WorldWideScience

Sample records for directives grob-werke type

  1. 78 FR 2910 - Airworthiness Directives; GROB-WERKE Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... arms on several Grob G 115 airplanes, which could result in failure of the part and consequent loss of...., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West... verbal contact we receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA...

  2. 78 FR 23112 - Airworthiness Directives; Grob-Werke Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... material at the FAA, call (816) 329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Taylor Martin, Aerospace...: (816) 329-4138; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: taylor[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... to detect cracks and prevent the part from failing. (f) Actions and Compliance Unless already done...

  3. 76 FR 1342 - Airworthiness Directives; GROB-WERKE GMBH & CO KG Models G102 ASTIR CS, G102 CLUB ASTIR III, G102...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... safety of the airframe. The spar spigot assembly is based on a safe-life design philosophy. A safe-life... inadequate to sustain the structure for the operational service life of the aircraft. Consequently, we issued... original design of the wing spar spigot assembly is inadequate to meet the airframe life limits and can not...

  4. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  5. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  6. Memorization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express the funct...

  7. Memoization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    the functions and type-directed partial evaluation provides a convenient setting to obtain the normal form of their composition. However, off-the-shelf type-directed partial evaluation turns out to yield gigantic normal forms. We identify that this gigantism is due to redundancies, and that these redundancies...

  8. Pragmatics of type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation stems from the residualization of static values in dynamic contexts, given their type and the type of their free variables. Its algorithm coincides with the algorithm for coercing a subtype value into a supertype value, which itself coincides with Berger and Schwi...

  9. Memoization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express the funct......We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express...... originate in the handling of sums, which uses delimited continuations. We successfully eliminate these redundancies by extending type-directed partial evaluation with memoization capabilities. The result only works for pure functional programs, but it provides an unexpected use of code generation...... and it yields orders-of-magnitude improvements both in time and in space for type isomorphisms. Basic Research in Computer Science (www. brics. dk), funded by the Danish National Research Foundation....

  10. Direct cycle type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hisato; Ibe, Hidefumi.

    1990-01-01

    In a direct cycle type nuclear power plant such as BWR type reactor, since oxygen atoms in reactor water are actuvated by neutron irradiation in the reactor core, carry over of the thus formed radioactive nitrogen atoms causes increase in the dosage in a turbine system. Since 16 N accompanies in the main steams in the chemical form of 16 NO, it can not effectively be removed in a nitrogen removing device. In view of the above, hydrogen atom concentration is reduced by adding metals having high reaction with hydrogen atoms, for example, silver ions, chromium ions, or ruthenium ions are added to reactor water. Then, equilibrium concentration of 16 NO in water is reduced by suppressing the reaction: 16 NO 2 + H → 16 NO + OH. (T.M.)

  11. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  12. Type-Directed Elaboration of Quasiquotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, David Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Idris's reflection features allow Idris metaprograms to manipulate a representation of Idris's core language as a datatype, but these reflected terms were designed for ease of type checking and are therefore exceedingly verbose and tedious to work with. A simpler notation would make these programs...

  13. Type I Interferons Direct Gammaherpesvirus Host Colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S E Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-herpesviruses colonise lymphocytes. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 infects B cells via epithelial to myeloid to lymphoid transfer. This indirect route entails exposure to host defences, and type I interferons (IFN-I limit infection while viral evasion promotes it. To understand how IFN-I and its evasion both control infection outcomes, we used Mx1-cre mice to tag floxed viral genomes in IFN-I responding cells. Epithelial-derived MuHV-4 showed low IFN-I exposure, and neither disrupting viral evasion nor blocking IFN-I signalling markedly affected acute viral replication in the lungs. Maximising IFN-I induction with poly(I:C increased virus tagging in lung macrophages, but the tagged virus spread poorly. Lymphoid-derived MuHV-4 showed contrastingly high IFN-I exposure. This occurred mainly in B cells. IFN-I induction increased tagging without reducing viral loads; disrupting viral evasion caused marked attenuation; and blocking IFN-I signalling opened up new lytic spread between macrophages. Thus, the impact of IFN-I on viral replication was strongly cell type-dependent: epithelial infection induced little response; IFN-I largely suppressed macrophage infection; and viral evasion allowed passage through B cells despite IFN-I responses. As a result, IFN-I and its evasion promoted a switch in infection from acutely lytic in myeloid cells to chronically latent in B cells. Murine cytomegalovirus also showed a capacity to pass through IFN-I-responding cells, arguing that this is a core feature of herpesvirus host colonization.

  14. Evaluation of a new type of direct digital radiography machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of a new type of direct digital radiography machine. ... Ease of use, anatomical coverage and tolerance to patient motion were advantages. ... to that of conventional radiographs, with limited fine detail visibility and penetration.

  15. Type Directed Partial Evaluation for Level-1 Shift and Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Ilik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation in the Coq proof assistant of type directed partial evaluation (TDPE algorithms for call-by-name and call-by-value versions of shift and reset delimited control operators, and in presence of strong sum types. We prove that the algorithm transforms well-typed programs to ones in normal form. These normal forms can not always be arrived at using the so far known equational theories. The typing system does not allow answer-type modification for function types and allows delimiters to be set on at most one atomic type. The semantic domain for evaluation is expressed in Constructive Type Theory as a dependently typed monadic structure combining Kripke models and continuation passing style translations.

  16. Variable type framing in Spanish constructions of directed motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    demonstrate in this article that this construction type tends to be acceptable whenever the lexical meaning of the verb implies an element of directed motion. Drawing on Goldberg (2006) and Pedersen (2009, 2013), I suggest that schematicity is a typological parameter, and, more specifically, that the term...... variable type framing may accommodate the case of variation under scrutiny here....

  17. Pupils' Humour Directed at Teachers: Its Types and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedová, Klára

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 137 texts written by pupils, this paper examines pupils' humour directed at teachers, its types and social functions. The collected data are divided into three categories that describe different modes of teachers as targets of pupils' humour. The first mode describes teachers as unintentionally comical, the second as duped…

  18. Multi-Type Directed Scale-Free Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yilun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a long-range percolation model on the lattice ℤ d with multi-type vertices and directed edges. Each vertex x in ℤ d is independently assigned a non-negative weight W x and a type ψ x , where (W x ) xinℤ d are i.i.d. random variables, and (ψ x ) xinℤ d are also i.i.d. Conditionally on weights and types, and given λ, α > 0, the edges are independent and the probability that there is a directed edge from x to y is given by p xy = 1 - exp(-λφ ψ x ψ y W x W y /|x-y| α ), where φ ij 's are entries from a type matrix Φ. We show that, when the tail of the distribution of W x is regularly varying with exponent τ - 1, the tails of the out/in-degree distributions are both regularly varying with exponent γ = α(τ - 1)/d. We formulate conditions under which there exist critical values λ c WCC in (0, ∞) and λ c SCC in (0, ∞) such that an infinite weak component and an infinite strong component emerge, respectively, when λ exceeds them. A phase transition is established for the shortest path lengths of directed and undirected edges in the infinite component at the point γ = 2, where the out/in-degrees switch from having finite to infinite variances. The random graph model studied here features some structures of multi-type vertices and directed edges which appear naturally in many real-world networks, such as the SNS networks and computer communication networks. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  19. The Second Futamura Projection for Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernd; Yang, Zhe

    2001-01-01

    ', syntax-directed partial evaluation and TDPE, this derivation involves several conceptual and technical steps. These include a suitable formulation of the second Futamura projection and techniques for using TDPE to specialize type-indexed programs. In the context of the second Futamura projection, we also...... compare and relate TDPE with conventional offline partial evaluation. We demonstrate our technique with several examples, including compiler generation for Tiny, a prototypical imperative language....

  20. An Extended Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) Scheme for Rapid Direct Typing of Leptospira from Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Sabrina; Menezes, Angela; Woods, Kate; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dittrich, Sabine; Opoku-Boateng, Agatha; Kimuli, Maimuna; Chalker, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid typing of Leptospira is currently impaired by requiring time consuming culture of leptospires. The objective of this study was to develop an assay that provides multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data direct from patient specimens while minimising costs for subsequent sequencing. Methodology and Findings An existing PCR based MLST scheme was modified by designing nested primers including anchors for facilitated subsequent sequencing. The assay was applied to various specimen t...

  1. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  2. Direct medical cost of type 2 diabetes in singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Shuyu Ng

    Full Text Available Due to the chronic nature of diabetes along with their complications, they have been recognised as a major health issue, which results in significant economic burden. This study aims to estimate the direct medical cost associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Singapore in 2010 and to examine both the relationship between demographic and clinical state variables with the total estimated expenditure. The National Healthcare Group (NHG Chronic Disease Management System (CDMS database was used to identify patients with T2DM in the year 2010. DM-attributable costs estimated included hospitalisations, accident and emergency (A&E room visits, outpatient physician visits, medications, laboratory tests and allied health services. All charges and unit costs were provided by the NHG. A total of 500 patients with DM were identified for the analyses. The mean annual direct medical cost was found to be $2,034, of which 61% was accounted for by inpatient services, 35% by outpatient services, and 4% by A&E services. Independent determinants of total costs were DM treatments such as the use of insulin only (p<0.001 and the combination of both oral medications and insulin (p=0.047 as well as having complications such as cerebrovascular disease (p<0.001, cardiovascular disease (p=0.002, peripheral vascular disease (p=0.001, and nephropathy (p=0.041. In this study, the cost of DM treatments and DM-related complications were found to be strong determinants of costs. This finding suggests an imperative need to address the economic burden associated with diabetes with urgency and to reorganise resources required to improve healthcare costs.

  3. An Extended Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST Scheme for Rapid Direct Typing of Leptospira from Clinical Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Weiss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid typing of Leptospira is currently impaired by requiring time consuming culture of leptospires. The objective of this study was to develop an assay that provides multilocus sequence typing (MLST data direct from patient specimens while minimising costs for subsequent sequencing.An existing PCR based MLST scheme was modified by designing nested primers including anchors for facilitated subsequent sequencing. The assay was applied to various specimen types from patients diagnosed with leptospirosis between 2014 and 2015 in the United Kingdom (UK and the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (Lao PDR. Of 44 clinical samples (23 serum, 6 whole blood, 3 buffy coat, 12 urine PCR positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. at least one allele was amplified in 22 samples (50% and used for phylogenetic inference. Full allelic profiles were obtained from ten specimens, representing all sample types (23%. No nonspecific amplicons were observed in any of the samples. Of twelve PCR positive urine specimens three gave full allelic profiles (25% and two a partial profile. Phylogenetic analysis allowed for species assignment. The predominant species detected was L. interrogans (10/14 and 7/8 from UK and Lao PDR, respectively. All other species were detected in samples from only one country (Lao PDR: L. borgpetersenii [1/8]; UK: L. kirschneri [1/14], L. santarosai [1/14], L. weilii [2/14].Typing information of pathogenic Leptospira spp. was obtained directly from a variety of clinical samples using a modified MLST assay. This assay negates the need for time-consuming culture of Leptospira prior to typing and will be of use both in surveillance, as single alleles enable species determination, and outbreaks for the rapid identification of clusters.

  4. Direct view panel type X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.-P.; Robbins, C.D.; Merrit, E.

    1977-01-01

    A panel shaped, proximity type, X-ray image intensifier tube for medical X-ray fluoroscopy use is described. It has all linear components and yet a high brightness gain, in excess of 4,000 cd-sec/m 2 -R, the tube being comprised of a rugged metallic tube envelope, an inwardly concave metallic input window, a directly viewable full size output display screen, and a scintillator-photocathode screen having a thickness of at least 200 microns for a high X-ray photon utilization ability as well as X-ray stopping power, the scintillator-photocathode screen being suspended on insulators within the envelope and in between the input window and the output screen. The scintillator-photocathode screen is spaced from the output screen by at least 8mm to allow the application of a high negative potential at the scintillator-photocathode screen with respect to the output screen for high gain with low field emission, since all of the remaining components within the tube envelope are at neutral potential with respect to the output display screen. (Auth.)

  5. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Unger, Wendy W. J.; Kooyk, Yvette van, E-mail: y.vankooyk@vumc.nl [Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-08-08

    Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon recognition. Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. These characteristics make CLRs very interesting targets for DC-based immunotherapy. Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. In this review we will focus on the current data showing the potency of CLR-targeting and discuss improvements that can be achieved to enhance anti-tumor activity in the near future.

  6. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  7. Development of a Single Locus Sequence Typing (SLST) Scheme for Typing Bacterial Species Directly from Complex Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Christian F P; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The protocol describes a computational method to develop a Single Locus Sequence Typing (SLST) scheme for typing bacterial species. The resulting scheme can be used to type bacterial isolates as well as bacterial species directly from complex communities using next-generation sequencing technologies.

  8. Muentz-Szasz type approximation in direct products of spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedletskii, A M

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of completeness of the system of exponentials exp{-λ n t}, Re λ n >0, in direct products E=E 1 x E 2 of the spaces E 1 =E 1 (0,1) and E 2 =E 2 (1,∞) of functions defined on (0,1) and (1,∞), respectively. We describe rather broad classes of spaces E 1 and E 2 such that the well-known condition of Szasz is necessary for the completeness of the above system in E and sufficient for this completeness

  9. Effect of Direction Type, Emotional Valence of Words And Gender on Directed Forgetting

    OpenAIRE

    Sayar, Filiz

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of emotional valence of words and gender on directed forgettingwere investigated. The directed forgetting effect was investigated by requiring from participants toforget the words that they have to recall and at the same time, to recall the words that they have toforget. The study was composed of two experiments. In the first experiment, the participants werepresented with a list of words consisting of neutral and emotional words once, while the participantsw...

  10. Muentz-Szasz type approximation in direct products of spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedletskii, A M [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-31

    We consider the problem of completeness of the system of exponentials exp{l_brace}-{lambda}{sub n}t{r_brace}, Re {lambda}{sub n}>0, in direct products E=E{sub 1} x E{sub 2} of the spaces E{sub 1}=E{sub 1}(0,1) and E{sub 2}=E{sub 2}(1,{infinity}) of functions defined on (0,1) and (1,{infinity}), respectively. We describe rather broad classes of spaces E{sub 1} and E{sub 2} such that the well-known condition of Szasz is necessary for the completeness of the above system in E and sufficient for this completeness.

  11. 78 FR 47546 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model... Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has issued Israeli...

  12. Fine typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates using direct repeat unit and staphylococcal interspersed repeat unit typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Mao; Ho, Mao-Wang; Li, Chi-Yuan; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) typing is an important epidemiologic tool for monitoring trends and preventing outbreaks. However, the efficiency of various MRSA typing methods for each SCCmec MRSA isolate is rarely evaluated. A total of 157 MRSA isolates from four different regions in Taiwan were typed with five different molecular methods, including SCCmec typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, mec-associated direct repeat unit (dru) copy number determination, and staphylococcal interspersed repeat unit (SIRU) profiling. There were four SCCmec types, eight MLST types, 15 spa types, 11 dru types, and 31 SIRU profiles. The most common type determined by each molecular typing method was SCCmec III (115 isolates, 73.2%), ST239 (99 isolates, 63.1%), t037 (107 isolates, 68.2%), 14 dru copies (76 isolates, 48.4%), and SIRU profile 3013722 (102 isolates, 65%), respectively. When using the combination of MLST, spa typing, and dru copy number, ST5-t002-4 (n = 8), ST239-t037-14 (n = 68), ST59-t437-9 (n = 9), and ST59-t437-11 (n = 6) were found to be the most common types of SCCmec types II (n = 9), III (n = 115), IV (n = 21), and VT (n = 11) isolates, respectively. SCCmec type III isolates were further classified into 11 dru types. Of the 21 SCCmec type IV isolates, 14 SIRU profiles were found. Seven SIRU patterns were observed in the 11 SCCmec type VT isolates. Different typing methods showed a similar Hunter-Gaston discrimination index among the 157 MRSA isolates. However, dru and SIRU typing methods had a better discriminatory power for SCCmec type III and SCCmec types IV and VT isolates, respectively, suggesting that dru and SIRU can be used to further type these isolates. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. 76 FR 53633 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Viking Air Limited (type certificate No. A-815..., contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L 5V5; telephone: (800) 663-8444; Internet...

  14. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-0251; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-002-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type...

  15. 78 FR 76050 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron[aacute]uticas, S.A... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain EADS CASA (Type...., Washington, DC. For EADS-CASA service information identified in this AD, contact EADS-CASA, Military...

  16. A systematic review of the direct economic burden of type 2 diabetes in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huimei; Sawhney, Monika; Shi, Lizheng; Duan, Shengnan; Yu, Yunxian; Wu, Zhihong; Qiu, Guixing; Dong, Hengjin

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with acute and chronic complications and poses a large economic, social, and medical burden on patients and their families as well as society. This study aims to evaluate the direct economic burden of type 2 diabetes in China. systematic review on cost of illness, health care costs, direct service costs, drug costs, and health expenditures in relation to type 2 diabetes was conducted up to 2014 using databases such as Pubmed; EBSCO; Elsevier ScienceDirect, Web of Science; and a series of Chinese databases, including Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the China Science and Technology Journal Database. Factors influencing hospitalization and drug fees were also identified. (1) estimation of the direct economic burden including hospitalization and outpatient cost of type 2 diabetes patients in China; (2) evaluation of the factors influencing the direct economic burden. Articles only focusing on the cost-effectiveness analysis of diabetes drugs were excluded. The direct economic burden of type 2 diabetes has increased over time in China, and in 2008, the direct medical cost reached $9.1 billion, Both outpatient and inpatient costs have increased. Income level, type of medical insurance, the level of hospital care, and type and number of complications are primary factors influencing diabetes related hospitalization costs. Compared to urban areas, the direct non-medical cost of type 2 diabetes in rural areas is significantly greater. The direct economic burden of type 2 diabetes poses a significant challenge to China. To address the economic burden associated with type 2 diabetes, measures need to be taken to reduce prevalence rate and severity of diabetes and hospitalization cost.

  17. 78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39...

  18. 76 FR 70040 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (type certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and... new AD: 2011-23-07 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft...

  19. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  20. 76 FR 1349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously Held by... Company (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The... Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  1. Dynamics of introduction of type teaching of senior pupils to sporting direction in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitovych I.N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of dynamics of introduction of sporting direction of the type teaching of senior pupils in Ukraine are resulted. In research is utillized statistical information of different organizations in relation to activity of the type teaching. The percent distributing of students of sporting classes and establishments in which they study on regions is set. The levels of scope of senior pupils this type of studies are selected depending on the region of residence. The tendency of the personal interest of schoolboys a physical culture and sport at type level is marked. Sporting direction of the type teaching is selected, that allows organize professional preparation of students of senior school in industry of physical culture, sport and tourism. It is set that on the whole on Ukraine the middle index of percent of students which wished to visit the type classes of sporting direction hesitated from 2,6% to 3,0%.

  2. Direct type gerbode defect with cleft in anterior mitral leaflet: A rarest of rare combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy was evaluated for the new onset of dyspnea. He had no significant medical or surgical history. On echocardiography, he was found to have a direct communication between the left ventricle and the right atrium through the atrioventricular (AV septum (a rare type of Gerbode defect with an associated cleft in the anterior mitral leaflet. The combination of direct type Gerbode defect with the cleft of the anterior mitral leaflet is extremely rare.

  3. 76 FR 10220 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de...-approved maintenance/inspection program identified in this AD, contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2011-05-02 Viking Air Limited...

  4. Direct stimulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor enhances spatial memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Fei; Mogi, Masaki; Sakata, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that direct stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor by a newly generated direct AT(2) receptor agonist, Compound 21 (C21), enhances cognitive function. Treatment with C21 intraperitoneal injection for 2 weeks significantly enhanced cognitive function...

  5. 75 FR 36296 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... contact we receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has issued Israeli Airworthiness Directive 01-10-01-07R1, dated...

  6. 75 FR 57844 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39-16438. Docket No. FAA-2010-0555... (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200...

  7. 77 FR 44113 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150... to the manufacturer. This action was prompted by a report from the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel...

  8. 77 FR 64767 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel... Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes...

  9. 75 FR 28485 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream 100 airplanes; and Model Astra SPX and...

  10. Modulation of type I immediate and type IV delayed immunoreactivity using direct suggestion and guided imagery during hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, R; Bjerring, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    1989-11-01

    Cutaneous reactivity against histamine skin prick test (Type I) and purified tuberculin protein derivative (Mantoux reaction, Type IV) was studied in eight volunteers under hypnosis. Types I and IV immunoreactivity were modulated by direct suggestion (Type I) and guided imagery (Type IV). The volunteers were highly susceptible subjects, selected by means of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. When the volunteers underwent hypnotic suggestion to decrease the cutaneous reaction to histamine prick test, a significant (P less than 0.02) reduction of the flare reaction (area of erythema) was observed compared with control histamine skin prick tests. The wheal reaction did not respond to hypnotic suggestion. Neither wheal nor flare reaction could be increased in size by hypnotic suggestion compared with control histamine skin prick tests. A hypnotic suggestion of increasing the Type IV reaction on one arm and decreasing the reaction on the other revealed a significant difference in both erythema size (P less than 0.02) and palpable induration (P less than 0.01). In two cases the reactions were monitored by laser doppler blood flowmetry and skin thickness measurement by ultrasound. The difference between the suggested increased and decreased reaction was 19% for the laser doppler bloodflow (in favor of the augmented side), and 44% for the dermal infiltrate thickness. This study objectively supports the numerous uncontrolled case reports of modulation of immunoreactivity in allergic diseases involving both Type I and Type IV skin reactions following hypnotic suggestions.

  11. Direct typing of Canine parvovirus (CPV) from infected dog faeces by rapid mini sequencing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Pavana Jyothi; S, Akila; Selvan, Malini K; Naidu, Hariprasad; Raghunathan, Shwethaa; Kota, Sathish; Sundaram, R C Raja; Rana, Samir Kumar; Raj, G Dhinakar; Srinivasan, V A; Mohana Subramanian, B

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a non-enveloped single stranded DNA virus with an icosahedral capsid. Mini-sequencing based CPV typing was developed earlier to detect and differentiate all the CPV types and FPV in a single reaction. This technique was further evaluated in the present study by performing the mini-sequencing directly from fecal samples which avoided tedious virus isolation steps by cell culture system. Fecal swab samples were collected from 84 dogs with enteritis symptoms, suggestive of parvoviral infection from different locations across India. Seventy six of these samples were positive by PCR; the subsequent mini-sequencing reaction typed 74 of them as type 2a virus, and 2 samples as type 2b. Additionally, 25 of the positive samples were typed by cycle sequencing of PCR products. Direct CPV typing from fecal samples using mini-sequencing showed 100% correlation with CPV typing by cycle sequencing. Moreover, CPV typing was achieved by mini-sequencing even with faintly positive PCR amplicons which was not possible by cycle sequencing. Therefore, the mini-sequencing technique is recommended for regular epidemiological follow up of CPV types, since the technique is rapid, highly sensitive and high capacity method for CPV typing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Comparison of imaging properties of direct-type and indirect-type of flat-panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Masao; Suekane, Koji; Ichimaru, Yasunobu; Ogata, Yuji; Inamura, Kiyonari; Kanai, Kouzou; Kanamori, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    A Flat-Panel Detector (FPD) has many advantages such as eliminating cassette handling and being able to display a preview image immediately in addition to the digital image processing and the networking. Thus, the FPD has ability to innovate the radiology department. We measured and evaluated the digital and over-all imaging properties (characteristic curves, modulation Transfer Functions, Wiener spectra and Noise Equivalent Quanta (NEQ) for the direct-type and indirect-type of FPD. The pre-sampling and overall NEQ of the indirect-type of FPD were better than the NEQ of the direct-type of FPD at lower spatial frequencies, but were worse at higher spatial frequencies. The FPD can take image data at real-time and be easy to digitalize. From these results, Screen/Film system and Computed Radiography system will be replaced by the FPD system, together with diffusion of CAD, cone beam Computed Tomography (CT) system and open-type Magnetic Resonance Imagining (MRI) system. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Direct Repeat Unit (dru) Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan; Goering, Richard V; Weese, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged in a remarkable manner as an important problem in dogs and cats. However, limited molecular epidemiological information is available. The aims of this study were to apply direct repeat unit (dru) typing in a large collection of well-characterized MRSP isolates and to use dru typing to analyze a collection of previously uncharacterized MRSP isolates. Two collections of MRSP isolates from dogs and cats were included in this study. The first collection comprised 115 well-characterized MRSP isolates from North America and Europe. The data for these isolates included multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing results as well as SmaI macrorestriction patterns after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The second collection was a convenience sample of 360 isolates from North America. The dru region was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and analyzed. For the first collection, the discriminatory indices of the typing methods were calculated. All isolates were successfully dru typed. The discriminatory power for dru typing (D = 0.423) was comparable to that of spa typing (D = 0.445) and of MLST (D = 0.417) in the first collection. Occasionally, dru typing was able to further discriminate between isolates that shared the same spa type. Among all 475 isolates, 26 different dru types were identified, with 2 predominant types (dt9a and dt11a) among 349 (73.4%) isolates. The results of this study underline that dru typing is a useful tool for MRSP typing, being an objective, standardized, sequence-based method that is relatively cost-efficient and easy to perform. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. 76 FR 62605 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type Certificate.... That AD applies to Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331... limitations and marking the airspeed indicator accordingly for Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter...

  15. 75 FR 75932 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de..., contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L 5V5; telephone: (800) 663-8444; Internet... proposed AD. Discussion Viking Aircraft Limited has issued revisions to the DHC-3 Otter maintenance manual...

  16. 76 FR 34011 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...-0597; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-019-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited.../inspection program identified in this AD, contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L... 2011-05-02, Amendment 39-16611 (76 FR 10220, February 24, 2011), for certain Viking Air Limited (Type...

  17. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes AGENCY... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  18. 77 FR 33622 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation... Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  19. Chichibabin-type direct alkylation of pyridyl alcohols with alkyl lithium reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Jenna L; Sarpong, Richmond

    2012-11-02

    Direct C(6) alkylation of pyridyl alcohols can be achieved following an initial deprotonation of the hydroxy group. This transformation, which is believed to occur by a Chichibabin-type alkylation, avoids lateral deprotonation prior to pyridine ring alkylation and gives increased regioselectivity for C(6) over C(4) alkylation.

  20. Tree-type values for cycle-free directed graph games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelnitskaya, Anna Borisovna; Talman, Dolf

    2010-01-01

    For arbitrary cycle-free directed graph games tree-type values are introduced axiomatically and their explicit formula representation is provided. These values may be considered as natural extensions of the tree and sink values as has been defined correspondingly for rooted and sink forest graph

  1. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ...-1295; Directorate Identifier 2010-CE-060-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA-46-350P airplanes that are equipped with...

  2. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA- 46-350P airplanes that are equipped with... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960...

  3. 77 FR 5998 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A... proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: EADS-CASA received... address this condition, EADS-CASA has developed an engine condition control cable P/N 35-56382-0005 with...

  4. 75 FR 68185 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A...) that were, at that moment, defined in issue C of EADS-CASA document DT-0-C00-05001. That document has... implementation of the revised Fuel Airworthiness Limitations contained in issue D of EADS- CASA document DT-0-C00...

  5. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Dept. of Aero Materials Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding.

  6. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sung Hun; Han, Tae Hee

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding

  7. Strong normalization by type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  8. Strong Normalization by Type-Directed Partial Evaluation and Run-Time Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  9. STS for minisatellite 33. 1 (D9S49): Direct typing by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J.A.L.; Neumann, R.; Jeffreys, A.J. (Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom))

    1991-09-11

    The minisatellite locus 33.1 was initially isolated from a human genomic library by hybridization screening with a tandem repeat probe. This locus has since been localized by somatic cell hybrid analysis and linkage mapping to the long arm of chromosome. PCR typing at this minisatellite locus has already been described in which PCR products were detected by hybridization. Here the authors describe the direct typing of this locus by PCR, a process which may also be used to generate a probe for use in Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA.

  10. Type II textured molybdenum disulphide films produced by direct vapour transport and rf-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlken, S.F.; Lemon, K.D.; Jakovidis, G.; Taheri, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) is one of the few naturally occurring Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and is the primary source for elemental molybdenum. It displays exceptional lubrication performance in both vacuum and atmospheric conditions over a wide temperature range. An important emerging application of MoS 2 and related materials is photovoltaics. Films of MoS 2 exhibit several morphologies described by the orientation of platelets with respect to the substrate. Films with platelets perpendicular or parallel to the substrate are referred to by their morphology, which is type-I or type-II respectively. Production of exclusive type-II films is highly desirable in applications involving lubrication and photovoltaics. For example, type-II morphology reduces friction and minority carrier recombination centres, thus improving tribological and photovoltaic performance. We have successfully produced type-II films using both direct vapour transport and rf-magnetron sputtering Continuous polycrystalline films (∼ 10 μm thick) grown in our laboratory using vapour transport have typical areas 1000 mm 2 . A novel ejecta filtration technique was applied to rf-magnetron sputtering. Films produced using this approach retain exclusive type-II morphology at thicknesses where type-I would normally be observed (∼ 200nm)

  11. Synthesis of metalloporphyrin-based conjugated microporous polymer spheres directed by bipyridine-type ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guipeng; Yang, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Yanfei; Zhang, Hongye; Yu, Bo; Xu, Jilei; Xu, Huanjun; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-04-30

    Zinc porphyrin (TP-Zn)-based conjugated microporous polymer (Zn-CMP) spheres were obtained via Sonagashira-Hagihara cross coupling reactions between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-ethynylphenyl)porphyrin-Zn(II) and brominated monomers directed by bidentate bipyridine (BP)-type ligands for the first time, and the sphere diameters could be adjusted from 320 to 740 nm. The coordination between BP and TP-Zn was proved to be the key to forming spheres.

  12. Linear–Quadratic Mean-Field-Type Games: A Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone E. Duncan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a multi-person mean-field-type game is formulated and solved that is described by a linear jump-diffusion system of mean-field type and a quadratic cost functional involving the second moments, the square of the expected value of the state, and the control actions of all decision-makers. We propose a direct method to solve the game, team, and bargaining problems. This solution approach does not require solving the Bellman–Kolmogorov equations or backward–forward stochastic differential equations of Pontryagin’s type. The proposed method can be easily implemented by beginners and engineers who are new to the emerging field of mean-field-type game theory. The optimal strategies for decision-makers are shown to be in a state-and-mean-field feedback form. The optimal strategies are given explicitly as a sum of the well-known linear state-feedback strategy for the associated deterministic linear–quadratic game problem and a mean-field feedback term. The equilibrium cost of the decision-makers are explicitly derived using a simple direct method. Moreover, the equilibrium cost is a weighted sum of the initial variance and an integral of a weighted variance of the diffusion and the jump process. Finally, the method is used to compute global optimum strategies as well as saddle point strategies and Nash bargaining solution in state-and-mean-field feedback form.

  13. Mathematical model of snake-type multi-directional wave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muarif; Halfiani, Vera; Rusdiana, Siti; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Research on extreme wave generation is one intensive research on water wave study because the fact that the occurrence of this wave in the ocean can cause serious damage to the ships and offshore structures. One method to be used to generate the wave is self-correcting. This method controls the signal on the wavemakers in a wave tank. Some studies also consider the nonlinear wave generation in a wave tank by using numerical approach. Study on wave generation is essential in the effectiveness and efficiency of offshore structure model testing before it can be operated in the ocean. Generally, there are two types of wavemakers implemented in the hydrodynamic laboratory, piston-type and flap-type. The flap-type is preferred to conduct a testing to a ship in deep water. Single flap wavemaker has been explained in many studies yet snake-type wavemaker (has more than one flap) is still a case needed to be examined. Hence, the formulation in controlling the wavemaker need to be precisely analyzed such that the given input can generate the desired wave in the space-limited wave tank. By applying the same analogy and methodhology as the previous study, this article represents multi-directional wave generation by implementing snake-type wavemakers.

  14. On the Directivity of Low-Frequency Type IV Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Cairns, I. H.

    2016-01-01

    An intense type IV radio burst was observed by the STEREO Behind (STB) spacecraft located about 144 deg. behind Earth. The burst was associated with a large solar eruption that occurred on the backside of the Sun (N05E151) close to the disk center in the STB view. The eruption was also observed by the STEREO Ahead (STA) spacecraft (located at 149 deg. ahead of Earth) as an eruption close to the west limb (N05W60) in that view. The type IV burst was complete in STB observations in that the envelope reached the lowest frequency and then receded to higher frequencies. The burst was partial viewed from STA, revealing only the edge coming down to the lowest frequency. The type IV burst was not observed at all near Earth because the source was 61 deg. behind the east limb. The eruption was associated with a low-frequency type II burst observed in all three views, although it was not very intense. Solar energetic particles were also observed at both STEREOs and at SOHO, suggesting that the shock was much extended, consistent with the very high speed of the CME (2048 km/s). These observations suggest that the type IV emission is directed along a narrow cone above the flare site. We confirm this result statistically using the type IV bursts of solar cycle 23.

  15. Are Participants Aware of the Type and Intensity of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Tang

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is commonly used to alter cortical excitability but no experimental study has yet determined whether human participants are able to distinguish between the different types (anodal, cathodal, and sham of stimulation. If they can then they are not blind to experimental conditions. We determined whether participants could identify different types of stimulation (anodal, cathodal, and sham and current strengths after experiencing the sensations of stimulation during current onset and offset (which are associated with the most intense sensations in Experiment 1 and also with a prolonged period of stimulation in Experiment 2. We first familiarized participants with anodal, cathodal, and sham stimulation at both 1 and 2 mA over either primary motor or visual cortex while their sensitivity to small changes in visual stimuli was assessed. The different stimulation types were then applied for a short (Experiment 1 or extended (Experiment 2 period with participants indicating the type and strength of the stimulation on the basis of the evoked sensations. Participants were able to identify the intensity of stimulation with shorter, but not longer periods, of stimulation at better than chance levels but identification of the different stimulation types was at chance levels. This result suggests that even after exposing participants to stimulation, and ensuring they are fully aware of the existence of a sham condition, they are unable to identify the type of stimulation from transient changes in stimulation intensity or from more prolonged stimulation. Thus participants are able to identify intensity of stimulation but not the type of stimulation.

  16. Nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator-type reflectors with variable extreme direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J M; Rabl, A

    1992-12-01

    The properties of nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC)-type devices are examined in which the extreme direction is not constant but rather is a variable that can change along the reflector. One can then retain the maximal concentration or radiative efficiency of the CPC while the flux map on the absorber or target is modified, depending on whether the device is used for optical concentration or for lighting. Two general classes of reflector are derived, and all the nonimaging devices developed to date are shown to be special cases of the general solution. These two classes are the nonimaging analog of converging and diverging devices of imaging optics.

  17. Automation of the solution type of intensity modulated radiation therapy with direct planning neoplastic breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente Rosales, Liset De La; Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer ranks first among the lesions malignancies involving the Cuban women and the second in mortality only surpassed by lung injury. The breast-conserving surgery is becoming less appeal, with an increase in the choice of radiotherapy to the breast operated, and the surgical bed. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, IMRT has demonstrated better results in the dose distribution for irradiation dimensional treatment breast shaping, 3DCRT. We developed a MATLAB application to obtain the solution type to direct planning IMRT for breast neoplasm. The technique was implemented in the Planning System Treatment Plus Theraplan v3.8 and Precise1 ELEKTA linear accelerator. Static segments are constructed for each portal of incidence and Excel files are exported as the positions of the blades. The technique was validated with a patient, which he performed a radiographic study of computerized axial tomography planning purposes. The standard solution built is consistent with those reported internationally and consists of a segment type and at least two segments of type B. The assignment of the relative weights of the segments is done manually by trial and error procedure, with the general rule of 90% by weight assigned to segment A and the remaining 10% divided equally between B-type segments IMRT breast obtained in a dose 17% homogeneity better than 3DCRT and reduced the average dose in the lung ipsilateral 15%. (author)

  18. Oestrogen directly inhibits the cardiovascular L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Nina D.; Koschak, Alexandra; MacLeod, Kenneth T.

    2007-01-01

    Oestrogen can modify the contractile function of vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes. The negative inotropic actions of oestrogen on the heart and coronary vasculature appear to be mediated by L-type Ca 2+ channel (Ca v 1.2) inhibition, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that oestrogen directly inhibits the cardiovascular L-type Ca 2+ current, I CaL . The effect of oestrogen on I CaL was measured in Ca v 1.2-transfected HEK-293 cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The current revealed typical activation and inactivation profiles of nifedipine- and cadmium-sensitive I CaL . Oestrogen (50 μM) rapidly reduced I CaL by 50% and shifted voltage-dependent activation and availability to more negative potentials. Furthermore, oestrogen blocked the Ca 2+ channel in a rate-dependent way, exhibiting higher efficiency of block at higher stimulation frequencies. Our data suggest that oestrogen inhibits I CaL through direct interaction of the steroid with the channel protein

  19. Novel Naphthalene Based Lariat-Type Crown Ethers Using Direct Single Electron Transfer Photochemical Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hea Jung; Sung, Nam Kyung; Kim, Su Rhan; Kim, Su Rhan; Ahn, So Hyun; Yoon, Ung Chan; Cho, Dae Won; Mariano, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored a direct SET-photochemical strategy to construct a new family of thioene conjugated-naphthalamide fluorophore based lariat-crown ethers which show strong binding properties towards heavy metal ions. Irradiations of designed nitrogen branched (trimethylsilyl)methylthio-terminated polyethylenoxy-tethered naphthalimides in acidic methanol solutions have led to highly efficient photocyclization reactions to generate naphthalamide based lariat type thiadiazacrown ethers directly in chemo- and regio-selective manners which undergo very facile secondary dehydration reactions during separation processes to produce their corresponding amidoenethio ether cyclic products tethered with electron donating diethyleneoxy- and diethyenethio-side arm chains. Fluorescence and metal cation binding properties of the lariat type enamidothio products were examined. The photocyclized amidoenethio products, thioene conjugated naphthalamide fluorophore containing lariat-thiadiazacrowns exhibited strong fluorescence emissions in region of 330-450 nm along with intramolecular exciplex emissions in region of 450-560 nm with their maxima at 508 nm. Divalent cation Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ showed strong binding to sulfur atom(s) in side arm chain and atoms in enethiadiazacrown ether rings which led to significant enhancement of fluorescence from its chromophore singlet excited state and concomitant quenching of exciplex emission. The dual fluorescence emission responses towards divalent cations might provide a new guide for design and development of fluorescence sensors for detecting those metals

  20. Novel Naphthalene Based Lariat-Type Crown Ethers Using Direct Single Electron Transfer Photochemical Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hea Jung; Sung, Nam Kyung; Kim, Su Rhan; Kim, Su Rhan; Ahn, So Hyun; Yoon, Ung Chan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dae Won [Yeungnam Univ., Geoungsan (Korea, Republic of); Mariano, Patrick S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study explored a direct SET-photochemical strategy to construct a new family of thioene conjugated-naphthalamide fluorophore based lariat-crown ethers which show strong binding properties towards heavy metal ions. Irradiations of designed nitrogen branched (trimethylsilyl)methylthio-terminated polyethylenoxy-tethered naphthalimides in acidic methanol solutions have led to highly efficient photocyclization reactions to generate naphthalamide based lariat type thiadiazacrown ethers directly in chemo- and regio-selective manners which undergo very facile secondary dehydration reactions during separation processes to produce their corresponding amidoenethio ether cyclic products tethered with electron donating diethyleneoxy- and diethyenethio-side arm chains. Fluorescence and metal cation binding properties of the lariat type enamidothio products were examined. The photocyclized amidoenethio products, thioene conjugated naphthalamide fluorophore containing lariat-thiadiazacrowns exhibited strong fluorescence emissions in region of 330-450 nm along with intramolecular exciplex emissions in region of 450-560 nm with their maxima at 508 nm. Divalent cation Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} showed strong binding to sulfur atom(s) in side arm chain and atoms in enethiadiazacrown ether rings which led to significant enhancement of fluorescence from its chromophore singlet excited state and concomitant quenching of exciplex emission. The dual fluorescence emission responses towards divalent cations might provide a new guide for design and development of fluorescence sensors for detecting those metals.

