WorldWideScience

Sample records for directive compliance testing

  1. EUB Directive 019 : EUB compliance assurance : enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-27

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) ensures that the discovery, development and delivery of Alberta's resources takes place in a fair and responsible manner by enforcing EUB requirements that are written on behalf of Albertans. Compliance ensures that resource activities are conducted in a manner that protects public safety, minimizes environmental impact, preserves equity and ensures effective resource conservation. This directive addresses the enforcement aspect of compliance assurance. It applies to all EUB requirements and processes except matters dealing with utility rates. It explains what licensees must do when a noncompliance is identified by the EUB; the enforcement process and the consequences for low and high risk noncompliance; the EUB appeal process; the EUB voluntary self-disclosure policy, including the rules and benefits of voluntary self-disclosure; and, the availability of compliance information. The risk assessment matrix used by the EUB to predetermine whether the level of noncompliance risk is low or high for each EUB requirement, is based on health and safety, environmental impact, conservation, and stakeholder confidence in the regulatory process. 2 tabs.

  2. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Compliance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) defines an open architecture for software defined radios. This document describes the testing methodology to aid in determining the degree of compliance to the STRS architecture. Non-compliances are reported to the software and hardware developers as well as the NASA project manager so that any non-compliances may be fixed or waivers issued. Since the software developers may be divided into those that provide the operating environment including the operating system and STRS infrastructure (OE) and those that supply the waveform applications, the tests are divided accordingly. The static tests are also divided by the availability of an automated tool that determines whether the source code and configuration files contain the appropriate items. Thus, there are six separate step-by-step test procedures described as well as the corresponding requirements that they test. The six types of STRS compliance tests are: STRS application automated testing, STRS infrastructure automated testing, STRS infrastructure testing by compiling WFCCN with the infrastructure, STRS configuration file testing, STRS application manual code testing, and STRS infrastructure manual code testing. Examples of the input and output of the scripts are shown in the appendices as well as more specific information about what to configure and test in WFCCN for non-compliance. In addition, each STRS requirement is listed and the type of testing briefly described. Attached is also a set of guidelines on what to look for in addition to the requirements to aid in the document review process.

  3. Client Compliance with Homework Directives during Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Everett L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated compliance as a function of counselor, client, and therapy variables. Results indicated that variables associated with the conduct of counseling more strongly influenced compliance with homework than did either counselor or client variables. (Author/BL)

  4. 40 CFR 63.772 - Test methods, compliance procedures, and compliance demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities § 63.772 Test methods, compliance procedures, and compliance... procedures documented in the Gas Research Institute (GRI) report entitled “Atmospheric Rich/Lean Method for...) report entitled “Atmospheric Rich/Lean Method for Determining Glycol Dehydrator Emissions”...

  5. 47 CFR 2.945 - Sampling tests of equipment compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sampling tests of equipment compliance. 2.945 Section 2.945 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO... An Equipment Authorization § 2.945 Sampling tests of equipment compliance. The Commission will,...

  6. Electromagnetic exposure compliance estimation using narrowband directional measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, D; Miaoudakis, A; Xenos, T; Zacharopoulos, V

    2008-01-01

    The increased number of everyday applications that rely on wireless communication has drawn an attention to several concerns on the adverse health effects that prolonged or even short time exposure might have on humans. International organisations and countries have adopted guides and legislation for the public safety. They include reference levels (RLs) regarding field strength electromagnetic quantities. To check for RLs compliance in an environment with multiple transmitters of various types, analytical simulation models may be implemented provided that all the necessary information are available. Since this is not generally the case in the most practical situations, on-site measurements have to be performed. The necessary equipment for measurements of this type usually includes broadband field metres suitable to measure the field strength over the whole bandwidth of the field sensor used. These types of measurements have several drawbacks; to begin with, given that RLs are frequency depended, compliance evaluation can be misleading since no information is available regarding the measured spectrum distribution. Furthermore, in a multi-transmitter environment there is no way of distinguishing the contribution of a specific source to the overall field measured. Of course, this problem can be resolved using narrowband directional receiver antennas, yet there is always the need for a priori knowledge of the polarisation of the incident electromagnetic wave. In this work, the use of measurement schemes of this type is addressed. A method independent to the polarisation of the incident wave is proposed and a way to evaluate a single source contribution to the total field in a multi-transmitter environment and the polarisation of the measured incident wave is presented.

  7. Reliability Compliance Testing of Electronic Components for Consumer Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Peciakowski, E.; Przybyl, E.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the organisation of reliability compliance testing of electronic components in Poland is discussed. The aim of the testing is to find the reliability of the components to both producer and user and hence to establish reliability for the two parties. The system described is derived from standard methods and has two aims. These are:-1) To enable periodical checks of production to be made.2) To estimate the reliability level of the components produced.Sampling plans are constructed...

  8. A compliance testing program for diagnostic X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.E.; Cobb, B.J.; Jacob, C.S

    1999-01-01

    Compliance testing is nominally that part of a quality assurance program dealing with those aspects of X-ray equipment performance that are subject to radiation control legislation. Quality assurance programs for medical X-ray equipment should be an integral part of the quality culture in health care. However while major hospitals and individual medical centers may implement such programs with some diligence, much X-ray equipment can remain unappraised unless there is a comprehensive regulatory inspection program or some form of compulsion on the equipment owner to implement a testing program. Since the late 1950s all X-ray equipment in the State of Western Australia has been inspected by authorized officers acting on behalf of the Radiological Council, the regulatory authority responsible for administration of the State's Radiation Safety Act. However, economic constraints, coupled with increasing X-ray equipment numbers and a geographically large State have significantly affected the inspection rate. Data available from inspections demonstrate that regular compliance and performance checks are essential in order to ensure proper performance and to minimize unnecessary patient and operator dose. To ensure that diagnostic X-ray equipment complies with accepted standards and performance criteria, the regulatory authority introduced a compulsory compliance testing program for all medical, dental and chiropractic diagnostic X-ray equipment effective from 1 January 1997.

  9. Does directly observed treatment ("DOTS" contribute to tuberculosis treatment compliance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Terra

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative study performed in the theoretical framework of the Theory of Social Determination of the Health-Disease process and the concept of Compliance. The goal was to analyze meanings of DOTS in compliance with tuberculosis treatment, according to healthcare professionals of the Technical Healthcare Supervision of Butantã (SUVIS, a region of the São Paulo City Healthcare Secretariat, Brazil. The project was submitted to the Ethics Committee of the São Paulo Municipal Health Secretariat. All professionals (22 people developing DOTS were interviewed, including service coordinators, healthcare professionals and the DOTS coordinator for the region. The statements were analyzed with an appropriate technique for discourse analysis. The results appoint that the strategy presents more potentialities than limits and is effective regarding compliance, since it allows the professionals to welcome and monitor the patients, considering their needs. The importance of increasing the understanding of compliance is also noted, so that it can go beyond the simple intake of medication, integrating the care for the sick person and his or her necessities by transcending those restricted to the biological dimension.

  10. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondafrash Mekite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2

  11. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Enforcement Matters : Enforcement and Compliance of European Directives in Four Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, E.

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation 'Enforcement Matters' is a comparative analysis of the transposition and enforcement of, and compliance with, two directives regulating dangerous chemical substances (the Seveso II and Safety Data Sheets directives) in four member states (the Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom and

  13. MIMO Throughput Effectiveness for Basic MIMO OTA Compliance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adoración Marín-Soler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the March 2011 meeting of the CTIA MIMO OTA Subgroup (MOSG, the members agreed that the subgroup should first determine “what” aspects of a MIMO-capable device require evaluation; then the group should determine “how” to go about making these measurements. In subsequent meetings of MOSG, new yet-unnamed figures of merit were asked for in order to provide a solution to the carriers' requirements for LTE MIMO OTA evaluation. Furthermore, the December 2011 3GPP RAN4 status report on LTE MIMO OTA listed the evaluation of the use of statistical performance analysis in order to minimize test time and help ensure accurate performance assessment as an open issue. This contribution addresses these petitions by providing four new figures of merit, which could serve the purpose of evaluating the operators' top priorities for MIMO OTA compliance testing. The new figures of merit are MIMO Throughput Effectiveness (MTE, MIMO Device Throughput Effectiveness (MDTE, MIMO Throughput Gain (MTG, and MIMO Device Throughput Gain (MDTG. In this paper, MTE is evaluated using the recently available LTE MIMO OTA RR data from 3GPP.

  14. Comparing Direct and Indirect Taxation: The Influence of Framing on Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ullmann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard theory of the optimal mix of direct and indirect taxation implicitly assumes that compliance is not influenced by the framing of the taxes. According to our findings, this is not the case. Using an experimental approach, we examine whether framing the tax payment decision as income tax or consumption tax influences compliance. We find that median compliance is 10.2 percentage points higher in the income tax framing. Further, we find that subjects' reaction to a change in tax rates is comparable, but reaction towards a change in detection rates is higher in the consumption tax scheme. We conclude that behavioral patterns should be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the direct-indirect tax mix

  15. 15 CFR 996.12 - Development of standards compliance tests for a hydrographic product or class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Assurance Program for Hydrographic Products § 996.12 Development of standards compliance tests for... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of standards compliance tests for a hydrographic product or class. 996.12 Section 996.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade...

  16. Compliance boundaries for multiple-frequency base station antennas in three directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielens, Arno; Vermeeren, Günter; Kurup, Divya; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-09-01

    In this article, compliance boundaries and allowed output powers are determined for the front, back, and side of multiple-frequency base station antennas, based on the root-mean-squared electric field, the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR), and the 10 g averaged SAR in both the limbs and the head and trunk. For this purpose, the basic restrictions and reference levels defined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for both the general public and occupational exposure are used. The antennas are designed for Global System for Mobile Communications around 900 MHz (GSM900), GSM1800, High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), and Long Term Evolution (LTE), and are operated with output powers at the individual frequencies up to 300 W. The compliance boundaries are estimated using finite-difference time-domain simulations with the Virtual Family Male and have been determined for three directions with respect to the antennas for 800, 900, 1800, and 2600 MHz. The reference levels are not always conservative when the radiating part of the antenna is small compared to the length of the body. Combined compliance distances, which ensure compliance with all reference levels and basic restrictions, have also been determined for each frequency. A method to determine a conservative estimation of compliance boundaries for multiple-frequency (cumulative) exposure is introduced. Using the errors on the estimated allowed powers, an uncertainty analysis is carried out for the compliance distances. Uncertainties on the compliance distances are found to be smaller than 122%.

  17. The Association of Promised Consequences with Child Compliance to Maternal Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Daniela J.; Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance is a primary reason parents seek services for their young children. Research on socialization suggests that warning children about consequences is associated with greater compliance. In the current study, we test whether promised consequences (i.e., promises of parental responses to subsequent child behavior), compared with…

  18. Dynamic PMU Compliance Test under C37.118.1aTM-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu; Wu, Qiuwei; Martin, K.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible testing methodology and the dynamic compliance of PMUs as per the new C37.118.1a amendment published in 2014. The test platform consists of test signal generator, a Doble F6150 amplifier, PMUs under test, and a PMU test result analysis kit. The Doble amplifier is us...

  19. Performance Testing of Tracer Gas and Tracer Aerosol Detectors for use in Radionuclide NESHAP Compliance Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lattin, Rebecca Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    The Rad-NESHAP program, part of the Air Quality Compliance team of LANL’s Compliance Programs group (EPC-CP), and the Radiation Instrumentation & Calibration team, part of the Radiation Protection Services group (RP-SVS), frequently partner on issues relating to characterizing air flow streams. This memo documents the most recent example of this partnership, involving performance testing of sulfur hexafluoride detectors for use in stack gas mixing tests. Additionally, members of the Rad-NESHAP program performed a functional trending test on a pair of optical particle counters, comparing results from a non-calibrated instrument to a calibrated instrument. Prior to commissioning a new stack sampling system, the ANSI Standard for stack sampling requires that the stack sample location must meet several criteria, including uniformity of tracer gas and aerosol mixing in the air stream. For these mix tests, tracer media (sulfur hexafluoride gas or liquid oil aerosol particles) are injected into the stack air stream and the resulting air concentrations are measured across the plane of the stack at the proposed sampling location. The coefficient of variation of these media concentrations must be under 20% when evaluated over the central 2/3 area of the stack or duct. The instruments which measure these air concentrations must be tested prior to the stack tests in order to ensure their linear response to varying air concentrations of either tracer gas or tracer aerosol. The instruments used in tracer gas and aerosol mix testing cannot be calibrated by the LANL Standards and Calibration Laboratory, so they would normally be sent off-site for factory calibration by the vendor. Operational requirements can prevent formal factory calibration of some instruments after they have been used in hazardous settings, e.g., within a radiological facility with potential airborne contamination. The performance tests described in this document are intended to demonstrate the reliable

  20. Optimizing urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Ptolemy, Adam S; Wasan, Ajay D

    2013-12-01

    It can be challenging to successfully monitor medication compliance in pain management. Clinicians and laboratorians need to collaborate to optimize patient care and maximize operational efficiency. The test menu, assay cutoffs, and testing algorithms utilized in the urine drug testing panels should be periodically reviewed and tailored to the patient population to effectively assess compliance and avoid unnecessary testing and cost to the patient. Pain management and pathology collaborated on an important quality improvement initiative to optimize urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management. We retrospectively reviewed 18 months of data from our pain management center. We gathered data on test volumes, positivity rates, and the frequency of false positive results. We also reviewed the clinical utility of our testing algorithms, assay cutoffs, and adulterant panel. In addition, the cost of each component was calculated. The positivity rate for ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine were testing from our panel. We also lowered the screening cutoff for cocaine to meet the clinical needs of the pain management center. In addition, we changed our testing algorithm for 6-acetylmorphine, benzodiazepines, and methadone. For example, due the high rate of false negative results using our immunoassay-based benzodiazepine screen, we removed the screening portion of the algorithm and now perform benzodiazepine confirmation up front in all specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conducting an interdisciplinary quality improvement project allowed us to optimize our testing panel for monitoring medication compliance in pain management and reduce cost. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Risk assessments and safe machinery ensuring compliance with the EU directives

    CERN Document Server

    Jespen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.

  2. Steady-State PMU Compliance Test under C37.118.1a-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu; Wu, Qiuwei; Martin, Kenneth E.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible testing method and the steady-state compliance of PMUs under the C37.118.1a amendment. The work is focused on the changes made to the standard for the harmonic rejection and out-of-band interference tests for which the ROCOF Error limits have been suspended. The pap...

  3. Use of the TEM Cell for Compliance Testing of Emissions and Immunity, an IEC Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1996-01-01

    The current work of the IEC on preparing a standard for the use of TEM cells for compliance testing of emissions and immunity is reviewed. The requirements of TEM cells are related to the established procedures: “open area test site” and “shielded enclosure with area of uniform field”, respectively...

  4. A method for accounting for test fixture compliance when estimating proximal femur stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Timothy; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

    2016-09-06

    Fracture testing of cadaveric femora to obtain strength and stiffness information is an active area of research in developing tools for diagnostic prediction of bone strength. These measurements are often used in the estimation and validation of companion finite element models constructed from the femora CT scan data, therefore, the accuracy of the data is of paramount importance. However, experimental stiffness calculated from force-displacement data has largely been ignored by most researchers due to inherent error in the differential displacement measurement obtained when not accounting for testing apparatus compliance. However, having such information is necessary for validation of computational models. Even in the few cases when fixture compliance was considered the measurements showed large lab-to-lab variation due to lack of standardization in fixture design. We examined the compliance of our in-house designed cadaveric femur test fixture to determine the errors we could expect when calculating stiffness from the collected experimental force-displacement data and determined the stiffness of the test fixture to be more than 10 times the stiffness of the stiffest femur in a sample of 44 femora. When correcting the apparent femur stiffness derived from the original data, we found that the largest stiffness was underestimated by about 10%. The study confirmed that considering test fixture compliance is a necessary step in improving the accuracy of fracture test data for characterizing femur stiffness, and highlighted the need for test fixture design standardization for proximal femur fracture testing.

  5. 78 FR 62488 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date for the Dehumidifier Test Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD06 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date for the Dehumidifier Test Procedure... for the dehumidifier test procedures established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA... with the existing energy conservation standards, with the following exceptions. The appendix in...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1318 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-testing and compliance demonstration provisions. 63.1318 Section 63.1318 Protection of Environment...: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1318 PET and polystyrene affected sources—testing and...

  7. Testing to Ensure Compliance with 1% Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    2 Initial Testing of the SDF and Lessons Learned...3 Proposed Extensive Testing of SDF ....................................................................................4...The MLA expired in 2011. The ally desires to continue production of the submunition, using an indigenously developed self-destruct fuze ( SDF ) that

  8. Empirical Evaluation of Directional-Dependence Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Testing of directional dependence is a method to infer causal direction that recently has attracted some attention. Previous examples by e.g. von Eye and DeShon (2012a) and extensive simulation studies by Pornprasertmanit and Little (2012) have demonstrated that under specific assumptions, directional-dependence tests can recover the true causal…

  9. The Marshmallow Test: Delay of Gratification and Independent Rule Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Saxler, Patricia Kasak

    2016-01-01

    The Marshmallow Test, a self-imposed delay of gratification task pioneered by Walter Mischel in the 1960’s, showed that young children vary in their ability to inhibit impulses and regulate their attention and emotion in order to wait and obtain a desired reward (Mischel & Mischel, 1983). The Marshmallow Test offers an opportunity to observe and measure children’s decision-making and self-regulation in an emotionally charged context of often conflicting motivations. Additionally, this task p...

  10. 40 CFR 63.606 - Performance tests and compliance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = phosphate rock feed rate, Mg/hr (ton/hr). K = conversion factor, 1000 g/kg (453.6 g/lb). (2) Method 5 (40..., phosphate rock dryer, and phosphate rock calciner. The owner or operator shall conduct the performance test... wet-process phosphoric acid process line, superphosphoric acid process line, phosphate rock dryer,...

  11. 40 CFR 63.9915 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin/furan emission limits? 63.9915 Section 63.9915....9915 What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin... limit for dioxins/furans in Table 1 to this subpart, you must follow the test methods and procedures...

  12. Does Direct Radiologist-Patient Verbal Communication Affect Follow-Up Compliance of Probably Benign Assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Melissa S; Neal, Colleen H; Klein, Katherine A; Noroozian, Mitra; Patterson, Stephanie K; Helvie, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether direct verbal communication of results by a radiologist affected follow-up compliance rates for probably benign breast imaging findings. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. A retrospective search identified all patients from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 who had breast findings newly assessed as probably benign (BI-RADS category 3). Patients were categorized by whether the radiologist or the technologist verbally communicated the result and follow-up recommendation. Patient adherence to 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up imaging recommendations was recorded. Compliance data were available for 770 of 819 patients in the study. Overall compliance was 83.0% (639 of 770) for 6-month examinations, 68.1% (524 of 770) for 6- and 12-month examinations, and 57.4% (442 of 770) for 6-, 12-, and 24-month examinations. For patients who initially underwent diagnostic mammography alone, there was no significant difference in compliance between those who had and those who did not have radiologist-patient communication (6 months, 81.9% vs 80.8% [P = .83]; 6 and 12 months, 70.8% vs 67.3% [P = .58]; 6, 12, and 24 months, 54.2% vs 58.4% [P = .53]). For patients who initially underwent diagnostic mammography alone versus ultrasound with or without diagnostic mammography, there was no significant difference in compliance (6 months, 81.1% vs 84.3% [P = .24]; 6 and 12 months, 68.1% vs 68.0% [P = .96]; 6, 12, and 24 months, 57.4% vs 57.4% [P = .00]). High initial compliance was achieved by radiologist or technologist verbal communication of findings and recommendations. Direct communication by the radiologist did not increase compliance compared with communication by a technologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Compliance with hygiene guidelines: the effect of a multimodal hygiene intervention and validation of direct observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Svensson, Per-Olof; Rensfeldt, Gunhild; Davidsson, Ewa; Isaksson, Barbro; Löfgren, Sture; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Good compliance with hygiene guidelines is essential to prevent bacterial transmission and health care-associated infections. However, the compliance is usually dress code at the 4 departments were 39% to 47% and 79% to 98%, respectively. Point of stability was reached approximately 1 year after the hygiene intervention was launched. The compliance with barrier precautions was significantly higher at follow-up compared with baseline in 3 departments. In the validation by double appraisal, 471 of 483 components were judged identical between observers. In the multiappraisal, 95% to 100% of the observers correctly judged the 7 components. It is possible to improve compliance with hygiene guidelines, but, to ensure a long-lasting effect, a continuous focus on barrier precautions is required. Observation is a valid method to monitor compliance. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 48745 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC58 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test... INFORMATION: I. Background The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended by section 312(c) of the... compliance with the energy conservation standards currently under development. DOE plans to issue the...

  15. 76 FR 65362 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC58 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test... Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended by section 312(c) of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007... compliance date for the performance-based energy conservation standards currently under development. 76...

  16. Quantifying the Hawthorne Effect in Hand Hygiene Compliance Through Comparing Direct Observation With Automated Hand Hygiene Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Stefan; Reischke, Jana; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Winning, Johannes; Gastmeier, Petra; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Scherag, André; Pletz, Mathias W

    2015-08-01

    To quantify the Hawthorne effect of hand hygiene performance among healthcare workers using direct observation. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit, university hospital. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance over 48 audits of 2 hours each. Simultaneously, hand hygiene events (HHEs) were recorded using electronic alcohol-based handrub dispensers. Directly observed and electronically recorded HHEs during the 2 hours of direct observation were compared using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots. To quantify the Hawthorne effect, we compared the number of electronically recorded HHEs during the direct observation periods with the re-scaled electronically recorded HHEs in the 6 remaining hours of the 8-hour working shift. A total of 3,978 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the 96 hours of direct observation. Hand hygiene compliance was 51% (95% CI, 49%-53%). There was a strong positive correlation between directly observed compliance and electronically recorded HHEs (ρ=0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.81], Phand hygiene performance.

  17. The impact of behavior-specific and behavior-nonspecific reinforcement on child compliance to mother directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, P S; Wahler, R G; Herring, M

    2001-09-01

    Theories of child socialization differ with regard to the influence they attribute to behavior-specific reinforcement contingencies versus behavior-nonspecific reinforcement contingencies (i.e. social responsiveness). The present research investigated, at a within-individual level, the relationship between both types of reinforcement and child compliance with maternal directives. Behavior-specific reinforcement was defined as the history of reinforcement obtained by children for prior episodes of compliance and noncompliance to mother directives. Behavior-nonspecific reinforcement was defined as the history of reinforcement obtained by children for prosocial and aversive behaviors unrelated to mother directives. It was hypothesized that both reinforcement processes would be related to child responses to subsequent mother directives. The findings support these hypotheses. The discussion addresses caretaker social responsiveness as an intervention target of behavioral family therapy.

  18. Accuracy Test of Software Architecture Compliance Checking Tools – Test Instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruijt, Leo; van der Werf, J.M.E.M.; Brinkkemper., Sjaak

    2015-01-01

    Software Architecture Compliance Checking (SACC) is an approach to verify conformance of implemented program code to high-level models of architectural design. Static SACC focuses on the modular software architecture and on the existence of rule violating dependencies between modules. Accurate tool

  19. Characterization of a Power Electronic Grid Simulator for Wind Turbine Generator Compliance Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Gevorgian, V.; Wallen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the commissioning results and testing capabilities of a multi-megawatt power electronic grid simulator situated in National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) new testing facility. The commissioning is done using a commercial type 4 multi-megawatt sized wind turbine...... generator (WTG) installed in NREL’s new 5 MW dynamometer and a kilowatt sized type 1 WTG connected to the existing 2.5 MW dynamometer at NREL. The paper demonstrates the outstanding testing capability of the grid simulator and its application in the grid code compliance evaluation of WTGs including balanced...

  20. Cost and Efficacy Assessment of an Alternative Medication Compliance Urine Drug Testing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kelly; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the frequency at which quantitative results provide additional clinical benefit compared to qualitative results alone. A comparison between alternative urine drug screens and conventional screens including the assessment of cost-to-payer differences, accuracy of prescription compliance or polypharmacy/substance abuse was also included. In a reference laboratory evaluation of urine specimens from across the United States, 213 urine specimens with provided prescription medication information (302 prescriptions) were analyzed by two testing algorithms: 1) conventional immunoassay screen with subsequent reflexive testing of positive results by quantitative mass spectrometry; and 2) a combined immunoassay/qualitative mass-spectrometry screen that substantially reduced the need for subsequent testing. The qualitative screen was superior to immunoassay with reflex to mass spectrometry in confirming compliance per prescription (226/302 vs 205/302), and identifying non-prescription abuse (97 vs 71). Pharmaceutical impurities and inconsistent drug metabolite patterns were detected in only 3.8% of specimens, suggesting that quantitative results have limited benefit. The percentage difference between the conventional testing algorithm and the alternative screen was projected to be 55%, and a 2-year evaluation of test utilization as a measure of test order volume follows an exponential trend for alternative screen test orders over conventional immunoassay screens that require subsequent confirmation testing. Alternative, qualitative urine drug screens provide a less expensive, faster, and more comprehensive evaluation of patient medication compliance and drug abuse. The vast majority of results were interpretable with qualitative results alone indicating a reduced need to automatically reflex to quantitation or provide quantitation for the majority of patients. This strategy highlights a successful approach using an alternative strategy for both the

  1. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search form Search Vea esta página en español Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests Related Items Anatomy of ... DTC genetic tests often include dietary advice and sales offers for “customized” dietary supplements and cosmetics. The ...

  2. Status after 5 Years of Survival Compliance Testing in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2016-06-27

    Survival studies of juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic tags have been conducted at hydroelectric dams within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in the Columbia and Snake rivers between 2010 and 2014 to assess compliance with dam passage survival standards stipulated in the 2008 Biological Opinion (BiOp). For juvenile salmonids migrating downstream in the spring, dam passage survival defined as survival from the upstream dam face to the tailrace mixing zone must be ≥96% and for summer migrants, ≥93%, and estimated with a standard error ≤1.5% (i.e., 95% confidence interval of ±3%). A total of 29 compliance tests have been conducted at 6 of 8 FCRPS main-stem dams, using over 109,000 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts. Of these 29 compliance studies, 23 met the survival standards and 26 met the precision requirements. Of the 6 dams evaluated to date, individual survival estimates range from 0.9597 to 0.9868 for yearling Chinook Salmon, 0.9534 to 0.9952 for steelhead, and 0.9076 to 0.9789 for subyearling Chinook Salmon. These investigations suggest the large capital investment over the last 20 years to improve juvenile salmon passage through the FCRPS dams has been beneficial.

  3. Check-Testing of Manufacturer Self Reported Labeling Data& Compliance with MEPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Wang, Ruohong; Egan, Christine

    2008-03-01

    Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ), has expanded its on-going collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. In early 2007, LBNL compiled a report, with the support of METI, summarizing the findings from these activities and indicating China's progress to date. The report concluded that although the existing legal basis for monitoring and enforcement is sufficient- with multiple laws and regulations defining the responsibility of each government agency and specifying a system of fines and penal-ties for non-compliance-compared with international best practices, there is still a big gap in China's monitoring and enforcement efforts for mandatory standards and labels. In sum, the report concludes that while the sample size is far smaller than the mid-term goal of developing a regular check testing program for 20 percent of the market for each of the three products, this study provides highly valuable feedback on manufacturer compliance rates in the absence of a large-scale national testing program. With METI/IEEJ support, CLASP could assist the China Energy Label Center (CELC) in expanding its verification testing programs to cover more models and products, and in developing a plan for ramping up the national verification testing program over the next three to five years. This is particularly important as the information labeling program gains more visibility and expands to additional product categories. CLASP could also assist CELC to plan for a round-robin testing scheme-first among three national laboratories with sub-sequent expansion of this program to other regional test laboratories--with the goal of improving the consistency of testing results from different testing laboratories.

  4. Application of drug testing using exhaled breath for compliance monitoring of drug addicts in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sten; Olsson, Robert; Lindkvist, Irene; Beck, Olof

    2015-04-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a possible matrix for drug testing. This study explored the potential of this new method for compliance monitoring of patients being treated for dependence disorders. Outpatients in treatment programs were recruited for this study. Urine was collected as part of clinical routine and a breath sample was collected in parallel together with a questionnaire about their views of the testing procedure. Urine was analyzed for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, buprenorphine, methadone and opiates using CEDIA immunochemical screening and mass spectrometry confirmation. The exhaled breath was collected using the SensAbues device and analyzed by mass spectrometry for amphetamine, methamphetamine, diazepam, oxazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, methadone, morphine, codeine and 6-acetylmorphine. A total of 122 cases with parallel urine and breath samples were collected; 34 of these were negative both in urine and breath. Out of 88 cases with positive urine samples 51 (58%) were also positive in breath. Among the patients on methadone treatment, all were positive for methadone in urine and 83% were positive in breath. Among patients in treatment with buprenorphine, 92% were positive in urine and among those 80% were also positive in breath. The questionnaire response documented that in general, patients accepted drug testing well and that the breath sampling procedure was preferred. Compliance testing for the intake of prescribed and unprescribed drugs among patients in treatment for dependence disorders using the exhaled breath sampling technique is a viable method and deserves future attention.

  5. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgia Vlachonikolou; Paraskevas Gkolfakis; Athanasios D Sioulas; Ioannis S Papanikolaou; Anastasia Melissaratou; Giannis-Aimant Moustafa; Eleni Xanthopoulou; Gerasimos Tsilimidos; Ioanna Tsironi; Paraskevas Filippidis; Chrysoula Malli; George D Dimitriadis; Konstantinos Triantafyllou

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer(CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test(FIT).METHODS: All employees of "Attikon" University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT(DyoniFOB~ Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test.RESULTS: Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59(27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41(19.4%) and 24(11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation(P = 0.005) and test completion- first and second round-(P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Phy sician’s(13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates(7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated(25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round(19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later.CONCLUSION: Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians.

  6. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  7. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build......-in piezoelectric torque transducer. This technique results in a very sensitive measurement of friction, which furthermore enables recording of lubricant film breakdown as function of drawing distance. The proposed test is validated in an experimental investigation of the influence of lubricant viscosity...

  8. Advanced methodology for measuring the extensive elastic compliance and mechanical loss directly in k31 mode piezoelectric ceramic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoubi, Maryam; Shekhani, Husain N.; Bansal, Anushka; Hennig, Eberhard; Scholehwar, Timo; Uchino, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants, and their corresponding losses are defined under constant conditions of two categories; namely, intensive (i.e., E, electric field or T, stress), and extensive (i.e., D, dielectric displacement or x, strain) ones. So far, only the intensive parameters and losses could be measured directly in a k31 mode sample. Their corresponding extensive parameters could be calculated indirectly using the coupling factor and "K" matrix. However, the extensive loss parameters, calculated through this indirect method, could have large uncertainty, due to the error propagation in calculation. In order to overcome this issue, extensive losses should be measured separately from the measurable intensive ones in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) k31 mode rectangular plate ceramics. We propose a new mechanical-excitation methodology, using a non-destructive testing approach by means of a partial electrode configuration, instead of the conventional full electrode configuration. For this purpose, a non-electrode sample was prepared, where the electrode covered only 10% of the top and bottom surfaces at the center to actuate the whole sample, and also monitor the responding vibration. The admittance spectrum of this sample, corresponds to PZT properties under dielectric displacement D constant condition. Furthermore, ceramics with partial-electrodes were also prepared to create short and open circuit boundary conditions, attributing to resonance and anti-resonance modes. In the proposed way, we were able to measure both intensive and extensive elastic compliances and mechanical losses directly for the first time. The accuracy of this new method is compared with the conventional measurements by use of indirect calculations. The preliminary results (by neglecting the 10% actuator part difference at this point) were obtained, which were in good agreements (less than 3% difference) with the previous indirect method.

  9. Scaling effects in direct shear tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, A.D.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of the direct shear test were performed on spherical particles of different materials and diameters. Results of the bulk friction vs. non-dimensional shear displacement are presented as a function of the non-dimensional particle diameter. Simulations of the direct shear test were performed using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation results show Considerable differences with the physical experiments. Particle level material properties, such as the coefficients of static friction, restitution and rolling friction need to be known a priori in order to guarantee that the simulation results are an accurate representation of the physical phenomenon. Furthermore, laboratory results show a clear size dependency on the results, with smaller particles having a higher bulk friction than larger ones. ?? 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann

    2012-01-01

    Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...

  11. Evaluating Compliance with Institutional Preoperative Testing Guidelines for Minimal-Risk Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunotai Siriussawakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few investigations preoperatively are important for low-risk patients. This study was designed to determine the level of compliance with preoperative investigation guidelines for ASA I patients undergoing elective surgery. Secondary objectives included the following: to identify common inappropriate investigations, to evaluate the impact of abnormal testing on patient management, to determine factors affecting noncompliant tests, and to estimate unnecessary expenditure. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted on adult patients over a one-year period. The institute’s guidelines recommend tests according to the patients’ age groups: a complete blood count (CBC for those patients aged 18–45; CBC, chest radiograph (CXR and electrocardiography (ECG for those aged 46–60; and CBC, CXR, ECG, electrolytes, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine (Cr for patients aged 61–65. Results. The medical records of 1,496 patients were reviewed. Compliant testing was found in only 12.1% (95% CI, 10.5–13.9. BUN and Cr testings were the most frequently overprescribed tests. Overinvestigations tended to be performed on major surgery and younger patients. Overall, overinvestigation incurred an estimated cost of US 200,000 dollars during the study period. Conclusions. The need to utilize the institution’s preoperative guidelines should be emphasized in order to decrease unnecessary testing and the consequential financial burden.

  12. Space ethics to test directed panspermia

    CERN Document Server

    Makukov, Maxim A

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that Earth was intentionally seeded with life by a preceding extraterrestrial civilization is believed to be currently untestable. However, analysis of the situation where humans themselves embark on seeding other planetary systems motivated by survival and propagation of life reveals at least two ethical issues calling for specific solutions. Assuming that generally intelligence evolves ethically as it evolves technologically, the same considerations might be applied to test the hypothesis of directed panspermia: if life on Earth was seeded intentionally, the two ethical requirements are expected to be satisfied, what appears to be the case.

  13. Space ethics to test directed panspermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makukov, Maxim A.; shCherbak, Vladimir I.

    2014-10-01

    The hypothesis that Earth was intentionally seeded with life by a preceding extraterrestrial civilization is believed to be currently untestable. However, analysis of the situation where humans themselves embark on seeding other planetary systems motivated by survival and propagation of life reveals at least two ethical issues calling for specific solutions. Assuming that generally intelligence evolves ethically as it evolves technologically, the same considerations might be applied to test the hypothesis of directed panspermia: if life on Earth was seeded intentionally, the two ethical requirements are expected to be satisfied, what appears to be the case.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1571 - How and when do I conduct a performance test or other initial compliance demonstration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practice standard where initial compliance is not demonstrated using a performance test, opacity... practices at the process unit, and provided EPA methods or approved alternatives were used; (2) You may use... the option in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) in § 63.1564 (Ni lb/hr), and you use continuous parameter...

  15. 40 CFR 60.46b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam... Method 17 of appendix A-6 of this part after wet FGD systems if the effluent is saturated or laden with... for monitoring NOX under § 60.48(b). (1) For the initial compliance test, NOX from the...

  16. 16 CFR 1610.61 - Reasonable and representative testing to assure compliance with the standard for the clothing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission enforces the Standard for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles (“the Standard”), 16 CFR part 1610... assure compliance with the standard for the clothing textiles. 1610.61 Section 1610.61 Commercial... OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Interpretations and Policies § 1610.61 Reasonable and representative testing...

  17. SU-E-P-29: Testing Display Monitors for GSDF Compliance - a Practical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, D [UAB Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a simple technique for testing display monitors for compliance with the DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF), in accordance with the recommendations of AAPM Task Group 18. Methods: We have developed a spreadsheet that can be used to compare both the luminance response and contrast response of a display to the GSDF, using luminance measurements of the SMPTE test pattern. The contrast response compares the slope of the GSDF j-index as a function of pixel value to that of the GSDF function, and should lie within the range 0.85 to 1.15. Results: We present the results of measurements both of primary diagnostic displays and of ultrasound and acquisition workstations, all at a tertiary care hospital. The Barco displays in the radiographic reading rooms are GSDF compliant or nearly so, while those in the ultrasound reading rooms and at the acquisition workstations generally show significantly higher contrast at low luminance levels than they would if GSDF compliant, and lower contrast at high luminance levels. Conclusion: The spreadsheet that we developed allows a simple comparison of measured display contrast response to the GSDF. Although we used the SMPTE pattern, the same technique could be used with other grayscale patterns, such as TG18-QC and TG18-PQC.

  18. Misfits and compliance patterns in the implementation of the Habitats Directive - four cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Busck, Anne Gravsholdt

    2017-01-01

    in the ‘Worlds of Compliance’ literature, it also explores if this typology can be useful for understanding the ways member states address institutional adaptation pressures in the implementation steps following the transposition phase. The requirements in the Habitats Directive expanded most member states...... Directive (such as the Nitrate Directive and the Water Framework Directive). It turned out that there could be a need for more flexible and less-top-down European legislation, providing a larger room-for-manoeuvre for integration with domestic approaches....

  19. Numerical compliance testing of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation from smart-watches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seon-Eui; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Pack, Jeong-Ki

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the electromagnetic dosimetry for smart-watches. At present, the standard for compliance testing of body-mounted and handheld devices specifies the use of a flat phantom to provide conservative estimates of the peak spatial-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR). This means that the estimated SAR using a flat phantom should be higher than the SAR in the exposure part of an anatomical human-body model. To verify this, we numerically calculated the SAR for a flat phantom and compared it with the numerical calculation of the SAR for four anatomical human-body models of different ages. The numerical analysis was performed using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). The smart-watch models were used in the three antennas: the shorted planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), loop antenna, and monopole antenna. Numerical smart-watch models were implemented for cellular commutation and wireless local-area network operation at 835, 1850, and 2450 MHz. The peak spatial-averaged SARs of the smart-watch models are calculated for the flat phantom and anatomical human-body model for the wrist-worn and next to mouth positions. The results show that the flat phantom does not provide a consistent conservative SAR estimate. We concluded that the difference in the SAR results between an anatomical human-body model and a flat phantom can be attributed to the different phantom shapes and tissue structures.

  20. Implementation of air quality control in reproductive laboratories in full compliance with the Brazilian Cells and Germinative Tissue Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Bento, Fabiola C

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how Androfert complied with the Brazilian Cells and Germinative Tissue Directive with regard to air quality standards and presents retrospective data of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes performed in controlled environments. An IVF facility, composed of reproductive laboratories, operating room and embryo-transfer room, was constructed according to cleanroom standards for air particles and volatile organic compounds. A total of 2060 couples requesting IVF were treated in the cleanroom facilities, and outcome measures compared with a cohort of 255 couples treated at a conventional facility from the same practice before implementation of cleanrooms. No major fluctuations were observed in the cleanroom validation measurements over the study period. Live birth rates increased (35.6% versus 25.8%; P=0.02) and miscarriage rates decreased (28.7% versus 20.0%; P=0.04) in the first triennium after cleanroom implementation. Thereafter, the proportion of high-quality embryos steadily increased whereas pregnancy outcomes after ICSI were sustained despite the increased female age and decreased number of embryos transferred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of handling human gametes and culturing embryos in full compliance with the Brazilian directive on air quality standards and suggests that performing IVF in controlled environments may optimize its outcomes. Regulatory agencies in many countries have issued directives including specific requirements for air quality standards in embryology facilities. This article describes how we complied with the Brazilian Cells and Germinative Tissue Directive with regard to air quality standards. It also presents results of IVF cycles performed in controlled environments. An IVF facility, composed of reproductive laboratories, operating room and embryo transfer room, was constructed according to cleanroom standards for air particles and volatile organic compounds. The cleanest area was the

  1. The Relationship between Teachers' Personality Factors and Their Compliance with Administrative Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Janet C.

    The relationship between teachers' personality factors and their willingness to comply with administrative directives is examined in this report. A random sample of 200 elementary school teachers in Mississippi received mailed questionnaires, of which 158, or 79 percent, responded. Survey instruments included the Wilkes and Blackbourn Zones of…

  2. The politics of compliance : explaining the transposition of EC directives in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The EU suffers from an implementation deficit. Member states often do not comply with EU policies, which in turn hampers the process of European integration. This book documents the problem with the timely transposition of EU directives. It explores the size and the causes of the transposition

  3. The repertoire of resistance: Non-compliance with directives in Milgram's 'obedience' experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Matthew M

    2015-09-01

    This paper is the first extensive conversation-analytic study of resistance to directives in one of the most controversial series of experiments in social psychology, Stanley Milgram's 1961-1962 study of 'obedience to authority'. As such, it builds bridges between interactionist and experimental areas of social psychology that do not often communicate with one another. Using as data detailed transcripts of 117 of the original sessions representing five experimental conditions, I show how research participants' resistance to experimental progressivity takes shape against a background of directive/response and complaint/remedy conversational sequences--sequence types that project opposing and competing courses of action. In local contexts of competing sequential relevancies, participants mobilize six forms of resistance to the confederate experimenter's directives to continue. These range along a continuum of explicitness, from relatively subtle resistance that momentarily postpones continuation to techniques for explicitly trying to stop the experiment. Although both 'obedient'- and 'defiant'-outcome participants use all six of the forms, evidence is provided suggesting precisely how members of the two groups differ in manner and frequency of resistance.

  4. Recognition of Revenues. IAS 18 ”Revenue” versus OMFP 3055/2009 Regarding the Approval of Accounting Regulations in Compliance with European Directives

    OpenAIRE

    Luþã Dorina; Grigorescu Sorin; Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise financial performance is measured by the difference between revenues and the expenses incurred to achieve the revenues. Revenue recognition and evaluation take place according to applicable accounting regulations. The present paper envisages the way to recognize revenues in compliance with IAS 18 ”Revenue” and OMFP 3055/2009 regarding the approval of accounting regulations compliant with European Directives.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1112 - Extension of compliance, and performance test, monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting waivers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by which orders will be issued for the purchase of component parts to accomplish emission control or... or intention to deny approval of a request for an extension of compliance within 30 days after... writing of the Administrator's intention to issue the denial, together with— (A) Notice of the...

  6. Space ethics to test directed panspermia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that Earth was intentionally seeded with life by a preceding extraterrestrial civilization is believed to be currently untestable. However, analysis of the situation where humans themselves embark on seeding other planetary systems motivated by survival and propagation of life reveals at least two ethical issues calling for specific solutions. Assuming that generally intelligence evolves ethically as it evolves technologically, the same considerations might be applied to test t...

