. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei contain a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) that cleaves the GPI-anchor of the variable surface glycoprotein (VSG). Its location in trypanosomes has been controversial. Here, using confocal microscopy and surface labelling techniques, we show that the GPI-PLC is located exclusively in a linear array on the outside of the flagellar membrane, close to the flagellar attachment zone, but does not co-localize with the flagellar attachment zone protein, FAZ1. Consequently, the GPI-PLC and the VSG occupy the same plasma membrane leaflet, which resolves the topological problem associated with the cleavage reaction if the VSG and the GPI-PLC were on opposite sides of the membrane. The exterior location requires the enzyme to be tightly regulated to prevent VSG release under basal conditions. During stimulated VSG release in intact cells, the GPI-PLC did not change location, suggesting that the release mechanism involves lateral diffusion of the VSG in the plane of the membrane to the fixed position of the GPI-PLC. PMID:19503825

  20. First Experience with PLC, OPC and BridgeVIEW in the context of the HMPID liquid distribution prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Maatta, E; CERN. Geneva; Swoboda, Detlef; Lecoeur, G

    1999-01-01

    The TESt (Test and Evaluation Station) [3] project consists in the construction of a stand alone unit for a specific sub-system of an ALICE detector in order to gain first experience with commercial products for detector control. Although the control system includes only a small number of devices and is designed for a particular application, it covers nevertheless all layers of a complete system and can be extended or used in different applications. The control system prototype has been implemented for the Perfluorohexane (C6F14) liquid distribution of the ALICE-HMPID (High-Momentum Particle IDentification)[5]. This report presents the experience acquired while developing the control system with off the shelf items: National Instruments BridgeVIEW [6] supervision software, SIEMENS PLC S7-300 [7] and the programming tool STEP 7. The OPC standard (OLE [12] for Process Control) [8] was used for the communication between BridgeVIEW and the PLC.

  1. Establishment of hepatitis E virus infection-permissive and -non-permissive human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 subclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Kato, Takanobu; Wakita, Takaji; Ishii, Koji

    2015-02-01

    PLC/PRF/5 cells show limited permissiveness, meaning that almost all subclones are permissive; however, some subclones do not exhibit permissiveness for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. In this study, the single-cell cloning of PLC/PRF/5 was performed and heterogeneous subclones characterized. Notably, the efficiency of intracellular virus replication did not correlate with the permissiveness for HEV infection. However, as well as binding permissive subclones, virus-like particles bound non-permissive subclones on various levels, suggesting that these subclones have some deficiencies in the attachment and entry steps of infection. Our data would be useful for investigating the HEV life cycle. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. SIMULASI KONTROL LAMPU LALU LINTAS SISTEM DETEKTOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PLC UNTUK PERSIMPANGAN JALAN WARIBANG-WR. SUPRATMAN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Alit Swamahardika

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pengaturan lampu lalu lintas yang ada sekarang ini kebayakan menggunakan sistem pengaturan waktu tetap dimana lampu diatur agar bekerja berdasarkan waktu tetap, tanpa memperhatikan naik turunya arus lalu lintas. Untuk itu, ditawarkan suatu sistem detektor (traffic actuated.dengan memanfaatkan PLC (programmeble logic controller sebagai kontroller. Pada penelitian ini dibuat suatu alat simulasi dengan PLC tipe CPM1A merk Omron. Proses kerja alat ini berupa pengiriman input dari sensor yang dipasang pada badan jalan, yang mana sensor ini mendekteksi ada dan tidaknya kendaraan. Alat yang dirancang ini berjalan dengan baik, dimana ada alat bekerja pada enam keadaan yaitu: keadaan upacara, prioritas phase I, prioritas phase II, emergency phase I, emergency phase II dan keadaan normal.

  3. Regulated Release of BDNF by Cortical Oligodendrocytes is Mediated Through Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and the PLC Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa P Bagayogo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies suggest that OLGs (oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system, are also a source of trophic molecules, such as neurotrophins that may influence survival of proximate neurons. What is less clear is how the release of these molecules may be regulated. The present study investigated the effects of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor derived from cortical OLGs on proximate neurons, as well as regulatory mechanisms mediating BDNF release. Initial work determined that BDNF derived from cortical OLGs increased the numbers of VGLUT1 (vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive glutamatergic cortical neurons. Furthermore, glutamate acting through metabotropic, and not AMPA/kainate or NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate, receptors increased BDNF release. The PLC (phospholipase C pathway is a key mediator of metabotropic actions to release BDNF in astrocytes and neurons. Treatment of OLGs with the PLC activator m-3M3FBS [N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonamide] induced robust release of BDNF. Moreover, release elicited by the metabotropic receptor agonist ACPD [trans-(1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid] was inhibited by the PLC antagonist U73122, the IP3 (inositol triphosphate 3 receptor inhibitor 2-APB (2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane and the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA/AM [1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester]. Taken together, these results suggest that OLG lineage cells release BDNF, a molecule trophic for proximate neurons. BDNF release is regulated by glutamate acting through mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors and the PLC pathway. Thus glutamate and BDNF may be molecules that support neuron–OLG interactions in the cortex.

  4. Comparative diagnostic efficacy of recombinant LLO and PI-PLC-based ELISAs for detection of listeriosis in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul D; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Jayarao, Bhushan; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Savage, Emily; Vergis, Jess; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Rawool, Deepak B

    2017-06-01

    The present study for the first time evaluates the serodiagnostic efficacy of two recombinant antigens namely, listeriolysin O (rLLO) and phosphatidyl-inositol phospholipase C (rPI-PLC). Indirect ELISA with the above recombinant antigens was used on samples collected from bovines (n=106), goats (n=138) and pigs (n=92) having either a history of abortion, emaciation and/or apparently healthy animals. Isolation of Listeria was attempted from the blood samples using USDA-FSIS method. On screening of test sera by rLLO-based ELISA, antibodies against anti-listeriolysin O (ALLO) were observed in goats (22.46%), bovines (15.10%) and pigs (16.31%). As advocated, after adsorption of positive serum samples with streptolysin O (SLO), the seropositivity for ALLO was marginally reduced (p>0.05) in goats (21.73%) and bovines (10.38%), whereas, in pigs the reduction (5.43%) was significant (panimals that were culturally-positive for L. monocytogenes, 15 showed ALLO positivity in unadsorbed as well as SLO-adsorbed sera by rLLO-based ELISA, however, rPI-PLC-based ELISA could detect seropositivity in only 5 animals. Moreover, rPI-PLC-based ELISA also showed seropositivity in those animals (7/30) that were culturally positive for other Listeria spp. In conclusion, rLLO can serve as a better antigen than rPI-PLC in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of listeriosis in animals; however, prior adsorption of test sera with SLO is required to avoid false positive results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of infectious ferret hepatitis E virus in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line PLC/PRF/5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Yang, Tingting; Kataoka, Michiyo; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ami, Yasushi; Yuriko, Suzaki; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-02-02

    A strain of ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV), sF4370, isolated from an imported ferret was used to inoculate a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5. The virus genome and capsid protein were detected in the cell culture supernatant. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the capsid protein was located in the cytoplasm. The virus particles were purified from the culture supernatant by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The capsid protein with molecular mass of ∼72 kDa was detected in fractions with density of 1.150-1.162 g/cm(3), and particles of ferret HEV was associated with cell membrane. The virus recovered from the supernatant was serially passaged with PLC/PRF/5 cells and had the ability to infect ferrets by oral inoculation, indicating that the ferret HEV grown in PLC/PRF/5 was infectious. The establishment of ferret HEV cell culture system might be useful to understand the life cycle, mechanism of infection and replication of ferret HEV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Notoginsenoside R1 Alleviates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation Injury by Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Release via PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tu, Liu; Li, Yingbo; Chen, Di; Liu, Zhao; Hu, Xuelian; Wang, Shali

    2017-11-24

    As documented in our previous study, notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) can inhibit neuron apoptosis and the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pro-apoptotic proteins in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Recent evidence indicates that the Phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is important for the regulation of Ca 2+ release in the ER. Ca 2+ imbalance can stimulate ER stress, CAMKII, and cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the neuroprotective effect of NGR1 and elucidate how NGR1 regulates ER stress and cell apoptosis in the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model. Cells were exposed to NGR1 or the PLC activator m-3M3FBS. Then, IP3R- and IP3-induced Ca 2+ release (IICR) and activation of the ER stress and CaMKII signal pathway were measured. The results showed that NGR1 inhibited IICR and strengthened the binding of GRP78 with PERK and IRE1. NGR1 also alleviated the activation of the CaMKII pathway. Pretreatment with m-3M3FBS attenuated the neuroprotective effect of NGR1; IICR was activated, activation of the ER stress and CaMKII pathway was increased, and more cells were injured. These results indicate that NGR1 may suppress activation of the PLC/IP3R pathway, subsequently inhibiting ER Ca 2+ release, ER stress, and CaMKII and resulting in suppressed cell apoptosis.

  7. Development of Remote Monitoring and a Control System Based on PLC and WebAccess for Learning Mechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jye Shyr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a novel method for learning mechatronics using remote monitoring and control, based on a programmable logic controller (PLC and WebAccess. A mechatronics module, a Web-CAM and a PLC were integrated with WebAccess software to organize a remote laboratory. The proposed system enables users to access the Internet for remote monitoring and control of the mechatronics module via a web browser, thereby enhancing work flexibility by enabling personnel to control mechatronics equipment from a remote location. Mechatronics control and long-distance monitoring were realized by establishing communication between the PLC and WebAccess. Analytical results indicate that the proposed system is feasible. The suitability of this system is demonstrated in the department of industrial education and technology at National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan. Preliminary evaluation of the system was encouraging and has shown that it has achieved success in helping students understand concepts and master remote monitoring and control techniques.

  8. Comparative response time and fault logging with a PLC and supervisory software and a standalone unit developed for recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldaconi, Ricardo H.; Costa, Fabio E. da

    2017-01-01

    The Cobalt-60 irradiator of IPEN / CNEN, a category IV facility, has a security system for inter locking doors or exposure of radioactive sources made simultaneously by a programmable logic controller (PLC) model S7-200 from Siemens and a relay logic. From a set of information, both systems work together opening doors or exposing the sources. All incoming and outgoing information are sent serially via EIA232 communication to a personal computer with Windows® platform for a supervisory program which provides the monitoring of the entire process by a synoptic table on the computer screen and is also intended to keep records of all events on the computer's hard drive. A deficiency was found for the process of sending events via serial communication (EIA232) from PLC to the supervisory program. When failure occurred in a very short time, the PLC always took the right decision, but the registration process that had to go through the Windows® timeshare lost the information. In the previous work developed a standalone electronics unit connected to the inputs and outputs of the security system, fully optocoupled to avoid any interference to the security system that records each event on a memory card. In this work, for checking the unit developed record time ability, transients incoming signals for simulating failures, were injected at security system inputs and the response time of security system, supervisory program and the autonomous unity were measured and compared. (author)

  9. Characterization of porcine sapelovirus isolated from Japanese swine with PLC/PRF/5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H; Liu, J; Fang, L; Kataoka, M; Takeda, N; Wakita, T; Li, T-C

    2017-12-28

    Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is a causative agent of neurological disorders, fertility disorders and dermal lesions of swine. In this study, we isolated two PSV strains, Jpsv477 and Jpsv1315, from swine faecal specimens using a PLC/PRF/5 cell culture system. The PSV infection of PLC/PRF/5 cells induced a cytopathic effect (CPE). Two types of virus particles with identical diameter (~35 nm) but different densities (1.300 and 1.285 g/cm 3 ) were observed in the cell culture supernatants. Analysis of the entire genome sequence of Jpsv477 and Jpsv1315 revealed that both strains possess 7,558 nucleotides and the poly (A) tail and have a typical PSV genome organization consisting of a 5' terminal untranslated region (5'UTR), a large open reading frame (ORF), and a 3' terminal untranslated region (3'UTR). The ORF encodes a single polyprotein that is subsequently processed into a leader protein (L), four structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4) and seven functional proteins (2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D). The structural proteins VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 have molecular masses of ~35, ~26, ~25 and ~6 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 confirmed that the cleavage sites between VP4 and VP2, VP2 and VP3, and VP3 and VP1 are K/A, Q/G and Q/G, respectively. We further confirmed that HepG2/C3A, Vero E6 and primary green monkey kidney cells (PGMKC) were also susceptible to PSV infection. The stability assay demonstrated that PSV was inactivated by heating at 60°C for 10 min or 65°C for 5 min. The virus also lost infectivity by incubation with 62.5 ppm of NaClO for 30 min. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Histamine acting on H1 receptor promotes inhibition of proliferation via PLC, RAC, and JNK-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notcovich, Cintia [Laboratorio de Patologia y Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Argentina); Laboratorio de Farmacologia de Receptores, Catedra de Quimica Medicinal, Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Diez, Federico [Laboratorio de Farmacologia de Receptores, Catedra de Quimica Medicinal, Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tubio, Maria Rosario [Laboratorio de Patologia y Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Argentina); Laboratorio de Farmacologia de Receptores, Catedra de Quimica Medicinal, Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Baldi, Alberto [Laboratorio de Patologia y Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kazanietz, Marcelo G. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Davio, Carlos [Laboratorio de Farmacologia de Receptores, Catedra de Quimica Medicinal, Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Shayo, Carina, E-mail: cshayo@dna.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Patologia y Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-02-01

    It is well established that histamine modulates cell proliferation through the activation of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is known to couple to phospholipase C (PLC) activation via Gq. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether H1R activation modulates Rho GTPases, well-known effectors of Gq/G{sub 11}-coupled receptors, and whether such modulation influences cell proliferation. Experiments were carried out in CHO cells stably expressing H1R (CHO-H1R). By using pull-down assays, we found that both histamine and a selective H1R agonist activated Rac and RhoA in a time- and dose-dependent manner without significant changes in the activation of Cdc42. Histamine response was abolished by the H1R antagonist mepyramine, RGS2 and the PLC inhibitor U73122, suggesting that Rac and RhoA activation is mediated by H1R via Gq coupling to PLC stimulation. Histamine caused a marked activation of serum response factor activity via the H1R, as determined with a serum-responsive element (SRE) luciferase reporter, and this response was inhibited by RhoA inactivation with C3 toxin. Histamine also caused a significant activation of JNK which was inhibited by expression of the Rac-GAP {beta}2-chimaerin. On the other hand, H1R-induced ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by U73122 but not affected by C3 or {beta}2-chimaerin, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation was dependent on PLC and independent of RhoA or Rac. [{sup 3}H]-Thymidine incorporation assays showed that both histamine and the H1R agonist inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and that the effect was independent of RhoA but partially dependent on JNK and Rac. Our results reveal that functional coupling of the H1R to Gq-PLC leads to the activation of RhoA and Rac small GTPases and suggest distinct roles for Rho GTPases in the control of cell proliferation by histamine.