  1. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 minutes by direct PCR from plasma or serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz Friedrich; Flegel, Willy Albert; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. PMID:27991657

  2. Weather Types, temperature and relief relationship in the Iberian Peninsula: A regional adiabatic processes under directional weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Cortesi, Nicola; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed at monthly scale the spatial distribution of Pearson correlation between monthly mean of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures with weather types (WTs) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), represent them in a high spatial resolution grid (10km x 10km) from MOTEDAS dataset (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). The WT classification was that developed by Jenkinson and Collison, adapted to the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara, using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The spatial distribution of Pearson correlations shows a clear zonal gradient in Tmax under the zonal advection produced in westerly (W) and easterly (E) flows, with negative correlation in the coastland where the air mass come from but positive correlation to the inland areas. The same is true under North-West (NW), North-East (NE), South-West (SW) and South-East (SE) WTs. These spatial gradients are coherent with the spatial distribution of the main mountain chain and offer an example of regional adiabatic phenomena that affect the entire IP (Peña-Angulo et al., 2015b). These spatial gradients have not been observed in Tmin. We suggest that Tmin values are less sensitive to changes in Sea Level Pressure and more related to local factors. These directional WT present a monthly frequency over 10 days and could be a valuable tool for downscaling processes. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298 Peña-Angulo, D., Trigo, R., Cortesi, C., González-Hidalgo, J.C. (2015b): The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

  3. Directing factors affecting the synthesis of a MFI-type zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinaches, P.; Pergher, S.B.C. [Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Lopes, C.W. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India); Gomez-Hortiguela, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Finger, P.H.; Silva, B.A. da; Dallago, R.M.; Mignoni, M.L. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Zeolites are crystalline tectosilicates constituted by (TO4) tetrahedra connected through the oxygens of their vertices. The importance of these materials is that their properties differ, due to their variable compositions and structures, leading to the possibility of applying them into different industries, for example, as catalyst in petroleum industry or sensors in quality control. One of the big questions in this area is about the understanding of the chemistry that directs to one or another type of zeolite. Another important question is the search of new zeolitic structures for new applications. One approach to answer both is the study of the structure-directing agents, which are inorganic or organic molecules used in the synthesis of zeolites. New and already-used molecules have been studied within different synthesis conditions and different techniques, as characterization or computational studies. And several attempts of rationalization were and, still, will be performed. In this research, an imidazolium-based compound was studied in hydrothermal zeolite synthesis as organic structure-directing agent (OSDA). The products were obtained with Si/Al or Si/(Al+Zn) compositions, proved by ICP data. X-ray diffractograms showed two different zeolitic types: MFI and TON. It was observed that when Zn was present in the synthesis gel, pure MFI phases were able to appear. But in his absence, the products were all mixtures of MFI and TON zeolites. It was also possible to distinguish both phases by SEM micrographs, as MFI had brick-like shape and TON appeared as needles. The obtained zeolites were stable until 900°C minimum, as tested by a TG/DTG/DSC experiment. To prove that the chosen OSDA directed these structures, a CHN analysis was performed, resulting in integrity of the molecules inside the zeolitic pores and cavities. Finally, a rationale about the location and conformation of the OSDA was needed to understand these experimental results. So, it was

  4. Directing factors affecting the synthesis of a MFI-type zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinaches, P.; Pergher, S.B.C.; Lopes, C.W.; Gomez-Hortiguela, L.; Finger, P.H.; Silva, B.A. da; Dallago, R.M.; Mignoni, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Zeolites are crystalline tectosilicates constituted by (TO4) tetrahedra connected through the oxygens of their vertices. The importance of these materials is that their properties differ, due to their variable compositions and structures, leading to the possibility of applying them into different industries, for example, as catalyst in petroleum industry or sensors in quality control. One of the big questions in this area is about the understanding of the chemistry that directs to one or another type of zeolite. Another important question is the search of new zeolitic structures for new applications. One approach to answer both is the study of the structure-directing agents, which are inorganic or organic molecules used in the synthesis of zeolites. New and already-used molecules have been studied within different synthesis conditions and different techniques, as characterization or computational studies. And several attempts of rationalization were and, still, will be performed. In this research, an imidazolium-based compound was studied in hydrothermal zeolite synthesis as organic structure-directing agent (OSDA). The products were obtained with Si/Al or Si/(Al+Zn) compositions, proved by ICP data. X-ray diffractograms showed two different zeolitic types: MFI and TON. It was observed that when Zn was present in the synthesis gel, pure MFI phases were able to appear. But in his absence, the products were all mixtures of MFI and TON zeolites. It was also possible to distinguish both phases by SEM micrographs, as MFI had brick-like shape and TON appeared as needles. The obtained zeolites were stable until 900°C minimum, as tested by a TG/DTG/DSC experiment. To prove that the chosen OSDA directed these structures, a CHN analysis was performed, resulting in integrity of the molecules inside the zeolitic pores and cavities. Finally, a rationale about the location and conformation of the OSDA was needed to understand these experimental results. So, it was

  5. Directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbach, Mayara Nascimento; Karam, Rudnei M.; Cardoso, Domingos D.O.; Sant'anna, Viviane C.; Vellozo, Sergio de O.; Gomes, Renato G.; Amorim, Aneuri S. de; Oliveira, Luciano S.R.

    2016-01-01

    It was characterized the directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency by using sources of Cesium ("1"3"7Cs) with activity of 37,4 kBq and Cobalt ("6"0Co) with an activity of 41 kBq, manufactured on 04/17/2007. The work took place in distances (0,5m, 1,0m, 1,5m e 2,0m) and for the angles (0°, 45°, 60° e 90°), and the measure found in angle 0° of said evaluation was adopted as reference value; this same procedure was adopted for other distances evaluated in this work. The results achieved are provided in charts 1, 2 and 3. (author)

  6. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    in the style of denotational semantics; – the output of the generated compiler is effectively three-address code, in the fashion and efficiency of the Dragon Book; – the generated compiler processes several hundred lines of source code per second. The source language considered in this case study is imperative......, block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs...... by specializing a definitional interpreter with respect to the program. Specialization is carried out using type-directed partial evaluation, which is a mild version of partial evaluation akin to lambda-calculus normalization. Our definitional interpreter follows the format of denotational semantics, with a clear...

  7. Direct Lactamization of Azido Amides via Staudinger-Type Reductive Cyclization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, In Jung; Lee, Su Jeong; Cho, Chang Woo [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The direct lactamization of 1,3- and 1,4-azido amides has been achieved using triphenylphosphine and water, affording various γ- and δ-lactams in good to excellent yields. The direct lactamization of the azido amides was performed via the Staudinger-type reductive cyclization in which the amide group acts as the electrophile for lactam synthesis. This lactamization provides a mild, functional group tolerant and efficient route for the synthesis of various γ- and δ-lactams found in natural products and pharmaceuticals. Further studies will be conducted to develop new synthetic routes for the synthesis of various lactams. The lactam ring system is one of the most ubiquitous structural motifs found in natural products and pharmaceuticals. Owing to the prevalence of lactams, their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. Lactams are usually prepared by the coupling of activated carboxylic acid derivatives with amines. Alternative routes include the Beckmann rearrangement of oximes, the Schmidt reaction of cyclic ketones and hydrazoic acid, the Kinugasa reaction of nitrones and terminal acetylenes, the Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and chlorosulfonyl isocyanate, transition metal catalyzed lactamization of amino alcohols, and iodolactamization of amides and alkenes. In particular, the intramolecular Staudinger ligation of azides and activated carboxy acids, including esters, is well known as an environmentally friendly and mild protocol for lactam synthesis.

  8. Nanofluid Types, Their Synthesis, Properties and Incorporation in Direct Solar Thermal Collectors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Chamsa-ard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for energy is increasing and the detrimental consequences of rising greenhouse gas emissions, global warming and environmental degradation present major challenges. Solar energy offers a clean and viable renewable energy source with the potential to alleviate the detrimental consequences normally associated with fossil fuel-based energy generation. However, there are two inherent problems associated with conventional solar thermal energy conversion systems. The first involves low thermal conductivity values of heat transfer fluids, and the second involves the poor optical properties of many absorbers and their coating. Hence, there is an imperative need to improve both thermal and optical properties of current solar conversion systems. Direct solar thermal absorption collectors incorporating a nanofluid offers the opportunity to achieve significant improvements in both optical and thermal performance. Since nanofluids offer much greater heat absorbing and heat transfer properties compared to traditional working fluids. The review summarizes current research in this innovative field. It discusses direct solar absorber collectors and methods for improving their performance. This is followed by a discussion of the various types of nanofluids available and the synthesis techniques used to manufacture them. In closing, a brief discussion of nanofluid property modelling is also presented.

  9. Nanofluid Types, Their Synthesis, Properties and Incorporation in Direct Solar Thermal Collectors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsa-Ard, Wisut; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Fung, Chun Che; Fawcett, Derek; Poinern, Gerrard

    2017-05-31

    The global demand for energy is increasing and the detrimental consequences of rising greenhouse gas emissions, global warming and environmental degradation present major challenges. Solar energy offers a clean and viable renewable energy source with the potential to alleviate the detrimental consequences normally associated with fossil fuel-based energy generation. However, there are two inherent problems associated with conventional solar thermal energy conversion systems. The first involves low thermal conductivity values of heat transfer fluids, and the second involves the poor optical properties of many absorbers and their coating. Hence, there is an imperative need to improve both thermal and optical properties of current solar conversion systems. Direct solar thermal absorption collectors incorporating a nanofluid offers the opportunity to achieve significant improvements in both optical and thermal performance. Since nanofluids offer much greater heat absorbing and heat transfer properties compared to traditional working fluids. The review summarizes current research in this innovative field. It discusses direct solar absorber collectors and methods for improving their performance. This is followed by a discussion of the various types of nanofluids available and the synthesis techniques used to manufacture them. In closing, a brief discussion of nanofluid property modelling is also presented.

  10. Direct Lactamization of Azido Amides via Staudinger-Type Reductive Cyclization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, In Jung; Lee, Su Jeong; Cho, Chang Woo

    2012-01-01

    The direct lactamization of 1,3- and 1,4-azido amides has been achieved using triphenylphosphine and water, affording various γ- and δ-lactams in good to excellent yields. The direct lactamization of the azido amides was performed via the Staudinger-type reductive cyclization in which the amide group acts as the electrophile for lactam synthesis. This lactamization provides a mild, functional group tolerant and efficient route for the synthesis of various γ- and δ-lactams found in natural products and pharmaceuticals. Further studies will be conducted to develop new synthetic routes for the synthesis of various lactams. The lactam ring system is one of the most ubiquitous structural motifs found in natural products and pharmaceuticals. Owing to the prevalence of lactams, their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. Lactams are usually prepared by the coupling of activated carboxylic acid derivatives with amines. Alternative routes include the Beckmann rearrangement of oximes, the Schmidt reaction of cyclic ketones and hydrazoic acid, the Kinugasa reaction of nitrones and terminal acetylenes, the Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and chlorosulfonyl isocyanate, transition metal catalyzed lactamization of amino alcohols, and iodolactamization of amides and alkenes. In particular, the intramolecular Staudinger ligation of azides and activated carboxy acids, including esters, is well known as an environmentally friendly and mild protocol for lactam synthesis

  11. Development of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Lightweight Disc Type Current Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yean-Der Kuan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC adopts methanol solution as a fuel suitable for low power portable applications. A miniature, lightweight, passive air-breathing design is therefore desired. This paper presents a novel planar disc-type DMFC with multiple cells containing a novel developed lightweight current collector at both the anode and cathode sides. The present lightweight current collector adopts FR4 Glass/Epoxy as the substrate with the current collecting areas located at the corresponding membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA areas. The current collecting areas are fabricated by sequentially coating a corrosion resistant layer and electrical conduction layer via the thermal evaporation technique. The anode current collector has carved flow channels for fuel transport and production. The cathode current collector has drilled holes for passive air breathing. In order to ensure feasibility in the present concept a 3-cell prototype DMFC module with lightweight disc type current collectors is designed and constructed. Experiments were conducted to measure the cell performance. The results show that the highest cell power output is 54.88 mW·cm−2 and successfully demonstrate the feasibility of this novel design.

  12. Direct-Current Forced Interruption and Breaking Performance of Spiral-Type Contacts in Aero Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlei Huo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the transient characteristics and breaking performance of direct-current (DC forced-interruption vacuum interrupters in 270 V power-supply systems. Three stages are identified in forced interruption: the DC-arcing stage, current-commutation stage, and voltage-recovery stage. During the current-commutation stage, the reverse peak-current coefficient k, which is a key design factor, is used to calculate the rate of current at zero-crossing (di/dt. MATLAB/Simulink simulation models are established to obtain the transient characteristics influenced by the forced-commutation branch parameters and the coefficient k. To study the breaking performance of spiral-type contacts, experiments are conducted for different contact materials and arcing times for currents less than 3.5 kA. During the DC-arcing stage, a locally intensive burning arc is observed in the CuW80 contact; however, it is not observed in the CuCr50 contact. On examining the re-ignition interruption results of the CuW80 contact, the intensive burning arc is found to be positioned within a possible re-ignition region. When the arcing time is longer than 1 ms, the intensive burning arc occurs and affects the breaking performance of the spiral-type contacts. If the DC-arcing stage is prolonged, the total arcing energy increases, which leads to a lower breaking capacity.

  13. Emission Scenario Document for Biocides Emission scenarios for all 23 product types of the Biocidal Products Directive (EU Directive 98/8/EC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel P van der; Bakker J; CSR

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an overview of all available emission scenarios for all 23 product types of biocides according to EU Directive 98/8/EC. The scenarios presented are already present in USES 3.0 or have been reported by RIVM or within the scope of the project "Gathering, review and development of

  14. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaturvedi, N.; Porta, M.; Klein, R.

    2008-01-01

    of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Two randomised, double-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled trials were done in 309 centres worldwide. Participants with normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes without retinopathy were recruited to the DIRECT-Prevent 1 trial and those with existing...... retinopathy were recruited to DIRECT-Protect 1, and were assigned to candesartan 16 mg once a day or matching placebo. After 1 month, the dose was doubled to 32 mg. Investigators and participants were unaware of the treatment allocation status. The primary endpoints were incidence and progression......BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system blockers might reduce the burden of diabetic retinopathy. We therefore designed the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme to assess whether candesartan could reduce the incidence and progression...

  15. Direct costs associated with chronic kidney disease among type 2 diabetic patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Satyavani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the direct costs of medical care among hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. A total of 209 (M:F, 133:76 patients were divided into groups based on the severity of kidney disease. Group 1 subjects had undergone renal transplantation (n = 12, group 2 was CKD patients on hemodialysis (n = 45, group 3 was patients with CKD, prior to end-stage renal disease (ESRD (n = 66, and group 4 (n = 86 consisted of subjects without any complications. Details about expenditure per hospitalization, length of stay during admission, direct medical and nonmedical cost, expenditure for the previous two years, and source of bearing the expenditure were recorded in a questionnaire. Diabetic patients with CKD prior to ESRD spend more per hospitalization than patients without any complications. [Median ₹ 12,664 vs. 3,214]. The total median cost of CKD patients on hemodialysis was significantly higher than other CKD patients (INR 61,170 vs. 12,664. The median cost involved in kidney transplantation was ₹ 392,920. The total expenditure for hospital admissions in two years was significantly higher for dialysis than transplantation. Patients on hemodialysis or kidney transplantation tend to stay longer as inpatient admissions. The source of funds for the expenditure was mainly personal savings (46%. The expenditure on hospital admissions for CKD was considerably higher, and so, there is a need to develop a protocol on a cost-effective strategy for the treatment of CKD.

  16. Genetically-directed, cell type-specific sparse labeling for the analysis of neuronal morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rotolo

    Full Text Available In mammals, genetically-directed cell labeling technologies have not yet been applied to the morphologic analysis of neurons with very large and complex arbors, an application that requires extremely sparse labeling and that is only rendered practical by limiting the labeled population to one or a few predetermined neuronal subtypes.In the present study we have addressed this application by using CreER technology to non-invasively label very small numbers of neurons so that their morphologies can be fully visualized. Four lines of IRES-CreER knock-in mice were constructed to permit labeling selectively in cholinergic or catecholaminergic neurons [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-IRES-CreER or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IRES-CreER], predominantly in projection neurons [neurofilament light chain (NFL-IRES-CreER], or broadly in neurons and some glia [vesicle-associated membrane protein2 (VAMP2-IRES-CreER]. When crossed to the Z/AP reporter and exposed to 4-hydroxytamoxifen in the early postnatal period, the number of neurons expressing the human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter can be reproducibly lowered to fewer than 50 per brain. Sparse Cre-mediated recombination in ChAT-IRES-CreER;Z/AP mice shows the full axonal and dendritic arbors of individual forebrain cholinergic neurons, the first time that the complete morphologies of these very large neurons have been revealed in any species.Sparse genetically-directed, cell type-specific neuronal labeling with IRES-creER lines should prove useful for studying a wide variety of questions in neuronal development and disease.

  17. Analysis of the Torque Ripples in Designing a Disk Type Brushless Direct Current Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the torque ripples of disk-type low-power brushless direct current motor (BDCM with permanent magnets. In spite of numerous studies on designing of valve engines this issue is understudied as yet. The torque ripples cause noise and vibration and can significantly limit accuracy when used in instrumentation, computer technology.We consider a motor that includes a power unit consisting of a rotor and a stator. There are ferrite elements of sensor on the rotor, and the nonmagnetic disk, bonded to it, contains permanent magnets. The rotor is mounted on a rotating shaft. The stator consists of a steel casing and bonded to it non-magnetic, non-conductive disk with holes. In the disk holes from both sides are mounted armature coils. The armature winding consists of two sections each of which has 6 coils. Each adjacent coil in section has an opposite direction of winding. The coils are arranged circumferentially and are shifted relative to each other; the displacement angle between the coils of one section is equal to 2π/6 (rad. Sections are also shifted relative to each other; the angular shift is π/6 (rad. Sections are connected to the output terminals of the electronic switch. Sections of motor windings have the reverse full-wave power.The paper has investigated the steady operation at four-stroke switching and under constant load (torque. In this case, the electromagnetic torque and rotor speed are periodical functions of the rotor rotation angle. The dependencies of the averaged torque on the rotation speed have been obtained. The spectral distribution of the torque ripples at various rotor speeds of rotation has been calculated. The dependencies of the torque on the speed were studied both at constant speed and taking into account the uneven speed. Based on the research findings of disk type BDCM was computed a level of ripples amounted to 0.8 - 5%, which is quite acceptable for use in a drive. The results are useful for

  18. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  19. Exercise for type 1 diabetes mellitus management: General considerations and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Krause, Maurício; Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by the loss of insulin secreting cells due to a directed autoimmune process, which is linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. Exercise training is known to induce several benefits by reducing inflammation and improving antioxidant defenses. In this context, exercise training may be considered as an efficient and relatively inexpensive non-pharmacological tool for diabetes treatment, added to the usual insulin administration. Unfortunately, most people with T1DM do not reach the recommended levels of physical activity due to concerns with hypoglycemic episodes. Recent data have demonstrated that exercise sessions composed by strength exercises or high-intensity interval exercise reduce the risk of hypoglycemia during and after the physical effort, when compared with continuous aerobic exercise in insulin-dependent patients. However, no studies have tested the chronic effects of this combination of protocols on health-related markers yet. Herein, we suggest a combination of hypertrophic strength exercises (3 sets at 8-RM) with a high-intensity interval protocol (10×60-s bouts at ∼90% HR max interspersed with 60s recovery) in the same exercise session, three times per week, for T1DM patients free of micro and macrovascular complications. Our hypothesis is that this training protocol may minimize the exercise-associated rapid drop of glucose levels in T1DM, due to glucoregulatory hormones and transient reduction of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. This training is also likely to cover long-term glycaemic, bioenergetic, neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory adaptations, implicating in improved health and decreased risk of micro and macro complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The direct economic impact of alternative types of the rural tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Miškolci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism has come to occupy a prominent position in the debate about rural restructuring in all OECD countries, partly because of demand changes which favour rural tourism and partly because rural agencies recognise a need to provide economic activities with potential for growth in a rural economy in which traditional providers of rural employment (such as agriculture have been shedding labour at a rapid rate. Well-designed strategy is essential to its success in impacting on the rural economy. The structures for collaboration and co-operation must be developed and combined with a process of education and training. Co-operative effort must be effective and sustainable. The tourism related businesses should not be isolated from the larger community and its issues.The principal motivation for a community, business or region to serve tourists is generally economic. An individual business is interested primarily in its own revenues and costs, while a community or region is concerned with tourism’s overall contribution to the economy, as well as social, fiscal and environmental impacts. A good understanding of tourism’s economic impacts is therefore important for the tourism industry, government officials, and the community as a whole.The principal objective of the study, that is reported here, was to determine the potential income of farmers from the provision of agro-tourism services. First, the paper reviews selected results of the visitor spending survey in alternative types of rural tourism of the region Southeast (Czech Republic; second the direct economic benefit of the agro-tourism in this region is estimated, and finally, critical factors reducing the effectiveness of agro-tourism as a rural development instrument are drawn.

  1. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  2. Direct sequencing of FAH gene in Pakistani tyrosinemia type 1 families reveals a novel mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Sadaqat; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Imran, Muhammad; Afzal, Sibtain; Bhinder, Munir A; Ullah, Ihsan; Cheema, Huma Arshad; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Shehzad, Wasim

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine catabolism with a worldwide prevalence of one out of 100,000 live births. HT1 is clinically characterized by hepatic and renal dysfunction resulting from the deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) enzyme, caused by recessive mutations in the FAH gene. We present here the first report on identification of FAH mutations in HT1 patients from Pakistan with a novel one. Three Pakistani families, each having one child affected with HT1, were enrolled over a period of 1.5 years. Two of the affected children had died as they were presented late with acute form. All regions of the FAH gene spanning exons and splicing sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mutation analysis was carried out by direct sequencing. Results of sequencing were confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Three different FAH mutations, one in each family, were found to co-segregate with the disease phenotype. Two of these FAH mutations have been known (c.192G>T and c.1062+5G>A [IVS12+5G>A]), while c.67T>C (p.Ser23Pro) was a novel mutation. The novel variant was not detected in any of 120 chromosomes from normal ethnically matched individuals. Most of the HT1 patients die before they present to hospitals in Pakistan, as is indicated by enrollment of only three families in 1.5 years. Most of those with late clinical presentation do not survive due to delayed diagnosis followed by untimely treatment. This tragic condition advocates the establishment of expanded newborn screening program for HT1 within Pakistan.

  3. Evaluation of Impact of Coagulant Type on Operation Parameters in Direct Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Torabian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous advantages have been reported on PAC (poly aluminum chloride used as a coagulant over other coagulants such as alum and ferric chloride used in conventional water treatment process with medium and high turbidity levels. These include lower amounts of PACL required specially in removing turbidity, larger floc grain formation, reduced floc sedimentation time, lower sludge production, and relaxation of the need for pH adjustment by lime, among others. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of different coagulants such as ferric chloride and PACL on direct filtration and to identify the most effective material based on both turbidity and particle removal efficiencies. A perfectly experimental pilot system, including raw water preparation, coagulation, flocculation, distribution measurement, and filtration units, was designed and used. Raw water turbidity level in the experimental pilot was below 10 NTU. The effects of various parameters such as coagulant type, filtration rate, and coagulant dosage on the performance of the filter were investigated. The results obtained from several filtration cycles under different conditions indicated that average effluent turbidity level, effluent particle numbers, effluent turbidity variation graph, and effluent particle graph were lower throughout the filtration cycle when PACL was used compared to when ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. Increasing filtration rate led to increased turbidity and particle number. Addition of 2 mg/l of PACL (poor coagulation and flocculation scenario was compared with addition of 5 mg/l of ferric chloride (strong coagulation and flocculation scenario. The results indicated that higher average values of turbidity removal but lower turbidity and particle removal efficiencies obtained in the case of the poor coagulation and flocculation scenario.

  4. Comorbidity between Type 2 Diabetes and Depression in the Adult Population: Directions of the Association and Its Possible Pathophysiological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Iden Berge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and depression are regarded as comorbid conditions, and three possible directions of the association between the diseases can underlie this observation of comorbidity. First, common etiology can increase a person’s risk of both diseases; second, persons with type 2 diabetes have increased prevalence or risk of future development of depression; or third, persons with depression have increased prevalence or risk of development of type 2 diabetes. This review gives an overview over possible pathophysiological mechanisms for each of the directions of the association between type 2 diabetes and depression and further discusses epigenetics as an additional, direction independent approach. We argue that unspecific pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the stress response might, at least to some extent, explain each of the directions of the association between type 2 diabetes and depression, while changes in brain structure and function among persons with diabetes and possible increased risk of development of type 2 diabetes after use of antidepressant agents could represent more disease specific mechanisms underlying the comorbidity.

  5. Three-party quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication based on χ-type entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Guang, Yang; Wei-Feng, Cao; Qiao-Yan, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Based on χ-type entangled states and the two-step protocol [Deng F G, Long G L and Liu X S 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 042317], a quantum secret sharing protocol of secure direct communication based on χ-type entangled states |χ 00 ) 3214 is proposed. Using some interesting entanglement properties of this state, the agent entirety can directly obtain the secret message from the message sender only if they collaborate together. The security of the scheme is also discussed. (general)

  6. Yields of base damage products in crystalline DNA produced by the direct-type effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, D.C.; Bernhard, W.A.; Swarts, S.G.

    2003-01-01

    Our aim is to determine the yields of base damage products due to direct-type effects in well-defined DNA samples. The sample, crystalline d(GCACGCGTGC) 2 , which contains Co(III), has been structurally characterized by others using X-ray crystallography and the free radical yields measured by our laboratory using EPR spectroscopy. Polycrystalline samples were x-irradiated (70 KeV) at room temperature (RT) to doses up to 150 kGy. Following dissolution under air, the base products were identified and quantified using GC-MS. 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G) is the primary base damage product found, with a yield of ∼0.09 μmoles/J, whereas 2,6-diamino-4-oxo-5-formamidopyrimidine (FpyG) was below the limits of detection of the GC-MS assay. Radiation yields for 5,6-dihydrothymine (DHT) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil of 0.0017 and 0.0042 μmoles/J, respectively, were also observed. These results differ from those obtained in a previous study of solid-state hydrated DNA irradiated at RT (Swarts et al., Radiat. Res. 145: 304-14, 1996), where the yields of FpyG and DHT were approximately 11% and 20% that of 8-oxo-G, respectively. Our working hypothesis is that Co(III) in crystalline d(GCACGCGTGC) 2 modifies the product distribution. Based on the EPR data, the influence of Co(III) on the initial distribution of radical trapping is negligible. This suggests that electron transfer from the pyrimidines to Co(III) occurs either upon annealing and/or upon solvation, thereby competing with dihydropyrimidine formation. While strand break (sb) yields for d(GCACGCGTGC) 2 are not yet completed, in earlier work on crystals of other oligomers, we obtained sb yields of 0.06-0.16 μmoles/J. We anticipate, therefore, that the stoichiometry between 8-oxo-G and sb formation will be about 1:1

  7. Direct Analysis of Samples of Various Origin and Composition Using Specific Types of Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byliński, Hubert; Gębicki, Jacek; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-07-04

    One of the major sources of error that occur during chemical analysis utilizing the more conventional and established analytical techniques is the possibility of losing part of the analytes during the sample preparation stage. Unfortunately, this sample preparation stage is required to improve analytical sensitivity and precision. Direct techniques have helped to shorten or even bypass the sample preparation stage; and in this review, we comment of some of the new direct techniques that are mass-spectrometry based. The study presents information about the measurement techniques using mass spectrometry, which allow direct sample analysis, without sample preparation or limiting some pre-concentration steps. MALDI - MS, PTR - MS, SIFT - MS, DESI - MS techniques are discussed. These solutions have numerous applications in different fields of human activity due to their interesting properties. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are presented. The trends in development of direct analysis using the aforementioned techniques are also presented.

  8. Direct Imaging Discovery of a "Super-Jupiter" around the Late B-type Star κ And

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, J.; et al., [Unknown; Thalmann, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the direct imaging discovery of an extrasolar planet, or possible low-mass brown dwarf, at a projected separation of 55 ± 2 AU (1.''058 ± 0.''007) from the B9-type star κ And. The planet was detected with Subaru/HiCIAO during the SEEDS survey and confirmed as a bound companion via common

  9. Direct evidence of fiber type-dependent GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Poulsen, P; Handberg, A

    2000-01-01

    GLUT-4 expression in individual fibers of human skeletal muscles in younger and older adults was studied. Furthermore, the dependency of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on fiber type distribution was investigated. Fiber type distribution was determined in cryosections of muscle biopsies from 8...... of slow fibers in the young (r = -0.45, P > 0.25) or in the elderly (r = 0. 11, P > 0.75) subjects. In conclusion, in human skeletal muscle, GLUT-4 expression is fiber type dependent and decreases with age, particularly in fast muscle fibers....

  10. Direct observations of low-energy solar electrons associated with a type 3 solar radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    On 6 April 1971 a solar X-ray flare and a type 3 solar radio noise burst were observed with instrumentation on the eccentric-orbiting satellite IMP 6. The type 3 solar radio noise burst was detected down to a frequency of 31 kHz. A highly anisotropic packet of low-energy solar electron intensities arrived at the satellite approximately 6000 seconds after the onset of the solar flare. This packet of solar electron intensities was observed for 4200 seconds. Maximum differential intensities of the solar electrons were in the energy range of one to several keV. The frequency drift rate of the type 3 radio noise at frequencies below 178 kHz also indicated an average particle speed corresponding to that of a 3-keV electron. The simultaneous observations of these solar electron intensities and of the type 3 solar radio burst are presented, and their interrelationships are explored.

  11. Differential loggerhead by-catch and direct mortality due to surface longlines according to boat strata and gear type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Camiñas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface longline gears are used to fish different species, mainly albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre, 1788, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758, and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, and are considered highly dangerous for threatened marine turtles. Loggerheads Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758 can be incidentally captured by surface longlines. A number of captured individuals die during the fishing operation, which we consider direct mortality due to fishing. We analysed the relative loggerhead by-catch and direct mortality associated with each type of boat and gear from April to December during the period 1999-2004 in the Spanish surface longline fleet that fishes in the western Mediterranean Sea, an important fishing area for this fleet. We used different indices to compute the catch per unit effort (CPUE according to the number of hooks and to the number of fishing operations for each type of boat and gear. Both by-catch and direct mortality differed significantly according to the type of boat and gear. With respect to the number of hooks, boats longer than 12 m not using a roller and targeting bluefin tuna captured the highest number of loggerheads, whereas boats longer than 12 m with a roller that targeted swordfish caused the highest direct mortality. With respect to the number of fishing operations, boats longer than 12 m without a roller that targeted albacore captured the highest number of loggerheads; the highest direct mortality was caused by this type of boat and by boats longer than 12 m using a roller and targeting swordfish.

  12. Diffraction by one and two direction periodic antiphase of the AuCu{sub 3} type; Diffraction par les antiphases periodiques a une et deux directions du type AuCu{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perio, P.; Tournarie, M. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    A theory is presented describing the diffraction by periodic antiphase structure in ordered AuCu{sub 3} type alloys. The treatment is rigorous and allows for non-integer periods. The general shape of the amplitude distribution in any 00ι reciprocal plane can be determined without any computation and is given for the six possible configurations of two direction antiphase structures. Reprint of a paper published in Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 12, Part 12, 1959, p. 1032-1038.

  13. Time course of the antiproteinuric and antihypertensive effects of direct renin inhibition in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Rossing, P; Schjoedt, K J

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of renin with an active site inhibitor, aliskiren, lowers blood pressure (BP) in diabetic patients. Here, we studied the time course of the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effect of renin inhibition in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin/creatinine ratios...

  14. Disordered Eating in Girls with Type 1 Diabetes: Examining Directions for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Karina; Wade, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Girls with Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM]) have been identified to be at an increased risk for developing bulimia nervosa (BN) and subthreshold eating disorders. The co-occurrence of these conditions can severely compromise the physical health of these individuals and can even accelerate mortality. The use of a unique…

  15. 78 FR 36089 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company) Model BAe.125 Series 800A... structural damage or lead to divergent flutter, and result in loss of integrity of the wing, loss of control... to divergent flutter, and result in loss of integrity of the wing, loss of control of the airplane...

  16. Metabolite ratios as potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes : a DIRECT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molnos, Sophie; Wahl, Simone; Haid, Mark; Eekhoff, E Marelise W; Pool, René; Floegel, Anna; Deelen, Joris; Much, Daniela; Prehn, Cornelia; Breier, Michaela; Draisma, Harmen H; van Leeuwen, Nienke; Simonis-Bik, Annemarie M C; Jonsson, Anna; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bernigau, Wolfgang; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Suhre, Karsten; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Herder, Christian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Gieger, Christian; Kramer, Mark H H; van Heemst, Diana; Pedersen, Helle K; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Schulze, Matthias B; Pischon, Tobias; de Geus, Eco J C; Boeing, Heiner; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ziegler, Anette G; Slagboom, P. Eline; Hummel, Sandra; Beekman, Marian; Grallert, Harald; Brunak, Søren; McCarthy, Mark I; Gupta, Ramneek; Pearson, Ewan R; Adamski, Jerzy; 't Hart, Leen M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Circulating metabolites have been shown to reflect metabolic changes during the development of type 2 diabetes. In this study we examined the association of metabolite levels and pairwise metabolite ratios with insulin responses after glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and

  17. 76 FR 41432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy, Gulfstream... proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has... Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Docket No. FAA-2011-0716; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-013...

  18. 77 FR 58323 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. This proposed AD was.... Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has...

  19. 77 FR 32069 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes. This proposed... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the...

  20. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs......-directed compilation, in the spirit of Scott and Strachey. Our conclusion is that lambda-calculus normalization suffices for compiling by specializing an interpreter....

  1. Semantics-based compiling: A case study in type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs......-directed compilation, in the spirit of Scott and Strachey. Our conclusion is that lambda-calculus normalization suffices for compiling by specializing an interpreter....

  2. Studies on the Effect of Radio Frequency Field in a Cusp-Type Charge Separation Device for Direct Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    HAMABE, Masaki; IZAWA, Hiroaki; TAKENO, Hiromasa; NAKAMOTO, Satoshi; ICHIMURA, Kazuya; NAKASHIMA, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    In D-3He fusion power generation, an application of direct energy conversion is expected in which separation of charged particles is necessary. A cusp-type direct energy converter (CuspDEC) was proposed as a charge separation device, but its performance was degraded for a high density plasma. The goal of the present study is to establish an additional method to assist charge separation by using a nonlinear effect of a radio frequency (rf) electric field. Following to the previous study, we ex...

  3. The effects of involvement and ad type on attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Yam; Torres, Ivonne M

    2009-01-01

    This article examines consumers' attitudes toward Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs that are influenced by the use different types of DTC ads and product involvement. Our findings suggest that product involvement and the type of DTC ad are significant predictors of consumers' attitudinal responses toward DTC advertising. High involvement consumers have more favorable attitudes toward the drug's price, DTC ad and brand name, and a higher intention to ask a doctor about the advertised drug than low involvement consumers. In contrast to Informational and Reminder DTC ads, Persuasive ads have more favorable effects on consumers' reactions to DTC prescription drug advertising.

  4. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joong; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Hwi Su; Song, Jae Bok [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally.

  5. Metabolite ratios as potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes: a DIRECT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnos, Sophie; Wahl, Simone; Haid, Mark

    2018-01-01

    ) and arginine stimulation. We then investigated if the identified metabolite ratios were associated with measures of OGTT-derived beta cell function and with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. Methods: We measured the levels of 188 metabolites in plasma samples from 130 healthy members of twin families......Aims/hypothesis: Circulating metabolites have been shown to reflect metabolic changes during the development of type 2 diabetes. In this study we examined the association of metabolite levels and pairwise metabolite ratios with insulin responses after glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1...... (from the Netherlands Twin Register) at five time points during a modified 3 h hyperglycaemic clamp with glucose, GLP-1 and arginine stimulation. We validated our results in cohorts with OGTT data (n = 340) and epidemiological case–control studies of prevalent (n = 4925) and incident (n = 4277...

  6. Blood pressure directly correlates with blood viscosity in diabetes type 1 children but not in normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Jáquez, Manuel Guajardo; Huemoeller, Antonio H Bracho; Intaglietta, Marcos; Cabrales, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and blood viscosity in diabetic type 1 children and healthy controls to investigate whether MAP is independent of blood viscosity in healthy children, and vice versa. Children with diabetes type 1 treated by insulin injection were studied. Controls were healthy children of both sexes. MAP was calculated from systolic and diastolic pressure measurements. Blood viscosity was determined indirectly by measuring blood hemoglobin (Hb) content. The relationship between Hb, hematocrit (Hct) and blood viscosity was determined in a subgroup of controls and diabetics selected at random. 21 (10.6+/-2.5 years) type 1 diabetic children treated with insulin and 25 healthy controls age 9.6+/-1.7 years were studied. Hb was 13.8+/-0.8 g/dl in normal children vs. 14.3+/-0.9 g/dl in the diabetic group (p<0.05). MAP was 71.4+/-8.2 in the normal vs. 82.9+/-7.2 mmHg in the diabetic group (p<0.001). Glucose was 89.3+/-10.6 vs. 202.4+/-87.4 mg/dl respectively. Diabetics had a positive MAP/Hb correlation (p=0.007), while normals showed a non significant (p=0.2) negative correlation. The blood viscosity/Hb relationship was studied in a subgroup of 8 healthy controls and 8 diabetic type 1 children. There was no significant difference in Hb and Hct between groups. Diabetics showed a trend of increasing blood viscosity (+7%, p=0.15). Normal children compensate for the increase in vascular resistance due to increased blood viscosity (increased Hb and Hct) while diabetic children do not, probably due to endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Developing the Innovative Personality Type as the Priority Direction of Political Modernization in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernykh Natalya Sergeevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the necessity to modernize the Russian political system and to implement the national innovative strategy. The need to strengthen and to develop the fundamentals of innovative-typed society – human potential and social capital – is analyzed on the basis of national empirical research. Today, humanity has entered the innovative information stage of development, where creative and active potential of a nation signifies one of the primary resources for achieving the status of a competitive state. The following characteristics become of the utmost value in such a society: independent and critical thinking, responsibility for the decisions, leadership and mobility. Unfortunately, the conditions for transitioning to the innovative type of society are not so favorable in Russia. Low birth rate, high mortality rate, underdeveloped state institutions, bureaucratization of goverment apparatus, brain drain from the periphery to the centre and abroad, weak legal culture and other social problems hinder the development of the innovative characteristics among Russian citizens. Russia needs to strengthen the fundamentals of the innovative-typed society, as there are positive impulses for its development (energy and raw material resources, high scientific potential, recognition by the most active part of society that the systemic transformations are necessary. The article presents the statistical data, which points to the need to invest in the development of the innovative personality characteristics, and the necessity to implement structural modernization of the specific areas of human capital.

  8. Direct band gap electroluminescence from bulk germanium at room temperature using an asymmetric fin type metal/germanium/metal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong, E-mail: wang.dong.539@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Maekura, Takayuki; Kamezawa, Sho [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-16

    We demonstrated direct band gap (DBG) electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature from n-type bulk germanium (Ge) using a fin type asymmetric lateral metal/Ge/metal structure with TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, which was fabricated using a low temperature (<400 °C) process. Small electron and hole barrier heights were obtained for TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, respectively. DBG EL spectrum peaked at 1.55 μm was clearly observed even at a small current density of 2.2 μA/μm. Superlinear increase in EL intensity was also observed with increasing current density, due to superlinear increase in population of elections in direct conduction band. The efficiency of hole injection was also clarified.

  9. Clinical evaluation of digital angiographic system equipped with the Safire' flat-panel detector of a direct conversion type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a report on clinical evaluation of our newly developed flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, designed to provide images of a resolution higher than, or at least equal to, that ensured by X-ray photographic films, in clinical digital X-ray cinematography. This new detector was named 'Safire' the acronym of 'Shimadzu advanced flat imaging receptor', emphasizing its high technological level, such as the capability to ensure high quality of images. The clinical evaluation of Shimadzu DIGITEX Premier digital angiography system, equipped with this new flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, has been started in March, 2003, at the Kokura Memorial Hospital in Kyushu, Japan. (author)

  10. Direct Evidence of Mg Incorporation Pathway in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown p-type Nonpolar GaN Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Patsha, Avinash; Amirthapandian, S.; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Bera, S.; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Dhara, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Doping of III-nitride based compound semiconductor nanowires is still a challenging issue to have a control over the dopant distribution in precise locations of the nanowire optoelectronic devices. Knowledge of the dopant incorporation and its pathways in nanowires for such devices is limited by the growth methods. We report the direct evidence of incorporation pathway for Mg dopants in p-type nonpolar GaN nanowires grown via vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a chemical vapour deposition te...

  11. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid clonal analysis of recurrent tuberculosis by direct MIRU-VNTR typing on stored isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Viedma Darío

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of molecular tools to the analysis of tuberculosis has revealed examples of clonal complexity, such as exogenous reinfection, coinfection, microevolution or compartmentalization. The detection of clonal heterogeneity by standard genotyping approaches is laborious and often requires expertise. This restricts the rapid availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB genotypes for clinical or therapeutic decision-making. A new PCR-based technique, MIRU-VNTR, has made it possible to genotype MTB in a time frame close to real-time fingerprinting. Our purpose was to evaluate the capacity of this technique to provide clinicians with a rapid discrimination between reactivation and exogenous reinfection and whether MIRU-VNTR makes it possible to obtain data directly from stored MTB isolates from recurrent episodes. Results We detected differences, between the MIRUtypes of recurrent isolates in 38.5% (5/13 of the cases studied. These included cases of i exogenous reinfection, often with more resistant strains, ii likely examples of microevolution, leading to the appearance of new clonal variants and iii a combination of microevolution, coinfection and competition. Conclusion MIRU-VNTR rapidly obtained clinically useful genotyping data in a challenging situation, directly from stored MTB isolates without subculturing them or purifying their DNA. Our results also mean that MIRU-VNTR could be applied for easy, rapid and affordable massive screening of collections of stored MTB isolates, which could establish the real dimension of clonal heterogeneity in MTB infection.

  13. Prevention of Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes directed at the family context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Nielsen, K; Grunnet, L Groth; Maindal, H Terkildsen

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we aim to summarize knowledge about gestational diabetes (GDM) after delivery; with special focus on the potential of preventing Type 2 diabetes in a family context. The review expands on the key messages from a symposium held in Copenhagen in May 2017 and highlights avenues...... and implemented in real-world settings. Although interlinked and interacting, barriers to maintaining a healthy lifestyle post-partum can be grouped into those pertaining to diabetes beliefs, the family context and the healthcare system. Health literacy level and perceptions of health and disease risk may modify...