  7. Directed Beam Alignment System Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-04

    4 2.1.1 Handover Based on DBAS Alignment ........... 7 2.2 Conceptoal Implementation of DBAS .... ........... 8 3.0 Breadboard...Sequence Timing Diagrams ........... 70 Figure 29. Level Sensor ...... .................. 72 Figure 30. Recommended DBAS Development Schedule ...... .76...D.B.A.S. Sensor Geometric Measurements ..... .32 Table 6. Summary of DBAS Radiometric Measurements . . .. 34 Table 7. R6 Parking Lot Test Summary

  8. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric turbulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  9. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan; Wang Lixin; Tan Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS) equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM) is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric tur-bulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness com-pliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ) rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  10. Direct observation of hand hygiene can show differences in staff compliance: Do we need to evaluate the accuracy for patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Villanueva Arias, Ariadna; Ramírez Miranda, Fernando; Rubiera Jimenez, Reynol; Alfonso Serrano, Ramón N

    2017-01-01

    Background: Direct observation of hand hygiene is the standard practice recommended by the World Health Organization to monitor its compliance. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of hand hygiene observation performed by units' observers. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in seven patient care units in a 75-bed community hospital in Qatar. Four trained nurses performed hand hygiene observation in May 2016, any day of the week and in different shifts, following the same methodology as routine units' observers. Hand hygiene opportunities were registered, including hand hygiene moments, staff category, and actions (handrubs, hand washing, missed hand hygiene, and gloves without hand hygiene). Results: During January-May 2016, routine monitoring reported 25,319 opportunities with a compliance of 89.2%, and 91.6% for nurses, 89.6% for physicians, and 85.1% for ancillary staff. Trained external observers reported 815 opportunities and compliance of 54.7%, with the highest compliance observed after blood and body fluid exposure (80.0%) and after patient contact (85.5%), and the lowest figures before patient contact (34.2%) and before aseptic procedure (34.0%). Conclusion: This study provides essential information about the accuracy of the monitoring procedure and the compliance of hand hygiene that requires immediate action to protect patients and staff from healthcare-associated infections.

  11. Evaluation of compliance with the Spanish Code of self-regulation of food and drinks advertising directed at children under the age of 12 years in Spain, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Flández, K; Rico-Gómez, A; Moya-Geromin, M Á; Romero-Fernández, M; Bosqued-Estefania, M J; Damián, J; López-Jurado, L; Royo-Bordonada, M Á

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate compliance levels with the Spanish Code of self-regulation of food and drinks advertising directed at children under the age of 12 years (Publicidad, Actividad, Obesidad, Salud [PAOS] Code) in 2012; and compare these against the figures for 2008. Cross-sectional study. Television advertisements of food and drinks (AFD) were recorded over 7 days in 2012 (8am-midnight) of five Spanish channels popular to children. AFD were classified as core (nutrient-rich/low-calorie products), non-core (nutrient-poor/rich-calorie products) or miscellaneous. Compliance with each standard of the PAOS Code was evaluated. AFD were deemed to be fully compliant when it met all the standards. Two thousand five hundred and eighty-two AFDs came within the purview of the PAOS Code. Some of the standards that registered the highest levels of non-compliance were those regulating the suitability of the information presented (79.4%) and those prohibiting the use of characters popular with children (25%). Overall non-compliance with the Code was greater in 2012 than in 2008 (88.3% vs 49.3%). Non-compliance was highest for advertisements screened on children's/youth channels (92.3% vs. 81.5%; P < 0.001) and for those aired outside the enhanced protection time slot (89.3% vs. 86%; P = 0.015). Non-compliance with the PAOS Code is higher than for 2008. Given the lack of effectiveness of self-regulation, a statutory system should be adopted to ban AFD directed at minors, or at least restrict it to healthy products. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlations between direct and indirect strength test methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kallu Raj; Roghanchi Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties associated with performing direct compression strength tests on rocks lead to the devel-opment of indirect test methods for the rock strength assessment. Indirect test methods are simple, more economical, less time-consuming, and easily adaptable to the field. The main aim of this study was to derive correlations between direct and indirect test methods for basalt and rhyolite rock types from Carlin trend deposits in Nevada. In the destructive methods, point load index, block punch index, and splitting tensile strength tests are performed. In the non-destructive methods, Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests are performed. Correlations between the direct and indirect compression strength tests are developed using linear and nonlinear regression analysis methods. The results show that the splitting tensile strength has the best correlation with the uniaxial compression strength. Furthermore, the Poisson’s ratio has no correlation with any of the direct and indirect test results.

  13. Immunoassay-Based Drug Tests Are Inadequately Sensitive for Medication Compliance Monitoring in Patients Treated for Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Marion L; Fantz, Corrine R; Melanson, Stacy

    2017-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) have notable limitations for monitoring therapeutic compliance in pain management. Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry provides definitive results and superior sensitivity and specificity over traditional EIA testing. To analyze and compare the sensitivity of EIA results together with known prescriptions to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for monitoring drug use (and abuse) in patients treated for chronic pain. A total of 530 urine samples from patients being treated for chronic pain were studied. Pain management clinic in the United States. The samples were tested for a profile of chronic pain medications and illicit drugs with commercially available EIA kits followed by analysis with Agilent LC-MS/MS system. The EIAs exhibited poor sensitivity and high rates of false negative results in the pain management setting. For example, 21% of EIA for opiates show false negative results. Mass spectrometry methods were more sensitive, detected a broader range of drugs and metabolites, and could detect non-prescribed drug use and simulations in compliance. Patients do not always accurately report drug use information, and some drugs do not have EIA methods available for comparative purposes. Mass spectrometry is a more robust and reliable method for detection of drugs used in the pain management setting. Due to the extent of undisclosed use and abuse of medications and illicit drugs, LC-MS/MS testing is necessary for adequate and accurate drug detection. In addition, LC-MS/MS methods are superior in terms of sensitivity and number of compounds that can be screened, making this a better method for use in pain management. Key words: Pain management, enzyme immunoassays, mass spectrometry, urine drug testing, prescription status, compliance.

  14. Testing designing an electrical device compliant with the electromagnetic compatibility directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Maćkowski, M.; Nowak, P.

    2017-08-01

    The goal of presented work was to build an electronic device in order to test the effectiveness of different EMC-improving solutions. Three EMC tests were done in order to check the created device compliance with the electromagnetic compatibility directive. Each of them was conducted for both industrial and non-industrial parameters (voltage and field strength), according to IEC PN-EN 61000 standards. Three tests were done: conductive immunity test in EM clamp, radiated immunity test in GTEM chamber, radiated emission test in GTEM chamber. Firstly, the device’s conductive immunity was examined. The set of possible solutions was created by examining existing designs, papers, books and producers’ recommendations. In result, different component configurations were chosen to determine the most EMC-effective one. Next, electromagnetic compatibility of proposed device configurations was tested in the GTEM chamber (radiated immunity and radiated emission). Tests results are presented on charts and analysed in order to verify if designed device face requirements of the electromagnetic compatibility directive. It was verify which of proposed electromagnetic compatibility improving solutions can solve problems with electromagnetic compatibility.

  15. What Is Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Help Me Understand Genetics Genetic Testing What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What is direct-to-consumer genetic ...

  16. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  17. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-07

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  18. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  19. Direct Shear Tests with Evaluation of Variable Shearing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas Skuodis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of soil shear strength properties for Baltic Sea shore sand along Klaipėda city are presented. Investigated sand angle of internal friction (φ and cohesion (c is determined via two different direct shear tests procedures. First procedure is standard and ordinary in geotechnical practice, when direct shear test is provided using constant shearing area A0. Second test procedure is different because shearing area according to horizontal displacement each test second is recalculated. This recalculated shearing area author’s call corrected shearing area A. Obtained normal and tangential stresses’ difference via two different testing procedures was 10%.

  20. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Layne, R.R. [Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, OK (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  1. Significant cost savings achieved by in-sourcing urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Snyder, Marion L; Darragh, Alicia; Quade, Cathleen; Jarolim, Petr

    2013-06-25

    Reference laboratory testing can represent a significant component of the laboratory budget. Therefore, most laboratories continually reassess the feasibility of in-sourcing various tests. We describe the transfer of urine drug testing performed for monitoring medication compliance in pain management from a reference laboratory into an academic clinical laboratory. The process of implementing of both screening immunoassays and confirmatory LC-MS/MS testing and the associated cost savings is outlined. The initial proposal for in-sourcing this testing, which included the tests to be in-sourced, resources required, estimated cost savings and timeline for implementation, was approved in January 2009. All proposed testing was implemented by March 2011. Keys to the successful implementation included budgeting adequate resources and developing a realistic timeline, incorporating the changes with the highest budget impact first. We were able to in-source testing in 27 months and save the laboratory approximately $1 million in the first 3 year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A testing preocedure for the evaluation of directional mesh bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, A.T.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Rots, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a dedicated numerical test that enables to assess the directional mesh bias of constitutive models in a systematic way. The test makes use of periodic boundary conditions, by which strain localization can be analyzed for different mesh alignments with preservation of mesh uniform

  3. Direction-Dependence Analysis: A Confirmatory Approach for Testing Directional Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; von Eye, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The concept of direction dependence has attracted growing attention due to its potential to help decide which of two competing linear regression models (X ? Y or Y ? X) is more likely to reflect the correct causal flow. Several tests have been proposed to evaluate hypotheses compatible with direction dependence. In this issue, Thoemmes (2015)…

  4. Integrated data acquisition system for medical device testing and physiology research in compliance with good laboratory practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Steven C; Woolard, Cary; Drew, Guy; Unger, Lauren; Gillars, Kevin; Ewert, Dan; Gray, Laman; Pantalos, George

    2004-01-01

    In seeking approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical trial evaluation of an experimental medical device, a sponsor is required to submit experimental findings and support documentation to demonstrate device safety and efficacy that are in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). The objective of this project was to develop an integrated data acquisition (DAQ) system and documentation strategy for monitoring and recording physiological data when testing medical devices in accordance with GLP guidelines mandated by the FDA. Data aquisition systems were developed as stand-alone instrumentation racks containing transducer amplifiers and signal processors, analog-to-digital converters for data storage, visual display and graphical user-interfaces, power conditioners, and test measurement devices. Engineering standard operating procedures (SOP) were developed to provide a written step-by-step process for calibrating, validating, and certifying each individual instrumentation unit and the integrated DAQ system. Engineering staff received GLP and SOP training and then completed the calibration, validation, and certification process for the individual instrumentation components and integrated DAQ system. Eight integrated DAQ systems have been successfully developed that were inspected by regulatory affairs consultants and determined to meet GLP guidelines. Two of these DAQ systems were used to support 40 of the pre-clinical animal studies evaluating the AbiCor artificial heart (ABIOMED, Danvers, MA). Based in part on these pre-clinical animal data, the AbioCor clinical trials began in July 2001. The process of developing integrated DAQ systems, SOP, and the validation and certification methods used to ensure GLP compliance are presented in this article.

  5. Tensile test of dumbbell-shaped specimen in thickness direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Sheet metal forming is widely used in manufacturing shops, and evaluation of forming limit for sheet metal is important. However, specimen shape influences on the fracture of the sheet metal. As one of methods to decrease these effects, an uniaxial tensile test using specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction had been examined using FEM analysis. In this study, actually specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction was fabricated using a new incremental sheet forging method, and uniaxial tensile test was conducted. Load-stroke diagram, fracture morphologies, stress-strain curves and shape after fracture were investigated, and effects of specimen shape were considered. Elongation was larger as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. Stress-strain curves until necking occurred were less influenced by specimen shape. However, yield stress decreased and local elongation increased as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. The reasons why these tendencies showed were considered in the view of specimen shapes.

  6. Postpartum Glucose Testing Rates Following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Factors Affecting Testing Non-compliance from Four Tertiary Centers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Geum Joon; An, Jung-Joo; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Han-Sung; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate postpartum glucose testing rates in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to determine factors affecting testing non-compliance in the Korean population. This was a retrospective study of 1,686 patients with GDM from 4 tertiary centers in Korea and data were obtained from medical records. Postpartum glucose testing was conducted using a 2-hr 75-g oral glucose tolerance, fasting glucose, or hemoglobin A1C test. Test results were categorized as normal, prediabetic, and diabetic. The postpartum glucose testing rate was 44.9% (757/1,686 patients); and of 757 patients, 44.1% and 18.4% had pre-diabetes and diabetes, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis, patients with a high parity, larger weight gain during pregnancy, and referral from private clinics due to reasons other than GDM treatment were less likely to receive postpartum glucose testing. However, patients who had pharmacotherapy for GDM were more likely to be screened. In this study, 55.1% of patients with GDM failed to complete postpartum glucose testing. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes (18.4%) at postpartum, clinicians should emphasize the importance of postpartum diabetes screening to patients with factors affecting testing noncompliance.

  7. Feedback-Based Coverage Directed Test Generation: An Industrial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Charalambos; Barrett, Geoff; Eder, Kerstin

    Although there are quite a few approaches to Coverage Directed test Generation aided by Machine Learning which have been applied successfully to small and medium size digital designs, it is not clear how they would scale on more elaborate industrial-level designs. This paper evaluates one of these techniques, called MicroGP, on a fully fledged industrial design. The results indicate relative success evidenced by a good level of code coverage achieved with reasonably compact tests when compared to traditional test generation approaches. However, there is scope for improvement especially with respect to the diversity of the tests evolved.

  8. Stepwise multiple test procedures and control of directional errors

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems occurring with stepwise multiple test procedures for a set of two-sided hypotheses is the control of direc-tional errors if rejection of a hypothesis is accomplished with a directional decision. In this paper we generalize a result for so-called step-down procedures derived by Shaffer to a large class of stepwise or closed multiple test procedures. In a unifying way we obtain results for a large class of order statistics procedures includin...

  9. ACCOUNTING CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES IN THE CONTEXT OF HARMONIZATION AND THE COMPLIANCE OF NATIONAL REGULATIONS WITH DIRECTIVE 2013/34/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateș Dorel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The accounting field difficulties, generated by the social or cultural climate, often lead to distortions in economic behaviour which involve the loss of economic and financial opportunities or lead to ineffective activities. The increasingly globalisation of economies, the financial requirements statement users and the globalization of capital markets have introduced new forms of financial reporting; thus the contemporary evolution of accounting is marked by the following phenomena: standardization, harmonization, compliance and convergence. Based on the need for modernization and improvement of the European Directives, Directive 2013/34/EU focuses on at least four important aspects: the faithful representation of the information presented in the financial statements, financial reporting cost reduction, fighting against tax evasion and avoiding money laundering. In the present paper, we aim to highlight the elements which will undergo significant change as well as their impact on the entities in our country through the implementation of this directive.

  10. 40 CFR 63.145 - Process wastewater provisions-test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-test... Operations, and Wastewater § 63.145 Process wastewater provisions—test methods and procedures to determine... analytical method for wastewater which has that compound as a target analyte. (7) Treatment using a series...

  11. Media coverage of direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John; Parrott, Ashley; Hopkin, Robert J; Myers, Melanie

    2011-10-01

    Media coverage of Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing shapes public perception of such testing. The purpose of this study was to determine and assess the themes presented by U.S. news media regarding DTC genetic testing. We performed a Lexis-Nexis search with the keywords "Direct-to-Consumer" and "genetic test" for news stories published from 2006-2009. The sample was coded on themes of genetic determinism, privacy, discrimination, validity, regulation, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), utility, and cost. Ninety-two news stories were included. Stories displayed moderate genetic determinism and were neutral about validity and utility. Stories indicated that insurance and employers were the most likely sources of discrimination, yet identified the physicians and DTC companies as groups most likely to violate privacy. Stories claimed lack of regulation would harm consumers, but most post-GINA stories did not discuss the law. The costs of tests were frequently included. The results of this study show a broad range of views toward DTC genetic testing and its potential impacts. The genetics community should be aware that the public has been exposed to multiple views of DTC genetic testing when discussing these tests.

  12. 40 CFR 63.705 - Performance test methods and procedures to determine initial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following procedures: (1) All forced makeup air ducts and all exhaust ducts are constructed so...(c) when hard piping or ductwork is used to direct HAP emissions from a HAP source to the control..., as required by § 63.703(c)(2). (iii) When a nonregenerative carbon adsorber is used, the...

  13. 16 CFR 1633.13 - Tests for guaranty purposes, compliance with this section, and “one of a kind” exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests for guaranty purposes, compliance with this section, and âone of a kindâ exemption. 1633.13 Section 1633.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... mattresses. (1)(i) A mattress set manufactured in accordance with a physician's written prescription...

  14. Statistical tests for associations between two directed acyclic graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hoehndorf

    Full Text Available Biological data, and particularly annotation data, are increasingly being represented in directed acyclic graphs (DAGs. However, while relevant biological information is implicit in the links between multiple domains, annotations from these different domains are usually represented in distinct, unconnected DAGs, making links between the domains represented difficult to determine. We develop a novel family of general statistical tests for the discovery of strong associations between two directed acyclic graphs. Our method takes the topology of the input graphs and the specificity and relevance of associations between nodes into consideration. We apply our method to the extraction of associations between biomedical ontologies in an extensive use-case. Through a manual and an automatic evaluation, we show that our tests discover biologically relevant relations. The suite of statistical tests we develop for this purpose is implemented and freely available for download.

  15. Positive direct antiglobulin tests due to clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M E; Thomas, D; Harman, C P; Mintz, P D; Donowitz, G R

    1985-01-01

    Clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, was found to be associated with the development of a positive direct antiglobulin test. Of 23 antibiotic courses in patients treated with ticarcillin, clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, 10 (43.5%) developed positive direct antiglobulin tests versus 2 of 26 (7.7%) patients treated with piperacillin and tobramycin (P = 0.0044). In vitro immunohematological studies showed that clavulanic acid caused a nonimmunologic adsorption of plasma proteins onto the erythrocyte surface. Hemolysis was not associated with such nonimmunologic adsorption. However, the resulting positive antiglobulin test might delay cross matching of blood products for transfusions or interfere with the evaluation of true immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. PMID:3872623

  16. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  17. LEGAL ASPECTS OF DIRECT-TO-CONSUMER GENETIC TESTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Yaneva – Deliverska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. Most of the time, testing is used to find changes that are associated with inherited disorders. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. The main difference between direct-to-consumer genetic testing and the standard genetic testing is the way informational support is provided in internet offers of testing. Counselling may be offered as an additional special service at extra costs and at the customer's request. It may also be that a recommendation or at least an offer is given for the customer to contact a doctor or health practitioner from the company via phone for counselling.In a liberal society the fundamental individual rights can be considered to include access to medical treatment and diagnostics that may be helpful for improving one's health condition or that can help an individual make decisions regarding life style and health. At the European level, there are no binding legal regulations that specifically apply for genetic testing. In some European counties, national laws, require a responsible medical person to be involved before a genetic test is provided. The Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine was adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 November 1996, while an Additional Protocol to the Convention, concerning Genetic Testing for Health Purposes, was adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 7 May 2008.Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is closely watched by the community of medical genetics and counsellors, and the EU funded Eurogentest Network of Excellence.In 2010, the European Society of Human Genetics has releaseda statement on direct-to-consumer gene testing for health-related purposes. The European Society of Human Genetics is concerned about the way in which commercial companies are

  18. The Monosyllable Imitation Test for Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Characteristics on Imitation, Compliance and Diagnostic Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Heard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although verbal imitation can provide a valuable window into the developing language abilities of toddlers, some toddlers find verbal imitation challenging and will not comply with tests that involve elicited verbal imitation. The characteristics of stimuli that are offered to toddlers for imitation may influence how easy or hard it is…

  19. 40 CFR 63.1512 - Performance test/compliance demonstration requirements and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the control device. (g) Dross-only furnace. The owner or operator must conduct a performance test to measure emissions of PM from each dross-only furnace at the outlet of each control device while the unit processes only dross and salt flux as the sole feedstock. (h) In-line fluxer. (1) The owner...

  20. HIV and Hepatitis Testing: Global Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Johnson, Cheryl; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection and viral hepatitis due to HBV and HCV infection are major causes of chronic disease worldwide, and share some common routes of transmission, epidemiology, initial barriers faced in treatment access, and in strategies for a global public health response. Testing and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection is the gateway for access to both care and treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective HIV and hepatitis epidemic response. In this review article, we first summarize the common goals and guiding principles in a public health approach to HIV and hepatitis testing. We summarize the impressive global progress in HIV testing scale-up and evolution of approaches, with expansion of provider-initiated testing and counseling in clinical settings (particularly antenatal and tuberculosis clinics), the introduction of more community based testing services, and use of rapid diagnostic tests enabling provision of same-day test results. However, 46% of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their serostatus, and many continue to be diagnosed and start antiretroviral therapy late. As testing and treatment scale-up accelerates for an "treat all" approach, other challenges to address include how to better focus testing and reach those yet undiagnosed and most at risk, especially key populations, men, adolescents, and children. We summarize future directions in HIV testing to speed scale-up and close gaps that are addressed in the WHO 2015 consolidated HIV testing guidelines. In contrast to HIV, action in hepatitis testing and treatment has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. We summarize key challenges in the hepatitis testing response, including lack of simple, reliable, and low-cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to screen; stigmatization and social

  1. A practical approach for the validation of sterility, endotoxin and potency testing of bone marrow mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration in compliance with good manufacturing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gola Mauro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Main scope of the EU and FDA regulations is to establish a classification criterion for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP. Regulations require that ATMPs must be prepared under good manufacturing practice (GMP. We have validated a commercial system for the determination of bacterial endotoxins in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.14, the sterility testing in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.1 and a potency assay in an ATMP constituted of mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration. Methods For the potency assay, cells were placed in the upper part of a modified Boyden chamber containing Endocult Basal Medium with supplements and transmigrated cells were scored. The invasion index was expressed as the ratio between the numbers of invading cells relative to cell migration through a control insert membrane. For endotoxins, we used a commercially available system based on the kinetic chromogenic LAL-test. Validation of sterility was performed by direct inoculation of TSB and FTM media with the cell product following Eu Ph 2.6.1 guideline. Results and discussion The calculated MVD and endotoxin limit were 780× and 39 EU/ml respectively. The 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions were selected for the validation. For sterility, all the FTM cultures were positive after 3 days. For TSB cultures, Mycetes and B. subtilis were positive after 5 and 3 days respectively. The detection limit was 1-10 colonies. A total of four invasion assay were performed: the calculated invasion index was 28.89 ± 16.82% (mean ± SD. Conclusion We have validated a strategy for endotoxin, sterility and potency testing in an ATMP used in cardiac regeneration. Unlike pharmaceutical products, many stem-cell-based products may originate in hospitals where personnel are unfamiliar with the applicable regulations. As new ATMPs are developed, the regulatory framework is likely to evolve. Meanwhile, existing regulations provide an appropriate structure for

  2. Testing of a direct drive generator for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, L.M. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The normal drive train of a wind turbine consists a gearbox and a 4 to 8 poles asynchronous generator. The gearbox is an expensive and unreliable components and this paper deals with testing of a direct drive synchronous generator for a gearless wind turbine. The Danish company Belt Electric has constructed and manufactured a 27 kW prototype radial flux PM-generator (DD600). They have used cheap hard ferrite magnets in the rotor of this PM-generator. This generator has been tested at Riso and the test results are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The tests have been done with three different load types (1: resistance; 2: diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance; 3: AC-capacitor, diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance). 1 ref., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Testing of Action of Direct Flame on Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Jaroslav; Novosad, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The paper states results of experimental exposition of concrete test specimens to direct flame. Concrete test specimens made from various mixtures differing in the type of aggregate, binder, dispersed reinforcement, and technological procedure were subjected to thermal load. Physicomechanical and other properties of all test specimens were tested before exposition to open flame: density, compressive strength, flexural strength, moisture content, and surface appearance. The specimens were visually observed during exposition to open flame and changes were recorded. Exposed surface was photographically documented before thermal load and at 10-minute intervals. Development of temperature of the specimens was documented with a thermocamera. After exposition to thermal load and cooling down, concrete specimens were visually observed, network of cracks was photographically documented, and maximal depth of spalled area was measured. PMID:25830162

  4. Large-scale direct shear testing of geocell reinforced soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The tests on the shear property of geocell reinforced soils were carried out by using large-scale direct shear equipment with shear-box-dimensions of 500 mm×500 mm×400 mm (length×width×height).Three types of specimens,silty gravel soil,geoceli reinforced silty gravel soil and geoceli reinforood cement stabilizing silty gravel soil were used to investigate the shear stress-displacement behavior,the shear strength and the strengthening mechanism of geocell reinforced soils.The comparisons of large-scale shear test with triaxial compression test for the same type of soil were conducted to evaluate the influences of testing method on the shear strength as well.The test results show that the unreinforced soil and geocell reinforced soil give similar nonlinear features on the behavior of shear stress and displacement.The geocell reinforced cement stabilizing soil has a quasi-elastic characteristic in the case of normal stress coming up to 1.0 GPa.The tests with the reinforcement of geocell result in an increase of 244% in cohesion,and the tests with the geocell and the cement stabilization result in an increase of 10 times in cohesion compared with the unreinforced soil.The friction angle does not change markedly.The geocell reinforcement develops a large amount of cohesion on the shear strength of soils.

  5. Passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion tests perform better than pulse pressure variation in patients with low respiratory system compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Xavier; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Ferré, Alexis; Dres, Martin; Gharbi, Rim; Richard, Christian; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the poor ability of pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome was related to low lung compliance. We also tested whether the changes in cardiac index induced by passive leg-raising and by an end-expiratory occlusion test were better than pulse pressure variation at predicting fluid responsiveness in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Prospective study. Medical intensive care unit. We included 54 patients with circulatory shock (63 ± 13 yrs; Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 63 ± 24). Twenty-seven patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (compliance of the respiratory system, 22 ± 3 mL/cm H2O). In nonacute respiratory distress syndrome patients, the compliance of the respiratory system was 45 ± 9 mL/cm H2O. We measured the response of cardiac index (transpulmonary thermodilution) to fluid administration (500 mL saline). Before fluid administration, we recorded pulse pressure variation and the changes in pulse contour analysis-derived cardiac index induced by passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion. Fluid increased cardiac index ≥ 15% (44% ± 39%) in 30 "responders." Pulse pressure variation was significantly correlated with compliance of the respiratory system (r = .58), but not with tidal volume. The higher the compliance of the respiratory system, the better the prediction of fluid responsiveness by pulse pressure variation. A compliance of the respiratory system of 30 mL/cm H2O was the best cut-off for discriminating patients regarding the ability of pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness. If compliance of the respiratory system was >30 mL/cm H2O, then the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for predicting fluid responsiveness was not different for pulse pressure variation and the passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion tests (0.98 ± 0.03, 0.91 ± 0.06, and 0.97 ± 0.03, respectively). By contrast

  6. Examination of virtual phantoms with respect to their possible use in assessing compliance with the electromagnetic field exposure limits specified by Directive 2013/35/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Zradziński

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Directive 2013/35/EU, any assessment of hazards associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF in the workplace needs an evaluation of quantities characterizing biophysical effects caused inside human bodies by exposure. Such quantities (induced electric field or specific energy absorption rate may be evaluated by computer simulations in virtual models (phantoms, representing interaction between EMF and the worker’s body with respect to modelling the EMF source, the structure of the working environment and the human body. The paper describes the effects of the properties of various virtual phantoms used in recently published studies on various aspects of EMF exposure with respect to their possible involvement in assessing occupational electromagnetic hazards as required by Directive 2013/35/ EU. The parameters of phantoms have been discussed with reference to: dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground. Such parameters should be considered and specified, and perhaps also standardized, in order to ensure that the numerical simulations yield reliable results in a compliance analysis against exposure limits or in an exposure assessment for EMF-related epidemiological studies. The outcomes of the presented examination of virtual phantoms used in numerical simulations show that they can be effectively used in the assessment of compliance with the exposure limits specified by Directive 2013/35/EU, but various other factors should be also considered, e.g., the relationship between phantom posture and a realistic exposure situation (flexible phantoms use, limited resolution preventing reliable evaluation of physical estimators of exposure, or a non-realistic area of phantom surface in contact with the ground.

  7. Examination of virtual phantoms with respect to their possible use in assessing compliance with the electromagnetic field exposure limits specified by Directive 2013/35/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    According to Directive 2013/35/EU, any assessment of hazards associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the workplace needs an evaluation of quantities characterizing biophysical effects caused inside human bodies by exposure. Such quantities (induced electric field or specific energy absorption rate) may be evaluated by computer simulations in virtual models (phantoms), representing interaction between EMF and the worker's body with respect to modelling the EMF source, the structure of the working environment and the human body. The paper describes the effects of the properties of various virtual phantoms used in recently published studies on various aspects of EMF exposure with respect to their possible involvement in assessing occupational electromagnetic hazards as required by Directive 2013/35/ EU. The parameters of phantoms have been discussed with reference to: dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground. Such parameters should be considered and specified, and perhaps also standardized, in order to ensure that the numerical simulations yield reliable results in a compliance analysis against exposure limits or in an exposure assessment for EMF-related epidemiological studies. The outcomes of the presented examination of virtual phantoms used in numerical simulations show that they can be effectively used in the assessment of compliance with the exposure limits specified by Directive 2013/35/EU, but various other factors should be also considered, e.g., the relationship between phantom posture and a realistic exposure situation (flexible phantoms use), limited resolution preventing reliable evaluation of physical estimators of exposure, or a non-realistic area of phantom surface in contact with the ground.

  8. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  9. Evaluation of a Newly Formulated Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of Hydrocodone and Hydromorphone in Pain Management Compliance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Renata; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl E

    2016-10-01

    A new Hydrocodone Enzyme Immunoassay (HEIA; Lin-Zhi International, Inc.) was evaluated for the detection of hydrocodone and its main metabolite, hydromorphone. All specimens were tested with two different cutoff calibrators, 100 and 300 ng/mL, on an ARCHITECT Plus c4000 Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. Controls containing -25% (negative control) and +25% (positive control) of the cutoff calibrators and a drug-free control were analyzed with each batch. All 1,025 urine specimens were previously analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) for opiates. Approximately, 33% (337/1,019) of the specimens yielded positive results by the HEIA assay at a cutoff concentration of 100 ng/mL and 19% (190/1,025) yielded positive results at the 300 ng/mL cutoff concentration. Of these presumptive positive specimens, UPLC-MS-MS confirmed the presence of hydrocodone and/or hydromorphone >100 ng/mL in 241 specimens and >300 ng/mL in 162 specimens, for each respective cutoff. With the 100 ng/mL cutoff, the HEIA demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.959, a specificity of 0.846 and an overall agreement with the UPLC-MS-MS of 87%. At 300 ng/mL cutoff, the HEIA demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.880, a specificity of 0.966 and an overall agreement of UPLC-MS-MS results of 95%. The Lin-Zhi HEIA 100 ng/mL cutoff assay demonstrated sensitivity for the detection of hydrocodone and hydromorphone in urine. The 300 ng/mL cutoff was less sensitive, but more selective, and should be part of an initial immunoassay screen, particularly in pain management compliance testing.

  10. A Universal Reduced Rupture Creep Approach for Prediction of Long Term Failure Behavior of Aged Glass Polymers from the Short Term Test of Rupture Creep Compliance by the Unified Master Curved Extrapolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jun Song; Da-ming Wu; Wei-yue Song; Ming-shi Song; Gui-xian Hu

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of long term failure behaviors and lifetime of aged glass polymers from the short term tests of reduced rupture creep compliance (or strain) is one of difficult problems in polymer science and engineering.A new "universal reduced rupture creep approach" with exact theoretical analysis and computations is proposed in this work.Failure by creep for polymeric material is an important problem to be addressed in the engineering.A universal equation on reduced extensional failure creep compliance for PMMA has been derived.It is successful in relating the reduced extensional failure creep compliance with aging time,temperature,levels of stress,the average growth dimensional number and the parameter in K-W-W function.Based on the universal equation,a method for the prediction of failure behavior,failure strain criterion,failure time of PMMA has been developed which is named as a universal "reduced rupture creep approach".The results show that the predicted failure strain and failure time of PMMA at different aging times for different levels of stress are all in agreement with those obtained directly from experiments,and the proposed method is reliable and practical.The dependences of reduced extensional failure creep compliance on the conditions of aging time,failure creep stress,the structure of fluidized-domain constituent chains are discussed.The shifting factor,exponent for time-stress superposition at different levels of stress and the shifting factor,exponent for time-time aging superposition at different aging time are theoretically defined respectively.

  11. Direct Assay of Filter Media following DEOX Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Lind; J.J. Giglio; D.G. Cummings; M.W. Huntley; C.D. Morgan; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist; D.A. Sell

    2007-09-01

    The direct assay of filter media by gamma spectrometry following DEOX testing has distinct advantages over analytical chemistry. Prior to using gamma spectrometry for the quantification of cesium (Cs-137), a calibration must be established with known sources since gamma spectrometry yields relative results. Quantitative analytical chemistry, in particular ICP-MS, has been performed on the filter media for comparison to the gamma spectrometry data. The correlation of gamma spectrometry to ICP-MS data is presented to justify the continued use of gamma spectrometry for filter media.

  12. Bi-directional thruster development and test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, A. D.; Bushnell, G. S.; Anderson, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, calibration and testing of a cold gas, bi-directional throttlable thruster are discussed. The thruster consists of an electro-pneumatic servovalve exhausting through opposite nozzles with a high gain pressure feedback loop to optimize performance. The thruster force was measured to determine hysteresis and linearity. Integral gain was used to maximize performance for linearity, hysteresis, and minimum thrust requirements. Proportional gain provided high dynamic response (bandwidth and phase lag). Thruster performance is very important since the thrusters are intended to be used for active control.

  13. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  14. Performance of genotype-MTBDR test directly on clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Yılmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Most important point for the control and effective treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TBis early diagnosis and rapid determination of the resistance. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of theGenotype-MTBDR assay applied directly on sputum samples and compare the results with those obtained by DNA sequencingand phenotypic susceptibility testing.Materials and methods: Between November 2005 and February 2006, 93 smear and culture positive sputum sampleswere included in the study. Drug susceptibility results for rifampin (RIF and isoniazid (INH, obtained by proportionmethod on L-J medium, Genotype-MTBDR and DNA sequencing were compared.Results: The rate of concordance between the results of the Genotype-MTBDR and DNA sequencing was 93.5% and96.7% for RIF and INH, respectively. Moreover, Genotype-MTBDR detected all the RIF (24 and INH (18 resistant strainsobtained by sequencing (100%. Compared to the DNA sequencing method; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictiveand negative predictive value for RIF and INH were 100%, 91.3%, 80%, 100% and 100%, 96%, 85.7%, 100% respectively.Conclusion: Genotype-MTBDR, one of molecular assays, distinctly shortens the time for diagnosis and detection of resistanceto INH and RIF, essential for management of MDR-TB. The test appears to have good sensitivity and specificitywhen also used directly on sputum specimens. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(4: 135-141Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; drug resistance; genotype-MTBDR.

  15. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-02-03

    Stored solutions containing plutonium and nitric acid and possibly uranium thorium and minor amounts of other substances will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those to stable storable PuO{sub 2} rich solids. Some of those solutions are quite dilute and very impure these require either pretreatment to make them suitable for calciner feed or an alternate stabilization method. Untreated scrap solutions containing some amounts of sulfate phosphate sodium and/or potassium may also be tested for suitability of direct denitration for conversion directly to PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium-rich solids. The calciner and some of its ancillary equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  16. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-02-03

    Stored solutions containing plutonium and nitric acid and possibly uranium thorium and minor amounts of other substances will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those to stable storable PuO{sub 2} rich solids. Some of those solutions are quite dilute and very impure these require either pretreatment to make them suitable for calciner feed or an alternate stabilization method. Untreated scrap solutions containing some amounts of sulfate phosphate sodium and/or potassium may also be tested for suitability of direct denitration for conversion directly to PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  17. Direct Sensitivity Test of the MB/BacT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Angela Maria Werneck

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the direct-method test of sensitivity to drugs used in the principal tuberculosis treatment regimes, in the Organon Teknika MB/BacT system, we tested 50 sputum samples positive to microscopy taken from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and with clinical indications for an antibiogram, admitted sequentially for examination during the routine of the reference laboratory. The material was treated v/v with 23% trisodium phosphate solution, incubated for 24 h at 35°C, and neutralized v/v with 20% monosodium phosphate solution. The material was then centrifuged and the sediment inoculated into flasks containing Rifampin - 2 µg/ml, Isoniazid - 0.2 µg/ml, Pyrazinamide - 100 µg/ml, Ethambutol - 2.5 µg/ml, Ethionamide - 1.25 µg/ml, and Streptomycin - 2 µg/ml. The tests were evaluated using the indirect method in the BACTEC 460 TB (Becton Dickinson system as the gold standard. The results showed that the Rifampin test performed best, i.e., 100% sensitivity at 95% Confidence Interval (82.2-100 and 100% specificity at 95% Confidence Interval (84.5-100, followed by Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide. In this experiment, 92% of the materials showed a final reading in 30 days; this period represents the time for primary isolation as well as the results of the sensitivity profile, and is within Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations regarding time for performance of the antibiogram. The inoculated flasks showed no contamination during the experiment. The MB/BacT is shown to be a reliable, rapid, fully automated nonradiometric system for the tuberculosis antibiogram.

  18. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-10-05

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  19. Life time test in direct borohydride fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamard, Romain [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), LITEN-DTNM-LCH, 17 av. des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique LACCO UMR6503, 40 av. du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Salomon, Jeremie; Martinent-Beaumont, Audrey [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), LITEN-DTNM-LCH, 17 av. des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coutanceau, Christophe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique LACCO UMR6503, 40 av. du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    2009-09-05

    The electric performances of direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs) are evaluated in terms of power density and life time with respect to the NaBH{sub 4} concentration. A DBFC constituted of an anionic membrane, a 0.6 mg{sub Pt} cm{sup -2} anode and a commercial non-platinum based cathode led to performances as high as 200 mW cm{sup -2} at room temperature and with natural convection of air. Electrochemical life time test at 0.55 mA cm{sup -2} with a 5 M NaBH{sub 4}/1 M NaOH solution shows a voltage diminution of 1 mV h{sup -1} and a drastic drop of performances after 250 h. The life time is twice longer with 2 M NaBH{sub 4}/1 M NaOH solution (450 h) and the voltage decrease is 0.5 mV h{sup -1}. Analyses of the components after life time tests indicate that voltage loss is mainly due to the degradation of the cathode performance. Crystallisation of carbonate and borate is observed at the cathode side, although the anionic membrane displays low permeability to borohydride. (author)

  20. Direct antiglobulin test positivity in multi-transfused thalassemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Red cell allo- and auto-immunization is a well recognized problem in multi-transfused thalassemic patients. We conducted this study on 301 multi-transfused thalassemic patients under the Thalassemia Transfusion Programme of Advanced Pediatric Centre of PGIMER. Aims and Objectives: The study was designed to determine the frequency of alloimmunization and autoimmunization in multi-transfused thalassemic patients and to establish the specificity of alloantibody to red cell antigens, if alloimmunization is detected. Materials and Methods: The antibody screening was performed by the conventional tube technique using commercially available three cell screening panel (Diamed Switzerland by saline, low ionic strength solution (LISS and albumin indirect antiglobulin test (IAT. Samples with alloantibodies were then tested with red cell identification panel to determine the alloantibody specificity. Autoantibody screening was performed by direct antiglobulin test (DAT during pre-transfusion testing. Results: Of the 301 patients, 52 (17.28% were found to have antibodies (-allo and –autoantibodies. A total of 11 red cell alloantibodies were detected in 10 patients and the specificities were anti-Kell in 6(54.5%, anti-D in 2(18.2%, anti-c in 1(9.1% and a combination of anti-E (9.1% and anti-Jkb in 1 (9.1% patients. DAT was positive in 48 (15.9% patients. The frequency of autoantibody was significantly higher in alloimmunized group as compared to non-alloimmunized group (60% V/s 14.4%. Also, the pre-transfusion hemoglobin was significantly lower in the immunized group (8.5 gm/dl V/s 9.0 gm/dl; p=0.03 than the non-immunized group. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we suggest antigen typing of all thalassemia major patients for ABO, Rh and Kell antigens before initiating transfusion therapy. Also, screening for allo- and auto-antibodies at regular intervals should be done prior to each transfusion.

  1. Performing compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should......Guidelines are increasingly used to regulate how local authorities engage in practices. Focusing on the Danish national health promotion guidelines, this article reveals that the local policy workers did not implement the guidelines as proposed. Using a dramaturgical framework, it illustrates how...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....

  2. Handwashing compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Jeannie

    2004-09-01

    Undeniably, handwashing remains the single most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing and reducing the transmission of nosocomial infections. Yet the rates and outbreaks of nosocomial infections in Canadian and international healthcare institutions continue to increase. Shaikh Khalifa Medical Center developed and implemented a multidisciplinary approach to address the challenges of handwashing compliance among nurses and healthcare workers in its workplace setting. Supported by evidence-based research, the approach consisted of three components: collaboration, implementation and evaluation. The use of the alcohol-based hand rub sanitizer or "solution" was integral to the multidisciplinary approach. Ongoing education, communication and a committed leadership were essential to promote and sustain handwashing compliance.

  3. The Strategic Nature of Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    This compliance study models correct and timely implementation of policies in a multilevel system as a strategic game between a central monitoring agency and multiple implementers and evaluates statistically the empirical implications of this model. We test whether compliance is determined...

  4. Nitrate framework directive and cross compliance: two case studies from the MO.NA.CO. monitoring network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Act A4 refers to Articles 4 and 5 of Directive 91/676 / EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources. The A4 Act applies to farms that have land within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ; it also applies to farms, with or without herds, that participate in measure 214 of the Rural Development Plans. The monitoring was performed in two experimental farms belonging to CREA-FLC. Both monitoring sites are located in  vulnerable areas designated by the Lombardy Region. In the monitoring period MO.NA.CO., the regional standard of reference were the Decrees of the Regional Government DGR5868 / 2007 and DGR2208 / 2011. The average cost attributable to administrative requirements was about € 600 / year / company and was mainly due to a professional agronomist who prepared the Agronomic Utilization Plan (PUA, assisted the farm in preparing its communication, provided advice and informed farm managers on regulatory updates. An informal, not systematic survey made possible to detect that the cost to fulfil the obligations of communication can be very variable depending on the farm’s characteristics (size, production, size of the herd and the type of consultant assisting the breeder (freelancer, association, cooperative. For example, in some cases the cost is based on the area of the farm, in others on the number of animals in the herd; and in other situations, the associations and freelance agronomist apply a flat rate for the compilation of the PUAs which is unaffected by farm characteristics and ranging from a minimum of € 100 / year / company practiced by some farmers’ association to a maximum of € 800 / year / company required by some freelance agronomist. At Baroncina farm the storage capacity of the slurry, during the monitoring period, was not compliant with the law because the volumes produced could not be stocked for 120 days as required by the standard. New storage facilities

  5. Test Directions as a Critical Component of Test Design: Best Practices and the Impact of Examinee Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of test directions is to familiarize examinees with a test so that they respond to items in the manner intended. However, changes in educational measurement as well as the U.S. student population present new challenges to test directions and increase the impact that differential familiarity could have on the validity of test score…

  6. Test Directions as a Critical Component of Test Design: Best Practices and the Impact of Examinee Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of test directions is to familiarize examinees with a test so that they respond to items in the manner intended. However, changes in educational measurement as well as the U.S. student population present new challenges to test directions and increase the impact that differential familiarity could have on the validity of test score…

  7. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.