  11. Histamine acting on H1 receptor promotes inhibition of proliferation via PLC, RAC, and JNK-dependent pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notcovich, Cintia; Diez, Federico; Tubio, Maria Rosario; Baldi, Alberto; Kazanietz, Marcelo G.; Davio, Carlos; Shayo, Carina

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that histamine modulates cell proliferation through the activation of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is known to couple to phospholipase C (PLC) activation via Gq. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether H1R activation modulates Rho GTPases, well-known effectors of Gq/G 11 -coupled receptors, and whether such modulation influences cell proliferation. Experiments were carried out in CHO cells stably expressing H1R (CHO-H1R). By using pull-down assays, we found that both histamine and a selective H1R agonist activated Rac and RhoA in a time- and dose-dependent manner without significant changes in the activation of Cdc42. Histamine response was abolished by the H1R antagonist mepyramine, RGS2 and the PLC inhibitor U73122, suggesting that Rac and RhoA activation is mediated by H1R via Gq coupling to PLC stimulation. Histamine caused a marked activation of serum response factor activity via the H1R, as determined with a serum-responsive element (SRE) luciferase reporter, and this response was inhibited by RhoA inactivation with C3 toxin. Histamine also caused a significant activation of JNK which was inhibited by expression of the Rac-GAP β2-chimaerin. On the other hand, H1R-induced ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by U73122 but not affected by C3 or β2-chimaerin, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation was dependent on PLC and independent of RhoA or Rac. [ 3 H]-Thymidine incorporation assays showed that both histamine and the H1R agonist inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and that the effect was independent of RhoA but partially dependent on JNK and Rac. Our results reveal that functional coupling of the H1R to Gq-PLC leads to the activation of RhoA and Rac small GTPases and suggest distinct roles for Rho GTPases in the control of cell proliferation by histamine.

  12. TRPV1 and PLC Participate in Histamine H4 Receptor-Induced Itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunyu Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine H4 receptor has been confirmed to play a role in evoking peripheral pruritus. However, the ionic and intracellular signaling mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is still unknown. By using cell culture and calcium imaging, we studied the underlying mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the DRG neuron. Immepip dihydrobromide (immepip—a histamine H4 receptor special agonist under cutaneous injection—obviously induced itch behavior of mice. Immepip-induced scratching behavior could be blocked by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 and PLC pathway inhibitor U73122. Application of immepip (8.3–50 μM could also induce a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i of DRG neurons. We found that 77.8% of the immepip-sensitized DRG neurons respond to the TRPV1 selective agonist capsaicin. U73122 could inhibit immepip-induced Ca2+ responses. In addition, immepip-induced Ca2+i increase could be blocked by ruthenium red, capsazepine, and AMG9810; however it could not be blocked by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. These results indicate that TRPV1 but not TRPA1 is the important ion channel to induce the DRG neurons’ responses in the downstream signaling pathway of histamine H4 receptor and suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in the mechanism of histamine-induced itch response by H4 receptor activation.

  13. A Study on the Optimal Receiver Impedance for SNR Maximization in Broadband PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Antoniali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the design of the front-end receiver for broadband power line communications. We focus on the design of the input impedance that maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR at the receiver. We show that the amplitude, rather than the power, of the received signal is important for communication purposes. Furthermore, we show that the receiver impedance impacts the amplitude of the noise term. We focus on the background noise, and we propose a novel description of the noise experienced at the receiver port of a PLC network. We model the noise as the sum of four uncorrelated contributions, that is, the active, resistive, receiver, and coupled noise components. We study the optimal impedance design problem for real in-home grids that we assessed with experimental measurements. We describe the results of the measurement campaign, and we report the statistics of the optimal impedance. Hence, we study the best attainable performance when the optimal receiver impedance is deployed. We focus on the SNR and the maximum achievable rate, and we show that power matching is suboptimal with respect to the proposed impedance design approach.

  14. A role of PLC/PKC-dependent pathway in GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeto, Makoto; Cha, Chae Young; Rorsman, Patrik; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous glucose-lowering hormone and GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently being used as antidiabetic drugs clinically. The canonical signalling pathway (including cAMP, Epac2, protein kinase A (PKA) and K ATP channels) is almost universally accepted as the main mechanism of GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion. This belief is based on in vitro studies that used nanomolar (1-100 nM) concentrations of GLP-1. Recently, it was found that the physiological concentrations (1-10 pM) of GLP-1 also stimulate insulin secretion from isolated islets, induce membrane depolarization and increase of intracellular [Ca 2+ ] in isolated β cells/pancreatic islets. These responses were unaffected by PKA inhibitors and occurred without detectable increases in intracellular cAMP and PKA activity. These PKA-independent actions of GLP-1 depend on protein kinase C (PKC), involve activation of the standard GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) and culminate in activation of phospholipase C (PLC), leading to an elevation of diacylglycerol (DAG), increased L-type Ca 2+ and TRPM4/TRPM5 channel activities. Here, we review these recent data and contrast them against the effects of nanomolar concentrations of GLP-1. The differential intracellular signalling activated by low and high concentrations of GLP-1 could provide a clue to explain how GLP-1 exerts different function in the central nervous system and peripheral organs.

  15. Multi-axes sun-tracking system with PLC control for photovoltaic panels in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sungur, Cemil [Selcuk University, Technical Science College, Electrical and Electronics Science, Alaeddin Keykubat Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    In the present study, the azimuth and solar altitude angles of the sun were calculated for a period of 1 year at 37.6 latitude in the Northern hemisphere, where Turkey is located, and according to these angles, an electromechanical system which tracks the sun on both axes and which is controlled via a programmable logic control (PLC) and an analog module was designed and implemented. After the mechanical control unit of the designed system was started, the performance measurements of the solar panel were carried out first when the solar panel was in a fixed position and then the solar panel was controlled while tracking the sun on azimuth and solar altitude angles and the necessary measurements were performed. It was observed that the control system operated without a problem. Besides, when the data obtained from the measurements were compared, it was seen that 42.6% more energy was obtained in the two-axes sun-tracking system when compared to the fixed system. (author)

  16. Synthesis of FBD-based PLC design from NuSCR formal specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Junbeom [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and AITrc/SPIC/IIRTRC, 373-1, Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jbyoo@salmosa.kaist.ac.kr; Cha, Sungdeok [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and AITrc/SPIC/IIRTRC, 373-1, Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cha@salmosa.kaist.ac.kr; Kim, Chang Hwoi [I and C-HMI team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150, Deokjin-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: chkim2@kaeri.re.kr; Song, Duck Yong [Nuclear Research Division, Atomic Creative Technology Ltd, 1688-5, Sinil-dong, Daedeok-gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dysong@act.actbest.com

    2005-02-01

    NuSCR is a formal specification language to document requirements for real-time embedded software with nuclear engineering applications in mind. Domain experts actively participated in selecting how to best represent various aspects. It uses tabular notations to specify required computations and automata to document state- or time-dependent behavior. As programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are widely used to implement real-time embedded software, synthesis of PLC code from a formal specification is desirable if transformation rules can be rigorously defined. In addition to improved productivity, results of safety analysis performed on requirements remain valid. In this paper, we demonstrate how NuSCR specification can be translated into semantically equivalent function block diagram (FBD) code. The process, except the initial phase where user provides information on missing or implicit details, is automated. Since executable code can be automatically generated using CASE tools from FBD, much of software development is automated. Proposed technique is currently being used in developing reactor protection system (RPS) for nuclear power plants in Korea, and experience to date has been positive. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the fixed set-point rising trip which is one of the most complex trip logics included in the RPS.

  17. TRPV1 and PLC Participate in Histamine H4 Receptor-Induced Itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Tunyu; Yang, Niuniu; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Chan; Yuan, Xiaolin; Yu, Guang; Wang, Changming; Wang, Zhongli; Shi, Hao; Tang, Min; He, Qian; Lan, Lei; Wu, Guanyi; Tang, Zongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Histamine H4 receptor has been confirmed to play a role in evoking peripheral pruritus. However, the ionic and intracellular signaling mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is still unknown. By using cell culture and calcium imaging, we studied the underlying mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the DRG neuron. Immepip dihydrobromide (immepip)-a histamine H4 receptor special agonist under cutaneous injection-obviously induced itch behavior of mice. Immepip-induced scratching behavior could be blocked by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 and PLC pathway inhibitor U73122. Application of immepip (8.3-50 μM) could also induce a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) of DRG neurons. We found that 77.8% of the immepip-sensitized DRG neurons respond to the TRPV1 selective agonist capsaicin. U73122 could inhibit immepip-induced Ca(2+) responses. In addition, immepip-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase could be blocked by ruthenium red, capsazepine, and AMG9810; however it could not be blocked by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. These results indicate that TRPV1 but not TRPA1 is the important ion channel to induce the DRG neurons' responses in the downstream signaling pathway of histamine H4 receptor and suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in the mechanism of histamine-induced itch response by H4 receptor activation.

  18. Jefferson Lab IEC 61508/61511 Safety PLC Based Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Mahoney, Henry Robertson

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the design of the new 12 GeV Upgrade Personnel Safety System (PSS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The new PSS design is based on the implementation of systems designed to meet international standards IEC61508 and IEC 61511 for programmable safety systems. In order to meet the IEC standards, TJNAF engineers evaluated several SIL 3 Safety PLCs before deciding on an optimal architecture. In addition to hardware considerations, software quality standards and practices must also be considered. Finally, we will discuss R&D that may lead to both high safety reliability and high machine availability that may be applicable to future accelerators such as the ILC. Key words: PLC, Safety, TJNAF, SIL, PSS, PPS, Software, ILC Notice: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  19. Synthesis of FBD-based PLC design from NuSCR formal specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Junbeom; Cha, Sungdeok; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Song, Duck Yong

    2005-01-01

    NuSCR is a formal specification language to document requirements for real-time embedded software with nuclear engineering applications in mind. Domain experts actively participated in selecting how to best represent various aspects. It uses tabular notations to specify required computations and automata to document state- or time-dependent behavior. As programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are widely used to implement real-time embedded software, synthesis of PLC code from a formal specification is desirable if transformation rules can be rigorously defined. In addition to improved productivity, results of safety analysis performed on requirements remain valid. In this paper, we demonstrate how NuSCR specification can be translated into semantically equivalent function block diagram (FBD) code. The process, except the initial phase where user provides information on missing or implicit details, is automated. Since executable code can be automatically generated using CASE tools from FBD, much of software development is automated. Proposed technique is currently being used in developing reactor protection system (RPS) for nuclear power plants in Korea, and experience to date has been positive. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the fixed set-point rising trip which is one of the most complex trip logics included in the RPS

  20. Inhibitory effect of genistein on PLC/PRF5 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nikbakht Dastjerdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural compounds including flavonoids like genistein (GE are able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. GE is the main representative of these groups. GE inhibits carcinogenic tumors such as colon, stomach, lung, and pancreas tumors. The aim of the present study was to analyze the apoptotic effect of GE in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC PLC/PRF5 cell line. Methods: Cells were treated with various doses of GE (1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μM/L at different times (24, 48, and 72 h and the MTT assay was commonly used. Furthermore, cells were treated with single dose of GE (25 μM at different times and flow cytometry was performed. Results: GE inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells significantly with a time- and dose-dependent manner. The percentage of living cells in GE treatment groups with a concentration of 25 μM at different times were 53, 48 and 47%, respectively (P < 0.001. Result of flow cytometry demonstrated that GE at a 25 μM concentration induces apoptosis significantly in a time-dependent manner. The percentage of apoptotic cells at different times were 44, 56, and 60%, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusions: GE can significantly inhibit the growth of HCC cells and plays a significant role in apoptosis of this cell line.

  1. Department of Energy: monitoring and control of British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was set up in 1971 to take over the nuclear fuel production and reprocessing activities of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority with the Department of Energy (as majority shareholder) being responsible for the monitoring and control of BNFL's activities. BNFL's activities include the production of nuclear fuel, uranium enrichment, and the transportation and reprocessing of spent fuel. Its major capital investment includes the construction of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) due for completion in 1992. This study examined the effectiveness of the Department's arrangements for monitoring and control and for safeguarding the Government's investment in the company, the arrangements for examining BNFL's capital investment programme and the extent to which the Department's main aims have been achieved. The examination was restricted to the financial performance. The National Audit Office found evidence to suggest that BNFL's financial performance has not kept pace with the general performance level of British Industry. Future success and performance will depend on the success of the THORP plant. (U.K.)