  14. Model experiments on direct conversion of charged particle energy for open-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.K.; Makhin, A.V.; Mikhin, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    The energy recuperation of non monoenergetic charged particle flux ranning out from open-type magnetic mirror trap by particles braking in an electric field has been investigated. For more complex energy electron taking off adiabatic beam expansion in a dropping magnetic field after the trap has been realized. The recuperation system has been located in the mirror face part and consisted of electron collector, input diaphragm and antidinatron electrode. By calculation data based on measurements, the efficiency of real one-coelector energy convertor of ionic flows is to constitute 40-50%

  15. Typing operations manual and disposal of fixed assets: directions of improvement of accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of studies on the structure of business operations for the operation and disposal of fixed assets leads to undeveloped organizational and methodological provisions of the relevant accounting operations. In particular, the lack of comprehensive understanding of these operations can not account for the loss of alternatives and economic benefits from the use of fixed assets in various areas of economic activity. To streamline the organizational and methodological approaches to accounting of fixed assets, and monitor the effectiveness of the use and preservation of the property of the owner of the enterprise, and according to the analysis of literary sources showing a considerable amount of controversy in the existing approach of the authors, to characterize the operations manual and the disposal of fixed assets, the article suggests typing operations, exploitation and disposal of fixed assets. The main types of these operations include: 1 operation – storage, use, maintenance, repair and improvement; 2 disposal - sale, free transfer, exchange, cancellation due to moral and physical deterioration, capital contribution, financial lease, the installation of shortage, the transfer in payment of debt, the loss resulting from emergencies.

  16. Direct classification of olive oils by using two types of ion mobility spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mercader-Trejo, Flora [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Metrologia de Materiales, Centro Nacional de Metrologia, km. 4.5 Carretera a Los Cues, El Marques, Queretaro (Mexico); Sielemann, Stefanie; Bruyn, Wolfgang de [G.A.S. Gesellschaft fuer analytische Sensorsysteme mbH, BioMedizinZentrumDortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 15, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Arce, Lourdes [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-06-24

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > We explore the use of Ion Mobility Spectrometers for classification of olive oils. > Three types of olive oils were analyzed with both devices coupled to headspace system. > The ion mobility data were processed using chemometric to obtain global information. > The classification rate was better using tritium source and separation step prior IMS. - Abstract: In this work, we explored the use of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) device with an ultraviolet (UV) source, and of a Gas Chromatographic (GC) column coupled to an IM Spectrometer with a tritium source, for the discrimination of three grades of olive oil, namely: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO) and pomace olive oil (POO). The three types of oil were analyzed with both equipment combinations as coupled to a headspace system and the obtained ion mobility data were consecutively processed with various chemometric tools. The classification rate for an independent validation set was 86.1% (confidence interval at 95% [83.4%, 88.5%]) with an UV-IMS and 100% (confidence interval at 95% [87%, 100%]) using a GC-IMS system. The classification rate was improved by using a more suitable ionization source and a pre-separation step prior to the IM analysis.

  17. Metallogenic geologic conditions and prospecting direction of sandstone type uranium mineralizations in Yili basin of Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daisheng; Wang Ruiying; Li Shengxiang; Zhang Kefang

    1994-09-01

    Yili basin is a Mesozoic down-warped basin superimposed on the late Paleozoic volcanic taphrogenic basin. Uranium mineralizations are hosted in the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing series. The depositions environment in the basin is turbulent in the east and relatively stable in the west. It is characterized by coarse-grained sequence with thin thickness in the eastern part and fine-grained with thick thickness in the western part. On the analytical basis of sedimentary facies indices, it is the first time to present a sedimentary model of 'alluvial fan-braided stream-(narrow) lakeshore delta-lacustrine facies and marsh facies' for the coal-bearing series. The authors have summarized the basic geologic features of U-mineralizations in the interlayer oxidation zone, analyzed the difference and cause of U-mineralizations between the south and north, as well as the east and west. The genetic mechanism of U-mineralizations in the basin is discussed. Finally, seven items of geologic prerequisites for the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits have been suggested and the potential of sandstone type U-mineralizations in the basin has been evaluated. Four promising target areas are selected

  18. Direct classification of olive oils by using two types of ion mobility spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocio; Mercader-Trejo, Flora; Sielemann, Stefanie; Bruyn, Wolfgang de; Arce, Lourdes; Valcarcel, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → We explore the use of Ion Mobility Spectrometers for classification of olive oils. → Three types of olive oils were analyzed with both devices coupled to headspace system. → The ion mobility data were processed using chemometric to obtain global information. → The classification rate was better using tritium source and separation step prior IMS. - Abstract: In this work, we explored the use of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) device with an ultraviolet (UV) source, and of a Gas Chromatographic (GC) column coupled to an IM Spectrometer with a tritium source, for the discrimination of three grades of olive oil, namely: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO) and pomace olive oil (POO). The three types of oil were analyzed with both equipment combinations as coupled to a headspace system and the obtained ion mobility data were consecutively processed with various chemometric tools. The classification rate for an independent validation set was 86.1% (confidence interval at 95% [83.4%, 88.5%]) with an UV-IMS and 100% (confidence interval at 95% [87%, 100%]) using a GC-IMS system. The classification rate was improved by using a more suitable ionization source and a pre-separation step prior to the IM analysis.

  19. Direct synthesis of BiCuChO-type oxychalcogenides by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pele, Vincent; Barreteau, Celine [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d’Orsay, Univ. Paris-Sud, UMR 8182, Orsay F-91405 (France); CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Berardan, David, E-mail: david.berardan@u-psud.fr [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d’Orsay, Univ. Paris-Sud, UMR 8182, Orsay F-91405 (France); CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Zhao, Lidong; Dragoe, Nita [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d’Orsay, Univ. Paris-Sud, UMR 8182, Orsay F-91405 (France); CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2013-07-15

    We report on the direct synthesis of BiCuChO based materials by mechanical alloying (Ch=Se, Te). We show that contrary to the synthesis paths used in the previous reports dealing with this family of materials, which use costly annealings in closed silica tubes under controlled atmosphere, this new synthesis route enables the synthesis of pure phase materials at room temperature under air, with reasonable milling time. This synthesis procedure is easily scalable for large scale applications. - Highlights: • Phase pure BiCuSeO doped and undoped prepared by mechanical alloying. • Synthesis performed under air at room temperature. • Electrical properties similar to that of samples synthesized by a classical path.

  20. A direct metal transfer method for cross-bar type polymer non-volatile memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Lee, Kyeongmi; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Wang, Gunuk; Kim, Dong-Yu; Jung, Gun-Young; Lee, Takhee

    2008-01-01

    Polymer non-volatile memory devices in 8 x 8 array cross-bar architecture were fabricated by a non-aqueous direct metal transfer (DMT) method using a two-step thermal treatment. Top electrodes with a linewidth of 2 μm were transferred onto the polymer layer by the DMT method. The switching behaviour of memory devices fabricated by the DMT method was very similar to that of devices fabricated by the conventional shadow mask method. The devices fabricated using the DMT method showed three orders of magnitude of on/off ratio with stable resistance switching, demonstrating that the DMT method can be a simple process to fabricate organic memory array devices

  1. Direct linkage of mitochondrial genome variation to risk factors for type 2 diabetes in conplastic strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Hyakukoku, M.; Houštěk, Josef; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Mikšík, Ivan; Mothejzíková-Dudová, Kristýna; Pecina, Petr; Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zdeněk; Vojtíšková, Alena; Mráček, Tomáš; Kazdová, L.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Wang, Ji.; Ho, Ch.; Qi, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Kurtz, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2007), s. 1319-1326 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028; GA ČR GA303/07/0781 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 24/2005; GA UK(CZ) 26/2005; National Institutes of Health(US) HL35018; National Institutes of Health(US) HL56028; National Institutes of Health(US) HL63709; EURATOOLS(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : mitochondrial genome * conplastic strains * risk factors for type 2 diabetes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.224, year: 2007

  2. Options for alternative types of sewerage and treatment systems directed to improvement of the overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterpohl, R

    2002-01-01

    Technology for future houses may well include a high-tech water recycling unit that makes tapwater while people drink bottled water of high quality. There may be toilets that produce just a bag of dry fertiliser per year, hopefully without fossil energy. Rainwater infiltration is increasingly replacing storm sewers anyway. Many urban areas of the future could simply be without sewerage systems. Technical feasibility is given even today and economic feasability is coming closer by advances in membrane technology. However, there are more likely scenarios than this. One person produces about 500 litres of urine and 50 litres of faeces per year (= blackwater). The same person, produces in a range of 20,000 to over 100,000 litres of wastewater. Black- and greywater (wastewater without toilet) do have very different characteristics. If blackwater is collected separately with low dilution it can be converted to safe natural fertiliser, replacing synthetic products and preventing spreadout of pathogens and other pollutants to receiving waters. New sanitation concepts are now built in several countries as pilot projects. One example is a vacuum-biogas system for around 400 inhabitants that has been built in Lübeck, Germany. It does perform recovery of resources and energy in an urban area. This type of sanitation can serve around up to 10,000 people and can be arranged in independent modules for larger settlements. Another pilot project based on urine-sorting flush toilets (no-mix-toilets) has been built in the rural water-mill museum "Lambertsmühle" near Cologne, Germany. Urine or yellow water is collected with low dilution and can be used as fertiliser as projects in Sweden have shown--the nutrient composition suits many types of soil. Brownwater (the solids and flush from the sorting toilet) is converted to small volume by a two-chamber composting tank with a filtration system. The compost can be used as soil conditioner. These and other concepts can be economic and

  3. Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames II: The Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

    2004-01-01

    A Type Ia supernova explosion likely begins as a nuclear runaway near the center of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. The outward propagating flame is unstable to the Landau-Darrieus, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which serve to accelerate it to a large fraction of the speed of sound. We investigate the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flame at the transition from the flamelet regime to the distributed-burning regime, around densities of 10e7 gm/cc, through detailed, fully resolved simulations. A low Mach number, adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code is used to achieve the necessary resolution and long time scales. As the density is varied, we see a fundamental change in the character of the burning--at the low end of the density range the Rayleigh-Taylor instability dominates the burning, whereas at the high end the burning suppresses the instability. In all cases, significant acceleration of the flame is observed, limited only by the size of the domain we are able to study. We discuss the implications of these results on the potential for a deflagration to detonation transition

  4. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across bacteria: New directions towards functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chandrani; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S

    2016-03-01

    Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information is required to obtain a global view of diverse characteristics and pathogenicity-related aspects of this machinery. The present study suggests that differences in structural components (of T7SS) between Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, observed earlier in a few organisms, is indeed a global trend. A few hitherto uncharacterized T7SS-like clusters have been identified in the pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, Saccharomonospora viridis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis. Experimental verification of these clusters can shed lights on their role in bacterial pathogenesis. Similarly, verification of the identified variants of T7SS clusters consisting additional membrane components may help in unraveling new mechanism of protein translocation through T7SS. A database of various components of T7SS has been developed to facilitate easy access and interpretation of T7SS related data.

  5. Quantifying the weight of fingerprint evidence through the spatial relationship, directions and types of minutiae observed on fingermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Champod, Christophe; Yoo, Mina; Genessay, Thibault; Langenburg, Glenn

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical model for the quantification of the weight of fingerprint evidence. Contrarily to previous models (generative and score-based models), our model proposes to estimate the probability distributions of spatial relationships, directions and types of minutiae observed on fingerprints for any given fingermark. Our model is relying on an AFIS algorithm provided by 3M Cogent and on a dataset of more than 4,000,000 fingerprints to represent a sample from a relevant population of potential sources. The performance of our model was tested using several hundreds of minutiae configurations observed on a set of 565 fingermarks. In particular, the effects of various sub-populations of fingers (i.e., finger number, finger general pattern) on the expected evidential value of our test configurations were investigated. The performance of our model indicates that the spatial relationship between minutiae carries more evidential weight than their type or direction. Our results also indicate that the AFIS component of our model directly enables us to assign weight to fingerprint evidence without the need for the additional layer of complex statistical modeling involved by the estimation of the probability distributions of fingerprint features. In fact, it seems that the AFIS component is more sensitive to the sub-population effects than the other components of the model. Overall, the data generated during this research project contributes to support the idea that fingerprint evidence is a valuable forensic tool for the identification of individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct interaction of CaVβ with actin up-regulates L-type calcium currents in HL-1 cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölting, Gabriel; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Guzman, Raul E; Miranda-Laferte, Erick; Conrad, Rachel; Jordan, Nadine; Schmidt, Silke; Hendriks, Johnny; Gensch, Thomas; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2015-02-20

    Expression of the β-subunit (CaVβ) is required for normal function of cardiac L-type calcium channels, and its up-regulation is associated with heart failure. CaVβ binds to the α1 pore-forming subunit of L-type channels and augments calcium current density by facilitating channel opening and increasing the number of channels in the plasma membrane, by a poorly understood mechanism. Actin, a key component of the intracellular trafficking machinery, interacts with Src homology 3 domains in different proteins. Although CaVβ encompasses a highly conserved Src homology 3 domain, association with actin has not yet been explored. Here, using co-sedimentation assays and FRET experiments, we uncover a direct interaction between CaVβ and actin filaments. Consistently, single-molecule localization analysis reveals streaklike structures composed by CaVβ2 that distribute over several micrometers along actin filaments in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of CaVβ2-N3 in HL-1 cells induces an increase in L-type current without altering voltage-dependent activation, thus reflecting an increased number of channels in the plasma membrane. CaVβ mediated L-type up-regulation, and CaVβ-actin association is prevented by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D. Our study reveals for the first time an interacting partner of CaVβ that is directly involved in vesicular trafficking. We propose a model in which CaVβ promotes anterograde trafficking of the L-type channels by anchoring them to actin filaments in their itinerary to the plasma membrane. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Direct Interaction of CaVβ with Actin Up-regulates L-type Calcium Currents in HL-1 Cardiomyocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölting, Gabriel; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Guzman, Raul E.; Miranda-Laferte, Erick; Conrad, Rachel; Jordan, Nadine; Schmidt, Silke; Hendriks, Johnny; Gensch, Thomas; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the β-subunit (CaVβ) is required for normal function of cardiac L-type calcium channels, and its up-regulation is associated with heart failure. CaVβ binds to the α1 pore-forming subunit of L-type channels and augments calcium current density by facilitating channel opening and increasing the number of channels in the plasma membrane, by a poorly understood mechanism. Actin, a key component of the intracellular trafficking machinery, interacts with Src homology 3 domains in different proteins. Although CaVβ encompasses a highly conserved Src homology 3 domain, association with actin has not yet been explored. Here, using co-sedimentation assays and FRET experiments, we uncover a direct interaction between CaVβ and actin filaments. Consistently, single-molecule localization analysis reveals streaklike structures composed by CaVβ2 that distribute over several micrometers along actin filaments in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of CaVβ2-N3 in HL-1 cells induces an increase in L-type current without altering voltage-dependent activation, thus reflecting an increased number of channels in the plasma membrane. CaVβ mediated L-type up-regulation, and CaVβ-actin association is prevented by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D. Our study reveals for the first time an interacting partner of CaVβ that is directly involved in vesicular trafficking. We propose a model in which CaVβ promotes anterograde trafficking of the L-type channels by anchoring them to actin filaments in their itinerary to the plasma membrane. PMID:25533460

  8. Spray characterization of a piezo pintle-type injector for gasoline direct injection engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, J. M.; Hamid, M. A.; Yan, Y.; Arcoumanis, C.

    2007-10-01

    The sprays from a pintle-type nozzle injected into a constant volume chamber have been visualised by a high resolution CCD camera and quantified in terms of droplet velocity and diameter with a 2-D phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) system at an injection pressure of 200 bar and back-pressures varying from atmospheric to 12 bar. Spray visualization illustrated that the spray was string-structured, that the location of the strings remained constant from one injection to the next and that the spray structure was unaffected by back pressure. The overall spray cone angle was also stable and independent of back pressure whose effect was to reduce the spray tip penetration so that the averaged vertical spray tip velocity was reduced by 37% when the back-pressure increased from 1 to 12 bar. Detailed PDA measurements were carried out under atmospheric conditions at 2.5 and 10 mm from the injector exit with the results providing both the temporal and the spatial velocity and size distributions of the spray droplets. The maximum axial mean droplet velocity was 155 m/s at 2.5 mm from the injector which was reduced to 140 m/s at z = 10 mm. The string spacing determined from PDA measurements was around 0.375 mm and 0.6 mm at z=2.5 and 10 mm, respectively. The maximum mean droplet diameter was found to be in the core of the strings with values up to 40 μm at z=2.5 mm reducing to 20 μm at z=10 mm.

  9. Spray characterization of a piezo pintle-type injector for gasoline direct injection engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, J M; Hamid, M A; Yan, Y; Arcoumanis, C

    2007-01-01

    The sprays from a pintle-type nozzle injected into a constant volume chamber have been visualised by a high resolution CCD camera and quantified in terms of droplet velocity and diameter with a 2-D phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) system at an injection pressure of 200 bar and back-pressures varying from atmospheric to 12 bar. Spray visualization illustrated that the spray was string-structured, that the location of the strings remained constant from one injection to the next and that the spray structure was unaffected by back pressure. The overall spray cone angle was also stable and independent of back pressure whose effect was to reduce the spray tip penetration so that the averaged vertical spray tip velocity was reduced by 37% when the back-pressure increased from 1 to 12 bar. Detailed PDA measurements were carried out under atmospheric conditions at 2.5 and 10 mm from the injector exit with the results providing both the temporal and the spatial velocity and size distributions of the spray droplets. The maximum axial mean droplet velocity was 155 m/s at 2.5 mm from the injector which was reduced to 140 m/s at z = 10 mm. The string spacing determined from PDA measurements was around 0.375 mm and 0.6 mm at z=2.5 and 10 mm, respectively. The maximum mean droplet diameter was found to be in the core of the strings with values up to 40 μm at z=2.5 mm reducing to 20 μm at z=10 mm

  10. Functional analysis of truncated and site-directed mutagenesis dextransucrases to produce different type dextrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Meng-Qi; Hu, Xue-Qin; Li, Yao

    2017-07-01

    Dextrans with distinct molecular size and structure are increasingly being used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Dextran is produced by dextransucrase (DSR, EC2.4.5.1), which is produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides. DSR belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family (GH70) and synthesizes branched α-glucan (dextran) with both 5% α(1-3) and 95% α(1-6) glycosidic linkages. The DSR gene dex-YG (Genebank, Accession No. DQ345760) was cloned from the wild strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides 0326. This study generated a series of C-terminally truncated variants of dextransucrase and substituting the amino-acid residues in the active site of DSR. With shorter length of DSR, its polysaccharide-synthesizing capability was impaired heavily, whereas oligosaccharide (acting as prebiotics)-synthesizing capability increased significantly, efficiently producing special sizes of dextran. All truncated mutant enzymes were active. Results demonstrated that the catalytic domain dextransucrase was likely in 800 aa or less. Based on the three-dimensional structure model of dextransucrase built through homology modeling methods, the DSR and its mutants with the acceptor substrate of maltose and donor substrate of sucrose were studied by molecular-docking method. Substituting these amino-acid residues significantly affected enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type dextran, mutant enzymes catalyzed the synthesis of a-glucan with 1-9% α(1-3) and 90-98% α(1-6) branching linkages. Some mutants introduced a small amount of α(1-4) linkages and α(1-2) linkages. This strategy can be effectively used for the rational protein design of dextransucrase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Success of nutrition-therapy interventions in persons with type 2 diabetes: challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz MJ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marion J Franz,1 Janice MacLeod2 1Nutrition Concepts by Franz, Minneapolis, MN, 2Clinical Innovation, WellDoc, Columbia, MD, USA Abstract: A systematic review was conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to determine the evidence for the effectiveness of individualized nutrition therapy provided by a dietitian nutritionist and evidence-based (EB nutrition-therapy interventions in adults with diabetes. This article briefly reviews the systematic process used and summarizes the effectiveness evidence and intervention recommendations. In persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 18 studies met study criteria for the effectiveness question. A 0.3%–2.0% decrease from baseline in glycated hemoglobin was reported at 3 months in 13 study arms, a 0.3%–1.8% decrease at 6 months in 12 study arms, a 0.3%–1.6% decrease at 12 months with ongoing support in six study arms, and a 0.6%–1.8% decrease at >12 months in four study arms. An initial series of encounters with follow-up visits and implementation of a variety of nutrition-therapy interventions, all of which reduced energy intake, were reported. Nutrition therapy also significantly decreased doses or number of glucose-lowering medications used and resulted in improvements in quality of life. Mixed effects on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight were reported. Fourteen questions were identified related to nutrition-therapy interventions. A total of 38 studies met study criteria for the nutrition-intervention questions, from which 30 conclusion statements and 19 nutrition-practice guideline recommendations for T2D were written. Three additional NPG recommendations for T2D were written based on evidence reviewed by the American Diabetes Association. The 22 nutrition-intervention recommendations for T2D are summarized. How to implement nutrition-practice guideline recommendations effectively by health care providers and individuals with T2D remains challenging. Of importance, it is

  12. Studies on the effect of radio frequency field in a cusp-type charge separation device for direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamabe, Masaki; Izawa, Hiroaki; Takeno, Hiromasa; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Nakashima, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    In D- 3 He fusion power generation, an application of direct energy conversion is expected in which separation of charged particles is necessary. A cusp-type direct energy converter (CuspDEC) was proposed as a charge separation device, but its performance was degraded for a high density plasma. The goal of the present study is to establish an additional method to assist charge separation by using a nonlinear effect of a radio frequency (rf) electric field. Following to the previous study, we experimentally examine the effect of an rf field to electron motion in a CuspDEC device. Two ring electrodes were newly installed in a CuspDEC simulator and the current flowing into the electron collector located in the line cusp region was measured on an rf field application. The significant variation in the current was found, and an improvement of the charge separation can be expected by using the phenomenon appropriately. (author)

  13. Optimal conditions in direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas utilizing a dual-type fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ahmad; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Kazerooni, Nooshin Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over environmental pollution and ever-increasing energy demand have urged the global community to tap clean-burning fuels among which dimethyl ether is a promising candidate for contribution in the transportation sector. Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas, in which methanol production and dehydration take place simultaneously, is arguably the preferred route for large scale production. In this study, direct dimethyl ether synthesis is proposed in an industrial dual-type fluidized bed reactor. This configuration involves two fluidized bed reactors operating in different conditions. In the first catalytic reactor (water-cooled reactor), the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol after being preheated by the reaction heat in the second reactor (gas-cooled reactor). A two-phase generalized comprehensive reactor model, comprised of the flow in three different regimes is applied and a smooth transition between flow regimes is provided based on the probabilistic averaging approach. The optimal operating conditions are sought by employing differential evolution algorithm as a robust optimization strategy. The dimethyl ether mole fraction is considered as the objective function during the optimization. The results show considerable dimethyl ether enhancement by 16% and 14% compared to the conventional direct dimethyl ether synthesis reactor and dual-type fixed bed dimethyl ether reactor arrangements, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual-type catalytic fluidized bed reactors for dimethyl ether synthesis is studied. • A two-phase comprehensive model comprised of flow in three regimes is used. • Probabilistic averaging approach is applied for smooth transitions between regimes. • Differential evolution method is employed to determine optimal operating conditions. • Production capacity is remarkably enhanced compared to conventional reactor.

  14. Direct diabetes-related costs in young patients with early-onset, long-lasting type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate diabetes-related direct health care costs in pediatric patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes of long duration in Germany. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data of a population-based cohort of 1,473 subjects with type 1 diabetes onset at 0-4 years of age within the years 1993-1999 were included (mean age 13.9 (SD 2.2 years, mean diabetes duration 10.9 (SD 1.9 years, as of 31.12.2007. Diabetes-related health care services utilized in 2007 were derived from a nationwide prospective documentation system (DPV. Health care utilization was valued in monetary terms based on inpatient and outpatient medical fees and retail prices (perspective of statutory health insurance. Multiple regression models were applied to assess associations between direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year and demographic and clinical predictors. RESULTS: Mean direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year were €3,745 (inter-quartile range: 1,943-4,881. Costs for glucose self-monitoring were the main cost category (28.5%, followed by costs for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (25.0%, diabetes-related hospitalizations (22.1% and insulin (18.4%. Female gender, pubertal age and poor glycemic control were associated with higher and migration background with lower total costs. CONCLUSIONS: Main cost categories in patients with on average 11 years of diabetes duration were costs for glucose self-monitoring, insulin pump therapy, hospitalization and insulin. Optimization of glycemic control in particular in pubertal age through intensified care with improved diabetes education and tailored insulin regimen, can contribute to the reduction of direct diabetes-related costs in this patient group.

  15. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy a , Fy b , Jk a and Jk b antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. CO{sub 2} direct cycles suitable for AGR type reactors; Cycles directs de gaz carbonique applicables aux reacteurs du genre AGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillet, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1967-10-01

    The perspectives given by the gas turbines under pressure, to build simple nuclear power plants and acieving significantly high yield, are specified. The CO{sub 2} is characterised by by good efficiency under moderate temperature (500 to 750 Celsius degrees), compactness and the simpleness of machines and the safe exploitation (supply, storage, relief cooling, thermosyphon). The revision of thermal properties of the CO{sub 2} and loss elements show that several direct cycles would fit in particular to the AGR type reactors. Cycles that would diverge a little from classical models and able to lead to power and heat generation can lead by simple means to the best results. Several satisfying solutions present for the starting up, the power regulation and the stopping. The nuclear power plant components and the functioning safety are equally considered in the present report. The conclusions stimulate the studies and realizations of carbon dioxide gas turbines in when approprite. [French] Les perspectives offertes par la turbine a gaz sous pression, pour construire des centrales nucleaires simples et de rendement progressivement eleve, se precisent actuellement. le CO{sub 2} se distingue par sa bonne efficacite a temperature moderee (500 a 750 degres celsius), la compacite et la simplicite des machines, et la surete qu'il apporte a l'exploitation ( approvisionnement, stockage, refroidissement de secours, thermosiphon). La revision des proprietes thermophysiques du CO{sub 2} et des elements de pertes montre que divers cycles directs conviendraient en particulier aux reacteurs agr ou derives. Des cycles s'ecartant peu des modeles classiques, et se pretant ulterieurement a la production simultanee d'electricite et de chaleur, peuvent conduire par des moyens simples aux meilleurs resultats d'ensemble. Plusieurs solutions satisfaisantes se presentent pour le demarrage, le reglage de la puissance et l'arret. Les composants de la centrale et la surete de fonctionnement sont

  17. The direct l-type resonance spectrum of CF3CCH in the vibrational state ν 10 = 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woetzel, Ulf; Maeder, Heinrich; Harder, Hauke; Pracna, Petr; Sarka, Kamil

    2005-01-01

    The direct l-type resonance spectrum of CF 3 CCH in the vibrational state ν 10 = 2 has been measured by means of waveguide microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy in the range 8-26 GHz. Two types of direct l-type resonance transitions induced by the (Δk = ±2, Δl = ±2) interaction could be observed: 262 transitions following the ΔJ = 0, Δk = Δl = 2 selection rule covering values of J = 17-64 and G vertical bar k - l vertical bar from 2 to 15, and 75 transitions following the ΔJ = 0, Δk = Δl = 4 selection rule covering values of J = 44-70 and G up to 3. The strong (2, 2) resonance furthermore allowed the observation of A 1 -A 2 splittings of the k = l = ±2 states from J = 63-70. The transitions with G = 3 showed splittings due to the (4, -2) and (0, 6) interactions. The corresponding energy level systems and part of the Hamiltonian matrix are discussed. Strong perturbations due to Δ(k - l) = 3 interactions coupling the states k = ±1, l = ±2 and k = ±4, l ±2 made possible the observation of perturbation-allowed transitions with selection rule k = ±1, l =± 2 ↔ k = 0, l = ±2. Additionally, the J = 2-1 and 3-2 rotational transitions have been measured. A multiple fitting analysis has been performed in which the experimental data have been fitted using five reduced forms of the effective Hamiltonian as proposed by Sarka and Harder [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 197 (1999) 254]. Parameters up to sixth order have been determined including the axial rotational constant A for both values of vertical bar l vertical bar and the unitary equivalence of the determined parameter sets has been demonstrated

  18. Modification of Method for Solution of Direct Kinematic Problem for the Type of Platform Manipulators with Six Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Lapikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers creation of methods for research of multi-section manipulators of parallel structure. To solve this task it is necessary, firstly, to carry out generalization, systematization, and enhancement of existing models of platform manipulators with six degrees of freedom; secondly, it is necessary to modify previously suggested methods for solving the kinematic tasks for the specified type of manipulation mechanisms. The paper presents detailed domain analysis, describes major issues appearing in the course of research, and suggests basic methods of their solution. The paper demonstrates the necessity for modification of existing models through supplementing new parameters. Modification and generalization of the previously suggested method for solution of direct kinematic problem for the specified type of manipulators were carried out. Method for solution of this problem consists in establishing the dependence of functional relationship of Cartesian coordinates and orientation of the moving platform center on the values of generalized coordinates of manipulator (in case of platform manipulators, these are the lengths of telescopic legs connecting the base and the moving platform of the manipulator. The method is created in such a way that solution of direct kinematic problem results in finding of the analytical equation of the plane where the moving platform lies. The equation of the required plane is described through three points (attachment points of the moving platform joints. To define coordinate values of the joints, the system of nine non-linear equations is generated. It should be noted that the system of equations is composed of one-type equations with the same type of nonlinearity. The physical meaning of all the nine equations of the system is Euclidean distance between the points of the manipulator. The location and orientation of the manipulator are depicted as a homogenous transformation matrix. Vectors of translation

  19. Healthcare resource use, direct and indirect costs of hypoglycemia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and nationwide projections. Results of the HYPOS-1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, C B; Rossi, M C; Ozzello, O; Gentile, S; Aglialoro, A; Chiambretti, A; Baccetti, F; Gentile, F M; Romeo, F; Lucisano, G; Nicolucci, A

    2017-03-01

    To obtain an accurate picture of the total costs of hypoglycemia, including the indirect costs and comparing the differences between type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). HYPOS-1 was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study which analyzed the data of 2229 consecutive patients seen at 18 diabetes clinics. Data on healthcare resource use and indirect costs by diabetes type were collected via a questionnaire. The domains of inpatient admission and hospital stay, work days lost, and third-party assistance were also explored. Resource utilization was reported as estimated incidence rates (IRs) of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 person-years and estimated costs as IRs per person-years. For every 100 patients with T1DM, 9 emergency room (ER) visits and 6 emergency medical service calls for hypoglycemia were required per year; for every 100 patients with T2DM, 3 ER visits and 1 inpatient admission were required, with over 3 nights spent in hospital. Hypoglycemia led to 58 work days per 100 person-years lost by the patient or a family member in T1DM versus 19 in T2DM. The costs in T1DM totaled €90.99 per person-year and €62.04 in T2DM. Direct and indirect costs making up the total differed by type of diabetes (60% indirect costs in T1DM versus 43% in T2DM). The total cost associated with hypoglycemia in Italy is estimated to be €107 million per year. Indirect costs meaningfully contribute to the total costs associated with hypoglycemia. As compared with T1DM, T2DM requires fewer ER visits and incurs lower indirect costs but more frequent hospital use. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Replicative Intermediates of Human Papillomavirus Type 11 in Laryngeal Papillomas: Site of Replication Initiation and Direction of Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auborn, K. J.; Little, R. D.; Platt, T. H. K.; Vaccariello, M. A.; Schildkraut, C. L.

    1994-07-01

    We have examined the structures of replication intermediates from the human papillomavirus type 11 genome in DNA extracted from papilloma lesions (laryngeal papillomas). The sites of replication initiation and termination utilized in vivo were mapped by using neutral/neutral and neutral/alkaline two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis methods. Initiation of replication was detected in or very close to the upstream regulatory region (URR; the noncoding, regulatory sequences upstream of the open reading frames in the papillomavirus genome). We also show that replication forks proceed bidirectionally from the origin and converge 180circ opposite the URR. These results demonstrate the feasibility of analysis of replication of viral genomes directly from infected tissue.

  1. Calcitonin directly attenuates collagen type II degradation by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity in articular chondrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B C; Wulf, H; Henriksen, K

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Calcitonin was recently reported to counter progression of cartilage degradation in an experimental model of osteoarthritis, and the effects were primarily suggested to be mediated by inhibition of subchondral bone resorption. We investigated direct effects of calcitonin on chondrocytes...... by assessing expression of the receptor and pharmacological effects on collagen type II degradation under ex vivo and in vivo conditions. METHODS: Localization of the calcitonin receptor on articular chondrocytes was investigated by immunohistochemistry, and the expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase.......0001-1 microM]. In vivo, cartilage degradation was investigated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats administered with oral calcitonin [2 mg/kg calcitonin] for 9 weeks. RESULTS: The calcitonin receptor was identified in articular chondrocytes by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Calcitonin concentration...

  2. Impedance matching of pillbox-type RF windows and direct measurement of the ceramic relative dielectric constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hiroyuki.ao@j-parc.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), J-PARC Center, Accelerator Division, 2-4, Shirakara Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Asano, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), J-PARC Center, Accelerator Division, 2-4, Shirakara Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Naito, Fujio [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ouchi, Nobuo; Tamura, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), J-PARC Center, Accelerator Division, 2-4, Shirakara Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Takata, Koji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-02-11

    Impedance matching of RF windows that minimizes the RF reflection is necessary to prevent localized standing waves between an RF window and a cavity, which may cause thermal and/or multipactoring issues. It has been observed that the impedance matching condition of the pillbox-type RF window, checked by voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) measurement, depends on the manufacturing lot of the window ceramic disk made of 95% purity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The present report proposes new procedures for impedance matching as follows: (i) The relative dielectric constant of the ceramic window is directly measured using the resonant frequency of a cavity made by temporarily combining the pillbox part of the RF window and two short-circuiting plates. (ii) The dimensions of the pillbox section including the ceramic disk are fixed on the basis of the measured relative dielectric constant. To confirm this procedure, three RF windows were fabricated using the same type of ceramic material, and successful impedance matching of these windows was performed (VSWR<1.05). The measured results also suggest that the relative dielectric constant increases linearly with increasing density and that the impedance matching condition is mainly affected by variations of the relative dielectric constant due to shrinkage of the alumina during sintering. -- Highlights: • We measured the relative dielectric constant of an RF window ceramic directly. • We used the circular TE011-mode frequency of the pillbox part of an RF window itself. • The dimensions of the pillbox part were fixed on the basis of the measurement result. • Three RF windows were fabricated, and VSWR <1.05 for these windows was performed. • The relative dielectric constant increases linearly with increasing ceramic density.

  3. Impedance matching of pillbox-type RF windows and direct measurement of the ceramic relative dielectric constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao, Hiroyuki; Asano, Hiroyuki; Naito, Fujio; Ouchi, Nobuo; Tamura, Jun; Takata, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Impedance matching of RF windows that minimizes the RF reflection is necessary to prevent localized standing waves between an RF window and a cavity, which may cause thermal and/or multipactoring issues. It has been observed that the impedance matching condition of the pillbox-type RF window, checked by voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) measurement, depends on the manufacturing lot of the window ceramic disk made of 95% purity Al 2 O 3 . The present report proposes new procedures for impedance matching as follows: (i) The relative dielectric constant of the ceramic window is directly measured using the resonant frequency of a cavity made by temporarily combining the pillbox part of the RF window and two short-circuiting plates. (ii) The dimensions of the pillbox section including the ceramic disk are fixed on the basis of the measured relative dielectric constant. To confirm this procedure, three RF windows were fabricated using the same type of ceramic material, and successful impedance matching of these windows was performed (VSWR<1.05). The measured results also suggest that the relative dielectric constant increases linearly with increasing density and that the impedance matching condition is mainly affected by variations of the relative dielectric constant due to shrinkage of the alumina during sintering. -- Highlights: • We measured the relative dielectric constant of an RF window ceramic directly. • We used the circular TE011-mode frequency of the pillbox part of an RF window itself. • The dimensions of the pillbox part were fixed on the basis of the measurement result. • Three RF windows were fabricated, and VSWR <1.05 for these windows was performed. • The relative dielectric constant increases linearly with increasing ceramic density

  4. Five-colour photometry of early-type stars in the direction of galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Paradijs, J.; Van Amerongen, S.; Damen, E.; Van der Woerd, H.

    1986-01-01

    We present the results of five-colour photometry of 551 O- and B-type stars located in 17 fields of a few square degrees around galactic X-ray sources. From a comparison of reddening-free combinations of colour indices with theoretical values, calculated for model atmospheres of Kurucz, we derive effective temperature and surface gravity for these stars. In addition we find their absolute magnitude by combining these parameters with the results of evolutionary calculations of massive stars. These effective temperatures are in good agreement with the temperature scale of Bohm-Vitense for stars of luminosity classes II to V. For the supergiants the effective temperatures are about 40% higher. For stars of luminosity classes III to V the absolute magnitudes we find agree well with the results of independent luminosity calibrations of spectral types, but for brighter stars they deviate systematically. We suspect that the origin of these deviations lies in the failure of present low-gravity model atmospheres to represent supergiant atmospheres. We have used the photometric data to study the interstellar reddening in the direction of the X-ray sources

  5. Direct and indirect effects of different types of microplastics on freshwater prey (Corbicula fluminea) and their predator (Acipenser transmontanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnis, J. Mark; Browne, Mark A.; Serrato, Sebastian; Reiner, Eric J.; Robson, Matthew; Young, Thomas; Diamond, Miriam L.; Teh, Swee J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of different types of microplastics, with or without PCBs, directly affect freshwater prey and indirectly affect their predators. Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene, polyvinylchloride (PVC) or polystyrene with and without polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 28 days. Their predators, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), were exposed to clams from each treatment for 28 days. In both species, we examined bioaccumulation of PCBs and effects (i.e., immunohistochemistry, histology, behavior, condition, mortality) across several levels of biological organization. PCBs were not detected in prey or predator, and thus differences in bioaccumulation of PCBs among polymers and biomagnification in predators could not be measured. One of the main objectives of this study was to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of PCBs would differ among polymer types. Because we could not answer this question experimentally, a bioaccumulation model was run and predicted that concentrations of PCBs in clams exposed to polyethylene and polystyrene would be greater than PET and PVC. Observed effects, although subtle, seemed to be due to microplastics rather than PCBs alone. For example, histopathology showed tubular dilation in clams exposed to microplastics with PCBs, with only mild effects in clams exposed to PCBs alone. PMID:29108004

  6. Direct and indirect effects of different types of microplastics on freshwater prey (Corbicula fluminea and their predator (Acipenser transmontanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea M Rochman

    Full Text Available We examined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of different types of microplastics, with or without PCBs, directly affect freshwater prey and indirectly affect their predators. Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polyethylene, polyvinylchloride (PVC or polystyrene with and without polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs for 28 days. Their predators, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus, were exposed to clams from each treatment for 28 days. In both species, we examined bioaccumulation of PCBs and effects (i.e., immunohistochemistry, histology, behavior, condition, mortality across several levels of biological organization. PCBs were not detected in prey or predator, and thus differences in bioaccumulation of PCBs among polymers and biomagnification in predators could not be measured. One of the main objectives of this study was to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of PCBs would differ among polymer types. Because we could not answer this question experimentally, a bioaccumulation model was run and predicted that concentrations of PCBs in clams exposed to polyethylene and polystyrene would be greater than PET and PVC. Observed effects, although subtle, seemed to be due to microplastics rather than PCBs alone. For example, histopathology showed tubular dilation in clams exposed to microplastics with PCBs, with only mild effects in clams exposed to PCBs alone.

  7. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaturvedi, Nish; Porta, Massimo; Klein, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system blockers might reduce the burden of diabetic retinopathy. We therefore designed the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme to assess whether candesartan could reduce the incidence and progression of ...