    2004-01-01

    A special BUT-transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all measured directly, thus enab...

  8. Pulsed direct and constant direct currents in the pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat chloride test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carla Cristina Souza; Servidoni, Maria de Fatima; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Canavezi, Paulo Jose Coelho; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Toro, Adyleia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Pavan, Celia Regina; Rondon, Michelle Vivine Sá Dos Santos; Lorena, Sonia Leticia Silva; Vieria, Francisco Ubaldi; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu

    2014-12-13

    The classic sweat test (CST) is the golden standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Then, our aim was compare the production and volume of sweat, and side effects caused by pulsed direct current (PDC) and constant direct current (CDC). To determine the optimal stimulation time (ST) for the sweat collection. To verify the PDC as CF diagnosis option. Prospective study with cross-sectional experimental intervention. Experiment 1 (right arm): PDC and CDC. ST at 10 min and sweat collected at 30 min. Currents of 0.5; 0.75; 1.0 and 1.5 mA and frequencies of 0, 200, 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied. Experiment 2 (left arm): current of 1.0 mA, ST at 5 and 10 min and sweat collected at 15 and 30 min with frequencies of 0; 200; 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied Experiments 1 and 2 were performed with current density (CD) from 0.07 to 0.21 mA/cm2. Experiment 3: PDC was used in typical CF patients with two CFTR mutations screened and or with CF diagnosis by rectal biopsy and patients with atypical CF. 48 subjects (79.16% female) with average of 29.54 ± 8.87 years old were enrolled. There was no statistical difference between the interaction of frequency and current in the sweat weight (p = 0.7488). Individually, positive association was achieved between weight sweat and stimulation frequency (p = 0.0088); and current (p = 0.0025). The sweat production was higher for 10 min of stimulation (p = 0.0023). The sweat collection was better for 30 min (p = 0.0019). The skin impedance was not influenced by ST and sweat collection (p > 0.05). The current frequency was inversely associated with the skin impedance (p < 0.0001). The skin temperature measured before stimulation was higher than after (p < 0.0001). In Experiment 3 (29 subjects) the PDC showed better kappa index compared to CDC (0.9218 versus 0.5205, respectively). The performance of the CST with CDC and PDC with CD of 0.14 to 0.21 mA/cm2 showed efficacy in steps of stimulation and collection of sweat, without side effects. The optimal

  9. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.

    2006-01-01

    A special Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all...... measured directly, thus enabling accurate measurement of friction and direct determination of lubricant film breakdown for varying normal pressure, sliding speed, tool radius and tool preheat temperature. The transducer is applied in an experimental investigation focusing on limits of lubrication...... in drawing of stainless steel showing the influence of varying process conditions and the performance of different lubricants....

  10. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.

    2004-01-01

    A special BUT-transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all measured directly, thus...... enabling accurate measurement of friction and direct determination of lubricant film breakdown for varying normal pressure, sliding speed, tool radius and tool preheat temperature. The transducer is applied in an experimental investigation focusing on limits of lubrication in drawing of stainless steel...... showing the influence of varying process conditions and the performance of different lubricants....

  11. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance.

  12. Testing of Market Price Direction Dependence on US Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Stádník

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The correct model of a liquid financial market is very important for all market activities including for example a stock or bond portfolio management or an asset valuation. Dynamic Financial Market Model is a comprehensive model with a detailed interpretation. The model considers also feedback processes which cause price development direction dependence on the previous development. This is why it is also able to explain departures from normality as leptokurtic deformations with fat tails and sharpness, extreme values or skewness in the returns’ probability distributions. These departures are commonly explained using a wide range of models with volatility dependence. The question is then arising, whether the volatility or direction dependence is more in accordance with reality. Price Inertia Feedback is one of the most important and has a direct impact on probability distribution and also on a price forecasting. Empirical measurement of this feedback is the core of the paper.

  13. Direct Testing of Speaking Proficiency: Theory and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John L. D., Ed.

    The following papers are presented in the conference proceedings: (1) "Development and Current Use of the FSI Oral Interview Test," by H. Sollenberger; (2) "Interview Testing in Non-European Languages," by W. Lovelace; (3) "Measuring Second Language Speaking Ability in New Brunswick's Senior High Schools," by M. Albert; (4) "Using the FSI…

  14. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der J.A.M.; Beerda, B.; Ooms, M.; Silveira de Souza, A.; Hagen, M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviour test batteries are used to identify aggressive dogs. The Dutch Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB)-test has been used since 2001 to select against unwanted aggression and fear in specific dog breeds, though much is unknown yet regarding its reliability, validity and feasibility. In this pa

  15. Audit of Helicobacter pylori Testing in Microbiology Laboratories in England: To Inform Compliance with NICE Guidance and the Feasibility of Routine Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie Allison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidance recommends that dyspeptic patients are tested for Helicobacter pylori using a urea breath test, stool antigen test, or serology. Antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is globally increasing, but treatment in England is rarely guided by susceptibility testing or surveillance. Aims. To determine compliance of microbiology laboratories in England with NICE guidance and whether laboratories perform culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST. Methods. In 2015, 170 accredited English microbiology laboratories were surveyed, by email. Results. 121/170 (71% laboratories responded; 96% provided H. pylori testing (78% on site. 94% provided H. pylori diagnosis using stool antigen; only four provided serology as their noninvasive test; 3/4 of these encouraged urea breath tests in their acute trusts. Only 22/94 (23% of the laboratories performed H. pylori cultures from gastric biopsies on site; 9/22 performed AST, but the vast majority processed less than one specimen/week. Conclusions. Only five laboratories in England do not comply with NICE guidance; these will need the guidance reinforced. National surveillance needs to be implemented; culture-based AST would need to be centralised. Moving forward, detection of resistance in H. pylori from stool specimens using molecular methods (PCR needs to be explored.

  16. Benchmarking of direct and indirect friction tests in micro forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Calaon, Matteo; Arentoft, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sizeable increase in metal forming friction at micro scale, due to the existence of size effects, constitutes a barrier to the realization of industrial micro forming processes. In the quest for improved frictional conditions in micro scale forming operations, friction tests are applied...... to qualify the tribological performance of the particular forming scenario. In this work the application of a simulative sliding friction test at micro scale is studied. The test setup makes it possible to measure the coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding motion. The results confirm a sizeable...... increase in the coefficient of friction when the work piece size is scaled down. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications....

  17. Direct sunlight facility for testing and research in HCPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciortino, Luisa; Agnello, Simonpietro; Barbera, Marco; Bonsignore, Gaetano; Buscemi, Alessandro; Candia, Roberto; Cannas, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Di Cicca, Gaspare; Gelardi, Franco Mario; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Montagnino, Fabio Maria; Napoli, Gianluca; Paredes, Filippo; Spallino, Luisa; Varisco, Salvo

    2014-09-01

    A facility for testing different components for HCPV application has been developed in the framework of "Fotovoltaico ad Alta Efficienza" (FAE) project funded by the Sicilian Regional Authority (PO FESR Sicilia 2007/2013 4.1.1.1). The testing facility is equipped with an heliostat providing a wide solar beam inside the lab, an optical bench for mounting and aligning the HCPV components, electronic equipments to characterize the I-V curves of multijunction cells operated up to 2000 suns, a system to circulate a fluid in the heat sink at controlled temperature and flow-rate, a data logging system with sensors to measure temperatures in several locations and fluid pressures at the inlet and outlet of the heat sink, and a climatic chamber with large test volume to test assembled HCPV modules.

  18. Direct sunlight facility for testing and research in HCPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciortino, Luisa, E-mail: luisa.sciortino@unipa.it; Agnello, Simonpietro, E-mail: luisa.sciortino@unipa.it; Bonsignore, Gaetano; Cannas, Marco; Gelardi, Franco Mario; Napoli, Gianluca; Spallino, Luisa [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 PA (Italy); Barbera, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 PA, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G. S. Vaiana, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 PA (Italy); Buscemi, Alessandro; Montagnino, Fabio Maria; Paredes, Filippo [IDEA s.r.l., Contrada Molara, Zona Industriale III Fase, 90018 Termini Imerese (Panama) (Italy); Candia, Roberto; Collura, Alfonso; Di Cicca, Gaspare; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Varisco, Salvo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G. S. Vaiana, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 PA (Italy)

    2014-09-26

    A facility for testing different components for HCPV application has been developed in the framework of 'Fotovoltaico ad Alta Efficienza' (FAE) project funded by the Sicilian Regional Authority (PO FESR Sicilia 2007/2013 4.1.1.1). The testing facility is equipped with an heliostat providing a wide solar beam inside the lab, an optical bench for mounting and aligning the HCPV components, electronic equipments to characterize the I-V curves of multijunction cells operated up to 2000 suns, a system to circulate a fluid in the heat sink at controlled temperature and flow-rate, a data logging system with sensors to measure temperatures in several locations and fluid pressures at the inlet and outlet of the heat sink, and a climatic chamber with large test volume to test assembled HCPV modules.

  19. Modeling and Analysis of a Compliance Model and Rotational Precision for a Class of Remote Center Compliance Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Jie Lai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The remote center compliance (RCC mechanism is of great use for practical designs, especially if a pure rotation about a virtual point is required. The analysis of compliance properties and rotational precision for RCC mechanisms are very important for mechanical design in applications where precision is required. This paper formulates an analytical method for the compliance and rotational precision calculations of a class of RCC mechanisms, combined in parallel with two round beam-based isosceles-trapezoidal flexural pivots. The analytical model of the mechanism is established based on the stiffness matrix method to directly obtain the compliance factors that completely define the elastic response of the mechanism. The rotational precision of the mechanism—That is, the position of rotation center—Is then derived using screw theory and a compliance matrix. The validity of this model is demonstrated using finite element analysis simulation and experimental tests. The results of both simulation and experiment verify that the analytical model has high accuracy and promising practical applications. Moreover, the influences of the geometry parameters on the compliance factors and the center shifts are also graphically evaluated and discussed using the analytical model. The results in this paper provide an effective configuration and analytical method for the design and optimization of RCC mechanisms, and are of great practical significance.

  20. Direct tensile test to assess healing in asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Scarpas, T.; Erkens, S.

    2016-01-01

    Asphalt concrete has the advantageous ability to heal. During rest periods, damage present in the material is restored to a certain extent. Healing of the material can be observed in its regaining of strength and stiffness after rest periods. In this paper, a new test method is presented. It was

  1. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level.

  2. Moving beyond traditional null hypothesis testing: evaluating expectations directly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, R.; Hoijtink, H.J.A.; Romeijn, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    This mini-review illustrates that testing the traditional null hypothesis is not always the appropriate strategy. Half in jest, we discuss Aristotle's scientific investigations into the shape of the earth in the context of evaluating the traditional null hypothesis. We conclude that Aristotle was ac

  3. Direct cointegration testing in error-correction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. Kleibergen (Frank); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAbstract An error correction model is specified having only exact identified parameters, some of which reflect a possible departure from a cointegration model. Wald, likelihood ratio, and Lagrange multiplier statistics are derived to test for the significance of these parameters. The con

  4. Results of Some Uplift Capacity Tests on Direct Embedment Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    should be expected to vary from those of the terrestrial tesis above. The analysis of direct embedment anchor-holding capacity is complicated by the...was conducted north of the Puerto Rico trench in 5,500 m (18,000 ft) in a pelagic clay or "red clay" deposit. Water contents in the upper 1.2 m (4 ft...north of Puerto Rico Trench. S6 - -~ ~-~d- 70. 60 20 60 j - 12 18 5 fluke 16 embedaent - 10 -0 340 6- -20 20,--6 4 - 10- ൟ 0g 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 4i Time

  5. Stationarity test with a direct test for heteroskedasticity in exchange rate forecasting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin, Aye Aye; Chau, Wong Hong; Seong, Lim Chee; Bin, Raymond Ling Leh; Teng, Kevin Low Lock

    2017-05-01

    Global economic has been decreasing in the recent years, manifested by the greater exchange rates volatility on international commodity market. This study attempts to analyze some prominent exchange rate forecasting models on Malaysian commodity trading: univariate ARIMA, ARCH and GARCH models in conjunction with stationarity test on residual diagnosis direct testing of heteroskedasticity. All forecasting models utilized the monthly data from 1990 to 2015. Given a total of 312 observations, the data used to forecast both short-term and long-term exchange rate. The forecasting power statistics suggested that the forecasting performance of ARIMA (1, 1, 1) model is more efficient than the ARCH (1) and GARCH (1, 1) models. For ex-post forecast, exchange rate was increased from RM 3.50 per USD in January 2015 to RM 4.47 per USD in December 2015 based on the baseline data. For short-term ex-ante forecast, the analysis results indicate a decrease in exchange rate on 2016 June (RM 4.27 per USD) as compared with 2015 December. A more appropriate forecasting method of exchange rate is vital to aid the decision-making process and planning on the sustainable commodities' production in the world economy.

  6. [Direct to consumer genetic testing: is it the moment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoril, Jérôme; Bogard, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of new human genome sequencing technologies at the beginning of the 2000, commercial companies have developped direct to consumer genomic services, which means without medical prescription. From 2007 to 2013, many companies have offered services assesing associated risk with human public health in the world especially in the United States. This kind of company is forbidden in France. From 2009 to 2013, in United States, under the pressure of national or state health administrations, these companies have been progressively forbidden. However, in certain parts of the world, companies are still offering such services. The latter raise many different questions such as ethical, juridical, medical, scientific, educative, professional one. Many studies and debates have demonstrated their limit and the lack of usefulness and advantage in the field of human health for the time being. The commercialization of this type of services has arrived all too soon et is not yet ripe. In our time of globalization, with the lack of international rules controlling direct access to genetic services in the field of human health, there is an urgent need to regulate. International administrations and politicians must act fast. Inevitably, under the pressure of lobbies and citizens, companies (multinational or not) will develop especially as 1) new sequencing technologies evolve rapidly, 2) are cheaper from year to year, 3) scientific and medical knowledges are progressing quickly, 4) services are spreading faster through the web and other networks.

  7. Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, R J

    1999-03-01

    The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud.

  8. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing and Orphan Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew; Levenson, James; Quillin, John

    2017-08-01

    Since the introduction of the Orphan Drug Act (ODA) in 1983, orphan drug approvals in the United States have jumped from testing companies. This emerging trend is the subject of this article, which begins by considering how rare-disease drugs are regulated and the rising interest in nonclinical genetic testing. It then outlines how DTC companies analyze DNA and how their techniques benefit researchers and drug developers. Then, after an overview of the current partnerships between DTCs and drug developers, it examines concerns about privacy and cost brought up by these partnerships. The article concludes by contrasting the enormous positive potential of DTC-pharma relationships and their concomitant dangers, especially to consumer privacy and cost to the healthcare system.

  9. New Directions in Price Test for Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Zipitria, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    The appropriate definition of the relevant market is the main task in competition cases. But this definition, and its application, has proved difficult in abuse of dominance cases, mainly because of the cellophane fallacy. I offer new interpretations for the cointegration test and its vector error correction representation, in antitrust market definition. Then I apply them to define the beer market in Uruguay as an example.

  10. Direct-to-consumer Genetic Testing: Changes in the EU Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slokenberga, Santa

    2015-12-01

    Rapid advances in genomics and technology have rendered genetic testing services easily accessible to consumers over the Internet in the form of direct-to-consumer genetic testing. In the EU, the IVD Directive has been animadverted for its inability to tackle the challenges direct-to-consumer genetic testing has posed. Currently, the EU legislation is in a transition state. It is thus, timely to assess, to what extent the proposed IVD Regulation is intended to address the performance requirements and utility of direct-to-consumer genetic tests, which are made available to consumers within the EU over the Internet, and discuss the developments vis-à-vis the IVD Directive. To compare with the IVD Directive, the IVD Regulation presents a major shift in how direct-to-consumer genetic testing is treated in the E U. It remains unclear, whether and how the EU requirements can be applied beyond the EU market.

  11. Comparing Direct versus Indirect Measures of the Pedagogical Effectiveness of Team Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Direct measures (tests) of the pedagogical effectiveness of team testing and indirect measures (student surveys) of pedagogical effectiveness of team testing were collected in several sections of an undergraduate marketing course with varying levels of the use of team testing. The results indicate that although students perceived team testing to…

  12. Test elements of direct sums and free products of free Lie algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cennet Eskal; Naime Ekici

    2016-02-01

    We give a characterization of test elements of a direct sum of free Lie algebras in terms of test elements of the factors. In addition, we construct certain types of test elements and we prove that in a free product of free Lie algebras, product of the homogeneous test elements of the factors is also a test element.

  13. A direct communication proposal to test the Zoo Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    de Magalhaes, Joao Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Whether we are alone in the universe is one of the greatest mysteries facing humankind. Given the >100 billion stars in our galaxy, many have argued that it is statistically unlikely that life, including intelligent life, has not emerged anywhere else. The lack of any sign of extraterrestrial intelligence, even though on a cosmic timescale extraterrestrial civilizations would have enough time to cross the galaxy, is known as Fermi's Paradox. One possible explanation for Fermi's Paradox is the Zoo Hypothesis which states that one or more extraterrestrial civilizations know of our existence and can reach us, but have chosen not to disturb us or even make their existence known to us. I propose here a proactive test of the Zoo Hypothesis. Specifically, I propose to send a message using television and radio channels to any extraterrestrial civilization(s) that might be listening and inviting them to respond. Even though I accept this is unlikely to be successful in the sense of resulting in a response from extrate...

  14. Testing evolutionary models of senescence: traditional approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Chloe; Conneely, Karen N

    2014-12-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the existence of senescence is a paradox. Why has senescence not been more effectively selected against given its associated decreases in Darwinian fitness? Why does senescence exist and how has it evolved? Three major theories offer explanations: (1) the theory of mutation accumulation suggested by PB Medawar; (2) the theory of antagonistic pleiotropy suggested by GC Williams; and (3) the disposable soma theory suggested by TBL Kirkwood. These three theories differ in the underlying causes of aging that they propose but are not mutually exclusive. This paper compares the specific biological predictions of each theory and discusses the methods and results of previous empirical tests. Lifespan is found to be the most frequently used estimate of senescence in evolutionary investigations. This measurement acts as a proxy for an individual's rate of senescence, but provides no information on an individual's senescent state or "biological age" throughout life. In the future, use of alternative longitudinal measures of senescence may facilitate investigation of previously neglected aspects of evolutionary models, such as intra- and inter-individual heterogeneity in the process of aging. DNA methylation data are newly proposed to measure biological aging and are suggested to be particularly useful for such investigations.

  15. Investigating performance, reliability and safety parameters of photovoltaic module inverter: Test results and compliances with the standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Saiful; Belmans, Ronnie [Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, ESAT/ELECTA, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Woyte, Achim [Verenigingsstraat 39, B-1000 Brussel (Belgium); Heskes, P.J.M.; Rooij, P.M. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    Reliability, safety and quality requirements for a new type of photovoltaic module inverter have been identified and its performance has been evaluated for prototypes. The laboratory tests have to show whether the so-called second generation photovoltaic module inverter can comply with the expectations and where improvements are still necessary. Afterwards, the test results have been compared with the internationals standards. (author)

  16. 33 CFR 95.035 - Reasonable cause for directing a chemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable cause for directing a... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.035 Reasonable cause for directing a chemical test. (a) Only a law enforcement officer... reasonable cause exists. Reasonable cause exists when: (1) The individual was directly involved in...

  17. Simplified Protocol for Carba NP Test for Enhanced Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Bacterial Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteran, Fernando; Tijet, Nathalie; Melano, Roberto G; Corso, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 266 Gram-negative bacilli (161 carbapenemase producers) using the Carba NP tests issued by the CLSI (CNPt-CLSI) and a novel protocol (CNPt-direct) designed for carbapenemase detection direct from bacterial cultures (instead of bacterial extracts required by the CLSI tests). The specificities were comparable (100%), but the CNPt-direct was more sensitive (98% versus 84%). The CNPt-direct was easier to perform due to the direct use of colonies and offered a more robust detection of carbapenemase producers. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Maternal Responsiveness and Subsequent Child Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpal, Mary; Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    1985-01-01

    Contrasts effects of three modes of mother/child interaction on children's subsequent compliance with maternal directives. Subjects were 39 children from lower-middle-class families, ranging in age from approximately three to four-and-a-half. Responsive play and noninteractive conditions produced higher levels of compliance than the untrained free…

  19. A Short Study to Test the Compliance of Various Pakistani Ordinary Portland Cements with ASTM Composition Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahnaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement is widely used everywhere for construction purposes and quality comparison of different ordinary Portland cements is very important. Five different brands of cement were tested for their chemical constituents such as silica, alumina, iron, calcium, magnesium, sulfates, insoluble residue, free lime and loss on ignition with American standards for testing and materials (ASTM. Results for five locally produced Portland cements revealed that the chemical compositions of most cement as determined by standard methods lie within standard limits. But the difference in constituents of various brands of cements is due to quality control setup differences of different cement plants.

  20. 40 CFR 63.7732 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... metal melting furnaces, sample only during times when the cupola is on blast. (4) For electric arc and... during times when the cupola is on blast. (4) For electric arc and electric induction metal melting...(a)(11) for a TEA cold box mold or core making line, follow the test methods in 40 CFR part...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1450 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volumetric flow rate of the stack gas. (iii) Method 3, 3A, or 3B to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (iv) Method 4 to determine the moisture content of the stack gas. (v) Method 5, 5D, or 17, as... method used to monitor the parameter, and the data recorded during the performance test and used to...

  2. Predictors of medication compliance among older heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholowski, Krystyna; Cantwell, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Aim.  To examine relationships between psycho-social and patho-physiological measures in explaining medication compliance in older heart failure (HF) patients. Background.  Self-efficacy is a predictor not only of medication compliance, but also health recovery. How older HF patients conceptualize and manage this life-threatening event is central to ongoing rehabilitation. Regulating ongoing medical and lifestyle changes in the rehabilitation process requires that any underlying negative affect be productively managed by the use of appropriate coping strategies. Method.  Using an exploratory correlational design, 51 older HF patients were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, Beliefs about Medication and Diet Questionnaire, Reactions to Daily Events Questionnaire and Self-regulation scale. A self-report measure of medication compliance was obtained as part of a semi-structured interview. The study was conducted in 2003-2004. Results.  Using descriptive statistics, patho-physiological and psychosocial characteristics were given. Independent t-tests were used to assess the gender effects. Pairwise correlations were used to examine the relationships between presenting circumstances, psychosocial characteristics, medication compliance beliefs and self-reported medication compliance behaviours. All positive coping strategies and self-regulation were associated with positive intentions in medication compliance. Males were more inclined towards proactive coping and self-regulatory strategies than were females. Increased depressive symptoms were linked to carelessness in compliance. A belief in medication compliance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carelessness Conclusion.  Bandura's three conditions for agency in rehabilitation, self-efficacy and goal-directed intention appeared to be important even in the early phase of the programme. Positive coping strategies and self-regulation suggests a positive basis for medication compliance and more

  3. Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Schultz, Adrian B; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Berry, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Field sport coaches must use reliable and valid tests to assess change-of-direction speed in their athletes. Few tests feature linear sprinting with acute change- of-direction maneuvers. The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) was designed to assess field sport change-of-direction speed, and includes a linear 5-meter (m) sprint, 45° and 90° cuts, 3- m sprints to the left and right, and a linear 10-m sprint. This study analyzed the reliability and validity of this test, through comparisons to 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20 m intervals) and Illinois agility run (IAR) performance. Eighteen Australian footballers (age = 23.83 ± 7.04 yrs; height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m; mass = 85.36 ± 13.21 kg) were recruited. Following familiarization, subjects completed the 20-m sprint, CODAT, and IAR in 2 sessions, 48 hours apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed relative reliability. Absolute reliability was analyzed through paired samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) determining between-session differences. Typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), and differences between the TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC), also assessed absolute reliability and test usefulness. For the validity analysis, Pearson's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) analyzed between-test relationships. Results showed no between-session differences for any test (p = 0.19-0.86). CODAT time averaged ~6 s, and the ICC and CV equaled 0.84 and 3.0%, respectively. The homogeneous sample of Australian footballers meant that the CODAT's TE (0.19 s) exceeded the usual 0.2 x standard deviation (SD) SWC (0.10 s). However, the CODAT is capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC calculated as 0.5 x SD = 0.25 s). There was a near perfect correlation between the CODAT and IAR (r = 0.92), and very large correlations with the 20-m sprint (r = 0.75-0.76), suggesting that the CODAT was a valid change-of-direction speed test. Due to movement specificity, the CODAT has value for field sport

  4. Compliance with clinic appointments by hypertensive patients after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ways to assess patients' adherence to treatment with varying rates of compliance ... between the proportions, and the student t-test was used to compare means. ... Key-words:, Clinic, Appointment, Attendance Compliance, Hypertension, ...

  5. The National Council for Geographic Education Standards-Based Geography Test. Intermediate Level. Directions for Administering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This document contains a test designed by the National Council for Geographic Education for middle school students to determine what knowledge, skills, and understandings students have developed in geography. The document also contains directions for administering the test, test performance data from a sample of 468 middle school students in 18…

  6. Counseling Customers: Emerging Roles for Genetic Counselors in the Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, A.; Kelly, S.; Wyatt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing

  7. Counseling Customers: Emerging Roles for Genetic Counselors in the Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, A.; Kelly, S.; Wyatt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing c

  8. Counseling Customers: Emerging Roles for Genetic Counselors in the Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, A.; Kelly, S.; Wyatt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing c

  9. Psychological distress with direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a case report of an unexpected BRCA positive test result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohany, Lindsay; Gustafson, Shanna; Ducaine, Whitney; Zakalik, Dana

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a client who discovered she had a BRCA mutation following direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing in the absence of genetic counseling. After testing she presented for genetic counseling with anxiety, distress, and a deficit of knowledge about what the DTC genetic testing revealed. Genetic counseling helped alleviate distress while empowering the client to apply the results of testing to improve medical management. Despite recent studies demonstrating no negative psychological impact of DTC genetic testing on the consumer, this case illustrates that significant psychological distress and confusion can occur as a result of DTC genetic testing for highly penetrant single gene disorders. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling in conjunction with DTC genetic testing may alleviate consumers' distress and empower clients to proactively utilize their result information.

  10. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF A NEW TEST OF CHANGE-OF-DIRECTION SPEED FOR FIELD-BASED SPORTS: THE CHANGE-OF-DIRECTION AND ACCELERATION TEST (CODAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Field sport coaches must use reliable and valid tests to assess change-of-direction speed in their athletes. Few tests feature linear sprinting with acute change- of-direction maneuvers. The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT was designed to assess field sport change-of-direction speed, and includes a linear 5-meter (m sprint, 45º and 90º cuts, 3- m sprints to the left and right, and a linear 10-m sprint. This study analyzed the reliability and validity of this test, through comparisons to 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20 m intervals and Illinois agility run (IAR performance. Eighteen Australian footballers (age = 23.83 ± 7.04 yrs; height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m; mass = 85.36 ± 13.21 kg were recruited. Following familiarization, subjects completed the 20-m sprint, CODAT, and IAR in 2 sessions, 48 hours apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC assessed relative reliability. Absolute reliability was analyzed through paired samples t-tests (p < 0.05 determining between-session differences. Typical error (TE, coefficient of variation (CV, and differences between the TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC, also assessed absolute reliability and test usefulness. For the validity analysis, Pearson's correlations (p < 0.05 analyzed between-test relationships. Results showed no between-session differences for any test (p = 0.19-0.86. CODAT time averaged ~6 s, and the ICC and CV equaled 0.84 and 3.0%, respectively. The homogeneous sample of Australian footballers meant that the CODAT's TE (0.19 s exceeded the usual 0.2 x standard deviation (SD SWC (0.10 s. However, the CODAT is capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC calculated as 0.5 x SD = 0.25 s. There was a near perfect correlation between the CODAT and IAR (r = 0.92, and very large correlations with the 20-m sprint (r = 0.75-0.76, suggesting that the CODAT was a valid change-of-direction speed test. Due to movement specificity, the CODAT has value for field sport

  11. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

    2000-09-15

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. Assessment of hydrochemical trends in the highly anthropised Guadalhorce River basin (southern Spain) in terms of compliance with the European groundwater directive for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urresti-Estala, Begoña; Gavilán, Pablo Jiménez; Pérez, Iñaki Vadillo; Cantos, Francisco Carrasco

    2016-08-01

    One of the key aspects introduced by the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) and developed by Groundwater Directive 2006/118/EC was the need to analyse pollution trends in groundwater bodies in order to meet the environmental objectives set in Article 4 WFD. According to this Directive, the main goal of "good status" should be achieved by the year 2015, and having reached this horizon, now is a suitable time to assess the changes that have taken place with the progressive implementation of the WFD. An extensive database is available for the Guadalhorce River basin, and this was used not only to identify in groundwater but also to draw real conclusions with respect to the degree of success in meeting the targets established for this main deadline (2015) The geographic and climate context of the Guadalhorce basin has facilitated the development of a variety of economic activities, but the one affecting the largest surface area is agriculture (which is practised on over 50 % of the river basin). The main environmental impacts identified in the basin aquifers arise from the widespread use of fertilisers and manures, together with the input of sewage from population centres. In consequence, some of the groundwater bodies located in the basin have historically had very high nitrate concentrations, often exceeding 200 mg/L. In addition, return flows, the use of fertilisers and other pressures promote the entry of other pollutants into the groundwater, as well as the salinisation of the main aquifers in the basin. In order to assess the hydrochemical changes that have taken place since the entry into force of the WFD, we performed a detailed trends analysis, based on data from the official sampling networks. In some cases, over 35 years of water quality data are available, but these statistics also present significant limitations, due to some deficiencies in the design or management; thus, data are missing for many years, the results are subject to

  13. Motivation for Compliance with Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of calculated, normative, and social motivations as well as awareness of rules and capacity to comply are thought to foster compliance with regulations. Hypotheses about these factors were tested with data concerning Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental regulations...

  14. 47 CFR 2.1077 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1077 Compliance information. (a) If a product must be tested and authorized under a Declaration of Conformity, a compliance... the following information: (1) Identification of the product, e.g., name and model number; (2) A...

  15. Testing for uniformity of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray arrival directions

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) exhibit mainly an isotropic distribution with some small deviations in particular energy bins. In this paper, the Yakutsk array data are tested for circular uniformity of arrival directions in right ascension using 2 methods appropriate for the energy ranges below and above $10^{18}$ eV. No statistically significant deviation from uniformity is found in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) detected within the observation period 1974--2000.

  16. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  17. Testing the Higgs sector directly in the non-relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhentao

    2016-01-01

    Directly measuring the Higgs self-coupling is of great importance for testing the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism in the Standard Model. As a scattering that contains the direct information from the Higgs self-coupling, we investigate the process $\\mu^-\\mu^+\\rightarrow HH$ in the threshold region. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the cross section and consider the non-perturbative contribution from the Higgs self-interactions in the final state. It is found that the scattering in the non-relativistic domain could be an especial process to testing the Higgs sector directly.

  18. Disease management and medication compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua; Christensen, Kathyrn; Feldman, Lanna

    2012-02-01

    Lack of medication compliance is harmful to health care systems from both a clinical and economic perspective. This study examines the methods that disease management organizations employ to identify nonadherent patients and to measure effectiveness of compliance programs for patients with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cystic fibrosis. In addition, this study investigates the degree to which disease managers assume risk in their contracts, and whether compliance strategies are being coordinated with payers' use of value-based insurance design, in which patient cost sharing is a function of the relative value of pharmaceuticals. This study's findings suggest that disease management may be falling short in terms of: (a) comprehensive commitment to expert-recommended at-home devices used to self-diagnose and measure health indicators; (b) early adoption of expert-recommended new technologies to measure and improve compliance; (c) intensity of use of standard tests in outpatient clinics; (d) coordination of compliance strategies with payers' use of value-based insurance design; and (e) the proportion of risk assumed in disease management contracts.

  19. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  20. The current landscape for direct-to-consumer genetic testing: legal, ethical, and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Javitt, Gail; Melzer, David

    2008-01-01

    This review surveys the developing market for direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests and examines the range of companies and tests available, the regulatory landscape, the concerns raised about DTC testing, and the calls for enhanced oversight. We provide a comparative overview of the situation, particularly in the United States and Europe, by exploring the regulatory frameworks for medical devices and clinical laboratories. We also discuss a variety of other mechanisms such as general controls on advertising and consumer law mechanisms.

  1. Direct Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Anne-Marie; Venter, Amour; Friedrich, Sven O; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mapamba, Daniel; Jugheli, Levan; Sasamalo, Mohammed; Almeida, Deepak; Dorasamy, Afton; Jentsch, Ute; Gibson, Mara; Everitt, Daniel; Eisenach, Kathleen D; Diacon, Andreas H

    2016-05-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antituberculosis drug, yet no rapid susceptibility test is commercially available. PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed directly on sputum samples from 327 patients and compared with the indirect method by using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in the context of patient screening for participation in a drug trial. Compared to standard indirect PZA DST, direct DST was successful in only 59% of cases, but results obtained were highly accurate and available faster. Agreement between the direct and indirect methods varied from 90 to 100% in each laboratory. The median times for obtaining PZA results from the time when the specimen was collected ranged from 11 to 16 days for the direct test and 18 to 95 days for the indirect test across laboratories. The direct method is accurate and reproducible across laboratories. It can be expected to accelerate results in >50% of cases, but it cannot replace indirect DST for PZA. Phenotypic methods remain the gold standard for DST in drug trials. If future studies can optimize the method to decrease the number of uninterpretable results, direct MGIT DST could be the new phenotypic DST standard for clinical trials, providing more rapid detection of resistance to new drugs in experimental regimens.

  2. Direct Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Anne-Marie; Venter, Amour; Friedrich, Sven O.; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mapamba, Daniel; Jugheli, Levan; Sasamalo, Mohammed; Almeida, Deepak; Dorasamy, Afton; Jentsch, Ute; Gibson, Mara; Everitt, Daniel; Diacon, Andreas H.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antituberculosis drug, yet no rapid susceptibility test is commercially available. PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed directly on sputum samples from 327 patients and compared with the indirect method by using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in the context of patient screening for participation in a drug trial. Compared to standard indirect PZA DST, direct DST was successful in only 59% of cases, but results obtained were highly accurate and available faster. Agreement between the direct and indirect methods varied from 90 to 100% in each laboratory. The median times for obtaining PZA results from the time when the specimen was collected ranged from 11 to 16 days for the direct test and 18 to 95 days for the indirect test across laboratories. The direct method is accurate and reproducible across laboratories. It can be expected to accelerate results in >50% of cases, but it cannot replace indirect DST for PZA. Phenotypic methods remain the gold standard for DST in drug trials. If future studies can optimize the method to decrease the number of uninterpretable results, direct MGIT DST could be the new phenotypic DST standard for clinical trials, providing more rapid detection of resistance to new drugs in experimental regimens. PMID:26912751

  3. Experimental Study of the APR+ Direct ECC Bypass in the Air-water Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Hae-Seob; Park, Kil-won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The APR+ is an improved Korean Nuclear Power Reactor, which has been developed as a two loop evolutionary PWR (Pressure Water Reactor) with a number of advanced design features to enhance safety based on the APR-1400 technology. The emergency core cooling system (ECC) of the APR+ is different with that of the APR-1400, though the APR+ adopted a direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is the same design features of the APR-14000. The main difference of the DVI+ is the emergency core barrel duct (ECBD) which is designed to increase the amount of the injection water to the core region. The performance of the DVI system has been an important issues for past decades, and many researchers have studied the related thermal-hydraulic technical issues such as the ECC bypass fraction, the steam condensation effect, temperature distribution, sub-cooling margin, and etc. However, the previous research cannot be directly applicable to the APR+ owing to the unique features of the DVI+. The current study will elaborate on the experimental evaluation of the direct ECC bypass performance. The 1/5 ECC bypass test facility which is designed with a linearly reduced 1/5 scale referring to the APR+ was used to investigate the effect of the DVI+ injection nozzle location and the broken cold leg velocity on the direct ECC bypass fraction. However, air is used as a working fluid to simulate the steam flow induced from the broken cold leg, and thus, the direct contact condensation effect is not considered in this study. Experimental study for the direct ECC bypass phenomena has been carryout out with various the injection mode and air velocity conditions. The tests were performed in the 1/5 scale ECC bypass test facility, and the test condition was defined using a scaling law referring to the APR+ reactor. Test results showed that the direct ECC bypass fraction was greatly enhanced compared with the reference test (w/o ECBD)

  4. Post-test probability for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia based on umbilical cord blood bilirubin, direct antiglobulin test, and ABO compatibility results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bart; Geerts, Inge; Van Mullem, Mia; Micalessi, Isabel; Saegeman, Veroniek; Moerman, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Many hospitals opt for early postnatal discharge of newborns with a potential risk of readmission for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Assays/algorithms with the possibility to improve prediction of significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are needed to optimize screening protocols and safe discharge of neonates. This study investigated the predictive value of umbilical cord blood (UCB) testing for significant hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal UCB bilirubin, UCB direct antiglobulin test (DAT), and blood group were determined, as well as the maternal blood group and the red blood cell antibody status. Moreover, in newborns with clinically apparent jaundice after visual assessment, plasma total bilirubin (TB) was measured. Clinical factors positively associated with UCB bilirubin were ABO incompatibility, positive DAT, presence of maternal red cell antibodies, alarming visual assessment and significant hyperbilirubinemia in the first 6 days of life. UCB bilirubin performed clinically well with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.82 (95 % CI 0.80-0.84). The combined UCB bilirubin, DAT, and blood group analysis outperformed results of these parameters considered separately to detect significant hyperbilirubinemia and correlated exponentially with hyperbilirubinemia post-test probability. Post-test probabilities for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia can be calculated using exponential functions defined by UCB bilirubin, DAT, and ABO compatibility results. • The diagnostic value of the triad umbilical cord blood bilirubin measurement, direct antiglobulin testing and blood group analysis for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remains unclear in literature. • Currently no guideline recommends screening for hyperbilirubinemia using umbilical cord blood. What is New: • Post-test probability for hyperbilirubinemia correlated exponentially with umbilical cord blood bilirubin in different risk groups defined by direct antiglobulin test and ABO blood group

  5. Understanding the direction of bias in studies of diagnostic test accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael A; Carpenter, Christopher R; Newman, Thomas B

    2013-11-01

    Ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests is a critical part of emergency medicine (EM). In evaluating a study of diagnostic test accuracy, emergency physicians (EPs) need to recognize whether the study uses case-control or cross-sectional sampling and account for common biases. The authors group biases in studies of test accuracy into five categories: incorporation bias, partial verification bias, differential verification bias, imperfect gold standard bias, and spectrum bias. Other named biases are either equivalent to these biases or subtypes within these broader categories. The authors go beyond identifying a bias and predict the direction of its effect on sensitivity and specificity, providing numerical examples from published test accuracy studies. Understanding the direction of a bias may permit useful inferences from even a flawed study of test accuracy.

  6. Validation of the SL3 beta-Lactam Test for screening milk in compliance with U.S. pasteurized milk ordinance: performance tested method 040701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert S; Conaway, David; Markovsky, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The SL3 beta-Lactam Test is a 3 min, receptor-based lateral flow Rapid One Step Assay (ROSA) that detects 5 of 6 beta-lactam drugs approved for dairy cattle in the United States. The method was evaluated through the AOAC Research Institute Performance-Tested Method program following a U.S. Food and Drug Administration protocol. Three combined lots detected penicillin G 4.2 parts per billion (ppb), ampicillin 8.7 ppb, amoxicillin 7.8 ppb, cephapirin 16.0 ppb, and ceftiofur (total metabolites) 51 ppb at least 90% of the time, with 95% confidence as determined by dose response probit analysis. These detection levels are less than safe level/tolerances but not more than 50% less. Lot repeatability was within 20%. Incurred residues were detected comparably or more sensitively to fortified samples due to the cumulative effect of biologically active metabolites. There were no interferences from somatic cells at 1 M/mL, bacterial cells 500 000 colony-forming units/mL, or 30 other non-beta-lactam drugs. These performances met approval conditions of the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. Ruggedness conditions were incorporated into public health procedures for annual laboratory proficiency and certification.

  7. Standardization and demonstration of antibody-coated Candida in urine by direct immunofluorescence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, P; Pal, S R; Kaur, P; Kaiwar, R; Jayashree, T; Rao, M S; Vaidyanathan, S; Taiwar, P

    1986-04-01

    Acetone, carbontetrachloride, ethyl alcohol, mixture of ethyl alcohol and acetone, and heat were assessed for fixative property for direct immunofluorescent (IF) staining of antibody-coated Candida cells. The results indicated that ethyl alcohol was the most suitable fixative for the test. Antisera containing 16 units of Candida albicans type A agglutinin were found essential to get optimal detectable fluorescence of antibody-coated yeast cells. IF test showed cross reactivity between the yeasts of C. albicans and C. tropicalis. However, there was no cross reactivity with the conidia of A. flavus. The direct IF test could demonstrate antibody-coated yeast cells and pseudomycelia in deposits of urine in the direct smear. It correlated well with microscopy and culture studies. At times, it could demonstrate the antibody-coated yeasts earlier than routine significant culture. It could also differentiate the significant from non-significant fungal isolates from urine.

  8. Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of six self-etching adhesives with direct and indirect contact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdemir, Mahmut; Gunal, Solen; Ozer, Fusun; Imazato, Satoshi; Izutani, Naomi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Blatz, Markus B

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of self-etching primers/adhesives by direct contact and dentin barrier tests. The three two-step self-etching systems Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), Prime&Bond NT/NRC (PB) and one-step self-etching systems Reactmer Bond (RB), Clearfil Tri-S Bond (CTS), and Adper Prompt L-Pop (AP) were examined. In direct contact tests, L929 cells were cultured in the presence of diluted solutions (50, 20, 10, and 1%) of primer/conditioner of adhesive systems. For dentin barrier tests, each system was applied onto 0.5 or 1.5 mm thick human dentin assembled in a simple pulp chamber device and incubated for 24 h at 37°C to make the diffusive components contact the L929 cells placed at the bottom of the chamber. The cytotoxic effects were assessed by MTT assay. Cell culture without application of any primers/adhesives served as the control for both tests. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analyses. The direct contact tests demonstrated that CSE and CPB were less toxic than the other materials at all dilutions. In the dentin barrier tests, toxic effects of materials were reduced with an increase in thickness of intervening dentin. CSE and CPB showed less cytotoxicity than the other adhesives (padhesives.