  2. The Influence of Marketing Intelligence on Business Competitive Advantage (A Study of Diamond Bank Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladipo Patric Kunle Ade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of Marketing Intelligence on Business Competitive Advantage: A study of Diamond Bank Plc, Nigeria. Five objectives were identified and translated into five research questions which aptly answered by subjecting them to a test of hypotheses. A Descriptive research was used to survey 292 members of the staff of Diamond Bank in Lagos, Central Regional branches and head office. Out of which 285 responses were obtained, while 6 responses were destroyed because they were not properly filled. Also, data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire, as Pearson correlation, T-test and Regression were used to test the hypotheses statements. However, the result of the findings revealed that marketing intelligence sub-constructs such as internal records, competitor’s sales data, marketplace opportunity, competitors’ threats and competitors’ risks have significant and positive influence on business competitive advantage. Thus, it can be concluded that marketing intelligence as sensitive information has enabled the bank to successfully acquire more profit, expand the branch network all over the country, perform better than its rivals in the market and increase its business competitive advantage.

  3. Pengaruh Problem-Based Learning terhadap Hasil Belajar ditinjau dari Motivasi Belajar PLC di SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekti Wulandari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: (1 perbedaan hasil belajar siswa pada mata pelajaran pemrograman sistem kendali PLC antara siswa yang diajar dengan metode PBL dengan siswa yang diajar dengan metode demonstrasi, (2 pengaruh interaksi antara metode PBL dan metode demonstrasi dengan motivasi belajar terhadap hasil belajar siswa, (3 perbedaan hasil belajar siswa antara siswa yang diajar dengan metode PBL dengan yang diajar dengan metode demonstrasi ditinjau dari motivasi belajar. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan desain faktorial yang dilakukan dengan memberikan perlakuan metode pembelajaran. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini  menggunakan uji-t dan ANAVA dengan program SPSS 16. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 terdapat perbedaan hasil belajar antara siswa yang diajar dengan metode PBL dengan yang diajar dengan metode demonstrasi, (2 tidak terdapat pengaruh interaksi antara metode PBL dan demonstrasi dengan motivasi belajar terhadap hasil belajar, (3 terdapat perbedaan hasil belajar antara siswa yang diajar dengan metode PBL dengan yang diajar dengan metode demonstrasi ditinjau dari motivasi tinggi dan rendah. Kata kunci: metode pembelajaran, Problem-Based Learning, motivasi belajar, hasil belajar

  4. Operación de un PLC Mediante un PDA Vía ZIGBEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zuluaga-Botero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra la parte preliminar de interconexión de un módulo ZigBee con un Asistente Digital Personal (PDA a través de la red del Sistema de telefonía Móvil Global (GSM, para aplicación futura de comunicación con un Controlador Lógico Programable (PLC. Esta aplicación permite realizar monitoreo y control del sistema, de manera remota y con dispositivos móviles siendo el alcance del proyecto de investigación. Para este proyecto inicialmente se realizan comunicaciones que permiten empalmar las tecnologías de las redes de telefonía móvil celular con la red ZigBee, haciendo una interfaz transparente para el usuario, presentando dichos resultados en este artículo. Para esto se trabaja con tramas de datos básicas a través de la red de telefonía móvil celular, mediante mensajería corta recibida por el puerto serial del Zigbee remoto, utilizando microcontroladores para el control de los módulos que conforman esta parte del sistema de comunicación, estableciendo la interfaz con el dispositivo móvil o Smartphone vía Zigbee.

  5. Aspects of the relationship between British Nuclear Fuels plc and the U.K. regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, S.J. Throne, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is involved in all aspects of the nuclear criticality safety of the fuel cycle, including transport, storage, and reprocessing of spent fuel and manufacture of fresh fuel. Many diverse waste streams have been assessed that contain fissile isotopes and are destined for interim or long-term storage. BNFL has several teams of experienced nuclear criticality safety assessors employed in the robust demonstration of the safety of its plant design and operations. There is a safety-first culture within BNFL where adequate safety margins are fully justified. Within this framework, processes are optimized and designed to be convenient and to maximize economic benefits. Throughout all stages of the regulatory process, BNFL has an open and constructive working relationship with regulators, who are effectively seen as one of their customers in the companys efforts to produce fit-for-purpose safety cases. BNFL's proven track record of designing and operating plants safely enables regulators, in the company's view, to trust them to do their best to produce optimum design and operating strategies while allowing the regulators to concentrate on key aspects of a project. Any discussions resulting from their considerations are held in a constructive and open manner to achieve a reasonable consensus

  6. Remediation of old environmental liabilities in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) after 55 years of activities in the nuclear field produced some environmental liabilities that shall be remedied. There are three areas of remediation: (1) decommissioning of old obsolete facilities (e.g. decay tanks, RAW treatment technology, special sewage system), (2) processing of RAW from operation and dismantling of nuclear facilities, and (3) elimination of spent fuel from research nuclear reactors operated by the NRI. The goal is to remedy the environmental liabilities and eliminate the potential negative impact on the environment. Remediation of the environmental liabilities started in 2003 and will be finished in 2014. The character of the environmental liabilities is very specific and requires special remediation procedures. Special technologies are being developed with assistance of external subcontractors. The NRI has gained many experiences in the field of RAW management and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and will use its facilities, experienced staff and all relevant data needed for the successful realization of the remediation. The most significant items of environmental liabilities are described in the paper together with information about the history, the current state, the progress, and the future activities in the field of remediation of environmental liabilities in the NRI. (author)

  7. Phosphatidylcholine Specific PLC-Induced Dysregulation of Gap Junctions, a Robust Cellular Response to Environmental Toxicants, and Prevention by Resveratrol in a Rat Liver Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovadinova, Iva; Babica, Pavel; Böke, Hatice; Kumar, Esha; Wilke, Andrew; Park, Joon-Suk; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with different pathologies, including cancer; however, molecular mechanisms regulating GJIC are not fully understood. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanisms of GJIC-dysregulation have been well-established, however recent discoveries have implicated phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) in the regulation of GJIC. What is not known is how prevalent these two signaling mechanisms are in toxicant/toxin-induced dysregulation of GJIC, and do toxicants/toxins work through either signaling mechanisms or both, or through alternative signaling mechanisms. Different chemical toxicants were used to assess whether they dysregulate GJIC via MEK or PC-PLC, or both Mek and PC-PLC, or through other signaling pathways, using a pluripotent rat liver epithelial oval-cell line, WB-F344. Epidermal growth factor, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 and lindane regulated GJIC through a MEK1/2-dependent mechanism that was independent of PC-PLC; whereas PAHs, DDT, PCB 153, dicumylperoxide and perfluorodecanoic acid inhibited GJIC through PC-PLC independent of Mek. Dysregulation of GJIC by perfluorooctanoic acid and R59022 required both MEK1/2 and PC-PLC; while benzoylperoxide, arachidonic acid, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, 1-monolaurin, pentachlorophenol and alachlor required neither MEK1/2 nor PC-PLC. Resveratrol prevented dysregulation of GJIC by toxicants that acted either through MEK1/2 or PC-PLC. Except for alachlor, resveratrol did not prevent dysregulation of GJIC by toxicants that worked through PC-PLC-independent and MEK1/2-independent pathways, which indicated at least two other, yet unidentified, pathways that are involved in the regulation of GJIC. the dysregulation of GJIC is a contributing factor to the cancer process; however the underlying mechanisms by which gap junction channels

  8. Phosphatidylcholine Specific PLC-Induced Dysregulation of Gap Junctions, a Robust Cellular Response to Environmental Toxicants, and Prevention by Resveratrol in a Rat Liver Cell Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Sovadinova

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC has been associated with different pathologies, including cancer; however, molecular mechanisms regulating GJIC are not fully understood. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK-dependent mechanisms of GJIC-dysregulation have been well-established, however recent discoveries have implicated phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC in the regulation of GJIC. What is not known is how prevalent these two signaling mechanisms are in toxicant/toxin-induced dysregulation of GJIC, and do toxicants/toxins work through either signaling mechanisms or both, or through alternative signaling mechanisms. Different chemical toxicants were used to assess whether they dysregulate GJIC via MEK or PC-PLC, or both Mek and PC-PLC, or through other signaling pathways, using a pluripotent rat liver epithelial oval-cell line, WB-F344. Epidermal growth factor, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 and lindane regulated GJIC through a MEK1/2-dependent mechanism that was independent of PC-PLC; whereas PAHs, DDT, PCB 153, dicumylperoxide and perfluorodecanoic acid inhibited GJIC through PC-PLC independent of Mek. Dysregulation of GJIC by perfluorooctanoic acid and R59022 required both MEK1/2 and PC-PLC; while benzoylperoxide, arachidonic acid, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, 1-monolaurin, pentachlorophenol and alachlor required neither MEK1/2 nor PC-PLC. Resveratrol prevented dysregulation of GJIC by toxicants that acted either through MEK1/2 or PC-PLC. Except for alachlor, resveratrol did not prevent dysregulation of GJIC by toxicants that worked through PC-PLC-independent and MEK1/2-independent pathways, which indicated at least two other, yet unidentified, pathways that are involved in the regulation of GJIC.the dysregulation of GJIC is a contributing factor to the cancer process; however the underlying mechanisms by which gap

  9. PLC/BPL : an ideal communications platform for a more intelligent electric grid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, B. [Amperion, Inc., Lowell, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Power line communications (PLC) and broadband over power lines (BPL) were discussed in the context of an ideal communications platform for a more intelligent electric grid. Deregulation in the 1990s and redirection of utility investment to non-regulated opportunities and a declining investment in research in development led to unfavorable results in the energy market. A return to core utility business was prompted by overseas assets that were sold at a loss, write-offs, the Enron scandal, and a market that gave up on telecommunications. The renewed focus was on electric reliability, customer satisfaction, and security. The presentation also pointed to several massive blackouts in the 1990s that led to a quest for new solutions around a smarter electric grid. Demand side management, advanced AMR, distributed generation, distribution automation, and new digital technologies were presented as new approaches. The transformation for the twenty first century focuses on integrating communications, automating the distribution system to meet changing consumer needs, transforming the meter into a consumer gateway, and integrating distributed energy resources. A vision for the electric system of the future and a national initiative led by the United States Department of Energy called the GridWise Alliance was presented along with a discussion about alliance, benefits and technologies. BPL was also discussed in terms of support by the Federal Communications Commission and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. A regulator's vision for advanced metering in California, Ontario's smart meter edict, and the development of BPL standards and guides by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) were also presented. The presentation concluded with how BPL can enhance utility operations. 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. System of institutional radioactive waste management in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlaha, J.; Burian, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) is a leading institution in the area of nuclear Research and Development in the Czech Republic. The NRI has had a dominant position in the nuclear programme since it was established in 1955 as a state-owned research organization and it has developed to its current status. In December 1992 the NRI has been transformed into a joint-stock company. The NRI's activity encompasses nuclear physics, chemistry, nuclear power, experiments at the research reactor and many other topics. Main issues addressed in the NRI in the past decades were concentrated on research, development and services provided to the nuclear power plants operating WWER reactors, development of chemical technologies for fuel cycle and irradiation services to research and development in the industrial sector, agriculture, food processing and medicine. At present the research activities are mainly targeted to assist the State Office for Nuclear Safety -the nuclear safety regulating body, power plant operator and nuclear facilities contractors. Significant attention is also paid to the use of nuclear technology outside the nuclear power sector, providing a wide range of services to industry , medicine and the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. NRI operates two research nuclear reactors and another facilities such as a hot cell facility , research laboratories, technology for radioactive waste (RAW) management, 60 Co irradiators, an electron accelerator, etc. In this paper the Centre of RAW management, system of RAW management, facilities for RAW management as well as decontamination and decommissioning activities of the NRI are presented. The NRI provides complex services in the area of RAW management and has gained many experience and full qualification not only in this area but also in the area of decontamination and decommissioning and spent fuel management. The NRI guarantees safe RAW and spent fuel management. (authors)

  11. Bixa orellana leaf extract suppresses histamine-induced endothelial hyperpermeability via the PLC-NO-cGMP signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yoke Keong; Chiong, Hoe Siong; Somchit, Muhd Nazrul; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2015-10-14

    Histamine is established as a potent inflammatory mediator and it is known to increased endothelial permeability by promoting gap formation between endothelial cells. Previous studies have shown that aqueous extract of Bixa orellana leaves (AEBO) exhibits antihistamine activity in vivo, yet the mechanism of its action on endothelial barrier function remains unclear. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the protective effect of AEBO against histamine-induced hyperpermeability in vitro. The endothelial protective effect of AEBO was assess using an in vitro vascular permeability assay kit. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used in the current study. HUVEC were pre-treated with AEBO for 12 h before histamine induction. Vascular permeability was evaluated by the amount of FITC-dextran leakage into the lower chamber. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of AEBO, phospholipase C (PLC) activity, intracellular calcium level, nitric oxide (NO) concentration, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production and protein kinase C (PKC) activity were determined following histamine challenge. Histamine-induced increased HUVEC permeability was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with AEBO in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Upregulation of PLC activity caused by histamine in HUVEC was suppressed by pretreatment with AEBO. Pretreatment with AEBO also blocked the production of intracellular calcium induced by histamine in HUVEC. In addition, AEBO suppressed the NO-cGMP signaling cascade when HUVEC were challenged with histamine. Moreover, PKC activity was significantly abolished by pretreatment with AEBO in HUVEC under histamine condition. In conclusion, the present data suggest that AEBO could suppress histamine-induced increased endothelial permeability and the activity may be closely related with the inhibition of the PLC-NO-cGMP signaling pathway and PKC activity.