  9. Chemical discrimination of lubricant marketing types using direct analysis in real time time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Mark; Harvey, Lauren; Tomcsak, Maren; Solano, Angelique; Bridge, Candice

    2017-06-30

    In comparison to other violent crimes, sexual assaults suffer from very low prosecution and conviction rates especially in the absence of DNA evidence. As a result, the forensic community needs to utilize other forms of trace contact evidence, like lubricant evidence, in order to provide a link between the victim and the assailant. In this study, 90 personal bottled and condom lubricants from the three main marketing types, silicone-based, water-based and condoms, were characterized by direct analysis in real time time of flight mass spectrometry (DART-TOFMS). The instrumental data was analyzed by multivariate statistics including hierarchal cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and linear discriminant analysis. By interpreting the mass spectral data with multivariate statistics, 12 discrete groupings were identified, indicating inherent chemical diversity not only between but within the three main marketing groups. A number of unique chemical markers, both major and minor, were identified, other than the three main chemical components (i.e. PEG, PDMS and nonoxynol-9) currently used for lubricant classification. The data was validated by a stratified 20% withheld cross-validation which demonstrated that there was minimal overlap between the groupings. Based on the groupings identified and unique features of each group, a highly discriminating statistical model was then developed that aims to provide the foundation for the development of a forensic lubricant database that may eventually be applied to casework. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Dynamic localization of HmpF regulates type IV pilus activity and directional motility in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ye Won; Gonzales, Alfonso; Harwood, Thomas V; Huynh, Jessica; Hwang, Yeji; Park, Jun Sang; Trieu, Anthony Q; Italia, Parth; Pallipuram, Vivek K; Risser, Douglas D

    2017-10-01

    Many cyanobacteria exhibit surface motility powered by type 4 pili (T4P). In the model filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, the T4P systems are arrayed in static, bipolar rings in each cell. The chemotaxis-like Hmp system is essential for motility and the coordinated polar accumulation of PilA on cells in motile filaments, while the Ptx system controls positive phototaxis. Using transposon mutagenesis, a gene, designated hmpF, was identified as involved in motility. Synteny among filamentous cyanobacteria and the similar expression patterns for hmpF and hmpD imply that HmpF is part of the Hmp system. Deletion of hmpF produced a phenotype distinct from other hmp genes, but indistinguishable from pilB or pilQ. Both an HmpF-GFPuv fusion protein, and PilA, as assessed by in situ immunofluorescence, displayed coordinated, unipolar localization at the leading pole of each cell. Reversals were modulated by changes in light intensity and preceded by the migration of HmpF-GFPuv to the lagging cell poles. These results are consistent with a model where direct interaction between HmpF and the T4P system activates pilus extension, the Hmp system facilitates coordinated polarity of HmpF to establish motility, and the Ptx system modulates HmpF localization to initiate reversals in response to changes in light intensity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Direct methods and residue type specific isotope labeling in NMR structure determination and model-driven sequential assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schedlbauer, Andreas; Auer, Renate; Ledolter, Karin; Tollinger, Martin; Kloiber, Karin; Lichtenecker, Roman; Ruedisser, Simon; Hommel, Ulrich; Schmid, Walther; Konrat, Robert; Kontaxis, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Direct methods in NMR based structure determination start from an unassigned ensemble of unconnected gaseous hydrogen atoms. Under favorable conditions they can produce low resolution structures of proteins. Usually a prohibitively large number of NOEs is required, to solve a protein structure ab-initio, but even with a much smaller set of distance restraints low resolution models can be obtained which resemble a protein fold. One problem is that at such low resolution and in the absence of a force field it is impossible to distinguish the correct protein fold from its mirror image. In a hybrid approach these ambiguous models have the potential to aid in the process of sequential backbone chemical shift assignment when 13 C β and 13 C' shifts are not available for sensitivity reasons. Regardless of the overall fold they enhance the information content of the NOE spectra. These, combined with residue specific labeling and minimal triple-resonance data using 13 C α connectivity can provide almost complete sequential assignment. Strategies for residue type specific labeling with customized isotope labeling patterns are of great advantage in this context. Furthermore, this approach is to some extent error-tolerant with respect to data incompleteness, limited precision of the peak picking, and structural errors caused by misassignment of NOEs

  12. [Direct costs of medical care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico micro-costing analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Bolaños, Rosibel de Los Ángeles; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Jiménez Ruíz, Jorge Alberto; Juárez Márquezy, Sergio Arturo; Hernández Ávila, Mauricio

    2010-12-01

    Estimate the direct cost of medical care incurred by the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The clinical files of 497 patients who were treated in secondary and tertiary medical care units in 2002-2004 were reviewed. Costs were quantified using a disease costing approach (DCA) from the provider's perspective, a micro-costing technique, and a bottom-up methodology. Average annual costs by diagnosis, complication, and total cost were estimated. Total IMSS DM2 annual costs were US$452 064 988, or 3.1% of operating expenses. The annual average cost per patient was US$3 193.75, with US$2 740.34 per patient without complications and US$3 550.17 per patient with complications. Hospitalization and intensive care bed-days generated the greatest expenses. The high cost of providing medical care to patients with DM2 and its complications represents an economic burden that health institutions should consider in their budgets to enable them to offer quality service that is both adequate and timely. Using the micro-costing methodology allows an approximation to real data on utilization and management of the disease.

  13. Type IV pilins regulate their own expression via direct intramembrane interactions with the sensor kinase PilS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmury, Sara L N; Burrows, Lori L

    2016-05-24

    Type IV pili are important virulence factors for many pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa Transcription of the major pilin gene-pilA-is controlled by the PilS-PilR two-component system in response to unknown signals. The absence of a periplasmic sensing domain suggested that PilS may sense an intramembrane signal, possibly PilA. We suggest that direct interactions between PilA and PilS in the inner membrane reduce pilA transcription when PilA levels are high. Overexpression in trans of PilA proteins with diverse and/or truncated C termini decreased native pilA transcription, suggesting that the highly conserved N terminus of PilA was the regulatory signal. Point mutations in PilA or PilS that disrupted their interaction prevented autoregulation of pilA transcription. A subset of PilA point mutants retained the ability to interact with PilS but could no longer decrease pilA transcription, suggesting that interaction between the pilin and sensor kinase is necessary but not sufficient for pilA autoregulation. Furthermore, PilS's phosphatase motif was required for the autoregulation of pilA transcription, suggesting that under conditions where PilA is abundant, the PilA-PilS interaction promotes PilR dephosphorylation and thus down-regulation of further pilA transcription. These data reveal a clever bacterial inventory control strategy in which the major subunit of an important P. aeruginosa virulence factor controls its own expression.

  14. Role of a non-ionic surfactant in direct electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis by fructose dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Shota; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of Triton ® X-100 (1%) completely quenches the FDH-catalyzed current at hydrophobic electrode, but causes only small competitive effect at hydrophilic electrode. • Quartz crystal microbalance measurements support the adsorption of FDH and Triton ® X-100 on both of the electrodes. • The surfactant forms a monolayer on the hydrophobic electrode and FDH adsorbs on the surfactant monolayer. • The surfactant forms a bilayer on the hydrophilic electrode and FDH is embedded in the bilayer to communicate with the electrode. - ABSTRACT: A heterotrimeric membrane-bound fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) from Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3260 contains FAD in subunit I and three heme C moieties in subunit II as the redox centers, and is one of the direct electron transfer (DET)-type redox enzymes. FDH-catalyzed current density of fructose oxidation at hydrophilic mercaptoethanol (MEtOH)-modified Au electrode is much larger than that at hydrophobic mercaptoethane (MEtn)-modified Au electrode. Addition of a non-ionic surfactant Triton ® X-100 (1%) completely quenches the catalytic current at the MEtn-modified Au electrode, while only small competitive effect is observed at the MEtOH-modified Au electrode. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements support the adsorption of FDH and Triton ® X-100 on both of the modified electrodes. We propose a model to explain the phenomenon as follows. The surfactant forms a monolayer on the hydrophobic MEtn-modified electrode with strong hydrophobic interaction, and FDH adsorbs on the surface of the surfactant monolayer. The monolayer inhibits the electron transfer from FDH to the electrode. On the other hand, the surfactant forms a bilayer on the hydrophilic MEtOH-modified electrode. The interaction between the surfactant bilayer and the hydrophilic electrode is relatively weak so that FDH replaces the surfactant and is embedded in the bilayer to communicate electrochemically with the hydrophilic electrode

  15. The "where" of social attention: Head and body direction aftereffects arise from representations specific to cue type and not direction alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca P; Calder, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable social attention skills. From the initial processing of cues, such as eye gaze, head direction, and body orientation, we perceive where other people are attending, allowing us to draw inferences about the intentions, desires, and dispositions of others. But before we can infer why someone is attending to something in the world we must first accurately represent where they are attending. Here we investigate the "where" of social attention perception, and employ adaptation paradigms to ascertain how head and body orientation are visually represented in the human brain. Across two experiments we show that the representation of two cues to social attention (head and body orientation) exists at the category-specific level. This suggests that aftereffects do not arise from "social attention cells" discovered in macaques or from abstract representations of "leftness" or "rightness."

  16. 78 FR 52872 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild Dornier GmbH; Dornier... certain 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild... send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposed AD. Send your comments to an...

  17. Effect of High Temperature Annealing on Conduction-Type ZnO Films Prepared by Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Li-Jie; He Dong-Kai; Xu Xiao-Qiu; Zhong Ze; Wu Xiao-Peng; Lin Bi-Xia; Fu Zhu-Xi

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally find that the ZnO thin films deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering have different conduction types after annealing at high temperature in different ambient. Hall measurements show that ZnO films annealed at 1100°C in N 2 and in O 2 ambient become n-type and p-type, respectively. This is due to the generation of different intrinsic defects by annealing in different ambient. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photolumi-nescence measurements indicate that zinc interstitial becomes a main defects after annealing at 1100°C in N 2 ambient, and these defects play an important role for n-type conductivity of ZnO. While the ZnO films annealed at 1100°C in O 2 ambient, the oxygen antisite contributes ZnO films to p-type. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  18. Fibronectin type III (FN3) modules of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Hinsby, Anders Mørkeberg

    2008-01-01

    The neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 promotes axonal outgrowth, presumably through an interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). The present study demonstrates a direct interaction between L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules I-V and FGFR1 immunoglobulin (Ig) modules II...

  19. The Differential Effect of Two Types of Direct Written Corrective Feedback on Noticing and Uptake: Reformulation vs. Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Manchón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Framed in a cognitively-oriented strand of research on corrective feedback (CF in SLA, the controlled three- stage (composition/comparison-noticing/revision study reported in this paper investigated the effects of two forms of direct CF (error correction and reformulation on noticing and uptake, as evidenced in the written output produced by a group of 8 secondary school EFL learners. Noticing was operationalized as the amount of corrections noticed in the comparison stage of the writing task, whereas uptake was operationally defined as the type and amount of accurate revisions incorporated in the participants’ revised versions of their original texts. Results support previous research findings on the positive effects of written CF on noticing and uptake, with a clear advantage of error correction over reformulation as far as uptake was concerned. Data also point to the existence of individual differences in the way EFL learners process and make use of CF in their writing. These findings are discussed from the perspective of the light they shed on the learning potential of CF in instructed SLA, and suggestions for future research are put forward.Enmarcado en la investigación de orden cognitivo sobre la corrección (“corrective feedback”, en este trabajo se investigó la incidencia de dos tipos de corrección escrita (corrección de errores y reformulación en los procesos de detección (noticing e incorporación (“uptake”. Ocho alumnos de inglés de Educción Secundaria participaron en un experimento que constó de tres etapas: redacción, comparación-detección y revisión. La detección se definió operacionalmente en términos del número de correcciones registradas por los alumnos durante la etapa de detección-comparación, mientras que la operacionalización del proceso de incorporación fue el tipo y cantidad de revisiones llevadas a cabo en la última etapa del experimento. Nuestros resultados confirman los hallazgos de la

  20. Approximately One In Three US Adults Completes Any Type Of Advance Directive For End-Of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kuldeep N; Gabler, Nicole B; Cooney, Elizabeth; Kent, Saida; Kim, Jennifer; Herbst, Nicole; Mante, Adjoa; Halpern, Scott D; Courtright, Katherine R

    2017-07-01

    Efforts to promote the completion of advance directives implicitly assume that completion rates of these documents, which help ensure care consistent with people's preferences in the event of incapacity, are undesirably low. However, data regarding completion of advance directives in the United States are inconsistent and of variable quality. We systematically reviewed studies published in the period 2011-16 to determine the proportion of US adults with a completed living will, health care power of attorney, or both. Among the 795,909 people in the 150 studies we analyzed, 36.7 percent had completed an advance directive, including 29.3 percent with living wills. These proportions were similar across the years reviewed. Similar proportions of patients with chronic illnesses (38.2 percent) and healthy adults (32.7 percent) had completed advance directives. The findings provide benchmarks for gauging future policies and practices designed to motivate completion of advance directives, particularly among those people most likely to benefit from having these documents on record. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: effect of moisture, product type, and material direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangping Han; Qinglin Wu; Xiping Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of moisture on longitudinal stress-wave velocity (SWV), bending stiffness. and bending strength of commercial oriented strandboard, plywood. particleboard. and southern pine lumber was evaluated. It was shown that the stress-wave verocity decreased in general with increases in panel moisture content (MC). At a given MC level. SWV varied with panel type and...

  2. Analysis of biotechnological hydrogen production efficiency for microorganisms with different types of metabolism, promising directions for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Сергіївна Зубченко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic biotechnological methods of hydrogen production, namely biological water splitting, using algae or cyanobacteria, dark fermentation and bioelectrochemical systems are analyzed in the article. Biochemical features of hydrogen production by microorganisms with different types of metabolism are reviewed. Disadvantages of each method and the prospects for future research are determined

  3. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum Translation Initiation eIF2β Subunit: Direct Interaction with Protein Phosphatase Type 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tellier, G.; Lenne, A.; Cailliau-Maggio, K.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Martoriati, A.; Aliouat, El M.; Gosset, P.; Delaire, B.; Fréville, A.; Pierrot, C.; Khalife, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAY 26 (2016), č. článku 777. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Plasmodium falciparum * Protein Phosphatase type1 * eIF2b * protein-protein interaction * translation complex Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  4. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis.

  5. Type of oral solid medication packaging and medication preparation time in nursing homes: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cready, C M; Hudson, C; Dreyer, K

    2017-12-01

    Medication administration is a substantial portion of the workday in nursing homes, with the medication preparation step being the most time-consuming. However, little is known about how medication preparation time is affected by the type of packaging used for oral solid medications (ie, tablets/capsules). We examined the effects of two types of packaging. As fewer steps are associated with strip packaging compared to bingo card packaging, we hypothesized that the increase in medication preparation seconds per resident with each additional oral solid medication would be smaller when strip packaging was used. A total of 430 medication preparations conducted by eight nurses during the regularly scheduled morning medication administration period in two nursing homes-using strip packaging and bingo card packaging, respectively-were observed. Each medication preparation observation was matched to its corresponding medication administration record and observations averaged across resident. Using the resident sample (N=149), we estimated three regression models (adjusting the standard errors for the clustering of resident by nurse). The first model regressed medication preparation seconds on the number of oral solid medications. The second model added the type of packaging used and the control variables (type of unit [long-term care, post-acute care], the number of one-half pills and the dosage form diversity in the preparation). To test our hypothesis, the third model added an interaction term between the number of oral solid medications and the type of packaging used. As hypothesized, all else equal, the number of oral solid medications tended to increase medication preparation time per resident in both nursing homes, but the increase was smaller in the strip packaging nursing home (Ppackaging nursing home increased medication preparation by an average of 13 seconds (b=13.077), whereas each oral solid medication administered in the strip packaging nursing home

  6. Type IV pilins regulate their own expression via direct intramembrane interactions with the sensor kinase PilS

    OpenAIRE

    Kilmury, Sara L. N.; Burrows, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Although two-component systems are a ubiquitous means of rapid bacterial adaptation to changing environments, identification of the specific signals detected by sensor kinases can be challenging. Also, little is known about the diverse, poorly characterized family of sensor kinases that detect intramembrane signals. We show that the major type IV pilin, PilA, is an inhibitory intramembrane ligand for the PilS sensor kinase that controls pilA expression and we characterize the mechanism of sig...

  7. Selling Health to the Distracted: Consumer Responses to Source Credibility and Ad Appeal Type in a Direct-to-Consumer Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanski, Jennifer L; Villegas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Since 1997, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration first allowed prescription drug companies to release ads directly targeting the public, direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising has become an integral part of the pharmaceutical industry marketing toolkit, reaching over $4 billion in 2005. In an experiment where cognitive load, a task that requires the investment of a subject's memory in an unrelated task; source credibility; and advertising appeal type (affective or cognitive) were manipulated, attitude toward the ad was measured for a print DTC meningitis vaccine ad. Main effect results for source credibility and advertising appeal type on attitude toward the ad were found, and interactions between manipulated variables were apparent when the individual difference variables related to a specific illness (vaccination history, living in a dorm, family members or friends who had suffered the illness) were taken into account.

  8. Clinical evaluation of digital angiographic system equipped with the Safire' flat-panel detector of a direct conversion type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Miura, Yusuke; Goto, Keiichi [Shimadzu Corporation, Medical Systems Division, Research and Development, Kyoto (JP)] [and others

    2003-06-01

    This report presents a report on clinical evaluation of our newly developed flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, designed to provide images of a resolution higher than, or at least equal to, that ensured by X-ray photographic films, in clinical digital X-ray cinematography. This new detector was named 'Safire' the acronym of 'Shimadzu advanced flat imaging receptor', emphasizing its high technological level, such as the capability to ensure high quality of images. The clinical evaluation of Shimadzu DIGITEX Premier digital angiography system, equipped with this new flat-panel X-ray detector of a direct conversion type, has been started in March, 2003, at the Kokura Memorial Hospital in Kyushu, Japan. (author)

  9. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  10. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua; Pfister, Roman; Deppe, Antje-Christin; Matoussevitch, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  11. Modulation of intracellular Ca2+ via L-type calcium channels in heart cells by the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of the alpha1-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bkaily, Ghassan; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Bui, Michel; Sukarieh, Rami; Jacques, Danielle; Fu, Michael L X

    2003-03-01

    The effects of methoxamine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist, and the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of alpha1-adrenoceptors were studied on intracellular free Ca2+ levels using confocal microscopy and ionic currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in single cells of 10-day-old embryonic chick and 20-week-old fetal human hearts. We observed that like methoxamine, the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of alpha1-adrenoreceptors significantly increased the L-type calcium current (I(Ca(L))) but had no effect on the T-type calcium current (I(Ca(T))), the delayed outward potassium current, or the fast sodium current. This effect of the autoantibody was prevented by a prestimulation of the receptors with methoxamine and vice versa. Moreover, treating the cells with prazosin, a selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist blocked the methoxamine and the autoantibody-induced increase in I(Ca(L)), respectively. In absence of prazosin, both methoxamine and the autoantibody showed a substantial enhancement in the frequency of cell contraction and that of the concomitant cytosolic and nuclear free Ca2+ variations. The subsequent addition of nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, reversed not only the methoxamine or the autoantibody-induced effect but also completely abolished cell contraction. These results demonstrated that functional alpha1-adrenoceptors exist in both 10-day-old embryonic chick and 20-week-old human fetal hearts and that the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of this type of receptors plays an important role in stimulating their activity via activation of L-type calcium channels. This loop seems to have a functional significance by being the target of alpha1-receptor agonists like methoxamine.

  12. The role of temperament in the changes of coping in Type 2 diabetes: direct and indirect relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroemeke Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the changes in cognitive appraisal and coping strategies related to initiation of insulin treatment onset mediate the effect of temperament on changes in positivity ratio among diabetic patients. Temperament, cognitive appraisal, coping strategies and positivity ratio (ratio of positive to negative affect were assessed among 278 patients: just before conversion to insulin therapy and then one month later. Mediation analysis indicated that endurance and briskness were directly connected to changes in positivity ratio, whilst the effect of perseveration on positivity ratio was indirect via changes in negative appraisal, emotion- and problem-focused coping. The results confirm the stressful nature of the initiation of insulin treatment, and the assumptions of Lazarus’ model of stress and regulative role of temperament.

  13. Quantifying direct effects of social determinants of health on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebekah J; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if self-care is the pathway through which social determinants of health impact diabetes outcomes by analyzing the direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on self-care and glycemic control. Six hundred fifteen adults were recruited from two primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. A series of confirmatory factor analyses identified the latent factors underlying social status, psychosocial determinants (psychological distress, self-efficacy, and social support), and self-care (diet, exercise, foot care, glucose testing, and medication adherence). Structured equation modeling investigated the relationship among social determinants, self-care and glycemic control. Latent variables were created for diabetes self-care, psychological distress, self-efficacy, social support, and social status. The final model [χ(2)(275)=450.07, Psocial support (r=0.14, P=0.01), and higher self-efficacy (r=0.47, Psocial support (r=0.10, P=0.02), and higher self-efficacy (r=-0.37, Psocial determinants of health variables were included in the model, self-care was no longer significantly associated with glycemic control (r=0.01, P=0.83). This study suggests a direct relationship between psychosocial determinants of health and glycemic control. Although associated with self-care, the relationship between social determinants of health and glycemic control is not mediated by self-care. Development of interventions should take psychosocial factors into account as independent influences on diabetes outcomes, rather than as indirect influences via self-care behavior.

  14. Determination of type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses generated in the welding of AISI H-13 steel with the hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia; I; Maldonado, C; Bedolla, A; Velez, M; Medina, A; Bejar, L

    2006-01-01

    AISI H-13 steel is considered to be a highly ultra resistant steel because its resistance to stress surpasses 1380 MPa. This steel is widely used in tools that heavily used, especially under high temperatures, such as: awls, molds for pressing, extrusion dies, extrusion tools from heat impact, tools for producing screws, bolts, rivets and taps, molds for centrifugal smelting, tools for presses with shaped pieces, knives for hot cutting, among others. The weldability of AISI H-13 steel is generally poor, but it is possible if the proper precautions are taken. Cracking is perhaps the factor that most limits the weldability of AISI H-13 steel. The tendency to crack during welding for this type of steel occurs in the base metal and the zone close to the supporting material (cold cracking). The interlayer covering technique is used in the repair, welding and recovery of pieces of high alloy steels in order to avoid cracking and to lower the residual stresses generated by obstructed contraction and martensitic transformation. This work defined the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses at different distances starting from the center of the welded union on the 25.4 mm thick AISI H-13 steel sheet. The welding was carried out in a test piece with Y-Groove geometry following JIS Z 3158 standard, using the SMAW process and an AISI 312 stainless steel interlayer between the base metal and the supporting metal. The hole-drilling method was used to measure the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses using extensometric gauge rosette CEA-06-062UM-120 and CEA-06-062RE-120 following the guidelines established by ASTM E 837 standard. Based on the relaxed deformations that were measured, the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses were determined with the H-DRILL residual stress program for biaxial condition. The results indicate that under these welding conditions the residual strains at different distances from the welded union are from stress and

  15. Casting traceability with direct part marking using reconfigurable pin-type tooling based on paraffin–graphite actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    Green sand moulding machines for cast iron foundries are presently unable to uniquely identify individual castings. An insert tool concept is developed and tested via incremental mock-up development. The tool is part of the pattern plate and changes shape between each moulding, thus giving each...... mould a unique ID by embossing a Data Matrix symbol into the sand. In the process of producing the mould, each casting can be given a unique (DPM), enabling part tracking throughout the casting's life cycle. Sand embossing is achieved with paraffin-actuated reconfigurable pin-type tooling under...... simulated processing conditions. The marker geometry limitations have been tested using static symbol patterns, both for sand embossing and actual casting marking. The marked castings have successfully been identified with decoding software. The study shows that the function of each element...

  16. The Number of Response Categories and the Reverse Directional Item Problem in Likert-Type Scales: A Study with the Rasch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa İLHAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed reverse directional item and the number of response categories problems in Likert-type scales. The Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNES and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ were used as data collection tools. The data of the study were analyzed according to the Rasch model. The analysis found that the observed and expected test characteristic curves were largely overlapped, each of the three rating scales worked effectively, and the differences between response categories could be distinguished successfully by the participants in straightforward directional items. On the other hand, it was determined that there were significant differences between the observed and expected test characteristic curves in reverse directional items. It was also found that no matter which one of these three, five and seven-point rating scales was used, the participants could not distinguish the response categories of the reverse directional items on the FNES and the OHQ. Afterwards, the reverse directional items were removed from the data file, and the analysis was repeated. The analysis results revealed that item discrimination, reliability coefficients for person facet, separation ratios and Chi square values calculated for the facets of person and items were higher in five-pointed rating compared to three and seven pointed rating.

  17. Energy performance of water hybrid PV/T collectors applied to combisystems of Direct Solar Floor type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, G.; Johannes, K. [Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingenierie de l' Environnement, Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Chambery, Campus Scientifique Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Menezo, C. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Bat. Freyssinet, 20, Avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-11-15

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) modules in buildings allows one to consider a multifunctional frame and then to reduce the cost by substitution of components. In order to limit the rise of the cell operating temperature, a photovoltaics/thermal (PV/T) collector combines a solar water heating collector and PV cells. The recovered heat energy can be used for heating systems and domestic hot water. A combination with a Direct Solar Floor is studied. Its low operating temperature level is appropriate for the operating conditions of the mono- or poly-crystalline photovoltaic modules which are selected in that study. However, for a system including a glass covered collector and localised in Macon area in France, we show that the annual photovoltaic cell efficiency is 6.8% which represents a decrease of 28% in comparison with a conventional non-integrated PV module of 9.4% annual efficiency. This is obviously due to a temperature increase related to the cover. On the other hand, we show that without a glass cover, the efficiency is 10% which is 6% better than a standard module due to the cooling effect. Moreover, in the case of a glazed PV/T collector with a conventional control system for Direct Solar Floor, the maximum temperature reached at the level of the PV modules is higher than 100{sup o}C. This is due to the oversize of the collectors during the summer when the heating needs are null, i.e. without a heated swimming pool for example. This temperature level does not allow the use of EVA resin (ethylene vinyl acetate) in PV modules due to strong risks of degradation. The current solution consists of using amorphous cells or, if we do not enhance the thermal production, uncovered PV/T collector. Further research led to water hybrid PV/T solar collectors as a one-piece component, both reliable and efficient, and including the thermal absorber, the heat exchanger and the photovoltaic functions. (author)

  18. Unbiased Strain-Typing of Arbovirus Directly from Mosquitoes Using Nanopore Sequencing: A Field-forward Biosurveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joseph A; Campos, Brittany; Stone, Jennifer; Blosser, Erik M; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Jacobs, Jonathan L

    2018-04-03

    The future of infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response is trending towards smaller hand-held solutions for point-of-need pathogen detection. Here, samples of Culex cedecei mosquitoes collected in Southern Florida, USA were tested for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV), a previously-weaponized arthropod-borne RNA-virus capable of causing acute and fatal encephalitis in animal and human hosts. A single 20-mosquito pool tested positive for VEEV by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on the Biomeme two3. The virus-positive sample was subjected to unbiased metatranscriptome sequencing on the Oxford Nanopore MinION and shown to contain Everglades Virus (EVEV), an alphavirus in the VEEV serocomplex. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the use of unbiased sequence-based detection and subtyping of a high-consequence biothreat pathogen directly from an environmental sample using field-forward protocols. The development and validation of methods designed for field-based diagnostic metagenomics and pathogen discovery, such as those suitable for use in mobile "pocket laboratories", will address a growing demand for public health teams to carry out their mission where it is most urgent: at the point-of-need.

  19. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  20. Direct searches of Type-III seesaw triplet fermions at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Deepanjali; Poulose, P. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2018-01-15

    The signatures of heavy fermionic isotriplets (Σ) are probed through their direct production and subsequent decay at high energy electron-positron colliders. Unlike the case of LHC, the production process has strong dependence on the mixing of Σ with electron (V{sub e}), making the leptonic collider unique to fingerprint the presence of such mixing. We establish that pair production considered at √(s) = 2 TeV can be employed to study both the cases of V{sub e} = 0 and of V{sub e} ≠ 0 with ∝ 100 fb{sup -1} luminosity, while the single production can probe the latter case with a few inverse femto barn luminosity at √(s) = 1 TeV. Exploring the mass reach, both the single and pair productions are capable of probing Σ of mass close to the kinematic limits through selected channels. Investigating simultaneous limits on the M{sub Σ} - V{sub e} parameter space, we identify suitable final states and their 3σ reach on V{sub e} and M{sub Σ} at 300 (100) fb{sup -1} luminosity in the case of pair (single) Σ production. (orig.)

  1. Wild-type EGFR Is Stabilized by Direct Interaction with HSP90 in Cancer Cells and Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarif Ahsan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been targeted for inhibition using tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, with improvement in outcome in subsets of patients with head and neck, lung, and colorectal carcinomas. We have previously found that EGFR stability plays a key role in cell survival after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 is known to stabilize mutant EGFR and ErbB2, but its role in cancers with wild-type (WT WT-EGFR is unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that fully mature, membrane-bound WT-EGFR interacts with HSP90 independent of ErbB2. Further, the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin (GA and AT13387 cause a decrease in WT-EGFR in cultured head and neck cancer cells. This decrease results from a significantly reduced half-life of WT-EGFR. WT-EGFR was also lost in head and neck xenograft specimens after treatment with AT13387 under conditions that inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of the mice. Our findings demonstrate that WT-EGFR is a client protein of HSP90 and that their interaction is critical for maintaining both the stability of the receptor as well as the growth of EGFR-dependent cancers. Furthermore, these findings support the search for specific agents that disrupt HSP90's ability to act as an EGFR chaperone.

  2. Comparative study of flexural strength and elasticity modulus in two types of direct fiber-reinforced systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar Junior, Alfredo de Aquino; Lopes, Manuela Wanderley Ferreira; Gaspar, Gabriela da Silveira; Braz, Rodivan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the flexural strength and elasticity modulus of two types of staple reinforcement fibers, Interlig - Angelus/glass (Londrina, PR, Brazil) and Connect - KerrLab(R)/polyethylene (MFG Co., West Collins Orange, CA, USA), which are widely used in Dentistry for chairside use, after varying the number of layers employed and submitting or not to thermocycling. This study was performed on 72 specimens, divided into 8 groups: G1 - single layer of Interlig fibers without thermocycling; G2 - double layer of Interlig fibers without thermocycling; G3 - single layer of Interlig fibers with thermocycling; and G4 - double layer of Interlig fibers with thermocycling; G5 - single layer of Connect fibers without termocycling; G6 - double layer of Connect fibers without termocycling; G7 - single layer of Connect fibers with termocycling; G8 - double layer of Connect fibers with termocycling. For each group, values for flexural strength and elasticity modulus were obtained. The polyethylene fiber employed in a double layer presented the highest flexural strength (p elasticity modulus, when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). Within the limits of this study, it was concluded that the polyethylene fiber in a double layer appears to be more resistant, regardless of whether it was submitted to thermocycling or not.

  3. Initial discussion on ore-forming conditions and prospecting direction of volcanic type uranium deposits in the gangdise tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Baoguang; Wang Sili; Wang Qin; Sun Yue; Du Xiaolin; Chen Yuliang

    2010-01-01

    The most active volcanic activity in the Gangdise tectonic belt happened in early Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene, and Eocene is the most active period. The distribution of volcanic rock is controlled by latitudinal deep fault and deuteric longitudinal fault. Paleo-volcano was located at these structural compounds frequently. The volcanics which appeared near the merdional large scale pull-apart construction in Neogene is considered as land facies medium-acidic volcanics which brought by various kinds of volcanic basin. A large stream sediment anomaly (>6.8 x 10 -6 ) has been found at Cenozoic volcanics in south of CuoQin basin, and its areas amount to hundreds square kilometers. The uranium content of volcanics in Wuyu basin amounts to 20.0 x 10 -6 at most. It has favorable Ore-forming conditions for forming volcanic type uranium deposit due to the volcanic geologic environment, accompanying mineral, region feature of geochemistry and geophysical, volcanic-tectonic depression and so on. The major prospecting targets are the south of CuoQin basin and the Nanmulin district. (authors)

  4. The n-type conduction of indium-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films fabricated by direct current magnetron co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Xing-Min; Su, Xiao-Qiang; Ye, Fan, E-mail: yefan@szu.edu.cn; Wang, Huan; Tian, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Ping; Luo, Jing-Ting; Zheng, Zhuang-Hao; Liang, Guang-Xing [Institute of Thin Film Physics and Applications, School of Physical Science and Technology and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Roy, V. A. L. [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-24

    Indium-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films were fabricated on K9 glass substrates by direct current magnetron co-sputtering in an atmosphere of Ar and O{sub 2}. Metallic copper and indium disks were used as the targets. X-ray diffraction showed that the diffraction peaks could only be indexed to simple cubic Cu{sub 2}O, with no other phases detected. Indium atoms exist as In{sup 3+} in Cu{sub 2}O. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed that the transmittance of the samples was relatively high and that indium doping increased the optical band gaps. The Hall effect measurement showed that the samples were n-type semiconductors at room temperature. The Seebeck effect test showed that the films were n-type semiconductors near or over room temperature (<400 K), changing to p-type at relatively high temperatures. The conduction by the samples in the temperature range of the n-type was due to thermal band conduction and the donor energy level was estimated to be 620.2–713.8 meV below the conduction band. The theoretical calculation showed that indium doping can raise the Fermi energy level of Cu{sub 2}O and, therefore, lead to n-type conduction.

  5. Immune-directed therapy for type 1 diabetes at the clinical level: the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Mario R; Nepom, Gerald T

    2012-01-01

    Reestablishing immune tolerance in type 1 diabetes (T1D), a chronic autoimmune disease, is a major goal. The Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) has initiated eight clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapies in recent-onset T1D over the past decade. Results have been mixed in terms of clinical efficacy, but the studies have provided valuable mechanistic insight that are enhancing our understanding of the disease and guiding the design of future trials. Trials of non-Fc-binding anti-CD3 mAbs have revealed that modulation of this target leads to partial responses, and ITN's AbATE trial led to identification of a robust responder group that could be distinguished from non-responders by baseline metabolic and immunologic features. A pilot study of the combination of IL-2 and rapamycin gave the first demonstration that frequency and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) can be enhanced in T1D subjects, although the therapy triggered the activation of effectors with transient β-cell dysfunction. Similarly, therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin led to substantial lymphocyte depletion, but also to the activation of the acute-phase response with no clinical benefit during preliminary analyses. These and other results provide mechanistic tools that can be used as biomarkers for safety and efficacy in future trials. Furthermore, our results, together with those of other organizations, notably TrialNet, delineate the roles of the major components of the immune response in T1D. This information is setting the stage for future combination therapy trials. The development of disease-relevant biomarkers will also enable the implementation of innovative trial designs, notably adaptive trials, which will increase efficiencies in terms of study duration and sample size, and which will expedite the conduct of trials in which there are uncertainties about dose response and effect size.

  6. Self-assembly in poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer template directed synthesis of Linde type A zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Lucio; Calandra, Pietro; Kiselev, Mikhail A; Amenitsch, Heinz; Proverbio, Edoardo; Lombardo, Domenico

    2013-06-11

    We describe the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite Linde type A (LTA) submicrometer particles using a water-soluble amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) as a template. The formation and growth of the intermediate aggregates in the presence of the diblock copolymer have been monitored by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) above the critical micellar concentration at a constant temperature of 45 °C. The early stage of the growth process was characterized by the incorporation of the zeolite LTA components into the surface of the block copolymer micellar aggregates with the formation of primary units of 4.8 nm with a core-shell morphology. During this period, restricted to an initial time of 1-3 h, the core-shell structure of the particles does not show significant changes, while a subsequent aggregation process among these primary units takes place. A shape transition of the SAXS profile at the late stage of the synthesis has been connected with an aggregation process among primary units that leads to the formation of large clusters with fractal characteristics. The formation of large supramolecular assemblies was finally verified by scanning electron microscopy, which evidenced the presence of submicrometer aggregates with size ranging between 100 and 300 nm, while X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of crystalline zeolite LTA. The main finding of our results gives novel insight into the mechanism of formation of organic-inorganic mesoporous materials based on the use of a soft interacting nanotemplate as well as stimulates the investigation of alternative protocols for the synthesis of novel hybrid materials with new characteristics and properties.

  7. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum translation initiation eIF2β subunit: direct interaction with Protein Phosphatase type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine eTellier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c is one of the main phosphatases whose function is shaped by many regulators to confer a specific location and a selective function for this enzyme. Here, we report that eukaryotic initiation factor 2 of P. falciparum (PfeIF2β is an interactor of PfPP1c. Sequence analysis of PfeIF2 revealed a deletion of 111 amino acids when compared to its human counterpart and the presence of two potential binding motifs to PfPP1 (29FGEKKK34, 103KVAW106. As expected, we showed that PfeIF2 binds PfeIF2 and PfeIF5, confirming its canonical interaction with partners of the translation complex. Studies of the PfeIF2-PfPP1 interaction using wild-type, single and double mutated versions of PfeIF2β revealed that both binding motifs are critical. We next showed that PfeIF2 is able to induce Germinal Vesicle BreakDown (GVBD when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, an indicator of its capacity to regulate PP1. Only combined mutations of both binding motifs abolished the interaction with PP1 and the induction of GVBD. In P. falciparum, although the locus is accessible for genetic manipulation, PfeIF2 seems to play an essential role in intraerythrocytic cycle as no viable knockout parasites were detectable. Interestingly, as for PfPP1, the subcellular fractionation of P. falciparum localized PfeIF2β in cytoplasm and nuclear extracts, suggesting a potential effect on PfPP1 in both compartments and raising the question of a non-canonical function of PfeIf2 in the nucleus. Hence, the role played by PfeIF2 in blood stage parasites could occur at multiple levels involving the binding to proteins of the translational complex and to PfPP1.

  8. A signal amplification assay for HSV type 1 viral DNA detection using nanoparticles and direct acoustic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Richard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acid based recognition of viral sequences can be used together with label-free biosensors to provide rapid, accurate confirmation of viral infection. To enhance detection sensitivity, gold nanoparticles can be employed with mass-sensitive acoustic biosensors (such as a quartz crystal microbalance by either hybridising nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates to complimentary surface-immobilised ssDNA probes on the sensor, or by using biotin-tagged target oligonucleotides bound to avidin-modified nanoparticles on the sensor. We have evaluated and refined these signal amplification assays for the detection from specific DNA sequences of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV type 1 and defined detection limits with a 16.5 MHz fundamental frequency thickness shear mode acoustic biosensor. Results In the study the performance of semi-homogeneous and homogeneous assay formats (suited to rapid, single step tests were evaluated utilising different diameter gold nanoparticles at varying DNA concentrations. Mathematical models were built to understand the effects of mass transport in the flow cell, the binding kinetics of targets to nanoparticles in solution, the packing geometries of targets on the nanoparticle, the packing of nanoparticles on the sensor surface and the effect of surface shear stiffness on the response of the acoustic sensor. This lead to the selection of optimised 15 nm nanoparticles that could be used with a 6 minute total assay time to achieve a limit of detection sensitivity of 5.2 × 10-12 M. Larger diameter nanoparticles gave poorer limits of detection than smaller particles. The limit of detection was three orders of magnitude lower than that observed using a hybridisation assay without nanoparticle signal amplification. Conclusions An analytical model was developed to determine optimal nanoparticle diameter, concentration and probe density, which allowed efficient and rapid optimisation of assay parameters

  9. Urinary proteomics predict onset of microalbuminuria in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients, a sub-study of the DIRECT-Protect 2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Morten; Persson, Frederik; Zürbig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy is not successful as early interventions have shown conflicting results, partly because of a lack of early and precise indicators of disease development. Urinary proteomics has shown promise in this regard and could identify those at high risk...... who might benefit from treatment. In this study we investigate its utility in a large type 2 diabetic cohort with normoalbuminuria. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis in the Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT-Protect 2 study), a multi centric randomized clinical controlled trial...... = 0.002; cNRI 0.10, P = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria from a large intervention study, the CKD273-classifier was an independent predictor of microalbuminuria. This may help identify high-risk normoalbuminuric patients for preventive...

  10. A Comparative Characterization of the HPA-MCM-48 Type Catalysts Produced by the Direct Hydrothermal and Room Temperature Synthesis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gucbilmez, Y.; Calis, I.; Yargic, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    MCM-48 type support materials synthesized by the direct hydrothermal synthesis (HTS) and room temperature synthesis (RTS) methods were incorporated with tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) in the range of 10-40 wt% by using a wet impregnation technique in methanol solutions. Resulting HPA-MCM-48 catalysts were characterized by the XRD, Nitrogen Physisorption, SEM, TEM, EDS, and FT-IR methods in order to determine the effects of different initial synthesis conditions on the catalyst properties. RTS samples were found to have better crystalline structures, higher BET surface areas, and higher BJH pore volumes than HTS samples. They also had slightly higher TPA incorporation, except for the 40 wt% samples, as evidenced by the EDS results. Keggin ion structure was preserved, for both methods, even at the highest acid loading of 40 wt%. It was concluded that the simpler and more economical RTS method was more successful than the HTS method for hetero poly acid incorporation into MCM-48 type materials

  11. High direct costs of medical care in patients with Type 1 diabetes attending a referral clinic in a government-funded hospital in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katam, Kishore K; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi; Dabadghao, Preeti; Bhatia, Eesh

    2016-01-01

    There is little information regarding costs of managing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from low- and middle-income countries. We estimated direct costs of T1DM in patients attending a referral diabetes clinic in a governmentfunded hospital in northern India. We prospectively enrolled 88 consecutive T1DM patients (mean [SD] age 15.3 [8] years) with age at onset clinic of our institution. Data on direct costs were collected for a 12 months-6 months retrospectively followed by 6 months prospectively. Patients belonged predominantly (77%) to the middle socioeconomic strata (SES); 81% had no access to government subsidy or health insurance. The mean direct cost per patient-year of T1DM was `27 915 (inter-quartile range [IQR] `19 852-32 856), which was 18.6% (7.1%-30.1%) of the total family income. A greater proportion of income was spent by families of lower compared to middle SES (32.6% v. 6.6%, p<0.001). The mean out-of-pocket payment for diabetes care ranged from 2% to 100% (mean 87%) of the total costs. The largest expenditure was on home blood glucose monitoring (40%) and insulin (39.5%). On multivariate analysis, total direct cost was associated with annual family income (β=0.223, p=0.033), frequency of home blood glucose monitoring (β=0.249, p=0.016) and use of analogue insulin (β=0.225, p=0.016). Direct costs of T1DM were high; in proportion to their income the costs were greater in the lower SES. The largest expenditure was on home blood glucose monitoring and insulin. Support for insulin and glucose testing strips for T1DM care is urgently required.