  9. Direct susceptibility testing for multi drug resistant tuberculosis: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffner Sven

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the challenges facing the tuberculosis (TB control programmes in resource-limited settings is lack of rapid techniques for detection of drug resistant TB, particularly multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB. Results obtained with the conventional indirect susceptibility testing methods come too late to influence a timely decision on patient management. More rapid tests directly applied on sputum samples are needed. This study compared the sensitivity, specificity and time to results of four direct drug susceptibility testing tests with the conventional indirect testing for detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in M. tuberculosis. The four direct tests included two in-house phenotypic assays – Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS, and two commercially available tests – Genotype® MTBDR and Genotype® MTBDRplus (Hain Life Sciences, Nehren, Germany. Methods A literature review and meta-analysis of study reports was performed. The Meta-Disc software was used to analyse the reports and tests for sensitivity, specificity, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC curves. Heterogeneity in accuracy estimates was tested with the Spearman correlation coefficient and Chi-square. Results Eighteen direct DST reports were analysed: NRA – 4, MODS- 6, Genotype MTBDR® – 3 and Genotype® MTBDRplus – 5. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for detection of resistance to rifampicin were 99% and 100% with NRA, 96% and 96% with MODS, 99% and 98% with Genotype® MTBDR, and 99% and 99% with the new Genotype® MTBDRplus, respectively. For isoniazid it was 94% and 100% for NRA, 92% and 96% for MODS, 71% and 100% for Genotype® MTBDR, and 96% and 100% with the Genotype® MTBDRplus, respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC curves was in ranges of 0.98 to 1.00 for all the four tests. Molecular tests were

  10. Direct antiglobulin ("Coombs") test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, George B; Lichtman, Marshall A

    2014-04-01

    We have reviewed the literature to identify and characterize reports of warm-antibody type, autoimmune hemolytic anemia in which the standard direct antiglobulin reaction was negative but a confirmatory test indicated that the red cells were opsonized with antibody. Three principal reasons account for the absence of a positive direct antiglobulin test in these cases: a) IgG sensitization below the threshold of detection by the commercial antiglobulin reagent, b) low affinity IgG, removed by preparatory washes not conducted at 4°C or at low ionic strength, and c) red cell sensitization by IgA alone, or rarely (monomeric) IgM alone, but not accompanied by complement fixation, and thus not detectable by a commercial antiglobulin reagent that contains anti-IgG and anti-C3. In cases in which the phenotype is compatible with warm-antibody type, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and the direct antiglobulin test is negative, an alternative method to detect low levels of IgG sensitization, use of 4°C, low ionic strength washes to prepare the cells for the direct antiglobulin test reaction to permit retention and identification of low affinity IgG antibodies, and, if the latter are uninformative, testing for sensitization with an anti-IgA, and, if necessary, an anti-IgM reagent identifies cases of warm-antibody type, immune hemolysis not verified by a commercial reagent.

  11. Preconceptional genetic carrier testing and the commercial offer directly-to-consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borry, Pascal; Henneman, Lidewij; Lakeman, Phillis; ten Kate, Leo P.; Cornel, Martina C.; Howard, Heidi C.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a number of commercial companies are offering preconceptional carrier tests directly-to-consumers. This offer raises a number of concerns and issues above and beyond those encountered with preconceptional tests offered within the traditional health care setting. In order to bring some of these issues to light and to initiate dialogue on this topic, this article discusses the following issues: the current offer of preconceptional carrier tests (until the end of 2010) through online commercial companies; the implications for the informed consent procedure and the need for good information; the need for medical supervision and follow-up; and the appropriate use of existing resources. The article concludes with some reflections about the potential sustainability of the offer of preconceptional carrier tests directly-to-consumers. PMID:21362685

  12. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  13. Medical Students Knowledge and Attitude Towards Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Giraldi; Marco Colotto; Roberta Pastorino; Dario Arzani; Christian Ineichen; Effy Vayena; Stefania Boccia

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study reports on the attitudes of 179 Italian Medical Students to direct-to-consumer genetic test and to participation in research practices. Methods: Data were collected using a self-completion online questionnaire sent to 380 medical students at the faculty of Medicine of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome, Italy. Questions pertained issues related to awareness and attitudes towards genetic testing, reactions to hypothetical results, and views about contributing...

  14. A direct test of the buffer-stock model of saving

    OpenAIRE

    Jappelli, Tullio; Padula, Mario; Pistaferri, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Recent models with liquidity constraints and impatience emphasize that consumers use savings to buffer income fluctuations. When wealth is below an optimal target, consumers try to increase their buffer stock of wealth by saving more. When it is above target, they increase consumption. This important implication of the buffer stock model of saving has not been subject to direct empirical testing. We derive from the model an appropriate theoretical restriction and test it using data on working...

  15. Numerical and experimental direct shear tests for coarse-grained soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahad Bagherzadeh-Khalkhali; Ali Asghar Mirghasemi

    2009-01-01

    The presence of particles larger than the permissible dimensions of conventional laboratory specimens causes difficulty in the determination of shear strength of coarse-grained soils. In this research, the influence of particle size on shear strength of coarse-grained soils was investigated by resorting to experimental tests in different scale and numerical simulations based on discrete element method (DEM). Experimental tests on such soil specimens were based on using the techniques designated as "parallel" and "scalping" to prepare gradation of samples in view of the limitation of laboratory specimen size. As a second approach, the direct shear test was numerically simulated on assemblies of elliptical particles. The behaviors of samples under experimental and numerical tests are presented and compared, indicating that the modification of sample gradation has a significant influence on the mechanical properties of coarse-grained soils. It is noted that the shear strengths of samples produced by the scalping method are higher than samples by the parallel method. The scalping method for preparing specimens for direct shear test is therefore recommended. The micromechanical behavior of assemblies under direct shear test is also discussed and the effects of stress level on sample behavior are investigated.

  16. Deconstructing public participation in the Water Framework Directive: implementation and compliance with the letter or with the spirit of the law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ker Rault, P.A.; Jeffrey, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a fresh reading of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and of the Common Implementation Strategy guidance document number 8 on public participation (PP) aimed at identifying the conditions required for successful implementation. We propose that a central barrier to implementing A

  17. Direct testing of scale effects in metal forming friction and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Calaon, Matteo; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin

    2010-01-01

    work a new test equipment is developed for direct friction measurements in the range from macro to micro scale. Investigations confirm a significant friction increase when downscaling. Visual inspection of the work pieces show this to be explained by the amount of open and closed lubricant pockets....

  18. Significance tests to determine the direction of effects in linear regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Michael; von Eye, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have discussed asymmetric interpretations of the Pearson correlation coefficient and have shown that higher moments can be used to decide on the direction of dependence in the bivariate linear regression setting. The current study extends this approach by illustrating that the third moment of regression residuals may also be used to derive conclusions concerning the direction of effects. Assuming non-normally distributed variables, it is shown that the distribution of residuals of the correctly specified regression model (e.g., Y is regressed on X) is more symmetric than the distribution of residuals of the competing model (i.e., X is regressed on Y). Based on this result, 4 one-sample tests are discussed which can be used to decide which variable is more likely to be the response and which one is more likely to be the explanatory variable. A fifth significance test is proposed based on the differences of skewness estimates, which leads to a more direct test of a hypothesis that is compatible with direction of dependence. A Monte Carlo simulation study was performed to examine the behaviour of the procedures under various degrees of associations, sample sizes, and distributional properties of the underlying population. An empirical example is given which illustrates the application of the tests in practice.

  19. Microwave testing of high-Tc based direct current to a single flux quantum converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Fischer, Gerd Michael; Ivanov, Z. G.

    1994-01-01

    Design, simulation, and experimental investigations of a direct current to a single flux quantum converter loaded with a Josephson transmission line and driven by an external 70 GHz microwave oscillator are reported. The test circuit includes nine YBaCuO Josephson junctions aligned on the grain b...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. The Effect of Formative Testing and Self-Directed Learning on Mathematics Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Mohamad Syarif; Satriani, Retni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of formative testing and self-directed learning on mathematics learning outcomes. The research was conducted at an elementary school in central Jakarta during the 2014/2015 school year. Seventy-two fourth-grade students who were selected using random sampling participated in this study. Data…

  2. Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabaz, Fardin, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Ketan S., E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Young’s modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring the resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations.

  3. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  4. Replication of Non-Trivial Directional Motion in Multi-Scales Observed by the Runs Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    Non-trivial autocorrelation in up-down statistics in financial market price fluctuation is revealed by a multi-scale runs test(Wald-Wolfowitz test). We apply two models, a stochastic price model and dealer model to understand this property. In both approaches we successfully reproduce the non-stationary directional price motions consistent with the runs test by tuning parameters in the models. We find that two types of dealers exist in the markets, a short-time-scale trend-follower and an extended-time-scale contrarian who are active in different time periods.

  5. [Direct-to-consumer genetic testing through Internet: marketing, ethical and social issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducournau, Pascal; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Bulle, Alexandre; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We probably did not anticipate all the consequences of the direct to consumer genetic tests on Internet, resulting from the combined skills of communication and genomic advances. What are the commercial strategies used by the companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic tests on Internet and what are the different social expectations on which they focus? Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the web sites offering such tests, it seems that these companies target a triple market based on: the "healthism" which raises health and hygiene to the top of the social values; the contemporary demands of the users to become actual actors of health decisions; and finally on the need for bio-social relationships. These three commercial strategies underlie various ethical and societal issues justifying a general analysis.

  6. Personal utility is inherent to direct-to-consumer genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Matthew Wai Heng; Ng, Joseph Chi Fung

    2016-10-01

    People for and against direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic tests are arguing around two issues: first, on whether an autonomy-based account can justify the tests; second, on whether the tests bring any personal utility. Bunnik et al, in an article published in this journal, were doubtful on the latter, especially in clinically irrelevant and uninterpretable sequences, and how far this claim could go in the justification. Here we argue that personal utility is inherent to DTC genomic tests and their results. We discuss Bunnik et al's account of personal utility and identify problems in its motivation and application. We then explore concepts like utility and entertainment which suggest that DTC genomic tests bring personal utility to their consumers, both in the motivation and the content of the tests. This points to an alternative account of personal utility which entails that entertainment value alone is adequate to justify DTC genomic tests, given appropriate strategies to communicate tests results with the consumers. It supports the autonomy-based justification of the test by showing that DTC genomic test itself stands as a valuable option and facilitates meaningful choice of the people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Evaluating online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests: informed choices or buyers beware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geransar, Rose; Einsiedel, Edna

    2008-03-01

    Commercialization of genetic technologies is expanding the horizons for the marketing and sales of genetic tests direct-to-consumers (DTCs). This study assesses the information provision and access requirements that are in place for genetic tests that are being advertised DTC over the Internet. Sets of key words specific to DTC genetic testing were entered into popular Internet search engines to generate a list of 24 companies engaging in DTC advertising. Company requirements for physician mediation, genetic counseling arrangements, and information provision were coded to develop categories for quantitative analysis within each variable. Results showed that companies offering risk assessment and diagnostic testing were most likely to require that testing be mediated by a clinician, and to recommend physician-arranged counseling. Companies offering enhancement testing were less likely to require physician mediation of services and more likely to provide long-distance genetic counseling. DTC advertisements often provided information on disease etiology; this was most common in the case of multifactorial diseases. The majority of companies cited outside sources to support the validity of claims about clinical utility of the tests being advertised; companies offering risk assessment tests most frequently cited all information sources. DTC advertising for genetic tests that lack independent professional oversight raises troubling questions about appropriate use and interpretation of these tests by consumers and carries implications for the standards of patient care. These implications are discussed in the context of a public healthcare system.

  8. Metabolic syndrome patient compliance with drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilcéia Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To evaluate the compliance with drug treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome. 2 To determine association between access to and use of medicines, as well as the level of knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors and compliance. INTRODUCTION: Low compliance has been one of the greatest challenges for the successful treatment of chronic diseases. Although this issue has been widely studied in patients with isolated hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, compliance studies involving patients with these concomitant diseases or with metabolic syndrome diagnosis are scarce. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients who have been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to the IDF criteria. Patients were being treated in a Health-Medical School Center bound to the Public Brazilian Healthcare System. This study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was characterized by analyzing medical records and Phase II involved interviewing the patients. A variation of the Morisky-Green Test was used to evaluate compliance. Compliance was the dependent variable and the independent variables included access to medicines, the use of medicines and the level of knowledge concerning cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-three patients were identified as being eligible for Phase II, and 75 were included in the study. The average level of compliance was 5.44 points (standard deviation of 0.68, on a scale ranging from 1.00 to 6.00 points. There was no statistically meaningful association between independent variables and compliance. The level of patient knowledge of diet and dyslipidemia was considered to be low. CONCLUSIONS: Patients involved in this study exhibited a high level of compliance with drug treatment. Further research is needed to better elucidate the compliance behavior of patients who have been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Direct Susceptibility testing of Urine samples after 6, 9 and 16 hours incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghatian, Khaled; Littauer, Pia; Llado, Minna Fyhn Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: At present, susceptibility testing of infective bacteria from urine samples, according to EUCAST, is interpretation of zones after 16 hours of incubation. Using a semi-automated sample processing, the Kiestra (BD) system, to incubate of the agar plates and digital image processing...... testing on urine samples. Methods: In total 675 consecutive urine samples from out-patients, were inoculated directly, according to our laboratory standard, as 10µL on each part of a bi-plate (oxoid chomogene agar and 5% horse blood-agar) and 10µL on a MH plate for resistance testing, using an Inoqula...... (Kiestra-BD). The plates were photographed at 6, 9 and 16 hours after incubation. As a gold standard, the susceptibility test was performed according to EUCAST, as a secondary susceptibility testing, for colonies identified on the biplates, and read after 16 hours incubation.The disks used (Oxoid, Termo...

  10. Thermal Test Verification of Emission Control through Directional Baffles for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Matthew; Rashford, Robert; Switzer, Timothy; Shaw, David; White, Bryant; Lynch, Michael; Huber, Frank; Bachtell, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The thermal performance of NASA s planned James Webb Space Telescope is highly reliant on a collection of directional baffles that are part of the Integrated Science Instrument Module Electronics Compartment. In order to verify the performance of the baffle concept, two test assemblies were recently fabricated and tested at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The centerpiece of the testing was a fixture that used bolometers to measure the emission field through the baffles while the radiator panels and baffles ran a flight-like temperature. Although not all test goals were able to be met due to facility malfunctions, the test was able to prove the design viability enough to gain approval to begin manufacturing the flight article.

  11. Test Results From a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a closed cycle system incorporating a turboaltemator, recuperator, and gas cooler connected by gas ducts to an external gas heater. For this series of tests, the BPCU was modified by replacing the gas heater with the Direct Drive Gas heater or DOG. The DOG uses electric resistance heaters to simulate a fast spectrum nuclear reactor similar to those proposed for space power applications. The combined system thermal transient behavior was the focus of these tests. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points. At each point it was subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed or DOG electrical input. This paper outlines the changes made to the test unit and describes the testing that took place along with the test results.

  12. Direct-to-consumer personal genome testing for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Amin, Najaf; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2014-08-21

    Genetic testing may be the next step in clinical medicine for a more personalized approach in determining risk of disease. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genome tests may fulfill this role. We explored the practicability and predictive value of DTC tests from four companies (23andMe, deCODEme, Easy DNA, Genetic Testing Laboratories) for AMD. Body specimens of three individuals were collected and sent to four companies for DNA genotyping and disease risk estimation. In addition, DNA was also genotyped using Illumina HumanOmniExpress 12v1 array in the Rotterdam Study laboratory, and risk estimates of AMD were calculated using the validated prediction model from the population-based Three Continent AMD Consortium. Genotyped results of the four DTC tests matched genotyping performed by the Rotterdam Study laboratory. The estimated risks provided by the companies varied considerably in the tested individuals, from a 1.6-fold difference for overall relative risk to an up to 12-fold difference for lifetime risk. The lifetime risks for the individuals ranged from 1.4% to 16.1% in the DTC tests, while they varied from 0.5% to 4.2% in the validated prediction model. Most important reasons for the differences in risks were the testing of only a limited set of genetic markers, the choice of the reference population, and the methodology applied for risk calculation. Direct-to-consumer personal genome tests are not suitable for clinical application as yet. More comprehensive genetic testing and inclusion of environmental risk factors may improve risk prediction of AMD. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Interpretations of Directed Information in Portfolio Theory, Data Compression, and Hypothesis Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Permuter, Haim H; Weissman, Tsachy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the role of Massey's directed information in portfolio theory, data compression, and statistics with causality constraints. In particular, we show that directed information is an upper bound on the increment in growth rates of optimal portfolios in a stock market due to {causal} side information. This upper bound is tight for gambling in a horse race, which is an extreme case of stock markets. Directed information also characterizes the value of {causal} side information in instantaneous compression and quantifies the benefit of {causal} inference in joint compression of two stochastic processes. In hypothesis testing, directed information evaluates the best error exponent for testing whether a random process $Y$ {causally} influences another process $X$ or not. These results give a natural interpretation of directed information $I(Y^n \\to X^n)$ as the amount of information that a random sequence $Y^n = (Y_1,Y_2,..., Y_n)$ {causally} provides about another random sequence $X^n = (X_1,X_2,...,X_...

  14. Case of cytomegalovirus-associated direct anti-globulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Saeko; Sato, Masanori; Sasaki, Goro; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Tsutomu; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old boy developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia after a negative direct anti-globulin test. The concentration of erythrocyte membrane-associated immunoglobulin G, determined using an immunoradiometric assay, correlated with disease activity. He was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) both serologically and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicating that his autoimmune hemolytic anemia was directly caused by CMV infection. Since anti-CMV immunoglobulin G was not absorbed by the patient's erythrocytes, cross-reaction between erythrocyte antigens and CMV was not likely a causative factor for hemolysis.

  15. Are some packings more equal than others? A direct test of the Edwards conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Martiniani, Stefano; Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1980s, Sir Sam Edwards proposed a possible statistical-mechanical framework to describe the properties of disordered granular materials. A key assumption underlying the theory was that all jammed packings are equally likely. In the intervening years it has never been possible to test this bold hypothesis directly. Here we present simulations that provide direct evidence that at the unjamming point, all packings of soft repulsive particles are equally likely, even though generically, jammed packings are not. Our results therefore support Edwards' original conjecture. We also present evidence that at unjamming the configurational entropy of the system is maximal.

  16. Test results from the 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.E.; Olander, R.G.; Lobach, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    A 500 kW power plant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between the geothermal brine and the isobutane (IC/sub 4/) working fluid is being operated at the East Mesa test facility. The power plant incorporates a 40-inch-diameter direct-contactor approximately 35 feet tall. The purpose of the pilot plant is to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct-contact heat exchange and power plant operation with the DCHX. The binary cycle offers higher conversion factors (heat energy transformed to electrical energy) than the flashed steam approach for geothermal brines in the 300 to 400/sup 0/F range and preliminary results indicate the DCHX system may have higher performance than the conventional tube-and-shell binary approach. This performance advantage results from the absence of any fouling and the very close pinch temperatures achieved in the DCHX itself. The baseline performance tests for the plant were completed in January 1980. The results of these tests and follow-on testing are covered.

  17. Direct Release of Test Results to Patients Increases Patient Engagement and Utilization of Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pillemer

    Full Text Available An important focus for meaningful use criteria is to engage patients in their care by allowing them online access to their health information, including test results. There has been little evaluation of such initiatives. Using a mixed methods analysis of electronic health record data, surveys, and qualitative interviews, we examined the impact of allowing patients to view their test results via patient portal in one large health system. Quantitative data were collected for new users and all users of the patient portal. Qualitative interviews occurred with patients who had received an HbA1c or abnormal Pap result. Survey participants were active patient portal users. Our main measures were patient portal usage, factors associated with viewing test results and utilizing care, and patient and provider experiences with patient portal and direct release. Usage data show 80% of all patient portal users viewed test results during the year. Of survey respondents, 82.7% noted test results to be a very useful feature and 70% agreed that patient portal has made their provider more accessible to them. Interviewed patients reported feeling they should have direct access to test results and identified the ability to monitor results over time and prepare prior to communicating with a provider as benefits. In interviews, both patients and physicians reported instances of test results leading to unnecessary patient anxiety. Both groups noted the benefits of results released with provider interpretation. Quantitative data showed patient utilization to increase with viewing test results online, but this effect is mitigated when results are manually released by physicians. Our findings demonstrate that patient portal access to test results was highly valued by patients and appeared to increase patient engagement. However, it may lead to patient anxiety and increase rates of patient visits. We discuss how such unintended consequences can be addressed and larger

  18. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  19. Socioeconomic influences on the effects of a genetic testing direct-to-consumer marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D J; Harris, J; Jorgensen, C M; Myers, M F; Kuniyuki, A

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests is beginning to appear in select markets, and little independent evaluation has been conducted on the effects of this marketing on consumer attitudes or behavior. The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of socioeconomic status on women's reactions to such a campaign, including knowledge of the test, perceptions of personal risk, communications with others about the test, and interest in pursuing the test. The only United States provider of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility (BRCA1/2 testing) conducted a pilot marketing campaign that targeted women aged 25-54 and their health care providers in 2 cities, Atlanta, Ga., and Denver, Colo. The design for the evaluation was a post campaign consumer survey, based on a cross-sectional stratified random sample of women in the 2 intervention sites and 2 comparison sites. The campaign had no differential impact by socioeconomic status. However, there was a consistent relationship between socioeconomic status and several outcome variables, including knowledge of the test, beliefs about the test, and desire to know about genetic risk. These data indicate that socioeconomic status may play a role in uptake of genetic services, regardless of response to a media campaign. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Comparison of Gen-Probe Group A streptococcus Direct Test with culture for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, S J; Vetter, E A; Wollan, P C; Cockerill, F R

    1994-01-01

    The Group A Streptococcus Direct Test (GP-ST test; Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) was compared with culture for the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs of 767 patients with pharyngitis. Swabs were tested by the GP-ST test after inoculating a 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) plate. SBA plates were incubated at 35 degrees C in room air for 72 h. SBA plates with no evidence of beta-hemolytic colonies after 18 to 24 h of incubation were subcultured by taking a swipe across the primary inoculum from the SBA plate to an agar selective for Streptococcus spp. In a low-prevalence (11.9%) population and in comparison with the number of positive cultures detected by the 72-h single-culture method (SBA plate method), the GP-ST test had a sensitivity of 88.6%, a specificity of 97.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.9%, and a negative predictive value of 98.5%. In comparison with the growth of any colonies of S. pyogenes on the 72-h SBA plates plus a subculture onto selective blood agar, the sensitivities and specificities were as follows: 72-h SBA plate method, 96.7 and 100%, respectively; GP-ST test, 85.7 and 97.8%, respectively. The GP-ST test is an easy-to-perform, reliable test for batch screening of throat swabs for S. pyogenes. PMID:8077386

  1. Limitations of direct-to-consumer advertising for clinical genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Hull, Sara Chandros; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2002-10-09

    Although direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements for pharmaceuticals have been appearing in the mass media for 20 years, DTC advertisements for genetic testing have only recently appeared. Advertisements for genetic testing can provide both consumers and physicians with information about test availability in an expanding market. However, 3 factors limit the value and appropriateness of advertisements: complex information, a complicated social context surrounding genetics, and a lack of consensus about the clinical utility of some tests. Consideration of several advertisements suggests that they overstate the value of genetic testing for consumers' clinical care. Furthermore, advertisements may provide misinformation about genetics, exaggerate consumers' risks, endorse a deterministic relationship between genes and disease, and reinforce associations between diseases and ethnic groups. Advertising motivated by factors other than evidence of the clinical value of genetic tests can manipulate consumers' behavior by exploiting their fears and worries. At this time, DTC advertisements are inappropriate, given the public's limited sophistication regarding genetics and the lack of comprehensive premarket review of tests or oversight of advertisement content. Existing Federal Trade Commission and Food and Drug Administration regulations for other types of health-related advertising should be applied to advertisements for genetic tests.

  2. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.

  3. Testing of Subgrid—Scale Stress Models by Using Results from Direct Numerical SImulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongruiGONG

    1998-01-01

    The most commonly used dynamic subgrid models,Germano's model and dynamic kinetic energy model,and their base models-the Smagorinsky model and the kinetic energy model,were tested using results from direct numerical simulations of various turbulent flows.In germano's dynamic model,the model coefficient was treated as a constant within the test filter,This treatment is conceptually inconsistent.An iteration procedure was proposed to calculate the model coefficient and an improved correlation coefficient was found.

  4. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Test of the CLAS12 RICH large scale prototype in the direct proximity focusing configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Anefalos Pereira, S; Barion, L.; Benmokhtar, F; Brooks, W; Cisbani, E; Contalbrigo, M; El Alaoui, A; Hafidi, K; Hoek, M; Kubarovsky, V; Lagamba, L; Lucherini, V; Malaguti, R; Mirazita, M; Montgomery, R A; Movsisyan, A; Musico, P; Orlandi, A; Orecchini, D; Pappalardo, L L; Perrino, R; Phillips, J; Pisano, S; Rossi, P; Squerzanti, S; Tomassini, S; Turisini, M; Viticchiè, A

    2016-01-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c up to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and high-packed and high-segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large scale prototype of the RICH detector performed with the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. The tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1:500 in the whole momentum range.

  6. Operational and field test results from the 500 kw direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinak, A.J.; Lobach, J.L.; Nichols, K.E.

    1981-10-01

    A 500 kw geothermal powerplant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between geothermal brine and an isobutane (IC/sub 4/) working fluid is currently operating at the East Mesa test facility. The pilot plant program was initiated to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct contact heat exchange and associated plant operations. In addition to verifying the design performance of the DCHX itself, test efforts to date have (1) quantified the effect of dissolved gases (primarily CO/sub 2/) transferred from the brine to the IC/sub 4/ loop on the pressure elevation in the unvented power condenser and demonstrated a viable scheme to control this pressure elevation, (2) evaluated the potential of flash extraction and recovery of dissolved IC/sub 4/ from the spent brine, and (3) demonstrated control of fouling in critical components by pretreating the brine with small amounts of a chemical additive (FLOCON 247, Pfizer, Inc.).

  7. Test of the CLAS12 RICH large-scale prototype in the direct proximity focusing configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anefalos Pereira, S.; Lucherini, V.; Mirazita, M.; Orlandi, A.; Orecchini, D.; Pisano, S.; Tomassini, S.; Viticchie, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Baltzell, N.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Barion, L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Malaguti, R.; Movsisyan, A.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Squerzanti, S. [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Benmokhtar, F. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Brooks, W. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Cisbani, E. [Gruppo Sanita and Istituto Superiore di Sanita, INFN, Rome (Italy); Hoek, M.; Phillips, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kubarovsky, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Lagamba, L.; Perrino, R. [INFN, Bari (Italy); Montgomery, R.A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Musico, P. [INFN, Genova (Italy); Rossi, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Turisini, M. [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2016-02-15

    A large-area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3GeV/c up to 8GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiment at the upgraded 12GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and highly packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large-angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large-scale prototype of the RICH detector performed with the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. The tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1: 500 in the whole momentum range. (orig.)

  8. Test of the CLAS12 Rich Large Scale Prototype in the Direct Proximity Focusing Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anefalos Pereira, S.; Baltzell, N.; Barion, L.; Benmokhtar, F.; Brooks, W. K.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.

    2016-02-11

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c up to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and high-packed and high-segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large scale prototype of the RICH detector performed with the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. The tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1:500 in the whole momentum range.

  9. Medical Students Knowledge and Attitude Towards Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giraldi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study reports on the attitudes of 179 Italian Medical Students to direct-to-consumer genetic test and to participation in research practices. Methods: Data were collected using a self-completion online questionnaire sent to 380 medical students at the faculty of Medicine of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome, Italy. Questions pertained issues related to awareness and attitudes towards genetic testing, reactions to hypothetical results, and views about contributing to scientific research. Results: The response rate was 47.1%. Less than 50% of students were aware of DTC genetic test. Seventy-four percent of the sample were interested in undergoing DTC genetic test, and the main reason was being aware on genetic predisposition to diseases. Among those who were not willing to undergo a genetic test, the main reason was the lack of confidence in the results. In the hypothetical situations of an increased disease risk after undergoing DTC genetic testing, respondents would take actions to reduce that risk, while in the opposite scenario they would feel unaffected because of the probabilistic nature of the test. Conclusions: We reported a good level of awareness about DTC genetic test and a high interest in undergoing DTC genetic test in our sample. Nevertheless, opinions and reactions are strongly dependent by the hypothetical good or bad result that the test could provide and by the context whereby a genetic test could be performed. Respondents seem to be exposed to the risk of psychological harms, and a strong regulation regarding their use is required.

  10. Source of variation and heritability of directly measured traits in performance testing of Simmental bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Vladan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the variability and heritability of directly measured traits (growth and body development traits in performance test of Simmental bulls the data on 371 bulls born and tested over the period of 13 years were used in the analysis. The data were analyzed in order to estimate year and month of calving, herd of origin and group in test effect as well as error components. The components of variance were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML methodology applied to sire model. The year and month of birth had different effect on the variability of the growth traits, while the herd of origin and the test group manifested a consistent, highly significant effect on those growth traits which they could have an effect on. On the other hand, all the body development traits were under a constant and highly significant effect manifested by the year of calving, while the month of calving manifested its effect, during test, at different levels of statistical significance. A decreased effect of herd of origin on almost all body dimensions from the start until the end of performance test was universally observed. Heritability estimates for pre-test ADG, in-test and lifetime ADG were 0.27, 0.39 and 0.29, respectively. Heritability estimates for body weights were 0.23, 0.25, and 0.30 for birth weight, test-on weight, and test-off weight, respectively. Heritability estimates for test-off height at withers, circumference of chest, depth of chest and body length were 0.43, 0.30, 0.33 and 0.29.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Soft Tailings from a Swedish Tailings Impoundment:Results from Direct Shear Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanbhro, Riaz; Knutsson, Roger; Edeskär, Tommy; Knutsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The shear strength of tailings can vary depending upon the type of ore and method of construction. Tailings dams may possess loose layers in subsequent layers, which may have low shear strength. Since the tailings dams are made-up to last for longer times, the strength parameters and material behaviors are essential to understand, especially potential for static liquefaction in loose layers. This article presents the results from direct shear tests performed on samples from loose layer of a t...

  12. Neutron beam test of barium fluoride crystal for dark matter direct detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C.; Ma, X. H.; Wang, Z. M.; Bao, J.; Dai, C. J.; Guan, M. Y.; Liu, J. C.; Li, Z. H.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Yang, C. G.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zhong, W. L.

    2016-10-01

    In order to test the capabilities of Barium Fluoride (BaF2) crystal for dark matter direct detection, nuclear recoils are studied with mono-energetic neutron beam. The energy spectra of nuclear recoils, quenching factors for elastic scattering neutrons and discrimination capability between neutron inelastic scattering events and γ events are obtained for various recoil energies of the F content in BaF2.

  13. APPLICATION OF DIRECT CONTACT TEST IN EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC DENTURE BASE RESINS

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Kostić; Stevo Najman; Jelena Najdanović; Nebojša Krunić; Ivan Kostić

    2012-01-01

    The use of acrylic denture base resins is widely spread in dental practice. They belong to the group of biomaterials due to their role of morphological and functional substituent in the mouth. However, clinical practice has shown that some toxic ingredients of these materials may lead to adverse local and even systemic changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate cytotoxic effect of various denture base resins on cell culture using direct contact test. The effect of four different acrylic...

  14. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A., E-mail: ronzhin@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los, S.; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kim, H. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. The time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  15. Neutron Beam Tests of Barium Fluoride Crystal for Dark Matter Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Cong; Wang, Zhimin; Bao, Jie; Dai, Changjiang; Guan, Mengyun; Liu, Jinchang; Li, Zuhao; Ren, Jie; Ruan, Xichao; Yang, Changgen; Yu, Zeyuan; Zhong, Weili

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the capabilities of Barium Fluoride (BaF2) Crystal for dark matter direct detection, nuclear recoils are studied with mono-energetic neutron beam. The energy spectra of nuclear recoils, quenching factors for elastic scattering neutrons and discrimination capability between neutron inelastic scattering events and {\\gamma} events are obtained for various recoil energies of the F content in BaF2.

  16. The diagnostic significance of the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in anemic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slappendel, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was positive in 134 (36.1%) of 371 anemic dogs with internal diseases. Four principal types of reaction were recognized: IgG alone in 15 (11.2%), IgG + C′ in 41 (30.6%), C′ alone in 74 (55.2%) and IgM + C′ in 2 (1.5%). Rarely, IgM and/or IgA reactions occurred in a

  17. The diagnostic significance of the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in anemic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slappendel, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was positive in 134 (36.1%) of 371 anemic dogs with internal diseases. Four principal types of reaction were recognized: IgG alone in 15 (11.2%), IgG + C′ in 41 (30.6%), C′ alone in 74 (55.2%) and IgM + C′ in 2 (1.5%). Rarely, IgM and/or IgA reactions occurred in a

  18. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  19. Correntropy-based partial directed coherence for testing multivariate Granger causality in nonlinear processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rohit; Tangirala, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    Identification of directional influences in multivariate systems is of prime importance in several applications of engineering and sciences such as plant topology reconstruction, fault detection and diagnosis, and neurosciences. A spectrum of related directionality measures, ranging from linear measures such as partial directed coherence (PDC) to nonlinear measures such as transfer entropy, have emerged over the past two decades. The PDC-based technique is simple and effective, but being a linear directionality measure has limited applicability. On the other hand, transfer entropy, despite being a robust nonlinear measure, is computationally intensive and practically implementable only for bivariate processes. The objective of this work is to develop a nonlinear directionality measure, termed as KPDC, that possesses the simplicity of PDC but is still applicable to nonlinear processes. The technique is founded on a nonlinear measure called correntropy, a recently proposed generalized correlation measure. The proposed method is equivalent to constructing PDC in a kernel space where the PDC is estimated using a vector autoregressive model built on correntropy. A consistent estimator of the KPDC is developed and important theoretical results are established. A permutation scheme combined with the sequential Bonferroni procedure is proposed for testing hypothesis on absence of causality. It is demonstrated through several case studies that the proposed methodology effectively detects Granger causality in nonlinear processes.

  20. Comprehension and Data-Sharing Behavior of Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Test Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Scott P; Coleman, Jason; Najjar, Lotfollah; Fruhling, Ann; Bastola, Dhundy R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate current direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic customers' ability to interpret and comprehend test results and to determine if honest brokers are needed. One hundred and twenty-two customers of the DTC genetic testing company 23andMe were polled in an online survey. The subjects were asked about their personal test results and to interpret the results of two mock test cases (type 2 diabetes and multiple sclerosis), where results were translated into disease probability for an individual compared to the public. When asked to evaluate the risk, 72.1% correctly assessed the first case and 77% were correct on the second case. Only 23.8% of those surveyed were able to interpret both cases correctly. x03C7;2 and logistic regression were used to interpret the results. Participants who took the time to read the DTC test-provided supplemental material were 3.93 times (p = 0.040) more likely to correctly interpret the test results than those who did not. The odds for correctly interpreting the test cases were 3.289 times (p = 0.011) higher for those who made more than USD 50,000 than those who made less. Survey results were compared to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) phase 4 cycle 3 data to evaluate national trends. Most of the subjects were able to correctly interpret the test cases, yet a majority did not share their results with a health-care professional. As the market for DTC genetic testing grows, test comprehension will become more critical. Involving more health professionals in this process may be necessary to ensure proper interpretations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Antibacterial susceptibility of bovine-mastitis pathogens tested directly in milk from infected quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhi-Lehtiö, M; Sandholm, M; Myllys, V; Honkanen-Buzalski, T

    1994-04-01

    Antibacterial susceptibilities of bovine-mastitis pathogens were analysed directly in 57 mastitic milk samples without inoculation with exogenous organisms. Aseptically collected milk was mixed with serial dilutions of antibacterials and the growth was observed using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction the following day. The results were compared with those obtained by using calibrated bacterial inocula in turbidimetric minimum-inhibitory-concentration (MIC) determination in broth cultures, and in TTC-broth culture-test and TTC-normal milk-test. The results of different methods all correlated positively when the entire data was used. However, taking the direct test in mastitic milk as the 'true' result, the total discrepancies varied from 34.7% to 48.8%. Antibacterial activities of the trimethoprim-sulphadoxine combination, and of spiramycin and ampicillin, decreased significantly when nutrient broth was replaced by milk as the test medium. The efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphadoxine as an antibacterial agent was also dependent on the source of milk.

  2. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of a Testing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of validating a probability of detection (POD) testing system using directed design of experiments (DOE) includes recording an input data set of observed hit and miss or analog data for sample components as a function of size of a flaw in the components. The method also includes processing the input data set to generate an output data set having an optimal class width, assigning a case number to the output data set, and generating validation instructions based on the assigned case number. An apparatus includes a host machine for receiving the input data set from the testing system and an algorithm for executing DOE to validate the test system. The algorithm applies DOE to the input data set to determine a data set having an optimal class width, assigns a case number to that data set, and generates validation instructions based on the case number.

  3. "Be ready against cancer, now": direct-to-consumer advertising for genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William-Jones, Bryn

    2006-04-01

    A recent addition to the debate about the benefits and harms of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of medicines and pharmaceuticals is a growing critique of DTC marketing and sale of genetic tests. Academic and policy literatures exploring this issue have, however, tended to focus on the sale of genetic tests, paying rather less attention to the particular implications of advertising. The globalization of broadcast media and ever increasing access to the Internet mean that public exposure to advertising for medical technologies is a reality that national regulatory bodies will be hard pressed to constrain. Working through a case study detailing Myriad Genetics' 2002 pilot advertising campaign for their BRACAnalysis genetic susceptibility test for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, this paper highlights some of the diverse and often overlooked and unregulated approaches to DTC advertising, and the associated social, ethical and policy implications.

  4. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Quiping [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Chtistensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yoder, Graydon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-08

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  5. Attitudes, order and quantity: deterministic and direct probabilistic tests of unidimensional unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyngdon, Andrew; Richards, Ben

    2007-01-01

    This article is the final in the series on unidimensional unfolding. The investigations of Kyngdon (2006b) and Michell (1994) were extended to include direct probabilistic tests of the quantitative and ordinal components of unfolding theory with the multinomial Dirichlet model (Karabatsos 2005); and tests of the higher order axiomatic conjoint measurement (ACM, Krantz, Luce, Suppes and Tversky (KLST) 1971) condition of triple cancellation. Strong Dirichlet model support for both the ordinal and quantitative components of unfolding was only found in datasets that satisfied at least double cancellation. In contrast, the Item Response Theory (IRT) simple hyperbolic cosine model for pairwise preferences (SHCMpp, Andrich 1995) fitted all datasets. The paper concluded the SHCMpp is suited to the instrumental rather than scientific task (Michell 2000) of psychological measurement; with the caveat of the problematic chi square fit statistic. The paper also presents original work by the second author on coherent tests of triple cancellation.

  6. Fabrication of metrology test structures with helium ion beam direct write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Lin; Chien, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Sheng-Yung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Li, Jia-Han; Shew, Bor-Yuan; Hong, Chit-Sung; Lee, Chao-Te

    2017-03-01

    The availability of metrology solutions, one of the key factors to drive leading edge semiconductor devices and processes, can be confronted with difficulties in the advanced node. For developing new metrology solutions, high quality test structures fabricated at specific sizes are needed. Conventional resist-based lithography have been utilized to manufacture such samples. However, it can encounter significant resolution difficulties or requiring complicated optimization process for advanced technology node. In this work, potential of helium ion beam direct milling (HIBDM) for fabricating metrology test structures with programmed imperfection is investigated. Features down to 5 nm are resolvable without implementing any optimization method. Preliminary results have demonstrated that HIBDM can be a promising alternative to fabricate metrology test structures for advanced metrology solutions in sub 10 nm node.

  7. Process Sensitivity, Performance, and Direct Verification Testing of Adhesive Locking Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Leatherwood, Michael D.; Montoya, Michael D.; Kato, Ken A.; Akers, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Phase I: The use of adhesive locking features or liquid locking compounds (LLCs) (e.g., Loctite) as a means of providing a secondary locking feature has been used on NASA programs since the Apollo program. In many cases Loctite was used as a last resort when (a) self-locking fasteners were no longer functioning per their respective drawing specification, (b) access was limited for removal & replacement, or (c) replacement could not be accomplished without severe impact to schedule. Long-term use of Loctite became inevitable in cases where removal and replacement of worn hardware was not cost effective and Loctite was assumed to be fully cured and working. The NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) and United Space Alliance (USA) recognized the need for more extensive testing of Loctite grades to better understand their capabilities and limitations as a secondary locking feature. These tests, identified as Phase I, were designed to identify processing sensitivities, to determine proper cure time, the correct primer to use on aerospace nutplate, insert and bolt materials such as A286 and MP35N, and the minimum amount of Loctite that is required to achieve optimum breakaway torque values. The .1900-32 was the fastener size tested, due to wide usage in the aerospace industry. Three different grades of Loctite were tested. Results indicate that, with proper controls, adhesive locking features can be successfully used in the repair of locking features and should be considered for design. Phase II: Threaded fastening systems used in aerospace programs typically have a requirement for a redundant locking feature. The primary locking method is the fastener preload and the traditional redundant locking feature is a self-locking mechanical device that may include deformed threads, non-metallic inserts, split beam features, or other methods that impede movement between threaded members. The self-locking resistance of traditional locking features can be directly verified

  8. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  9. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Williams, Alun; McNamee, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Ahmetov, Ildus; Ashley, Euan; Byrne, Nuala; Camporesi, Silvia; Collins, Malcolm; Dijkstra, Paul; Eynon, Nir; Fuku, Noriyuki; Garton, Fleur C; Hoppe, Nils; Holm, Søren; Kaye, Jane; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Maase, Kamiel; Moran, Colin; North, Kathryn N; Pigozzi, Fabio; Wang, Guan

    2015-01-01

    The general consensus among sport and exercise genetics researchers is that genetic tests have no role to play in talent identification or the individualised prescription of training to maximise performance. Despite the lack of evidence, recent years have witnessed the rise of an emerging market of direct-to-consumer marketing (DTC) tests that claim to be able to identify children's athletic talents. Targeted consumers include mainly coaches and parents. There is concern among the scientific community that the current level of knowledge is being misrepresented for commercial purposes. There remains a lack of universally accepted guidelines and legislation for DTC testing in relation to all forms of genetic testing and not just for talent identification. There is concern over the lack of clarity of information over which specific genes or variants are being tested and the almost universal lack of appropriate genetic counselling for the interpretation of the genetic data to consumers. Furthermore independent studies have identified issues relating to quality control by DTC laboratories with different results being reported from samples from the same individual. Consequently, in the current state of knowledge, no child or young athlete should be exposed to DTC genetic testing to define or alter training or for talent identification aimed at selecting gifted children or adolescents. Large scale collaborative projects, may help to develop a stronger scientific foundation on these issues in the future. PMID:26582191

  10. Impact of a team and leaders-directed strategy to improve nurses' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines: A cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.M.P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Donders, R.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving hand hygiene compliance is still a major challenge for most hospitals. Innovative approaches are needed. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether an innovative, theory based, team and leaders-directed strategy would be more effective in increasing hand hygiene compliance rates in nurses th

  11. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2003 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to Nevada Test Site biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2003.