  12. Ceratocystis cacaofunesta genome analysis reveals a large expansion of extracellular phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase-C genes (PI-PLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molano, Eddy Patricia Lopez; Cabrera, Odalys García; Jose, Juliana; do Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Alvarez, Javier Correa; Tiburcio, Ricardo Augusto; Tokimatu Filho, Paulo Massanari; de Lima, Gustavo Machado Alvares; Guido, Rafael Victório Carvalho; Corrêa, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2018-01-17

    The Ceratocystis genus harbors a large number of phytopathogenic fungi that cause xylem parenchyma degradation and vascular destruction on a broad range of economically important plants. Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is a necrotrophic fungus responsible for lethal wilt disease in cacao. The aim of this work is to analyze the genome of C. cacaofunesta through a comparative approach with genomes of other Sordariomycetes in order to better understand the molecular basis of pathogenicity in the Ceratocystis genus. We present an analysis of the C. cacaofunesta genome focusing on secreted proteins that might constitute pathogenicity factors. Comparative genome analyses among five Ceratocystidaceae species and 23 other Sordariomycetes fungi showed a strong reduction in gene content of the Ceratocystis genus. However, some gene families displayed a remarkable expansion, in particular, the Phosphatidylinositol specific phospholipases-C (PI-PLC) family. Also, evolutionary rate calculations suggest that the evolution process of this family was guided by positive selection. Interestingly, among the 82 PI-PLCs genes identified in the C. cacaofunesta genome, 70 genes encoding extracellular PI-PLCs are grouped in eight small scaffolds surrounded by transposon fragments and scars that could be involved in the rapid evolution of the PI-PLC family. Experimental secretome using LC-MS/MS validated 24% (86 proteins) of the total predicted secretome (342 proteins), including four PI-PLCs and other important pathogenicity factors. Analysis of the Ceratocystis cacaofunesta genome provides evidence that PI-PLCs may play a role in pathogenicity. Subsequent functional studies will be aimed at evaluating this hypothesis. The observed genetic arsenals, together with the analysis of the PI-PLC family shown in this work, reveal significant differences in the Ceratocystis genome compared to the classical vascular fungi, Verticillium and Fusarium. Altogether, our analyses provide new insights into the

  13. A comparative study on subacute toxicity of arsenic trioxide and dimethylarsinic acid on antioxidant status in Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK), human hepatocellular carcinoma (PLC/PRF/5), and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Magara, Gabriele; Caruso, Claudio; Masoero, Loretta; Prearo, Marino; Arsieni, Paola; Caldaroni, Barbara; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Scoparo, Melissa; Salvati, Stefania; Brizio, Paola; Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a global contaminant of terrestrial and aquatic environments posing concern for environmental and human health. The effects of subacute concentrations of arsenic trioxide (As III ) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ) were examined using Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK), human hepatocellular carcinoma (PLC/PRF/5), and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC). Whole monolayer with suffering cells (confluence 100%, pyknosis and refractive cells; value scale = 2) led to identification of subacute As concentrations for the three cell lines. The selected As III concentrations were 1.33 µM for CRFK and 33.37 µM for PLC/PRF/5 and EPC, at 48 hr time point. The selected DMA V concentrations were 0.67 mM for PLC/PRF/5, 1.33 mM for CRFK, and 2.67 mM for EPC for 48 hr. Unlike the As III test, the three cell lines did not exhibit marked susceptibility to DMA V -mediated toxicity. Several oxidative stress biomarker levels, directly or indirectly associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glyoxalase I, glyoxalase II, and total glutathione, were determined in the three cell lines at 24 and 48 hr. Antioxidant responses in metal-treated cells were significantly altered compared to controls, suggesting a perturbation of redox state. The weakening of antioxidant pathway in either healthy or tumoral cells was greater using As III than DMA V . Differences in level of several oxidative stress biomarkers suggest that the oxidative stress mechanism induced by As III is distinctly different from DMA V . Multifaceted mechanisms of action underlying ROS generation in tumor and nontumor cells versus As III and DMA V exposure are thus involved. Since As-mediated toxicity is quite complex, more data regarding both oxidant-enhancement and oxidant-lowering strategies may be useful to improve knowledge regarding the influence of As on human and

  14. 78 FR 39062 - Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ...This notice modifies the temporary exemption granted to Group Lotus plc (Lotus) on March 8, 2013. The agency granted Lotus an exemption from the higher maximum speed (56 km/h (35 mph)) belted test requirement using 5th percentile adult female dummies for the front passenger position of its Evora model for the period from March 8, 2013 to March 8, 2014. The agency is modifying the dates of the exemption to account for vehicles Lotus manufactured before the exemption went into effect.

  15. 78 FR 15114 - Group Lotus plc; Grant of Petition for a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...This notice grants the petition of Group Lotus plc (Lotus) for a temporary exemption of the front passenger position of its Evora model from one advanced air bag requirement of FMVSS No. 208, i.e., the higher maximum speed (56 km/h (35 mph)) belted test requirement using 5th percentile adult female dummies. The agency finds that achieving compliance with that requirement would cause substantial economic hardship to Lotus and that the company has tried to comply with the requirement in good faith.

  16. PLC-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis regulates activation and inactivation of TRPC6/7 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Hase, Hideharu; Okamura, Yasushi; Inoue, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential classical (or canonical) (TRPC)3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 are a subfamily of TRPC channels activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) produced through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) by phospholipase C (PLC). PI(4,5)P2 depletion by a heterologously expressed phosphatase inhibits TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 activity independently of DAG; however, the physiological role of PI(4,5)P2 reduction on channel activity remains unclear. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure PI(4,5)P2 or DAG dynamics concurrently with TRPC6 or TRPC7 currents after agonist stimulation of receptors that couple to Gq and thereby activate PLC. Measurements made at different levels of receptor activation revealed a correlation between the kinetics of PI(4,5)P2 reduction and those of receptor-operated TRPC6 and TRPC7 current activation and inactivation. In contrast, DAG production correlated with channel activation but not inactivation; moreover, the time course of channel inactivation was unchanged in protein kinase C–insensitive mutants. These results suggest that inactivation of receptor-operated TRPC currents is primarily mediated by the dissociation of PI(4,5)P2. We determined the functional dissociation constant of PI(4,5)P2 to TRPC channels using FRET of the PLCδ Pleckstrin homology domain (PHd), which binds PI(4,5)P2, and used this constant to fit our experimental data to a model in which channel gating is controlled by PI(4,5)P2 and DAG. This model predicted similar FRET dynamics of the PHd to measured FRET in either human embryonic kidney cells or smooth muscle cells, whereas a model lacking PI(4,5)P2 regulation failed to reproduce the experimental data, confirming the inhibitory role of PI(4,5)P2 depletion on TRPC currents. Our model also explains various PLC-dependent characteristics of channel activity, including limitation of maximum open probability, shortening of the peak time, and the bell-shaped response of

  17. Design and Implementation of Control and Monitoring Systems Based on HMI-PLC for Potable Water Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quezada-Quezada José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This project reports on the design and implementation in a workbench of a control and monitoring system of the discharge of water of a well. Graphic User's Interfaces (GUI are designed for interaction with the operator. The Human Machine Interface (HMI was implement in proprietor software and it contemplates the rules for control and monitoring of the conditions of the system for the operator, the HMI is also interconnected a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC where the rules of protection of the process are implemented in Ladder Diagram (LD.

  18. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  19. Biosurfactant Production and Surface Translocation Are Regulated by PlcR in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 under Low-Nutrient Conditions▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Somers, Eileen B.; Lereclus, Didier; Ghelardi, Emilia; Wong, Amy C. Lee

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 can respond to nutrient changes by adopting different forms of surface translocation. The B. cereus ATCC 14579 ΔplcR mutant, but not the wild type, formed dendritic (branched) patterns on EPS [a low-nutrient medium that contains 7.0 g K2HPO4, 3.0 g KH2PO4, 0.1 g MgSO4·7H2O, 0.1 g (NH4)2SO4, 0.01 g CaCl2, 0.001 g FeSO4, 0.1 g NaCl, 1.0 g glucose, and 125 mg yeast extract per liter] containing 0.7% agar. The dendritic patterns formed by sliding translocation of nonflagellated cells are enhanced under low-nutrient conditions and require sufficient production of a biosurfactant, which appears to be repressed by PlcR. The wild-type and complemented strains failed to slide on the surface of EPS agar because of the production of low levels of biosurfactant. Precoating EPS agar surfaces with surfactin (a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis) or biosurfactant purified from the ΔplcR mutant rescued the ability of the wild-type and complemented strains to slide. When grown on a nutrient-rich medium like Luria-Bertani agar, both the wild-type and ΔplcR mutant strains produced flagella. The wild type was hyperflagellated and elongated and exhibited swarming behavior, while the ΔplcR mutant was multiflagellated and the cells often formed long chains but did not swarm. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses suggested that the biosurfactant purified from the ΔplcR mutant was a lipopeptide and had a mass of 1,278.1722 (m/z). This biosurfactant has hemolytic activity and inhibited the growth of several gram-positive bacteria. PMID:17921286

  20. Comfortable district heating by ingenious PLC-control. Solar heat for district heating and hot water; Comfortabele stadswarmte dankzij ingenieuze PLC-regeling. Zonnewarmte voor stadverwarming en warm tapwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezemer, R. [Bezemer Communicatie, Brummen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Over 45,000 dwellings in Almere, the Netherlands, are connected to a district heating grid. The energy supplier uses residual heat that is released by a CHP plant in Almere Stad. As of recently, 'Zoneiland Almere' (1.5 ha in size, 7,000 m{sup 2} of solar collectors) is supplying about 9,750 GJ/a. This covers about 10% of the energy demand of a district with about 2,700 dwellings. PLC is the abbreviation of Product-Logic-Circuit. [Dutch] Meer dan 45.000 woningen in Almere zijn aangesloten op een stadswarmte netwerk. De energieleverancier gebruikt restwarmte die vrijkomt bij een warmtekrachtcentrale in Almere Stad. Sinds kort levert 'Zoneiland Almere' (1,5 ha groot, met daarop 7.000 m{sup 2} zonnecollectoren) circa 9.750 GJ/a. Dit komt overeen met 10 procent van de energiebehoefte van een wijk met 2.700 woningen. PLC staat voor Product-Logic-Circuit.

  1. Metodología para la implementación de controlador difuso tipo Takagi-Sugeno en PLC s7-300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Guarnizo Lemus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for implementing fuzzy logic controllers based on a S7-300 PLC using the programming language SCL(Structured Control Language in STEP 7. We present the design of the fuzzy function, variable declarations, and the evaluation design of membership functions and rules of the fuzzy system. Since this scheme can be implemented more complex fuzzy models, such as adaptive or Autotuner. We present an application example for a discrete time simulated in the PLC using a PI fuzzy controller.

  2. NuSEE: an integrated environment of software specification and V and V for PLC based safety-critical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun; Yoo, Jun Beom; Cha, Sung Deok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Cheong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hyun Chul [CQCom Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    As the use of digital systems becomes more prevalent, adequate techniques for software specification and analysis have become increasingly important in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety-critical systems. Additionally, the importance of software Verification and Validation (V and V) based on adequate specification has received greater emphasis in view of improving software quality. For thorough V and V of safety-critical systems, V and V should be performed throughout the software lifecycle. However, systematic V and V is difficult as it involves many manual-oriented tasks. Tool support is needed in order to more conveniently perform software V and V. In response, we developed four kinds of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools to support system specification for a formal-based analysis according to the software lifecycle. In this work, we achieved optimized integration of each tool. The toolset, NuSEE, is an integrated environment for software specification and V and V for PLC based safety-critical systems. In accordance with the software lifecycle, NuSEE consists of NuSISRT for the concept phase, NuSRS for the requirements phase, NuSDS for the design phase and NuSCM for configuration management. It is believed that after further development our integrated environment will be a unique and promising software specification and analysis toolset that will support the entire software lifecycle for the development of PLC based NPP safety-critical systems.

  3. NuSEE: an integrated environment of software specification and V and V for PLC based safety-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun; Yoo, Jun Beom; Cha, Sung Deok; Youn, Cheong; Han, Hyun Chul

    2006-01-01

    As the use of digital systems becomes more prevalent, adequate techniques for software specification and analysis have become increasingly important in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety-critical systems. Additionally, the importance of software Verification and Validation (V and V) based on adequate specification has received greater emphasis in view of improving software quality. For thorough V and V of safety-critical systems, V and V should be performed throughout the software lifecycle. However, systematic V and V is difficult as it involves many manual-oriented tasks. Tool support is needed in order to more conveniently perform software V and V. In response, we developed four kinds of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools to support system specification for a formal-based analysis according to the software lifecycle. In this work, we achieved optimized integration of each tool. The toolset, NuSEE, is an integrated environment for software specification and V and V for PLC based safety-critical systems. In accordance with the software lifecycle, NuSEE consists of NuSISRT for the concept phase, NuSRS for the requirements phase, NuSDS for the design phase and NuSCM for configuration management. It is believed that after further development our integrated environment will be a unique and promising software specification and analysis toolset that will support the entire software lifecycle for the development of PLC based NPP safety-critical systems

  4. Quality of Non-Interest Banking Services and Customers’ Satisfaction: Evidence from Jaiz Bank PLC, Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ismaila Mustapha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dwindling levels of service quality in Nigerian financial institutions had resulted in abysmal performance of most banks and other financial institutions in the sector and this challenge has made it imperative for financial firms to be customer centered in all their operational activities. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of service quality of non-interest bank on customers’ satisfaction using Jaiz Bank PLC, Kaduna as a case study. The study utilized convenience and snowball sampling techniques to select 147 customers who served as respondents in the study. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were employed as analytical techniques. The results show that compliance with Islamic laws is highly correlated with customer satisfaction which was followed respectively by assurance, reliability, tangibility, responsiveness and empathy dimensions. It was also discovered that the six service quality dimensions significantly influenced the satisfaction of Jaiz Bank Plc, Kaduna branch customers’. The study recommends that management of the bank should exploit and maneuver the service quality dimensions as a survival strategy for improving customers’ satisfaction in an industry characterized by intense competition and environmental dynamism.