  12. Direct Application of Rep-PCR on Type I Sourdough Matrix to Monitor the Dominance and Persistence of a Lactobacillus plantarum Starter Throughout Back-Slopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2017-08-01

    This study describes the optimization and application of repetitive element-PCR (rep-PCR) technique directly on microbial DNA extracted from type I sourdoughs for fast monitoring of a Lb. plantarum starter strain (P1FMC) throughout daily back-slopping. The challenge was to follow and study the performance of a starter culture directly in sourdoughs without cultivation on selective media. The extraction of good quality microbial DNA suitable for amplification from a complex matrix such as dough was the first target. In addition, the objective to obtain a clear rep-PCR profile referable to a specific starter strain among a microbial community was pursued. Co-inoculum trials, in flour matrix, with Lb. plantarum P1FMC and L. lactis LC71 strains and, subsequently, type I sourdough back-slopping trials were performed. The rep-PCR amplification profiles obtained were clearly referable to that of Lb. plantarum P1FMC starter in both co-inoculum trials (also when it was present with one order of magnitude less with respect to L. lactis LC71) and back-slopping trials where it dominated the fermentation process with loads of 10 8 cfu g -1 and prevailed on the autochthonous microbiota. Thus, the approach proposed in this paper could be considered a methodological advancement, based on a culture-independent one-step rep-PCR, suitable for fast monitoring of starter performance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 enhances transcriptional activity of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 long terminal repeat through direct interaction with Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lu, Hanxin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Park, Hyeon Ung; Pise-Masison, Cynthia; Brady, John N

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that the coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), which methylates histone H3 and other proteins such as p300/CBP, is positively involved in the regulation of Tax transactivation. First, transfection studies demonstrated that overexpression of CARM1 wild-type protein resulted in increased Tax transactivation of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR). In contrast, transfection of a catalytically inactive CARM1 methyltransferase mutant did not enhance Tax transactivation. CARM1 facilitated Tax transactivation of the CREB-dependent cellular GEM promoter. A direct physical interaction between HTLV-1 Tax and CARM1 was demonstrated using in vitro glutathione S-transferase-Tax binding assays, in vivo coimmunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy experiments. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the activated HTLV-1 LTR promoter showed the association of CARM1 and methylated histone H3 with the template DNA. In vitro, Tax facilitates the binding of CARM1 to the transcription complex. Together, our data provide evidence that CARM1 enhances Tax transactivation of the HTLV-1 LTR through a direct interaction between CARM1 and Tax and this binding promotes methylation of histone H3 (R2, R17, and R26).

  14. Disease-specific direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals: An examination of endorser type and gender effects on consumers' attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Nilesh S; Rollins, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising is still a controversial topic for pharmaceutical manufacturers' and researchers, and while numerous studies have examined the DTC phenomenon, little research has examined the effect of gender, particularly gender of the endorser and consumer. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of the endorser (celebrity vs. expert vs. non-celebrity) and gender - both gender of the endorser and gender of the consumer - on consumers' attitudes and behaviors in response to a print disease-specific direct-to-consumer advertisement. Using Qualtrics consumer panel, data were obtained for 514 US adults (age 18 years and above) who demonstrated at least minimal symptoms of depression and need for monitoring based on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) score. Data were analyzed using a 3 (Endorser Type: Celebrity/Expert/Non-Celebrity) × 2 (Endorser Gender: Male/Female) × 2 (Consumer Gender: Male/Female) full factorial between subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and necessary univariate analysis. Only the type of the endorser (celebrity vs. expert vs. non-celebrity) used in the ad had a significant main effect on the dependent variables. Further univariate analyses revealed that, of the several dependent variables, endorser type had a significant influence only on attitude towards the ad, attention paid to the ad, and endorser credibility, with gender being non-significant in all cases. Expert endorser generated significantly more favorable levels of attitude towards the ad, and endorser credibility compared to the non-celebrity endorser. Celebrity endorser attracted more consumer attention towards the ad and generated favorable endorser credibility perceptions compared to the non-celebrity endorser. However, celebrity and expert endorsers did not significantly differ from each other on the abovementioned ad effectiveness variables. Lastly, endorser gender and consumer gender did not have a significant influence

  15. Priming in the Type I-F CRISPR-Cas system triggers strand-independent spacer acquisition, bi-directionally from the primed protospacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Corinna; Dy, Ron L; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Watson, Bridget N J; Taylor, Corinda; Chang, James T; McNeil, Matthew B; Staals, Raymond H J; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process is the least characterized step in CRISPR-Cas immunity. Here, we used Pectobacterium atrosepticum to investigate adaptation in Type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. Pre-existing spacers that matched plasmids stimulated hyperactive primed acquisition and resulted in the incorporation of up to nine new spacers across all three native CRISPR arrays. Endogenous expression of the cas genes was sufficient, yet required, for priming. The new spacers inhibited conjugation and transformation, and interference was enhanced with increasing numbers of new spacers. We analyzed ∼ 350 new spacers acquired in priming events and identified a 5'-protospacer-GG-3' protospacer adjacent motif. In contrast to priming in Type I-E systems, new spacers matched either plasmid strand and a biased distribution, including clustering near the primed protospacer, suggested a bi-directional translocation model for the Cas1:Cas2-3 adaptation machinery. Taken together these results indicate priming adaptation occurs in different CRISPR-Cas systems, that it can be highly active in wild-type strains and that the underlying mechanisms vary. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Influence of body weight and type of chow on the sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; France, Charles P

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Amount and type of food can alter dopamine systems and sensitivity to drugs acting on those systems. Objectives This study examined whether changes in body weight, food type, or both body weight and food type contribute to these effects. Methods Rats had free or restricted access (increasing, decreasing, or maintaining body weight) to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3%) chow. Results In rats gaining weight with restricted or free access to high fat chow, both limbs of the quinpirole yawning dose-response curve (0.0032–0.32 mg/kg) shifted leftward compared with rats eating standard chow. Restricting access to standard or high fat chow (maintaining or decreasing body weight) decreased or eliminated quinpirole-induced yawning; within one week of resuming free feeding, sensitivity to quinpirole was restored, although the descending limb of the dose-response curve was shifted leftward in rats eating high fat chow. These are not likely pharmacokinetic differences because quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different among groups. PG01037 and L-741,626 antagonized the ascending and descending limbs of the quinpirole dose-response curve in rats eating high fat chow, indicating D3 and D2 receptor mediation, respectively. Rats eating high fat chow also developed insulin resistance. Conclusions These results show that amount and type of chow alter sensitivity to a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist with the impact of each factor depending on whether body weight increases, decreases, or is maintained. These data demonstrate that feeding conditions, perhaps related to insulin and insulin sensitivity, profoundly impact the actions of drugs acting on dopamine systems. PMID:21544521

  17. Influence of body weight and type of chow on the sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine-receptor agonist quinpirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; France, Charles P

    2011-10-01

    Amount and type of food can alter dopamine systems and sensitivity to drugs acting on those systems. This study examined whether changes in body weight, food type, or both body weight and food type contribute to these effects. Rats had free or restricted access (increasing, decreasing, or maintaining body weight) to standard (5.7% fat) or high-fat (34.3%) chow. In rats gaining weight with restricted or free access to high-fat chow, both limbs of the quinpirole yawning dose-response curve (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg) shifted leftward compared with rats eating standard chow. Restricting access to standard or high-fat chow (maintaining or decreasing body weight) decreased or eliminated quinpirole-induced yawning; within 1 week of resuming free feeding, sensitivity to quinpirole was restored, although the descending limb of the dose-response curve was shifted leftward in rats eating high-fat chow. These are not likely pharmacokinetic differences because quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different among groups. PG01037 and L-741,626 antagonized the ascending and descending limbs of the quinpirole dose-response curve in rats eating high-fat chow, indicating D3 and D2 receptor mediation, respectively. Rats eating high-fat chow also developed insulin resistance. These results show that amount and type of chow alter sensitivity to a direct-acting dopamine-receptor agonist with the impact of each factor depending on whether body weight increases, decreases, or is maintained. These data demonstrate that feeding conditions, perhaps related to insulin and insulin sensitivity, profoundly impact the actions of drugs acting on dopamine systems.

  18. Direct trans-activation of the human cyclin D2 gene by the oncogene product Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Ohtani, K; Iwanaga, R; Matsumura, Y; Nakamura, M

    2001-03-01

    Cyclins are one of the pivotal determinants regulating cell cycle progression. We previously reported that the trans-activator Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) induces endogenous cyclin D2 expression along with cell cycle progression in a resting human T-cell line, Kit 225, suggesting a role of cyclin D2 in Tax-mediated cell cycle progression. The cyclin D2 gene has a typical E2F binding element, raising the possibility that induction of cyclin D2 expression is a consequence of cell cycle progression. In this study, we examined the role and molecular mechanism of induction of the endogenous human cyclin D2 gene by Tax. Introduction of p19(INK4d), a cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor of the INK4 family specific for D-type CDK, inhibited Tax-mediated activation of E2F, indicating requirement of D-type CDK in Tax-mediated activation of E2F. Previously indicated E2F binding element and two NF-kappaB-like binding elements in the 1.6 kbp cyclin D2 promoter fragment had little, if any, effect on responsiveness to Tax. We found that trans-activation of the cyclin D2 promoter by Tax was mainly mediated by a newly identified NF-kappaB-like element with auxiliary contribution of a CRE-like element residing in sequences downstream of -444 which were by themselves sufficient for trans-activation by Tax. These results indicate that Tax directly trans-activates the cyclin D2 gene, resulting in growth promotion and perhaps leukemogenesis through activation of D-type CDK.

  19. [Direct osteosynthesis of instable Gehweiler Type III atlas fractures. Presentation of a dorsoventral osteosynthesis of instable atlas fractures while maintaining function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, H; Kayser, R; El Saghir, H; Heyde, C-E

    2006-09-01

    This retrospective study evaluates eight patients with unstable fractures of the atlas vertebra, treated operatively in the Central Clinic Bad Berka between January 1995 and December 2001. In all cases, we were confronted with unstable and dislocated type III fractures according to Gehweiler, caused by an injured transverse ligament. Mean age was 34 years (range 20-49) in two women and six men. We introduce a new technique of direct reconstruction of the atlas vertebra. This technique leads to a stable ring construct that allows compression osteosynthesis of the fracture. Spinal fusion can be avoided, as can postoperative immobilization, since sufficient stability for functional postoperative treatment is achievable. The follow-up control 38 months (range 6-75) after surgery showed solid bony fusion in all cases, in one case after revision surgery. All patients showed good functional results, there was no need for analgesics and all patients could be reintegrated into their former occupation.

  20. CACA-TOCSY with alternate 13C–12C labeling: a 13Cα direct detection experiment for mainchain resonance assignment, dihedral angle information, and amino acid type identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Frueh, Dominique P.; Sun, Zhen-Yu J.; Hiller, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    We present a 13C direct detection CACA-TOCSY experiment for samples with alternate 13C–12C labeling. It provides inter-residue correlations between 13Cα resonances of residue i and adjacent Cαs at positions i − 1 and i + 1. Furthermore, longer mixing times yield correlations to Cα nuclei separated by more than one residue. The experiment also provides Cα-to-sidechain correlations, some amino acid type identifications and estimates for ψ dihedral angles. The power of the experiment derives from the alternate 13C–12C labeling with [1,3-13C] glycerol or [2-13C] glycerol, which allows utilizing the small scalar 3JCC couplings that are masked by strong 1JCC couplings in uniformly 13C labeled samples. PMID:20383561

  1. CACA-TOCSY with alternate 13C-12C labeling: a 13Cα direct detection experiment for mainchain resonance assignment, dihedral angle information, and amino acid type identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Frueh, Dominique P.; Sun, Zhen-Yu J.; Hiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    We present a 13 C direct detection CACA-TOCSY experiment for samples with alternate 13 C- 12 C labeling. It provides inter-residue correlations between 13 C α resonances of residue i and adjacent C α s at positions i - 1 and i + 1. Furthermore, longer mixing times yield correlations to C α nuclei separated by more than one residue. The experiment also provides C α -to-sidechain correlations, some amino acid type identifications and estimates for ψ dihedral angles. The power of the experiment derives from the alternate 13 C- 12 C labeling with [1,3- 13 C] glycerol or [2- 13 C] glycerol, which allows utilizing the small scalar 3 J CC couplings that are masked by strong 1 J CC couplings in uniformly 13 C labeled samples.

  2. CACA-TOCSY with alternate 13C-12C labeling: a 13Calpha direct detection experiment for mainchain resonance assignment, dihedral angle information, and amino acid type identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Frueh, Dominique P; Sun, Zhen-Yu J; Hiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    We present a (13)C direct detection CACA-TOCSY experiment for samples with alternate (13)C-(12)C labeling. It provides inter-residue correlations between (13)C(alpha) resonances of residue i and adjacent C(alpha)s at positions i - 1 and i + 1. Furthermore, longer mixing times yield correlations to C(alpha) nuclei separated by more than one residue. The experiment also provides C(alpha)-to-sidechain correlations, some amino acid type identifications and estimates for psi dihedral angles. The power of the experiment derives from the alternate (13)C-(12)C labeling with [1,3-(13)C] glycerol or [2-(13)C] glycerol, which allows utilizing the small scalar (3)J(CC) couplings that are masked by strong (1)J(CC) couplings in uniformly (13)C labeled samples.

  3. Process evaluation of a patient-centred, patient-directed, group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers-Jewell, Kate; Isenring, Elisabeth; Thomas, Rae; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2017-07-01

    The present study developed and evaluated a patient-centred, patient-directed, group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two frameworks, the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions and the RE-AIM framework were followed. Data to develop the intervention were sourced from scoping of the literature and formative evaluation. Program evaluation comprised analysis of primary recruitment of participants through general practitioners, baseline and end-point measures of anthropometry, four validated questionnaires, contemporaneous facilitator notes and telephone interviews with participants. A total of 16 participants enrolled in the intervention. Post-intervention results were obtained from 13 participants, with an estimated mean change from baseline in weight of -0.72 kg (95%CI -1.44 to -0.01), body mass index of -0.25 kg/m 2 (95%CI -0.49 to -0.01) and waist circumference of -1.04 cm (95%CI -4.52 to 2.44). The group education program was acceptable to participants. The results suggest that recruitment through general practitioners is ineffective, and alternative recruitment strategies are required. This patient-centred, patient-directed, group-based intervention for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus was both feasible and acceptable to patients. Health professionals should consider the combined use of the MRC and RE-AIM frameworks in the development of interventions to ensure a rigorous design process and to enable the evaluation of all phases of the intervention, which will facilitate translation to other settings. Further research with a larger sample trialling additional recruitment strategies, evaluating further measures of effectiveness and utilising lengthier follow-up periods is required. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  4. Occupancy of a C2-C2 type 'zinc-finger' protein domain by copper. Direct observation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, T W; Allen, M H; Li, C M; Yip, T T

    1992-09-07

    The metal ion specificity of most 'zinc-finger' metal binding domains is unknown. The human estrogen receptor protein contains two different C2-C2 type 'zinc-finger' sequences within its DNA-binding domain (ERDBD). Copper inhibits the function of this protein by mechanisms which remain unclear. We have used electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to evaluate directly the 71-residue ERDBD (K180-M250) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ions. The ERDBD showed a high affinity for Cu and was completely occupied with 4 Cu bound; each Cu ion was evidently bound to only two ligand residues (net loss of only 2 Da per bound Cu). The Cu binding stoichiometry was confirmed by atomic absorption. These results (i) provide the first direct physical evidence for the ability of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain to bind Cu and (ii) document a twofold difference in the Zn- and Cu-binding capacity. Differences in the ERDBD domain structure with bound Zn and Cu are predicted. Given the relative intracellular contents of Zn and Cu, our findings demonstrate the need to investigate further the Cu occupancy of this and other zinc-finger domains both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Optimization of Extrusion Process of Directly Expanded Snacks Based on Potato Starch in a Single Step for the Formation of Type IV Resistant Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Amira Daniela; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    Resistant starch type IV (RSIV) can be produced by chemical modifications (etherized or esterified) such as conversion, substitution, or cross-linking, which can prevent its digestion by blocking enzyme access and forming atypical linkages. In this research, the effects of barrel temperature (145.86-174.14 °C), the screw speed (42.93-57.07 Hz) and derivatization (esterification) in the formation of RSIV content of directly expanded snacks (second generation snacks) were studied. Potato starch was chemically modified by phosphorylation and succinylation, and expanded by using the extrusion cooking process. Snacks with phosphorylated starch showed expansion index from 2.57 to 3.23, bulk density from 306.19 to 479.00 kg/m 3 and RSIV from 43.27 to 55.81%. Snacks with succinylated starch had expansion index from 3.52 to 3.82, bulk density from 99.85 to 134.51 kg/m 3 and RSIV from 23.17 to 35.01%. The results found in this work showed that it is possible to manufacture extruded directly expanded snacks (second-generation snacks) such as a ready-to-eat (RTE) with good physicochemical properties and without substantial loss of extrusion functionality, which could bring a healthy benefit due to the presence of RSIV.

  6. Les directives anticipées des personnes atteintes d’une démence de type Alzheimer : Comment faire pour bien faire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perreault, Line

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law on End of Life Care is now effective in Quebec. This law provides for a system of advanced medical directives. Respecting advanced directives (AD issued in anticipation of incapacity can be a beneficial ethical way to ensure self-determination of the patient in a context where a person’s incapacity is total and of short duration (e.g., terminal cancer. But what about when the loss of decision- making abilities is gradual and spread over a long period of time, as is the case of people with Alzheimer’s type dementia (ATD? Although the cognitive decline associated with ATD legitimizes the use of AD to promote self- determination of these people, relying solely on a person’s wishes expressed verbally or in writing to their relatives or physician to guide care is an approach that can be ethically risky. A review of the literature on AD, a study of the clinical features associated with ATD, and a critical analysis of a fictitious clinical case will help demonstrate the need for developing a gradual approach to revalidate agreements that take into consideration the AD of the person with a ATD while weighing their wishes and views in real time, their current quality of life and that of their caregiver. The beneficial deployment of AD relies on the ability of the actors involved to consider this as a process of revalidation of agreements. This necessary paradigm shift will ensure that actualising the self-determination of people with ATD does not come at the expense of their dignity, safety and integrity. Such an approach remains to be developed and promoted for people with ATD in Quebec. Health policies that move in this direction, as well as specific normative benchmarks for this clientele, are needed rapidly in the current Quebec context, which is joining the development of a system of “advanced medical directives” with a Law on End of Life Care.

  7. Effect of the structure of imidazolium cations in [BF4](-)-type ionic liquids on direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase in Nafion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo

    2011-10-01

    The direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in Nafion films at glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated in three [BF(4)](-)-type room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) to understand the structural effect of imidazolium cations. The three ILs are 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Emim][BF(4)]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF(4)]) and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Hmim][BF(4)]). A small amount of water in the three ILs is indispensable for maintaining the electrochemical activity of HRP in Nafion films, and the optimum water contents decrease with the increase of alkyl chain length on imidazole ring. Analysis shows that the optimum water contents are primarily determined by the hydrophilicity of ILs used. In contrast to aqueous medium, ILs media facilitate the direct electron transfer of HRP, and the electrochemical parameters obtained in different ILs are obviously related to the nature of ILs. The direct electron transfer between HRP and GCE is a surface-confined quasi-reversible single electron transfer process. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant decreases gradually with the increase of alkyl chain length on imidazole ring, but the changing extent is relatively small. The electrocatalytic reduction current of H(2)O(2) at the present electrode decreases obviously with the increase of alkyl chain length, and the mass transfer of H(2)O(2) via diffusion in ILs should be responsible for the change. In addition, the modified electrode has good stability and reproducibility; the ability to tolerate high levels of F(-) has been greatly enhanced due to the use of Nafion film. When an appropriate mediator is included in the sensing layer, a sensitive nonaqueous biosensor could be fabricated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of cyathane type secondary metabolites by submerged cultures of Hericium erinaceus and evaluation of their antibacterial activity by direct bioautography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T; Morlock, G; Zorn, H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota are well-known to form a broad spectrum of biologically active secondary metabolites, especially low molecular weight compounds such as terpenoids. Hericium erinaceus produces various cyathane type diterpenoids including erinacines. However, no quantitative data and production kinetics have been reported on the biosynthesis of the erinacines C and P in submerged cultures. In the present study, the production of erinacine C was optimized, and the product formation kinetics as well as the antimicrobial activity were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and direct bioautography. Oatmeal and Edamin ® K were identified to be crucial media components for an efficient production of erinacine C. The highest concentrations of erinacine C were obtained in the optimized culture medium on the 9 th culture day (approximately 260 mg L -1 ). The production of erinacine P was strongly time dependent. The maximum concentration of erinacine P of 184 mg L -1 was observed on the third culture day. Afterwards, the concentrations of erinacine P decreased while the concentrations of erinacine C steadily increased. Comparable results were obtained by HPTLC with UV detection and HPLC with diode-array detection (DAD) analyses. Direct bioautography allowed for an additional analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites. The C and N sources oatmeal and Edamin ® K induced the formation of erinacine C. Detailed product formation kinetics of the erinacines C and P have been reported for the first time. HPTLC combined with the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay allowed for an instant detection of cyathane diterpenoids in crude extracts and for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites directly on the plate.

  9. Direct Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters on Metal Substrate for Open-Type X-ray Source in Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Prasad Gupta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a carbon nanotube enabled open-type X-ray system for medical imaging. We directly grew the carbon nanotubes used as electron emitter for electron gun on a non-polished raw metallic rectangular-rounded substrate with an area of 0.1377 cm2 through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The stable field emission properties with triode electrodes after electrical aging treatment showed an anode emission current of 0.63 mA at a gate field of 7.51 V/μm. The 4.5-inch cubic shape open type X-ray system was developed consisting of an X-ray aperture, a vacuum part, an anode high voltage part, and a field emission electron gun including three electrodes with focusing, gate and cathode electrodes. Using this system, we obtained high-resolution X-ray images accelerated at 42–70 kV voltage by digital switching control between emitter and ground electrode.

  10. X-ray-to-current signal conversion characteristics of trench-structured photodiodes for direct-conversion-type silicon X-ray sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Tetsuya; Funaki, Shota; Sakamoto, Kenji; Baba, Akiyoshi; Arima, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the radiation dose required in medical X-ray diagnoses, we propose a high-sensitivity direct-conversion-type silicon X-ray sensor that uses trench-structured photodiodes. This sensor is advantageous in terms of its long device lifetime, noise immunity, and low power consumption because of its low bias voltage. With this sensor, it is possible to detect X-rays with almost 100% efficiency; sensitivity can therefore be improved by approximately 10 times when compared with conventional indirect-conversion-type sensors. In this study, a test chip was fabricated using a single-poly single-metal 0.35 μm process. The formed trench photodiodes for the X-ray sensor were approximately 170 and 300 μm deep. At a bias voltage of 25 V, the absorbed X-ray-to-current signal conversion efficiencies were 89.3% (theoretical limit; 96.7%) at a trench depth of 170 μm and 91.1% (theoretical limit; 94.3%) at a trench depth of 300 μm. (author)

  11. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-10-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies.

  12. Characterizing the Soldering Alloy Type In–Ag–Ti and the Study of Direct Soldering of SiC Ceramics and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koleňák

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to characterize the soldering alloy In–Ag–Ti type, and to study the direct soldering of SiC ceramics and copper. The In10Ag4Ti solder has a broad melting interval, which mainly depends on its silver content. The liquid point of the solder is 256.5 °C. The solder microstructure is composed of a matrix with solid solution (In, in which the phases of titanium (Ti3In4 and silver (AgIn2 are mainly segregated. The tensile strength of the solder is approximately 13 MPa. The strength of the solder increased with the addition of Ag and Ti. The solder bonds with SiC ceramics, owing to the interaction between active In metal and silicon infiltrated in the ceramics. XRD analysis has proven the interaction of titanium with ceramic material during the formation of the new minority phases of titanium silicide—SiTi and titanium carbide—C5Ti8. In and Ag also affect bond formation with the copper substrate. Two new phases were also observed in the bond interphase—(CuAg6In5 and (AgCuIn2. The average shear strength of a combined joint of SiC–Cu, fabricated with In10Ag4Ti solder, was 14.5 MPa. The In–Ag–Ti solder type studied possesses excellent solderability with several metallic and ceramic materials.

  13. Direct Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters on Metal Substrate for Open-Type X-ray Source in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amar Prasad; Park, Sangjun; Yeo, Seung Jun; Jung, Jaeik; Cho, Chonggil; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Hunkuk; Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Seung Hoon; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Jeung Sun; Ryu, Jehwang

    2017-07-29

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a carbon nanotube enabled open-type X-ray system for medical imaging. We directly grew the carbon nanotubes used as electron emitter for electron gun on a non-polished raw metallic rectangular-rounded substrate with an area of 0.1377 cm² through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The stable field emission properties with triode electrodes after electrical aging treatment showed an anode emission current of 0.63 mA at a gate field of 7.51 V/μm. The 4.5-inch cubic shape open type X-ray system was developed consisting of an X-ray aperture, a vacuum part, an anode high voltage part, and a field emission electron gun including three electrodes with focusing, gate and cathode electrodes. Using this system, we obtained high-resolution X-ray images accelerated at 42-70 kV voltage by digital switching control between emitter and ground electrode.

  14. The mother or the fetus? 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 null mice provide evidence for direct fetal programming of behavior by endogenous glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan C; Abrahamsen, Christian T; French, Karen L; Paterson, Janice M; Mullins, John J; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2006-04-05

    Low birth weight associates with increased susceptibility to adult cardiometabolic and affective disorders spawning the notion of fetal "programming." Prenatal exposure to excess glucocorticoids may be causal. In support, maternal stress or treatment during pregnancy with dexamethasone (which crosses the placenta) or inhibitors of fetoplacental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), the physiological "barrier" to maternal glucocorticoids, reduces birth weight and programs permanent offspring hypertension, hyperglycemia, and anxiety behaviors. It remains uncertain whether such effects are mediated indirectly via altered maternal function or directly on the fetus and its placenta. To dissect this critical issue, we mated 11beta-HSD2(+/-) mice such that each pregnant female produces +/+, +/-, and -/- offspring and compared them with offspring of homozygous wild-type and -/- matings. We show that 11beta-HSD2(-/-) offspring of either +/- or -/- mothers have lower birth weight and exhibit greater anxiety than 11beta-HSD2(+/+) littermates. This provides clear evidence for the key role of fetoplacental 11beta-HSD2 in prenatal glucocorticoid programming.

  15. Direct formation of new, phase-stable, and photoactive anatase-type Ti1-2XNbXScXO2 solid solution nanoparticles by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Masanori; Ito, Takaharu

    2008-01-01

    A new anatase phase of photoactive Ti 1-2X Nb X Sc X O 2 (X = 0-0.2) solid solutions was directly formed as nanoparticles from precursor solutions of TiOSO 4 , NbCl 5 , and Sc(NO 3 ) 3 under mild hydrothermal conditions at 180 deg. C for 5 h using the hydrolysis of urea. With the increase of the content of niobium and scandium from X = 0 to 0.2, the lattice parameters a 0 and c 0 , the crystallite size, and the optical band gap of anatase gradually increased. Their photocatalytic activity and adsorptivity were evaluated separately by the measurement of the concentration of methylene blue (MB) remained in the solution in the dark or under UV-light irradiation. The anatase-type Ti 1-2X Nb X Sc X O 2 (X = 0.05) showed approximately two times and three times as high photocatalytic activity as those of the hydrothermal anatase-type pure TiO 2 and commercially available reference pure TiO 2 (ST-01), respectively. The anatase phase of Ti 1-2X Nb X Sc X O 2 (X = 0-0.2) existed stably up to 900 deg. C during heat treatment in air. New rutile-type Ti 1-2X Nb X Sc X O 2 solid solutions are formed through the phase transformation. The starting temperature of anatase-to-rutile phase transformation for Ti 1-2X Nb X Sc X O 2 (X = 0-0.2) solid solutions was delayed but its completing temperature was accelerated

  16. Direct electrochemistry of CueO and its mutants at residues to and near type I Cu for oxygen-reducing biocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Y.; Kamitaka, Y. [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku (Japan); Kurose, S.; Kataoka, K.; Sakurai, T. [Division of Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa (Japan); Tsujimura, S.; Kano, K.

    2009-02-15

    CueO, a multi-copper oxidase (MCO) occurring in Escherichia coli, catalyses a four-electron reduction of O{sub 2} in a direct electron transfer (DET) mechanism with very high electrocatalytic activity on carbon aerogel electrodes. However, the overpotential of CueO is greater than that in other MCOs. By understanding the redox properties of CueO, we attempted to reduce this overpotential. Direct electrochemistry of CueO on carbon aerogel electrodes showed a pair of redox waves derived from the type I (T1) Cu site with a redox potential (E {sup circle} {sup '} atop T1) of 0.28 V versus Ag vertical stroke AgCl at pH 5.0. Dependence of E {sup circle} {sup '} atop T1 on pH suggests the participation of proton transfer and acid-base equilibrium of some amino acid residue. The shape of the catalytic current is consistent with the T1 site being an inlet of electrons in the DET bioelectrocatalysis of O{sub 2}, in which case the overpotential could be reduced by shifting E {sup circle} {sup '} atop T1 towards the positive potential. To achieve this, we created mutants of CueO at M510, which is the axial ligand of the T1 Cu, and at D439, which forms a hydrogen bond with His443 coordinated with the T1 Cu. Two mutants, M510L and D439A, successfully reduced the overpotential. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. A Disease Mutation Causing Episodic Ataxia Type I in the S1 Links Directly to the Voltage Sensor and the Selectivity Filter in Kv Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, Dimitri; Kalstrup, Tanja; Zhao, Juan; Blunck, Rikard

    2015-09-02

    The mutation F184C in Kv1.1 leads to development of episodic ataxia type I (EA1). Although the mutation has been said to alter activation kinetics and to lower expression, we show here that the underlying molecular mechanisms may be more complex. Although F184 is positioned in the "peripheral" S1 helix, it occupies a central position in the 3D fold. We show in cut-open oocyte voltage-clamp recordings of gating and ionic currents of the Shaker Kv channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes that F184 not only interacts directly with the gating charges of the S4, but also creates a functional link to the selectivity filter of the neighboring subunit. This link leads to impaired fast and slow inactivation. The effect on fast inactivation is of an allosteric nature considering that fast inactivation is caused by a linked cytosolic ball peptide. The extensive effects of F184C provide a new mechanism underlying EA. Episodic ataxia (EA) is an inherited disease that leads to occasional loss of motor control in combination with variable other symptoms such as vertigo or migraine. EA type I (EA1), studied here, is caused by mutations in a voltage-gated potassium channel that contributes to the generation of electrical signals in the brain. The mechanism by which mutations in voltage-gated potassium channels lead to EA is still unknown and there is no consistent pharmacological treatment. By studying in detail one disease-causing mutation in Kv1.1, we describe a novel molecular mechanism distinct from mechanisms described previously. This mechanism contributes to the understanding of potassium channel function in general and might lead to a better understanding of how EA develops. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512198-09$15.00/0.

  18. The belonging of gpMuc, a glycoprotein from Mucuna pruriens seeds, to the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor family explains its direct anti-snake venom activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirè, Andrea; Tanfani, Fabio; Bertoli, Enrico; Furlani, Emiliano; Nadozie, Hope-Onyekwere N; Cerutti, Helena; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Bini, Luca; Guerranti, Roberto

    2011-07-15

    In Nigeria, Mucuna pruriens seeds are locally prescribed as an oral prophylactic for snake bite and it is claimed that when two seeds are swallowed they protect the individual for a year against snake bites. In order to understand the Mucuna pruriens antisnake properties, the proteins from the acqueous extract of seeds were purified by three chromatographic steps: ConA affinity chromatography, tandem anionic-cationic exchange and gel filtration, obtaining a fraction conventionally called gpMucB. This purified fraction was analysed by SDS-PAGE obtaining 3 bands with apparent masses ranging from 20 to 24 kDa, and by MALDI-TOF which showed two main peaks of 21 and 23 kDa and another small peak of 19 kDa. On the other hand, gel filtration analysis of the native protein indicated a molecular mass of about 70 kDa suggesting that in its native form, gpMucB is most likely an oligomeric multiform protein. Infrared spectroscopy of gpMucB indicated that the protein is particularly thermostable both at neutral and acidic pHs and that it is an all beta protein. All data suggest that gpMucB belongs to the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor family explaining the direct anti-snake venom activity of Mucuna pruriens seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The Usefulness of Three-Dimensional Angiography with a Flat Panel Detector of Direct Conversion Type in a Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Procedure for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Initial Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakeda, Shingo; Korogi, Yukunori; Hatakeyama, Yoshihisa; Ohnari, Norihiro; Oda, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Wataru

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of a three-dimensional (3D) angiography system using a flat panel detector of direct conversion type in treatments with subsegmental transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Thirty-six consecutive patients who underwent hepatic angiography were prospectively examined. First, two radiologists evaluated the degree of visualization of the peripheral branches of the hepatic arteries on 3D digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Then the radiologists evaluated the visualization of tumor staining and feeding arteries in 25 patients (30 HCCs) who underwent subsegmental TACE. The two radiologists who performed the TACE assessed whether the additional information provided by 3D DSA was useful for treatments. In 34 (94.4%) of 36 patients, the subsegmental branches of the hepatic arteries were sufficiently visualized. The feeding arteries of HCCs were sufficiently visualized in 28 (93%) of 30 HCCs, whereas tumor stains were sufficiently visualized in 18 (60%). Maximum intensity projection images were significantly superior to volume recording images for visualization of the tumor staining and feeding arteries of HCCs. In 27 (90%) of 30 HCCs, 3D DSA provided additional useful information for subsegmental TACE. The high-quality 3D DSA with flat panel detector angiography system provided a precise vascular road map, which was useful for performing subsegmental TACE .of HCCs

  20. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael Ej; Leslie, Wilma S; Barnes, Alison C; Brosnahan, Naomi; Thom, George; McCombie, Louise; Peters, Carl; Zhyzhneuskaya, Sviatlana; Al-Mrabeh, Ahmad; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Rodrigues, Angela M; Rehackova, Lucia; Adamson, Ashley J; Sniehotta, Falko F; Mathers, John C; Ross, Hazel M; McIlvenna, Yvonne; Stefanetti, Renae; Trenell, Michael; Welsh, Paul; Kean, Sharon; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; Sattar, Naveed; Taylor, Roy

    2018-02-10

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disorder that requires lifelong treatment. We aimed to assess whether intensive weight management within routine primary care would achieve remission of type 2 diabetes. We did this open-label, cluster-randomised trial (DiRECT) at 49 primary care practices in Scotland and the Tyneside region of England. Practices were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated list, to provide either a weight management programme (intervention) or best-practice care by guidelines (control), with stratification for study site (Tyneside or Scotland) and practice list size (>5700 or ≤5700). Participants, carers, and research assistants who collected outcome data were aware of group allocation; however, allocation was concealed from the study statistician. We recruited individuals aged 20-65 years who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within the past 6 years, had a body-mass index of 27-45 kg/m 2 , and were not receiving insulin. The intervention comprised withdrawal of antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs, total diet replacement (825-853 kcal/day formula diet for 3-5 months), stepped food reintroduction (2-8 weeks), and structured support for long-term weight loss maintenance. Co-primary outcomes were weight loss of 15 kg or more, and remission of diabetes, defined as glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) of less than 6·5% (<48 mmol/mol) after at least 2 months off all antidiabetic medications, from baseline to 12 months. These outcomes were analysed hierarchically. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number 03267836. Between July 25, 2014, and Aug 5, 2017, we recruited 306 individuals from 49 intervention (n=23) and control (n=26) general practices; 149 participants per group comprised the intention-to-treat population. At 12 months, we recorded weight loss of 15 kg or more in 36 (24%) participants in the intervention group and no participants in the control group (p<0·0001). Diabetes remission was achieved in 68 (46

  1. Multi-domain CGFS-type glutaredoxin Grx4 regulates iron homeostasis via direct interaction with a repressor Fep1 in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Chang [Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Roe, Jung-Hye, E-mail: jhroe@snu.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4 allows Fep1-mediated de-repression of iron uptake genes at low iron. {yields} Grx4 directly interacts with Fep1 in vivo and in vitro. {yields} The Cys172 in the CGFS motif of Grx4 is necessary for cell proliferation and iron regulation. {yields} The Cys172 of Grx4 is required for normal interaction with Fep1. -- Abstract: The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains two CGFS-type monothiol glutaredoxins, Grx4 and Grx5, which are localized primarily in the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively. We observed involvement of Grx4 in regulating iron-responsive gene expression, which is modulated by a repressor Fep1. Lack of Grx4 caused defects not only in growth but also in the expression of both iron-uptake and iron-utilizing genes regardless of iron availability. In order to unravel how Grx4 is involved in Fep1-mediated regulation, interaction between them was investigated. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) revealed that Grx4 physically interacts with Fep1 in vivo. BiFC revealed localized nuclear dots produced by interaction of Grx4 with Fep1. Mutation of cysteine-172 in the CGFS motif to serine (C172S) produced effects similarly observed under Grx4 depletion, such as the loss of iron-dependent gene regulation and the absence of nuclear dots in BiFC analysis. These results suggest that the ability of Grx4 to bind iron, most likely Fe-S cofactor, could be critical in interacting with and modulating the activity of Fep1.

  2. Electrostatic interaction between an enzyme and electrodes in the electric double layer examined in a view of direct electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yu; Kitazumi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Seiya; Shirai, Osamu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kano, Kenji

    2015-01-15

    Effects of the electrode poential on the activity of an adsorbed enzyme has been examined by using copper efflux oxidase (CueO) as a model enzyme and by monitoring direct electron transfer (DET)-type bioelectrocatalysis of oxygen reduction. CueO adsorbed on bare Au electrodes at around the point of zero charge (E(pzc)) shows the highest DET activity, and the activity decreases as the adsorption potential (E(ad); at which the enzyme adsorbs) is far from E(pzc). We propose a model to explain the phenomena in which the electrostatic interaction between the enzyme and electrodes in the electric double layer affects the orientation and the stability of the adsorbed enzyme. The self-assembled monolayer of butanethiol on Au electrodes decreases the electric field in the outside of the inner Helmholtz plane and drastically diminishes the E(ad) dependence of the DET activity of CueO. When CueO is adsorbed on bare Au electrodes under open circuit potential and then is held at hold potentials (E(ho)) more positive than E(pzc), the DET activity of the CueO rapidly decreases with the hold time. The strong electric field with positive surface charge density on the metallic electrode (σ(M)) leads to fatal denaturation of the adsorbed CueO. Such denaturation effect is not so serious at E(ho)

  3. How ‘direct’ can a direct translation be? Some perspectives from the realities of a new type of church Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo H.J. van der Merwe

    2016-07-01

    Keywords: Afrikaans Bibles; Bible translation; Biblical Hebrew; church Bible; code model; cognitive linguistics; cognitive semantics; communication model; communicative clue; direct translation; discourse marker; dynamic equivalent translation; functionalist tran

  4. Main types and metallogenetic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits in central asian mobile belt and its neighbouring area, and the study on prospecting direction of northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Chengming

    2007-01-01

    Based on the study of geotectonic setting, formation evolution model and metallogenic characteristics of uranium productive basins, important sandstone-type uranium deposits in Central Asian mobile belt and neighbouring area are divided into five types. The statial distribution pattern of different sandstone-type uranium deposits is analyzed in detail. Geotectonic setting and metallogenetic characteristics are discussed. Finally, the characteristics of basin geodynamics, prospecting type and ore-bearing stratigraphy in Northwest China have been proposed. (authors)

  5. Stac3 has a direct role in skeletal muscle-type excitation-contraction coupling that is disrupted by a myopathy-causing mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, Alexander; Nelson, Benjamin R; Olson, Eric N; Beam, Kurt G

    2016-09-27

    In skeletal muscle, conformational coupling between CaV1.1 in the plasma membrane and type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is thought to underlie both excitation-contraction (EC) coupling Ca(2+) release from the SR and retrograde coupling by which RyR1 increases the magnitude of the Ca(2+) current via CaV1.1. Recent work has shown that EC coupling fails in muscle from mice and fish null for the protein Stac3 (SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3) but did not establish the functional role of Stac3 in the CaV1.1-RyR1 interaction. We investigated this using both tsA201 cells and Stac3 KO myotubes. While confirming in tsA201 cells that Stac3 could support surface expression of CaV1.1 (coexpressed with its auxiliary β1a and α2-δ1 subunits) and the generation of large Ca(2+) currents, we found that without Stac3 the auxiliary γ1 subunit also supported membrane expression of CaV1.1/β1a/α2-δ1, but that this combination generated only tiny Ca(2+) currents. In Stac3 KO myotubes, there was reduced, but still substantial CaV1.1 in the plasma membrane. However, the CaV1.1 remaining in Stac3 KO myotubes did not generate appreciable Ca(2+) currents or EC coupling Ca(2+) release. Expression of WT Stac3 in Stac3 KO myotubes fully restored Ca(2+) currents and EC coupling Ca(2+) release, whereas expression of Stac3W280S (containing the Native American myopathy mutation) partially restored Ca(2+) currents but only marginally restored EC coupling. We conclude that membrane trafficking of CaV1.1 is facilitated by, but does not require, Stac3, and that Stac3 is directly involved in conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RyR1.