  12. Legacy Compliance Final Report: Results of the Navy/Encapo Soil Stabilization Study at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desotell, Lloyd; Anderson, David; Rawlinson, Stuart; Hudson, David; Yucel, Vefa

    2008-03-01

    -runoff simulations and double ring infiltrometer measurements. Plant vigor assessments were conducted during peak production time, approximately seven months post treatment. Rainfall was simulated at the approximate 5 minute intensity of a 50-year storm (5.1 inches per hour) for durations of four to five minutes. All runoff generated from each test plot was collected noting the time for each liter of volume. Five gallon carboys containing the runoff water and sediment were shipped to Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory for analysis. The samples were separated into liquid and solid fractions. Liquid and solid fractions were weighed and analyzed for Americium-241 (Am-241) by gamma spectrometry. Quality control measures used at the laboratory indicate the analytical data are accurate and reproducible. A weather station was deployed to the field site to take basic meteorological measurements including air temperature, incoming solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure, relative humidity, precipitation, and volumetric soil moisture content. Meteorological monitoring data indicate the climate over the test period was hot and dry with 41 days having measurable precipitation. The total precipitation for the study period was 12.5 centimeters, 37% of the long-term average. For the 20.5 month test period, 64 freeze-thaw cycles occurred. Vegetation assessments indicate the emulsion treatment did not negatively impact existing vegetation. The three rounds of double ring infiltration tests on treated surfaces indicate the infiltration rate was relatively constant over time and not significantly different from measurements taken on untreated surfaces. Significant differences were observed in the amount of runoff and sediment collected from treated and untreated plots for the first two but not the third round of rainfall-runoff simulations, indicating significant emulsion degradation after 20.5 months of exposure. Treated plots had higher total runoff volumes and

  13. Developmental toxicology: new directions workshop: refining testing strategies and study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Kimberly C; Fenton, Suzanne E; Hansen, Deborah K; Harrouk, Wafa; Kim, James H; Shuey, Dana

    2011-10-01

    In April 2009, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a two-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions." The third session of the workshop focused on ways to refine animal studies to improve relevance and predictivity for human risk. The session included five presentations on: (1) considerations for refining developmental toxicology testing and data interpretation; (2) comparative embryology and considerations in study design and interpretation; (3) pharmacokinetic considerations in study design; (4) utility of genetically modified models for understanding mode-of-action; and (5) special considerations in reproductive testing for biologics. The presentations were followed by discussion by the presenters and attendees. Much of the discussion focused on aspects of refining current animal testing strategies, including use of toxicokinetic data, dose selection, tiered/triggered testing strategies, species selection, and use of alternative animal models. Another major area of discussion was use of non-animal-based testing paradigms, including how to define a "signal" or adverse effect, translating in vitro exposures to whole animal and human exposures, validation strategies, the need to bridge the existing gap between classical toxicology testing and risk assessment, and development of new technologies. Although there was general agreement among participants that the current testing strategy is effective, there was also consensus that traditional methods are resource-intensive and improved effectiveness of developmental toxicity testing to assess risks to human health is possible. This article provides a summary of the session's presentations and discussion and describes some key areas that warrant further consideration. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Developmental Toxicology—New Directions Workshop: Refining Testing Strategies and Study Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Kimberly C.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Hansen, Deborah K.; Harrouk, Wafa; Kim, James H.; Shuey, Dana

    2012-01-01

    In April 2009, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute’s (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a two-day workshop entitled “Developmental Toxicology—New Directions.” The third session of the workshop focused on ways to refine animal studies to improve relevance and predictivity for human risk. The session included five presentations on: (1) considerations for refining developmental toxicology testing and data interpretation; (2) comparative embryology and considerations in study design and interpretation; (3) pharmacokinetic considerations in study design; (4) utility of genetically modified models for understanding mode-of-action; and (5) special considerations in reproductive testing for biologics. The presentations were followed by discussion by the presenters and attendees. Much of the discussion focused on aspects of refining current animal testing strategies, including use of toxicokinetic data, dose selection, tiered/triggered testing strategies, species selection, and use of alternative animal models. Another major area of discussion was use of non-animal-based testing paradigms, including how to define a “signal” or adverse effect, translating in vitro exposures to whole animal and human exposures, validation strategies, the need to bridge the existing gap between classical toxicology testing and risk assessment, and development of new technologies. Although there was general agreement among participants that the current testing strategy is effective, there was also consensus that traditional methods are resource-intensive and improved effectiveness of developmental toxicity testing to assess risks to human health is possible. This article provides a summary of the session’s presentations and discussion and describes some key areas that warrant further consideration. PMID:22006510

  15. Compliance for Green IT

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.

  16. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  17. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Direct Tension Test for Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete cracking strength can be defined as the tensile strength of concrete subjected to pure tension stress. However, as it is difficult to apply direct tension load to concrete specimens, concrete cracking is usually quantified by the modulus of rupture for flexural members. In this study, a new direct tension test setup for cylindrical specimens (101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height similar to those used in compression test is developed. Double steel plates are used to obtain uniform stress distributions. Finite element analysis for the proposed test setup is conducted. The uniformity of the stress distribution along the cylindrical specimen is examined and compared with rectangular cross section. Fuzzy image pattern recognition method is used to assess stress uniformity along the specimen. Moreover, the probability of cracking at different locations along the specimen is evaluated using probabilistic finite element analysis. The experimental and numerical results of the cracking location showed that gravity effect on fresh concrete during setting time might affect the distribution of concrete cracking strength along the height of the structural elements.

  19. World Year of Physics: a direct test of E=mc2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Simon; Thompson, James K; Myers, Edmund G; Brown, John M; Dewey, Maynard S; Kessler, Ernest G; Deslattes, Richard D; Börner, Hans G; Jentschel, Michael; Mutti, Paolo; Pritchard, David E

    2005-12-22

    One of the most striking predictions of Einstein's special theory of relativity is also perhaps the best known formula in all of science: E=mc(2). If this equation were found to be even slightly incorrect, the impact would be enormous--given the degree to which special relativity is woven into the theoretical fabric of modern physics and into everyday applications such as global positioning systems. Here we test this mass-energy relationship directly by combining very accurate measurements of atomic-mass difference, Delta(m), and of gamma-ray wavelengths to determine E, the nuclear binding energy, for isotopes of silicon and sulphur. Einstein's relationship is separately confirmed in two tests, which yield a combined result of 1-Delta(mc2)/E=(-1.4+/-4.4)x10(-7), indicating that it holds to a level of at least 0.00004%. To our knowledge, this is the most precise direct test of the famous equation yet described.

  20. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  1. A high-contrast coronagraph for earth-like exoplanet direct imaging: design and test

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C C; Dou, J P; Zhu, Y T; Zhang, X; Zhao, G; Wu, Zh; Chen, R

    2014-01-01

    The high-contrast coronagraph for direct imaging earth-like exoplanet at the visible needs a contrast of 10^(-10) at a small angular separation of 4 lambda/D or less. Here we report our recent laboratory experiment that is close to the limits. The test of the high-contrast imaging coronagraph is based on our step-transmission apodized filter. To achieve the goal, we use a liquid crystal array (LCA) as a phase corrector to create a dark hole based on our dedicated focal dark algorithm. We have suppressed the diffracted and speckle noise near the star point image to a level of 1.68 x 10^(-9) at 4 lambda/D, which can be immediately used for the direct imaging of Jupiter like exoplanets. This demonstrates that high-contrast coronagraph telescope in space has the potentiality to detect and characterize earth-like planets.

  2. Internet-Based Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covolo, Loredana; Rubinelli, Sara; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Gelatti, Umberto

    2015-12-14

    Direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GT) are easily purchased through the Internet, independent of a physician referral or approval for testing, allowing the retrieval of genetic information outside the clinical context. There is a broad debate about the testing validity, their impact on individuals, and what people know and perceive about them. The aim of this review was to collect evidence on DTC-GT from a comprehensive perspective that unravels the complexity of the phenomenon. A systematic search was carried out through PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase, in addition to Google Scholar according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist with the key term "Direct-to-consumer genetic test." In the final sample, 118 articles were identified. Articles were summarized in five categories according to their focus on (1) knowledge of, attitude toward use of, and perception of DTC-GT (n=37), (2) the impact of genetic risk information on users (n=37), (3) the opinion of health professionals (n=20), (4) the content of websites selling DTC-GT (n=16), and (5) the scientific evidence and clinical utility of the tests (n=14). Most of the articles analyzed the attitude, knowledge, and perception of DTC-GT, highlighting an interest in using DTC-GT, along with the need for a health care professional to help interpret the results. The articles investigating the content analysis of the websites selling these tests are in agreement that the information provided by the companies about genetic testing is not completely comprehensive for the consumer. Given that risk information can modify consumers' health behavior, there are surprisingly few studies carried out on actual consumers and they do not confirm the overall concerns on the possible impact of DTC-GT. Data from studies that investigate the quality of the tests offered confirm that they are not informative, have little predictive power, and do not measure genetic risk

  3. Testing adhesion of direct restoratives to dental hard tissue - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten

    2010-10-01

    This articles concerns itself with the testing of adhesion between direct restoratives and dental hard tissue, ie, enamel and dentin. The aim is to survey available methods for adhesion testing and influential parameters affecting experimental outcome. The testing of adhesion to indirect restorative materials, eg, ceramics and metals, is beyond the scope of this article and shall be discussed elsewhere. The longevity and success of modern dental restorations very often relies on potent dental adhesives to provide durable bonds between the dental hard substance and the restorative composite. To predict the clinical outcome of such restorative treatment, a large variety of in vitro laboratory tests and clinical in vivo experiments have been devised, analyzed, and published. The purpose of this review is to provide a current overview of bond strength testing methods and their applicability to the characterization of dental adhesives. Regardless of the method employed, subtle variations in sample preparation may already severely impact test results, usually necessitating at least co-testing of a well-known internal reference to allow conclusive interpretation. This article attempts to list and discuss the most influential parameters, such as substrate nature, age, health status, storage, clinically relevant pre-treatment, and sample preparation. Special attention is devoted to the last aspect, as numerous publications have stressed the tremendous influence of preparatory parameters on the validity and scope of obtained data. Added to the large variety of such factors, an equally large diversity of load-applying procedures exists to actually quantify adhesion between composites and dental hard substance. This article summarizes the basics of macro and micro approaches to shear and tensile bond strength testing, as well as push- and pull-out tests. The strengths and weaknesses inherent to each method and influential test parameters are reviewed and methods for

  4. Nonaxisymmetric anisotropy of solar wind turbulence as a direct test for models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A J; Gogoberidze, G; Chapman, S C

    2012-02-24

    Single point spacecraft observations of the turbulent solar wind flow exhibit a characteristic nonaxisymmetric anisotropy that depends sensitively on the perpendicular power spectral exponent. We use this nonaxisymmetric anisotropy as a function of wave vector direction to test models of MHD turbulence. Using Ulysses magnetic field observations in the fast, quiet polar solar wind we find that the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence is not consistent with the observed anisotropy, whereas the observations are well reproduced by the "slab+2D" model. The Goldreich-Sridhar model alone cannot account for the observations unless an additional component is also present.

  5. The Relationship between Education and Foreign Direct Investment: Testing the Inverse U Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Seref Akin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zhang-Markusen (ZM theory hypothesizes an inverse U-shaped relationship between human capital and foreign direct investment (FDI. Therefore, low wage countries with low human capital cannot attract FDI. To test this hypothesis, we regress FDI on educational levels across countries while grouping them in different income cohorts. Our findings partly support ZM. Rich countries with high human capital and poor countries with low human capital demonstrate an inverse correlation between FDI and human capital proxies. However, for middle-income and upper middle-income countries, human capital (especially tertiary education has a positive relationship with FDI.

  6. The Relationship between Education and Foreign Direct Investment: Testing the Inverse U Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Seref Akin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Zhang-Markusen (ZM theory hypothesizes an inverse U-shaped relationship between human capital and foreign direct investment (FDI. Therefore, low wage countries with low human capital cannot attract FDI. To test this hypothesis, we regress FDI on educational levels across countries while grouping them in different income cohorts. Our findings partly support ZM. Rich countries with high human capital and poor countries with low human capital demonstrate an inverse correlation between FDI and human capital proxies. However, for middle-income and upper middle-income countries, human capital (especially tertiary education has a positive relationship with FDI.

  7. Taking your medicine: relational steps to improving patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, A

    2001-01-01

    Patient non-compliance with physicians' instructions is a major problem that costs billions of dollars each year. This study supports a significant role for communication, both as a form of information exchange and social support, and participative decision-making in improving patient compliance. These results, based on structural equation modeling, also support the interaction of communication and participative decision-making positively affecting compliance. Results suggest that one-way communication from physician to patient and patient education will not solve compliance problems by themselves. Instead the solution revolves around open, bi-directional information exchange, active listening by both parties, and truly informed consent on the part of patients.

  8. Direction and Integration of Experimental Ground Test Capabilities and Computational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper groups and summarizes the salient points and findings from two AIAA conference panels targeted at defining the direction, with associated key issues and recommendations, for the integration of experimental ground testing and computational methods. Each panel session utilized rapporteurs to capture comments from both the panel members and the audience. Additionally, a virtual panel of several experts were consulted between the two sessions and their comments were also captured. The information is organized into three time-based groupings, as well as by subject area. These panel sessions were designed to provide guidance to both researchers/developers and experimental/computational service providers in defining the future of ground testing, which will be inextricably integrated with the advancement of computational tools.

  9. APPLICATION OF DIRECT CONTACT TEST IN EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC DENTURE BASE RESINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kostić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of acrylic denture base resins is widely spread in dental practice. They belong to the group of biomaterials due to their role of morphological and functional substituent in the mouth. However, clinical practice has shown that some toxic ingredients of these materials may lead to adverse local and even systemic changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate cytotoxic effect of various denture base resins on cell culture using direct contact test. The effect of four different acrylic materials on HeLa cell structure was evaluated. Upon light microscopy analysis, MTT test was performed without previous removal of material samples. The obtained values of MTT indicate that cell proliferation is dependant on the type of acrylic denture base resins. Cold polymerization denture base resins showed mild inhibitory effect on the cell culture growth. The signs of toxicity were not observed in heat polymerization denture base resins.

  10. Melt dispersion and direct containment heating (DCH) experiments in the DISCO-H test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Albrecht, G.; Kirstahler, M.; Schwall, M.; Wachter, E.; Woerner, G.

    2004-05-01

    The DISCO-H Test Facility at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe was set up to perform scaled experiments that simulate melt ejection scenarios under low system pressure in Severe Accidents in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). These experiments are designed to investigate the fluid-dynamic, thermal and chemical processes during melt ejection out of a breach in the lower head of a PWR pressure vessel at pressures below 2 MPa with an iron-alumina melt and steam. In the past, a detailed study of pressure and geometry effects on the fluid dynamics of the melt dispersion process had been performed with cold model fluids in the facility DISCO-C. The main components of the facility are scaled about 1:18 linearly to a large European pressurized water reactor. Standard test results are: pressure and temperature history in the RPV, the cavity, the reactor compartment and the containment, post test melt fractions in all locations with size distribution of the debris, video film in reactor compartment and containment (timing of melt flow and hydrogen burning), and pre- and post test gas analysis in the cavity and the containment. The results of six experiments are presented here. All experiments were done with 10.6 kg of iron-alumina melt (scaling to 16 m{sup 3} corium), and a hole of 56 mm diameter (1 m scaled) or 28 mm at the center of the lower head. For comparison with a similar experiment conducted in a larger scale (1:10), the basis experiment was performed with an open path from the reactor pit to the containment (open pit), with prototypical conditions concerning the steam driven ejection out of the RPV, and a containment atmosphere, that was part air and part steam at an elevated pressure, with 3 mole-% hydrogen. In this and other tests, hydrogen production and combustion occurred. In one experiment the hydrogen effect was excluded by using only nitrogen as driving gas and a pure air atmosphere in the containment. In some tests the direct path to the containment was closed

  11. Applying Galois compliance for data analysis in information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the data analysis in information systems. The author discloses the possibility of using Galois compliance to identify the characteristics of the information system structure. The author reveals the specificity of the application of Galois compliance for the analysis of information system content with the use of invariants of graph theory. Aspects of introduction of mathematical apparatus of Galois compliance for research of interrelations between elements of the adaptive training information system of individual testing are analyzed.

  12. Photoacoustic tomography of vascular compliance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-12-01

    Characterization of blood vessel elastic properties can help in detecting thrombosis and preventing life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) is proposed to measure blood vessel compliance in humans. Implemented on a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system, VE-PAT can quantify blood vessel compliance changes due to simulated thrombosis and occlusion. The feasibility of the VE-PAT system was first demonstrated by measuring the strains under uniaxial loading in perfused blood vessel phantoms and quantifying their compliance changes due to the simulated thrombosis. The VE-PAT system detected a decrease in the compliances of blood vessel phantoms with simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. The VE-PAT system was then applied to assess blood vessel compliance in a human subject. Experimental results showed a decrease in compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point in the blood vessels, demonstrating VE-PAT's potential for clinical thrombosis detection.

  13. Counseling customers: emerging roles for genetic counselors in the direct-to-consumer genetic testing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna; Kelly, Susan E; Wyatt, Sally

    2013-04-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing companies offer genetic counseling. There has been no examination to date of this service provision, whether it meets critics' concerns and implications it may have for the genetic counseling profession. Considering the increasing relevance of genetics in healthcare, the complexity of genetic information provided by DTC GT, the mediating role of the internet in counseling, and potential conflicts of interest, this is a topic which deserves further attention. In this paper we offer a discourse analysis of ways in which genetic counseling is represented on DTC GT websites, blogs and other online material. This analysis identified four types of genetic counseling represented on the websites: the integrated counseling product; discretionary counseling; independent counseling; and product advice. Genetic counselors are represented as having the following roles: genetics educator; mediator; lifestyle advisor; risk interpreter; and entrepreneur. We conclude that genetic counseling as represented on DTC GT websites demonstrates shifting professional roles and forms of expertise in genetic counseling. Genetic counselors are also playing an important part in how the genetic testing market is taking shape. Our analysis offers important and timely insights into recent developments in the genetic counseling profession, which have relevance for practitioners, researchers and policy makers concerned with the evolving field of personal genomics.

  14. MELCOR 1.8.2 Assessment: IET direct containment heating tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1993-10-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze several of the IET direct containment heating experiments done at 1:10 linear scale in the Surtsey test facility at Sandia and at 1:40 linear scale in the corium-water thermal interactions (CWTI) COREXIT test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. These MELCOR calculations were done as an open post-test study, with both the experimental data and CONTAIN results available to guide the selection of code input. Basecase MELCOR results are compared to test data in order to evaluate the new HPME DCH model recently added in MELCOR version 1.8.2. The effect of various user-input parameters in the HPME model, which define both the initial debris source and the subsequent debris interaction, were investigated in sensitivity studies. In addition, several other non-default input modelling changes involving other MELCOR code packages were required in our IET assessment analyses in order to reproduce the observed experiment behavior. Several calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in our DCH IET assessment analyses.

  15. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  16. Direct Shear Tests of Sandstone Under Constant Normal Tensile Stress Condition Using a Simple Auxiliary Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Duofeng; Huang, Da

    2017-06-01

    Tension-shear failure is a typical failure mode in the rock masses in unloading zones induced by excavation or river incision, etc., such as in excavation-disturbed zone of deep underground caverns and superficial rocks of high steep slopes. However, almost all the current shear failure criteria for rock are usually derived on the basis of compression-shear failure. This paper proposes a simple device for use with a servo-controlled compression-shear testing machine to conduct the tension-shear tests of cuboid rock specimens, to test the direct shear behavior of sandstone under different constant normal tensile stress conditions ( σ = -1, -1.5, -2, -2.5 and -3 MPa) as well as the uniaxial tension behavior. Generally, the fracture surface roughness decreases and the proportion of comminution areas in fracture surface increases as the change of stress state from tension to tension-shear and to compression-shear. Stepped fracture is a primary fracture pattern in the tension-shear tests. The shear stiffness, shear deformation and normal deformation (except the normal deformation for σ = -1 MPa) decrease during shearing, while the total normal deformation containing the pre-shearing portion increases as the normal tensile stress level (| σ|) goes up. Shear strength is more sensitive to the normal tensile stress than to the normal compressive stress, and the power function failure criterion (or Mohr envelope form of Hoek-Brown criterion) is examined to be the optimal criterion for the tested sandstone in the full region of tested normal stress in this study.

  17. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Francke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown.Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service® report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned.Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation

  18. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Uta; Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y; Mountain, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown. Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service(®) report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned. Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation-positive participants

  19. The relationship between direct predation and antipredator responses: a test with multiple predators and multiple prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Dröge, Egil; M'soka, Jassiel; Smit, Daan; Becker, Matt; Christianson, Dave; Schuette, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Most species adjust their behavior to reduce the likelihood of predation. Many experiments have shown that antipredator responses carry energetic costs that can affect growth, survival, and reproduction, so that the total cost of predation depends on a trade-off between direct predation and risk effects. Despite these patterns, few field studies have examined the relationship between direct predation and the strength of antipredator responses, particularly for complete guilds of predators and prey. We used scan sampling in 344 observation periods over a four-year field study to examine behavioral responses to the immediate presence of predators for a complete antelope guild (dominated by wildebeest, zebra, and oribi) in Liuwa Plains National Park, Zambia, testing for differences in response to all large carnivores in the ecosystem (lions, spotted hyenas, cheetahs, and African wild dogs). We quantified the proportion that each prey species contributed to the kills made by each predator (516 total kills), used distance sampling on systematic line transects to determine the abundance of each prey species, and combined these data to quantify the per-capita risk of direct predation for each predator-prey pair. On average, antelopes increased their vigilance by a factor of 2.4 when predators were present. Vigilance varied strongly among prey species, but weakly in response to different predators. Increased vigilance was correlated with reduced foraging in a similar manner for all prey species. The strength of antipredator response was not detectably related to patterns of direct predation (n = 15 predator-prey combinations with sufficient data). This lack of correlation has implications for our understanding of the role of risk effects as part of the limiting effect of predators on prey. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Corrosion investigations, Tracy Red Bluff, California, and Boulder City, Nevada, ehv direct current tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, T.E.

    1965-01-01

    Evaluation of corrosion on buried metalwork, by the introduction of large direct currents into the ground, was studied during ehv dc transmission investigations in the Tracy-Red Bluff, California and the Boulder City, Nevada areas. Tests made on two types of electrodes showed that ehv dc ground return at test current levels would: (1) promote serious corrosion of buried metalwork within approximately 1/2-mile radius of the electrode with a ground mat electrode and mild corrosion with a deep-well electrode; (2) promote negligible-to-serious corrosion of buried pipelines within 1/2 to 3 mile radius of either a ground mat or deep-well electrode, depending on (a) distance of the pipelines from the electrode, (b) geometry of the two electrode-pipeline systems, and (c) horizontal extent of the pipelines; (3) impress negligible-to-mild corrosion of buried pipelines beyond a 3-mile radius of the electrode depending upon geometry of the electrode-pipeline system. Results show normal corrosion prevention techniques will be adequate to prevent corrosion of buried metalwork, if electrode is properly located. Use of ground return for only 8 to 24 hours per year on the ehv intertie, although with currents 2 to 3 times higher than test currents, will cause stray current damage of only a fraction of that expected with continuous operations.

  1. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a systematic review of european guidelines, recommendations, and position statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad; Ianuale, Carolina; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Personalized healthcare is expected to yield promising results, with a paradigm shift toward more personalization in the practice of medicine. This emerging field has wide-ranging implications for all the stakeholders. Commercial tests in the form of multiplex genetic profiles are currently being provided to consumers, without the physicians' consultation, through the Internet, referred to as direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC GT). The objective was to review all the existing European guidelines on DTC GT, and its associated interventions, to list all the supposed benefits and harms, issues and concerns, and recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of position statements, policies, guidelines, and recommendations, produced by professional organizations or other relevant bodies for use of DTC GT in Europe. Seventeen documents met the inclusion criteria, which were subjected to thematic analysis, and the texts were coded for statements related to use of DTC GT. Professional societies and associations are currently more suggestive of potential disadvantages of DTC GT, recommending improved genetic literacy of both populations and health professionals, and implementation research on the genetic tests to integrate public health genomics into healthcare systems.

  2. Online direct-to-consumer messages about non-invasive prenatal genetic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Farrell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT has been integrated into clinical care at a time when patients and healthcare providers increasingly utilize the internet to access health information. This study evaluated online direct-to-consumer information about NIPT produced by commercial laboratories accessible to both patients and healthcare providers. A coding checklist captured areas to describe content and assess concordance with clinical guidelines. We found that the information presented about NIPT is highly variable, both within a single website and broadly across all websites. Variability was noted in how NIPT is characterized, including test characteristics and indications. All laboratories offer NIPT to test for common sex chromosome aneuploidies, although there is a lack of consistency regarding the conditions offered and information provided about each. Although indicated for a subset of women at increased risk of aneuploidy, some laboratories describe the use of NIPT for all pregnant women. A subset of laboratories offers screening for microdeletions, although clinical practice guidelines do not yet recommend for general use for this indication. None of the online materials addressed the ethical issues associated with NIPT. This study highlights the need for clear, consistent, and evidence-based materials to educate patients and healthcare providers about the current and emerging applications of NIPT.

  3. Testing the advanced oxidation processes on the degradation of Direct Blue 86 dye in wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hassaan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work tests the viability of applying ozone (O3 and O3 combined with ultraviolet (UV to degrade the content of synthetic wastewater containing Direct Blue 86 (DB-86 dye. The tested parameters, which included pH, initial concentration of DB-86 dye and time of reaction, were tested in a batch reactor to achieve optimum operating circumstances. The results obtained in this study showed that pH and initial concentration of DB-86 dye controlled the efficiency of the decolorization process. The maximum decolorization was obtained at pH 11. More than 98% of color removal was reported after 35 min of O3 treatment (for 100 ppm dye concentration. Kinetic analyses showed that color removal of DB-86 dye followed first-order kinetics. The rate of color removal was primarily relative to the initial DB-86 dye concentration. The effect of seawater on the efficiency of the process was studied. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum analysis of treated synthetic DB-86 dye solution was performed at the end of the pre-treatment time to study the final degradation products of DB-86 dye. The obtained results revealed that ozonation processes had reduced the zooplankton toxicity belonging to the raw solution and had improved the biodegradability of the DB-86 dye wastewater.

  4. Separate effects tests on hydrogen combustion during direct containment heating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Albrecht, G.; Kirstahler, M.; Schwall, M.; Wachter, E.

    2008-01-15

    In the frame of severe accident research for light water reactors Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK/IKET) operates the facilities DISCO-C and DISCO-H since 1998, conceived to investigate the direct containment heating (DCH) issue. Previous DCH experiments have investigated the corium dispersion and containment pressurization during DCH in different European reactor geometries using an iron-alumina melt and steam as model fluids. The analysis of these experiments showed that the containment was pressurized by the debris-to-gas heat transfer but also to a large part by hydrogen combustion. The need was identified to better characterize the hydrogen combustion during DCH. To address this issue separate effect tests in the DISCO-H facility were conducted. These tests reproduced phenomena occurring during DCH (injection of a hot steam-hydrogen mixture jet into the containment and ignition of the air-steam-hydrogen mixture) with the exception of corium dispersion. The effect of corium particles as igniters was simulated using sparkler systems. The data will be used to validate models in combustion codes and to extrapolate to prototypic scale. Tests have been conducted in the DISCO-H facility in two steps. First a small series of six tests was done in a simplified geometry to study fundamental parameters. Then, two tests were done with a containment geometry subdivided into a subcompartment and the containment dome. The test conditions were as follows: As initial condition in the containment an atmosphere was used either with air or with a homogeneous air-steam mixture containing hydrogen concentrations between 0 and 7 mol%, temperatures around 100 C and pressure at 2 bar (representative of the containment atmosphere conditions at vessel failure). Injection of a hot steam-hydrogen jet mixture into the reactor cavity pit at 20 bar, representative of the primary circuit blow down through the vessel and hydrogen produced during this phase. The most important variables

  5. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2009 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. Dennis; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2010-07-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2009. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2009, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  6. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2008 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis J.; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2009-04-30

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2008. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  7. Cross compliance and competitiveness of the European beef and pig sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.; Jongeneel, R.; Dillen, K.; Winsten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Beef and pig production are important sectors affected by the cross-compliance policy. Full compliance with SMRs and GAECs generates costs and benefits which may have an impact on the competitiveness of these sectors on the world market. Compliance with the Nitrate Directive, animal identification a

  8. Using Candy to Teach Counselors to Teach Clients about Medication Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia and other serious mental illness hinder medication compliance. Clinicians are often challenged to increase clients' medication compliance, but lack the tools to enhance consistent treatment compliance. Counselor educators enhance their course instruction by offering a specific counseling tool to students. Those working directly with…

  9. How to chase a tracer - combining conventional salt tracer testing and direct push electrical conductivity profiling for enhanced aquifer characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Huber, Emanuel; Kreck, Manuel; Huggenberger, Peter; Dietrich, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Tracer testing is a well-established technique in hydrogeological site characterization. However, certain a priori knowledge of the hydraulic regime is required beforehand to avoid test failure, e.g. miss of tracer. In this study, we propose a novel tracer test concept for the hydraulic characterization of shallow unconsolidated sedimentary deposits when only scarce a priori information on the hydraulic regime is available. Therefore, we combine conventional salt tracer testing with direct push vertical high resolution electrical conductivity logging. The proposed tracer test concept was successfully tested on coarse, braided river deposits of the Tagliamento River, Italy. With limited a priori information available two tracer tests were performed in three days to reliably determine ground water flow direction and velocity allowing on-site decision-making to adaptively install observation wells for reliable breakthrough curve measurements. Furthermore, direct push vertical electrical profiling provided essential information about the plume characteristics with outstanding measurement resolution and efficiency.

  10. [Frequency dependance of compliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayrard, P

    1975-01-01

    Resistance of peripheral or "small" airways is only a small part of the total pulmonary resistance (Raw). Even considerable obstruction in these airways will have little effect on total resistance. Conversely this will lead to inequality in the time constants of units in parallel, and dynamic lung compliance (C dyn) shall fall as respiratory frequence increases. C dyn is measured from simultaneous recordings of transpulmonary pressure (esophageal balloon) and volume obtained from a volume displacement plethysmograph. If Raw and static compliance are found to be normal, the frequency dependance of compliance will result from peripheral airway obstruction only. Early stages of chronic airway obstruction can be established by this method. However this appear not suitable for wide-scale studies.

  11. ICIS FE&C Compliance Monitoring Screens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Web Based Training for Integrated Compliance Information System Updated Compliance Monitoring Training for ICIS Federal Enforcement and Compliance User. This...

  12. A Combined Disk Test for Direct Differentiation of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Surveillance Rectal Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkotou, Olympia; Poulou, Aggeliki; Kristo, Ioulia; Vrioni, Georgia; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are rapidly spreading worldwide. Early detection of fecal CPE carriers is essential for effective infection control. Here, we evaluated the performance of a meropenem combined disk test (CDT) for rapidly differentiating CPE isolates directly from rectal swabs. The screening method was applied for 189 rectal swabs from hospitalized patients at high risk for CPE carriage. Swabs were suspended in 1 ml saline and cultured for confluent growth onto a MacConkey agar plate with a meropenem (MER) disk alone, a MER disk plus phenyl boronic acid (PBA), a MER disk plus EDTA, and a MER disk plus PBA and EDTA. An inhibition zone of ≤25 mm around the MER disk alone indicated carriage of carbapenem-resistant organisms. Furthermore, ≥5-mm differences in the inhibition zone between MER disks without and with the inhibitors (PBA, EDTA, or both) were considered positive results for detecting Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), metallo-β-lactamase (MBL), or both carbapenemases, respectively. For comparison, rectal suspensions were tested using MacConkey plates with ertapenem (MacERT) disks and PCR (PCR-S) for carbapenemase genes. Of the 189 samples, 97 were genotypically confirmed as CPE positive by one of the three protocols tested. The CDT, MacERT disks, and PCR-S assays exhibited sensitivities of 94.8%, 96.9%, and 94.8% and specificities of 100%, 98.9%, and 100%, respectively, for detecting CPE-positive swabs. Moreover, the CDT correctly differentiated the production of KPC, MBL, or both carbapenemases in 78 of the 97 (80.4%) CPE-positive rectal swabs. Our results demonstrate that the CDT may provide a simple and inexpensive method for detecting and differentiating the carbapenemase type within a single day without requiring further testing and additional delay, supporting the timely implementation of infection control measures. PMID:23843486

  13. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC method namely direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT. A total number of 119 brain samples were achieved from Bukittinggi Veterinary Laboratory, West Sumatra. Standardisation and validation of the method were compared to Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT as a golden standard for rabies diagnosis. Results show that dRIT was a very good method, it can be performed within two hours without the need of fluorescent microscope. The samples were tested using FAT and from 119 samples tested, 80 (67.23% samples were positive for rabies and 39 (32.77% samples were negative for rabies whereas using dRIT showed that 78 (65.54% samples were positive for rabies and 41 (34.45% samples were negative for rabies. The dRIT results were validated by comparing them with FAT results as a golden standard for rabies. The relative sensitivity of dRIT to FAT was 97.5% and the relative specificity to FAT was 100% (with Kappa value of 0.976, stated as excellent. The achievement showed that dRIT is very potential diagnostic tool and is highly recommended to be used widely as a rapid diagnosis tool for rabies.

  14. Thermal comfort conditions in the NBS/DoE direct gain passive solar test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. T.

    1982-12-01

    The thermal comfort conditions in a direct gain cell of passive solar test facility were analyzed. It was found that the daytime operative temperature as measured by the black globe temperature sensors in an area near the large south glazing exceeded the upper boundary of the ASHRAE comfort envelope by a large amount in a clear day during both the thermal transition month of October and the cold winter month of January. The reflected solar radiation from the interior surfaces and the snow covered ground plays a significant role on the measured black globe temperature and should be included in the computation of the mean radiant temperature for a space with large glazed areas.

  15. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two

  16. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories

  17. Testing the axial dipole hypothesis for the Moon by modeling the direction of crustal magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J. S.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Orbital magnetic field data show that portions of the Moon's crust are strongly magnetized, and paleomagnetic data of lunar samples suggest that Earth strength magnetic fields could have existed during the first several hundred million years of lunar history. The origin of the fields that magnetized the crust are not understood and could be the result of either a long-lived core-generated dynamo or transient fields associated with large impact events. Core dynamo models usually predict that the field would be predominantly dipolar, with the dipole axis aligned with the rotation axis. We test this hypothesis by modeling the direction of crustal magnetization using a global magnetic field model of the Moon derived from Lunar Prospector and Kaguya magnetometer data. We make use of a model that assumes that the crust is unidirectionally magnetized. The intensity of magnetization can vary with the crust, and the best fitting direction of magnetization is obtained from a nonnegative least squares inversion. From the best fitting magnetization direction we obtain the corresponding north magnetic pole predicted by an internal dipolar field. Some of the obtained paleopoles are associated with the current geographic poles, while other well-constrained anomalies have paleopoles at equatorial latitudes, preferentially at 90° east and west longitudes. One plausible hypothesis for this distribution of paleopoles is that the Moon possessed a long-lived dipolar field but that the dipole was not aligned with the rotation axis as a result of large-scale heat flow heterogeneities at the core-mantle boundary.

  18. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration. FY2005 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Will [comp.

    2006-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2005. Fifty new projects were selected for funding this year, and five FY 2004 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.4 million, for an average per project cost of just under $100,000. Two external audits of SDRD accounting practices were conducted in FY 2005. Both audits found the program's accounting practices consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 413.2A, and one included the observation that the NTS contractor ''did an exceptional job in planning and executing year-start activities.'' Highlights for the year included: the filing of 18 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2005 projects; programmatic adoption of 17 FY 2004 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2005 projects; and the successful completion of 55 R&D projects, as presented in this report.

  19. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of YbInCu{sub 4}: Direct Testing of Correlated Electron Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, J.J.; Arko, A.J.; Sarrao, J.L.; Fisk, Z.

    1997-12-31

    The electronic properties of single crystal YbInCu{sub 4} have been investigated by means of high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. A first order, isostructural phase transition for YbInCu{sub 4} at T{sub v}=42 K leads to changes in the Kondo temperature of more than an order of magnitude (27 K vs. 400 K). This phase transition and accompanying Kondo temperature change provide the most direct test of the single impurity model (SIM) to date. Particle hole symmetry allows the SIM to be used for Yb compounds as well as Ce heavy fermions with the great advantage that the predicted Kondo resonance is found on the occupied side of the spectral weight function for Yb materials and is thus directly observable in photoemission. The photoemission results are incongruous with the single impurity model predictions for temperature dependence, binding energy and 4f occupancy, encouraging a reevaluation of the single impurity model. The experiments were conducted using the PGM undulator and 4 meter NIM beamlines at SRC. The spectra were taken at photon energies of 40 eV and 90 eV and the combined energy resolution of the analyzer and monochromator was 45- 85 meV.

  20. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development: FY 2006 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wil Lewis, editor

    2007-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site–Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program completed its fifth successful year of research and development activities in FY 2006. Forty new projects were selected for funding this year, and ten FY 2005 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $6 million, for an average per-project cost of $120 thousand. Beginning in May, 2006 programmatic burden rates were applied to SDRD project costs. An external audit conducted in September 2006 verified that appropriate accounting practices were applied to the SDRD program. Highlights for the year included: the filing of 27 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2006 projects; programmatic adoption of four FY 2005 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-Lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2006 projects; and the successful completion of 50 R&D projects, as presented in this report.

  1. Testing of an Arcjet Thruster with Capability of Direct-Drive Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Smith, James W.; Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Riley, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Electric thrusters typically require a power processing unit (PPU) to convert the spacecraft provided power to the voltage-current that a thruster needs for operation. Testing has been initiated to study whether an arcjet thruster can be operated directly with the power produced by solar arrays without any additional conversion. Elimination of the PPU significantly reduces system-level complexity of the propulsion system, and lowers developmental cost and risk. The work aims to identify and address technical questions related to power conditioning and noise suppression in the system and heating of the thruster in long-duration operation. The apparatus under investigation has a target power level from 400-1,000 W. However, the proposed direct-drive arcjet is potentially a highly scalable concept, applicable to solar-electric spacecraft with up to 100's of kW and beyond. A direct-drive electric propulsion system would be comprised of a thruster that operates with the power supplied directly from the power source (typically solar arrays) with no further power conditioning needed between those two components. Arcjet thrusters are electric propulsion devices, with the power supplied as a high current at low voltage; of all the different types of electric thruster, they are best suited for direct drive from solar arrays. One advantage of an arcjet over Hall or gridded ion thrusters is that for comparable power the arcjet is a much smaller device and can provide more thrust and orders of magnitude higher thrust density (approximately 1-10 N/sq m), albeit at lower I(sub sp) (approximately 800-1000 s). In addition, arcjets are capable of operating on a wide range of propellant options, having been demonstrated on H2, ammonia, N2, Ar, Kr, Xe, while present SOA Hall and ion thrusters are primarily limited to Xe propellant. Direct-drive is often discussed in terms of Hall thrusters, but they require 250-300 V for operation, which is difficult even with high-voltage solar

  2. Measuring Compliance with Tobacco-Free Campus Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Murrey, Megan; Johnson, Andrew O.; Riker, Carol A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose is to describe psychometric testing and feasibility of the Tobacco-Free Compliance Assessment Tool (TF-CAT) to measure tobacco-free policy compliance at a public university and medical center. The aims are to (1) investigate concurrent validity by comparing the number of cigarette butts in areas covered by the policy with…

  3. 12 CFR 326.8 - Bank Secrecy Act compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system of internal controls to assure ongoing compliance; (2) Provide for independent testing for... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank Secrecy Act compliance. 326.8 Section 326.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF...

  4. OIG’s Compliance Resources for Health Care Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — OIG has developed a series of voluntary compliance program guidance documents directed at various segments of the health care industry, such as hospitals, nursing...

  5. Testing a vapour-fed PBI-based direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, J.; Canizares, P.; Rodrigo, M.A.; Linares, J.J. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    This work is focused on the application and performance of a high temperature PBI-based direct ethanol fuel cell, studying the influence of some operating variables such as the temperature, ethanol concentration and oxygen partial pressure. An increase in the temperature resulted in an improvement of the cell performance due to the enhanced electrodic kinetic and electrolyte conductivity. An ethanol/water weight ratio between 0.25 and 0.5 was found to be suitable for providing both enough water and fuel availability to make the ethanol oxidation possible. Measurements of the ethanol crossover at different temperatures and concentrations were carried out. An intermittent lifetime test showed that the cell, after several hours, was able to reach stability. Moreover, its performance was completely reversible with no perceptible losses for 7 days. Finally, tests using bio-ethanol as fuel were performed, with no significant power losses. This final feature is of special interest from a practical 'green' point of view. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. A FAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL TEST OF THE DIRECTIONAL DEPENDENCE IN RADIATIVE GRAIN ALIGNMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillancourt, John E.; Andersson, B.-G., E-mail: jvaillancourt@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: bg@sofia.usra.edu [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2015-10-10

    The alignment of interstellar dust grains with magnetic fields provides a key method for measuring the strength and morphology of the fields. In turn, this provides a means to study the role of magnetic fields from diffuse gas to dense star-forming regions. The physical mechanism for aligning the grains has been a long-term subject of study and debate. The theory of radiative torques, in which an anisotropic radiation field imparts sufficient torques to align the grains while simultaneously spinning them to high rotational velocities, has passed a number of observational tests. Here we use archival polarization data in dense regions of the Orion molecular cloud (OMC-1) at 100, 350, and 850 μm to test the prediction that the alignment efficiency is dependent upon the relative orientations of the magnetic field and radiation anisotropy. We find that the expected polarization signal, with a 180-degree period, exists at all wavelengths out to radii of 1.5 arcmin centered on the Becklin–Neugebauer Kleinmann-Low (BNKL) object in OMC-1. The probabilities that these signals would occur due to random noise are low (≲1%), and are lowest toward BNKL compared to the rest of the cloud. Additionally, the relative magnetic field to radiation anisotropy directions accord with theoretical predictions in that they agree to better than 15° at 100 μm and 4° at 350 μm.