  5. Modernization project of the rod control system and in-core instrumentation system for 34 units of the 900 MW French EDF fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavolara, Ivan; Desgeorge, Romain; Verburgh, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Rolls-Royce and Cegelec, in partnership, carry out a unique and considerable modernisation project of two Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems for the entire 900 MWe fleet of Electricite De France (EDF). Both rod control (RCS) and reactor in-core measurement (RIC) systems are to be modernised in the frame of the third ten-year renovation of all 34 reactor units over 9 power plants. The RCS contributes to the control of nuclear power by actuating control rod drive mechanisms that allow insertion or withdrawal of control rods. The RCS has also monitoring functions such as controlling the actual rods' position as well as the functional consistency between commands and actual positions. The RIC system measures in-core neutron flux, providing useful information to the control room as well as to the reactor unit computer for further processing. The renovated systems shall replace the existing ageing analog technology by modern digital technology based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) and FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) in the case of power subassemblies of RCS. Both systems rely for certain functions on a common network linking the RCS and RIC networks, improving operations and maintenance thanks to a powerful Man Machine Interface at the different locations of the systems with an extensive suite of tools and diagnostic menus. The project whose design phase started in July 2006 is now in its deployment phase after the successful site implementation of both systems at the first of kind units of Tricastin and Fessenheim power plants, respectively in August 2009 and February 2010. With 20 units in operation in 2014, the deployment shall continue with the other 14 until 2020. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design, supply chain management, manufacturing, installation and commissioning of the nuclear island systems and equipment, as well as operational

  6. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaías González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented.

  7. Robust, low-noise, polarization-maintaining mode-locked Er-fiber laser with a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device as a multi-functional element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chur; Kwon, Dohyeon; Kim, Dohyun; Choi, Sun Young; Cha, Sang Jun; Choi, Ki Sun; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-04-15

    We demonstrate a new planar lightwave circuit (PLC)-based device, integrated with a 980/1550 wavelength division multiplexer, an evanescent-field-interaction-based saturable absorber, and an output tap coupler, which can be employed as a multi-functional element in mode-locked fiber lasers. Using this multi-functional PLC device, we demonstrate a simple, robust, low-noise, and polarization-maintaining mode-locked Er-fiber laser. The measured full-width at half-maximum bandwidth is 6 nm centered at 1555 nm, corresponding to 217 fs transform-limited pulse duration. The measured RIN and timing jitter are 0.22% [10 Hz-10 MHz] and 6.6 fs [10 kHz-1 MHz], respectively. Our results show that the non-gain section of mode-locked fiber lasers can be easily implemented as a single PLC chip that can be manufactured by a wafer-scale fabrication process. The use of PLC processes in mode-locked lasers has the potential for higher manufacturability of low-cost and robust fiber and waveguide lasers.

  8. Changes in Teachers' Beliefs and Classroom Practices Concerning Inquiry-Based Instruction Following a Year-Long RET-PLC Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel J.; Damico, Julie B.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines how engaging science teachers in a summer Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) followed by an academic-year Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on translating teacher research experiences to inquiry-based classroom lessons might facilitate changes in their beliefs and classroom practices regarding…

  9. Peptide microarray profiling identifies phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) as a potential target for t(8;21) AML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmud, Hasan; Scherpen, Frank J. G.; Meeuwsen de Boer, Tiny; Lourens, Harm-Jan; Schoenherr, Caroline; Eder, Matthias; Scherr, Michaela; Guryev, Victor; de Bont, Eveline S.

    2017-01-01

    The t(8;21) (q22;q22) chromosomal translocation is one of the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which has a need for improved therapeutic strategies. We found PLC-γ1 as one of the highest phosphorylated peptides in t(8;21) AML samples compared to NBM or CN-AML in our

  10. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-10-31

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented.

  11. Coordination of motor systems of the control bars of TRIGA Mark III reactor, through the use of a PLC; Coordinacion de los sistemas motrices de las barras de control del reactor Triga Mark III, mediante el uso de un PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro R, P. R.

    2016-07-01

    The use of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) has a wide field in the realization of automatic systems, since is sought that the form of control is easy for any user. In this work, the TRIGA Mark III reactor of Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) is intended to operate with a programming code in PLC for the automation of the control rods, having uniform wear according to the power required by the user. On the other hand, is proposed to develop an HMI graphical interface for communication via Ethernet, allowing supervision during the reactor operation process and greater protection of operators during reactor startup. The accuracy of the new actuators, as well as their durability, will allow a good performance of the reactor for many years to come. (Author)

  12. Development of Real Time Operating System for Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Han Seong [ENESYS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sung Jae [POSCON, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Joon; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    POSAFE-Q is a newly developed programmable logic controller (PLC) in order to apply to digital safety system of nuclear power plants (NPP) according to Nuclear Power Plant safety requirements. POSAFE-Q hardware and software development process, including design, review, verification and validation, and configuration control and quality assurance, satisfies the requirements imposed by 10CFR50, Appendix B. This article introduces a real time operating system pCOS, which is the core of POSAFE-Q. Section 2 describes the structure of pCOS. Section 3 describes a few important features of pCOS, which are necessary to the application for the digital safety system of NPP.0.

  13. A compact and low-loss 1×8 optical power splitter using silica-based PLC on quartz substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangliang; An, Junming; Wu, Yuanda; Zhang, Jiashun; Wang, Yue; Li, Jianguang; Wang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Pan, Pan; Zhang, Liyao; Dai, Hongqing; Liu, Ruidan; Zhong, Fei; Zha, Qiang; Hu, Xiongwei; Zhao, Degang

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a compact, low-loss and good-uniformity 1×8 optical power splitter with new Y-branch structure is demonstrated using silica-based PLC technology on quartz substrate. Broadening waveguide and transition waveguide of the new Y-branch are optimized by using 3D BPM. The measurement results show that the insertion loss (IL) and the uniformity (UNIF) of the splitters are less than 9.5 dB and 0.35 dB, respectively, in the wavelength range from 1.26 μm to 1.65 μm, and the total product ratio of premium grade in a whole 6 in. wafer is more than 95%. The results mean that our technology completely satisfies the need of mass manufacture.

  14. A robust and stable PLC based control system for 40kJ/25kV EMM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vijay; Saroj, P.C.; Kulkarni, M.R.; Kumar, Satendra, E-mail: vijay9819420563@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the PLC based control system developed for a 40kJ/25kV Electro-magnetic machining (EMM) system. In EMM system large capacitor banks is charged with high voltage to store large energy and the banks is made to discharge into a coil within few milli-seconds using a triggered spark gaps. During discharge of the capacitor large surges and transients are generated in the system. The control system monitors/controls and interlocks all the units of the system for proper operation. The control system is the only subsystem which is electrically connected to all the low and high voltage subsystems. Care should be taken at the signal interfacing with the control system to protect the control system. (author)

  15. 77 FR 39564 - Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Group Lotus Plc has petitioned the agency for a temporary exemption from one advanced air bag requirement of FMVSS No. 208, the higher maximum speed (56 km/h (35 mph)) belted test requirement using 5th percentile adult female dummies for its Evora model. The basis for the application is that the petitioner avers compliance would cause it substantial economic hardship and that it has tried in good faith to comply with the standard.\\1\\ This notice of receipt of an application for a temporary exemption is published in accordance with statutory and administrative provisions. NHTSA has made no judgment on the merits of the application. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  16. Coordination of motor systems of the control bars of TRIGA Mark III reactor, through the use of a PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro R, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) has a wide field in the realization of automatic systems, since is sought that the form of control is easy for any user. In this work, the TRIGA Mark III reactor of Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) is intended to operate with a programming code in PLC for the automation of the control rods, having uniform wear according to the power required by the user. On the other hand, is proposed to develop an HMI graphical interface for communication via Ethernet, allowing supervision during the reactor operation process and greater protection of operators during reactor startup. The accuracy of the new actuators, as well as their durability, will allow a good performance of the reactor for many years to come. (Author)

  17. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide exerts proliferation/anti-apoptosis/angiogenesis/migration effects via amplifying the activation of NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yulan; Pan, Wanying; Hu, Fen; Wu, Hongfu; Feng, Jianqiang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jingfu

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) takes part in a diverse range of intracellular pathways and hss physical and pathological properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of H2S on cancer are controversial and remain unclear. The present study investigates the effects of H2S on liver cancer progression via activating NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells. PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells were pretreated with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h. The expression levels of CSE, CBS, phosphosphorylate (p)-NF-κB p65, caspase-3, COX-2, p-IκB and MMP-2 were measured by western blot assay. Cell viability was detected by cell counter kit 8 (CCK-8). Apoptotic cells were observed by Hoechst 33258 staining assay. The production level of H2S in cell culture medium was measured by using the sulfur-sensitive electrode method. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the production of H2S was dramatically increased in the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, compared with human LO2 hepatocyte cells group, along with the overexpression levels of CSE and CBS. Treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h markedly increased the expression levels of CSE, CBS, p-IκB and NF-κB activation, leading to COX-2 and MMP-2 overexpression, and decreased caspase-3 production, as well as increased cell viability and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Otherwise, the production level of H2S and VEGF were also significantly increased. Furthermore, co-treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS and 200 µmol/l PDTC for 24 h significantly overturned these indexes. The findings of the present study provide evidence that the NF-κB is involved in the NaHS-induced cell proliferation, anti-apoptisis, angiogenesis, and migration in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, and that the PDTC against the NaHS-induced effects were by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.

  18. Calcium Directly Regulates Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Headgroup Conformation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilkova, Eva; Pleskot, Roman; Rissanen, Sami

    2017-01-01

    (4,5)P2 containing liposomes reveal that Ca2+ as well as Mg2+ reduce the zeta potential of liposomes to nearly background levels of pure phosphatidylcholine membranes. Strikingly, lipid recognition by the default PI(4,5)P2 lipid sensor, phospholipase C delta 1 pleckstrin homology domain (PLC δ1-PH...... phosphoinositide clustering, little is known about the molecular basis for this or its significance in cellular signaling. Here, we study the direct interaction of Ca2+ with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), the main lipid marker of the plasma membrane. Electrokinetic potential measurements of PI...... headgroup and carbonyl regions leads to confined lipid headgroup tilting and conformational rearrangements. We rationalize these findings by the ability of calcium to block a highly specific interaction between PLC δ1-PH and PI(4,5)P2, encoded within the conformational properties of the lipid itself. Our...

  19. Multiple cellular roles of Neurospora crassa plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 in regulation of cytosolic free calcium, carotenoid accumulation, stress responses, and acquisition of thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ananya; Tamuli, Ranjan

    2015-04-01

    Phospholipase C1 (PLC1), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger proteins regulate calcium signaling and homeostasis in eukaryotes. In this study, we investigate functions for phospholipase C1 (plc-1), sPLA2 (splA2) and a Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger (cpe-1) in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. The Δplc-1, ΔsplA2, and Δcpe-1 mutants exhibited a growth defect on medium supplemented with the divalent ionophore A23187, suggesting that these genes might play a role in regulation of cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) in N. crassa. The strains lacking plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 possessed higher carotenoid content than wild type at 8°C, 22°C, and 30°C, and showed increased ultraviolet (UV)-survival under conditions that induced carotenoid accumulation. Moreover, Δplc-1, ΔsplA2, and Δcpe-1 mutants showed reduced survival rate under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and induced thermotolerance after exposure to heat shock temperatures. Thus, this study revealed multiple cellular roles for plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 genes in regulation of [Ca(2+)](c), carotenoid accumulation, survival under stress conditions, and acquisition of thermotolerance induced by heat shock.

  20. Software design specification and analysis(NuFDS) approach for the safety critical software based on porgrammable logic controller(PLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin Yong; Choi, Seong Soo [Atomic Creative Technology Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper introduces the software design specification and analysis technique for the safety-critical system based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). During software development phases, the design phase should perform an important role to connect between requirements phase and implementation phase as a process of translating problem requirements into software structures. In this work, the Nuclear FBD-style Design Specification and analysis (NuFDS) approach was proposed. The NuFDS approach for nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) software are suggested in a straight forward manner. It consists of four major specifications as follows; Database, Software Architecture, System Behavior, and PLC Hardware Configuration. Additionally, correctness, completeness, consistency, and traceability check techniques are also suggested for the formal design analysis in NuFDS approach. In addition, for the tool supporting, we are developing NuSDS tool based on the NuFDS approach which is a tool, especially for the software design specification in nuclear fields.

  1. 1,25(OH)2D3induces regulatory T cell differentiation by influencing the VDR/PLC-γ1/TGF-β1/pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Qin, Shengying; Zhang, Jinyan; Zhon, Lin; Pen, Zhihai; Xing, Tonghai

    2017-11-01

    Vitamin D has been recommended as an immune modulator in recent years, in addition to regulating calcium-phosphorous-bone metabolism. Clinical studies on organ transplantation found that vitamin D sufficiency patients were less likely to develop acute cellular rejection within one year after transplantation compared to those with vitamin D deficiency. Thus, a high percentage of regulatory T cells might play a key role in preventing acute cellular rejection (ACR). In this report, we studied the specific effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on human T cell diff ;erentiation, and determined the potential molecule mechanism behind. Results showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 induced the differentiation of T-regulatory cells (Treg cells), while inhibiting Th17 cell proliferation. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 promoted secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming Growth Factor beta1 (TGF-β1) but suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17). Phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) is an indispensable signaling protein downstream of the classical TCR signaling pathway and was shown to play a crucial role in T cell activation, while Naive T cells expressed less PLC-γ1. Here we showed that Vitamin D could significantly upregulate PLC-γ1 expression, which then induced expression of TGF-β1. In summary, 1,25(OH)2D3 indirectly modulates the differentiation of Treg/Th17 cells by aff ;ecting the VDR/PLC-γ1/TGF-β1pathway. These results indicate that administration 1,25(OH)2D3 supplements may be a beneficial treatment for organ transplantation recipients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. MHO1, an evolutionarily conserved gene, is synthetic lethal with PLC1; Mho1p has a role in invasive growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Schlatter

    Full Text Available The novel protein Memo (Mediator of ErbB2 driven cell motility was identified in a screen for ErbB2 interacting proteins and found to have an essential function in cell motility. Memo is evolutionarily conserved with homologs found in all branches of life; the human and yeast proteins have a similarity of >50%. In the present study we used the model organism S. cerevisiae to characterize the Memo-homologue Mho1 (Yjr008wp and to investigate its function in yeast. In a synthetic lethal screen we found MHO1 as a novel synthetic lethal partner of PLC1, which encodes the single phospholipase C in yeast. Double-deleted cells lacking MHO1 and PLC1, proliferate for up to ten generations. Introduction of human Memo into the memoΔplc1Δ strain rescued the synthetic lethal phenotype suggesting that yeast and human proteins have similar functions. Mho1 is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of yeast cells; the same distribution of Memo was found in mammalian cells. None of the Memo homologues have a characteristic nuclear localization sequence, however, a conserved nuclear export sequence is found in all. In mammalian cells, blocking nuclear export with Leptomycin B led to nuclear Memo accumulation, suggesting that it is actively exported from the nucleus. In yeast MHO1 expression is induced by stress conditions. Since invasive growth in S. cerevisiea is also stress-induced, we tested Mho1's role in this response. MHO1 deletion had no effect on invasion induced by nutrient deprivation, however, Mho1 overexpression blocked the invasive ability of yeast cells, suggesting that Mho1 might be acting in a dominant negative manner. Taken together, our results show that MHO1 is a novel synthetic lethal interactor with PLC1, and that both gene products are required for proliferation. Moreover, a role for Memo in cell motility/invasion appears to be conserved across species.