  6. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax requires direct access to DNA for recruitment of CREB binding protein to the viral promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzmeier, B A; Giebler, H A; Nyborg, J K

    1998-02-01

    Efficient human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) replication and viral gene expression are dependent upon the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. To activate HTLV-1 transcription, Tax interacts with the cellular DNA binding protein cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and recruits the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP), forming a nucleoprotein complex on the three viral cyclic AMP-responsive elements (CREs) in the HTLV-1 promoter. Short stretches of dG-dC-rich (GC-rich) DNA, immediately flanking each of the viral CREs, are essential for Tax recruitment of CBP in vitro and Tax transactivation in vivo. Although the importance of the viral CRE-flanking sequences is well established, several studies have failed to identify an interaction between Tax and the DNA. The mechanistic role of the viral CRE-flanking sequences has therefore remained enigmatic. In this study, we used high resolution methidiumpropyl-EDTA iron(II) footprinting to show that Tax extended the CREB footprint into the GC-rich DNA flanking sequences of the viral CRE. The Tax-CREB footprint was enhanced but not extended by the KIX domain of CBP, suggesting that the coactivator increased the stability of the nucleoprotein complex. Conversely, the footprint pattern of CREB on a cellular CRE lacking GC-rich flanking sequences did not change in the presence of Tax or Tax plus KIX. The minor-groove DNA binding drug chromomycin A3 bound to the GC-rich flanking sequences and inhibited the association of Tax and the Tax-CBP complex without affecting CREB binding. Tax specifically cross-linked to the viral CRE in the 5'-flanking sequence, and this cross-link was blocked by chromomycin A3. Together, these data support a model where Tax interacts directly with both CREB and the minor-groove viral CRE-flanking sequences to form a high-affinity binding site for the recruitment of CBP to the HTLV-1 promoter.

  7. Property Enhancement Effects of Side-Chain-Type Naphthalene-Based Sulfonated Poly(arylene ether ketone) on Nafion Composite Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baolong; Hong, Lihua; Li, Yunfeng; Zhao, Liang; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui

    2017-09-20

    Nafion/SNPAEK-x composite membranes were prepared by blending raw Nafion and synthesized side-chain-type naphthalene-based sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) with a sulfonation degree of 1.35 (SNPAEK-1.35). The incorporation of SNPAEK-1.35 polymer with ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.01 mequiv·g -1 into a Nafion matrix has the property enhancement effects, such as increasing IECs, improving proton conductivity, enhancing mechanical properties, reducing methanol crossover, and improving single cell performance of Nafion. Morphology studies show that Nafion/SNPAEK-x composite membranes exhibit a well-defined microphase separation structure depending on the contents of SNPAEK-1.35 polymer. Among them, Nafion/SNPAEK-7.5% with a bicontinuous morphology exhibits the best comprehensive properties. For example, it shows the highest proton conductivities of 0.092 S cm -1 at 25 °C and 0.163 S cm -1 at 80 °C, which are higher than those of recast Nafion with 0.073 S cm -1 at 25 °C and 0.133 S cm -1 at 80 °C, respectively. Nafion/SNPAEK-5.0% and Nafion/SNPAEK-7.5% membranes display an open circuit voltage of 0.77 V and a maximum power density of 47 mW cm -2 at 80 °C, which are much higher than those of recast Nafion of 0.63 V and 24 mW cm -2 under the same conditions. Nafion/SNPAEK-5.0% membrane also has comparable tensile strength (12.7 MPa) to recast Nafion (13.7 MPa), and higher Young's modulus (330 MPa) than that of recast Nafion (240 MPa). By combining their high proton conductivities, comparable mechanical properties, and good single cell performance, Nafion/SNPAEK-x composite membranes have the potential to be polymer electrolyte materials for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  8. Optimization of Standard In-House 24-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Direct Application to Clinical Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; Akkerman, Onno W.; Schurch, Anita C.; Mulder, Arnout; van der Werf, Tjip S.; van der Zanden, Adri G. M.; van Ingen, Jakko; van Soolingen, Dick

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing with a panel of 24 loci is the current gold standard in the molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. However, because of technical problems, a part of the loci often cannot be amplified by multiplex PCRs. Therefore, a considerable

  9. If Civilian Leaders Overrule Military Leaders and Direct Them to Eliminate a Division, What Type of Division Should be Cut: Army Heavy or Marine?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohr, Jerry

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the developing political forces and budgetary issues that may lead civilian leaders to overrule the objections of senior military leaders and direct them to eliminate a division...

  10. Machine learning techniques for the verification of refueling activities in CANDU-type nuclear power plants (NPPs) with direct applications in nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, J.

    2006-06-01

    This dissertation deals with the problem of automated classification of the signals obtained from certain radiation monitoring systems, specifically from the Core Discharge Monitor (CDM) systems, that are successfully operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at various CANDU-type nuclear power plants around the world. In order to significantly reduce the costly and error-prone manual evaluation of the large amounts of the collected CDM signals, a reliable and efficient algorithm for the automated data evaluation is necessary, which might ensure real-time performance with maximum of 0.01 % misclassification ratio. This thesis describes the research behind finding a successful prototype implementation of such automated analysis software. The finally adopted methodology assumes a nonstationary data-generating process that has a finite number of states or basic fueling activities, each of which can emit observable data patterns having particular stationary characteristics. To find out the underlying state sequences, a unified probabilistic approach known as the hidden Markov model (HMM) is used. Each possible fueling sequence is modeled by a distinct HMM having a left-right profile topology with explicit insert and delete states. Given an unknown fueling sequence, a dynamic programming algorithm akin to the Viterbi search is used to find the maximum likelihood state path through each model and eventually the overall best-scoring path is picked up as the recognition hypothesis. Machine learning techniques are applied to estimate the observation densities of the states, because the densities are not simply parameterizable. Unlike most present applications of continuous monitoring systems that rely on heuristic approaches to the recognition of possibly risky events, this research focuses on finding techniques that make optimal use of prior knowledge and computer simulation in the recognition task. Thus, a suitably modified, approximate n-best variant of

  11. Direct Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) typing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells: no association between EBV type 2 infection or superinfection and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D.; Hovenkamp, E.; Kersten, M. J.; Klein, M. R.; Miedema, F.; van Oers, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    In the literature, a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection. To further investigate a possible role for EBV type 2 infection in the development of AIDS-NHL,

  12. Compressive strength and failure types of cusp replacing direct resin composite restorations in previously amalgam-filled premolars versus sound teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes Durk; Zaia, John; Oezcan, Mutlu

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance of cusp replacing direct resin composite restorations (DCR) in premolars that had been previously filled with amalgam mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) restorations and compared their fracture resistance with those made on sound dentin and intact teeth.

  13. Effect of candesartan on progression and regression of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes (DIRECT-Protect 2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjolie, A.K.; Klein, R.; Porta, M.

    2008-01-01

    -group, placebo-controlled trial in 309 centres worldwide. We recruited normoalbuminuric, normotensive, or treated hypertensive people with type 2 diabetes with mild to moderately severe retinopathy and assigned them to candesartan 16 mg once a day or placebo. After a month, the dose was doubled to 32 mg once per...... day. Investigators and patients were unaware of the treatment allocation status. Progression of retinopathy was the primary endpoint, and regression was a secondary endpoint. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00252694. FINDINGS: 1905...... or changes in blood pressure during the trial. An overall change towards less severe retinopathy by the end of the trial was observed in the candesartan group (odds 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, p=0.003). Adverse events did not differ between the treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with candesartan in type...

  14. Glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue therapy directly modulates innate immune-mediated inflammation in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Andrew E; Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; Lynch, Lydia; Corrigan, Michelle A; Woods, Conor; O'Connell, Jean; O'Shea, Donal

    2014-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is emerging evidence that GLP-1 has anti-inflammatory activity in humans, with murine studies suggesting an effect on macrophage polarisation. We hypothesised that GLP-1 analogue therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus would affect the inflammatory macrophage molecule soluble CD163 (sCD163) and adipocytokine profile. We studied ten obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients starting GLP-1 analogue therapy at a hospital-based diabetes service. We investigated levels of sCD163, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin by ELISA, before and after 8 weeks of GLP-1 analogue therapy. GLP-1 analogue therapy reduced levels of the inflammatory macrophage activation molecule sCD163 (220 ng/ml vs 171 ng/ml, p < 0.001). This occurred independent of changes in body weight, fructosamine and HbA1c. GLP-1 analogue therapy was associated with a decrease in levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (264 vs 149 pg/ml, p < 0.05), IL-1β (2,919 vs 748 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and IL-6 (1,379 vs 461 pg/ml p < 0.05) and an increase in levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin (4,480 vs 6,290 pg/ml, p < 0.002). In individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, GLP-1 analogue therapy reduces the frequency of inflammatory macrophages. This effect is not dependent on the glycaemic or body weight effects of GLP-1.

  15. Pandemic preparedness in Hawaii: a multicenter verification of real-time RT-PCR for the direct detection of influenza virus types A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelen, A Christian; Bankowski, Matthew J; Furuya, Glenn; Honda, Stacey; Ueki, Robert; Chan, Amelia; Higa, Karen; Kumashiro, Diane; Moore, Nathaniel; Lee, Roland; Koyamatsu, Terrie; Effler, Paul V

    2010-01-01

    We integrated multicenter, real-time (RTi) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) screening into a statewide laboratory algorithm for influenza surveillance and response. Each of three sites developed its own testing strategy and was challenged with one randomized and blinded panel of 50 specimens previously tested for respiratory viruses. Following testing, each participating laboratory reported its results to the Hawaii State Department of Health, State Laboratories Division for evaluation and possible discrepant analysis. Two of three laboratories reported a 100% sensitivity and specificity, resulting in a 100% positive predictive value and a 100% negative predictive value (NPV) for influenza type A. The third laboratory showed a 71% sensitivity for influenza type A (83% NPV) with 100% specificity. All three laboratories were 100% sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza type B. Discrepant analysis indicated that the lack of sensitivity experienced by the third laboratory may have been due to the analyte-specific reagent probe used by that laboratory. Use of a newer version of the product with a secondary panel of 20 specimens resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. All three laboratories successfully verified their ability to conduct clinical testing for influenza using diverse nucleic acid extraction and RTi RT-PCR platforms. Successful completion of the verification by all collaborating laboratories paved the way for the integration of those facilities into a statewide laboratory algorithm for influenza surveillance and response.

  16. Cryogenic scintillation properties of n-type GaAs for the direct detection of MeV/c2 dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, S.; Bourret, E.; Hanrahan, S.; Bizarri, G.

    2018-03-01

    This paper is the first report of n-type GaAs as a cryogenic scintillation radiation detector for the detection of electron recoils from interacting dark matter (DM) particles in the poorly explored MeV/c2 mass range. Seven GaAs samples from two commercial suppliers and with different silicon and boron concentrations were studied for their low temperature optical and scintillation properties. All samples are n-type even at low temperatures and exhibit emission between silicon donors and boron acceptors that peaks at 1.33 eV (930 nm). The lowest excitation band peaks at 1.44 eV (860 nm), and the overlap between the emission and excitation bands is small. The X-ray excited luminosities range from 7 to 43 photons/keV. Thermally stimulated luminescence measurements show that n-type GaAs does not accumulate metastable radiative states that could cause afterglow. Further development and use with cryogenic photodetectors promises a remarkable combination of large target size, ultra-low backgrounds, and a sensitivity to electron recoils of a few eV that would be produced by DM particles as light as a few MeV/c2.

  17. More than teacher directed or child initiated: Preschool curriculum type, parent involvement, and children's outcomes in the child-parent centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20 Child-Parent Centers in 1983-1985 and kindergarten in 1985-1986. We found that implementation of an instructional approach rated high by Head Teachers in teacher-directed and child-initiated activities was most consistently associated with children’s outcomes, including school readiness at kindergarten entry, reading achievement in third and eighth grades, and avoidance of grade retention. Parent involvement in school activities, as rated by teachers and by parents, was independently associated with child outcomes from school readiness at kindergarten entry to eighth grade reading achievement and grade retention above and beyond the influence of curriculum approach. Findings indicate that instructional approaches that blend a teacher-directed focus with child-initiated activities and parental school involvement are origins of the long-term effects of participation in the Child-Parent Centers.

  18. Group participants' experiences of a patient-directed group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers-Jewell, Kate; Isenring, Elisabeth A; Thomas, Rae; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of individuals who participated in a group-based education program, including their motivators in relation to their diabetes management, and the perceived impact of group interactions on participants' experiences and motivation for self-management. Understanding individuals diagnosed with diabetes experiences of group-based education for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus may guide the development and facilitation of these programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all individuals who participated in the intervention. Using thematic analysis underpinned by self-determination theory, we developed themes that explored participants' motivators in relation to diabetes management and the impact of group interactions on their experiences and motivation. The key themes included knowledge, experience, group interactions and motivation. Participants perceived that the group interactions facilitated further learning and increased motivation, achieved through normalization, peer identification or by talking with, and learning from the experience of others. The results support the use of patient-centred programs that prioritize group interactions over the didactic presentation of content, which may address relevant psychological needs of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improve their motivation and health behaviours. Future group-based education programs may benefit from the use of self-determination theory as a framework for intervention design to enhance participant motivation.

  19. Understanding Cultural Influences on Dietary Habits in Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latino Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Current Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Natalie; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-10-23

    This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations. The specific role of nutrition in controlling diabetes is tied to cultural habits and customs. Variation in cultural practices, including diet, create unique environments in which patients with diabetes must navigate. The role of family, particularly among Hispanics, is crucial to cultural adaptations of diabetes management. Incorporating alternative medicine, namely observed in Chinese and Indian populations, also guided diabetes care strategies. Language barriers, health literacy, and acculturation were all unique factors affecting cultural approaches to diabetes management in these four populations. Understanding such cultural determinants is crucial to addressing diabetes disparities and improving outcomes.

  20. What part of the total care consumed by type 2 diabetes patients is directly related to diabetes? Implications for disease management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel van Dijk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disease management programs (DMP aim at improving coordination and quality of care and reducing healthcare costs for specific chronic diseases. This paper investigates to what extent total healthcare utilization of type 2 diabetes patients is actually related to diabetes and its implications for diabetes management programs.Research design and methods: Healthcare utilization for diabetes patients was analyzed using 2008 self-reported data (N=316 and data from electronic medical records (EMR (N=9023, and divided whether or not care was described in the Dutch type 2 diabetes multidisciplinary healthcare standard.Results: On average 4.3 different disciplines of healthcare providers were involved in the care for diabetes patients. 96% contacted a GP-practice and 63% an ophthalmologist, 24% an internist, 32% a physiotherapist and 23% a dietician. Diabetes patients had on average 9.3 contacts with GP-practice of which 53% were included in the healthcare standard. Only a limited part of total healthcare utilization of diabetes patients was included in the healthcare standard and therefore theoretically included in DMPs.Conclusion: Organizing the care for diabetics in a DMP might harm the coordination and quality of all healthcare for diabetics. DMPs should be integrated in the overall organization of care.

  1. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-A y Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Masako; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-A y mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-A y mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF-κB activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-A y mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-A y mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF-κB activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:23819050

  2. Direct measurement of carbon substrate oxidation and incorporation patterns in RuMP-type methylotrophs: chemostatic cultures of Methylomonas L3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, I.M.; Bussineau, C.M.; Papoutsakis, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    A technique using C-14 isotope tracers to probe the branching of carbon flow in methylotrophic bacteria has been devised and applied to continuous steady-state cultures. Methylomonas L3, a strain which utilizes the KDPG/TA variant of the ribulose monophosphate cycle for carbon fixation, was employed in the experimental studies. The actual in vivo rates of substrate-carbon incorporation into biomass, both direct and via CO 2 , and of the two carbon oxidation schemes were determined in three different steady-state cultures. The results show that the carbon substrate is oxidized predominantly via formate (the linear oxidation scheme), and that the cyclic scheme of oxidation is minimally, if at all, utilized. The carbon incorporation and oxidation patterns appear to vary considerably with the dilution rate and the inoculum history. The experimental accuracy of the new technique is discussed in detail

  3. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  4. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  5. Direct identification of interstitial Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs and evidence of its high thermal stability

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Correia, JG; Decoster, S; da Silva, MR; Araújo, JP; Vantomme, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the decay of $^{56}$Mn. The majority of the Mn atoms substitute for Ga and up to 31% occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors. Contrary to the general belief, we find that interstitial Mn is immobile up to 400$^{\\circ}$C, with an activation energy for diffusion of 1.7–2.3 eV. Such high thermal stability of interstitial Mn has significant implications on the strategies and prospects for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism in Ga$_{1−x}$Mn$_{x}$As.

  6. Fault Ride-through Capability Enhancement of Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current Systems with Bridge Type Fault Current Limiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shafiul Alam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of bridge type fault current limiters (BFCLs as a potential solution to reduce the impact of fault disturbance on voltage source converter-based high voltage DC (VSC-HVDC systems. Since VSC-HVDC systems are vulnerable to faults, it is essential to enhance the fault ride-through (FRT capability with auxiliary control devices like BFCLs. BFCL controllers have been developed to limit the fault current during the inception of system disturbances. Real and reactive power controllers for the VSC-HVDC have been developed based on current control mode. DC link voltage control has been achieved by a feedback mechanism such that net power exchange with DC link capacitor is zero. A grid-connected VSC-HVDC system and a wind farm integrated VSC-HVDC system along with the proposed BFCL and associated controllers have been implemented in a real time digital simulator (RTDS. Symmetrical three phase as well as different types of unsymmetrical faults have been applied in the systems in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed BFCL solution. DC link voltage fluctuation, machine speed and active power oscillation have been greatly suppressed with the proposed BFCL. Another significant feature of this work is that the performance of the proposed BFCL in VSC-HVDC systems is compared to that of series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR. Comparative results show that the proposed BFCL is superior over SDBR in limiting fault current as well as improving system fault ride through (FRT capability.

  7. Optimizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence for direct trace element quantification in proteins I: Influence of sample homogeneity and reflector type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, G.; Fittschen, U. E. A.; Achard, M. E. S.; Faust, A.; Kreplin, X.; Meyer-Klaucke, W.

    2008-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results.

  8. A novel type of electrochemical sensor based on ferromagnetic carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles for direct determination of hemoglobin in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Edyta; Donten, Mikolaj; Kowalczyk, Agata; Bystrzejewski, Michal; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P; Nowicka, Anna M

    2015-02-15

    An effective, fast, facile and direct electrochemical method of determination of hemoglobin (Hb) in blood sample without any sample preparation is described. The method is accomplished by using the ferromagnetic electrode modifier (carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles) and an external magnetic field. The successful voltammetric determination of hemoglobin is achieved in PBS buffer as well as in the whole blood sample. The obtained results show the excellent electroactivity of Hb. The measurements are of high sensitivity and good reproducibility. The detection limit is estimated to be 0.7 pM. The electrochemical determination data were compared with the gravimetric data obtained with a quartz crystal microbalance. The agreement between these results is very good. The changes of the electrode surface morphology before and after Hb detection are monitored by electron microscopy. The functionality of the electrochemical sensor is tested with human and rat blood samples. The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood samples determined by using voltammetric/gravimetric detection is in perfect agreement with the data obtained from typical clinical analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recovery of infectious type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an RNA polymerase I/II-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Jin, Ye; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Guo, Jianhong; Zheng, Haixue; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-02

    We developed an RNA polymerase (pol) I- and II-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from cloned cDNA. In this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cDNA was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (HdvRz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (CMV) and pol I promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. The utility of this method was demonstrated by the recovery of FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 in BHK-21 cells transfected with cDNA plasmids. Furthermore, infectious FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 could be rescued from suckling mice directly inoculated with cDNA plasmids. Thus, this reverse genetics system can be applied to fundamental research and vaccine studies, most notably to rescue those viruses for which there is currently an absence of a suitable cell culture system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence for direct trace element quantification in proteins I: Influence of sample homogeneity and reflector type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenreuther, G. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Achard, M.E.S.; Faust, A.; Kreplin, X. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Meyer-Klaucke, W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Wolfram@embl-hamburg.de

    2008-12-15

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results.

  11. Treatment of a direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, J.K.; Santarius, T.; Kirkpatrick, P.J.; Higgins, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of a 34-year-old female with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome diagnosed with a carotid cavernous fistula presenting with progressive proptosis. Endovascular embolization using balloons or coils carries a high risk of complications in this group of patients, owing to the extreme fragility of the blood vessels. Initial treatment was conservative until an intracerebral haemorrhage occurred. To avoid transfemoral angiography, the ipsilateral carotid arteries and the internal jugular vein were surgically exposed for insertion of two endovascular sheaths. The patient was transferred from theatre to the angiography suite and the sheaths were used for embolization access. The fistula was closed, with preservation of the carotid artery, using Guglielmi detachable coils deployed in the cavernous sinus from the arterial and venous sides. Rapid resolution of symptoms and signs followed, which was sustained at 6-month follow-up. This technique offers alternative access for endovascular treatment, which may reduce the high incidence of mortality associated with catheter angiography in this condition. (orig.)

  12. Treatment of a direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollands, J.K.; Santarius, T.; Kirkpatrick, P.J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Higgins, J.N. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    We report a case of a 34-year-old female with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome diagnosed with a carotid cavernous fistula presenting with progressive proptosis. Endovascular embolization using balloons or coils carries a high risk of complications in this group of patients, owing to the extreme fragility of the blood vessels. Initial treatment was conservative until an intracerebral haemorrhage occurred. To avoid transfemoral angiography, the ipsilateral carotid arteries and the internal jugular vein were surgically exposed for insertion of two endovascular sheaths. The patient was transferred from theatre to the angiography suite and the sheaths were used for embolization access. The fistula was closed, with preservation of the carotid artery, using Guglielmi detachable coils deployed in the cavernous sinus from the arterial and venous sides. Rapid resolution of symptoms and signs followed, which was sustained at 6-month follow-up. This technique offers alternative access for endovascular treatment, which may reduce the high incidence of mortality associated with catheter angiography in this condition. (orig.)

  13. The Toolbox for Uncovering the Functions of Legionella Dot/Icm Type IVb Secretion System Effectors: Current State and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar N. Schroeder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The defective in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication (Dot/Icm Type IVb secretion system (T4SS is the essential virulence factor for the intracellular life style and pathogenicity of Legionella species. Screens demonstrated that an individual L. pneumophila strain can use the Dot/Icm T4SS to translocate an unprecedented number of more than 300 proteins into host cells, where these, so called Icm/Dot-translocated substrates (IDTS or effectors, manipulate host cell functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis of the pan-genus genome predicts at least 608 orthologous groups of putative effectors. Deciphering the function of these effectors is key to understanding Legionella pathogenesis; however, the analysis is challenging. Substantial functional redundancy renders classical, phenotypic screening of single gene deletion mutants mostly ineffective. Here, I review experimental approaches that were successfully used to identify, validate and functionally characterize T4SS effectors and highlight new methods, which promise to facilitate unlocking the secrets of Legionella's extraordinary weapons arsenal.

  14. SU-F-BRA-05: Utility of the Combined Use of Two Types of HDR Sources with the Direction Modulation Brachytherapy (DMBT) Tandem Applicator for Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Scanderbeg, D [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To maximize the dose to HRCTV while minimizing dose to the OARs, the combination of two HDR brachytherapy sources, 192-Ir and 169-Yb, used in combination with the recently-proposed novel direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator were examined. Methods: The DMBT tandem, made from nonmagnetic tungsten-alloy rod, with diameter of 5.4mm, has 6 symmetric peripheral holes of 1.3mm diameter. The 0.3mm thick bio-compatible plastic tubing wraps the tandem. MCNPX v.2.6 was used to simulate the mHDR 192-Ir V2 and 4140 HDR 169-Yb sources inside the DMBT applicator. Thought was by combining the higher energy 192-Ir (380keV) and lower energy 169-Yb (92.7keV) sources could create unprecedented level of dose conformality when combined with the high-degree intensity modulation capable DMBT tandem applicator. 3D dose matrices, with 1 mm3 resolution, were imported into an in-house-coded inverse optimization planning system to evaluate plan quality of 19 clinical patient cases. Prescription dose was 15Gy. All plans were normalized to receive the same HRCTV D90. Results: Generally, the use of dual sources produced better plans than using either of the sources alone, with significantly better performance in some patients. The mean D2cc for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 11.65±2.30Gy, 7.47±3.05Gy, and 9.84±2.48Gy for 192-Ir-only, respectively. For 169 -Yb-only, they were 11.67±2.26Gy, 7.44±3.02Gy, and 9.83±2.38Gy, respectively. The corresponding data for the dual sources were 11.51±2.24Gy, 7.30±3.00Gy, and 9.68 ±2.39Gy, respectively. The HRCTV D98 and V100 were 16.37±1.86Gy and 97.37±1.92Gy for Ir-192-only, respectively. For 169-Yb-only, they were 16.43±1.86Gy, and 97.51±1.91Gy, respectively. For the dual source, they were 16.42±1.87Gy and 97.47±1.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The plan quality improves, in some cases quite significantly, for when dual 192-Ir and 169-Yb sources are used in combination with highly intensity modulation capable

  15. Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Epstein, Howard E; Box, Elgene O; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Goswami, Santonu; Iversen, Colleen M; Kattge, Jens; Norby, Richard J; van Bodegom, Peter M; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2014-07-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modellers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review, the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially below-ground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology and remote sensing will be

  16. Role of adapter function in oncoprotein-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax interacts directly with IkappaB kinase gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D Y; Giordano, V; Kibler, K V; Nakano, H; Jeang, K T

    1999-06-18

    Mechanisms by which the human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax oncoprotein activates NF-kappaB remain incompletely understood. Although others have described an interaction between Tax and a holo-IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, the exact details of protein-protein contact are not fully defined. Here we show that Tax binds to neither IKK-alpha nor IKK-beta but instead complexes directly with IKK-gamma, a newly characterized component of the IKK complex. This direct interaction with IKK-gamma correlates with Tax-induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation. Thus, our findings establish IKK-gamma as a key molecule for adapting an oncoprotein-specific signaling to IKK-alpha and IKK-beta.

  17. Successful treatment of direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV without arterial puncture: the transvenous triple-overlay embolization (TAILOREd) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thien J; Morton, Ryan P; Levitt, Michael R; Ghodke, Basavaraj V; Wink, Onno; Hallam, Danial K

    2017-08-18

    We report successful transvenous treatment of direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV using a novel triple-overlay embolization (TAILOREd) technique without the need for arterial puncture, which is known to be highly risky in this patient group. The TAILOREd technique allowed for successful treatment using preoperative MR angiography as a three-dimensional overlay roadmap combined with cone beam CT and live fluoroscopy, precluding the need for an arterial puncture. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. 'DIRECT DISPOSAL'. Comparative study of the radiological risk of the spent fuel and vitrified waste disposals in granite deep geological formation; 'STOCKAGE DIRECT'. Etude comparative du risque radiologique des stockages de combustibles uses et de dechets vitrifies en formation geologique profonde de type granitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudoin, Patrick; Gay, Didier [Departement d' evaluation de surete, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1996-09-01

    In order to study the implications of a possibly 'direct disposal' of the spent fuel a working group has been created in 1991. This report gives an evaluation of the radiological impact as well as of the technical and economical characteristics of a generic disposal scenario for untreated spent fuel. The basic scheme implies a temporary storage and, then after an adequate preparation, the disposal in a deep geological formation. This document concerning the evaluation of the radiological impact associated to the geological disposal of the spent fuel constitutes the IPSN's contribution to the report of working group. The solution, as defined by the group, specifies the disposal of multifunctional TSD containers ensuring the Transport, Storage and final Disposal in mine drifts of granite formation. Two values for amounts to be stored were taken into account: one corresponds to 43,500 fuel assemblies of PWR UOX type irradiated at 33,000 MWd.t{sup -1}, while the other, corresponds to 20,400 assemblies of the same type. The radiological risk was evaluated for two distinct evolution scenarios, one supposing the preservation of initial characteristics of the disposal site, the other supposing alterations like those induced by drilling deep water wells in the disposal's vicinity. The individual effective dose were computed for each of these scenarios. Also, a comparison is made between the case of direct disposal of spent fuels and the case of disposal of reprocessed fuels of the same type.

  19. Fabrication of a direct Z-scheme type WO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composite photocatalyst with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinsuo, E-mail: lujinsuo@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Wang, Yujing [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Liu, Fei [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Zhang, Liang [College of Sciences, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Chai, Shouning, E-mail: s.n.chai@xauat.edu.cn [College of Sciences, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • A solid direct Z-scheme type photocatalyst WO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was synthesized. • The WO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composite showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability. • Nearly complete removal of organic dyes was achieved in a short time. • The reasonable Z-scheme mechanism of WO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composite was proposed. - Abstract: A direct Z-scheme type photocatalyst WO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composite (molar ration 1:1, 1W/1Ag) was prepared by hydrothermal method. The 1W/1Ag was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL) etc. technologies. The photocatalytic performances were evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO), and their removal rates were up to 95% after 60 min and 90% after 180 min, respectively. The prepared 1W/1Ag exhibits a much higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and pure WO{sub 3} under visible light irradiation. The apparent rate constants of MB and MO degradation on 1W/1Ag are about 2.4 and 2.5 times that of pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, respectively. The enhanced performance of the 1W/1Ag is attributed to a synergistic effect including relatively high surface area, strong light absorption, matched energy band structure, and the improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers between the two components. A reasonable Z-scheme mechanism referring to directed migration of photoinduced carriers was proposed. Thus, it can be suggested that the 1W/1Ag can serve as a promising photocatalyst for environmental purification and clean energy utilization.

  20. Direct-reading type microwave interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kiyokata; Fujita, Junji; Ogata, Atsushi; Haba, Kiichiro.

    1977-10-01

    A new microwave interferometer has been developed and applied to the electron density measurement on JIPP T-II plasma device. The interferometer generates an output voltage proportional to the number of fringe shifts and also output pulses which indicate the change of electron density for the convenience of data processing, where the resolution is a quarter of fringe shift. The principle is based on the digitization of fringe shifts utilizing the phase detection of microwave signals with two-level modulation of source frequency. With this system and 70 GHz microwave source, a change of electron density as rapid as about 2 x 10 13 cm -3 in 1 ms has been measured at the tokamak operation of JIPP T-II. (auth.)

  1. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... learned. In addition, the uniquely comprehensive world survey outlines direct democracy provisions in 214 countries and territories and indicates which, if any, of these provisions are used by each country or territory at both the national and sub-national levels. Furthermore, the world survey includes...

  2. Refining types using type guards in TypeScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, Ivo Gabe; Hage, J.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss two adaptations of the implementation of type guards and narrowing in the TypeScript compiler. The first is an improvement on the original syntax-directed implementation, and has now replaced the original one in the TypeScript compiler. It is specifically suited for the scenario in which

  3. Directing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoff, Ernest

    Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

  4. Official announcement of the directive on protection of nuclear power plant equipped with LWR-type reactors from human intrusion or other interference by third parties. Announcement of BMU (German Federal Ministry Environment), of 6 Dec. 1995 - RS I 3 13151 - 6/14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An operating permit for a nuclear power plant is to be granted only if the applicant and facility operator presents evidence guaranteeing the legally required physical protection and other security measures for protection from human instrusion and other type of interference. As a basis for review and licensing, the competent authorities in 1987 have issued a directive specifying the requirements to be met for physical protection of nuclear power plant equipped with PWR-type reactors, and in 1994 followed a second, analogous directive relating to nuclear power plant with BWR-type reactors. The directive now announced for physical protection of nuclear power plant equipped with LWR-type reactors combines and replaces the two former ones, and from the date of the announcement is the only applicable directive. The text of the directive is not reproduced for reasons of secrecy protection. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency; Dependencia direcional do identificador ORTEC - modelo Micro Detective tipo N com 15% de eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbach, Mayara Nascimento; Karam, Rudnei M.; Cardoso, Domingos D.O.; Sant' anna, Viviane C.; Vellozo, Sergio de O.; Gomes, Renato G., E-mail: mayaraarbach@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amorim, Aneuri S. de; Oliveira, Luciano S.R. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    It was characterized the directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency by using sources of Cesium ({sup 137}Cs) with activity of 37,4 kBq and Cobalt ({sup 60}Co) with an activity of 41 kBq, manufactured on 04/17/2007. The work took place in distances (0,5m, 1,0m, 1,5m e 2,0m) and for the angles (0°, 45°, 60° e 90°), and the measure found in angle 0° of said evaluation was adopted as reference value; this same procedure was adopted for other distances evaluated in this work. The results achieved are provided in charts 1, 2 and 3. (author)

  6. CACA-TOCSY with alternate {sup 13}C-{sup 12}C labeling: a {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} direct detection experiment for mainchain resonance assignment, dihedral angle information, and amino acid type identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Biomedicinal Information Research Center (BIRC) (Japan); Frueh, Dominique P.; Sun, Zhen-Yu J.; Hiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard_wagner@hms.harvard.ed [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We present a {sup 13}C direct detection CACA-TOCSY experiment for samples with alternate {sup 13}C-{sup 12}C labeling. It provides inter-residue correlations between {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} resonances of residue i and adjacent C{sup {alpha}s} at positions i - 1 and i + 1. Furthermore, longer mixing times yield correlations to C{sup {alpha}} nuclei separated by more than one residue. The experiment also provides C{sup {alpha}}-to-side chain correlations, some amino acid type identifications and estimates for {psi} dihedral angles. The power of the experiment derives from the alternate {sup 13}C-{sup 12}C labeling with [1,3-{sup 13}C] glycerol or [2-{sup 13}C] glycerol, which allows utilizing the small scalar {sup 3}J{sub CC} couplings that are masked by strong {sup 1}J{sub CC} couplings in uniformly {sup 13}C labeled samples.

  7. Thermodynamical simulation for solid oxide (SOFC) type fuel cells with ethanol direct internal reforming; Simulacao termodinamica para celulas a combustivel do tipo SOFC com reforma interna direta do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aline Lima da; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Heck, Nestor Cezar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGEM)]. E-mail: als14br2000@yahoo.com.br; Mello, Celso Gustavo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica (PPGEQ); Halmenschlager, Cibele Melo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGEM). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2008-07-01

    In SOFC, high operative temperature allows the direct conversion of ethanol into H{sub 2} to take place in the electrochemical cell. Direct internal reforming of ethanol, however, can produce undesirable products that diminish system efficiency and, in the case of carbon deposition over the anode, may occur the breakdown of the electrode. In this way, thermodynamic analysis is fundamental to predict the product distribution as well as the conditions favorable for carbon to precipitate inside the cell. Equilibrium determinations are performed by the Gibbs energy minimization method, using the GRG algorithm. Thermodynamic conditions for carbon deposition were analyzed, in order to establish temperature ranges and H{sub 2}O/ethanol ratios where carbon precipitation is not feasible. A mathematical relationship between Lagrange multipliers and carbon activity is presented, unveiling the carbon activity in atmosphere. The effect of the type of solid electrolyte (O{sup 2-} or H{sup +} conducting) on carbon formation is also investigated. The results of this work are in agreement with previous results reported in literature using the stoichiometric method. (author)

  8. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of Delavatine A: Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Indene-Type Tetrasubstituted Olefins and Kinetic Resolution through Pd-Catalyzed Triflamide-Directed C-H Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyin; Wang, Jinxin; Li, Jian; Yang, Fan; Liu, Guodu; Tang, Wenjun; He, Weiwei; Fu, Jian-Jun; Shen, Yun-Heng; Li, Ang; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-04-19

    Delavatine A (1) is a structurally unusual isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Incarvillea delavayi. The first and gram-scale total synthesis of 1 was accomplished in 13 steps (the longest linear sequence) from commercially available starting materials. We exploited an isoquinoline construction strategy and developed two reactions, namely Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of indene-type tetrasubstituted olefins and kinetic resolution of β-alkyl phenylethylamine derivatives through Pd-catalyzed triflamide-directed C-H olefination. The substrate scope of the first reaction covered unfunctionalized olefins and those containing polar functionalities such as sulfonamides. The kinetic resolution provided a collection of enantioenriched indane- and tetralin-based triflamides, including those bearing quaternary chiral centers. The selectivity factor (s) exceeded 100 for a number of substrates. These reactions enabled two different yet related approaches to a key intermediate 28 in excellent enantiopurity. In the synthesis, the triflamide served as not only an effective directing group for C-H bond activation but also a versatile functional group for further elaborations. The relative and absolute configurations of delavatine A were unambiguously assigned by the syntheses of the natural product and its three stereoisomers. Their cytotoxicity against a series of cancer cell lines was evaluated.

  9. Direct evidence for a chronic CD8+-T-cell-mediated immune reaction to tax within the muscle of a human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1-infected patient with sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Simona; Cochet, Madeleine; Mikol, Jacqueline; Teixeira, Antonio; Gessain, Antoine; Pique, Claudine

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection can lead to the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), concomitantly with or without other inflammatory disorders such as myositis. These pathologies are considered immune-mediated diseases, and it is assumed that migration within tissues of both HTLV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells and anti-HTLV-1 cytotoxic T cells represents a pivotal event. However, although HTLV-1-infected T cells were found in inflamed lesions, the antigenic specificity of coinfiltrated CD8(+) T cells remains to be determined. In this study, we performed both ex vivo and in situ analyses using muscle biopsies obtained from an HTLV-1-infected patient with HAM/TSP and sporadic inclusion body myositis. We found that both HTLV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells directed to the dominant Tax antigen can be amplified from muscle cell cultures. Moreover, we were able to detect in two successive muscle biopsies both tax mRNA-positive mononuclear cells and T cells recognized by the Tax11-19/HLA-A*02 tetramer and positive for perforin. These findings provide the first direct demonstration that anti-Tax cytotoxic T cells are chronically recruited within inflamed tissues of an HTLV-1 infected patient, which validates the cytotoxic immune reaction model for the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated inflammatory disease.

  10. You are what you eat: influence of type and amount of food consumed on central dopamine systems and the behavioral effects of direct- and indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Daws, Lynette C; France, Charles P

    2012-07-01

    The important role of dopamine (DA) in mediating feeding behavior and the positive reinforcing effects of some drugs is well recognized. Less widely studied is how feeding conditions might impact the sensitivity of drugs acting on DA systems. Food restriction, for example, has often been the focus of aging and longevity studies; however, other studies have demonstrated that mild food restriction markedly increases sensitivity to direct- and indirect-acting DA receptor agonists. Moreover, it is becoming clear that not only the amount of food, but the type of food, is an important factor in modifying the effects of drugs. Given the increased consumption of high fat and sugary foods, studies are exploring how consumption of highly palatable food impacts DA neurochemistry and the effects of drugs acting on these systems. For example, eating high fat chow increases sensitivity to some behavioral effects of direct- as well as indirect-acting DA receptor agonists. A compelling mechanistic possibility is that central DA pathways that mediate the effects of some drugs are regulated by one or more of the endocrine hormones (e.g. insulin) that undergo marked changes during food restriction or after consuming high fat or sugary foods. Although traditionally recognized as an important signaling molecule in regulating energy homeostasis, insulin can also regulate DA neurochemistry. Because direct- and indirect-acting DA receptor drugs are used therapeutically and some are abused, a better understanding of how food intake impacts response to these drugs would likely facilitate improved treatment of clinical disorders and provide information that would be relevant to the causes of vulnerability to abuse drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  12. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  13. Directed polymers versus directed percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin-Healy, Timothy

    1998-10-01

    Universality plays a central role within the rubric of modern statistical mechanics, wherein an insightful continuum formulation rises above irrelevant microscopic details, capturing essential scaling behaviors. Nevertheless, occasions do arise where the lattice or another discrete aspect can constitute a formidable legacy. Directed polymers in random media, along with its close sibling, directed percolation, provide an intriguing case in point. Indeed, the deep blood relation between these two models may have sabotaged past efforts to fully characterize the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, to which the directed polymer belongs.

  14. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  15. Tamoxifen-inducible gene deletion reveals a distinct cell type associated with trabecular bone, and direct regulation of PTHrP expression and chondrocyte morphology by Ihh in growth region cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Matthew J; Tu, Xiaolin; Long, Fanxin

    2007-08-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) controls multiple aspects of endochondral skeletal development by signaling to both chondrocytes and perichondrial cells. Previous efforts to delineate direct effects of Ihh on chondrocytes by Col2-Cre-mediated ablation of Smoothened (Smo, encoding a transmembrane protein indispensable for Ihh signaling) has been only partially successful, due to the inability to discriminate between chondrocytes and perichondrial cells. Here we report a transgenic line (Col2-Cre) expressing under the control of the Colalpha1(II) promoter an inert form of Cre that is activatable by exogenous tamoxifen (TM); TM administration at proper times during embryogenesis induced Cre activity in chondrocytes but not in the perichondrium. By using this mouse line, we deleted Smo within subsets of chondrocytes without affecting the perichondrium and found that Smo removal led to localized disruption of the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and the morphology of chondrocytes. Unexpectedly, TM invariably induced Cre activity in a subset of cells associated with the trabecular bone surface of long bones. These cells, when genetically marked and cultured in vitro, were capable of producing bone nodules. Expression of the Col2-Cre transgene in these cells likely reflected the endogenous Colalpha1(II) promoter activity as similar cells were found to express the IIA isoform of Colalpha1(II) mRNA endogenously. In summary, the present study has not only provided evidence that Ihh signaling directly controls PTHrP expression and chondrocyte morphology in the growth region cartilage, but has also uncovered a distinct cell type associated with the trabecular bone that appears to possess osteogenic potential.