  7. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10−18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R.; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Hartnett, John G.; Ivanov, Eugene N.; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson–Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2±10.7 × 10−19 (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson–Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry. PMID:26323989

  8. Reflections on the US FDA's Warning on Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2014-12-01

    In November 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sent a warning letter to 23andMe, Inc. and ordered the company to discontinue marketing of the 23andMe Personal Genome Service (PGS) until it receives FDA marketing authorization for the device. The FDA considers the PGS as an unclassified medical device, which requires premarket approval or de novo classification. Opponents of the FDA's action expressed their concerns, saying that the FDA is overcautious and paternalistic, which violates consumers' rights and might stifle the consumer genomics field itself, and insisted that the agency should not restrict direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic testing without empirical evidence of harm. Proponents support the agency's action as protection of consumers from potentially invalid and almost useless information. This action was also significant, since it reflected the FDA's attitude towards medical application of next-generation sequencing techniques. In this review, we followed up on the FDA-23andMe incident and evaluated the problems and prospects for DTC genetic testing.

  9. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R.; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Hartnett, John G.; Ivanov, Eugene N.; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson-Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2+/-10.7 × 10-19 (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson-Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry.

  10. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10(-18).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V; Stanwix, Paul L; Hartnett, John G; Ivanov, Eugene N; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-09-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson-Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2±10.7 × 10(-19) (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson-Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry.

  11. An exacting transition probability measurement - a direct test of atomic many-body theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, T; Yum, D; Rebhi, R; Mukherjee, M

    2016-01-01

    A new protocol for measuring the branching fraction of hydrogenic atoms with only statistically limited uncertainty is proposed and demonstrated for the decay of the P$_{3/2}$ level of the barium ion, with precision below $0.5\\%$. Heavy hydrogenic atoms like the barium ion are test beds for fundamental physics such as atomic parity violation and they also hold the key to understanding nucleo-synthesis in stars. To draw definitive conclusion about possible physics beyond the standard model by measuring atomic parity violation in the barium ion it is necessary to measure the dipole transition probabilities of low-lying excited states with precision better than $1\\%$. Furthermore, enhancing our understanding of the $\\it{barium-puzzle}$ in barium stars requires branching fraction data for proper modelling of nucleo-synthesis. Our measurements are the first to provide a direct test of quantum many-body calculations on the barium ion with precision below one percent and more importantly with no known systematic unc...

  12. A Methodological Report: Adapting the 505 Change-of-Direction Speed Test Specific to American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Farzad, Jalilvand; Orjalo, Ashley J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Moreno, Matthew R; Wright, Glenn A

    2017-02-01

    Lockie, RG, Jalilvand, F, Orjalo, AJ, Giuliano, DV, Moreno, MR, and Wright, GA. A methodological report: Adapting the 505 change-of-direction speed test specific to American football. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 539-547, 2017-The 505 involves a 10-m sprint past a timing gate, followed by a 180° change-of-direction (COD) performed over 5 m. This methodological report investigated an adapted 505 (A505) designed to be football-specific by changing the distances to 10 and 5 yd. Twenty-five high school football players (6 linemen [LM]; 8 quarterbacks, running backs, and linebackers [QB/RB/LB]; 11 receivers and defensive backs [R/DB]) completed the A505 and 40-yd sprint. The difference between A505 and 0 to 10-yd time determined the COD deficit for each leg. In a follow-up session, 10 subjects completed the A505 again and 10 subjects completed the 505. Reliability was analyzed by t-tests to determine between-session differences, typical error (TE), and coefficient of variation. Test usefulness was examined via TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC) differences. Pearson's correlations calculated relationships between the A505 and 505, and A505 and COD deficit with the 40-yd sprint. A 1-way analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) derived between-position differences in the A505 and COD deficit. There were no between-session differences for the A505 (p = 0.45-0.76; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84-0.95; TE = 2.03-4.13%). Additionally, the A505 was capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC0.5 > TE). The A505 correlated with the 505 and 40-yard sprint (r = 0.58-0.92), suggesting the modified version assessed similar qualities. Receivers and defensive backs were faster than LM in the A505 for both legs, and right-leg COD deficit. Quarterbacks, running backs, and linebackers were faster than LM in the right-leg A505. The A505 is reliable, can detect moderate performance changes, and can discriminate between football position groups.

  13. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Frontal Cortex Decreases Performance on the WAIS-IV Intelligence Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Kristin K.; Mellin, Juliann M.; Lustenberger, Caroline M.; Boyle, Michael R.; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V.; Frohlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA at each anode for 20 minutes) or active sham tDCS (2mA for 40 seconds), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA for 20 minutes). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. PMID:25934490

  14. Relationship between sensory results and compliance scores in grated Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Zannoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The regulations for Protected Designation of Origin require a certification body to verify compliance with the provisions of the product specification. The grated Parmigiano-Reggiano is evaluated with a scorecard containing 21 quantitative descriptors and 4 qualitative evaluations of compliance with the regulations. To better understand the relationship between sensory compliance and quantitative descriptors we have tested 24 samples of grated Parmigiano-Reggiano. Correlations and Partial Least Squares gave us a better understanding of compliance evaluation. The work allowed us to define the most important descriptors in relationship with compliance and showed that it is possible to predict compliance values using descriptor values.

  15. COMPLIANCE ANALYSIS, OPTIMISATION AND COMPARISON OF A NEW 3PUS-PU MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the compliance of a new 3PUS-PU hybrid mechanism with three degrees of freedom, including translation along the Z axis and rotations about the X and Y axes. Firstly, the kinematic analysis of the mechanism is analysed and the compliance model of the mechanism derived. Secondly, the effects the geometric parameters and position and orientation parameters on the compliance of the mechanism in each direction are investigated, and the genetic algorithm is used to optimise the global compliance by simultaneously adjusting design variables. Finally, the compliance of two similar kinds of 3PUS-PU mechanism in each direction is reviewed.

  16. Interpersonal Communication and Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Das, Enny; Pruyn, Ad Th.H.

    2006-01-01

    Two field experiments examined the impact of the Disrupt-Then-Reframe (DTR) technique on compliance. This recently identified technique consists of a subtle, odd element in a typical scripted request (the disruption) followed by a persuasive phrase (the reframing). The authors argued that its impact

  17. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  18. Comparison of Test Directions for Ability Tests: Impact on Young English-Language Learner and Non-ELL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Joni Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ability tests play an important role in the assessment programs of many schools. However, the inferences about ability made from such tests presume that students understand the tasks they are attempting. Task familiarity can vary by student as well as by format. By design, nonverbal reasoning tests use formats that are intended to be novel. The…

  19. Directing students to profound open-book test preparation : The relationship between deep learning and open-book test time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J.B.; Hofman, W.H.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Considering the growing amount of medical knowledge and the focus of medical education on acquiring competences, using open-book tests seems inevitable. A possible disadvantage of these tests is that students underestimate test preparation. Aims: We examined whether students who used a d

  20. Alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing as required by the EU-Cosmetics Directive 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ingredients of cosmetic products are no longer allowed to be tested by animal experimentation (EU-Cosmetics Directive 76/768 EEC). For several toxicological endpoints this testing ban applies since March 11, 2009, while repeated dose toxicity tests and the test on skin sensitisation will follow on March 11, 2013. All currently available alternatives meeting the requirements of the first deadline are compiled in the following.

  1. Making corporate compliance programs work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, M J; Colyer, C

    2000-05-01

    Healthcare organizations have created corporate compliance programs in an effort to adhere to Federal government recommendations, minimize the risk of wrongful behavior, and possibly reduce fines that may result from a government investigation. Compliance programs may have undetected weaknesses. Corporate compliance officers, executives, and board members need to be certain that their organization's program has sufficient infrastructure, oversight, and resources; effective education and training; an effective mechanism (hotline) to receive reports of compliance problems; and ongoing auditing and monitoring capabilities.

  2. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for FHRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiuping

    Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive decay heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines coated particle fuel and a graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops, relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. These loops are coupled through two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) and the Natural Draft Heat Exchanger (NDHX). In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during normal operation of the reactor, but to keep the DRACS ready for activation, if needed, during accidents. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for FHRs built or tested in the literature. The primary goal of the present research is to design, test, and model the DRACS for FHR applications. Previously, a detailed modular design of the DRACS for a 20-MWth FHR was developed. As a starting point, the DRACS was designed to remove 1% of the reactor nominal power, i.e., 200 kW decay power. In addition, a detailed scaling analysis has been performed to develop the key non-dimensional numbers that characterize the DRACS system. Based on the previous work on the prototypic DRACS design and scaling analysis, two scaled-down test facilities have been designed and constructed, namely, Low-temperature DRACS Test Facility (LTDF) and High-temperature DRACS Test Facility (HTDF). The LTDF has a nominal power capacity of 6 kW. It uses 1.0-MPa water as the primary coolant, 0.1-MPa water as the secondary coolant, and ambient air as the ultimate heat sink. The main purpose of the LTDF is to examine the couplings among the three natural circulation/convection loops in the DRACS, as well as to provide design and operation experience for the HTDF. An extensive test matrix has

  3. Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) for direct food contact applications: challenge test of an inline recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2002-05-01

    Of all the plastics used for packaging, due to its low diffusivity and chemical inertness, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the favoured candidate plastics for closed-loop recycling for new packaging applications. In the work reported here, a PET-recycling process was investigated with respect to its cleaning efficiency and compliance of the PET recyclate with food law. The key technology of the investigated PET-recycling process to remove contaminants consists of a predecontamination-extruder combination. At the end of the recycling process, there is either a pelletizing system or downstream equipment to produce preforms or flat sheets. Therefore, the process has two process options, an inline production of PET preforms and a batch option producing PET pellets. In the case of possible misuse of PET bottles by the consumer, the inline process produces higher concentrations in the bottle wall of the recyclate containing preforms. Owing to the dilution of the PET output material by large amounts of uncontaminated PET, the batch option is the less critical process in terms of consumer protection. Regarding an appropriate testing procedure for the evaluation of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process, both process options have their own specific requirements with respect to the design of a challenge test. A novel challenge test approach to the inline mode of a recycling process is presented here.

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume VII : Evaluation of the Compliance Testing Framework for RPA Improvement as Stated in the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Ngouenet, Roger F.

    2001-05-01

    Using the pre-2000 reach survival probabilities reported in the 2000 FCRPS Biological Opinion (BO) for three selected stocks: yearling and sub-yearling chinook and steelhead, power curves were constructed for each of the two statistical hypothesis tests suggested in the BO. These power calculation results were interpreted in terms of the ability of the statistical tests to correctly identify the true states of recovery (i.e., fail or succeed in fulfilling RPA expectations). The proposed one-sided tests have a moderate to low probability of correctly assessing the true status of the recovery by the years 2005 and 2008. The relatively poor odds of making the correct decision with the BO proposed Tests 1 and 2 suggest alternative decision rules need to be investigated and developed for assessing RPA compliance. Therefore, we propose to immediately examine alternative decision rules that might maximize the likelihood of correct decisions while minimizing the prospect of incorrect decisions. The Bayesian analysis will incorporate scientific/biological knowledge/expertise.

  5. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development, FY 2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wil Lewis, editor

    2008-02-20

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2007. Twenty-nine new projects were selected for funding this year, and eight projects started in FY 2006 were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.67 million, for an average per-project cost of $153 thousand. An external audit conducted in September 2007 verified that appropriate accounting practices were applied to the SDRD program. Highlights for the year included: programmatic adoption of 8 SDRD-developed technologies; the filing of 9 invention disclosures for innovation evolving from SDRD projects; participation in the tri-Lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD Symposium that was broadly attended by Nevada Test Site (NTS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), LDRD, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2007 projects; and the successful completion of 37 R&D projects, as presented in this report. In response to a company-wide call, authors throughout the NTS complex submitted 182 proposals for FY 2007 SDRD projects. The SDRD program has seen a dramatic increase in the yearly total of submitted proposals--from 69 in FY 2002 to 182 this year--while the number of projects funded has actually decreased from a program high of 57 in FY 2004. The overall effect of this trend has helped ensure an increasingly competitive program that benefited from a broader set of innovative ideas, making project selection both challenging and rewarding. Proposals were evaluated for technical merit, including such factors as innovation, probability of success, potential benefit, and mission applicability. Authors and reviewers benefited from the use of a shortfalls list entitled the 'NTS Technology Needs Assessment' that was compiled from NTS, National Weapons Laboratory

  6. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B.; Anderson, David C.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent; Hansen, Dennis J.

    2013-07-03

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2012. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2012, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  7. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2011 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D. J.; Anderson, D. C.; Hall, D. B.; Greger, P. D.; Ostler, W. K.

    2012-06-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2011. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2011, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  8. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.J.; Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.; Greger, P.D.; Ostler, W.K.

    2011-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2010. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2010, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  9. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Bender, comp.

    2011-04-04

    This annual report of the Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program represents the highly significant R&D accomplishments conducted during fiscal year 2010. This year was noteworthy historically, as the Nevada Test Site was renamed to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This change not only recognizes how the site's mission has evolved, but also heralds a future of new challenges and opportunities for the NNSS. In many ways, since its inception in 2002, the SDRD program has helped shape that evolving mission. As we approach 2012, SDRD will also mark a milestone, having completed its first full decade of innovative R&D in support of the site and national security. The program continues to fund advanced science and technology development across traditional Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear security areas such as stockpile stewardship and non-proliferation while also supporting Department of Homeland Security (DHS) needs, and specialized work for government agencies like the Department of Defense (DoD) and others. The NNSS will also contribute technologies in the areas of treaty verification and monitoring, two areas of increasing importance to national security. Keyed to the NNSS's broadened scope, the SDRD program will continue to anticipate and advance R&D projects that will help the NNSS meet forthcoming challenges.

  10. A direct test of the unequal-variance signal detection model of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T; Wais, Peter E

    2007-10-01

    Analyses of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) almost invariably suggest that, on a recognition memory test, the standard deviation of memory strengths associated with the lures (sigma(lure)) is smaller than that of the targets (sigma(target)). Often, sigma(lure)/ sigma(target) approximately = 0.80. However, that conclusion is based on a model that assumes that the memory strength distributions are Gaussian in form. In two experiments, we investigated this issue in a more direct way by asking subjects to simply rate the memory strengths of targets and lures using a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale. The results showed that the standard deviation of the ratings made to the targets (S(target)) was, indeed, larger than the standard deviation of the ratings made to the lures (S(lure)). Moreover, across subjects, the ratio S(lure)/ S(target) correlated highly with the estimate of sigma(lure)/ sigma(target) obtained from ROC analysis, and both estimates were, on average, approximately equal to 0.80.

  11. Direct oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Clinical relevance and options for laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbing, D; Spannagl, M

    2014-01-01

    Oral anticoagulants and platelet receptor blockers are widely used in clinical practice with the aim of reducing the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Their regular intake and adequate antithrombotic action is vital and this is way numerous assays have been developed for laboratory testing and monitoring of these agents. Available assays can be stratified into pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assays. Such assays are increasingly used in clinical routine and their daily use is triggered by the advent of the novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) as an alternative for vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment, which are dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, and by the advent of prasugrel or ticagrelor as an alternative for clopidogrel with regard to platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibition. In this review the most important and most commonly used laboratory assays are summarized as well as their clinical implications with the focus on DOACs as an alternative for VKAs and the different P2Y12 receptor blockers for antiplatelet treatment.

  12. Mathematical modeling and mechanical and histopathological testing of porous prosthetic pylon for direct skeletal attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Mark; Raykhtsaum, Grigory; Pilling, John; Shukeylo, Yuri; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodimir; Lewandowski, John; Connolly, Raymond; Kistenberg, Robert S.; Dalton, John F.; Prilutsky, Boris; Jacobson, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This article presents recent results in the development of the skin and bone integrated pylon (SBIP) intended for direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses. In our previous studies of the porous SBIP-1 and SBIP-2 prototypes, the bond site between the porous pylons and residuum bone and skin did not show the inflammation characteristically observed when solid pylons are used. At the same time, porosity diminished the strength of the pylon. To find a reasonable balance between the biological conductivity and the strength of the porous pylon, we developed a mathematical model of the composite permeable structure. A novel manufacturing process was implemented, and the new SBIP-3 prototype was tested mechanically. The minimal strength requirements established earlier for the SBIP were exceeded threefold. The first histopathological analysis of skin, bone, and the implanted SBIP-2 pylons was conducted on two rats and one cat. The histopathological analysis provided new evidence of inflammation-free, deep ingrowth of skin and bone cells throughout the SBIP structure. PMID:19675985

  13. Direct validity of the yo-yo intermittent recovery test in young team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souhail, Hermassi; Castagna, Carlo; Mohamed, Haj Yahmed; Younes, Hachana; Chamari, Karim

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance (distance covered, Yo-Yo IR1) and match activities (direct validity) in young male team handball players. Eighteen young male players (age 14.3 +/- 0.5 years, body mass 64 +/- 28.7 kg, height 174 +/- 6 cm, body fat 11.2 +/- 3.9%) took part in this study. Players' match activities were videotaped during an experimental tournament (6 games/player) and analyzed using a computerized system. Games and Yo-Yo IR1 heart rates (HRs) (short-range telemetry, HR) and blood lactate concentrations ([la]b) were assessed throughout and at selected times of the games, respectively. Peak Yo-Yo IR1 HR was assumed as representative of individual maximal HR (HRmax). Mean and peak game HRs were 174 +/- 3 and 198 +/- 2 b.min, which corresponded to 87 and 99% of HRmax, respectively. Yo-Yo IR1 performance (1,831 +/- 373 m) was significantly related (r = 0.88, p intermittent high-intensity endurance in young male team handball players.

  14. Therapeutic compliance of first line disease-modifying therapies in patients with multiple sclerosis. COMPLIANCE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, A; Mora, S; Blanco, J

    2015-05-01

    Non-adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis may be associated with reduced efficacy. We assessed compliance, the reasons for non-compliance, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life (QoL) of patients treated with first-line therapies. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted that included relapsing multiple sclerosis patients. Compliance in the past month was assessed using Morisky-Green test. Seasonal compliance and reasons for non-compliance were assessed by an ad-hoc questionnaire. Treatment satisfaction and QoL were evaluated by means of TSQM and PRIMUS questionnaires. A total of 220 patients were evaluated (91% relapsing-remitting); the mean age was 39.1 years, 70% were female, and the average time under treatment was 5.4 years. Subcutaneous interferon (IFN) β-1b was used in 23% of the patients, intramuscular IFN β-1a in 21%, subcutaneous IFN β-1a in 37%, and with glatiramer acetate in 19%. The overall compliance was 75%, with no significant differences related to the therapy, and 81% did not report any seasonal variation. Compliant patients had significantly lower disability scores and time of diagnosis, and greater satisfaction with treatment and its effectiveness. Discomfort and flu-like symptoms were the most frequent reasons for non-compliance. The satisfaction and QoL were associated with less disability and number of therapeutic switches. The rate of compliance, satisfaction and QoL in multiple sclerosis patients under DMTs is high, especially for those newly diagnosed, less disabled, and with fewer therapeutic switches. Discomfort and flu-like symptoms associated with injected therapies significantly affect adherence. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  16. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  17. Orchestrated Session Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the notion of orchestrated compliance for client/server interactions in the context of session contracts. Devising the notion of orchestrator in such a context makes it possible to have orchestrators with unbounded buffering capabilities and at the same time to guarantee any message from the client to be eventually delivered by the orchestrator to the server, while preventing the server from sending messages which are kept indefinitely inside the orchestrator. The compliance relation is shown to be decidable by means of 1 a procedure synthesising the orchestrators, if any, making a client compliant with a server, and 2 a procedure for deciding whether an orchestrator behaves in a proper way as mentioned before.

  18. A microcomputer-based data acquisition and control system for the direct shear, ring shear, triaxial shear, and consolidation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Philip S.

    1983-01-01

    This report is intended to provide internal documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory's automatic data acquisition system. The operating procedures for each type of test are designed to independently lead a first-time user through the various stages of using the computer to control the test. Continuing advances in computer technology and the availability of desktop microcomputers with a wide variety of peripheral equipment at a reasonable cost can create an efficient automated geotechnical testing environment. A geotechnical testing environment is shown in figure 1. Using an automatic data acquisition system, laboratory test data from a variety of sensors can be collected, and manually or automatically recorded on a magnetic device at the same apparent time. The responses of a test can be displayed graphically on a CRT in a matter of seconds, giving the investigator an opportunity to evaluate the test data, and to make timely, informed decisions on such matters as whether to continue testing, abandon a test, or modify procedures. Data can be retrieved and results reported in tabular form, or graphic plots, suitable for publication. Thermistors, thermocouples, load cells, pressure transducers, and linear variable differential transformers are typical sensors which are incorporated in automated systems. The geotechnical tests which are most practical to automate are the long-term tests which often require readings to be recorded outside normal work hours and on weekends. Automation applications include incremental load consolidation tests, constant-rate-of-strain consolidation tests, direct shear tests, ring shear tests, and triaxial shear tests.

  19. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses: Reverberant Acoustic Testing (RAT) vs. Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.

  20. Direct-to-consumer genomic testing from the perspective of the health professional: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Lesley; Jackson, Leigh; O'Connor, Anita; Skirton, Heather

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a rapid expansion in the number and type of genetic tests available via health professionals; the last 10 years, however, have seen certain types of genetic and genomic tests available direct-to-consumer. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the topic of direct-to-consumer genetic testing from the health professional perspective. Search terms used to identify studies were 'direct-to-consumer', personal genom*, health* professional*, physician* 'genomic, genetic' in five bibliographic databases, together with citation searching. Eight quantitative papers were reviewed. Findings indicate a low level of awareness and experience of direct-to-consumer testing in health professionals. Inconsistent levels of knowledge and understanding were also found with two studies showing significant effects for gender and age. Concerns about clinical utility and lack of counselling were identified. Health professionals specialising in genetics were most likely to express concerns. There was also evidence of perceived increased workload for health professionals post-testing. However, some health professionals rated such tests clinically useful and cited benefits such as the increased opportunity for early screening. Despite limited awareness, knowledge and experience of actual cases, we concluded that the concerns and potential benefits expressed may be warranted. It may be useful to explore the attitudes and experiences of health professionals in more depth using a qualitative approach. Finally, it is essential that health professionals receive sufficient education and guidelines to equip them to help patients presenting with the results of these tests.

  1. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A.E.; van den Berg, Sandra M.; Haerkens, Gijs M.; Koenders, Niek H.; de Leeuw, Arina J.; van Oorsouw, Roel G.; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. Purpose To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Study Design Cross-sectional, test-retest design Methods Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Results Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. Conclusion The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level of Evidence Level 2

  2. Utilization of a cell separation technique to evaluate patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H; Tanley, P C; Gorrell, L P

    1982-01-01

    Density distribution curves of red blood cells (RBC) from patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) were compared to a standardized curve constructed from cell column measurements of centrifuged microcapillary tubes filled with RBC and phthalate ester mixtures encompassing a specific gravity range of 1.078 to 1.114. Shortened survival resulted in a loss of older RBC and a shift of the curve to the right over the high specific gravity ester range. Reticulocytosis resulted in a downward shift of the curve over the low specific gravity range. In patients with a positive DAT due to an autoantibody or drug, the density distribution curve was either normal or demonstrated evidence of shortened RBC survival. In patients with a positive DAT due to an alloantibody, however, evidence of shortened survival was not seen. The distribution of antibody on young and old RBC harvested from the appropriate microcapillary tubes depended upon the etiology of that antibody. In patients with a positive DAT due to to an alloantibody or drug, both the young and old RBC gave an equally reactive DAT, while in patients with a positive DAT due to an alloantibody the young cells were weakly reactive or nonreactive and the older cells were more strongly reactive. When used together, the position of the density distribution curve and the pattern of distribution of antibody coating on young and old RBC provide important diagnostic information about the etiology and clinical status in a patient with a positive DAT and allow for the recognition of an alloantibody and autoantibody when both are present in the same patient.

  3. Characterization of direct antiglobulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a study of 154 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamesaki, Toyomi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Kajii, Eiji

    2013-02-01

    Direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-negative (DAT-)autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is empirically thought to show the same clinical conditions as DAT-positive (DAT+)AIHA, with the exception of an adequate amount of red blood cell (RBC)-bound immunoglobulin (Ig)G. We investigated the clinical characteristics of DAT-AIHA in comparison with DAT+AIHA. Of the 582 patients referred to our laboratory with undiagnosed hemolytic anemia, AIHA was clinically diagnosed in 216 patients (DAT-AIHA, n = 154; DAT+AIHA, n = 62). The percentage of reticulocytes, mean corpuscular volume, RBC-IgG levels, white blood cell count, and total protein (TP) levels were significantly higher in patients with DAT+AIHA than patients with DAT-AIHA. The hemoglobin level was significantly lower in patients with DAT+AIHA. No significant differences between patients with DAT-AIHA and DAT+AIHA existed with respect to age, gender, idiopathic/secondary nature, complications such as Evans syndrome, effectiveness of steroid treatment, or survival rate at 1 year following diagnosis. Patients with DAT-AIHA required significantly lower doses of steroids for maintenance therapy. Based on multivariate analysis of idiopathic DAT-AIHA (n = 110), TP and Evans syndrome were associated with the effectiveness of steroids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36/[0.1 g/dl]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.84) and survival at the 1-year follow-up (aOR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.01-0.88). Our results indicate that patients with DAT-AIHA generally suffer milder anemia and hemolysis than patients with DAT+AIHA, respond equally well to steroids, and have comparable survival at 1-year.

  4. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); O`Shea, T.P. [Santa Clara Demonstration Project, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  5. Increase of energy efficiency of testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulsating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Afanasov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the effect of the load current of traction electric machines when tested for heating on the total electricity consumption for the test are presented. It is shown that increase of load current at the heating test permits to significantly reduce the consumption of electrical energy, and reduce the testing time without reducing its quality.

  6. ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM CALENDAR YEAR 2005 REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA ECOLOGICAL SERVICES

    2006-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during the Calendar Year 2005. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive and protected/regulated species and unique habitat monitoring, (5) habitat restoration monitoring, and (6) biological monitoring at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  7. 对数正态分布寿命型序贯验证试验方法%Sequential compliance test method for lognormal distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓清; 袁宏杰

    2012-01-01

    Using the experience of sequential verification test program in exponential distribution for reference,the method of making the sequential verification test program in lognormal distribution was discussed,which takes the average life as an indicator.The test procedure of sequential test was provided,and the upper limit value of the producer and consumer risks were studied under censoring.According to the sampling method in practical engineering,the simulation method was proposed to evaluate the above mentioned test program.Evaluation results indicate that the proposed sequential verification test program can meet the requirements of controlling both sides of risk on the premise of satisfying the requirement of sample and censored size.And the consumer's risk is lower than the expected value.%借鉴指数分布寿命型序贯验证试验方案的思想,讨论了以平均寿命为指标的对数正态分布寿命型产品序贯验证试验的制定方法,给出了序贯试验的试验程序,研究了截尾状态下序贯试验的生产方风险和使用方风险的上限.基于工程实际的抽样方法,给出了计算机仿真评价方法,对给出的序贯试验方案进行评价.评价结果表明,在样本量和截尾数满足要求的前提下,所提出的序贯验证试验方法能够满足对双方风险的控制要求,且对使用方风险提供了更大的保护.

  8. Propriedades psicométricas apresentadas em manuais de testes de inteligência Psychometric parameters in intelligence test directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar quais os parâmetros psicométricos apresentados nos manuais de 19 instrumentos de avaliação da inteligência. Os elementos avaliados nos instrumentos foram: análise de itens, padronização, validade e precisão. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que, dos 19 testes avaliados, 89,5% apresentaram estudos de padronização, sendo que o procedimento mais utilizado na escolha dos sujeitos foi o não aleatório (62,2% dos testes. No que se refere à validade, a de construto foi a mais freqüente dentre os testes (94,7%. Observou-se que todos os instrumentos apresentaram verifica��ão da precisão, sendo o método de consistência interna o mais aplicado (78,9%. Conclui-se que, embora os autores concordem que todos os testes devam realizar estudos de verificação dos parâmetros psicométricos e devam possuir normas regionais, tal prática ainda não se encontra totalmente difundida na avaliação psicológica brasileira,This research aimed to verify the psychometric parameters presented in manuals of 19 intelligence tests. The psychometric properties included in the analysis were: item analysis, validity, reliability, and norms studies. The results indicated that 89.5% of the 19 tests presented norming studies. The procedure of sample selection was mostly non-random (62.2% of the tests. Construct validity was the most frequent method used among the studies (94.7%. All tests presented reliability studies, most of them using internal consistency coefficient (78.9%. It is concluded that although the authors agree that all tests need studies to verify psychometric parameters and studies to obtain regional norms this action isn’t divulged totally yet in the Brazilian psychological assessment.

  9. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  10. Ethical and clinical practice considerations for genetic counselors related to direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Christopher H; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2006-11-15

    Several companies utilize direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for genetic tests and some, but not all, bypass clinician involvement by offering DTC purchase of the tests. This article examines how DTC marketing strategies may affect genetic counselors, using available cardiovascular disease susceptibility tests as an illustration. The interpretation of these tests is complex and includes consideration of clinical validity and utility, and the further complications of gene-environment interactions and pleiotropy. Although it is unclear to what extent genetic counselors will encounter clients who have been exposed to DTC marketing strategies, these strategies may influence genetic counseling interactions if they produce directed interest in specific tests and unrealistic expectations for the tests' capacity to predict disease. Often, a client's concern about risk for cardiovascular diseases is best addressed by established clinical tests and a family history assessment. Ethical dilemmas may arise for genetic counselors who consider whether to accept clients who request test interpretation or to order DTC-advertised tests that require a clinician's authorization. Genetic counselors' obligations to care for clients extend to interpreting DTC tests, although this obligation may be fulfilled by referral or consultation with specialists. Genetic counselors do not have an obligation to order DTC-advertised tests that have minimal clinical validity and utility at a client's request. This can be a justified restriction on autonomy based on consideration of risks to the client, the costs, and the implications for society.

  11. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  12. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis; Anderson, David; Derek, Hall; Greger, Paul; Ostler, W. Kent

    2008-03-01

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

  13. 40 CFR 63.9620 - On which units and by what date must I conduct performance tests or other initial compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... units within a group must also have the same type of air pollution control device (e.g., wet scrubbers...). You cannot group emission units with different air pollution control device types together for the... subject to initial performance testing. (2) A list of the process type and type of air pollution control...

  14. Testing for causality between the foreign direct investment, current account deficit, GDP and total credit: Evidence from G7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbas Yusuf Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, countries were analyzed between 1990 and 2011 in order to determine whether a causal relationship exists among current account deficit, GDP, foreign direct investment, and total credits of G7. Analysis took into account the cross-sectional dependence and was applied to test the causality among the variables form the panel. Firstly, panel unit root tests were used for determining stationary of variables. As a result of the panel unit root tests, it was found that GDP and foreign direct investment have a stationary structure and that total credits and current account deficit contain unit root. In order to see whether there is a long-term relationship among the variables or not, the panel co-integration test was used. As a result of the test, it was concluded that there is a co-integration relationship among the series. The possibility of a causal relationship was analyzed among the variables using the causality test developed by Elena Ivona Dumitrescu and Christophe Hurlin (2012. Results of the analysis showed a unidirectional causal relationship from current account deficit and foreign direct investment to GDP. Bidirectional causality was found between current account deficit and total credits. Finally, a unidirectional relationship was found from foreign direct investment to current account deficit and total credits.

  15. Varying the Quality of Business Communication Caused by Compliance of Different Accounting Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setyadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extent of Indonesian companies‟ compliance with the Indonesian accounting regulations (IARC of inventory, fixed assets, and depreciation by analyzing 160 Indonesian listed companies‟ 2006 annual reports. This study also looks at potential factors that explain the level of this compliance. Analysis reveals a high level of 71.63% inventory compliance, 51.13% fixed assets compliance, and 99.69% depreciation compliance with accounting rules. T-test and regression analysis show that firm size is a significant predictor of accounting compliance. Importantly, ownership and governance structures do not influence the level of compliance. Although Indonesian firms complied with more than 50% of the key accounting rule provisions, regulatory intervention appears needed to improve compliance. Such regulation might include sanctions as promulgated by multilateral financial organizations (World Bank 2005.

  16. Integration of GIS technology with air compliance for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, I.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Humphreys, M.P. [USDOE Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    ORNL uses a Geographical Information System (GIS) to achieve air quality compliance effectively and with minimum expense. Since implementation of MapInfo for Environmental Air Compliance activities, plant-wide adoption of the sytem is occurring. The common forum for data exchange allows compliance groups to pursue more of a management and planning rather than merely a regulatory role. Field surveys are implemented by personnel directly involved with the activities and this data is then transmitted via MapInfo. Examples are given of how the Environmental Compliance Section at ORNL uses it to achieve air quality compliance for Titles III and V, NEPA, and NESHAPs.

  17. Illusions of scientific legitimacy: misrepresented science in the direct-to-consumer genetic-testing marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashlishan Murray, Amy B; Carson, Michael J; Morris, Corey A; Beckwith, Jon

    2010-11-01

    Marketers of genetic tests often openly or implicitly misrepresent the utility of genetic information. Scientists who are well aware of the current limitations to the utility of such tests are best placed to publicly counter misrepresentations of the science.

  18. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Christine J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA. Methods Canine (n = 247 and feline (n = 74 blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories. A subset of canine samples was categorized as having idiopathic IMHA, secondary IMHA, or no IMHA. Results The kappa values for agreement between the tests were in one laboratory 0.86 for canine and 0.58 for feline samples, and in the other 0.48 for canine samples. The lower agreement in the second laboratory was caused by a high number of positive canine DATs for which the gel test was negative. This group included significantly more dogs with secondary IMHA. Conclusions The gel test might be used as a screening test for idiopathic IMHA and is less often positive in secondary IMHA than the DAT.

  19. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  20. Performance and clinical significance of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing on urine from hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, K.B.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Verkaart, G.; Sturm, P.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections in the community and the hospital. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, specifically in the Gram-negative uropathogens, reliable, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility data would be useful to guide antimicrobial treatment. Direct an

  1. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Neisseria spp. directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Neisseria, such as epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, meningococcal disease, and gonorrhea, and also provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by...

  2. Performance and clinical significance of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing on urine from hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, K.B.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Verkaart, G.; Sturm, P.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections in the community and the hospital. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, specifically in the Gram-negative uropathogens, reliable, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility data would be useful to guide antimicrobial treatment. Direct an

  3. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  4. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  5. Quantum centrality testing on directed graphs via P T -symmetric quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.; Abbott, P. C.; Ma, X. S.

    2017-09-01

    Various quantum-walk-based algorithms have been proposed to analyze and rank the centrality of graph vertices. However, issues arise when working with directed graphs: the resulting non-Hermitian Hamiltonian leads to nonunitary dynamics, and the total probability of the quantum walker is no longer conserved. In this paper, we discuss a method for simulating directed graphs using P T -symmetric quantum walks, allowing probability-conserving nonunitary evolution. This method is equivalent to mapping the directed graph to an undirected, yet weighted, complete graph over the same vertex set, and can be extended to cover interdependent networks of directed graphs. Previous work has shown centrality measures based on the continuous-time quantum walk provide an eigenvectorlike quantum centrality; using the P T -symmetric framework, we extend these centrality algorithms to directed graphs with a significantly reduced Hilbert space compared to previous proposals. In certain cases, this centrality measure provides an advantage over classical algorithms used in network analysis, for example, by breaking vertex rank degeneracy. Finally, we perform a statistical analysis over ensembles of random graphs, and show strong agreement with the classical PageRank measure on directed acyclic graphs.

  6. Study of implementation and direct cost estimates for diagnostic tests for human visceral leishmaniasis in an urban area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tália Santana Machado de Assis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work reports the process and costs of comprehensively implementing two tests to decentralize the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in an endemic city in Brazil: a rapid test (IT LEISH and a direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC. The implementation began by training health professionals to perform the tests. Estimation of the training costs considered the proportional remuneration of all professionals involved and the direct costs of the tests used for training. The study was conducted between November 2011 and November 2013. During that time, 17 training sessions were held, and 175 professionals were trained. The training cost for each professional was US$ 7.13 for the IT LEISH and US$ 9.93 for the DAT-LPC. The direct costs of the IT LEISH and DAT-LPC were estimated to be US$ 6.62 and US$ 5.44, respectively. This first evaluation of the implementation of these diagnostic tests indicates the feasibility of decentralizing both methods to extend access to VL diagnosis in Brazil.

  7. Formalizing and applying compliance patterns for business process compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgammal, A.F.S.A.; Türetken, O.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.M.; Papazoglou, M.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s enterprises demand a high degree of compliance of business processes to meet diverse regulations and legislations. Several industrial studies have shown that compliance management is a daunting task, and organizations are still struggling and spending billions of dollars annually to ensure a

  8. The Role of the Family in Genetic Testing: Theoretical Perspectives, Current Knowledge, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses conceptual challenges and theoretical approaches for examining the role of the family in responding and adapting to genetic testing for inherited conditions. Using a family systems perspective, family-based constructs that are relevant to genetic testing may be organized into three domains: family communication, organization…

  9. Quality beyond compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, N; Monroe, M; White, L; Larson, R

    1999-01-01

    The service sector within the biopharmaceutical industry has experienced phenomenal growth over the past decade. In the highly regulated Good Laboratory Practices environment, the need for timely, high-quality service, accurate results, and on-time deliverables becomes paramount for the success and profitability of biopharmaceutical companies. The quality assurance process is a vital component of this drug product-development cycle and ensures compliance to the highest domestic and international regulatory standards. Quality-assurance professionals historically have held the role of independent auditors of the processes, who certify that results meet current standards of practice. Covance, a contract research organization that includes Good Laboratory Practices laboratories, reorganized and expanded the functional responsibilities of its quality assurance team in 1997. Auditors and quality assurance professionals have assumed roles beyond traditional compliance auditing and are forging new leadership and mentoring roles as process-improvement specialists. The results have been tangible, measurable benefits for clients and the Covance organization. This article provides an overview of this cultural change and the processes put in place to improve efficiency, productivity, and customer and employee satisfaction.

  10. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ..., Storage, and Transportation.'' The guidance addresses testing procedures for Salmonella species (spp.) in... results, when the presence of Salmonella spp. in the food may render the food injurious to human health... Salmonella spp. in human foods (except shell eggs) and direct-human-contact animal foods, and...

  11. Cryogenic mechanical property testing system directly cooled by G-M cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R. J.; Liu, Q.; Li, L. F.; Gong, L. H.; Liu, H. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic mechanical properties are generally considered to be some of the most important parameters in cryogenic engineering. Therefore, it is very important to test and investigate mechanical properties at low temperatures. Most systems for cryogenic mechanical property testing are cooled using liquid nitrogen (300 K-77 K) or liquid helium (77 K-4.2 K). As we know, liquid helium is relatively rare and thus expensive. In this study, to attain accurate and stable intermediate temperatures and reduce testing cost, a cryogenic mechanical property testing system cooled by a G-M cryocooler was studied and developed. In this system, the sample can be cooled down to 10.5 K after about 10 hours of running. The tension, bending and compression testing (load range up to 50 kN) can be carried out.

  12. Testing keV sterile neutrino dark matter in future direct detection experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, Miguel D

    2016-01-01

    We determine constraints on sterile neutrino warm dark matter through direct detection experiments, taking XENON100 and its future stages as example. If keV-scale sterile neutrinos scatter inelastically with bound electrons of the target material, an electron recoil signal is generated. This can be used to set limits on the sterile neutrino mass and its mixing with the active sector. While not competitive with astrophysical constraints from X-ray data, the constraints are the first direct laboratory bounds on sterile neutrino warm dark matter, and will be in some parts of parameter space the strongest limits on keV-scale neutrinos.

  13. The direct and immediate link test regarding deduction of input VAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    It follows explicitly from the EC VAT Directive that the deduction of input VAT depends on a positive link between on the one hand the incurred expenses and on the other hand the planned or actually completed taxed output transactions. In theory and in practice the deeper nature of this link......, however, constantly gives rise to uncertainty, and thus also uncertainty in relation to the necessary distinction between direct costs and overhead costs. The purpose of this article is to analyse the recent case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) with a view to assessing the status...

  14. Instrumentation for measuring direct and diffuse insolation in testing thermal collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, K A

    1976-01-01

    The efficiencies of thermal collectors are traditionally expressed with respect to the total (direct beam plus diffuse) insolation at the collector plane. Evaluation of the performance of concentrating collectors, however, requires, in addition, a knowledge of the insolation which is within the angular field of view of the collector. The use of pyranometers to measure the total insolation as well as the insolation within specified angular fields of view, together with a normal incidence pyrheliometer to measure the direct beam component, is described. The instrument calibration procedure is discussed, and several data are presented.

  15. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 1999 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    1999-12-01

    The Ecological and Compliance program, funded through the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 1999. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites (2) desert tortoise compliance (3) ecosystem mapping (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center.

  16. Application of Simulated Reactivity Feedback in Nonnuclear Testing of a Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Webster, K. L.

    2007-01-01

    Nonnuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of an in-space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a nonnuclear test facility, electric heaters are used to simulate heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and full nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements with a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE 100a heat pipe cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware. This Technical Memorandum discusses the status of the planned dynamic test methodology for implementation in the direct-drive gas-cooled reactor testing and assesses the additional instrumentation needed to implement high-fidelity dynamic testing.

  17. Moisture sensitivity examination of asphalt mixtures using thermodynamic, direct adhesion peel and compacted mixture mechanical tests

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jizhe; AIREY, Gordon D; Grenfell, James; Apeagyei, Alex K.

    2016-01-01

    Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures is a complicated mode of pavement distress that results in the loss of stiffness and structural strength of the asphalt pavement layers. This paper evaluated the moisture sensitivity of different aggregate–bitumen combinations through three different approaches: surface energy, peel adhesion and the Saturation Ageing Tensile Stiffness (SATS) tests. In addition, the results obtained from these three tests were compared so as to characterise the relationship ...

  18. The influence of tendon compliance on muscle power output and efficiency during cyclic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtwark, G A; Barclay, C J

    2010-03-01

    Muscle power output and efficiency during cyclical contractions are influenced by the timing and duration of stimulation of the muscle and the interaction of the muscle with its mechanical environment. It has been suggested that tendon compliance may reduce the energy required for power production from the muscle by reducing the required shortening of the muscle fibres. Theoretically this may allow the muscle to maintain both high power output and efficiency during cyclical contraction; however, this has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. To investigate how tendon compliance might act to increase muscle power output and/or efficiency, we attached artificial tendons of varying compliance to muscle fibre bundles in vitro and measured power output and mechanical efficiency during stretch-shorten cycles (2 Hz) with a range of stretch amplitudes and stimulation patterns. The results showed that peak power, average power output and efficiency (none of which can have direct contributions from the compliant tendon) all increased with increasing tendon compliance, presumably due to the tendon acting to minimise muscle energy use by allowing the muscle fibres to shorten at optimal speeds. Matching highly compliant tendons with a sufficiently large amplitude length change and appropriate stimulation pattern significantly increased the net muscle efficiency compared with stiff tendons acting at the same frequency. The maximum efficiency for compliant tendons was also similar to the highest value measured under constant velocity and force conditions, which suggests that tendon compliance can maximise muscle efficiency in the conditions tested here. These results provide experimental evidence that during constrained cyclical contractions, muscle power and efficiency can be enhanced with compliant tendons.