  3. VirPLC: a Methodology to Developing Capacities, Skills and Self-esteem by the Logical Stimulus with a Simple, Functional and Dynamic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni FERRER ROJAS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of programming environments such as Logo, Minecraft, Code or Scratch is a consequence of the effectiveness of a graphic language for the introduction of students in programming but, some of the newer systems, such as App Inventor, are slow in the basic interaction: “make it” / “test it”. I propose an alternative for students from the age of 15. It is called VirPLC and it is oriented to something as functional as the systems control, through two screens: one with software to program and, another one with animated hardware to simulate it. VirPLC does not pretend to turn the user into an expert in automation, but to facilitate a first contact between the student and the logic world, by posing problems in practical, near and real control systems such as: crane control; TV competition; alarm; supermarket door; garage door; traffic light; lift... The student raises both the logical operativity, as well as the hardware requirements (inputs and outputs. The software works in an evolutionary and repeated way: “make it” / “test it” and consolidate to improve it. It allows the evolution in levels of greater complexity, where it is debugged until acquiring a solid “product”, functional, safe, versatile and installable. VirPLC step by step “hooks” students who pursue challenges and offers an alternative to apply after some Boolean Algebra notions, and before written programming, with objects, events and classes. VirPLC is freeware, it works under Windows (from XP to W10 and can be downloaded from the author’s WEB. At install time, it adds a folder with more than 30 examples often deliberately incomplete, along with a mini-course with several proposed practices.

  4. Stress Signals, Mediated by Membranous Glucocorticoid Receptor, Activate PLC/PKC/GSK-3β/β-catenin Pathway to Inhibit Wound Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozic, Ivan; Vukelic, Sasa; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Liang, Liang; Ramirez, Horacio A; Pastar, Irena; Tomic Canic, Marjana

    2017-05-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs), key mediators of stress signals, are also potent wound healing inhibitors. To understand how stress signals inhibit wound healing, we investigated the role of membranous glucocorticoid receptor (mbGR) by using cell-impermeable BSA-conjugated dexamethasone. We found that mbGR inhibits keratinocyte migration and wound closure by activating a Wnt-like phospholipase (PLC)/ protein kinase C (PKC) signaling cascade. Rapid activation of mbGR/PLC/PKC further leads to activation of known biomarkers of nonhealing found in patients, β-catenin and c-myc. Conversely, a selective inhibitor of PKC, calphostin C, blocks mbGR/PKC pathway, and rescues GC-mediated inhibition of keratinocyte migration in vitro and accelerates wound epithelialization of human wounds ex vivo. This novel signaling mechanism may have a major impact on understanding how stress response via GC signaling regulates homeostasis and its role in development and treatments of skin diseases, including wound healing. To test tissue specificity of this nongenomic signaling mechanism, we tested retinal and bronchial human epithelial cells and fibroblasts. We found that mbGR/PLC/PKC signaling cascade exists in all cell types tested, suggesting a more general role. The discovery of this nongenomic signaling pathway, in which glucocorticoids activate Wnt pathway via mbGR, provides new insights into how stress-mediated signals may activate growth signals in various epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of MAPKs and PLC Pathways in Modulation of Pacemaking Activity by So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang in Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Murine Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Woo Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs are the pacemaker cells that generate slow waves in the gastrointestinal (GI tract. We have aimed to investigate the effects of Socheongryong-Tang (SCRT in ICCs from mouse’s small intestine. Methods. The whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record membrane potentials from cultured ICCs. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i increase was studied in cultured ICCs using fura-2 AM. Results. ICCs generated pacemaker potentials in mouse’s small intestine. SCRT produced membrane depolarization in current clamp mode. Y25130 (5-HT3 receptor antagonist and RS39604 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist blocked SCRT-induced membrane depolarizations, whereas SB269970 (5-HT7 receptor antagonist did not. When GDP-β-S (1 mM was in the pipette solution, SCRT did not induce the membrane depolarizations. [Ca2+]i analysis showed that SCRT increased [Ca2+]i. In the presence of PD98059 (p42/44 MAPK inhibitor, SCRT did not produce membrane depolarizations. In addition, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor and JNK inhibitors blocked the depolarizations by SCRT in pacemaker potentials. Furthermore, the membrane depolarizations by SCRT were not inhibited by U-73122, an active phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor, but by U-73343, an inactive PLC inhibitor. Conclusion. These results suggest that SCRT might affect GI motility by the modulation of pacemaker activity through MAPKs and PLC pathways in the ICCs.

  6. Development of a Measurement and Control System for a 40l/h Helium Liquefier based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Liu, L. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Liu, T.; Li, Q.; Hu, Z. J.; Wang, B. M.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Yan, T.

    A 40l/h Helium Liquefier has been commissioned by the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this Helium Liquefier is developed. Proper sensors are selected, for example, three types of transmitters are adopted respectively according to detailed temperature measurement requirements. Siemens S7-300 PLC CPU315-2PN/DP operates as a master station and three sets of ET200 M DP remote expand I/O operate asslave stations. Profibus-DP field communication is used between the master station and the slave stations. The upper computer HMI(Human Machine Interface) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V7.0. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. A specific control logic for this Helium Liquefier is developed. The control of the suction and discharge pressures of the compressor and the control of the turbo-expanders loop are being discussed in this paper. Following the commissioning phase, the outlet temperature of the second stage turbine has reached 8.6K and the temperature before the throttle valve has reached 13.1K.

  7. Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wang, P. [Beijing Sciample Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2014-01-29

    An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

  8. Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Wang, P.; Liu, L. Q.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

  9. Development of a measurement and control system for a 10 kW@20 K refrigerator based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Liu, L. Q.; Liu, T.; Xu, X. D.; Dong, B.; Lu, W. H.; Pan, W.; Wu, J. H.; Xiong, L. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A 10 kW@20 K refrigerator has been established by the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this 10 kW@20 K refrigerator is developed. According to the detailed measurement requirements, proper sensors and transmitters are adopted. Siemens S7-300 PLC CPU315-2 PN/DP operates as a master station. Two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O, one power meter, two compressors and one vacuum gauge operate as slave stations. Profibus-DP field communication and Modbus communication are used between the master station and the slave stations in this control system. The upper computer HMI (Human Machine Interface) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V7.0. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. After commissioning, this refrigerator has been operating with a 10 kW of cooling power at 20 K for more than 72 hours.

  10. ESPRESSO instrument control electronics: a PLC based distributed layout for a second generation instrument at ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2014-07-01

    ESPRESSO is an ultra-stable fiber-fed spectrograph designed to combine incoherently the light coming from up to 4 Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. From the Nasmyth focus of each telescope the light, through an optical path, is fed by the Coudé Train subsystems to the Front End Unit placed in the Combined Coudé Laboratory. The Front End is composed by one arm for each telescope and its task is to convey the incoming light, after a calibration process, into the spectrograph fibers. To perform these operations a large number of functions are foreseen, like motorized stages, lamps, digital and analog sensors that, coupled with dedicated Technical CCDs (two per arms), allow to stabilize the incoming beam up to the level needed to exploit the ESPRESSO scientific requirements. The Instrument Control Electronics goal is to properly control all the functions in the Combined Coudé Laboratory and the spectrograph itself. It is fully based on a distributed PLC architecture, abandoning in this way the VME-based technology previously adopted for the ESO VLT instruments. In this paper we will describe the ESPRESSO Instrument Control Electronics architecture, focusing on the distributed layout and its interfaces with the other ESPRESSO subsystems.

  11. Requirements verification and validation of operating system software for a PLC-based plant protection system prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, K. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Cheon, S. W.; Son, H. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Kwon, K. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes Requirements Verification and Validation(V and V) of operating system(OS) software to be developed for Programmable Logic Controller(PLC)-based digital Plant Protection System(PPS) prototype in Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) project. The OS is being developed as newly developing software, lifecycle V and V is applied, and software V and V criteria and requirements in the Software Review Plan (SRP)/BTP-14, the IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2, the IEEE Std. 1012, and the IEEE Std. 1028 are applied systematically and strictly at each lifecycle phase. Checklist-based Fagan Inspection has mainly been applied for requirements V and V while model checking is applied for formal verification and HAZOP is applied for identification of safety requirements. Checklist-based V and V procedure was very effective for systematic requirements V and V of OS software, and the applied V and V techniques and their tools in requirements V and V can also be applied for systematic design V and V of OS software.

  12. Automation of water supply and recirculation-filtration of water at a swimming pool using Zelio PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes the use of the Zelio PLC for the automation of the water supply and recirculation-filtration system of a swimming pool. To do this, the Zelio SR3B261BD - 24V DC with 10 digital inputs (24V DC) and 10 digital outputs (relay contacts) was used. The proposed application makes the control of the water supply pumps and the water recirculation-filtration from a swimming pool. The recirculation-filtration systems for pools and swimming pools are designed to ensure water cleaning and recirculation to achieve optimum quality and lasting service life. The water filtration process is one of the important steps in water treatment in polls and swimming pools. It consists in recirculation of the entire volume of water and begins by absorbing the water in the pool by means of a pump followed by the passing of water through the filter, disinfectant and pH dosing, and reintroducing the water back into the pool or swimming pool through the discharge holes. Filters must to work 24 hours a day to remove pollutants from pools or swimming pools users. Filtration removes suspension particles with different origins. All newly built pools and swimming pools must be fitted with water recirculation systems, and existing ones will be equipped with water recirculation and water treatment systems.

  13. Systém pro sběr dat ze sítě PLC firmy Micropel

    OpenAIRE

    Klusáček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá návrhem a implementací obvodové a programové stránky zařízení sloužícího pro sběr dat. Zařízení je založeno na jednodeskovém mikropočítači FOX Board G20. Ten je umístěn na desku s krátkodobým zálohovaným zdrojem a rozhraním pro komunikaci pomocí linky RS485. Na zařízení běží operační systém GNU/Linux s ovladačem umožňujícím komunikovat s PLC firmy Micropel. Získaná data jsou ukládána do databáze a prezentována uživately přes webové rozhraní. This paper deals with desgi...

  14. Enhanced expression of Gqα and PLC-β1 proteins contributes to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy in SHR: role of endogenous angiotensin II and endothelin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atef, Mohammed Emehdi; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2014-07-01

    Vascular Gqα signaling has been shown to contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, angiotensin II (ANG II) was shown to induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through Gqα signaling; however, the studies on the role of Gqα and PLC-β1 proteins in VSMC hypertrophy in animal model are lacking. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the role of Gqα/PLC-β1 proteins and the signaling pathways in VSMC hypertrophy using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). VSMC from 16-wk-old SHR and not from 12-wk-old SHR exhibited enhanced levels of Gqα/PLC-β1 proteins compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as determined by Western blotting. However, protein synthesis as determined by [(3)H]leucine incorporation was significantly enhanced in VSMC from both 12- and 16-wk-old SHR compared with VSMC from age-matched WKY rats. Furthermore, the knockdown of Gqα/PLC-β1 in VSMC from 16-wk-old SHR by antisense and small interfering RNA resulted in attenuation of protein synthesis. In addition, the enhanced expression of Gqα/PLC-β1 proteins, enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and enhanced protein synthesis in VSMC from SHR were attenuated by the ANG II AT1 and endothelin-1 (ET-1) ETA receptor antagonists losartan and BQ123, respectively, but not by the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788. In addition, PD98059 decreased the enhanced expression of Gqα/PLC-β1 and protein synthesis in VSMC from SHR. These results suggest that the enhanced levels of endogenous ANG II and ET-1 through the activation of AT1 and ETA receptors, respectively, and MAP kinase signaling, enhanced the expression of Gqα/PLC-β1 proteins in VSMC from 16-wk-old SHR and result in VSMC hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The induction of CXCR4 expression in human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) by CoCr particles is regulated by the PLC-DAG-PKC pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drynda, Andreas; Ren, Qiang; Buchhorn, Gottfried H; Lohmann, Christoph H

    2017-11-01

    Osteolysis which leads to aseptic loosening of implants is a fundamental problem in joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty) and the leading cause for implant failure and revision surgery. Metal (CoCr) particles separated from implants by wear cause osteolysis and the failure of orthopedic implants, but the molecular mechanism is not clear. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been shown to play a pivotal role in periprosthetic osteolysis. The aim of this study was to determine which signal transduction pathway (PLC-DAG-PKC or MAPK/ERK) induces CXCR4 expression in osteoblast-like cells (MG63) cells. MG63 and Jurkat cells were stimulated with different amounts of particles (10 7 , 10 6 , and 10 5 ) for different time periods (30 min to 24 h), in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors (chelerythrine for the PLC-DAG-PKC pathway and PD98059 for the MAPK/ERK pathway). The expression of CXCR4-specific mRNA was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PKC activity was measured by Western Blot using an antibody specific for PKC-related phosphorylation. Real-time PCR data showed that CXCR4 mRNA expression in MG63 cells induced by CoCr particles was significantly diminished by the PKC-specific inhibitor chelerythrine. This effect was not observed with the MAPK/ERK inhibitor PD98059. The involvement of PKC was also confirmed by an intensified phosphorylation pattern after stimulation with CoCr particles. In Jurkat cells, none of the inhibitors exhibited any effect. The induction of CXCR4-specific mRNA expression in MG63 cells after stimulation with CoCr particles is regulated by the PLC-DAG-PKC pathway and not by the MAPK/ERK pathway. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2326-2332, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Actomyosin polarisation through PLC-PKC triggers symmetry breaking of the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng; Leung, Chuen Yan; Shahbazi, Marta N; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2017-10-13

    Establishment of cell polarity in the mammalian embryo is fundamental for the first cell fate decision that sets aside progenitor cells for both the new organism and the placenta. Yet the sequence of events and molecular mechanism that trigger this process remain unknown. Here, we show that de novo polarisation of the mouse embryo occurs in two distinct phases at the 8-cell stage. In the first phase, an apical actomyosin network is formed. This is a pre-requisite for the second phase, in which the Par complex localises to the apical domain, excluding actomyosin and forming a mature apical cap. Using a variety of approaches, we also show that phospholipase C-mediated PIP 2 hydrolysis is necessary and sufficient to trigger the polarisation of actomyosin through the Rho-mediated recruitment of myosin II to the apical cortex. Together, these results reveal the molecular framework that triggers de novo polarisation of the mouse embryo.The molecular trigger that establishes cell polarity in the mammalian embryo is unclear. Here, the authors show that de novo polarisation of the mouse embryo at the 8-cell stage is directed by Phospholipase C and Protein kinase C and occurs in two phases: polarisation of actomyosin followed by the Par complex.

  17. A small grid-connected PV system controlled by the PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dan; Jiang, Zhijian; Li, Yingzhi; Fan, Qing [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new working of the PV system is proposed in this paper. The general solar power generation system can intelligently switch into three work models by the programmable logic controller, including power supply, power storage and grid-connection, The power curve of the PV system can be summarized from the generation data detected by the data acquisition system, compared with the power curve of the various binary combined air-condition loads, we can identify the optimal matching control strategy between the PV system and the combined air-condition loads. The solar power generation system can charge the battery, so the storage power will be converted into AC for the load by independent inverter when the PV power is insufficient; the PV system also can intelligently convey energy to the grid, the grid has the two-way transmission function, in other words, the grid also supply the energy to the load if the PV system fail to drive the load. All in all, the system is capable of bi-direction power transfer. (orig.)

  18. The mortality and cancer morbidity experience of employees at the Chapelcross plant of British Nuclear Fuels plc, 1955-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeoghegan, D. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: david.mcgeoghegan@westlakes.ac.uk; Binks, K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The results presented here are from the follow-up of the cohort of workers ever employed at the Chapelcross site of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) between 1955 and 1995. The study cohort consists of 2628 workers, 2249 of whom were male, who were first employed at the plant before 1 January 1996, and who have 63 967 person-years of follow-up. The mean follow-up period is 24.3 years. The 2209 members of the cohort (84%) classified as radiation workers accumulated 185.1 person-sieverts of external radiation; their median cumulative dose was 39.1 mSv, and 95% of their cumulative doses were less than 339.3 mSv. The Chapelcross workers show the usual 'healthy worker' effect. To the end of 1995, there were 528 deaths among the total cohort (20%), including 449 (20%) amongst the radiation workers. When the dose was unlagged, a statistically significant association was noted between cancer registrations of the buccal cavity and pharynx and dose, based on five cases. When the dose was lagged by 10 years, a statistically significant excess relative risk was noted between all cancer morbidity and dose, 1.80 Sv{sup -1} (0.03 to 4.45), based on 162 cases. This result is driven by the non-significant, but high excess relative risk estimates from the 12 prostatic cancer registrations. A statistically significant association is noted between the eight deaths amongst radiation workers who had prostatic cancer as the underlying cause of mortality and cumulative external radiation dose when the dose was lagged by 0, 2 and 10 years. The association is unlikely to be causal. The finding has little biological plausibility as the strength of the association weakened as the dose lagging increased; it was strongest when the dose was unlagged and disappeared when the dose was lagged by 20 years. None of the workers who was registered for or died from prostatic cancer had ever been monitored for exposure to tritium or to {sup 51}Cr, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co or {sup 65}Zn. There is

  19. Elektroerozyon Tezgahları İçin Geliştirilen PLC Tabanlı Divizör

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail COŞKUN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, elektroerozyon tezgahları için bilgisayar kontrollü yeni bir divizör modeli geliştirilerek, elektroerozyon tezgahlarında kullanılması amaçlanmıştır. Daha çabuk ve hatasız ölçümler yapmak için klasik divizör mekanizmasında bulunan yardımcı elemanlar kaldırılarak bunların yerine başka araçlar kullanılmıştır. Bu işlem için bilgisayar kontrollü bir divizör tasarlanıp imal edilmiştir. Sistem için servomotor sürücüsü, PLC ve bilgisayar programı arayüzü geliştirilmiştir. Sistemde kullanılan servomotor 36/1000 oranında bölme işlemi yapabilmektedir. Böylece mekanik olarak çalışan divizör, bilgisayar kontrollü divizör haline dönüştürülerek, doğrusal ve açısal bölüntülerin yapılmasında zorunlu olan bir takım hesaplamaların basitleştirilmesi sağlanmış ve dişli çark mekanizması ortadan kaldırılmıştır. Geliştirilen divizör, prototip elektroerozyon tezgahında kullanılmış ve amaç doğrultusunda başarılı sonuçlar elde edilmiştir.

  20. Changes in Teachers' Beliefs about Reformed Science Teaching and Learning, and Their Inquiry-Based Instructional Practices Following a Year-Long RET-PLC Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the extent to which teachers' beliefs and classroom practices concerning inquiry-based instruction change following participation in a large mid-Atlantic university's year-long Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) - Professional Learning Community (PLC) professional development program. Mixed methods were used to explore this study's research questions. Supported with NASA funding, twelve secondary science teachers participated in the study. Study findings suggest that RET programs that incorporate a PLC component can help to shift teachers' beliefs and classroom practices concerning inquiry-based instruction, and help them to increase the level of inquiry in their science lessons. An implication of this research is that teacher professional development models need to be developed to help teachers effectively plan more time for students to conduct inquiry-based activities, to communicate findings based on evidence, and to develop questions to investigate themselves. Moreover, the findings of this study can help to inform science teacher education and professional development programs in creating more fruitful experiences for these professionals, and help them to align their beliefs and practice more toward the constructivist visions of current reform efforts.

  1. A Case Study of Modern PLC and LabVIEW Controls: Power Supply Controls for the ORNL ITER ECH Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Killough, Stephen M [ORNL; Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL; White, John A [ORNL; Munro Jr, John K [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Power Supply Controls are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test transmission line components of the Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system, with a focus on gyrotrons and waveguides, in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The control is performed by several Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC s) located near the different equipment. A technique of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is presented to monitor, control, and log actions of the PLC s on a PC through use of Allen Bradley s Remote I/O communication interface coupled with an Open Process Control/Object Linking and Embedding [OLE] for Process Control (OPC) Server/Client architecture. The OPC data is then linked to a National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW system for monitoring and control. Details of the architecture and insight into applicability to other systems are presented in the rest of this paper. Future integration with an EPICS (Experimental Physics Industrial Control System) based mini-CODAC (Control, Data Access and Communication) SCADA system is under consideration, and integration considerations will be briefly introduced.

  2. Deliverable D9. Market survey of last-mile communication services using PLC. PALAS - Powerline as an Alternative Local AccesS IST-1999-11379

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Renewable Energy in the Built Environment DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-06-01

    This report contains the results from a market survey performed during spring 2001 in the Netherlands with respect to last-mile communication services. The survey had a large response rate, which enabled statistically valid conclusions for the whole Dutch market. In this report the following items are discussed: (1) The household member's interest and attitudes concerning services distributed by last-mile access techniques like PLC; (2) The strategies for service offerings with a focus on distributed services, based on PLC only, or in combination with other access techniques as well as an exploration of capacity demands; (3). Conclusions what type of segmentation model is useful to analyze the market for communication service offerings; and (4) An overall strategy advice based on the market survey and on the strategy models discussed in this report, as well as other market oriented deliverables. The questions focus on customer loyalty in a liberalised market, new possible services to be added by utility companies and the customer's assessment of energy issues, especially with regard to renewables. The data are analysed using three different segmentation schemes. A demographic, customer loyalty and decision style segmentation of the results is presented. There appears to be an opportunity for last-mile communication services, especially in a liberalised market setting. Last mile services to be offered give utilities possibilities to keep existing and gain new customers.

  3. Úzkopásmová PLC komunikace s vysokou datovou rychlostí na bázi OFDM techniky

    OpenAIRE

    Csiba, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá úzkopásmovou PLC komunikací. V práci je popisována historie, princip úzkopásmové komunikace a popis čtyř dostupných úzkopásmových standardů (PRIME, G3-PLC, G.hnem, IEEE P1901.2) s jejich porovnáním. V další části jsou popisována experimentální měření, která jsou prováděna v domácím prostředí za použití dostupných modemů TMDSPLCKIT od firmy Texas Instruments, MT39-L1-ver.R modemů od firmy ModemTec a EVALKITST7580-1 od firmy STMicroelectronics. This bachelor p...

  4. Cathelicidin rCRAMP stimulates rat mast cells to generate cysteinyl leukotrienes, synthesize TNF and migrate: involvement of PLC/A2, PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąbolewska, Edyta; Pietrzak, Anna; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins represent a family of cationic peptides involved in host defense systems. Apart from exerting direct anti-microbial effects, cathelicidins can regulate immune responses by affecting the activity of cells playing a role in antibacterial defense. Taking into account that mast cells are critical components of host defense, the aim of this study was to determine whether rat cathelicidin-related anti-microbial peptide (rCRAMP) can influence mast cell activity. We have demonstrated that activation of fully mature rat mast cells with rCRAMP resulted in generation and release of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs). However, rCRAMP failed to induce mast cell degranulation and histamine release. We also found that rCRAMP stimulated rat mast cells to synthesize TNF, but not CXCL8. What is more, this peptide induced GM-CSF, IL-1β, CCL2 and CCL3 but not IL-33 mRNA expression in mast cells. Finally, we showed that this cathelicidin serves as potent chemoattractant for rat mast cells. rCRAMP-mediated cysLT synthesis and mast cell migration were strongly inhibited by IL-10 pre-treatment. With the use of specific inhibitors, we established that activation of PLC/A2 and ERK1/2, but not p38, was required for rCRAMP-induced mast cell stimulation, while PI3K-dependent pathway is involved in both TNF synthesis and mast cell migration. Our results suggest that cathelicidins can amplify inflammatory responses by causing mast cells accumulation and by stimulating these cells to release potent pro-inflammatory mediators. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Transacsys PLC - acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Transacsys Workflow Ltd has agreed to pay 1 million Sfr to aquire the rights to the EDH suite of computer programmes developed at CERN for the administration of internal transactions. The company intends to market and sell-on EDH (1/2 page).

  6. An integrated environment of software development and V and V for PLC based safety-critical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo Ryong

    2005-02-15

    To develop and implement a safety-critical system, the requirements of the system must be analyzed thoroughly during the phases of a software development's life cycle because a single error in the requirements can generate serious software faults. We therefore propose an Integrated Environment (IE) approach for requirements which is an integrated approach that enables easy inspection by combining requirement traceability and effective use of a formal method. For the V and V tasks of requirements phase, our approach uses software inspection, requirement traceability, and formal specification with structural decomposition. Software inspection and the analysis of requirements traceability are the most effective methods of software V and V. Although formal methods are also considered an effective V and V activity, they are difficult to use properly in nuclear fields, as well as in other fields, because of their mathematical nature. We also propose another Integrated Environment (IE) for the design and implementation of safety-critical systems. In this study, a nuclear FED-style design specification and analysis (NuFDS) approach was proposed for PLC based safety-critical systems. The NuFDS approach is suggested in a straightforward manner for the effective and formal specification and analysis of software designs. Accordingly, the proposed NuFDS approach comprises one technique for specifying the software design and another for analyzing the software design. In addition, with the NuFDS approach, we can analyze the safety of software on the basis of fault tree synthesis. To analyze the design phase more effectively, we propose a technique of fault tree synthesis, along with a universal fault tree template for the architecture modules of nuclear software. Various tools have been needed to make software V and V more convenient. We therefore developed four kinds of computer-aided software engineering tools that could be used in accordance with the software's life

  7. An integrated environment of software development and V and V for PLC based safety-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seo Ryong

    2005-02-01

    To develop and implement a safety-critical system, the requirements of the system must be analyzed thoroughly during the phases of a software development's life cycle because a single error in the requirements can generate serious software faults. We therefore propose an Integrated Environment (IE) approach for requirements which is an integrated approach that enables easy inspection by combining requirement traceability and effective use of a formal method. For the V and V tasks of requirements phase, our approach uses software inspection, requirement traceability, and formal specification with structural decomposition. Software inspection and the analysis of requirements traceability are the most effective methods of software V and V. Although formal methods are also considered an effective V and V activity, they are difficult to use properly in nuclear fields, as well as in other fields, because of their mathematical nature. We also propose another Integrated Environment (IE) for the design and implementation of safety-critical systems. In this study, a nuclear FED-style design specification and analysis (NuFDS) approach was proposed for PLC based safety-critical systems. The NuFDS approach is suggested in a straightforward manner for the effective and formal specification and analysis of software designs. Accordingly, the proposed NuFDS approach comprises one technique for specifying the software design and another for analyzing the software design. In addition, with the NuFDS approach, we can analyze the safety of software on the basis of fault tree synthesis. To analyze the design phase more effectively, we propose a technique of fault tree synthesis, along with a universal fault tree template for the architecture modules of nuclear software. Various tools have been needed to make software V and V more convenient. We therefore developed four kinds of computer-aided software engineering tools that could be used in accordance with the software's life cycle to

  8. Directed homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata.......We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata....

  9. Crystallization, optimization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a metal-dependent PI-PLC from Streptomyces antibioticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Michael R.; Selby, Thomas L.

    2012-10-30

    A recombinant metal-dependent phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) fromStreptomyces antibioticushas been crystallized by the hanging-drop method with and without heavy metals. The native crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space groupP222, with unit-cell parametersa= 41.26,b= 51.86,c = 154.78 Å. The X-ray diffraction results showed significant differences in the crystal quality of samples soaked with heavy atoms. Additionally, drop pinning, which increases the surface area of the drops, was also used to improve crystal growth and quality. The combination of heavy-metal soaks and drop pinning was found to be critical for producing high-quality crystals that diffracted to 1.23 Å resolution.

  10. Software design specification and analysis technique (SDSAT) for the development of safety-critical systems based on a programmable logic controller (PLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo Ryong [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: srkoo@kaist.ac.kr; Seong, Poong Hyun [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr

    2006-06-15

    This paper introduces a Software Design Specification and Analysis Technique (SDSAT) for safety-critical systems based on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). During software development phases, the design phase performs an important role in connecting the requirements phase and the implementation phase, and it is a process of translating software requirements into software structures. In this work, the Nuclear FBD-style Design Specification and analysis (NuFDS) approach was proposed for nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) software. The NuFDS approach is suggested in a straightforward manner for effective and formal software design specification and analysis. Accordingly, the proposed NuFDS approach is composed of a software design specification technique and a software design analysis technique. In addition, for tool support in the design phase, we developed the NuSDS tool based on the NuFDS approach; this tool is used specifically for generating software design specification and analysis for nuclear fields.

  11. DISAIN SISTEM KENDALI MESIN AIR LEAK TEST MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM KENDALI PLC OMRON CJ2M DI HVAC (HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING LINE 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses produksi pembuatan komponen HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning dari perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia, memerlukan proses pengecekan kebocoran pada bagian HVAC. Proses pengecekan ini dilakukan untuk memastikan tidak ada komponen HVAC yang bocor sebelum dikirim ke pihak pelanggan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuat system dan alat air leak test. Mesin air leak test ini menggunakan prinsip kerja differential pressure air leak test, yaitu metode yang membandingkan antara tekanan udara yang diberikan ke produk dan master produk. Pada penelitian ini, kami membuat disain mesin air leak test menggunakan sistem kendali berupa air leak tester, PLC, dan HMI. Berdasarkan kondisi dengan kapasitas produksi yang meningkat karena bertambahnya permintaan dari customer, dapat ditanggulangi dengan adanya share loading produksi dari HVAC line 4 ke line baru, yaitu HVAC line 6. Hasil yang didapat dari pengujian deteksi kebocoran produk,didapat nilai parameter kebocoran produk sebesar 2.23 ml/min.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1706-99 - National LEV program in effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sales of America, Inc. Nissan North America, Inc. Porsche Cars of North America, Inc. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Inc. Saab Cars USA, Inc. Subaru of America, Inc. Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. Volkswagen of...

  13. Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate inhibits ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation through P2Y1-PLC signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan; Xu, Shaofeng; Li, Jiang; Wang, Ling; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-09-01

    Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypenty1)-benzoate (dl-PHPB) is a new drug candidate for treatment of ischemic stroke with antiplatelet effect. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of dl-PHPB in inhibiting platelet aggregation. The ADP-activated P2Y1-Gq-PLC and P2Y12-Gi-AC pathways were observed, respectively. Intravenous injection of dl-PHPB (1.3, 3.9, 12.9 mg/kg) significantly inhibited ADP-, collagen-, and arachidonic acid-induced rat platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner, and dl-PHPB had a relatively more potent inhibitory effect on ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation than other agonists. Dl-PHPB also showed a decreased expression of CD62P (a marker for platelet activation) mediated by ADP. Both dl-PHPB and ticlopidine (P2Y12 receptor antagonist) decreased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration. But, dl-PHPB did not reverse the inhibition of PGE1-induced platelet cAMP formation by ADP, which was different from ticlopidine. Further, dl-PHPB instead of ticlopidine showed increasing phospholipase C-β phosphorylation (ser(1105)). The m-3M3FBS, a phospholipase C activator, attenuated the inhibitory effect of dl-PHPB on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and enhanced IP1 accumulation in rat platelets. Dl-PHPB decreased IP1 accumulation induced by ADP but had no effect on IP1 level enhanced by m-3M3FBS. Our results suggest that dl-PHPB has a potent antiplatelet effect, which is mainly through blockade of P2Y1 receptor-PLC-IP3 pathway and decreasing cytoplasmic calcium.

  14. Pennogenin tetraglycoside induces rat myometrial contraction and MLC20 phosphorylation via PLC-IP(3 and RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Total steroidal saponins extracted from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla Sm. var. yunnanensis (TSSPs have been widely used in China for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. We previously studied the main active constituents of TSSPs and their structure-activity relationships with respect to rat myometrial contractions. Tg (pennogenin tetraglycoside was identified as one of the active ingredients in TSSPs able to induce rat myometrial contractions. However, the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions on uterine activity have not been described clearly. METHODS: Here Tg was screened for effects on contractile activity in isolated uterine strips from estrogen-primed rats and on MLC20 phosphorylation and related signaling pathways in cultured rat myometrial cells as determined by Western blot. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+](i was monitored under a confocal microscope using Fluo-4 AM-loaded myometrial cells. RESULTS: Tg dose-dependently stimulated rat myometrial contractions as well as MLC20 phosphorylation in vitro, which could be completely suppressed by an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. Use of Ca(2+ channel blockers and kinase inhibitors demonstrated that Tg-induced myometrial contractions are mediated by activation of the phospholipase C (PLC-inositol triphosphate (IP3 signaling pathway, resulting in increased MLC20 phosphorylation. Furthermore, Y27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROK, notably suppressed Tg-stimulated myometrial contractions and decreased MLC20 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that rat myometrial contractility induced by Tg results from enhanced MLC20 phosphorylation, while both PLC-IP3 and RhoA/ROK signaling pathways mediate the process. These mechanisms may be responsible for the therapeutic effects of TSSPs on abnormal uterine bleeding.

  15. Molecular characterization of severin from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and its potential anti-apoptotic role in hepatocarcinoma PLC cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqing Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, caused by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, is a kind of neglected tropical disease, but it is highly related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. It has been well known that the excretory/secretory products of C. sinensis (CsESPs play key roles in clonorchiasis associated carcinoma. From genome and transcriptome of C. sinensis, we identified one component of CsESPs, severin (Csseverin, which had three putative gelsolin domains. Its homologues are supposed to play a vital role in apoptosis resistance of tumour cell. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was significant similarity in tertiary structures between human gelsolin and Csseverin by bioinformatics analysis. We identified that Csseverin expressed at life stage of adult worm, metacercaria and egg by the method of quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Csseverin distributed in vitellarium and intrauterine eggs of adult worm and tegument of metacercaria by immunofluorence assay. We obtained recombinant Csseverin (rCsseverin and confirmed that rCsseverin could bind with calciumion in circular dichroism spectrum analysis. It was demonstrated that rCsseverin was of the capability of actin binding by gel overlay assay and immunocytochemistry. Both Annexin V/PI assay and mitochondrial membrane potential assay of human hepatocarcinoma cell line PLC showed apoptosis resistance after incubation with different concentrations of rCsseverin. Morphological analysis, apoptosis-associated changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay showed that co-incubation of PLC cells with rCsseverin in vitro led to an inhibition of apoptosis induced by serum-starved for 24 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the molecular properties of Csseverin, a molecule of CsESPs, were characterized in our study. rCsseverin could cause obvious apoptotic inhibition in human HCC cell line. Csseverin might exacerbate the

  16. Physiological crosstalk between the AC/PKA and PLC/PKC pathways modulates melatonin-mediated, monochromatic-light-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingyun; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2017-09-01

    Previous study has demonstrated that melatonin plays a critical role in monochromatic-light-induced lymphocyte proliferation in response to T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA). However, its intracellular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the intracellular signal pathways of melatonin receptor-mediated T-lymphocyte proliferation in the spleens of chicks exposed to different light wavelengths. Results showed that green light enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation by 2.46-6.83% and increased splenic mRNA and protein expressions of melatonin receptor subtypes (Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c) by 16.05-40.43% compared with the white, red and blue light groups. However, pinealectomy resulted in a decrease in T-lymphocyte proliferation and melatonin receptor expression with no statistically significant differences between the different light groups. In vitro experiments showed that the Mel1b selective antagonist 4P-PDOT, the Mel1c selective antagonist prazosin and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MEK-1) inhibitor PD98059 suppressed both melatonin-induced lymphocyte proliferation in response to ConA and melatonin- and ConA-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity but that the Mel1a/Mel1b non-selective antagonist luzindole did not. In addition, pretreatment with forskolin (FSK, the adenylyl cyclase activator), H89 (the PKA inhibitor), U73122 (the PLC inhibitor) or Go6983 (the broad spectrum PKC inhibitor) markedly attenuated melatonin- and ConA-stimulated T-lymphocyte proliferation and ERK1/2 activity. These results demonstrate that melatonin mediates green-light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation via the Mel1b and Mel1c receptors by triggering crosstalk between the cAMP/PKA and PLC/PKC signal pathways followed by ERK1/2 activation.

  17. Simultaneous Analysis of Wnt and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Doxorubicin Sensitive and Methotrexate Resistant PLC/ PRF/5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaie, Nasrin; Ghaffari, Seyed Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a controversial issue in traditional chemo- therapy of aggressive cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The major cause of MDR is suggested to be the aberrant activation of the main signaling pathways such as Wnt and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κB) which have key roles in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Therefore, the evaluation of their alterations could be essential in chemo-resistant cancers such as Hepatocellular carcinoma. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the alteration of the mentioned pathways in the chemotherapy resistant cancer cells by assessing their major molecular parameters. In this experimental study, methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) and Hoechst 33342 staining, DNA fragmentation and colony formation methods were employed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of methotrexate (MTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) on PLC/PRF/5 cells. Moreover, the expression of 11 important genes involved in MDR was performed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PLC/PRF/5 cells (Alexander) were sensitive to DOX and normally resist- ant to MTX. In addition, the results obtained from RT-PCR analysis revealed that β-catenin expression was significantly reduced and ABCG2 significantly overex- pressed 4.85 and 3.34 times (P value<0.05) in DOX and MTX treated cells, respec- tively. Furthermore, a considerable expression of HIF-1α and p65 were detected only in MTX-resistant cells. Anti-cancer drugs may have more than one target in tumor cells. They not only participate in deregulation of Wnt but also alter NF-κB activation. Moreover, HIF-1α was the only anti-apoptotic protein that was significantly induced in the chem- oresistant cells.

  18. Modernization project of the rod control system and in-core instrumentation system for 34 units of the 900 MW French EDF fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavolara, Ivan; Verburgh, Pierre; Menager, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Rolls-Royce and Cegelec, in partnership, carry out a unique and considerable modernisation project of two Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems for the entire 900 MWe fleet of Electricite De France (EDF). Both rod control (RCS) and reactor in-core measurement (RIC) systems are to be modernised in the frame of the third ten-year renovation of all 34 reactor units over 9 power plants. The RCS contributes to the control of nuclear power by actuating control rod drive mechanisms that allow insertion or withdrawal of control rods. The RCS has also monitoring functions such as controlling the actual rods' position as well as the functional consistency between commands and actual positions. The RIC system measures in-core neutron flux, providing useful information to the control room as well as to the reactor unit computer for further processing. The renovated systems shall replace the existing ageing analog technology by modern digital technology based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) and FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) in the case of power subassemblies of RCS. Both systems rely for certain functions on a common network linking the RCS and RIC networks, improving operations and maintenance thanks to a powerful Man Machine Interface at the different locations of the systems with an extensive suite of tools and diagnostic menus. The project whose design phase started in July 2006 is now in its deployment phase after the successful site implementation of both systems at the first units of Tricastin and Fessenheim power plants, respectively in August 2009 and February 2010. The deployment shall continue with the other 32 units until 2020. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design, supply chain management, manufacturing, installation and commissioning of the nuclear island systems and equipment, as well as operational management through life support. Cegelec, with

  19. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    of direct democracy mechanisms in specific contexts. These country case studies allow for in depth discussion of particular issues, including signature collection and voter participation, campaign financing, media coverage, national variations in the usage of direct democracy procedures and national lessons...

  20. Boronline, a new generation of boron meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions - civil aerospace, defence aerospace, marine and energy Rolls-Royce understands the challenges of design, procurement, manufacture, operation and in-service support of nuclear reactor plants, with over 50 years of experience through the Royal Navy submarine programme. Rolls-Royce can therefore offer full product life-cycle management for new civil nuclear installations, as well as support to existing installations, including plant lifetime extensions. Rolls-Royce produced for 40 years, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems of and associated services for nuclear reactors in Europe, including 58 French reactors and others situated in the United States and in others countries, such as China. Rolls-Royce equipped in this domain 200 nuclear reactors in 20 countries. Among all of its nuclear systems, Rolls Royce is presenting to the conference its new generation of on-line boron measurement system, so called Boronline. (authors)