  16. Direct Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austern, N. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-01-15

    In order to give a unified presentation of one point of view, these lectures are devoted only to a detailed development of the standard theories of direct reactions, starting from basic principles. Discussion is given of the present status of the theories, of the techniques used for practical calculation, and of possible future developments. The direct interaction (DI) aspects of a reaction are those which involve only a few of the many degrees of freedom of a nucleus. In fact the minimum number of degrees of freedom which must be involved in a reaction are those required to describe the initial and final channels, and DI studies typically consider these degrees of freedom and no others. Because of this simplicity DI theories may be worked out in painstaking detail. DI processes concern only part of the wave function for a problem. The other part involves complicated excitations of many degrees of freedom, and gives the compound nucleus (CN) effects. While it is extremely interesting to learn how to separate DI and CN effects in an orderly manner, if they are both present in a reaction, no suitable method has yet been found. Instead, current work stresses the kinds of reactions and the kinds of final states in which DI effects dominate and in which CN effects may almost be forgotten. The DI cross-sections which are studied are often extremely large, comparable to elastic scattering cross-sections. (author)

  17. Entrance Counseling Guide for Direct Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This guide describes the four types of loans offered by the Direct Loan Program[SM]: (1) Direct Subsidized Loans; (2) Direct Unsubsidized Loans; (3) Direct PLUS Loans; and (4) Direct Consolidation Loans. Among the topics covered in the guide are: Use of Your Loan Money, The Master Promissory Note, How Your Loans Will Be Disbursed (Paid Out),…

  18. The PorX response regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY two-component system does not directly regulate the Type IX secretion genes but binds the PorL subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxence S Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Type IX secretion system (T9SS is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion of surface attachment of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of the porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we showed that PorX does not bind and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  19. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  20. Comparison of standard (self-directed) versus intensive patient training for the human insulin inhalation powder (HIIP) delivery system in patients with type 2 diabetes: efficacy, safety, and training measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Nakano, Masako; Silverman, Bernard L; Sun, Bin; de la Peña, Amparo; Suri, Ajit; Muchmore, Douglas B

    2007-02-01

    The Lilly/Alkermes human insulin inhalation powder (HIIP) delivery system [AIR (a registered trademark of Alkermes, Inc., Cambridge, MA) Inhaled Insulin System] was designed to be easy to use. Training methods were compared in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 102) were randomized to standard or intensive training. With standard training, patients learned how to use the HIIP delivery system by reading directions for use (DFU) and trying on their own. Intensive training included orientation to the HIIP delivery system with individual coaching and inspiratory flow rate training. Both groups received preprandial HIIP + metformin with or without a thiazolidinedione for 4 weeks. Overall 2-h postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) excursion was the primary measure. Noninferiority was defined as the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval of the mean difference between groups being 1.2 training) and 0.23 +/- 0.36 (intensive training) mmol/L. The mean difference (standard minus intensive training) and two-sided 95% confidence interval were -0.35 (-1.02, 0.33) mmol/L. No statistically or clinically significant differences were observed between training methods in premeal, postmeal, or bedtime blood glucose values, HIIP doses at endpoint, or blood glucose values after a test meal. No discontinuations occurred because of difficulty of use or dislike of the HIIP system. DFU compliance was >90% in both training groups. There were no significant differences between training methods in safety measures. The HIIP delivery system is easy to use, and most patients can learn to use it by reading the DFU without assistance from health care professionals.

  1. Future direction of direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

    2010-11-01

    Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

  2. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Harbo, Jacob Buchreitz; Huttel, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  3. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    . This work extends the foregoing theories of binary session types to multiparty, asynchronous sessions, which often arise in practical communication-centered applications. Presented as a typed calculus for mobile processes, the theory introduces a new notion of types in which interactions involving multiple......Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessions...... peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  4. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect these minor antigens. It is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations. Alternative Names Cross matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ...

  5. Klebsiella Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, D S; Skov, R; Benedí, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and O:K-serotyping of Klebsiella in two different epidemiological settings. METHODS: One hundred and four bacteremia isolates without known epidemiological relation and 47 isolates from an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care...... unit (NICU) were K-typed by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE), O-typed by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme XbaI. RESULTS: Typing data for the 104 bacteremia isolates were compared...... with regard to typability, number of types, maximum number of isolates per type, and the Discriminative Index (DI). O-typing combined with K-typing (DI 0.98) as O:K-serotyping (DI 0.99) gave a very discriminative typing system, whereas O-typing alone was not very discriminative (DI 0.76). PFGE (DI 1...

  6. Helicobacter pylori from Peptic Ulcer Patients in Uganda Is Highly Resistant to Clarithromycin and Fluoroquinolones: Results of the GenoType HelicoDR Test Directly Applied on Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denish Calmax Angol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Around 70–90% of peptic ulcer disease (PUD is due to Helicobacter pylori and requires treatment with antimicrobials to which these bacteria are susceptible. Common H. pylori diagnostic tests do not provide drug susceptibility data. Using the GenoType HelicoDR PCR test designed for gastric biopsies for simultaneous detection of H. pylori and its resistance to clarithromycin (CLA/fluoroquinolones (FLQ, we present evidence for stool as an optional test specimen and also provide data on prevalence of H. pylori resistance to CLA and FLQ in Uganda. Methods. Stool from 142 symptomatic PUD patients at three hospitals in Kampala was screened for H. pylori using a rapid antigen test. The GenoType HelicoDR test was run on all H. pylori antigen positives to determine PCR positivity and resistance to CLA/FLQ. Results. Thirty-one samples (22% were H. pylori antigen positive, and 21 (68% of these were H. pylori PCR positive. Six of the 21 (29% were resistant to CLA and eight to FLQ (42%, while two gave invalid FLQ resistance results. Conclusion. Stool is a possible specimen for the GenoType HelicoDR test for rapid detection of H. pylori and drug resistance. In Uganda, Helicobacter pylori is highly resistant to CLA and FLQ.

  7. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  8. Research on internal dosimetry for some of gamma emitting nuclides for radiation workers by direct method (in-vivo) with using a chair-type whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Hung Thai

    2003-01-01

    This research objective is to establish a chair-type whole-body counter with using NaI(Ti) detector in large sizes and whole-body standard phantoms as well as to apply the computational program of LUDEP 2.0. Steel holder with a lead collimator, two whole-body standard phantoms in Vietnamese adults (one for male and another for female) by plastic material, electronic blocks of ADC and MCD (8K), MCA program for measuring gamma spectrum by VB6 language in Windows are established and made. In addition, applied research for the program of LUDEP 2.0 in order to calculate and evaluated internal doses for radiation workers is carried out. (author)

  9. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  10. Direct access to INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludev, I.S.; Romanenko, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna

  11. 湘西州饰面石材资源特征及找矿方向%Characterics and Type of Surface Decoration Stone Deposit and Prospecting Direction in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍燕

    2017-01-01

    湘西州饰面石材丰富、品种较多,且较新颖,主要为产于寒武系—奥陶系碳酸盐岩中的沉积成因的彩色大理石矿床.样品抛光后,光泽度好、物像清晰、绚丽多彩、美观大方、古朴典雅,且易于拼接,装饰性能良好,具有较高的开发价值和良好的开发前景.文章在阐述了饰面石材的资源特征基础上,探讨了找矿方向.%Surface decoration stone is abundant in Xiangxi autonomous prefecture.All kind of stone and novel,belongs to sedimentry coloury marble deposit,mainly occurs in carbonate of Cambrian and Ordovioian.Polished sample appears glossy,clear and colourful,it is easy to piece together and best decorating property,a good prospect of development and developble value.Based on the marble resource characteristics,the ore-searching direction is discused.

  12. Direct comparison of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide with N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of patients with atrial fibrillation and dyspnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Jens; Potocki, Mihael; Murray, Karsten; Breidthardt, Tobias; Ziller, Ronny; Mosimann, Tamina; Klima, Theresia; Hoeller, Rebeca; Moehring, Berit; Sou, Seoung Mann; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Mueller, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Due to different release mechanisms, mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR proANP) may be superior to N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP) in the diagnosis of acute heart failure (AHF) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared MR proANP and NT proBNP for their diagnostic value in patients with AF and sinus rhythm (SR). Prospective cohort study. University hospital, emergency department. 632 consecutive patients presenting with acute dyspnoea. MR proANP and NT proBNP plasma levels were determined. The diagnosis of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all available data. Patients received long-term follow-up. AF was present in 151 patients (24%). MR proANP and NT proBNP levels were significantly higher in the AF group compared with the SR group (385 (258-598) versus 201 (89-375) pmol/l for MR proANP, pvalue for the diagnosis of AHF. The rhythm at presentation has to be taken into account because plasma levels of both peptides are significantly higher in patients with AF compared with SR.

  13. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  14. Prognostic and predictive value of primary tumour side in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer treated with chemotherapy and EGFR directed antibodies in six randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D; Lueza, B; Douillard, J-Y; Peeters, M; Lenz, H-J; Venook, A; Heinemann, V; Van Cutsem, E; Pignon, J-P; Tabernero, J; Cervantes, A; Ciardiello, F

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a genetically heterogeneous disease and that tumours arising from different sides of the colon (left versus right) have different clinical outcomes. Furthermore, previous analyses comparing the activity of different classes of targeted agents in patients with KRAS wild-type (wt) or RAS wt mCRC suggest that primary tumour location (side), might be both prognostic and predictive for clinical outcome. This retrospective analysis investigated the prognostic and predictive influence of the localization of the primary tumour in patients with unresectable RAS wt mCRC included in six randomized trials (CRYSTAL, FIRE-3, CALGB 80405, PRIME, PEAK and 20050181), comparing chemotherapy plus EGFR antibody therapy (experimental arm) with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and bevacizumab (control arms). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with left-sided versus right-sided tumours, and odds ratios (ORs) for objective response rate (ORR) were estimated by pooling individual study HRs/ORs. The predictive value was evaluated by pooling study interaction between treatment effect and tumour side. Primary tumour location and RAS mutation status were available for 2159 of the 5760 patients (37.5%) randomized across the 6 trials, 515 right-sided and 1644 left-sided. A significantly worse prognosis was observed for patients with right-sided tumours compared with those with left-sided tumours in both the pooled control and experimental arms for OS [HRs = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.69-2.42) and 1.38 (1.17-1.63), respectively], PFS [HRs = 1.59 (1.34-1.88) and 1.25 (1.06-1.47)], and ORR [ORs = 0.38 (0.28-0.50) and 0.56 (0.43-0.73)]. In terms of a predictive effect, a significant benefit for chemotherapy plus EGFR antibody therapy was observed in patients with left-sided tumours [HRs = 0.75 (0.67-0.84) and 0.78 (0.70-0.87) for OS

  15. Multihospital Occurrence of Pan-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 147 with an ISEcp1-Directed blaOXA-181 Insertion in the mgrB Gene in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnevend, Ágnes; Ghazawi, Akela; Hashmey, Rayhan; Haidermota, Aliasgher; Girgis, Safinaz; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Omar, Mohammed; Paterson, David L; Zowawi, Hosam M; Pál, Tibor

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains is an increasing concern. In the present study, we describe a cluster of 9 pan-resistant K. pneumoniae sequence type 147 (ST147) isolates encountered in 4 patients over nearly 1 year in 3 hospitals of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The isolates exhibited highly similar genotypes. All produced chromosomally encoded OXA-181, and the majority also produced the NDM-5 carbapenemase. As with the previously described single isolate from the UAE, MS6671, the mgrB was disrupted by a functional, IS Ecp1 -driven bla OXA-181 insertion causing resistance to carbapenems. The mutation was successfully complemented with an intact mgrB gene, indicating that it was responsible for colistin resistance. bla NDM-5 was located within a resistance island of an approximately 100-kb IncFII plasmid carrying ermB , mph (A), bla TEM-1B , rmtB , bla NDM-5 , sul1 , aadA2 , and dfrA12 resistance genes. Sequencing this plasmid (pABC143-NDM) revealed that its backbone was nearly identical to that of plasmid pMS6671E from which several resistance genes, including bla NDM-5 , had been deleted. More extensive similarities of the backbone and the resistance island were found between pABC143C-NDM and the bla NDM-5 -carrying IncFII plasmids of two K. pneumoniae ST147 isolates from South Korea, one of which was colistin resistant, and both also produced OXA-181. Notably, one of these strains was isolated from a patient transferred from the UAE. Our data show that this pan-resistant clone has an alarming capacity to maintain itself over an extended period of time and is even likely to be transmitted internationally. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Inner-Directed and Other-Directed Values of Professional Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stuart H.

    1978-01-01

    Reports that an analysis of the responses of 35 journalists to 50 value items revealed two types of journalists: the inner-directed high professional and the other-directed low professional. Discusses attitudes and values of the two types. (GT)

  17. Type Tricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Type Tricks’ is about typographical rules and the underlying structure of the work process in the design of new typefaces. In that way, it is both a reference book and a user manual. In an illustrative format, it presents the different stages of type design in an easily accessible manner. Being...

  18. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only...... if it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  19. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    for reuse, and a procedure that computes point-wise vector multiplication. The latter uses a common idiom of prefetching memory resulting in out-of-bounds reading from memory. I present two extensions to the baseline type system: The first extension is a simple modification of some type rules to allow out......-ofbounds reading from memory. The second extension is based on two major modifications of the baseline type system: • Abandoning the type-invariance principle of memory locations and using a variation of alias types instead. • Introducing aggregate types, making it possible to have different views of a block...... of memory, thus enabling type checking of programs that directly manage and reuse memory. I show that both the baseline type system and the extended type system can be used to give type annotations to handwritten DSP assembler code, and that these annotations precisely and succinctly describe...

  20. Coatings for directional eutectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  1. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse: ... ethnic and racial groups have different frequency of the main blood types in their populations. Approximately ...

  2. FY 1980 Report on results of research and development project, recommissioned by Sunshine Project. Development of direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction plant (Development of power recovery system by hydrohoist); 1980 nendo chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hydrohoist ni yoru doryoku kaishu system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    The R and D program was implemented for a hydrohoist system, with the objectives to reduce wear and power requirements in the direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction plant. Direct hydrogenation, operating at elevated pressure in the presence of catalyst, is suitable for liquefaction of coal to produce light liquid products, which are in great demand. However, there are many mechanical problems to be solved, because the plant is operated under very severe conditions. The proposed hydrohoist system combines supply of the feed slurry with the let-down step for the slurry effluent as the product of the high-pressure system, to save energy by recovering power from the effluent slurry and, at the same time, reduce wear of the pumps and let-down valves, for the direct hydrogenation plant operating at 150 to 300 kg/cm{sup 2} in the presence of catalyst to liquefy coal. Such a system has been already commercialized for transferring coal and other minerals. In the FY 1980, basic tests are conducted using a small autoclave, to extract the problematical points for the test system. The results serve as the bases for designs and construction of the basic test system by which the hydrohoist system is to be studied and evaluated. (NEDO)

  3. Direct selling particularities

    OpenAIRE

    Greifová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the parcularities of direct selling, self regulation of this industry, multi-level marketing which is the most used sales method in the field of direct selling. The part of the thesis is dedicated to the issue of customer psychology that is very important for achieving success in direct selling. Main goals are to provide readers with the general view of direct selling and analysis of growing possibilities of the industry in the future.

  4. Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    future business . In defense systems, the key to future business is the existence of funded programs. Military commanders understand the lethality and...directed energp capabilities that can provide visibiliy into the likey futur business case for sustaining directed energy industry capabilities...the USD (I) staff to be afocalpointfor advocating improvement in all dimensions of directed energy intelligence. - The Director, Defense Inteligence

  5. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant and researches on liquefaction reactions in the presence of iron-based catalyst); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tetsukei shokubai ni yoru ekika hanno no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at development of iron-based catalyst suited for direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction by elucidating the effects of the catalyst on the liquefaction reactions. The iron-based catalyst seems to act as the radical stabilizer rather than the reaction promoter, because the increased quantity of the catalyst and increased H{sub 2} pressure share the common pattern rather than the catalyst enhances the activity, which is associated with increased reaction temperature or residence time. This is more notably observed when the coal species is changed to brown coal. In other words, recombination of the decomposition products by polycondensation is accelerated in the presence of the catalyst in decomposition of brown coal from bituminous coal, with the result that the catalyst effects are more notably observed. Whether this results from difference in age between brown coal and bituminous coal or content of specific types of ashes should be elucidated, because this point is considered to deeply relate to eventual development of the liquefaction reaction system. The FY 1980 program includes the primary screening of different types of iron compounds and tests of some iron-metal-based catalysts. (NEDO)

  6. Regional impacts of abolishing direct payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Priorr, Annette; Zander, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The direct payment system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) provides income transfers to European farmers. Recently, several countries including England and Sweden have advocated the elimination of direct payments after 2013. The extent to which an elimination of direct payments would affect...... with different production orientations and land management types was modeled under the presence and absence of direct payments using a combination of agent-based and bio-economic modeling. We found that the initial characteristics of the regions, such as the historical farm structure and regional site conditions...

  7. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  8. Inverted dipole feature in directional detection of exothermic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gondolo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Directional dark matter detection attempts to measure the direction of motion of nuclei recoiling after having interacted with dark matter particles in the halo of our Galaxy. Due to Earth's motion with respect to the Galaxy, the dark matter flux is concentrated around a preferential direction. An anisotropy in the recoil direction rate is expected as an unmistakable signature of dark matter. The average nuclear recoil direction is expected to coincide with the average direction of dark matter particles arriving to Earth. Here we point out that for a particular type of dark matter, inelastic exothermic dark matter, the mean recoil direction as well as a secondary feature, a ring of maximum recoil rate around the mean recoil direction, could instead be opposite to the average dark matter arrival direction. Thus, the detection of an average nuclear recoil direction opposite to the usually expected direction would constitute a spectacular experimental confirmation of this type of dark matter.

  9. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  10. Records Management Directive

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Records Management Directive provides guidelines for the management of OPM records, and identifies the records management...

  11. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  12. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  13. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  14. Verbal directionality and argument alternation in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The derivational morphology of verbs in Dinka includes a distinction between direction towards the deictic center (centripetal) and a direction not towards the deictic center (centrifugal). A goal adverbial requires a directional verb, and an object of such a verb refers to something that moves t...... of a simple verb may correspond to, respectively, a goal adverbial and an object of the directional verb. Another type of argument alternation results from the possibility of expressing a goal as an object of an applicative verb with an intransitive or transitive base.......(wards) an explicit or implicit goal. The object of a directional verb may play another role in the event described by the sentence than the object of the corresponding simple (and non-directional) verb. This gives rise to so-called argument alternation, in that, for instance, an object and an instrumental adverbial...

  15. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  16. FAA Directives System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Consistent with the Federal Aviation Administration's mission to foster a safe, : secure, and efficient aviation system is the need for an effective and efficient : process for communitcating policy and procedures. The FAA Directives System : provide...

  17. Assessing directionality in context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    In support of first-language interpreting as the exclusive interpreting direction, ... some light on the possible interaction between two independent variables, .... the “local context” refers to the setting, genre, participants, and aims of the event.

  18. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  19. The ''energy tax'' directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    As Austria dropped its reservation, U.E. Economics and Finance Ministers gave, on 20 March at Brussels, their political agreement to the proposed Directive on a Community framework for the taxation of energy products. (author)

  20. A Direction Sensitive Fast Neutron Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolkovic, B; Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1964-06-15

    A direction sensitive fast neutron monitor is described and its properties are discussed in some detail. The counter is a modification of the standard long counter of the Hanson and McKibben type. Directional sensitivity is obtained by increasing the shielding of the counter and providing it with a 70 cm long collimator channel. The behaviour of this long counter monitor is compared with that of a standard long counter when both are used in neutron experiments.

  1. Directed GF-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Arenas

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of directed fractal structure, which is a generalization of the concept of fractal structure (introduced by the authors. We study the relation with transitive quasiuniformities and inverse limits of posets. We define the concept of GF-compactification and apply it to prove that the Stone-Cech compactification can be obtained as the GF-compactification of the directed fractal structure associated to the Pervin quasi-uniformity.

  2. Laser direct joining of metal and plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Seiji; Kawahito, Yousuke

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an innovative rapid laser direct joining process of metal and plastic lap plates without adhesives or glues. The joints made between a Type 304 stainless steel plate and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic sheet of 30 mm width possessed tensile shear loads of about 3000 N. Transmission electron microscope photographs of the joint demonstrated that Type 304 and the PET were bonded on the atomic, molecular or nanostructural level through a Cr oxide film

  3. FORMS AND MOTIVATIONS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ramona SÂRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the identification of forms of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and analyzes factors influencing FDI motivation. Designing a coherent program to encourage foreign direct investment is based on knowledge of the factors that determine international companies to resort to this type of development: these companies resort to foreign direct investment if they have ownership advantages and internationalization, while another country has locational advantages to the company's home country. Thus, identifying the factors that influence the motivation of FDI is important both at the microeconomic level, local, local authorities and macroeconomic, national, government to develop measures for multiplying FDI .

  4. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    intelligence artificielle (réseau de ... In this paper, we studied the optimization problem of a flexible manufacturing cell type FJSP (flexible job ... based on artificial intelligence (neural network algorithms evolutionary fuzzy logic, taboo, etc.

  5. Directed network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Derenyi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

  6. Directivity of singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jers, Harald

    2005-09-01

    Studies of acoustical balance between singers within a choir by means of room acoustical measurements have shown that the directional sound propagation of the source is important. For this reason the directivity of female and male singers for different vowels has been measured in this investigation. Measurements of a pilot study and some first measurements in 1998 have been supplemented with new measurements and an enhanced setup. A special measurement setup with reference and recording microphones was used to collect the directivity data. A resolution of 10 deg for azimuth and elevation angle was obtained. The results will be shown in 3D spherical plots with frequency adjustments in semitones from 80 to 8000 Hz. The measurements are compared to an artificial singer's directivity, and the influence of a sheet music binder in front of a singer will be shown. The results give information on the directivity of singers and are relevant for the prediction of self-to-other-ratios that result from placement and formation aspects within a choir.

  7. Estimating directional epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rouzic, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Epistasis, i.e., the fact that gene effects depend on the genetic background, is a direct consequence of the complexity of genetic architectures. Despite this, most of the models used in evolutionary and quantitative genetics pay scant attention to genetic interactions. For instance, the traditional decomposition of genetic effects models epistasis as noise around the evolutionarily-relevant additive effects. Such an approach is only valid if it is assumed that there is no general pattern among interactions—a highly speculative scenario. Systematic interactions generate directional epistasis, which has major evolutionary consequences. In spite of its importance, directional epistasis is rarely measured or reported by quantitative geneticists, not only because its relevance is generally ignored, but also due to the lack of simple, operational, and accessible methods for its estimation. This paper describes conceptual and statistical tools that can be used to estimate directional epistasis from various kinds of data, including QTL mapping results, phenotype measurements in mutants, and artificial selection responses. As an illustration, I measured directional epistasis from a real-life example. I then discuss the interpretation of the estimates, showing how they can be used to draw meaningful biological inferences. PMID:25071828

  8. 77 FR 52264 - Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Hughes Helicopters Inc., and McDonnel Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate...

  9. 78 FR 18226 - Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... directive (AD): 2013-05-16 Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type...

  10. NASA directives master list and index

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This handbook sets forth in two parts, Master List of Management Directives and Index to NASA Management Directives, the following information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Chapter 1 contains introductory information material on how to use this handbook. Chapter 2 is a complete master list of agencywide management directives, describing each directive by type, number, effective date, expiration date, title, and organization code of the office responsible for the directive. Chapter 3 includes a consolidated numerical list of all delegations of authority and a breakdown of such delegation by the office or center to which special authority is assigned. Chapter 4 sets forth a consolidated list of all NASA handbooks (NHB's) and important footnotes covering the control and ordering of such documents. Chapter 5 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Chapter 6 is a consolidated list of NASA regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations. Chapter 7 is a consolidated list of NASA regulations published in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Complementary manuals to the NASA Management Directives System are described in Chapter 8. The second part contains an in depth alphabetical index to all NASA management directives other than handbooks, most of which are indexed by titles only.

  11. Direct reading dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, I.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

  12. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant and 2.4 T/D test plant); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2.4T/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at construction and operation of a 2.4 T/D test plant for eventual commercialization of the direct hydrogenation type liquefaction process. The FY 1980 program includes designs of the test plant, procurement and manufacture of some equipment, and works for construction of the bases, buildings and scaffolds. The construction site for the 2.4 T/D plant was changed in July 1980 from Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding's Chiba works to NKK's Keihin Steelworks, which was accompanied by some changes in the basic and detailed designs. The detailed designs were reviewed for construction of the test plant, to reflect the results of the individual elementary researches. The works for the FY 1980 program also include preparations for obtaining approvals of plant construction, based on the revised designs, from the related government offices, and equipment procurement. This paper presents the major drawings for the plant construction, including those for PID designs, overall plant layouts, piping systems, buildings, scaffolds, and pipe racks. The loading data are also included. (NEDO)

  13. DIRECTIONS OF USING DIRECT PAYMENTS BY THE INDIVIDUAL FARMS LOCATED IN CHOSEN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the diversity of directions for use of direct payments in different types of individual farms. The questionnaire surveys were performed on 295 farms located in dif-ferent parts of the country. Analysed farms were divided into groups according to the amount direct support received. Based on the survey concluded that in all analysed groups the largest share of direct payments is spent on the purchase of means of production. The smallest farms also spend to a high extent, the money on household purposes (20.5% and the largest ones to finance the investment (17.7%.

  14. The direction of time

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Ever a source of philosophical conjecture and debate, the concept of time represents the beating heart of physics. This final work by the distinguished physicist Hans Reichenbach represents the culmination and integration of a lifetime's philosophical contributions and inquiries into the analysis of time. The result is an outstanding overview of such qualitative, or topological, attributes of time as order and direction.Beginning with a discussion of the emotive significance of time, Reichenbach turns to an examination of the time order of mechanics, the time direction of thermodynamics and m

  15. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  16. Tank type LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the abnormality in the suspended body or reactor core supporting structures thereby improve the safety and reliability of tank type LMFBR reactors. Constitution: Upon inspection during reactor operation period, the top end of the gripper sensing rod of a fuel exchanger is abutted against a supporting bed and the position of the reactor core supporting structures from the roof slab is measured by a stroke measuring device. Then, the sensing rod is pulled upwardly to abut against the arm portion and the position is measured by the stroke measuring device. The measuring procedures are carried out for all of the sensing rods and the measured values are compared with a previously determined value at the initial stage of the reactor operation. As a result, it is possible to detect excess distortions and abnormal deformation in the suspended body or reactor core supporting structures. Furthermore, integrity of the suspended body against thermal stresses can be secured by always measuring the coolant liquid level by the level measuring sensor. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Type Classes for Lightweight Substructural Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear and substructural types are powerful tools, but adding them to standard functional programming languages often means introducing extra annotations and typing machinery. We propose a lightweight substructural type system design that recasts the structural rules of weakening and contraction as type classes; we demonstrate this design in a prototype language, Clamp. Clamp supports polymorphic substructural types as well as an expressive system of mutable references. At the same time, it adds little additional overhead to a standard Damas-Hindley-Milner type system enriched with type classes. We have established type safety for the core model and implemented a type checker with type inference in Haskell.

  18. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  19. Danish directional adverbs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Danish directional adverbs (DDA) (for instance op ’up’, ned ’down’, and ud ’out’) are characterized by an important special feature as satellites – they have different forms: a zero-form (ud-Ø), a form with a derivative e-suffix (ud-e), and a third form with a prepositional ad-suffix (‘ wards’). ...

  20. Directional loudness perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka

    developed. The research and modeling of loudness have mainly been concerned with the temporal and spectral aspects of sounds, while the spatial aspects have mostly been overlooked. This PhD thesis investigates the spatial aspects of loudness perception, namely, how does the direction from which a sound...

  1. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  2. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  3. Direct photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeggild, H.

    1986-11-01

    The author reviews the experiments on direct photon production in hadronic collisions. After a description of the experimental methods for the study of such processes he presents some results on differential cross sections and the γ/π 0 ratio in π - p, π + p, pp, and anti pp processes as well as in reactions of π - , π + , and p on carbon. (HSI)

  4. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  5. Direct Lending Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    In its third year, direct lending is working well for college students and administration. It is a simpler, faster, more efficient way of getting loan funds to students that cuts out financial middlemen. It helps students manage their finances better when repaying loans, promotes competition, stimulates program innovation, leads to greater…

  6. Advanced directives: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Negrini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In Italy Advanced directives have not been regulated by law yet. Moreover, there is a confusion of concepts: advanced directives, refusal of treatment, medical futility and euthanasia are not synonymous.DISCUSSION The following aspects are then discussed: object of directives; elapse of time between their expression and their application; knowledge of the directives and their obligatory nature. The refusal of a treatment that can save a person’s life is a critical subject. There are different ethical points of view: according to lay ethics, the patient’s self-determination prevails; the religious viewpoint, instead, says that life is a gift which we cannot dispose of. In any case, the patient will be confronted with the professional autonomy of the doctor. Should the doctor save a patient’s life in any case or should he achieve best clinical practice, in respect of his will? The doctor should interpret the patient’s will but with caution and judgment. An exemption from responsibility should be provided by law for doctors who respect patient’s living will.

  7. New directions in cognitive educational game design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bril, Ivo; Degens, Nick; Braad, Eelco; Allison, Colin; Morgado, Leonel; Pirker, Johanna; Beck, Dennis; Richter, Jonathon; Gütl, Christian

    2016-01-01

    What makes an educational game good? This paper describes three research directions that could provide insight in the underlying principles of effective educational games. These aspects are 1) The importance of distinguishing between types of to-be-learned knowledge, 2) the need to understand the

  8. Multi-directional program efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Balezentis, Tomas; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2016-01-01

    The present paper analyses both managerial and program efficiencies of Lithuanian family farms, in the tradition of Charnes et al. (Manag Sci 27(6):668–697, 1981) but with the important difference that multi-directional efficiency analysis rather than the traditional data envelopment analysis...... approach is used to estimate efficiency. This enables a consideration of input-specific efficiencies. The study shows clear differences between the efficiency scores on the different inputs as well as between the farm types of crop, livestock and mixed farms respectively. We furthermore find that crop...... farms have the highest program efficiency, but the lowest managerial efficiency and that the mixed farms have the lowest program efficiency (yet not the highest managerial efficiency)....

  9. NASA directives: Master list and index

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth in two parts the following information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Chapter 1 contains introductory information material on how to use this Handbook. Chapter 2 is a complete master list of Agency-wide management directives, describing each directive by type, number, effective date, expiration date, title, and organization code of the office responsible for the directive. Chapter 3 includes a consolidated numerical list of all delegations of authority and a breakdown of such delegation by the office of Installation to which special authority is assigned. Chapter 4 sets forth a consolidated list of all NASA Handbooks (NHB's) and important footnotes covering the control and ordering of such documents. Chapter 5 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Chapter 6 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives published in the code of Federal Regulations. Complementary manuals to the NASA Management Directives System are described in Chapter 7. Part B contains an in-depth alphabetical index to all NASA management directives other than Handbooks.

  10. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection...

  11. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  12. Direct mediation, duality and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Steven; Khoze, Valentin V.

    2008-01-01

    It is well-known that in scenarios with direct gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking the messenger fields significantly affect the running of Standard Model couplings and introduce Landau poles which are difficult to avoid. Among other things, this appears to remove any possibility of a meaningful unification prediction and is often viewed as a strong argument against direct mediation. We propose two ways that Seiberg duality can circumvent this problem. In the first, which we call 'deflected-unification', the SUSY-breaking hidden sector is a magnetic theory which undergoes a Seiberg duality to an electric phase. Importantly, the electric version has fewer fundamental degrees of freedom coupled to the MSSM compared to the magnetic formulation. This changes the β-functions of the MSSM gauge couplings so as to push their Landau poles above the unification scale. We show that this scenario is realised for recently suggested models of gauge mediation based on a metastable SCQD-type hidden sector directly coupled to MSSM. The second possibility for avoiding Landau poles, which we call 'dual-unification', begins with the observation that, if the mediating fields fall into complete SU(5) multiplets, then the MSSM+messengers exhibits a fake unification at unphysical values of the gauge couplings. We show that, in known examples of electric/magnetic duals, such a fake unification in the magnetic theory reflects a real unification in the electric theory. We therefore propose that the Standard Model could itself be a magnetic dual of some unknown electric theory in which the true unification takes place. This scenario maintains the unification prediction (and unification scale) even in the presence of Landau poles in the magnetic theory below the GUT scale. We further note that this dual realization of grand unification can explain why Nature appears to unify, but the proton does not decay.

  13. Nuclear reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of different reactor types designed to exploit controlled fission reactions are explained. Reactors vary from low power research devices to high power devices especially designed to produce heat, either for direct use or to produce steam to drive turbines to generate electricity or propel ships. A general outline of basic reactors (thermal and fast) is given and then the different designs considered. The first are gas cooled, including the Magnox reactors (a list of UK Magnox stations and reactor performance is given), advanced gas cooled reactors (a list of UK AGRs is given) and the high temperature reactor. Light water cooled reactors (pressurized water [PWR] and boiling water [BWR] reactors) are considered next. Heavy water reactors are explained and listed. The pressurized heavy water reactors (including CANDU type reactors), boiling light water, steam generating heavy water reactors and gas cooled heavy water reactors all come into this category. Fast reactors (liquid metal fast breeder reactors and gas cooled fast reactors) and then water-cooled graphite-moderated reactors (RBMK) (the type at Chernobyl-4) are discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Direct Digital Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Deck - Cold Deck Reset Reheat Coil Reset Steam Boiler Optimization [lot Water Outside Air Reset Chiller Optimization Chiller Water Temperature Reset...with programming techniques for each type of installed DDC in order to effect changes in operating setpoints and application programs. *Communication...can be changed without recailbration of instrumentation devices. Changes to the application software, operating setpoints and parameters require the

  15. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  16. Direct use in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a public laboratory, Noi'i O Puna, that was established in Hawaii to support direct use research in 1985, tapping the previously unutilized heat in brines from the HGP-A well. Two rounds of small grants were offered to entrepreneurs. With the closure of the HGP-A power plant in late 1989, Noi'i O Puna is expanding its facilities. When the HGP-A well is back in service, Noi'i O Puna will be able to support additional research and development projects, as well as pre-commercial ventures. Direct use industries, which support existing agricultural activities in the region have good potential

  17. Direct Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krajačić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Today we use numerous methods of direct communications, for which we use a technical term Unified Communications. It is almost impossible to imagine the business world today without Unified Communications, which are improving productivity and reducing costs. The goal of using Unified Communications is to ensure a consistent user experience at any location and any device. Skype for Business, a Microsoft product, is one of the solutions for Unified Communications and is described in this thesis...

  18. Directional borehole antenna - Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1992-02-01

    A directional antenna has been developed for the borehole radar constructed during phase 2 of the Stripa project. The new antenna can determine the azimuth of a strong reflector with an accuracy of about 3 degrees as confirmed during experiments in Stripa, although the ratio of borehole diameter to wavelength is small, about 0.03. The antenna synthesizes the effect of a loop antenna rotating in the borehole from four signals measured in turn by a stationary antenna. These signals are also used to calculate an electric dipole signal and a check sum which is used to examine the function of the system. The theory of directional antennas is reviewed and used to design an antenna consisting of four parallel wires. The radiation pattern of this antenna is calculated using transmission line theory with due regard to polarization, which is of fundamental importance for the analysis of directional data. In particular the multipole expansion of the field is calculated to describe the antenna radiation pattern. Various sources of error, e.g. the effect of the borehole, are discussed and the methods of calibrating the antenna are reviewed. The ambiguity inherent in a loop antenna can be removed by taking the phase of the signal into account. Typical reflectors in rock, e.g. fracture zones an tunnels, may be modelled as simple geometrical structures. The corresponding analysis is described and exemplified on measurements from Stripa. Radar data is nowadays usually analyzed directly on the computer screen using the program RADINTER developed within the Stripa project. An algorithm for automatic estimation of the parameters of a reflector have been tested with some success. The relation between measured radar data and external coordinates as determined by rotational indicators is finally expressed in terms of Euler angles. (au)

  19. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  20. Future directions for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC

  1. Perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1963-10-15

    The objective of direct conversion is high electrical output for minimum total cost, and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment, and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy, and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (auth)

  2. Farm Management: rethinking directions?

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2004-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However has the study of Farm Management within Australia made significant contributions to agriculture or lagged in the background. Is it contributing to better Farm Management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leadin...

  3. Rational site-directed mutations of the LLP-1 and LLP-2 lentivirus lytic peptide domains in the intracytoplasmic tail of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 indicate common functions in cell-cell fusion but distinct roles in virion envelope incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vandana; Sarkar, Surojit; Gupta, Phalguni; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2003-03-01

    Two highly conserved cationic amphipathic alpha-helical motifs, designated lentivirus lytic peptides 1 and 2 (LLP-1 and LLP-2), have been characterized in the carboxyl terminus of the transmembrane (TM) envelope glycoprotein (Env) of lentiviruses. Although various properties have been attributed to these domains, their structural and functional significance is not clearly understood. To determine the specific contributions of the Env LLP domains to Env expression, processing, and incorporation and to viral replication and syncytium induction, site-directed LLP mutants of a primary dualtropic infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate (ME46) were examined. Substitutions were made for highly conserved arginine residues in either the LLP-1 or LLP-2 domain (MX1 or MX2, respectively) or in both domains (MX4). The HIV-1 mutants with altered LLP domains demonstrated distinct phenotypes. The LLP-1 mutants (MX1 and MX4) were replication defective and showed an average of 85% decrease in infectivity, which was associated with an evident decrease in gp41 incorporation into virions without a significant decrease in Env expression or processing in transfected 293T cells. In contrast, MX2 virus was replication competent and incorporated a full complement of Env into its virions, indicating a differential role for the LLP-1 domain in Env incorporation. Interestingly, the replication-competent MX2 virus was impaired in its ability to induce syncytia in T-cell lines. This defect in cell-cell fusion did not correlate with apparent defects in the levels of cell surface Env expression, oligomerization, or conformation. The lack of syncytium formation, however, correlated with a decrease of about 90% in MX2 Env fusogenicity compared to that of wild-type Env in quantitative luciferase-based cell-cell fusion assays. The LLP-1 mutant MX1 and MX4 Envs also exhibited an average of 80% decrease in fusogenicity. Altogether, these results demonstrate for the first time that

  4. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Tactile pavement for guiding walking direction: An assessment of heading direction and gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluijter, Nanda; de Wit, Lieke P W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Plaisier, Myrthe A

    2015-10-01

    For maintaining heading direction while walking we heavily rely on vision. Therefore, walking in the absence of vision or with visual attention directed elsewhere potentially leads to dangerous situations. Here we investigated whether tactile information from the feet can be used as a (partial) substitute for vision in maintaining a stable heading direction. If so, participants should be better able to keep a constant heading direction on tactile pavement that indicates directionality than on regular flat pavement. However, such a pavement may also be destabilizing. Thus we asked participants to walk straight ahead on regular pavement, and on tactile pavement (tiles with ridges along the walking direction) while varying the amount of vision. We assessed the effects of the type of pavement as well as the amount of vision on the variability of the heading direction as well as gait stability. Both of these measures were calculated from accelerations and angular velocities recorded from a smartphone attached to the participants trunk. Results showed that on tactile pavement participants had a less variations in their heading direction than on regular pavement. The drawback, however, was that the tactile pavement used in this study decreased gait stability. In sum, tactile pavement can be used as a partial substitute for vision in maintaining heading direction, but it can also decrease gait stability. Future work should focus on designing tactile pavement that does provided directional clues, but is less destabilizing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.

  7. AngularJS directives

    CERN Document Server

    Vanston, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.

  8. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  9. Does direct experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miralles, Francesc; Giones, Ferran; Gozun, Brian

    2017-01-01

    of being engaged in entrepreneurial behavior on entrepreneurial intention. We aim to shed light on whether the direct experience reinforces an individual’s entrepreneurial intention or reduces it. Building on an extended version of the planned behavior theory, we use the behavioral reasoning theory...... and an individual’s intention by introducing behavioral reasoning theory. These results provide support to initiatives to adapt entrepreneurship promotion efforts to the specific characteristics of the participants.......Entrepreneurial behavior research has used intention models to explain how an individual’s beliefs shape the attitudes and motivations that influence entrepreneurial intention. Nevertheless, as entrepreneurship promotion initiatives become global, it becomes relevant to explore the consequences...

  10. Directions for further research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minsaas, Atle; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    Green transportation logistics is an area that combines the following: (a) it is relatively new in terms of research carried out thus far, (b) it has become increasingly important for both industry and society, and (c) it is rich in topics for further research, both basic and applied. In this final...... chapter of this book we discuss directions for further research in this area. We do so by taking stock of (1) related recommendations of project SuperGreen, and (2) related activities mainly in European research. Links between research and policy-making as two activities that should go hand in hand...