  19. Public reaction to direct-to-consumer online genetic tests: Comparing attitudes, trust and intentions across commercial and conventional providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine; Nicol, Dianne; Otlowski, Margaret; Chalmers, Don

    2015-08-01

    The success of personalised medicine depends upon the public's embracing genetic tests. Tests that claim to predict an individual's future health can now be accessed via online companies outside of conventional health regulations. This research assessed the extent to which the public embrace direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests relative to those obtained by a conventional medical practitioner (MP). It also examined the reasons for differences across providers using a randomised experimental telephone survey of 1000 Australians. Results suggest that people were significantly less likely to approve of, and order a DTC genetic test administered by a company compared to a MP because they were less trusting of companies' being able to protect their privacy and provide them with access to genetic expertise and counselling. Markets for DTC genetic tests provided by companies would therefore significantly increase if trust in privacy protection and access to expertise are enhanced through regulation.

  20. Compliance with New York City's beverage regulations and beverage consumption among children in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakietek, Jakub; Osuji, Thearis A; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Breck, Andrew; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    This article examines the association between the New York City regulations on beverages served in child care centers and beverage consumption among enrolled children. The regulations include requirements related to beverages served to children throughout the day. Beverage consumption data were collected on 636 children enrolled in 106 group child care centers in New York City. Data on compliance with the regulations were collected through direct observation, interviews with center staff, and a site inventory. Logistic regression for rare events was used to test associations between compliance with the regulations and beverage consumption. Compliance with the regulations was associated with lower odds of children consuming milk with more than 1% fat content and sugar-sweetened beverages during meals and snacks. There was not a significant relationship between compliance with the regulations and children's consumption of water. The findings suggest a strong, direct relationship between what a center serves and what a child consumes, particularly regarding consumption of higher-fat milk and sugar-sweetened beverages. Therefore, policies governing the types of beverages served in child care centers may increase children's consumption of more healthful beverages and reduce the consumption of less healthful ones.

  1. Direct Numerical Simulation of Reionization in Large Cosmological Volumes I: Numerical Methods and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Michael L; So, Geoffrey C; Harkness, Robsert P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an extension of the {\\em Enzo} code to enable the direct numerical simulation of inhomogeneous reionization in large cosmological volumes. By direct we mean all dynamical, radiative, and chemical properties are solved self-consistently on the same mesh, as opposed to a postprocessing approach which coarse-grains the radiative transfer. We do, however, employ a simple subgrid model for star formation, which we calibrate to observations. The numerical method presented is a modification of an earlier method presented in Reynolds et al. Radiation transport is done in the grey flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, which is solved by implicit time integration split off from the gas energy and ionization equations, which are solved separately. This results in a faster and more robust scheme for cosmological applications compared to the earlier method. The FLD equation is solved using the {\\em hypre} optimally scalable geometric multigrid solver from LLNL. By treating the ionizing radiation as a gri...

  2. Compliance with Segment Disclosure Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory oversight of capital markets has intensified in recent years, with a particular emphasis on expanding financial transparency. A notable instance is efforts by the Financial Accounting Standards Board that push firms to identify and report performance of individual business units...... (segments). This paper seeks to address short-run and long-run consequences of stringent enforcement of and uniform compliance with these segment disclosure standards. To do so, we develop a parsimonious model wherein a regulatory agency promulgates disclosure standards and either permits voluntary...... compliance or mandates strict compliance from firms. Under voluntary compliance, a firm is able to credibly withhold individual segment information from its competitors by disclosing data only at the aggregate firm level. Consistent with regulatory hopes, we show that mandatory compliance enhances welfare...

  3. Testing for direct and indirect effects of mate choice by manipulating female choosiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Arnqvist, Göran

    2009-12-01

    Despite a massive research effort, our understanding of the evolution of female mate choice remains incomplete [1, 2]. A central problem is that the predominating empirical research tradition has focused on male traits, yet the key question is whether female choice traits are maintained because of direct effects on female fitness or because of indirect genetic effects in offspring that may be associated with such traits. Here, we address this question by using a novel research strategy that employs experimental phenotypic manipulation of a female choice trait in an insect model system, the seed beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). We show that females with increased efficiency of choice enjoy strongly elevated fitness compared to females with reduced choice efficiency. In contrast, we found no effects of female choice efficiency on offspring fitness. Our results show that female choice is maintained by direct selection in females in this system, whereas indirect selection is relatively weak at most. We suggest that phenotypic engineering of female choice traits can greatly advance our ability to elucidate the relative importance of direct and indirect selection for the maintenance of female choice.

  4. Test of direct and indirect effects of agrochemicals on the survival of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-12-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff.

  5. Object-directed imitation in children with high-functioning autism: testing the social motivation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Slaughter, Virginia; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-02-01

    Children with autism show clear deficits in copying others' bodily oriented actions whereas their capacity for replicating others' object-directed actions appears relatively spared. One explanation is that unlike bodily oriented actions, object-directed actions have tangible, functional outcomes and hence rely far less on social motivations for their production. To investigate this, we compared the performance of a group of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and a group of typically developing (TD) children on two distinct object-directed tasks that are considered highly social: overimitation and synchronic imitation. Our findings were surprising. The HFA children copied all of a modeling adult's actions, including those that had no function or purpose (i.e. they overimitated), and they entered into extended bouts repeating an arbitrary action along with the adult who had a similar object to play with (i.e. they engaged in synchronic imitation). Moreover, they did so at rates indistinguishable from the TD children. This work demonstrates that the capacity and propensity for overimitation and synchronic imitation are intact in children with HFA, and questions whether socially based imitation should be considered an autism-specific deficit.

  6. Microbial identification and automated antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattal, C; Oberoi, J K

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the utility of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using VITEK MS and the VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) system for direct identification (ID) and timely AST from positive blood culture bottles using a lysis-filtration method (LFM). Between July and December 2014, a total of 140 non-duplicate mono-microbial blood cultures were processed. An aliquot of positive blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer before the bacteria were filtered and washed. Micro-organisms recovered from the filter were first identified using VITEK MS and its suspension was used for direct AST by VITEK 2 once the ID was known. Direct ID and AST results were compared with classical methods using solid growth. Out of the 140 bottles tested, VITEK MS resulted in 70.7 % correct identification to the genus and/ or species level. For the 103 bottles where identification was possible, there was agreement in 97 samples (94.17 %) with classical culture. Compared to the routine method, the direct AST resulted in category agreement in 860 (96.5 %) of 891 bacteria-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. The results of direct ID and AST were available 16.1 hours before those of the standard approach on average. The combined use of VITEK MS and VITEK 2 directly on samples from positive blood culture bottles using a LFM technique can result in rapid and reliable ID and AST results in blood stream infections to result in early institution of targeted treatment. The combination of LFM and AST using VITEK 2 was found to expedite AST more reliably.

  7. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  8. Diagnostic utility of a direct immunofluorescence test to detect feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages in effusive feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, A L; Pogranichniy, R; Lin, T-L

    2013-11-01

    The antemortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) remains challenging in clinical practice, since current testing methods have suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Immunohistochemical testing of biopsy specimens and postmortem examination are the standard diagnostic methods, although direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing to detect feline coronavirus in macrophages in effusion specimens has been reported to have 100% specificity and has been recommended as an antemortem confirmatory test. The aim of this study was to compare the results of DIF testing in antemortem feline effusions with postmortem results using field samples. Effusion specimens were collected antemortem from 17 cats and tested by DIF, followed by postmortem examination. Histopathological examination of specimens collected at postmortem confirmed FIP in 10/17 cases and ruled out FIP out in 7/17 cases. Antemortem DIF testing was positive in all 10 cases confirmed as FIP at postmortem examination. In the seven cats where FIP was ruled out at postmortem examination, DIF was negative in five cases and positive in the remaining two cases. The calculated sensitivity of DIF testing was 100% and the specificity was 71.4%. Duplicate effusion specimens from eight cats that were initially DIF positive were stored refrigerated (4 °C) or at room temperature (22-25 °C) and subjected to serial DIF testing to determine the duration of positive results. DIF-positive specimens stored at both temperatures retained their positive status for at least 2 days.

  9. Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT) for Rapid Diagnosis of Rabies in Animals and Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shampur Narayan Madhusudana; Sundaramurthy Subha; Ullas Thankappan; Yajaman Belludi Ashwin

    2012-01-01

    Presently the gold standard diagnostic technique for rabies is the direct immunofluorescence assay (dFA) which is very expensive and requires a high level of expertise.There is a need for more economical and user friendly tests,particularly for use in developing countries.We have established one such test called the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) for diagnosis of rabies using brain tissue.The test is based on capture of rabies nucleoprotein (N) antigen in brain smears using a cocktail of biotinylated monoclonal antibodies specific for the N protein and color development by streptavidin peroxidase-amino ethyl carbazole and counter staining with haematoxollin.The test was done in parallel with standard FAT dFA using 400 brain samples from different animals and humans.The rabies virus N protein appears under light microscope as reddish brown particles against a light blue background.There was 100 % correlation between the results obtained by the two tests.Also,interpretation of results by dRIT was easier and only required a light microscope.To conclude,this newly developed dRIT technique promises to be a simple,cost effective diagnostic tool for rabies and will have applicability in field conditions prevalent in developing countries.

  10. Informative Gene Selection and Direct Classification of Tumor Based on Chi-Square Test of Pairwise Gene Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In efforts to discover disease mechanisms and improve clinical diagnosis of tumors, it is useful to mine profiles for informative genes with definite biological meanings and to build robust classifiers with high precision. In this study, we developed a new method for tumor-gene selection, the Chi-square test-based integrated rank gene and direct classifier (χ2-IRG-DC. First, we obtained the weighted integrated rank of gene importance from chi-square tests of single and pairwise gene interactions. Then, we sequentially introduced the ranked genes and removed redundant genes by using leave-one-out cross-validation of the chi-square test-based Direct Classifier (χ2-DC within the training set to obtain informative genes. Finally, we determined the accuracy of independent test data by utilizing the genes obtained above with χ2-DC. Furthermore, we analyzed the robustness of χ2-IRG-DC by comparing the generalization performance of different models, the efficiency of different feature-selection methods, and the accuracy of different classifiers. An independent test of ten multiclass tumor gene-expression datasets showed that χ2-IRG-DC could efficiently control overfitting and had higher generalization performance. The informative genes selected by χ2-IRG-DC could dramatically improve the independent test precision of other classifiers; meanwhile, the informative genes selected by other feature selection methods also had good performance in χ2-DC.

  11. Direct Numerical Test of the Statistical Mechanical Theory of Hydrophobic Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, M I; Ashbaugh, H S; Pratt, L R

    2013-01-01

    This work tests the statistical mechanical theory of hydrophobic interactions, isolates consequences of excluded volume interactions, and obtains B2 for those purposes. Cavity methods that are particularly appropriate for study of hydrophobic interactions between atomic-size hard spheres in liquid water are developed and applied to test aspects of the Pratt-Chandler (PC) theory that have not been tested. Contact hydrophobic interactions between Ar-size hard-spheres in water are significantly more attractive than predicted by the PC theory. The corresponding results for the osmotic second virial coefficient are attractive (B2 <0), and more attractive with increasing temperature (Delta B2/Delta T < 0) in the temperature range 300K < T < 360K. This information has not been available previously, but is essential for development of the molecular-scale statistical mechanical theory of hydrophobic interactions, particularly for better definition of the role of attractive intermolecular interactions assoc...

  12. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    , a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) or a high-dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) endurance exercise group for 12 weeks. A sub-set of the subjects were interviewed using pre-determined, qualitative questions to elucidate physical activity and health behaviour. In combination with the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB......Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group...... improved various metabolic health parameters. The MOD group was untroubled by the exercise load and had a positive attitude towards exercise. The HIGH group expressed increased fatigue, less positivity and perceived exercise as time-consuming. The MOD group described themselves as more energetic...

  13. DOE standard compliance demonstration program: An office building example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S.A.; Keller, J.M.; Wrench, L.E.; Williams, C.J.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued interim new building energy standards (10 CFR 435 1989) to achieve maximum energy efficiency in the designs of new buildings. DOE then entered into a project to demonstrate and assess the impact of these standards on the design community. One area of focus was a test to see how a less conventional design-focused building would meet the standards` requirements -- DOE wanted to demonstrate that compliance with energy standards does not mean compromising the architectural intent of a building. This study, which was initiated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), illustrated the process by which compliance with the standards can be proven for a highly {open_quotes}design-oriented{close_quotes} office building. The study also assessed the impact of the whole building simulation compliance alternatives on design. This report documents the compliance requirements, gives a description of the sample building chosen for the study, provides general guidance for the compliance process, documents the method of compliance that was undertaken for the sample building, presents the results of the study, and provides a recommendation on how the compliance requirements could be improved to reflect more realistic use types.

  14. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2016-06-13

    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains.

  15. A Direct Test of the Theory of Comparative Advantage: The Case of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhofen, Daniel M.; Brown, John C.

    2004-01-01

    We exploit Japan's sudden and complete opening up to international trade in the 1860s to test the empirical validity of one of the oldest and most fundamental propositions in economics: the theory of comparative advantage. Historical evidence supports the assertion that the characteristics of the Japanese economy at the time were compatible with…

  16. The Major Field Test in Business: A Direct Measure of Learning in Common Business Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Susan A.; Jones, Wesley M., Jr; Bolt, Cynthia E.

    2015-01-01

    Assurance of learning and its assessment are critical focal points in collegiate schools of business as programs strive to achieve or maintain Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business accreditation. Prior research suggests that student learning in business core disciplines can be measured by the Educational Testing Service Major Field…

  17. The Major Field Test in Business: A Direct Measure of Learning in Common Business Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Susan A.; Jones, Wesley M., Jr; Bolt, Cynthia E.

    2015-01-01

    Assurance of learning and its assessment are critical focal points in collegiate schools of business as programs strive to achieve or maintain Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business accreditation. Prior research suggests that student learning in business core disciplines can be measured by the Educational Testing Service Major Field…

  18. Performance testing of log pile photonic crystal fast-fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Yang; Ming Zhou; Juan Dai; Jianke Di; Enlan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Great efforts has been made on fabricating photonic crystals (PCs) with photonic band gaps (PBGs) during the past decade. Three-dimensional (31)) log pile PC was fabricated fast by direct femtosecond laser writing in ORMOCER. Qualitative analysis of the errors of PC was investigated using the Image Pro Plus. Surface qualities such as bending, distortion, and surface roughness were shown, and the band gap in the infrared wavelength region was observed. Meanwhile, the theory was experimentally verified that the center of PBG diminishes as the crystal lattice period reduces. Therefore, it is possible to fabricate PCs whose band gap range is from the near-infrared to visible wave band.

  19. Validation of the dynamic direct exposure method for toxicity testing of diesel exhaust in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeng, Lucky; Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5  μ m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5 mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30-60 mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions.

  20. Direct Urease Test and Acridine Orange Staining on Bactec Blood Culture for Rapid Presumptive Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Maleknejad

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and human brucellosis is endemic in all parts of the country. Growth of Brucella is slow and blood culture of these bacteria by use of classical methods is time-consuming. Furthermore, in endemic area culture is required for definitive diagnosis. In the present study, direct urease test and acridine orange staining were tried on the BACTEC blood culture broths for early presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Blood cultures were attempted in 102 seropositive patients. In the forty one blood cultures positive for Brucella, coccobacilli were seen in broth smears stained with acridine orange stain, and also were urease test positive, thus providing presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Urease test was negative and bacteria were not seen in the broth smears of the remaining 61 broths negative for Brucella growth. Because of simplicity, reliability and reproducibility, these tests can be routinely incorporated in the laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Splitting-Tensile and Direct Tension Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    tensile tests. The concrete material model employed in the nonlinear analysis was a hypoelastic model based on a uniaxial stress-strain relation (Figure... hypoelastic model based upon the uniaxial stress-strain relation depicted in Figure 48. The tension failure envelope illustrated in Figure 49 w~s...strain rates associated with high intensity loadings from conventional explosives. Both an elastic and an inelastic concrete model were employed in all

  2. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  3. Design and laboratory testing of a new flow-through directional passive air sampler for ambient particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun; Solera Garcia, Maria Angeles; Timmis, Roger; Jones, Kevin C

    2011-03-01

    A new type of directional passive air sampler (DPAS) is described for collecting particulate matter (PM) in ambient air. The prototype sampler has a non-rotating circular sampling tray that is divided into covered angular channels, whose ends are open to winds from sectors covering the surrounding 360°. Wind-blown PM from different directions enters relevant wind-facing channels, and is retained there in collecting pools containing various sampling media. Information on source direction and type can be obtained by examining the distribution of PM between channels. Wind tunnel tests show that external wind velocities are at least halved over an extended area of the collecting pools, encouraging PM to settle from the air stream. Internal and external wind velocities are well-correlated over an external velocity range of 2.0-10.0 m s⁻¹, which suggests it may be possible to relate collected amounts of PM simply to ambient concentrations and wind velocities. Measurements of internal wind velocities in different channels show that velocities decrease from the upwind channel round to the downwind channel, so that the sampler effectively resolves wind directions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed on a computer-generated model of the sampler for a range of external wind velocities; the results of these analyses were consistent with those from the wind tunnel. Further wind tunnel tests were undertaken using different artificial particulates in order to assess the collection performance of the sampler in practice. These tests confirmed that the sampler can resolve the directions of sources, by collecting particulates preferentially in source-facing channels.

  4. Testing direct and moderating effects of coping styles on the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the direct and moderating effects of different coping styles in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal anxiety symptoms among 755 pregnant women in Chengdu. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey was carried out. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale were used to measure stress, coping and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the direct and moderating effects of coping styles in the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms. Direct effects of negative coping (NC) styles were found. Women with higher NC scores were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Positive coping (PC) styles had moderating effects on perceived stress, whereas NC styles did not. The findings of this study highlight the direct and moderating effects of coping styles. This knowledge is important to healthcare professionals in planning health service provision. Health services should dedicate resources to teaching pregnant women how to enhance PC styles, alter NC styles and cultivate optimistic thinking to alleviate anxiety symptoms.

  5. Benchmark of FDNS CFD Code For Direct Connect RBCC Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results are compared with experimental data from the Pennsylvania State University's (PSU) Propulsion Engineering Research Center (PERC) rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) rocket-ejector experiments. The PERC RBCC experimental hardware was in a direct-connect configuration in diffusion and afterburning (DAB) operation. The objective of the present work was to validate the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) CFD code for the rocket-ejector mode internal fluid mechanics and combustion phenomena. A second objective was determine the best application procedures to use FDNS as a predictive/engineering tool. Three-dimensional CFD analysis was performed. Solution methodology and grid requirements are discussed. CFD results are compared to experimental data for static pressure, Raman Spectroscopy species distribution data and RBCC net thrust and specified impulse.

  6. Effect of seat height and turning direction on the timed up and go test scores of people after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Thomas H M; Ng, Shamay S M

    2009-09-01

    To identify the effect of chair seat height and turning direction on the Timed Up and Go scores of patients after stroke. A cross-sectional study. A geriatric day hospital in Hong Kong. Twenty-five patients with sub-acute stroke. The time taken to complete the Timed Up and Go test with various chair seat heights (65%, 90% and 115% of each subject's leg length - distance from lateral knee joint line to ground in sitting) and turning directions (toward the affected and unaffected side) was recorded using a stopwatch with randomized test order. There were significant differences in Timed Up and Go scores between the 3 levels of chair seat height (p Timed Up and Go scores recorded when the seat height was 115% of the subject's leg length and the highest at a seat height of 65% of the subject's leg length. Turning toward the affected side was found to be significantly quicker than turning toward the unaffected side (p Timed Up and Go scores of patients after sub-acute stroke. Optimizing chair seat height with reference to subject's leg length and turning direction is essential when using the Timed Up and Go test as an outcome measure in stroke rehabilitation.

  7. Design and application of permanent magnet flux sources for mechanical testing of magnetoactive elastomers at variable field directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiptmair, F; Major, Z; Haßlacher, R; Hild, S

    2015-08-01

    Magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) are a class of smart materials whose mechanical properties can be rapidly and reversibly changed by an external magnetic field. Due to this tunability, they are useable for actuators or in active vibration control applications. An extensive magnetomechanical characterization is necessary for MAE material development and requires experiments under cyclic loading in uniform but variable magnetic fields. MAE testing apparatus typically rely on fields of adjustable strength, but fixed (transverse) direction, often provided by electromagnets. In this work, two permanent magnet flux sources were developed as an add-on for a modular test stand, to allow for mechanical testing in uniform fields of variable direction. MAE specimens, based on a silicone matrix with isotropic and anisotropic carbonyl iron particle distributions, were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis under different field and loading configurations. The magneto-induced increase of stiffness and energy dissipation was determined by the change of the hysteresis loop area and dynamic modulus values. A distinct influence of the composite microstructure and the loading state was observed. Due to the very soft and flexible matrix used for preparing the MAE samples, the material stiffness and damping behavior could be varied over a wide range via the applied field direction and intensity.

  8. Federal facilities compliance act waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J; Gates-Anderson, D; Hollister, R; Painter, S

    1999-07-06

    Site Treatment Plans (STPs) developed through the Federal Facilities Compliance Act pose many technical and administrative challenges. Legacy wastes managed under these plans require Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) compliance through treatment and ultimate disposal. Although capacity has been defined for most of the Department of Energy wastes, many waste streams require further characterization and many need additional treatment and handling beyond LDR criteria to be able to dispose of the waste. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Hazardous Waste Management Division has developed a comprehensive Legacy Waste Program. The program directs work to manage low level and mixed wastes to ensure compliance with nuclear facility rules and its STP. This paper provides a survey of work conducted on these wastes at LLNL. They include commercial waste treatment and disposal, diverse forms of characterization, inventory maintenance and reporting, on-site treatment, and treatability studies. These activities are conducted in an integrated fashion to meet schedules defined in the STP. The processes managing wastes are dynamic due to required integration of administrative, regulatory, and technical concerns spanning the gamut to insure safe proper disposal.

  9. Geothermal direct applications hardware systems development and testing. 1979 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.G.

    1980-03-01

    Activities performed during calendar year 1979 for the hardware system development and testing task are presented. The fluidized bed technology was applied to the drying of potato by-products and to the exchange of heat to air in the space heating experiment. Geothermal water was flashed to steam and also used as the prime energy source in the steam distillation of peppermint oil. Geothermal water temperatures as low as 112.8/sup 0/C were utilized to distill alcohol from sugar beet juice, and lower temperature water provided air conditioning through an absorption air conditioning system. These experiments are discussed.

  10. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform safety...

  11. Evaluation of corporate income tax compliance costs and compliance behaviour under the self-assessment system

    OpenAIRE

    Sapiei, Noor Sharoja

    2017-01-01

    Commitment to compliance may cause taxpayers to experience unnecessary compliance costs burden resulting in non-compliance behaviour. This study evaluates the tax compliance costs of corporate taxpayers and their compliance with the corporate income tax (CIT) reporting requirements under the Self-Assessment System (SAS) environment. Tax compliance costs, corporate characteristics, tax attitudinal aspects and the likely compliance behaviour of public listed companies (PLCs) are integrated into...

  12. Audit and feedback intervention: An examination of differences in chiropractic record-keeping compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homb, Nicole M; Sheybani, Shayan; Derby, Dustin; Wood, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the association of a clinical documentation quality improvement program using audit-feedback with clinical compliance to indicators of quality chart documentation. Methods : This was an analysis of differences between adherence to quality indicators of chiropractic record documentation and audit-feedback intervention (feedback report only vs. feedback report with one-on-one educational consultation) at different campuses. Comparisons among groups were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey or Dunnett post hoc tests, and Cohen's d effect size estimates. Results : There was a significant increase in the mean percentile compliance in 2 of 5 compliance areas and 1 of 11 compliance objectives. Campus B demonstrated significantly higher levels of compliance relative to campus A and/or campus C in 5 of 5 compliance areas and 7 of 11 compliance objectives. Across-campus comparisons indicated that the compliance area Review (Non-Medicare) Treatment Plan [F(2,18) = 17.537, p importance for clinical compliance practice. Conclusions : Feedback of performance improved compliance to indicators of quality health record documentation, especially when baseline adherence is relatively low. Required educational consultations with clinicians combined with audit-feedback were no more effective at increasing compliance to indicators of quality health record documentation than audit-feedback alone.

  13. Testing the dual-route model of perceived gaze direction: Linear combination of eye and head cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Mareschal, Isabelle; Clifford, Colin W G

    2016-06-01

    We have recently proposed a dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction (Otsuka, Mareschal, Calder, & Clifford, 2014; Otsuka, Mareschal, & Clifford, 2015), which computes perceived gaze direction as a linear combination of eye orientation and head orientation. By parametrically manipulating eye orientation and head orientation, we tested the adequacy of a linear model to account for the effect of horizontal head orientation on perceived direction of gaze. Here, participants adjusted an on-screen pointer toward the perceived gaze direction in two image conditions: Normal condition and Wollaston condition. Images in the Normal condition included a change in the visible part of the eye along with the change in head orientation, while images in the Wollaston condition were manipulated to have identical eye regions across head orientations. Multiple regression analysis with explanatory variables of eye orientation and head orientation revealed that linear models account for most of the variance both in the Normal condition and in the Wollaston condition. Further, we found no evidence that the model with a nonlinear term explains significantly more variance. Thus, the current study supports the dual-route model that computes the perceived gaze direction as a linear combination of eye orientation and head orientation.

  14. A Far-Infrared Observational Test of the Directional Dependence in Radiative Grain Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillancourt, John E

    2015-01-01

    The alignment of interstellar dust grains with magnetic fields provides a key method for measuring the strength and morphology of the fields. In turn, this provides a means to study the role of magnetic fields from diffuse gas to dense star-forming regions. The physical mechanism for aligning the grains has been a long-term subject of study and debate. The theory of radiative torques, in which an anisotropic radiation field imparts sufficient torques to align the grains while simultaneously spinning them to high rotational velocities, has passed a number of observational tests. Here we use archival polarization data in dense regions of the Orion molecular cloud (OMC-1) at 100, 350, and $850\\,\\mu$m to test the prediction that the alignment efficiency is dependent upon the relative orientations of the magnetic field and radiation anisotropy. We find that the expected polarization signal, with a 180-degree period, exists at all wavelengths out to radii of 1.5 arcminutes centered on the BNKL object in OMC-1. The ...

  15. Insights into the movements of landslides from combinations of field monitoring and novel direct shear testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D. N.; Carey, J.; Massey, C. I.; Brain, M.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of pre- and post-failure movement of translational landslides remain surprisingly poorly investigated. Previous approaches have focussed on field monitoring, for example through high resolution automated surveying and/or GPS measurements, or from modelling using dedicated codes. There has been some experimental work too, most notably using ring shear devices, although there are limitations as to the type of analyses that can be completed in these devices. In recent years the author has been involved in a series of studies that have sought to understand pre- and post-failure behaviour in translational landslides using both high precision monitoring and experimental investigation using novel apparatus. The latter approach has involved the use of the back pressured shear box, a direct shear machine that allows near-infinite variation of the normal and shear stress state, and measurement and control of the pore water pressure. More recently, a more advanced version of this machine has been developed that allows dynamic loading of both direct and normal shear stresses. This paper presents key lessons learnt about the behaviour of translational landslides from these approaches. The data highlight a number of key elements: The important differences in pre-failure behaviour for materials that show a brittle response compared with those that are ductile. In particular, some aspects of behaviour (e.g. the hyperbolic acceleration to failure) can only be replicated in materials that show brittle cracking processes; In the post-failure domain, all materials show a high level of sensitivity to small changes in pore water pressure when the Factor of Safety is close to unity; Rates of strain are not simply related to pore water pressure / stress state. In particular, some materials show a different deformation response during phases of increasing pore water pressure to that during periods of pore water pressure reduction. The reasons for this require further study

  16. Testing lowered isothermal models with direct N-body simulations of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zocchi, Alice; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Varri, Anna Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Several self-consistent models have been proposed, aiming at describing the phase space distribution of stars in globular clusters. This study explores the ability of the recently proposed LIMEPY models (Gieles & Zocchi) to reproduce the dynamical properties of direct N-body models of a cluster in a tidal field, during its entire evolution. These dynamical models include prescriptions for the truncation and the degree of radially-biased anisotropy contained in the system, allowing us to explore the interplay between the role of anisotropy and tides in various stages of the life of star clusters. We show that the amount of anisotropy in an initially tidally underfilling cluster increases in the pre-collapse phase, and then decreases with time, due to the effect of the external tidal field on its spatial truncation. This is reflected in the correspondent model parameters, and the best-fit models reproduce the main properties of the cluster at all stages of its evolution, except for the phases immediately pr...

  17. Testing lowered isothermal models with direct N-body simulations of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Alice; Gieles, Mark; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Varri, Anna Lisa

    2016-10-01

    Several self-consistent models have been proposed, aiming at describing the phase-space distribution of stars in globular clusters. This study explores the ability of the recently proposed LIMEPY models to reproduce the dynamical properties of direct N-body models of a cluster in a tidal field, during its entire evolution. These dynamical models include prescriptions for the truncation and the degree of radially biased anisotropy contained in the system, allowing us to explore the interplay between the role of anisotropy and tides in various stages of the life of star clusters. We show that the amount of anisotropy in an initially tidally underfilling cluster increases in the pre-collapse phase, and then decreases with time, due to the effect of the external tidal field on its spatial truncation. This is reflected in the correspondent model parameters, and the best-fitting models reproduce the main properties of the cluster at all stages of its evolution, except for the phases immediately preceding and following core collapse. We also notice that the best-fitting LIMEPY models are significantly different from isotropic King models, especially in the first part of the evolution of the cluster. Our results put limits on the amount of radial anisotropy that can be expected for clusters evolving in a tidal field, which is important to understand other factors that could give rise to similar observational signatures, such as the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole.

  18. Direct test of defect-mediated laser-induced melting theory for two-dimensional solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Debasish; Sengupta, Surajit

    2006-01-01

    We investigate by direct numerical solution of appropriate renormalization flow equations the validity of a recent dislocation unbinding theory for laser-induced freezing and melting in two dimensions. The bare elastic moduli and dislocation fugacities are obtained for three different two-dimensional systems namely, the hard disk, inverse 12th power, and Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potentials. A restricted Monte Carlo simulation sampling only configurations without dislocations is used to obtain these quantities. These are then used as inputs to the flow equations. Numerical solution of the flow equations then yields the phase diagrams. We conclude that (a) the flow equations need to be correct at least up to third order in defect fugacity to reproduce meaningful results, (b) there is excellent quantitative agreement between our results and earlier conventional Monte Carlo simulations for the hard disk system, and (c) while the qualitative form of the phase diagram is reproduced for systems with soft potentials there is some quantitative discrepancy which we explain.

  19. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  20. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apresyan, A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Los, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Pena, C.; Presutti, F. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  1. Direct test of time-reversal symmetry in the entangled neutral kaon system at a \\phi-factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Villanueva-Perez, P

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method to perform a direct T (time reversal) symmetry test in the neutral kaon system, independent of any CP and/or CPT symmetry tests. This is based on the comparison of suitable transition probabilities, where the required interchange of in out states for a given process is obtained exploiting the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of neutral kaon pairs produced at a \\phi-factory. In the time distribution between the two decays, we compare a reference transition like the one defined by the time ordered decays (l^-,\\pi\\pi) with the T -conjugated one defined by (3\\pi^0, l^+). With the use of this and other T conjugated comparisons, the KLOE-2 experiment at DAFNE could make a significant test.

  2. Oil Mist Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  3. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  4. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  5. Performance tests and efficiency analysis of Solar Invictus 53S - A parabolic dish solar collector for direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Umer; Ali, Wajahat

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on Solar Invictus 53S `system'; an economically effective solar steam generation solution designed and developed by ZED Solar Ltd. The system consists of a dual axis tracking parabolic solar dish and bespoke cavity type receiver, which works as a Once Through Solar Steam Generator `OTSSG' mounted at the focal point of the dish. The overall performance and efficiency of the system depends primarily on the optical efficiency of the solar dish and thermal efficiency of the OTSSG. Optical testing performed include `on sun' tests using CCD camera images and `burn plate' testing to evaluate the sunspot for size and quality. The intercept factor was calculated using a colour look-back method to determine the percentage of solar rays focused into the receiver. Solar dish tracking stability tests were carried out at different times of day to account for varying dish elevation angles and positions, movement of the sunspot centroid was recorded and logged using a CCD camera. Finally the overall performance and net solar to steam efficiency of the system was calculated by experimentally measuring the output steam parameters at varying Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) levels at ZED Solar's test facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Thermal losses from OTSSG were calculated using the known optical efficiency and measured changes in output steam enthalpy.

  6. Validation of the charm 3 SL3 beta-lactam test for screening raw milk in compliance with the U.S. pasteurized milk ordinance. Performance Tested Method 071002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert S; Douglas, David; McRobbie, Lindsey; Quintana, Julio; Legg, David; Schwartz, Janine; Conaway, David; McPhee, Carla; Saul, Steven; Markovsky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Charm 3 SL3 beta-Lactam Test is a 3 min receptor-based lateral-flow Rapid One-Step Assay (ROSA) that detects the six beta-lactam drugs of concern approved for dairy cattle in the United States. The method is a biochemical formulation change of the SL3 beta-Lactam Test evaluated and approved in 2007. The Charm 3 SL3 was evaluated under the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Method (PTM) program following the protocol of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine. The method was approved as PTM 071002 on May 8, 2009. The following drugs were detected in three combined lots: penicillin G at 3.8 ppb, ampicillin at 8.0 ppb, amoxicillin at 8.4 ppb, cephapirin at 20.0 ppb, ceftiofur (total metabolites) at 79 ppb, and cloxacillin at 8.6 ppb > or = 90% of the time with 95% confidence. These detection levels are lower than, but within 75% of, the U.S. Safe Level/Tolerances. Lot-to-lot repeatability was typically within 20% of these determined levels. The test kit was found to be suitable for testing thawed frozen samples. It was also found to respond with equal or better sensitivity to samples that contained incurred analytes, i.e., both the microbiologically active parent drug and its active metabolites. There were no interferences from somatic cells at 1.1 million/mL, bacterial cells at 300 000 CFU/mL, or 32 other non-beta-lactam drugs at 100 ppb. Ruggedness experiments indicated that the test procedure is robust. These results meet the fit-for-purpose approval criteria for inclusion in the National Conference for Interstate Milk Shipments milk testing program.

  7. THE ROLE OF COMPLIANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION. WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreescu Nicoleta Alina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the importance of ethical and conduct codes in implementing the compliance programs in an organization. We presented the assumptions that were the basis for the forming of ethic and compliance programs, as well as their evolution in the last decades. In the first part of this paper we highlighted the legislation that outlined principles required for organizations to implement their compliance programs and business ethics. This legislation came as a response to corporate scandals relating to bribery, fraud and corruption in the 70s, and governments of the affected countries were forced to react in order to prevent, detect inappropriate behaviour, as well as improve corporate behaviour. After coming into force of the Federal Law "The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977" (FCPA, 1977, there was an increase in the number of codes of conduct and corporate involvement in adopting a conduct supported by consumers and stakeholders and to redefine the standards and values, to create a new image corresponding to the new market requirements. In the Guidelines 2002 basic principles are set out in order to efficiently implement a compliance and ethics program in business. The case study was materialized in the analysis of ethics and compliance codes, and the method used for implementing them in three Romanian companies. Analyzing the three ethics and conduct codes, we can conclude that the most important factor to successfully implement ethics and compliance within an organization is "tone from the top". CEO conduct is one that has a direct effect on members of the organization. Furthermore, we followed capturing developments in the rules governing the international business ethics and evaluated the legal framework regulating these issues. The primary aim was to assess how rules are implemented throughout business ethics compliance programs developed at company level and to identify ways to promote - at an organizational level

  8. Dual-focus Magnification, High-Definition Endoscopy Improves Pathology Detection in Direct-to-Test Diagnostic Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ashley; Burkitt, Michael D; Cox, Trevor; Smart, Howard L; Probert, Chris; Haslam, Neil; Sarkar, Sanchoy

    2017-03-01

    In the UK, the majority of diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopies are a result of direct-to-test referral from the primary care physician. The diagnostic yield of these tests is relatively low, and the burden high on endoscopy services. Dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy is expected to improve detection and classification of UGI mucosal lesions and also help minimize biopsies by allowing better targeting. This is a retrospective study of patients attending for direct-to-test UGI endoscopy from January 2015 to June 2015. The primary outcome of interest was the identification of significant pathology. Detection of significant pathology was modelled using logistic regression. 500 procedures were included. The mean age of patients was 61.5 (±15.6) years; 60.8% of patients were female. Ninety-four gastroscopies were performed using dual-focus magnification high-definition endoscopy. Increasing age, male gender, type of endoscope, and type of operator were all identified as significant factors influencing the odds of detecting significant mucosal pathology. Use of dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy was associated with an odds ratio of 1.87 (95%CI 1.11-3.12) favouring the detection of significant pathology. Subsequent analysis suggested that the increased detection of pathology during dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy also influenced patient follow-up and led to a 3.0 fold (p=0.04) increase in the proportion of patients entered into an UGI endoscopic surveillance program. Dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy improved the diagnostic yield for significant mucosal pathology in patients referred for direct-to-test endoscopy. If this finding is recapitulated elsewhere it will have substantial impact on the provision of UGI endoscopic services.

  9. 10 CFR 434.604 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy consumption shall be measured at the building five foot line for all fuels. Energy consumed from... BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.604 Compliance. 604.1 Compliance with this section is... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 434.604 Section 434.604 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  10. 14 CFR 26.49 - Compliance plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance plan. 26.49 Section 26.49... Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.49 Compliance plan. (a) Compliance plan. Except for applicants... January 11, 2008, each person identified in §§ 26.43, 26.45, and 26.47, must submit a compliance...

  11. 40 CFR 469.11 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 469.11 Section 469... Compliance dates. The compliance deadline for the BAT fluoride limitation shall be as soon as possible as... determined by the permit writer, but in no event later than July 1, 1984. The compliance date for PSES...

  12. 40 CFR 469.21 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 469.21 Section 469....21 Compliance dates. The compliance date for the BAT fluoride limitation is as soon as possible as determined by the permit writer but in no event later than November 8, 1985. The compliance date for PSES...

  13. Chromogenic medium for direct susceptibility testing of Candida spp. isolated from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Antônio Alexandre; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio

    2011-08-01

    Currently, there has been an increased frequency of fungal infections. Candida albicans and other Candida spp. have been proven to be major causes for urinary tract infection. Increased resistance to antifungals indicates the need to develop strategies in order to prevent the spread of resistance. Chromogenic medium have been proven to be useful in the detection of yeasts in clinical specimens containing mixed cultures of Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the results of antifungal susceptibility testing with fluconazole and amphotericin B on strains of Candida spp. isolated from urine, conducted on a Mueller-Hinton Agar with Glucose and Methylene Blue (MHAGMB) medium and on a Hicrome Candida® Agar with 2% Glucose (HCAG) medium. We used 40 samples of Candida spp. isolated from urine samples from inpatients and outpatients. The results showed that both media presented high rates of agreement, above 94%. The use of the HCAG medium decreases the release time of the results by 24-48 h, which may be decisive for initiating the correct drug treatment.

  14. HEAT TESTS OF POWER CABLES WITH XLPE INSULATION AT DIRECT VOLTAGES UP TO 110 KV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Antonets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, experiment for determining the temperature difference between the elements of cable and in the open air is considered. The formation of a three cables laid in a plane with different spacing between adjacent cables. Tests to heat of cables for XLPE-polyethylene are used as a solid dielectric insulation. The line to XLPE-cables in group running horizontally, provided that the cables are of equal diameter and emit equal losses. It is limited to the following: the air flow around the cables may be necessary restricted by proximity to next cables. When single-core cables are installed in parallel the load current may not share equally between the parallel cables. This is because a significant proportion of the impedance of large conductors is due to self reactance and mutual reactance. Hence the spacing and relative location of each cable will have an effect on the current sharing. Calculation for each cable configuration is necessary. Possibility of using for determining the thermal properties of XLPE-cables a sheath applied over the cable surface with coefficient convection heat transfer between cable surface and the air region about it of equal zero. The work is devoted to creation of a method for calculation of the current rating of high-voltage cables in conditions function.

  15. Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, G.L.; Holstein, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan (HWCPP) describes how the Rocky Flats Plant institutes a more effective waste management program designed to achieve and maintain strict adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Emphasis is given to improve integration of line operations with programmatic and functional support activities necessary to achieve physical compliance to RCRA regulated equipment, facilities and operations at the floor level. This program focuses on specific activities occurring or which need to occur within buildings containing RCRA regulated units and activities. The plan describes a new approach to achieving and maintaining compliance. This approach concentrates authority and accountability for compliance with the line operating personnel, with support provided from the programmatic functions. This approach requires a higher degree of integration and coordination between operating and program support organizations. The principal changes in emphases are; (1) increased line operations involvement, knowledge and accountability in compliance activities, (2) improved management systems to identify, correct and/or avoid deficiencies and (3) enhanced management attention and employee awareness of compliance related matters.

  16. Direct tests of the energetic basis of abortive cycling in transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahia, Ankit V; Martin, Craig T

    2011-08-16

    Although the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template is (and must be) a generally very stable process to enable transcription of kilobase transcripts, it has long been known that during initial transcription of the first 8-10 bases of RNA complexes are relatively unstable, leading to the release of short abortive RNA transcripts. A wealth of structural data in the past decade has led to specific mechanistic models elaborating an earlier "stressed intermediate" model for initial transcription. In this study, we test fundamental predictions of each of these models in the simple model enzyme T7 RNA polymerase. Nicking or gapping the nontranscribed template DNA immediately upstream of the growing hybrid yields no systematic reduction in abortive falloff, demonstrating clearly that compaction or "scrunching" of this DNA is not a source of functional instability. Similarly, transcription on DNA in which the nontemplate strand in the initially transcribed region is either mismatched or removed altogether leads to at most modest reductions in abortive falloff, indicating that expansion or "scrunching" of the bubble is not the primary driving force for abortive cycling. Finally, energetic stress derived from the observed steric clash of the growing hybrid against the N-terminal domain contributes at most mildly to abortive cycling, as the addition of steric bulk (additional RNA bases) at the upstream end of the hybrid does not lead to predicted positional shifts in observed abortive patterns. We conclude that while structural changes (scrunching) clearly occur in initial transcription, stress from these changes is not the primary force driving abortive cycling.

  17. [Skull vibratory test in partial vestibular lesions--influence of the stimulus frequency on the nystagmus direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G; Perrin, P; Morel, N; N'Guyen, D Q; Schmerber, S

    2005-01-01

    Results of the skull vibratory test (SVT) in partial unilateral vestibular peripheral lesions (PUVL) are different from the results in total vestibular lesions (TUVL). To reveal a correlation between the results of the analysis of the skull vibratory nystagmus (SVN) horizontal component and the side of the lesion; to correlate these results with the stimulus frequency. To find out a predictive correlation between the SVN horizontal and vertical components and the topography of a vestibular lesion. To appreciate the degree of vestibular deafferentation (extended to high frequencies) provoked by gentamicin labyrinthectomy and its efficiency in Meniere's disease. 53 patients with a SVN and a PUVL were included and compared with 10 TUVL and 10 normal subjects. Protocol included a HST (2 Hz), a SVT at 30, 60 and 100 Hz and a caloric test. Recordings were performed with a 2D and 3D VNG device. In PUVL, SVN at 30, 60 and 100 Hz was obtained in 80, 90 and 90% of cases respectively. SVN is correlated with the side of the lesion at 30, 60 and 100 Hz respectively in 65%, 63%, 80% of cases. SVN is not correlated with the side of the lesion in 20% of Meniere's disease, in 8% of vestibular neuritis and in 6% of vestibular schwannoma. In PUVL HSN is correlated with the side of the lesion in 69% of cases. The direction of the HSN and of the SVN was different in 23% when the nystagmus attended at the same time for both tests. In PUVL the direction of the SVN is different at 100 Hz and 30 Hz in 16% of cases when they are concomittant on the same patient. After Gentamicine labyrinthectomy, the coherence of the results in caloric test, HSN and SVN (areflexy and lesional nystagmus beating toward the safe side) was correlated with the efficiency of the therapy. A SVN vertical component was met in 10% of PUVL (essentially in anterior canal dehiscence and few cases of partial labyrinthitis). The horizontal SVN SPV is significantly slower in PUVL than in TUVL patients (p=0.0004). The SVT

  18. Testing the Direction of Longitudinal Paths between Victimization, Peer Rejection, and Different Types of Internalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentse, Miranda; Prinzie, Peter; Salmivalli, Christina

    2017-07-01

    The transition to secondary school is accompanied by the fragmentation of peer groups, while adolescents are also confronted with heightened incidents of bullying and increased levels of internalizing problems. Victimization, peer rejection, and internalizing problems are known to be interrelated, but how they influence each other over time remains unclear. We tested the direction of these associations by applying a cross-lagged path model among a large sample of Finnish adolescents (N = 5645; 49.1 % boys; M age at T1 = 14.0 years) after they transitioned to secondary school (grades 7-9). Self-reported depression, anxiety, and victimization and peer-reported rejection were measured 3 times over the course of 1 year. Results showed that depression was predictive of subsequent victimization for both boys and girls, in line with a symptoms-driven model; for girls, anxiety was reciprocally related to victimization, in line with a transactional model; for boys, victimization was related to subsequent anxiety, in line with an interpersonal risk model. Peer rejection was not directly related to depression or anxiety, but among girls peer rejection was bi-directionally related to victimization. Overall, our results suggest that associations between internalizing problems and peer relations differ between depression and anxiety and between genders. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Thoracic sympathetic block reduces respiratory system compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ely Martins Benseñor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA following thoracic surgery presents known analgesic and respiratory benefits. However, intraoperative thoracic sympathetic block may trigger airway hyperreactivity. This study weighed up these beneficial and undesirable effects on intraoperative respiratory mechanics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, double-blind clinical study at a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for partial lung resection were distributed using a random number table into groups receiving active TEA (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, n = 9 or placebo (15 ml 0.9% saline, n = 10 solutions that also contained 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2 mg morphine. Under general anesthesia, flows and airway and esophageal pressures were recorded. Pressure-volume curves, lower inflection points (LIP, resistance and compliance at 10 ml/kg tidal volume were established for respiratory system, chest wall and lungs. Student’s t test was performed, including confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Bupivacaine rose 5 ± 1 dermatomes upwards and 6 ± 1 downwards. LIP was higher in the bupivacaine group (6.2 ± 2.3 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O, p = 0.016, CI = -3.4 to -1.8. Respiratory system and lung compliance were higher in the placebo group (respectively 73.3 ± 10.6 versus 51.9 ± 15.5, p = 0.003, CI = 19.1 to 23.7; 127.2 ± 31.7 versus 70.2 ± 23.1 ml/cmH2O, p < 0.001, CI = 61 to 53. Resistance and chest wall compliance showed no difference. CONCLUSION: TEA decreased respiratory system compliance by reducing its lung component. Resistance was unaffected. Under TEA, positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are advisable.

  20. [Application of the gel test using and anti-IgA antiglobulin for the immunologic diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia with a negative direct Coombs test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F; Garin, L; Smati, C; Gaspard, M; Giannoli, C; Rigal, D

    1999-07-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemias (AIHA) are characterized by hyperhemolysis associated with the presence of the immunoglobulins IgG, IgM or IgA on the red cell membrane. These immunoglobulins react as auto-antibodies against the red cell auto-antigens of the patient. The diagnosis is supported by clinical and biological signs of hemolysis, and by the identification of the auto-antibodies using the direct antiglobulin test (DAT). Here we report 14 cases of patients who showed the clinical and biological profile of AIHA, but who gave a negative DAT. We therefore tried to determine the presence of IgA on the red cell membrane with a method more sensitive than the DAT: the gel test using anti-IgA. With such a gel test, we demonstrated that there were IgA auto-antibodies on the red cell membrane in the 14 cases, therefore confirming the diagnosis of AIHA. We discuss the interest of performing a gel test with anti-IgA in each case where AIHA is suspected, but in which a negative DAT has been observed.

  1. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M.; Yoder, Jonathan S.; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Robinson, Trisha J.; Van, Tam T.; Collier, Sarah A.; Boxrud, Dave; Monson, Timothy; Bates, Leigh Ann; Blackstock, Anna J.; Shea, Shari; Larson, Kirsten; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs) are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent “head to head” re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA). Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US). PMID:28085927

  2. A Bioequivalence Test by the Direct Comparison of Concentration-versus-Time Curves Using Local Polynomial Smoothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to test if two chemically or pharmaceutically equivalent products have the same efficacy and/or toxicity, a bioequivalence (BE study is conducted. The 80%/125% rule is the most commonly used criteria for BE and states that BE cannot be claimed unless the 90% CIs for the ratio of selected pharmacokinetics (PK parameters of the tested to the reference drug are within 0.8 to 1.25. Considering that estimates of these PK parameters are derived from the concentration-versus-time curves, a direct comparison between these curves motivates an alternative and more flexible approach to test BE. Here, we propose to frame the BE test in terms of an equivalence of concentration-versus-time curves which are constructed using local polynomial smoother (LPS. A metric is presented to quantify the distance between the curves and its 90% CIs are calculated via bootstrapping. Then, we applied the proposed procedures to data from an animal study and found that BE between a generic drug and its brand name cannot be concluded, which was consistent with the results by applying the 80%/125% rule. However, the proposed procedure has the advantage of testing only on a single metric, instead of all PK parameters.

  3. Effect of direct-to-consumer genetic tests on health behaviour and anxiety: a survey of consumers and potential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egglestone, Corin; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann

    2013-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests can be purchased over the internet. Some companies claim to provide relative genetic risks for various diseases and thus encourage healthy behaviour. There are concerns that exposure to such information may actually discourage healthy behaviour or increase health anxiety. An online survey was conducted (n = 275). Respondents were composed of individuals who had purchased a DTC genetic test and received their results (consumers, n = 189), as well as individuals who were either awaiting test results or considering purchasing a test (potential consumers, n = 86). Consumers were asked if their health behaviour or health anxiety had changed after receiving their results. Respondents' current health behaviour and health anxiety were queried and compared. In total, 27.3 % of consumers claimed a change in health behaviour, all either positive or neutral, with no reported cessation of any existing health behaviour. A change in health anxiety was claimed by 24.6 % of consumers, 85.3 % of which were a reduction. Consumers had significantly better health behaviour scores than potential consumers (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in health anxiety. This study points towards an association between receipt of DTC genetic test results and increased adoption of healthy behaviours for a minority of consumers based on self-report, with more mixed results in relation to health anxiety.

  4. Relationship of Two Vertical Jumping Tests to Sprint and Change of Direction Speed among Male and Female Collegiate Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah T. McFarland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In collegiate level soccer acceleration, maximal velocity and agility are essential for successful performance. Power production is believed to provide a foundation for these speed qualities. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of change of direction speed, acceleration, and maximal velocity to both the counter movement jump (CMJ and squat jump (SJ in collegiate soccer players. Thirty-six NCAA Division II soccer players (20 males and 16 females were tested for speed over 10 and 30 m, CODS (T-test, pro agility and power (CMJ, SJ. Independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05 were used to derive gender differences, and Pearson’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 calculated relationships between the different power and speed tests. Female subjects displayed moderate-to-strong correlations between 30 m, pro agility and T-test with the CMJ (r = −0.502 to −0.751, and SJ (r = −0.502 to −0.681. Moderate correlations between 10 and 30 m with CMJ (r = −0.476 and −0.570 and SJ (r = −0.443 and −0.553, respectively were observed for males. Moderate to strong relationships exist between speed and power attributes in both male and female collegiate soccer players, especially between CMJ and maximal velocity. Improving stretch shortening cycle (SSC utilization may contribute to enhanced sport-specific speed.

  5. A Bioequivalence Test by the Direct Comparison of Concentration-versus-Time Curves Using Local Polynomial Smoothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H.; Orange, Dana

    2016-01-01

    In order to test if two chemically or pharmaceutically equivalent products have the same efficacy and/or toxicity, a bioequivalence (BE) study is conducted. The 80%/125% rule is the most commonly used criteria for BE and states that BE cannot be claimed unless the 90% CIs for the ratio of selected pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters of the tested to the reference drug are within 0.8 to 1.25. Considering that estimates of these PK parameters are derived from the concentration-versus-time curves, a direct comparison between these curves motivates an alternative and more flexible approach to test BE. Here, we propose to frame the BE test in terms of an equivalence of concentration-versus-time curves which are constructed using local polynomial smoother (LPS). A metric is presented to quantify the distance between the curves and its 90% CIs are calculated via bootstrapping. Then, we applied the proposed procedures to data from an animal study and found that BE between a generic drug and its brand name cannot be concluded, which was consistent with the results by applying the 80%/125% rule. However, the proposed procedure has the advantage of testing only on a single metric, instead of all PK parameters. PMID:28050196

  6. Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, June 1975--July 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratt, W.B.; Hart, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The object of the work reported herein was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of preheating and evaporating a secondary fluid via direct contact with hot geothermal brine. The work covered a period of 12 months and included the design, construction, and testing of a unit which heats and vaporizes 10 gpm of isobutane by direct contact with 325/sup 0/F brine. The analytical and experimental efforts explored design and economic characteristics, including anticipated problem areas such as working fluid loss in the brine, production of a stable dispersion of the working fluid in brine, fluids separation, axial mixing and carry-over of water vapor with the working fluid. Isobutane was selected as the working fluid for tests primarily because of the favorable amount of net work produced per pound of geothermal brine and the low amount and cost of working fluid lost in the heat exchange process. The Elgin Spray Tower concept was selected for the preheater and boiler. The test apparatus includes a separate boiler and a separate preheater, each 6'' diameter by 6' high. Brine enters the top of each vessel and leaves the bottom. Isobutane enters the bottom of the preheater through a distributor plate to produce 0.15 inch diameter drops. The experimental unit operated with no major problems and demonstrated its hydraulic and thermal capabilities. Volumetric heat transfer coefficients obtained ranged up to 4000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Boiling heat transfer coefficients of as high as 17,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/ were obtained with a design value of 10,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Amount of isobutane in a 21 percent NaCl solution leaving the preheater was less than 40 ppM. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for a direct contact heat exchange system sized for a 50 MW power plant.

  7. Compliance with antimicrobial therapy: Evaluating the related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Moradi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled and irrational use of antibiotics increases the rate of antimicrobial resistance and treatment failure. Compliance with antibiotics is an important indicator to show how patients use their prescribed drugs and it can explain the relationship between drug administration and treatment outcome that needs to be monitored and promoted. We decided to evaluate compliance to antimicrobial drugs in this study.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 patients referring to 4 different specialists’ offices were enrolled. The rate and type of non prescribed antibiotic administration were evaluated using predesigned questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software using descriptive statistics and chi-square test for categorical data.Results: Our results showed that 62.4% of the study population had poor compliance and 37.6 % had good compliance with their prescribed regimen. “Feeling better “and “getting worse” on prescribed regimen were major reasons for drug discontinuation. About 70% of our study population get non prescribed antibiotic from pharmacies at least once a year. Most of the requested antibiotics were not first line options. Level of education was the only factor significantly related to the rate of patient compliance. Conclusion: This study shows the high rate of non prescribed antibiotic administration and low rate of compliance among the study population that emerge the need for particular patient education and putting restrictive rules to bound  non-prescribed and unsupervised  antibiotic marketing.

  8. Social-physiological compliance as a determinant of team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, R A; Boucsein, W; Gil, M C

    2001-04-01

    A cybernetic model of behavior predicts that team performance may depend on physiological compliance among participants. This laboratory study tested if compliance in electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate or breathing in two-person teams (N=16) was predictive of team performance or coordination in a continuous tracking task simulating teleoperation. Visual contact among participants was manipulated. Physiological compliance was scored with weighted coherence and cross correlation. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that the task completion time was predicted by coherence measures for EDA and heart, but only at a trend level for breathing. Task completion time was also predicted by heart cross correlation. Team tracking error was predicted by coherence measures for EDA, heart and breathing, and also heart cross correlation. While social-visual contact did not have an impact, physiological compliance was predictive of improved performance, with coherence robust over all three physiological measures. Heart cross correlation showed the strongest predictive relationships. These results provide evidence that physiological compliance among team members may benefit team performance. While further study is needed, physiological compliance may someday provide a needed tool for the study of team work, and an objective means to guide the ergonomic design of complex sociotechnical systems requiring a high degree of team proficiency.

  9. Impact of physician empathy on migraine disability and migraineur compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim S Attar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aim to establish the role that perceived physician empathy plays in determining migraineurs′ outcomes and compliance with migraine management plans. We checked for associations between perceived physician empathy and clinical outcomes as well as compliance with management plans. Materials and Methods: 63 migraineurs were enrolled between July and September 2011. Questionnaire administered at the time of inclusion into the study included self-assessment of disability due to migraine (Migraine Disability Assessment Test followed by migraineurs′ assessment of physician empathy (Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure. Three months later, a telephonic questionnaire ascertained changes in disability due to migraine and compliance with migraine treatment. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2010 and analyzed using SPSS 17. Pearson′s correlation was employed to analyze the significance of relationship between variables. P-value of less than 0.05 has been considered statistically significant. Results: Statistically significant positive Pearson′s correlations are seen between perceived empathy and decrease in migraine disability and symptoms over three months (P < 0.05. Significant positive relationships are also seen between perceived empathy and compliance with diet/meal timings, exercising, de-stressing/sleep pattern modification and medications (P < 0.05. Self-reported compliance is significantly correlated with improved patient outcomes (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Substantial positive associations are found between perceived physician empathy and migraineurs′ outcomes and compliance with management plans. This emphasizes the importance of empathy in migraineur-physician communication.

  10. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid detection of translation-terminating mutations at the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene by direct protein truncation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Luut, R.; Khan, P.M.; Van Leeuwen, C.; Tops, C.; Roest, P.; Den Dunnen, J. (Leiden Univ. (Netherlands))

    1994-03-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is usually associated with protein truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The APC mutations are known to play a major role in colorectal carcinogensis. For the identification of protein truncating mutations of the APC gene, the authors developed a rapid, sensitive, and direct screening procedure. The technique is based on the in vitro transcription and translation of the genomic PCR products and is called the protein truncation test. Samples of DNA from individual FAP patients, members of a FAP family, colorectal tumors, and colorectal tumor-derived cell lines were used to show the effectiveness of this method. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Effects of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and Clinical Guidelines on Appropriate Use of Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Both clinical guidelines and direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising influence use of new health care technologies, but little is known about their relative effects. The introduction of a cervical cancer screening test in 2000 offered a unique opportunity to assess the two strategies. Objective To evaluate the effects of clinical guidelines and a targeted DTC advertising campaign on overall and appropriate use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests. Research Design Quasi-experimental study using difference-in-differences analysis. Data were MarketScan private insurance claims for 500,000 women ages 21 to 64 enrolled at least 12 consecutive months from January 2001 through December 2005. Results Both clinical guidelines and DTC advertising were associated with increases in overall HPV DNA test use. DTC advertising was associated with a statistically significant increase in HPV DNA test use in two groups of DTC cities (+5.57 percent, padvertising was associated with comparable increases in the probability of appropriate and inappropriate use of the HPV DNA test in primary screening. Clinical guideline releases from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and by a co-sponsored panel, were associated with greater increases in HPV DNA tests for appropriate primary screening than for inappropriate primary screening (β=0.3347, padvertising was associated with increased overall use of a cervical cancer screening test, while clinical guidelines were differentially associated with increased appropriate use. These findings suggest distinct influences of consumer marketing and professional guidelines on the use of health care products and services. PMID:21150798

  13. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  14. Summary of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen, Direct Metal Laser Sintering Injector Testing and Evaluation Effort at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory; Bullard, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a significant advancement in the area of additive manufacturing technology. One area that has seen substantial expansion in application has been laser sintering (or melting) in a powder bed. This technology is often termed 3D printing or various acronyms that may be industry, process, or company specific. Components manufactured via 3D printing have the potential to significantly reduce development and fabrication time and cost. The usefulness of 3D printed components is influenced by several factors such as material properties and surface roughness. This paper details three injectors that were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to evaluate the utility of 3D printed components for rocket engine applications. The three injectors were tested in a hot-fire environment with chamber pressures of approximately 1400 psia. One injector was a 28 element design printed by Directed Manufacturing. The other two injectors were identical 40 element designs printed by Directed Manufacturing and Solid Concepts. All the injectors were swirl-coaxial designs and were subscale versions of a full-scale injector currently in fabrication. The test and evaluation programs for the 28 element and 40 element injectors provided a substantial amount of data that confirms the feasibility of 3D printed parts for future applications. The operating conditions of previously tested, conventionally manufactured injectors were reproduced in the 28 and 40 element programs in order to contrast the performance of each. Overall, the 3D printed injectors demonstrated comparable performance to the conventionally manufactured units. The design features of the aforementioned injectors can readily be implemented in future applications with a high degree of confidence.

  15. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The

  16. 24 CFR 882.517 - HUD review of contract compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Special Procedures for Moderate Rehabilitation-Program Development and Operation § 882.517 HUD review of contract compliance. HUD... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT...

  17. Increasing Public Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests: Health Care Access, Internet Use, and Population Density Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila J. Finney Rutten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty around the value of and appropriate regulatory models for direct-to-consumer (DTC genetic testing underscores the importance of tracking public awareness of these services. We analyzed nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2008 (n=7,674 and 2011 (n=3,959 to assess population-level changes in awareness of DTC genetic testing in the U.S. and to explore sociodemographic, health care, Internet use, and population density correlates. Overall, awareness increased significantly from 29% in 2008 to 37% in 2011. The observed increase in awareness from 2008 to 2011 remained significant (OR=1.39 even when adjusted for sociodemographic variables, health care access, Internet use, and population density. Independent of survey year, the odds of awareness of DTC genetic tests were significantly higher for those aged 50–64 (OR=1.64, and 65–74 (OR=1.60; college graduates (OR=2.02; those with a regular source of health care (OR=1.27; those with a prior cancer diagnosis (OR=1.24; those who use the Internet (OR=1.27; and those living in urban areas (OR=1.25. Surveillance of awareness—along with empirical data on use of and response to genetic risk information—can inform public health and policy efforts to maximize benefits and minimize risks of DTC genetic testing.

  18. Mock Circulatory Loop Compliance Chamber Employing a Novel Real-Time Control Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles E; Miller, Gerald E

    2012-12-01

    The use of compliance chambers in mock circulatory loop construction is the predominant means of simulating arterial compliance. Utilizing mock circulatory loops as bench test methods for cardiac assist technologies necessitates that they must be capable of reproducing the circulatory conditions that would exist physiologically. Of particular interest is the ability to determine instantaneous compliance of the system, and the ability to change the compliance in real-time. This capability enables continuous battery testing of conditions without stopping the flow to change the compliance chamber settings, and the simulation of dynamic changes in arterial compliance. The method tested involves the use of a compliance chamber utilizing a circular natural latex rubber membrane separating the fluid and air portions of the device. Change in system compliance is affected by the airspace pressure, which creates more reaction force at the membrane to the fluid pressure. A pressure sensor in the fluid portion of the chamber and a displacement sensor monitoring membrane center deflection allow for real-time inputs to the control algorithm. A predefined numerical model correlates the displacement sensor data to the volume displacement of the membrane. The control algorithm involves a tuned π loop maintaining the volume distention of the membrane via regulation of the air space pressure. The proportional integral (PI) controller tuning was achieved by creating a computational model of the compliance chamber using Simulink™ Simscape(®) toolboxes. These toolboxes were used to construct a model of the hydraulic, mechanical, and pneumatic elements in the physical design. Parameter Estimation™ tools and Design Optimization™ methods were employed to determine unknown physical parameters in the system, and tune the process controller used to maintain the compliance setting. It was found that the resulting control architecture was capable of maintaining compliance along a

  19. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Methods Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. Findings The model’s fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Interpretation Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations. PMID:28225790

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  1. A Digital Image-Based Discrete Fracture Network Model and Its Numerical Investigation of Direct Shear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peitao; Cai, Meifeng; Ren, Fenhua; Li, Changhong; Yang, Tianhong

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a numerical approach to determine the mechanical behavior of discrete fractures network (DFN) models based on digital image processing technique and particle flow code (PFC2D). A series of direct shear tests of jointed rocks were numerically performed to study the effect of normal stress, friction coefficient and joint bond strength on the mechanical behavior of joint rock and evaluate the influence of micro-parameters on the shear properties of jointed rocks using the proposed approach. The complete shear stress-displacement curve of the DFN model under direct shear tests was presented to evaluate the failure processes of jointed rock. The results show that the peak and residual strength are sensitive to normal stress. A higher normal stress has a greater effect on the initiation and propagation of cracks. Additionally, an increase in the bond strength ratio results in an increase in the number of both shear and normal cracks. The friction coefficient was also found to have a significant influence on the shear strength and shear cracks. Increasing in the friction coefficient resulted in the decreasing in the initiation of normal cracks. The unique contribution of this paper is the proposed modeling technique to simulate the mechanical behavior of jointed rock mass based on particle mechanics approaches.

  2. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    İrvem, Arzu; Özdil, Kamil; Çalışkan, Zuhal; Yücel, Muhterem

    2016-01-01

    Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8%) were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330). Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047). Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were easily misjudged

  3. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  4. Direct Antiglobulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive DAT is due to a transfusion reaction, autoimmune reaction, an infection, a medication, or a baby-mother blood group incompatibility. A small percentage of the normal population will be DAT-positive and not experience hemolytic anemia . A negative DAT means that antibodies are most ...

  5. Development of a Dynamic Biomechanical Model for Load Carriage: Phase II Part C&D. User’s Manual V 3.0: Dynamic Load Carriage Compliance Tester Automated Test Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    independent thorax and pelvic sections. These sections rotate and pivot relative to each other through the required ranges of motion. Cyclic motion is...Load Carriage Compliance Tester – User’s Manual 3 2.2 Anatomical Torso The 50 percentile articulated torso is shown in Figure 2. It...permits rotation of the articulation mechanism within the mannequin body. B) Alternate position for the thrust bearing locking bolt. Used when the

  6. Development and preliminary testing of a self-rating instrument to measure self-directed learning ability of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Fen; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lee-Hsieh, Jane

    2010-09-01

    With the growing trend of preparing students for lifelong learning, the theory of self-directed learning (SDL) has been increasingly applied in the context of higher education. In order to foster lifelong learning, abilities among nursing students, faculties need to have an appropriate instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students. The objectives of this study were to develop an instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students and to test the validity and reliability of this instrument. This study was conducted in 4 phases. In Phase 1, based on a review of the literature, the researchers developed an instrument to measure SDL. In Phase 2, two rounds of the Delphi study were conducted, to determine the content validity of the instrument. In Phase 3, a convenience sample of 1072 nursing students from two representative schools across three different types of nursing programs were recruited to test the construct validity of the Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI). Finally, in Phase 4, the internal consistency and reliability of the instrument were tested. The resulting SDLI consists of 20 items across the following four domains: learning motivation, planning and implementing, self-monitoring, and interpersonal, communication. The final model in confirmatory factor analysis revealed that this 20-item SDLI indicated a good fit of the model. The value of Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was .916 and for the four domains were .801, .861, .785, and .765, respectively. The SDLI is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying student SDL abilities. It is available to students in nursing and similar medical programs to evaluate their own SDL. This scale may also enable nursing faculty to assess students' SDL status, design better lesson plans and curricula, and, implement appropriate teaching strategies for nursing students in order to foster the growth of lifelong learning abilities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Corporate compliance and voluntary disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, A B

    1995-09-01

    In any event, the decision to institute a corporate compliance program is a relatively simple one. In view of the ambiguity surrounding certain fraud and abuse provisions, and the corporate "death sentence" that may result from program exclusion, a compliance program is always sound corporate policy. To be sure, if the compliance program is administered improperly, it can actually increase the likelihood of whistleblower actions and create a body of potentially hurtful documentation. But these dangers can be minimized by structuring the program to protect the self-evaluative process through relevant privileges. The risks also pale in comparison to the exposure to criminal or exclusionary sanctions when improper conduct goes undetected by an organization.

  8. The Use of Test Accommodations as a Gaming Strategy: A State-Level Exploration of Potential Gaming Tendencies in the 2007-2009 Period and Implications for Re-Directing Research on Gaming through Test Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Argun; Skrtic, Thomas M.; DeLuca, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The overuse of test accommodations (e.g., test readers, extra time, and calculators) for students with disabilities is a potential means of gaming the accountability system because it can inflate proficiency gains. However, no direct evidence on this problem exists, and findings on whether or not test accommodations improve test scores are…

  9. Phonetic compliance: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique eDelvaux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept of phonetic compliance, which is defined as the intrinsic individual ability to produce speech sounds that are unusual in the native language, and constitutes a part of the ability to acquire L2 phonetics and phonology. We argue that phonetic compliance represents a systematic source of variance that needs to be accounted for if one wants to improve the control over the independent variables manipulated in SLA experimental studies. We then present the results of a two-fold proof-of-concept study aimed at testing the feasibility of assessing phonetic compliance in terms of gradient. In study 1, a pilot data collection paradigm is implemented on an occasional sample of 10 native French speakers engaged in two reproduction tasks involving respectively vowels and aspirated stops, and data are analysed using descriptive statistics. In study 2, complementary data including L1-typical realizations are collected, resulting in the development of a first set of indicators that may be useful to appropriately assess, and further refine the concept of, phonetic compliance. Based on a critical analysis of the contributions and limitations of the proof-of-concept study, general discussion formulates the guidelines for the following stages of development of a reliable and valid test of phonetic compliance.

  10. Direct digital radiography for the detection of defects in a standard aluminium test object through composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubow, N A; Farman, A G; von Fraunhofer, J A; Kelly, M S

    1994-05-01

    While the RVG 32000 (Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France) is in wide use for direct digital intraoral radiography in dentistry, there is a dearth of information in the literature concerning the system's sensitivity to small changes in radiographic density consistent with initial and recurrent dental caries. A standardized 7 mm aluminium test block was used as a phantom for perceptibility testing of density changes, both with and without the superimposition of composite resin sheets of various thicknesses. Defects in the block were randomly positioned and varied from 0.1 to 1.5 mm. Thermal prints were used for evaluation. Standard linear images, with no enhancement, were compared with three enhanced modes, standard mode with gradient enhancement (enhanced standard), standard X-function and zoom high resolution (ZHR). Sensitivity improved in the following sequence: standard 0.58 < enhanced standard 0.75 < X-function 0.94 < ZHR 0.95. Accuracy improved in the following sequence: standard 0.45 < enhanced standard 0.58 < X-function 0.73 < ZHR 0.74. Specificity was 1.0 both for X-function and for ZHR. These two modes both proved significantly better (P < 0.05) for the detection of 0.1 mm defects than the other two modes tested. No significant difference was found between X-function and ZHR. As ZHR requires four times the radiation exposure as standard exposures with the X-function, the latter is preferred for the task described in this study.

  11. Social influence: compliance and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J

    2004-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.

  12. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  13. Usefulness of the rK39-immunochromatographic test, direct agglutination test, and leishmanin skin test for detecting asymptomatic Leishmania infection in children in a new visceral leishmaniasis focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-05-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis-endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test.

  14. Testing of energy assessment of technical plants, in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, EPBD; Testing av Energivurdering av tekniske anlegg iht Bygningsenergidirektivet, EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkeland, Harald

    2008-06-15

    The consulting company Norwegian Energy has previously worked out proposals for inspection systems for technical plants, in accordance with the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, abbreviated EPBD. This project has consisted in practice testing of the proposed inspection systems. In this respect agreements have been made with a number of companies working with heating boiler inspections as well as ventilation and cooling. Testing experiences have been summed up in this report. The most important experiences from this project concern practical matters: The main challenge is to find data and documentation on the plant. Use of time and resources is part of this challenge. The forms must be simplified, with less information to fill in. Some adjustments have been proposed to the previously proposed procedure. The content of the inspection should be clearly defined, without any options for simplifications. Eligibility requirements: There is clearly a need for training and certification procedures for companies/persons which are permitted to carry out inspections according to the EPBD. A proposal for such procedures has been worked out. The inspection should contain both a declaration of impartiality and a guarantee from the inspector that all identified points of improvement have been described. (EW)

  15. Serum lithium as a compliance marker for food and supplement intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing 24-h urine for lithium after consumption of lithium-tagged foods or supplements provides a validated compliance marker but is laborious. Objective: Most studies involve blood sampling; therefore, we tested whether serum lithium concentration could be used as a compliance marker. Design: We

  16. Improving shop floor compliance with age restrictions for alcohol sales: Effectiveness of a feedback letter intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; Baas, N.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the effects and handling of an intervention to increase compliance with age limits regarding alcohol sales. The intervention tested in this field experiment was a feedback letter sent to alcohol outlets about their individual compliance results based on a

  17. Improving shop floor compliance with age restrictions for alcohol sales: Effectiveness of a feedback letter intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Gosselt, Jordy F.; Baas, Niels; Jong, de Menno D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the effects and handling of an intervention to increase compliance with age limits regarding alcohol sales. The intervention tested in this field experiment was a feedback letter sent to alcohol outlets about their individual compliance results based on a myst

  18. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-05-21

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air

  19. Testing the direct ion storage dosemeter for personal dosimetry in a nuclear research centre and a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhavere, F; Covens, P

    2010-03-01

    The direct ion storage (DIS) dosemeter can have some clear advantages in personal dosimetry. Before introducing the DIS into practice in the dosimetry service, a series of tests was performed on the linearity, angular and energy dependence, temperature influences and hard resets. After that, for several months, the DIS dosemeters were worn in parallel with the legal dosemeters (thermoluminescent badge) in a nuclear research centre and in several departments of a university hospital. The conclusions are that the DIS has good characteristics to be used as legal personal dosemeter, and that the comparison with the TLD badge is good. Only in interventional radiology and cardiology fields the DIS gives significant lower values than the TLD badge.

  20. Motions Recognized through Visual Scene by Pilots and Flight Simulator Tests with Only Lateral-Directional Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Masahito; Kobayashi, Osamu

    A flight simulator must exactly simulate the aircraft motion. So, engineers check if the solution of equations of motion, the calculation of flight positions and attitudes, and then, the drawn-up of visual scenery from cockpit windows according to the calculated positions and attitudes are correct. This paper proposes an additional check if the aircraft motion perceived from visual scenery by pilot is same as the calculated motion. This opinion is applied to the simulation case that just lateral-directional flying qualities are evaluated, and it is found that the pitching motion rate (q) and Euler’s pitch attitude rate (Θ) should not be perfectly neglected (i.e. q=Θ=0) but (q and Θ) should be given assuming steady level turn flight should be given. The flight simulator test showed that the pilot felt more real flight motion and controlled some harder than in the condition of q=Θ=0.

  1. Testing the Zee-Babu model via neutrino data, lepton flavour violation and direct searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Rius, Nuria; Santamaria, Arcadi

    2014-01-01

    We discuss how the Zee-Babu model can be tested combining information from neutrino data, low-energy experiments and direct searches at the LHC. We update previous analysis in the light of the recent measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$, the new MEG limits on $\\mu \\rightarrow e \\gamma$, the lower bounds on doubly-charged scalars coming from LHC data, and, of course, the discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs boson by ATLAS and CMS. In particular, we find that the new singly- and doubly-charged scalars are accessible at the second run of the LHC, yielding different signatures depending on the neutrino hierarchy and on the values of the phases. We also discuss in detail the stability of the potential.

  2. A direct CO2 control system for ocean acidification experiments: testing effects on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sordo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most ocean acidification (OA experimental systems rely on pH as an indirect way to control CO2. However, accurate pH measurements are difficult to obtain and shifts in temperature and/or salinity alter the relationship between pH and pCO2. Here we describe a system in which the target pCO2 is controlled via direct analysis of pCO2 in seawater. This direct type of control accommodates potential temperature and salinity shifts, as the target variable is directly measured instead of being estimated. Water in a header tank is permanently re-circulated through an air-water equilibrator. The equilibrated air is then routed to an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA that measures pCO2 and conveys this value to a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controller. The controller commands a solenoid valve that opens and closes the CO2 flush that is bubbled into the header tank. This low-cost control system allows the maintenance of stabilized levels of pCO2 for extended periods of time ensuring accurate experimental conditions. This system was used to study the long term effect of OA on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum. We found that after 11 months of high CO2 exposure, photosynthesis increased with CO2 as opposed to respiration, which was positively affected by temperature. Results showed that this system is adequate to run long-term OA experiments and can be easily adapted to test other relevant variables simultaneously with CO2, such as temperature, irradiance and nutrients.

  3. A direct CO2 control system for ocean acidification experiments: testing effects on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rui; Reis, Joao; Shulika, Alona

    2016-01-01

    Most ocean acidification (OA) experimental systems rely on pH as an indirect way to control CO2. However, accurate pH measurements are difficult to obtain and shifts in temperature and/or salinity alter the relationship between pH and pCO2. Here we describe a system in which the target pCO2 is controlled via direct analysis of pCO2 in seawater. This direct type of control accommodates potential temperature and salinity shifts, as the target variable is directly measured instead of being estimated. Water in a header tank is permanently re-circulated through an air-water equilibrator. The equilibrated air is then routed to an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) that measures pCO2 and conveys this value to a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. The controller commands a solenoid valve that opens and closes the CO2 flush that is bubbled into the header tank. This low-cost control system allows the maintenance of stabilized levels of pCO2 for extended periods of time ensuring accurate experimental conditions. This system was used to study the long term effect of OA on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum. We found that after 11 months of high CO2 exposure, photosynthesis increased with CO2 as opposed to respiration, which was positively affected by temperature. Results showed that this system is adequate to run long-term OA experiments and can be easily adapted to test other relevant variables simultaneously with CO2, such as temperature, irradiance and nutrients. PMID:27703853

  4. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for all types of...

  5. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  6. 24 CFR 108.25 - Compliance meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES FOR AFFIRMATIVE FAIR HOUSING MARKETING § 108.25 Compliance meeting. (a) Scheduling... the goals of the AFHM plan may not be achieved, or that the implementation of the Plan should...

  7. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  8. ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the evolution of the business ethics concept through the prism of definitions from some renowned authors in the field and through the approach model of the business ethics and by implementing it in the company level. We have found out that in the last 40 years this concept has evolved from a theoretical aspect, as well as a practical one. Companies are motivated to implement ethics and compliance programs in business so that they can manage the changes that come from society. If, until recently, all that mattered for a company was profit, in the last decades, the situation changed. In order to develop a durable business, it is essential to have a good reputation. Owning and implementing an ethics and compliance program in business has become an imperative for companies, regardless of their activity sector. The role of the compliance department becomes more pregnant in each company: the employees need safety, the existence of communication lines provides comfort. From the partners in business’ point of view, owning such a program is a necessity, a condition, and not conforming to the principles of business ethics can lead to the isolation of the company. The ethics and compliance programs in business are instruments that protect the company by implementing certain proactive identification mechanisms that ensure the development of an ethical organizational culture.

  9. Corporate compliance: implications for trustees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, K

    1998-01-01

    In this era of fraud and abuse enforcement efforts, hospital trustees are facing potential liability in the event that an investigation reveals the hospital has violated state or federal provisions pertaining to fraud and abuse. This liability can be minimized, or avoided, by ensuring that an effective compliance plan is in place prior to such an investigation.

  10. Best Practices and Simultaneous Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This wrap-up presentation to the workshop covers several topics concerning how lead and copper compliance under the Lead and Copper Rule should be integrated into an overall “simultaneous compliance” framework with other organizations. The LCR requires “optimization” of lead leve...

  11. Audit-based compliance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Corin, R.; Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Hartog, J.I. den; Lenzini, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new framework for controlling compliance to discretionary access control policies [Cederquist et al. in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY), 2005; Corin et al. in Proceedings of the IFIP Workshop on Formal A

  12. Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foorthuis, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research project set out to identify effective practices and models for working with projects that are required to comply with Enterprise Architecture (EA), and investigate the benefits and drawbacks brought about by compliance. Research methods used are canonical action research, a statistical

  13. Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foorthuis, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research project set out to identify effective practices and models for working with projects that are required to comply with Enterprise Architecture (EA), and investigate the benefits and drawbacks brought about by compliance. Research methods used are canonical action research, a statistical

  14. Point-of-care coagulation testing for assessment of the pharmacodynamic anticoagulant effect of direct oral anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Helen; Herth, Natalie; Kasper, Alexander; Wendt, Thomas; Schuettfort, Gundolf; Weil, Yvonne; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Linnemann, Birgit; Herrmann, Eva; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2014-10-01

    This investigation was carried out with already available point-of-care testing (POCT) systems for coagulation parameters to evaluate the qualitative and semiquantitative determination of the time- and concentration-dependent anticoagulant effects of the direct oral anticoagulants rivaroxaban and dabigatran. The whole blood prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and activated clotting time (ACT) were determined using the GEM PCL Plus coagulation system. Whole blood PT was also measured on the CoaguCheck XS instrument. In addition, PT and aPTT values were obtained in citrated plasma using the PT reagent Neoplastin Plus and the STA APTT reagent. Drug concentrations of rivaroxaban and dabigatran were determined with a chromogenic anti-Xa assay and the hemoclot assay, which are reported to have good agreement with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry measurements. POCT was performed in 27 consecutive patients who received rivaroxaban 10, 15, or 20 mg once daily and in 15 patients receiving dabigatran 110 or 150 mg twice daily. Blood samples were collected predose and 2 hours after observed drug intake at steady state. Two hours after observed rivaroxaban administration, the whole blood PT measured on the GEM PCL Plus was prolonged by an average of 64.5% in comparison with predose levels. Less differentiation was observed for rivaroxaban when the PT was measured on the CoaguCheck XS instrument or in plasma (prolongation of 24.1% and 36.8%, respectively). After 2 hours observed dabigatran administration, the whole blood aPTT was comparable with plasma values and was prolonged by 23.5% in comparison with trough values. Significant concentration-dependent prolongations of the activated clotting time were observed to different extents for both direct anticoagulants. Direct oral anticoagulants display variable ex vivo effects on different POCT-assays. POCT for aPTT is sensitive to increased concentrations of dabigatran

  15. Developing a nursing corporate compliance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartis, Janice A; Sullivan, Trent

    2002-09-01

    This article presents the process that a large urban tertiary care hospital engaged in when developing a corporate compliance program for nursing. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how nurse executives can successfully implement a comprehensive and practical nursing corporate compliance program. This article describes in detail the 5 steps the hospital took to develop its nursing corporate compliance program and provides examples of tools to guide you in developing a nursing corporate compliance program.

  16. Standard Test Method for Oxygen Content Using a 14-MeV Neutron Activation and Direct-Counting Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of oxygen concentration in almost any matrix by using a 14-MeV neutron activation and direct-counting technique. Essentially, the same system may be used to determine oxygen concentrations ranging from over 50 % to about 10 g/g, or less, depending on the sample size and available 14-MeV neutron fluence rates. Note 1 - The range of analysis may be extended by using higher neutron fluence rates, larger samples, and higher counting efficiency detectors. 1.2 This test method may be used on either solid or liquid samples, provided that they can be made to conform in size, shape, and macroscopic density during irradiation and counting to a standard sample of known oxygen content. Several variants of this method have been described in the technical literature. A monograph is available which provides a comprehensive description of the principles of activation analysis using a neutron generator (1). 1.3 The values stated in either SI or inch-pound units are to be regarded...

  17. 40 CFR 63.363 - Compliance and performance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) For facilities with catalytic oxidizers or thermal oxidizers, the operating limit consists of the... Ethylene Oxide Emissions Standards for Sterilization Facilities § 63.363 Compliance and performance... an initial performance test using the procedures listed in § 63.7 according to the applicability...

  18. Corporate compliance: framework and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, N

    1999-01-01

    The federal government has created numerous programs to combat fraud and abuse. The government now encourages healthcare facilities to have a corporate compliance program (CCP), a plan that reduces the chances that the facility will violate laws or regulations. A CCP is an organization-wide program comprised of a code of conduct and written policies, internal monitoring and auditing standards, employee training, feedback mechanisms and other features, all designed to prevent and detect violations of governmental laws, regulations and policies. It is a system or method ensuring that employees understand and will comply with laws that apply to what they do every day. Seven factors, based on federal sentencing guidelines, provide the framework for developing a CCP. First, a facility must establish rules that are reasonably capable of reducing criminal conduct. Second, high-level personnel must oversee the compliance effort. Third, a facility must use due care in delegating authority in the compliance initiative. Fourth, standards must be communicated effectively to employees, and fifth, a facility must take reasonable steps to achieve compliance. Sixth, standards must be enforced consistently across the organization and last, standards must be modified or changed for reported concerns, to ensure they are not repeated. PROMINA Health System, Inc. in Atlanta, Ga., designed a program to meet federal guidelines. It started with a self-assessment to define its areas or risk. Next, it created the internal structure and assigned organizational responsibility for running the CCP. PROMINA then developed standards of business and professional conduct, established vehicles of communication and trained employees on the standards. Finally, it continues to develop evidence of the program's effectiveness by monitoring and documenting its compliance activities.

  19. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of frontal cortex decreases performance on the WAIS-IV intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Kristin K; Mellin, Juliann M; Lustenberger, Caroline M; Boyle, Michael R; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants were included in the final analysis. These participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA at each anode for 20 min) or active sham tDCS (2 mA for 40 s), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA for 20 min). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.