  11. Directionally Solidified Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Vidrio , Vol. 44 [5] (2005) pp 347 - 352. 9. F. W. Dynys and A. Sayir, "Self Assemble Silicide Architectures by Directional Solidification," Journal...Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio , Vol. 43 [4] (2004) pp 753 - 758. 21. A. Sayir and F. S. Lowery, "Combustion-Resistance of Silicon-Based Ceramics...Espafiola de Cerdmica y Vidrio , Vol. 43 [3], 2004. ISSN-0366-3175-BSCVB9. 14 37. P. Berger, A. Sayir and M. H. Berger, "Nuclear Microprobe using Elastic

  12. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS DURING FINANCIAL CRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINTILA DENISIA MARIANA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental idea of International capital flows is that short-term flows can be easily reversed, while flows on a longer time horizon are more stable. Crises are associated with withdrawals of short-term capital flows and growth of the foreign direct investment flows. The current crisis has meant a major decline of international capital flows, also of the foreign direct investment. The analysis in this article tries to establish if and under which conditions foreign direct investments can bring greater stability during the crisis, comparing the evolution of foreign direct investments in the current crisis with their response in previous crises. We show that during previous crises foreign direct investments were stable, behaving differently from other types of capital. Yet, during the current crisis, foreign direct investments have proven to be not so stable and all the components declined, raising questions about the resumption of the positive trend. The stability of foreign direct investments in the past was given by the increase of mergers and acquisitions during the crisis, reflecting fire-sale FDI. This feature is not found in the current crisis as mergers and acquisitions were severe affected by the crises and recorded a major decline. The current paper is realized in the doctoral program entitled PhD in economics at the standards of European knowledge- DoEsEc, scientific coordinator Prof. PhD Rodica Zaharia, institution The Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, period of research 2009-2012.

  13. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate 12 C(α,γ) 16 O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs

  14. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  15. Direct thermal dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  16. Remote direct memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  17. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, Christian, E-mail: weinheimer@uni-muenster.de [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Direct neutrino mass experiments are complementary to searches for neutrinoless double {beta}-decay and to analyses of cosmological data. The previous tritium beta decay experiments at Mainz and at Troitsk have achieved upper limits on the neutrino mass of about 2 eV/c{sup 2} . The KATRIN experiment under construction will improve the neutrino mass sensitivity down to 200 meV/c{sup 2} by increasing strongly the statistics and-at the same time-reducing the systematic uncertainties. Huge improvements have been made to operate the system extremely stably and at very low background rate. The latter comprises new methods to reject secondary electrons from the walls as well as to avoid and to eject electrons stored in traps. As an alternative to tritium {beta}-decay experiments cryo-bolometers investigating the endpoint region of {sup 187}Re {beta}-decay or the electron capture of {sup 163}Ho are being developed. This article briefly reviews the current status of the direct neutrino mass measurements.

  18. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinbo, Masakazu; Kawakami, Hiroto; Nagaoka, Kazuhito.

    1996-01-01

    In a LMFBR type reactor, a liquid level control means is disposed for lowering a level of liquid metal present in an annular gap along with temperature elevation of the liquid metal after the level is once elevated upon start-up of the reactor. In addition, a liquid level measuring means is disposed for measuring the level of the liquid metal present in the annular gap so as to intermittently lower the liquid level. Thus, temperature gradient in the vertical direction of the container can be moderated compared with the case where the liquid level is not changed or the case where temperature is changed together with the elevation of the liquid level. As a result, the change of difference of thermal expansion is decreased to reduce stresses generated in the circumferential direction thereby preventing occurrence of a liquid level heat ratchet phenomenon. Even if the liquid level control means should stop during operation, the liquid level lowers and does not cause a sharp heat gradient as in the case where the liquid level is elevated, and since the temperature of the liquid level is lowered even after shut down of the reactor, generated stresses are not increased. Safety of an intermediate heat exchanger vessel is ensured and observation from a control chamber is enabled. (N.H.)

  19. BWR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the variation in the power distribution of a BWR type reactor core in the axial direction even if the flow rate is increased or decreased by providing a difference in the void coefficient between the upper part and the lower parts of the reactor core, and increasing the void coefficient at the lower part of the reactor core. Constitution: The void coefficient of the lower region from the center to the lower part along the axial direction of a nuclear fuel assembly is increased to decrease the dependence on the flow rate of the axial power distribution of the nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a water/fuel ratio is varied, the water in non-boiled region is increased or the neutron spectrum is varied so as to vary the void coefficient. In order to exemplify it, the rate of the internal pellets of the fuel rod of the nuclear fuel assembly or the shape of the channel box is varied. Accordingly, the power does not considerably vary even if the flow rate is altered since the power is varied in the power operation. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigeru.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, control rod drives are disposed in the upper portion of a reactor pressure vessel, and a control rod guide tube is disposed in adjacent with a gas/liquid separator at a same height, as well as a steam separator is disposed in the control rod guide tube. The length of a connection rod can be shortened by so much as the control rod guide tube and the gas/liquid separator overlapping with each other. Since the control rod guide tube and the gas/liquid separator are at the same height, the number of the gas/liquid separators to be disposed is decreased and, accordingly, even if the steam separation performance by the gas/liquid separator is lowered, it can be compensated by the steam separator of the control rod guide tube. In view of the above, since the direction of emergent insertion of the control rod is not against gravitational force but it is downward direction utilizing the gravitational force, reliability for the emergent insertion of the control rod can be further improved. Further, the length of the connection rod can be minimized, thereby enabling to lower the height of the reactor pressure vessel. The construction cost for the nuclear power plant can be reduced. (N.H.)

  1. DIRECTIVE SPEECH ACTS REALIZATION OF INDONESIAN EFL TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Suhartini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the types and functions of directive speech act performed by an Indonesian EFL teacher in one senior high school in Kuningan, Indonesia. This study uses qualitative method. The data of this research were taken from the video transcription which contains directives spoken by the EFL teacher and analyzed based on Kreidler’s (1998 theory. The findings show that there are three types of directives used by the teacher. They are commands, requests, and suggestions. The most frequent type of directives performed is commands with 233 occurrences (94.8%. It was also found that there are five functions seized by the directives, they are elicitation, instruction, advice, threat, and attention-getter. The most frequent function of directives used is elicitation with 108 occurrences (44%. From the findings, it is concluded that the using of commands shows teacher’s dominance. Yet, this type of directives is not easily understood by the students. Therefore, it is suggested that the teacher should use other types of directives more, such as requests and suggestions, to encourage students’ participation.

  2. Direct saccharification of milo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-28

    Crude or unrefined milo grain is pulverized to less than 100 mesh, suspended in water, and directly saccharified with enzymes. Thus, 10 kg of pulverized milo (100 mesh) was suspended in 20 liters water, liquified in the presence of bacterial amylase at 90/sup 0/ for 30 minutes and autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120/sup 0/, the liquifaction autoclave procedures were then repeated. The liquified preparation was saccharified in the presence of bacterial glucoamylase at 55/sup 0/ for 72 hours. The percentage saccharification of unrefined milo was 92-97%, which was comparable to that obtained with refined milo or a milo starch preparation. The saccharified milo preparation, when used as a sugar source in glutamic acid, lysine, or inosine fermentation, also showed similar efficiency to that of saccharified milo starch.

  3. Site directed recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  4. Nanoparticles and direct immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobili, Terrika A

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the immune system with nanomaterials is an intensely active area of research. Specifically, the capability to induce immunosuppression is a promising complement for drug delivery and regenerative medicine therapies. Many novel strategies for immunosuppression rely on nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for small-molecule immunosuppressive compounds. As a consequence, efforts in understanding the mechanisms in which nanoparticles directly interact with the immune system have been overshadowed. The immunological activity of nanoparticles is dependent on the physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles and its subsequent cellular internalization. As the underlying factors for these reactions are elucidated, more nanoparticles may be engineered and evaluated for inducing immunosuppression and complementing immunosuppressive drugs. This review will briefly summarize the state-of-the-art and developments in understanding how nanoparticles induce immunosuppressive responses, compare the inherent properties of nanomaterials which induce these immunological reactions, and comment on the potential for using nanomaterials to modulate and control the immune system. PMID:27229901

  5. Directionally positionable neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, W.E.; Bumgardner, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is apparatus for forming and directionally positioning a neutron beam. The apparatus includes an enclosed housing rotatable about a first axis with a neutron source axially positioned on the axis of rotation of the enclosed housing but not rotating with the housing. The rotatable housing is carried by a vertically positionable arm carried on a mobile transport. A collimator is supported by the rotatable housing and projects into the housing to orientationally position its inlet window at an adjustably fixed axial and radial spacing from the neutron source so that rotation of the enclosed housing causes the inlet window to rotate about a circle which is a fixed axial distance from the neutron source and has the axis of rotation of the housing as its center. (author)

  6. Directional epithermal neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.; Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A borehole tool for epithermal neutron die-away logging of subterranean formations surrounding a borehole is described which consists of: (a) a pulsed source of fast neutrons for irradiating the formations surrounding a borehole, (b) at least one neutron counter for counting epithermal neutrons returning to the borehole from the irradiated formations, (c) a neutron moderating material, (d) an outer thermal neutron shield providing a housing for the counter and the moderating material, (e) an inner thermal neutron shield dividing the housing so as to provide a first compartment bounded by the inner thermal neutron shield and a first portion of the outer thermal neutron shield and a second compartment bounded by the inner thermal neutron shield and a second portion of the outer thermal neutron shield, the counter being positioned within the first compartment and the moderating material being positioned within the second compartment, and (f) means for positioning the borehole tool against one side of the borehole wall and azimuthally orienting the borehole tool such that the first chamber is in juxtaposition with the borehole wall, the formation epithermal neutrons penetrating into the first chamber through the first portion of the outer thermal neutron shield are detected by the neutron counter for die-away measurement, thereby maximizing the directional sensitivty of the neutron counter to formation epithermal neutrons, the borehole fluid epithermal neutrons penetrating into the second chamber through the second chamber through the second portion of the outer thermal neutron shield are largely slowed down and lowered in energy by the moderating material and absorbed by the inner thermal neutron shield before penetrating into the first chamber, thereby minimizing the directional sensitivity of the neutron counter to borehole fluid epithermal neutrons

  7. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular......, type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call delayed substitutions’. These generalise the applicative...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  9. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  10. The Direct Methanol Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Until the early 1990's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  12. New directions in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This news brief relates some new directions, since its inception in 1988, which the Family Welfare Association of Guatemala (APROFAM) will be undertaking during 1996-97. In December 1997, APROFAM restructured its program to include reproductive health services with family planning services. The program will target rural Mayan communities. The program will be working toward service sustainability, due to reduced external support. In October 1996 a new board was established that will focus on marketing, IEC, finance and administration, rural development, and clinical services. Meetings between the new board of directors of APROFAM and JOICFP focused on the use of integrated programs as a model for widespread programming among the rural Mayan population. The integrated program that was implemented by JOICFP was successful in reaching Mayan communities of Solola. This population was difficult to reach with conventional family planning approaches. The integrated program was successful in establishing trust with and participation of the rural Mayans. Activities such as parasite control, skills training, and income generation for women were useful in establishing trust and promoting self-reliance. Integrated programs will refocus on family planning and developing self-reliance. The UNFPA will be conducting an annual internal evaluation as a means of sharing information and deepening understanding of project implementation.

  13. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  14. Direct Fast-Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC Stromswold; AJ Peurrung; RR Hansen; PL Reeder

    2000-01-01

    Direct fast-neutron detection is the detection of fast neutrons before they are moderated to thermal energy. We have investigated two approaches for using proton-recoil in plastic scintillators to detect fast neutrons and distinguish them from gamma-ray interactions. Both approaches use the difference in travel speed between neutrons and gamma rays as the basis for separating the types of events. In the first method, we examined the pulses generated during scattering in a plastic scintillator to see if they provide a means for distinguishing fast-neutron events from gamma-ray events. The slower speed of neutrons compared to gamma rays results in the production of broader pulses when neutrons scatter several times within a plastic scintillator. In contrast, gamma-ray interactions should produce narrow pulses, even if multiple scattering takes place, because the time between successive scattering is small. Experiments using a fast scintillator confirmed the presence of broader pulses from neutrons than from gamma rays. However, the difference in pulse widths between neutrons and gamma rays using the best commercially available scintillators was not sufficiently large to provide a practical means for distinguishing fast neutrons and gamma rays on a pulse-by-pulse basis. A faster scintillator is needed, and that scintillator might become available in the literature. Results of the pulse-width studies were presented in a previous report (peurrung et al. 1998), and they are only summarized here

  15. THE DIRECTIVE SPEECH ACTS USED IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khatib Bayanuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about an analysis of the directive speech acts used in english speaking class at the third semester of english speaking class of english study program of IAIN STS Jambi. The aims of this research are to describe the types of directive speech acts and politeness strategies that found in English speaking class. This research used descriptive qualitative method. This method used to describe clearly about the types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts based on the data in English speaking class. The result showed that in English speaking class that there are some types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts, such as: requestives, questions, requirements, prohibitives, permissives, and advisores as types, as well as on-record indirect strategies (prediction statement, strong obligation statement, possibility statement, weaker obligation statement, volitional statement, direct strategies (imperative, performative, and nonsentential strategies as politeness strategies. The achievement of this research are hoped can be additional knowledge about linguistics study, especially in directive speech acts and can be developed for future researches. Key words: directive speech acts, types, politeness strategies.

  16. Direct UV-written broadband directional broadband planar waveguide couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation.......We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation....

  17. ABOUT DIRECT SALES IN THE WORLD, EUROPE AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct sale represents a modern product distribution system directly to consumers, generally, directly to their homes, to their workplace or other places, beside retail shops. The best known type of direct sale, the Network Marketing or Multilevel Marketing implies the existence of a network of distributors which earn income from selling on commission, to which they add the trade markup. This paper is based upon the analysis of these types of sales starting with the study of specialized literature especially by foreign authors, mainly Americans, with the analysis of statistical data presented by several organizations such as SELDIA (The European Direct Selling Association, MLM International Romania, ACVD (Association of Direct Selling Companies in Romania, as well as the legal regulations within this field. In conclusion, the paper presents an interesting comparison of the sales and structure volume between the Europe and Romania.

  18. Filmless radiography - present possibilities and direction of future developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wocial, A.; Wojciechowski, Z.A.; Rozenblicki, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents introduction for new filmless radiography like CR Computed Radiography and DR Digital Radiography direct and non direct. The main factors are considered, which determine classification to different type of radiography. For each technique authors describe advantages and disadvantages supporting by practice examples. Paper contains a lot of practical information about a most of existing radiographic equipment at the NDT market. (author)

  19. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44...

  20. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and PA-19 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  1. 77 FR 71723 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... directive (AD) that applies to certain The Boeing Company Model 737-200, -200C, - 300, and -400 series... related investigative and corrective actions, and revise certain inspection types. This proposed AD would...

  2. Estimation of directional wave spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Bhat, S.S.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    Directional properties of ocean waves are of great economic interest. The knowledge of wave directionality is important for the design of maritime structures and offshore operations. Two main aspects are considered for this study for the data...

  3. Estimation of wave directional spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    One of the useful measures of waves directional spreading at a given location is the directional spreading parameter. This paper presents a new approach to arrive at its characteristic value using the computational technique of Artificial Neural...

  4. Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

  5. Innovative tool of direct marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Maksymova

    2010-01-01

    The aspects of direct marketing activation on the basis of interactive applications introduction are examined. Basic advantages, linked with the use of the integrated marketing communications during formation of direct marketing strategies are open up.

  6. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  7. Directional wave measurements and modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Bhat, S.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    Some of the results obtained from analysis of the monsoon directional wave data measured over 4 years in shallow waters off the west coast of India are presented. The directional spectrum computed from the time series data seems to indicate...

  8. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  9. Costos directos de atención médica en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en México: análisis de microcosteo Direct costs of medical care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico micro-costing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosibel de los Ángeles Rodríguez Bolaños

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar los costos directos de la atención médica a pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. MÉTODOS: Se revisaron expedientes clínicos de 497 pacientes que ingresaron a unidades de segundo y tercer nivel de atención durante el período 2002-2004. Los costos se cuantificaron utilizando el enfoque de costeo de enfermedad (CDE desde la perspectiva del proveedor, la técnica del microcosteo y la metodología de abajo-arriba (bottom-up. Se estimaron costos promedio anuales de diagnóstico, por complicación y total de la enfermedad. RESULTADOS: El costo total anual de los pacientes con DM2 para el IMSS fue de US$452 064 988, correspondiente a 3,1% del gasto de operación. El costo promedio anual por paciente fue de US$3 193,75, correspondiendo US$2 740,34 para el paciente sin complicaciones y US$3 550,17 para el paciente con complicaciones. Los días/cama en hospitalización y en unidad de cuidados intensivos fueron los servicios con mayor costo. CONCLUSIONES: Los elevados costos en la atención médica a pacientes con DM2 y complicaciones representan una carga económica que las instituciones de salud deben considerar en su presupuesto, a fin de poder brindar un servicio de calidad, adecuado y oportuno. El empleo de la metodología de microcosteo permite un acercamiento a datos reales de utilización y manejo de la enfermedadOBJECTIVE: Estimate the direct cost of medical care incurred by the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2. METHODS: The clinical files of 497 patients who were treated in secondary and tertiary medical care units in 2002-2004 were reviewed. Costs were quantified using a disease costing approach (DCA from the provider's perspective, a micro-costing technique, and a bottom-up methodology. Average annual costs by diagnosis, complication, and total cost were estimated. RESULTS

  10. Evolution of genetic architecture under directional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas F; Alvarez-Castro, José M; Carter, Ashley J R; Hermisson, Joachim; Wagner, Günter P

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the multilinear epistatic model under mutation-limited directional selection. We confirm previous results that only directional epistasis, in which genes on average reinforce or diminish each other's effects, contribute to the initial evolution of mutational effects. Thus, either canalization or decanalization can occur under directional selection, depending on whether positive or negative epistasis is prevalent. We then focus on the evolution of the epistatic coefficients themselves. In the absence of higher-order epistasis, positive pairwise epistasis will tend to weaken relative to additive effects, while negative pairwise epistasis will tend to become strengthened. Positive third-order epistasis will counteract these effects, while negative third-order epistasis will reinforce them. More generally, gene interactions of all orders have an inherent tendency for negative changes under directional selection, which can only be modified by higher-order directional epistasis. We identify three types of nonadditive quasi-equilibrium architectures that, although not strictly stable, can be maintained for an extended time: (1) nondirectional epistatic architectures; (2) canalized architectures with strong epistasis; and (3) near-additive architectures in which additive effects keep increasing relative to epistasis.

  11. 重组人组织型纤溶酶原激酶衍生物瑞替普酶在下肢动脉闭塞病变腔内介入治疗中的临床应用研究%Clinical research of catheter-directed intra-arterial thrombolysis therapy with recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen kinase derivatives reteplase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯红军; 许祖闪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen kinase derivatives reteplase in the treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease by catheter-directed intra-arterial thrombolysis operation.Methods Forty-six lower extremity arterial occlusive disease patients (occlusive vascular 54 section) were collected with reteplase and a variety of Catheter-directed thrombolytic techniques; according to the extent of patency by angiography,the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was carried out; for some segments stenosis degree >60% or dissections,the stent placement as a combined therapy was applied.When the intervention was completed,the color Doppler ultrasound or CT angiography (CTA) was reviewed to evaluate clinical efficacy after 3 months,6 months and 12 months respectively.It was showed that vascular lumen residual stenosis was < 30% by angiography after the occlusion released.Results Endovascular treatment was successful.Fifty-two section of endovascular occlusion treatment was successful,surgical success rate was 96.3%.Thirty-three section of occlusive vascular were opened after thrombolysis operation,the patency rate was 61.1%.After 3 months,6 months and12 months,patency rates were 89.1% (41/46),87.0% (40/46)and 82.6% (38/46).Distal arterial embolization in three cases (6.5 %) was discovered by intraoperative angiography.Puncture site hematoma occurred in 2 patients (4.3% was self-absorbed).Conclusion The catheter-directed intra-arterial thrombolysis therapy with rateplase has an important role in lower extremity arterial occlusive disease.%目的 探讨重组人组织型纤溶酶原激酶衍生物瑞替普酶在下肢动脉闭塞病变腔内介入治疗中的应用价值.方法 收集下肢动脉闭塞病变患者46例,闭塞血管54段,应用瑞替普酶采用各种导管溶栓技巧,实施血管腔内充分接触溶栓,溶栓结束后根据造影观察闭塞段开通情况,行经皮腔内

  12. Types of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Use Map Selector Search Alzheimer’s Association Alzheimer's & Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia ...

  13. Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes ... Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is ...

  14. Types of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... Planner, and tips from experts Let's Be Well: Products to help you thrive with diabetes - lets-be- ...

  16. Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 2 diabetes; Oral hypoglycemic - type 2 diabetes; High blood sugar - type 2 diabetes ... your kidneys are working well ( microalbuminuria and serum creatinine ). Visit your eye doctor at least once a ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  18. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, is conjectured to have decidable type checking, and has an implemented type-checker. Our new type theory, called guarded cubical type theory, provides a computational interpretation of extensionality for guarded recursive...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help ... Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  20. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  2. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  5. Type classes for mathematics in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Spitters, Bas; Van der Weegen, Eelis

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library...

  6. Concrete Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Gregor; Zappa Nardelli, Francesco; Vitek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Typescript extends JavaScript with optional type annotations that are, by design, unsound and, that the Typescript compiler discards as it emits code. This design point preserves programming idioms developers are familiar with, and allows them to leave their legacy code unchanged, while offering a measure of static error checking in parts of the program that have type annotations. We present an alternative design for TypeScript, one where it is possible to support the same degree of dynamism,...

  7. Several types of types in programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Regular Submissions; International audience; Types are an important part of any modern programming language, but we often forget that the concept of type we understand nowadays is not the same it was perceived in the sixties. Moreover, we conflate the concept of " type " in programming languages with the concept of the same name in mathematical logic, an identification that is only the result of the convergence of two different paths, which started apart with different aims. The paper...

  8. Seveso directive: the leading innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzani, V.; Zanelli, S.

    1998-01-01

    Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major accident hazards caused by dangerous substances, also known as 'Seveso-II' Directive, was adopted by the European Council on December 1996. The member states of the European Community shall bring into force the Directive not later than February 1999. Some innovative aspects of the Directive are discussed. In particular, this paper focuses on the effects of the new criteria for the identification of establishments to which the Directive obligations will apply and for land use planning in the vicinity of the establishments [it

  9. Direct plasma interaction with living tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Gregory

    For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

  10. Cometary Defense with Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Lubin, P. M.; Hughes, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Cometary impacts pose a long-term hazard to humans on Earth. Due to their comparative rarity, most planetary defense schemes neglect the comet threat, choosing instead to focus exclusively on mitigating asteroid impacts. Methods like kinetic impactors may be suitable for deflecting near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), both of which are characterized by low inclination orbits and short orbital periods which favor early detection—characteristics ideal for an interception mission. In contrast, Halley-type comets (HTCs) and long-period comets (LPCs) are often found in high inclination orbits rarely more than 2 yr prior to reaching Earth's orbit. Unless discovered and identified in a prior apparition—often centuries or millennia earlier, if ever—timely interception of a threatening HTC or LPC is improbable even with preparation, with missions demanding delta-v budgets often in excess of 30 km/s. Active comets, however, are already naturally perturbed from purely gravitational trajectories through solar-driven sublimation of volatiles. Further deflection may be achieved by supplementing the solar radiation with an artificial directed energy source such as by one or more laser arrays positioned on or near Earth. Simulations were developed with models derived from the known solar nongravitational perturbations of typical comets. Results suggest that a diffraction-limited 500 m array operating at 10 GW for 10 min/day may be sufficient to divert a typical active 500 m comet from an impact given 1 yr. A larger 1 km array operating at 100 GW for 100 s/day is similarly effective. Care must be taken to ensure the target remains intact throughout the deflection period due to comets' low compressive strength and resulting propensity for disintegration at high incident flux.

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  12. Types and Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik

    A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart...

  13. FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Yamakawa, Masanori.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety and reliable after-heat removal from a reactor core. Constitution: During ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, sodium coolants heated to a high temperature in a reactor core are exhausted therefrom, collide against the reactor core upper mechanisms to radially change the flowing direction and then enter between each of the guide vanes. In the case if a main recycling pump is failed and stopped during reactor operation and the recycling force is eliminated, the swirling stream of sodium that has been resulted by the flow guide mechanism during normal reactor operation is continuously maintained within a plenum at a high temperature. Accordingly, the sodium recycling force in the coolant flow channels within the reactor vessel can surely be maintained for a long period of time due to the centrifugal force of the sodium swirling stream. In this way, since the reactor core recycling flow rate can be secured even after the stopping of the main recycling pump, after-heat from the reactor core can safely and surely be removed. (Seki, T.)

  14. Electrostatic direct energy converter performance and cost scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    This study is concerned with electrostatic type direct energy converters for direct recovery of a large fraction of the plasma ion energy from fusion reactors. Simplified equations are presented for each of the important loss mechanisms in both single-stage direct converters and multistage ''Venetian Blind'' type direct converters. These equations can be used to estimate the efficiency and electric power output of the direct converter subsystem. Scaling relations for the cost of each major component in the direct converter subsystem are also given; these include the vacuum tank, direct converter modules, the DC power conditioning equipment, cryogenic vacuum pumping system and the thermal bottoming plant. The performance and cost scaling laws have been developed primarily for use in overall fusion power plant systems codes. However, to illustrate their utility, cost-effectiveness studies of two specific reference direct converter designs are presented in terms of the specific capital costs (i.e., the capital cost per unit electric power produced) for the Direct Converter Subsystem alone. Some examples of design improvements which can significantly reduce the specific capital costs of the Direct Converter Subsystem are also given

  15. Direct social perception and dual process theories of mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Mitchell

    2015-11-01

    The direct social perception (DSP) thesis claims that we can directly perceive some mental states of other people. The direct perception of mental states has been formulated phenomenologically and psychologically, and typically restricted to the mental state types of intentions and emotions. I will compare DSP to another account of mindreading: dual process accounts that posit a fast, automatic "Type 1" form of mindreading and a slow, effortful "Type 2" form. I will here analyze whether dual process accounts' Type 1 mindreading serves as a rival to DSP or whether some Type 1 mindreading can be perceptual. I will focus on Apperly and Butterfill's dual process account of mindreading epistemic states such as perception, knowledge, and belief. This account posits a minimal form of Type 1 mindreading of belief-like states called registrations. I will argue that general dual process theories fit well with a modular view of perception that is considered a kind of Type 1 process. I will show that this modular view of perception challenges and has significant advantages over DSP's phenomenological and psychological theses. Finally, I will argue that if such a modular view of perception is accepted, there is significant reason for thinking Type 1 mindreading of belief-like states is perceptual in nature. This would mean extending the scope of DSP to at least one type of epistemic state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Particle Discrimination Experiment for Direct Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, Y.; Kiriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeno, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct energy conversion system designed for D- 3 He fusion reactor based on a field reversed configuration employs a venetian-blind type converter for thermal ions to produce DC power and a traveling wave type converter for fusion protons to produce RF power. It is therefore necessary to separate, discriminate, and guide the particle species. For this purpose, a cusp magnetic field is proposed, in which the electrons are deflected and guided along the field line to the line cusp, while the ions pass through the point cusp. A small-scale experimental device was used to study the basic characteristics of discrimination of electrons and ions in the cusp magnetic field. Ions separated from electrons are guided to an ion collector, which is operated as a one-stage direct energy converter. The conversion efficiency was measured for cases with different values of mean and spread of ion energy. These experiments successfully demonstrate direct energy conversion from plasma beams using particle discrimination by a cusp magnetic field

  17. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  18. Compactly Supported Curvelet-Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We study a flexible method for constructing curvelet-type frames. These curvelet-type systems have the same sparse representation properties as curvelets for appropriate classes of smooth functions, and the flexibility of the method allows us to give a constructive description of how to construct...... curvelet-type systems with a prescribed nature such as compact support in direct space. The method consists of using the machinery of almost diagonal matrices to show that a system of curvelet molecules which is sufficiently close to curvelets constitutes a frame for curvelet-type spaces. Such a system...

  19. Equational type logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either

  20. Types of intersections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    There are many types of intersections in the Netherlands. In an inherently safe road traffic system, however, the number of intersection types needs to be limited, depending on the road types that intersect. The desired types of intersections do not always correspond with the recommendations in the

  1. Dynamic behaviors in directed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Min; Kim, Beom Jun

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the abundance of directed synaptic couplings in a real biological neuronal network, we investigate the synchronization behavior of the Hodgkin-Huxley model in a directed network. We start from the standard model of the Watts-Strogatz undirected network and then change undirected edges to directed arcs with a given probability, still preserving the connectivity of the network. A generalized clustering coefficient for directed networks is defined and used to investigate the interplay between the synchronization behavior and underlying structural properties of directed networks. We observe that the directedness of complex networks plays an important role in emerging dynamical behaviors, which is also confirmed by a numerical study of the sociological game theoretic voter model on directed networks

  2. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    of (monotonic) inequalities on the types of variables and expressions. A general result about systems of inequalities over semilattices yields a solvable form. We distinguish between deciding typability (the existence of solutions) and type inference (the computation of a minimal solution). In our case, both......Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection...

  3. Direct photons in WA98

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Angelis, Aris L S; Antonenko, V G; Arefev, V; Astakhov, V A; Avdeichikov, V; Awes, T C; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Barlag, C; Bathe, S; Batyunya, B; Bernier, T; Bhalla, K B; Bhatia, V S; Blume, C; Bock, R; Bohne, E M; Böröcz, Z K; Bucher, D; Buijs, A; Büsching, H; Carlén, L; Chalyshev, V; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherbachev, R; Chujo, T; Claussen, A; Das, A C; Decowski, M P; Delagrange, H; Dzhordzhadze, V; Dönni, P; Dubovik, I; Dutt, S; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; El-Chenawi, K F; Eliseev, S; Enosawa, K; Foka, P Y; Fokin, S L; Ganti, M S; Garpman, S; Gavrishchuk, O P; Geurts, F J M; Ghosh, T K; Glasow, R; Gupta, S K; Guskov, B; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Gutbrod, H H; Higuchi, R; Hrivnacova, I; Ippolitov, M S; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Kampert, K H; Karadzhev, K; Karpio, K; Kato, S; Kees, S; Klein-Bösing, C; Knoche, S; Kolb, B W; Kosarev, I G; Kucheryaev, I; Krümpel, T; Kugler, A; Kulinich, P A; Kurata, M; Kurita, K; Kuzmin, N A; Langbein, I; Lee, Y Y; Löhner, H; Luquin, Lionel; Mahapatra, D P; Man'ko, V I; Martin, M; Martínez, G; Maksimov, A; Mgebrishvili, G; Miake, Y; Mir, M F; Mishra, G C; Miyamoto, Y; Mohanty, B; Morrison, D; Mukhopadhyay, D S; Naef, H; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Neumaier, S; Nyanin, A; Nikitin, V A; Nikolaev, S; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nomokonov, V P; Nystrand, J; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Pachr, M; Pavlyuk, S; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petracek, V; Pinganaud, W; Plasil, F; Von Poblotzki, U; Purschke, M L; Rak, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ramamurthy, V S; Rao, N K; Retière, F; Reygers, K; Roland, G; Rosselet, L; Rufanov, I A; Roy, C; Rubio, J M; Sako, H; Sambyal, S S; Santo, R; Sato, S; Schlagheck, H; Schmidt, H R; Schutz, Y; Shabratova, G; Shah, T H; Sibiryak, Yu; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Sinha, B C; Slavin, N V; Söderström, K; Solomey, Nickolas; Sood, G; Sørensen, S P; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stüken, D; Sumbera, M; Svensson, S; Trivedi, M D; Tsvetkov, A A; Tykarski, L; Urbahn, J; Van den Pijll, E C; van Eijndhoven, N; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A S; Vörös, S; Wyslouch, B; Yagi, K; Yokota, Y; Young, G R

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of direct photon production in /sup 208/Pb+/sup 208/Pb collisions at 158 A GeV has been carried out in the CERN WA98 experiment. The invariant yield of direct photons was extracted as a function of transverse momentum in the interval 0.51.5 GeV/c. the result constitutes the first observation of direct photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (19 refs).

  4. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  5. Towards Practical Gradual Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Asumu; Feltey, Daniel; Dean, Earl; Flatt, Matthew; Findler, Robert Bruce; Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam; Felleisen, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, programmers have embraced dynamically-typed programming languages. By now, they have also come to realize that programs in these languages lack reliable type information for software engineering purposes. Gradual typing addresses this problem; it empowers programmers to annotate an existing system with sound type information on a piecemeal basis. This paper presents an implementation of a gradual type system for a full-featured class-based language as well as a novel p...

  6. RISK AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Drob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the main categories (types of risks that affect the inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI in Romania, such as: country risk, political risk, economic risks, sovereign risks and so on. FDI is an important factor contributing to the economic development and to the economic growth of a country. In order to recuperate its economic handicap as compared to the other countries in the EU, Romania needs a massive inflow of foreign capital, especially in the form of direct investment. The paper also presents the evolution of FDI inflows in Romania and how they were influenced by the main factors affecting the FDI. In principle, between risk and the level of FDI inflows there is a direct dependency relationship: the higher the risk is in a country, the lower the level of FDI inflows is in that country. This is demonstrated by the empirical studies regarding FDI. These studies show that countries with high risk have major difficulties in attracting foreign investment. Therefore, it is important to identify very precisely the main risks that may affect the level of FDI inflows in Romania, in order to propose and implement strategies to mitigate these risks and to attract more foreign direct investment in Romania.

  7. Epidemic spreading through direct and indirect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Niloy; Krueger, Tyll; Mukherjee, Animesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic dynamics, considering a specialized setting where popular places (termed passive entities) are visited by agents (termed active entities). We consider two types of spreading dynamics: direct spreading, where the active entities infect each other while visiting the passive entities, and indirect spreading, where the passive entities act as carriers and the infection is spread via them. We investigate in particular the effect of selection strategy, i.e., the way passive entities are chosen, in the spread of epidemics. We introduce a mathematical framework to study the effect of an arbitrary selection strategy and derive formulas for prevalence, extinction probabilities, and epidemic thresholds for both indirect and direct spreading. We also obtain a very simple relationship between the extinction probability and the prevalence. We pay special attention to preferential selection and derive exact formulas. The analysis reveals that an increase in the diversity in the selection process lowers the epidemic thresholds. Comparing the direct and indirect spreading, we identify regions in the parameter space where the prevalence of the indirect spreading is higher than the direct one.

  8. Co-clustering directed graphs to discover asymmetries and directional communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, Karl; Qin, Tai; Yu, Bin

    2016-10-21

    In directed graphs, relationships are asymmetric and these asymmetries contain essential structural information about the graph. Directed relationships lead to a new type of clustering that is not feasible in undirected graphs. We propose a spectral co-clustering algorithm called di-sim for asymmetry discovery and directional clustering. A Stochastic co-Blockmodel is introduced to show favorable properties of di-sim To account for the sparse and highly heterogeneous nature of directed networks, di-sim uses the regularized graph Laplacian and projects the rows of the eigenvector matrix onto the sphere. A nodewise asymmetry score and di-sim are used to analyze the clustering asymmetries in the networks of Enron emails, political blogs, and the Caenorhabditis elegans chemical connectome. In each example, a subset of nodes have clustering asymmetries; these nodes send edges to one cluster, but receive edges from another cluster. Such nodes yield insightful information (e.g., communication bottlenecks) about directed networks, but are missed if the analysis ignores edge direction.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Letter Project Advance Directive to Traditional Advance Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Neri, Eric; Kraemer, Helena

    2017-09-01

    Simpler alternatives to traditional advance directives that are easy to understand and available in multiple formats and can be initiated by patients and families will help facilitate advance care planning. The goal of this study was to compare the acceptability of the letter advance directive (LAD) to the traditional advance directive (TAD) of the state of California. A web-based, randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which the participants were randomized to one of two types of advance directives (ADs): the LAD (intervention) or the TAD (control). Primary outcomes were participant ratings of the ease, value, and their level of comfort in the AD document they completed. A total of 400 participants completed the study, with 216 randomized to the LAD and 184 to the TAD by a computerized algorithm. Overall, participants preferred the LAD to the TAD (success rate difference [SRD] = 0.46, 95th percentile confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-0.56, p advance directive to be a better alternative to the traditional advance directive form.

  10. Focus point from direct gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reconciliation of the tension between the theoretic expectation from naturalness and the present LHC limits on the superpartner mass bounds. We argue that in supersymmetry models of direct gauge mediation the focusing phenomenon appears, which dramatically reduces the fine tuning associated to the 126 GeV Higgs boson. This type of model is highly predictive as regards the mass spectrum, with a multi-TeV third generation, the A{sub t} term of order 1 TeV, gluino mass above LHC mass bound, and the light neutralinos and charginos below 1 TeV. (orig.)

  11. Direct numerical simulation of annular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchvarov, Assen; Kahouadji, Lyes; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-11-01

    Vertical counter-current two-phase flows are investigated using direct numerical simulations. The computations are carried out using Blue, a front-tracking-based CFD solver. Preliminary results show good qualitative agreement with experimental observations in terms of interfacial phenomena; these include three-dimensional, large-amplitude wave formation, the development of long ligaments, and droplet entrainment. The flooding phenomena in these counter current systems are closely investigated. The onset of flooding in our simulations is compared to existing empirical correlations such as Kutateladze-type and Wallis-type. The effect of varying tube diameter and fluid properties on the flooding phenomena is also investigated in this work. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  12. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  13. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τc for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ1 in directed networks, where λ1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (λ1-λ2), and algebraic connectivity μN-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ1 decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρD. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  14. Seeking coherence among environmental directives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    European environmental law consists of a large number of directives and regulations dealing with environmental domains such as air, water, or waste, or with issues such as greenhouse gases, chemicals or industrial emissions. These directives and regulations do not form a comprehensive system of

  15. Direct activation of microcrystalline zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Iniesta, Maria Jesus; Heeres, Hero Jan; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    In this work a direct activation route of zeolites is assessed. It consists of NH4-exchanging the as-synthesized solids before removing the organic template. Calcination afterwards serves to combust the organic template and creates the Bronsted sites directly; thus applying merely a single thermal

  16. Exchange effects in direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMere, M.; Kanellopoulos, E.J.; Suenkel, W.; Tang, Y.C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of antisymmetrization in direct reactions is examined by studying the properties of the coupling-normalization kernel function occurring in a resonating-group formulation. From this study, one obtains useful information concerning the general behavior of direct-reactiion processes and some justification for the use of three-body models in phenomenological analyses

  17. Eldercare at Home: Advanced Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... permanently? Helping the person fill out a living will (advance directive) A living will states a person's wishes about medical care if ... never be in a situation where another person will have to make decisions ... it is to have an advance directive. However, don't assume that your loved ...

  18. New directions in information organization

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-ran; Spink, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    New Directions in Information Organization, co-edited by Dr. Jung-ran Park and Dr. Lynne Howarth seeks to provide an overview and understanding of the future directions, leading edge theories and models for research and practice in information organization.

  19. Target selection for direct marketing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Jan Roelf

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we concentrated on the use ol direct mail for targeting potential buyers. The major characteristics that influences the success of a plomotional direct mail campaign are the of-fbr,the communication elements, the timing or sequence of these communication elements, and the list of

  20. Direct oral anticoagulants: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Moreno, Ana Isabel; Martín Díaz, Rosa María; García Navarro, María José

    2017-12-30

    Vitamin K antagonists were the only choice for chronic oral anticoagulation for more than half a century. Over the past few years, direct oral anticoagulants have emerged, including one direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran etexilate) and three factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban). In randomised controlled trials comparing direct oral anticoagulants with traditional vitamin K antagonists, the direct oral anticoagulants all showed a favourable benefit-risk balance in their safety and efficacy profile, in prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndrome. In 2008, dabigatran was the first direct oral anticoagulant approved by the European Medicine Agency. Subsequently, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban were also authorised. This article reviews the evidence related to the use of these drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  2. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

  3. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  4. Advances in Blood Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Raj, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity

  6. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Direct economic benefits associated with dietetic internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, M T; Simko, M D

    1994-02-01

    We explored the direct economic benefits of hospital dietetics departments sponsoring an internship for dietetics studies. Forty-five dietetics departments in US hospitals participated in a mail survey that involved comprehensive data collection procedures using three instruments, including activity logs recorded by 298 dietitians and interns. Direct benefits were defined as the net student labor provided to the department during routine and staff relief experiences that released professional labor for other work. Net student productivity during routine assignments was calculated by subtracting the time dietitians spent teaching during a typical work week from the amount of time dietetic interns spent performing professional services without direct supervision. Student productivity during staff relief rotations was calculated by multiplying the number of students assigned to this type of experience by the length of the rotation. While involved in routine learning experiences, dietetic interns provided a direct benefit. The difference between the time interns spent in independent, professional service in the departments and the time dietitians spent in activities designed specifically for teaching was a mean of 29 hours in favor of the students. All departments received a direct benefit from assigning dietetic interns to a staff relief rotation. The median number of weeks of student labor gained by the departments per year was 24. A paired t test was used to analyze the difference between the time dietitians devoted to teaching interns and the time students spent in independent, professional service in the departments. The difference was very highly significant (P impact of their supervised practice program on the sponsoring organization.

  8. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  9. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for ...

  11. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 ... Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories ... Tips for Caregivers ...

  14. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ... Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  18. Different Types of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 18, 2017 Resource ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient ...