WorldWideScience

Sample records for directional distribution

  1. Distribution of transverse distances in directed animals

    CERN Document Server

    Sumedha

    2003-01-01

    We relate phi(x, s), the average number of sites at a transverse distance x in the directed animals with s sites in d transverse dimensions, to the two-point correlation function of a lattice gas with nearest neighbour exclusion in d dimensions. For large s, phi(x, s) has the scaling form s/R sup d sub s f(|x|/R sub s), where R sub s is the root-mean square radius of gyration of animals of s sites. We determine the exact scaling function for d = 1 to be f(r) = sq root pi/2 sq root 3 erfc(r/sq root 3). We also show that phi(x = 0, s) can be determined in terms of the animal number generating function of the directed animals.

  2. Amyloplast Distribution Directs a Root Gravitropic Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth

    Immobile higher plants are oriented in the gravitational field due to gravitropim that is a physiological growth reaction and consists of three phases: reception of a gravitational signal by statocytes, its transduction to the elongation zone, and finally the organ bending. As it is known, roots are characterized with positive gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction of a gravitational vector, stems - with negative gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction opposite to a gravitational vector. According to the Nemec’s and Haberlandt’s starch-statolith hypothesis, amyloplasts in diameter of 1.5 - 3 μ in average, which appear to act as gravity sensors and fulfill a statolythic function in the specialized graviperceptive cells - statocytes, sediment in the direction of a gravitational vector in the distal part of a cell, while a nucleus is in the proximal one. There are reasonable data that confirm the amyloplasts-statoliths participation in gravity perception: 1) correlation between the statoliths localization and the site of gravity sensing, 2) significant redistribution (sedimentation) of amyloplasts in statocytes under gravistimulation in comparison with other cell organelles, 3) root decreased ability to react on gravity under starch removal from amyloplasts, 4) starchless Arabidopsis thaliana mutants are agravitropic, 5) amyloplasts-statoliths do not sediment in the absence of the gravitational vector and are in different parts or more concentrated in the center of statocytes. Plant tropisms have been intensively studied for many decades and continue to be investigated. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which plants do so is still not clearly explained and many questions on gravisensing and graviresponse remain unanswered. Even accepted hypotheses are now being questioned and recent data are critically evaluated. Although the available data show the Ca2+ and cytoskeleton participation in graviperception and signal transduction, the clear evidence

  3. Directional reflectance factor distributions of a cotton row crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Schutt, J. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Jackson, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The directional reflectance factor distribution spanning the entire exitance hemisphere was measured for a cotton row crop (Gossypium barbadense L.) with 39 percent ground cover. Spectral directional radiances were taken in NOAA satellite 7 AVHRR bands 1 and 2 using a three-band radiometer with restricted 12 deg full angle field of view at half peak power points. Polar co-ordinate system plots of directional reflectance factor distributions and three-dimensional computer graphic plots of scattered flux were used to study the dynamics of the directional reflectance factor distribution as a function of spectral band, geometric structure of the scene, solar zenith and azimuth angles, and optical properties of the leaves and soil. The factor distribution of the incomplete row crops was highly polymodal relative to that for complete vegetation canopies. Besides the enhanced reflectance for the antisolar point, a reflectance minimum was observed towards the forwardscatter direction in the principle plane of the sun. Knowledge of the mechanics of the observed dynamics of the data may be used to provide rigorous validation for two- or three-dimensional radiative transfer models, and is important in interpreting aircraft and satellite data where the solar angle varies widely.

  4. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

  5. Distributed Optimization of Multi Beam Directional Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Distributed Optimization of Multi-Beam Directional Communication Networks Theodoros Tsiligkaridis MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, MA 02141, USA...based routing. I. INTRODUCTION Missions where multiple communication goals are of in- terest are becoming more prevalent in military applications...Multilayer communications may occur within a coalition; for example, a team consisting of ground vehicles and an airborne set of assets may desire to

  6. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  7. Inverter power module with distributed support for direct substrate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Harold [San Pedro, CA; Korich, Mark D [Chino Hills, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-08-21

    Systems and/or methods are provided for an inverter power module with distributed support for direct substrate cooling. An inverter module comprises a power electronic substrate. A first support frame is adapted to house the power electronic substrate and has a first region adapted to allow direct cooling of the power electronic substrate. A gasket is interposed between the power electronic substrate and the first support frame. The gasket is configured to provide a seal between the first region and the power electronic substrate. A second support frame is adapted to house the power electronic substrate and joined to the first support frame to form the seal.

  8. Optimized velocity distributions for direct dark matter detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Rappelt, Andreas, E-mail: ibarra@tum.de, E-mail: andreas.rappelt@tum.de [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    We present a method to calculate, without making assumptions about the local dark matter velocity distribution, the maximal and minimal number of signal events in a direct detection experiment given a set of constraints from other direct detection experiments and/or neutrino telescopes. The method also allows to determine the velocity distribution that optimizes the signal rates. We illustrate our method with three concrete applications: i) to derive a halo-independent upper limit on the cross section from a set of null results, ii) to confront in a halo-independent way a detection claim to a set of null results and iii) to assess, in a halo-independent manner, the prospects for detection in a future experiment given a set of current null results.

  9. Dijet angular distributions in direct and resolved photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1996-05-01

    Jet photoproduction, where the two highest transverse energy (E T jet ) jets have E T jet above 6 GeV and a jet-jet invariant mass above 23 GeV, has been studied with the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. Resolved and direct photoproduction samples have been separated. The cross section as a function of the angle between the jet-jet axis and the beam direction in the dijet rest frame has been measured for the two samples. The measured angular distributions differ markedly from each other. They agree with the predictions of QCD calculations, where the different angular distributions reflect the different spins of the quark and gluon exchanged in the hard subprocess. (orig.)

  10. Directional Overcurrent Relays Coordination Problems in Distributed Generation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Ehrenberger; Jan Švec

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to the distributed generation system protection coordination based on directional overcurrent protections with inverse-time characteristics. The key question of protection coordination is the determination of correct values of all inverse-time characteristics coefficients. The coefficients must be correctly chosen considering the sufficiently short tripping times and the sufficiently long selectivity times. In the paper a new approach to protection coordinat...

  11. Characterisation of neutron fields: challenges in assessing the directional distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauwels, Vanessa; Vanhavere, Filip; Reginatto, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The SCK.CEN has carried out neutron field characterisation campaigns at several nuclear reactors. The main goal of these measurement campaigns was to evaluate the performance of different neutron personal dosemeters. To be able to evaluate the performance of neutron personal dosemeters in terms of H p (10), knowledge of the directional distribution is indispensable. This distribution was estimated by placing several personal dosemeters on all six sides of a slab phantom. The interpretation and conversion of this information into a reliable value for H p (10) requires great care. The data were analysed using three methods. In the first approach, a linear interpolation was performed on three perpendicular axes. In the other two approaches, an icosahedron was used to model the angle of incidence of the neutrons and a linear interpolation or a Bayesian analysis was performed. This study describes the limitations and advantages of each of these methods and provides recommendations for their use to estimate the personal dose equivalent H p (10) for neutron dosimetry. Neutron personal dosimetry is complicated by the fact that the neutron dose quantity H p (10) is strongly energy and angular dependent. Instead of simply assuming that the fluence is unidirectional or that the fluence is isotropic, an attempt was made to estimate the directional distribution of the neutron field using a relatively simple measurement procedure. A number of active and passive personal dosemeters were placed on the six faces of a slab phantom and the results were analysed via different algorithms to obtain partial fluences in several directions of incidence. The results from all calculations in this study show the importance of introducing information about the directional distribution of the neutron fluence for the estimation of the personal dose equivalent H p (10). The difference between H p (10) dose estimates carried out using a unidirectional or an isotropic distribution can be of up

  12. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We present an architecture for an unbundled liberalized electricity market system where a virtual power plant (VPP) is able to control a number of distributed energy resources (DERs) directly through a two-way communication link. The aggregator who operates the VPP utilizes the accumulated...... a desired accumulated response. In this paper, we design such an information model based on the markets that the aggregator participates in and based on the flexibility characteristics of the remote controlled DERs. The information model is constructed in a modular manner making the interface suitable...

  13. Design wave estimation considering directional distribution of waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C

    .elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng Technical Note Design wave estimation considering directional distribution of waves V. Sanil Kumar a,C3 , M.C. Deo b a OceanEngineeringDivision,NationalInstituteofOceanography,Donapaula,Goa-403004,India b Civil... of Physical Oceanography Norway, Report method for the routine 18, 1020–1034. ocean waves. Division of No. UR-80-09, 187 p. analysis of pitch and roll Conference on Coastal Engineering, 1. ASCE, Taiwan, pp. 136–149. Deo, M.C., Burrows, R., 1986. Extreme wave...

  14. Directional short-time Fourier transform of distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hadzi-Velkova Saneva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we consider the directional short-time Fourier transform (DSTFT that was introduced and investigated in (Giv in J. Math. Anal. Appl. 399:100-107, 2013. We analyze the DSTFT and its transpose on test function spaces S ( R n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and S ( Y 2 n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {Y}^{2n}$ , respectively, and prove the continuity theorems on these spaces. Then the obtained results are used to extend the DSTFT to spaces of distributions.

  15. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R; Andreani, C; Kolesnikov, A I

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy E i = 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO

  16. DISTRIBUTION ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT PAYMENTS BETWEEN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina FINTINERU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EC proposals concerning CAP reform for 2014-2020 try to cope both with the wide variety of agricultural systems and economic structures of the 27 EU MS but also with current global challenges that agriculture has to face: food security and poverty reduction, climate changes or biodiversity loss. This article aims to analyse the proposed measures consistency with the current situation of Romanian agriculture. Distribution aspects of the direct payments between Member States are concerned. The data are originated in FADN and Eurostat statistics, and a non parametric approach is used in order to better understand the correlation between the direct payments proposed for 2014 -2020 and some socio economic criteria.The paper provides a brief analysis of the existing research concerning the distributional aspects (studies and statistics and contributes to the debate by examining if the proposed redistribution is a consistent and coherent answer to the future challenges the agriculture has to meet in the future and to the targeted equity criteria.

  17. Moving target tracking through distributed clustering in directional sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayet, Asma; Razzaque, Md Abdur; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2014-12-18

    The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs) introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target's location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works.

  18. Moving Target Tracking through Distributed Clustering in Directional Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Enayet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target’s location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works.

  19. Collapse transition and cyclomatic number distribution of directed lattice animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.M.; Duarte, J.A.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors computed the specific heat of directed lattice animals using a Monte Carlo method for various animals sizes N, with N up to 100 on the square and N up to 125 on the simple cubic lattices. The specific heat as a function of the temperature for various animal sizes exhibits peaks which seem to approach a collapse transition temperature monotonically from below with increasing N. A least square fit together with finite-size scaling then gives both the transition temperature T/sub c/ and the specific heat exponent α for these lattices. The cyclomatic number distributions for the number of animals with fixed animal size N are also calculated and these seem to obey a scaling law for large N

  20. Directional Overcurrent Relays Coordination Problems in Distributed Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Ehrenberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to the distributed generation system protection coordination based on directional overcurrent protections with inverse-time characteristics. The key question of protection coordination is the determination of correct values of all inverse-time characteristics coefficients. The coefficients must be correctly chosen considering the sufficiently short tripping times and the sufficiently long selectivity times. In the paper a new approach to protection coordination is designed, in which not only some, but all the required types of short-circuit contributions are taken into account. In radial systems, if the pickup currents are correctly chosen, protection coordination for maximum contributions is enough to ensure selectivity times for all the required short-circuit types. In distributed generation systems, due to different contributions flowing through the primary and selective protections, coordination for maximum contributions is not enough, but all the short-circuit types must be taken into account, and the protection coordination becomes a complex problem. A possible solution to the problem, based on an appropriately designed optimization, has been proposed in the paper. By repeating a simple optimization considering only one short-circuit type, the protection coordination considering all the required short-circuit types has been achieved. To show the importance of considering all the types of short-circuit contributions, setting optimizations with one (the highest and all the types of short-circuit contributions have been performed. Finally, selectivity time values are explored throughout the entire protected section, and both the settings are compared.

  1. Steps towards the universal direct current distribution system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackay, L.J.

    2018-01-01

    The traditional ac power system is challenged by emerging distributed renewable energy sources and an increase in installed load capacity, e.g., electric vehicles. Most of these new resources use inherently dc as do more and more appliances. This poses the question, if they should still be connected

  2. Direct-push delivery of dye tracers for direct documentation of solute distribution in clay till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla Maymann; Damgaard, Ida; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2012-01-01

    at several locations and depth intervals [2.5-9.5 m below surface (b.s.)], representing both the vadose and saturated zones. Extensive coring to 12 m b.s. and excavation to 5 m b.s. were carried out to identify the lateral and vertical extent of tracer distribution. A tracer distribution radius of minimum 1...

  3. The law of distribution of light beam direction fluctuations in telescopes. [normal density functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divinskiy, M. L.; Kolchinskiy, I. G.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution of deviations from mean star trail directions was studied on the basis of 105 star trails. It was found that about 93% of the trails yield a distribution in agreement with the normal law. About 4% of the star trails agree with the Charlier distribution.

  4. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  5. Prediction of sound transmission loss through multilayered panels by using Gaussian distribution of directional incident energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang; Ih; Kim; Kim

    2000-03-01

    In this study, a new prediction method is suggested for sound transmission loss (STL) of multilayered panels of infinite extent. Conventional methods such as random or field incidence approach often given significant discrepancies in predicting STL of multilayered panels when compared with the experiments. In this paper, appropriate directional distributions of incident energy to predict the STL of multilayered panels are proposed. In order to find a weighting function to represent the directional distribution of incident energy on the wall in a reverberation chamber, numerical simulations by using a ray-tracing technique are carried out. Simulation results reveal that the directional distribution can be approximately expressed by the Gaussian distribution function in terms of the angle of incidence. The Gaussian function is applied to predict the STL of various multilayered panel configurations as well as single panels. The compared results between the measurement and the prediction show good agreements, which validate the proposed Gaussian function approach.

  6. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-06-01

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest.

  7. Directional statistics-based reflectance model for isotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Ko; Lombardi, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel parametric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model that can accurately encode a wide variety of real-world isotropic BRDFs with a small number of parameters. The key observation we make is that a BRDF may be viewed as a statistical distribution on a unit hemisphere. We derive a novel directional statistics distribution, which we refer to as the hemispherical exponential power distribution, and model real-world isotropic BRDFs as mixtures of it. We derive a canonical probabilistic method for estimating the parameters, including the number of components, of this novel directional statistics BRDF model. We show that the model captures the full spectrum of real-world isotropic BRDFs with high accuracy, but a small footprint. We also demonstrate the advantages of the novel BRDF model by showing its use for reflection component separation and for exploring the space of isotropic BRDFs.

  8. The Analysis of the Strength, Distribution and Direction for the EEG Phase Synchronization by Musical Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yutaro; Ikeda, Akira; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    In this study, we propose the EEG phase synchronization analysis including not only the average strength of the synchronization but also the distribution and directions under the conditions that evoked emotion by musical stimuli. The experiment is performed with the two different musical stimuli that evoke happiness or sadness for 150 seconds. It is found that the average strength of synchronization indicates no difference between the right side and the left side of the frontal lobe during the happy stimulus, the distribution and directions indicate significant differences. Therefore, proposed analysis is useful for detecting emotional condition because it provides information that cannot be obtained only by the average strength of synchronization.

  9. Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, Jorman A.

    2000-01-01

    Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C

  10. Forecasting the Rupture Directivity of Large Earthquakes: Centroid Bias of the Conditional Hypocenter Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Forecasting the rupture directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity is known to strongly influence ground motions. We describe how rupture directivity can be forecast in terms of the "conditional hypocenter distribution" or CHD, defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of moment release (fault slip). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution, in which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. For rupture models in which the rupture velocity and rise time depend only on the local slip, the CHD completely specifies the distribution of the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. This parameter, which is zero for a bilateral rupture and unity for a unilateral rupture, can be estimated from finite-source models or by the direct inversion of seismograms (McGuire et al., 2002). We compile D-values from published studies of 65 large earthquakes and show that these data are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD advocated by McGuire et al. (2002). Instead, the data indicate a "centroid biased" CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD. In other words, the observed directivities appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by this simple model. We discuss the implications of these results for rupture dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities. We also explore their PSHA implications by modifying the CyberShake simulation-based hazard model for the Los Angeles region, which assumed a uniform CHD (Graves et al., 2011).

  11. Direct measurement of the charge distribution along a biased carbon nanotube bundle using electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image....

  12. Distributions of Mutational Effects and the Estimation of Directional Selection in Divergent Lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Briton; Rutter, Matthew T; Fenster, Charles B; Symonds, V Vaughan; Ungerer, Mark C; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2017-08-01

    Mutations are crucial to evolution, providing the ultimate source of variation on which natural selection acts. Due to their key role, the distribution of mutational effects on quantitative traits is a key component to any inference regarding historical selection on phenotypic traits. In this paper, we expand on a previously developed test for selection that could be conducted assuming a Gaussian mutation effect distribution by developing approaches to also incorporate any of a family of heavy-tailed Laplace distributions of mutational effects. We apply the test to detect directional natural selection on five traits along the divergence of Columbia and Landsberg lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana , constituting the first test for natural selection in any organism using quantitative trait locus and mutation accumulation data to quantify the intensity of directional selection on a phenotypic trait. We demonstrate that the results of the test for selection can depend on the mutation effect distribution specified. Using the distributions exhibiting the best fit to mutation accumulation data, we infer that natural directional selection caused divergence in the rosette diameter and trichome density traits of the Columbia and Landsberg lineages. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Implementing the EcoDesign Directive in distribution transformers: First impacts review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Charalampopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the commission of the Ecodesign Directive 2005/32/EC and the review of the Directive in 2009, there has been radical change on a multitude of aspects across the grid of electrical products. Because of their high volume sales, significant environmental impact and high potential for improvement, distribution transformers were set as a priority for the Ecodesign Working Period 2009–2011. As of July 2015, the requirements of the Directive affect every unit placed into market. This study addresses the impact that the Ecodesign Directive had on the distribution transformer industry financially, environmentally, and technologically. Data has been collected from various authoritative sources in order to give an inclusive picture of the current situation, and how it may improve by the measures presented. We need to ascertain both the importance of the existing difficulties and the validity of the actions and regulations in effect so far. The purpose of this paper will be considered fulfilled if the reader can clearly understand the current state of the distribution transformer industry, the problems that the Ecodesign Directive attempts to overcome, the methods of solving said problems, and the effects that those solutions can have in the near future.

  14. Anisotropic dark matter distribution functions and impact on WIMP direct detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas; Catena, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Dark matter N-body simulations suggest that the velocity distribution of dark matter is anisotropic. In this work we employ a mass model for the Milky Way whose parameters are determined from a fit to kinematical data. Then we adopt an ansatz for the dark matter phase space distribution which allows to construct self-consistent halo models which feature a degree of anisotropy as a function of the radius such as suggested by the simulations. The resulting velocity distributions are then used for an analysis of current data from dark matter direct detection experiments. We find that velocity distributions which are radially biased at large galactocentric distances (up to the virial radius) lead to an increased high velocity tail of the local dark matter distribution. This affects the interpretation of data from direct detection experiments, especially for dark matter masses around 10 GeV, since in this region the high velocity tail is sampled. We find that the allowed regions in the dark matter mass-cross section plane as indicated by possible hints for a dark matter signal reported by several experiments as well as conflicting exclusion limits from other experiments shift in a similar way when the halo model is varied. Hence, it is not possible to improve the consistency of the data by referring to anisotropic halo models of the type considered in this work

  15. Directionality of recent bird distribution shifts and climate change in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillings, Simon; Balmer, Dawn E; Fuller, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    There is good evidence that species' distributions are shifting poleward in response to climate change and wide interest in the magnitude of such responses for scientific and conservation purposes. It has been suggested from the directions of climatic changes that species' distribution shifts may not be simply poleward, but this has been rarely tested with observed data. Here, we apply a novel approach to measuring range shifts on axes ranging through 360°, to recent data on the distributions of 122 species of British breeding birds during 1988-1991 and 2008-2011. Although previously documented poleward range shifts have continued, with an average 13.5 km shift northward, our analysis indicates this is an underestimate because it ignores common and larger shifts that occurred along axes oriented to the north-west and north-east. Trailing edges contracted from a broad range of southerly directions. Importantly, these results are derived from systematically collected data so confounding observer-effort biases can be discounted. Analyses of climate for the same period show that whilst temperature trends should drive species along a north-north-westerly trajectory, directional responses to precipitation will depend on both the time of year that is important for determining a species' distribution, and the location of the range margin. Directions of species' range centroid shift were not correlated with spatial trends in any single climate variable. We conclude that range shifts of British birds are multidirectional, individualistic and probably determined by species-specific interactions of multiple climate factors. Climate change is predicted to lead to changes in community composition through variation in the rates that species' ranges shift; our results suggest communities could change further owing to constituent species shifting along different trajectories. We recommend more studies consider directionality in climate and range dynamics to produce more

  16. Bi-directional reflectance distribution function of a tungsten block for ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Sugie, Tatsuo; Kusama, Yoshinori

    2012-02-01

    In order to investigate reflection properties on plasma-facing material in ITER, the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a tungsten block sample has been measured. On the machining surface of the block, one-directional machining lines are engraved. Two laser diodes λ652 nm and λ473 nm were used to simulate H α and H β emissions, respectively. The reflected light is affected by the machining surface. The reflected light traces an arc when the incident light is injected in the parallel direction to the engraved line. On the other hand the reflected light traces a line shape when the incident light is injected in the perpendicular direction to the engraved lines. Ray tracing simulation qualitatively explains the experimental results. (author)

  17. From neutron Compton profiles to momentum distribution: Assessment of direct numerical determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R.; Flammini, D.; Romanelli, G.; Andreani, C.

    2013-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers, in the neutron Compton scattering regime, provides an access to the neutron Compton profiles, the analogous of Compton profiles in X-ray scattering. The line shape analysis of the neutron Compton profiles is usually carried out making use of multiparametric nonlinear fitting, garnering detailed information about the momentum distribution of the target atoms. This paper presents the proposal to directly determine numerically the momentum distribution from the profiles, thus eliminating the possible instabilities present in multiparametric fitting. A comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and with previous measurements on polycrystalline ice provides quantitative assessments of the proposed method

  18. A direct and at nanometer scale study of electrical charge distribution on membranes of alive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlière Christian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented an innovative method to map in-vivo and at nanometer scale the electrical charge distribution on membranes of alive cells. It relies on a new atomic force microscopy (AFM mode based on an electro-mechanical coupling effect. Furthermore, an additional electrical signal detected by both the deflection of the AFM cantilever and simultaneous direct current measurements was detected at low scanning rates. It was attributed to the detection of the current stemming from ionic channels. It opens a new way to directly investigate in situ biological electrical surface processes involved in bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cells, etc.

  19. Reconstruction of the electron momentum distribution from a set of directional Compton profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.K.

    1980-12-01

    A method is described in which the 3-dimensional one-electron momentum density distribution is obtained from a series of directional Compton profiles measured on single crystals; a directional Compton profile being the projection of the momentum density onto a line through the origin. The procedure consists of 1-dimensional Fourier transformations of the individual profiles. The Fourier transformed Compton profiles are fitted by a finite expansion in lattice harmonic functions, and the momentum density is finally obtained by a 3-dimensional Fourier transform. The effect of statistical errors are derived both for the momentum density and its Fourier transform. The problem of how to carry out the measurements in an optimal way has been approached and suggestions made. A computer program for calculation of momentum density and error distributions have been listed in an appendix. (orig.)

  20. Distributed Cooperative Optimal Control for Multiagent Systems on Directed Graphs: An Inverse Optimal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguang; Feng, Tao; Yang, Guang-Hong; Liang, Hongjing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the inverse optimal approach is employed to design distributed consensus protocols that guarantee consensus and global optimality with respect to some quadratic performance indexes for identical linear systems on a directed graph. The inverse optimal theory is developed by introducing the notion of partial stability. As a result, the necessary and sufficient conditions for inverse optimality are proposed. By means of the developed inverse optimal theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for globally optimal cooperative control problems on directed graphs. Basic optimal cooperative design procedures are given based on asymptotic properties of the resulting optimal distributed consensus protocols, and the multiagent systems can reach desired consensus performance (convergence rate and damping rate) asymptotically. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  1. Cash social transfers, direct taxes, and income distribution in late socialism

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Branko

    1993-01-01

    The author analyzes the impact of direct taxes and cash social transfers on income distribution in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia in the years before the collapse of communism. He contrasts the results for socialist and market economies. Cash social transfers accounted for about a fifth of gross income, a proportion comparable with that in developed welfare economies. Generally, cash transfers were unrelated to income in socialist countries, in marked contrast with m...

  2. Fitting a mixture of von Mises distributions in order to model data on wind direction in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masseran, N.; Razali, A.M.; Ibrahim, K.; Latif, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We suggest a simple way for wind direction modeling using the mixture of von Mises distribution. • We determine the most suitable probability model for wind direction regime in Malaysia. • We provide the circular density plots to show the most prominent directions of wind blows. - Abstract: A statistical distribution for describing wind direction provides information about the wind regime at a particular location. In addition, this information complements knowledge of wind speed, which allows researchers to draw some conclusions about the energy potential of wind and aids the development of efficient wind energy generation. This study focuses on modeling the frequency distribution of wind direction, including some characteristics of wind regime that cannot be represented by a unimodal distribution. To identify the most suitable model, a finite mixture of von Mises distributions were fitted to the average hourly wind direction data for nine wind stations located in Peninsular Malaysia. The data used were from the years 2000 to 2009. The suitability of each mixture distribution was judged based on the R 2 coefficient and the histogram plot with a density line. The results showed that the finite mixture of the von Mises distribution with H number of components was the best distribution to describe the wind direction distributions in Malaysia. In addition, the circular density plots of the suitable model clearly showed the most prominent directions of wind blows than the other directions

  3. A Directed Acyclic Graph-Large Margin Distribution Machine Model for Music Symbol Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Wen

    Full Text Available Optical Music Recognition (OMR has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a classifier based on a new method named Directed Acyclic Graph-Large margin Distribution Machine (DAG-LDM. The DAG-LDM is an improvement of the Large margin Distribution Machine (LDM, which is a binary classifier that optimizes the margin distribution by maximizing the margin mean and minimizing the margin variance simultaneously. We modify the LDM to the DAG-LDM to solve the multi-class music symbol classification problem. Tests are conducted on more than 10000 music symbol images, obtained from handwritten and printed images of music scores. The proposed method provides superior classification capability and achieves much higher classification accuracy than the state-of-the-art algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs and Neural Networks (NNs.

  4. A Directed Acyclic Graph-Large Margin Distribution Machine Model for Music Symbol Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cuihong; Zhang, Jing; Rebelo, Ana; Cheng, Fanyong

    2016-01-01

    Optical Music Recognition (OMR) has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a classifier based on a new method named Directed Acyclic Graph-Large margin Distribution Machine (DAG-LDM). The DAG-LDM is an improvement of the Large margin Distribution Machine (LDM), which is a binary classifier that optimizes the margin distribution by maximizing the margin mean and minimizing the margin variance simultaneously. We modify the LDM to the DAG-LDM to solve the multi-class music symbol classification problem. Tests are conducted on more than 10000 music symbol images, obtained from handwritten and printed images of music scores. The proposed method provides superior classification capability and achieves much higher classification accuracy than the state-of-the-art algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Neural Networks (NNs).

  5. SuperLU{_}DIST: A scalable distributed-memory sparse direct solver for unsymmetric linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoye S.; Demmel, James W.

    2002-03-27

    In this paper, we present the main algorithmic features in the software package SuperLU{_}DIST, a distributed-memory sparse direct solver for large sets of linear equations. We give in detail our parallelization strategies, with focus on scalability issues, and demonstrate the parallel performance and scalability on current machines. The solver is based on sparse Gaussian elimination, with an innovative static pivoting strategy proposed earlier by the authors. The main advantage of static pivoting over classical partial pivoting is that it permits a priori determination of data structures and communication pattern for sparse Gaussian elimination, which makes it more scalable on distributed memory machines. Based on this a priori knowledge, we designed highly parallel and scalable algorithms for both LU decomposition and triangular solve and we show that they are suitable for large-scale distributed memory machines.

  6. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  7. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A. Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes. PMID:27999250

  8. Combined local current distribution measurements and high resolution neutron radiography of operating direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alexander; Wippermann, Klaus [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research, IEF-3: Fuel Cells; Sanders, Tilman [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA); Arlt, Tobias [Helmholtz Centre Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials

    2010-07-01

    Neutron radiography allows the investigation of the local fluid distribution in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) under operating conditions. Spatial resolutions in the order of some tens of micrometers at the full test cell area are achieved. This offers the possibility to study practice-oriented, large stack cells with an active area of several hundred cm{sup 2} as well as specially designed, small test cells with an area of some cm{sup 2}. Combined studies of high resolution neutron radiography and segmented cell measurements are especially valuable, because they enable a correlation of local fluid distribution and local performance [1, 2]. The knowledge of this interdependency is essential to optimise the water management and performance respecting a homogeneous fluid, current and temperature distribution and to achieve high performance and durability of DMFCs. (orig.)

  9. The temporal distribution of directional gradients under selection for an optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Haller, Benjamin C

    2014-12-01

    Temporal variation in phenotypic selection is often attributed to environmental change causing movements of the adaptive surface relating traits to fitness, but this connection is rarely established empirically. Fluctuating phenotypic selection can be measured by the variance and autocorrelation of directional selection gradients through time. However, the dynamics of these gradients depend not only on environmental changes altering the fitness surface, but also on evolution of the phenotypic distribution. Therefore, it is unclear to what extent variability in selection gradients can inform us about the underlying drivers of their fluctuations. To investigate this question, we derive the temporal distribution of directional gradients under selection for a phenotypic optimum that is either constant or fluctuates randomly in various ways in a finite population. Our analytical results, combined with population- and individual-based simulations, show that although some characteristic patterns can be distinguished, very different types of change in the optimum (including a constant optimum) can generate similar temporal distributions of selection gradients, making it difficult to infer the processes underlying apparent fluctuating selection. Analyzing changes in phenotype distributions together with changes in selection gradients should prove more useful for inferring the mechanisms underlying estimated fluctuating selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Geographical distribution of radiation risk unaccountable by direct exposure dose in hiroshima A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohani, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Death risks due to solid cancer were estimated from region to region where the A-bomb survivors had been actually exposed, to visualize the risk distribution on the map, which resulting in risk regional difference that had been unaccountable by direct exposure dose estimation. Analysis was performed with 3 hazard models of the previous one, + direct exposed dose as a confounding factor and, further, + spatial distance from the explosion point. Subjects were 37,382 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was set by 4,371 deaths due to cancer except leukemia, cancers of thyroid and breast. Confounding factors in the previous hazard model were sex, age at the exposure, dose and shielding. With the previous model, risk distribution was observed in a concentric circular region around the hypocenter and in an additional west to northwestern suburbs. The latter risk distribution was also seen with the second model in the same region, where dose decreased with -7 powers of the distance. When adjusted with -3 powers of the distance with the third model, the actual risk distribution was found best fitted, indicating the presence of distance-dependent risk. It was suggested that the region exposed to additional dose possibly derived from fallout had been the actual black rainfall area as those regions agreed with each other. (T.T.)

  11. The influence of the directional energy distribution on the nonlinear dispersion relation in a random gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.

  12. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE OF AN OMNI-DIRECTIONAL AUTONOMOUS GUIDED VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Tlale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Omni-directionality is the ability of a mobile robot to move instantaneously in any direction. This paper describes the wheel and controller designs of a Mecanumwheeled, autonomous guided vehicle (AGV for reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Mecanum wheels use slip developed between rollers and surface, surface and ground, to achieve omni-directionality. An advantage of omni-directional robotic platforms is that they are capable of performing tasks in congested environments such as those found in factory workshops, narrow aisles, warehouses, etc. Controller Area Network (CAN is implemented as a distributed controller to control motion and navigation tasks of the developed robot. The design of the distributed controller is described and its performance analyzed. This increases the reliability and functionality of the mobile robot.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die artikel beskryf wiel - en beheerontwerpe van ‘n veelrigting mobiele robot. Die robot is ‘n selfstandigbeheerde voertuig vir gebruik by vervaardigingstelsels met veranderbare konfigurasie. Die ontwerp van die robot en bypassende beheerstelsel word beskryf en ontleed teen die agterground van bewegings – en navigeertake. Die betroubaarheid en funksionering van die sisteem word beoordeel.

  13. Fitting a circular distribution based on nonnegative trigonometric sums for wind direction in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Zaharim, Azami; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2015-02-01

    Wind direction has a substantial effect on the environment and human lives. As examples, the wind direction influences the dispersion of particulate matter in the air and affects the construction of engineering structures, such as towers, bridges, and tall buildings. Therefore, a statistical analysis of the wind direction provides important information about the wind regime at a particular location. In addition, knowledge of the wind direction and wind speed can be used to derive information about the energy potential. This study investigated the characteristics of the wind regime of Mersing, Malaysia. A circular distribution based on Nonnegative Trigonometric Sums (NNTS) was fitted to a histogram of the average hourly wind direction data. The Newton-like manifold algorithm was used to estimate the parameter of each component of the NNTS model. Next, the suitability of each NNTS model was judged based on a graphical representation and Akaike's Information Criteria. The study found that the NNTS model with six or more components was able to fit the wind directional data for the Mersing station.

  14. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  15. Effects on Subtalar Joint Stress Distribution After Cannulated Screw Insertion at Different Positions and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cheng-song; Chen, Wan; Chen, Chen; Yang, Guang-hua; Hu, Chao; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects on subtalar joint stress distribution after cannulated screw insertion at different positions and directions. After establishing a 3-dimensional geometric model of a normal subtalar joint, we analyzed the most ideal cannulated screw insertion position and approach for subtalar joint stress distribution and compared the differences in loading stress, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength among lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion, traditional screw insertion, and ideal cannulated screw insertion. The screw insertion approach allowing the most uniform subtalar joint loading stress distribution was lateral screw insertion near the border of the talar neck plus medial screw insertion close to the ankle joint. For stress distribution uniformity, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength, lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was superior to traditional double-screw insertion. Compared with ideal cannulated screw insertion, slightly poorer stress distribution uniformity and better antirotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength were observed for lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion. Traditional single-screw insertion was better than double-screw insertion for stress distribution uniformity but worse for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was slightly worse for stress distribution uniformity than was ideal cannulated screw insertion but superior to traditional screw insertion. It was better than both ideal cannulated screw insertion and traditional screw insertion for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion is an approach with simple localization, convenient operation, and good safety. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Directional Stand-off Detection of Fast Neutrons and Gammas Using Angular Scattering Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier P. e.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.

    2009-10-25

    We have investigated the response of a DoubleScatter Neutron Spectrometer (DSNS) for sources at long distances (gr than 200 meters). We find that an alternative method for analyzing double scatter data avoids some uncertainties introduced by amplitude measurements in plastic scintillators.Time of flight is used to discriminate between gamma and neutron events, and the kinematic distributions of scattering angles are assumed to apply. Non-relativistic neutrons are most likely to scatter at 45°, while gammas with energies greater than 2 MeV are most likely to be forward scattered. The distribution of scattering angles of fission neutrons arriving from a distant point source generates a 45° cone, which can be back-projected to give the source direction. At the same time, the distribution of Compton-scattered gammas has a maximum in the forward direction, and can be made narrower by selecting events that deposit minimal energy in the first scattering event. We have further determined that the shape of spontaneous fission neutron spectra at ranges gr than 110 m is still significantly different from thecosmic ray background.

  17. Event-Triggered Distributed Average Consensus Over Directed Digital Networks With Limited Communication Bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqing; Chen, Guo; Huang, Tingwen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Lan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the event-triggered distributed average-consensus of discrete-time first-order multiagent systems with limited communication data rate and general directed network topology. In the framework of digital communication network, each agent has a real-valued state but can only exchange finite-bit binary symbolic data sequence with its neighborhood agents at each time step due to the digital communication channels with energy constraints. Novel event-triggered dynamic encoder and decoder for each agent are designed, based on which a distributed control algorithm is proposed. A scheme that selects the number of channel quantization level (number of bits) at each time step is developed, under which all the quantizers in the network are never saturated. The convergence rate of consensus is explicitly characterized, which is related to the scale of network, the maximum degree of nodes, the network structure, the scaling function, the quantization interval, the initial states of agents, the control gain and the event gain. It is also found that under the designed event-triggered protocol, by selecting suitable parameters, for any directed digital network containing a spanning tree, the distributed average consensus can be always achieved with an exponential convergence rate based on merely one bit information exchange between each pair of adjacent agents at each time step. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility of presented protocol and the correctness of the theoretical results.

  18. Distributed adaptive asymptotically consensus tracking control of uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wen, Changyun; Huang, Jiangshuai; Fan, Huijin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a backstepping based distributed adaptive control scheme is proposed for multiple uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition. The common desired trajectory is allowed totally unknown by part of the subsystems and the linearly parameterized trajectory model assumed in currently available results is no longer needed. To compensate the effects due to unknown trajectory information, a smooth function of consensus errors and certain positive integrable functions are introduced in designing virtual control inputs. Besides, to overcome the difficulty of completely counteracting the coupling terms of distributed consensus errors and parameter estimation errors in the presence of asymmetric Laplacian matrix, extra information transmission of local parameter estimates are introduced among linked subsystem and adaptive gain technique is adopted to generate distributed torque inputs. It is shown that with the proposed distributed adaptive control scheme, global uniform boundedness of all the closed-loop signals and asymptotically output consensus tracking can be achieved. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feedback control for distributed heat transfer mechanisms in direct-contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi; N'Doye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. Adjustable Parameter-Based Distributed Fault Estimation Observer Design for Multiagent Systems With Directed Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel adjustable parameter (AP)-based distributed fault estimation observer (DFEO) is proposed for multiagent systems (MASs) with the directed communication topology. First, a relative output estimation error is defined based on the communication topology of MASs. Then a DFEO with AP is constructed with the purpose of improving the accuracy of fault estimation. Based on H ∞ and H 2 with pole placement, multiconstrained design is given to calculate the gain of DFEO. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed DFEO design with AP.

  1. Feedback control for distributed heat transfer mechanisms in direct-contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  2. Fast computation of statistical uncertainty for spatiotemporal distributions estimated directly from dynamic cone beam SPECT projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2001-01-01

    The estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic model parameters directly from projection data is potentially useful for clinical dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies, particularly in those clinics that have only single-detector systems and thus are not able to perform rapid tomographic acquisitions. Because the radiopharmaceutical distribution changes while the SPECT gantry rotates, projections at different angles come from different tracer distributions. A dynamic image sequence reconstructed from the inconsistent projections acquired by a slowly rotating gantry can contain artifacts that lead to biases in kinetic parameters estimated from time-activity curves generated by overlaying regions of interest on the images. If cone beam collimators are used and the focal point of the collimators always remains in a particular transaxial plane, additional artifacts can arise in other planes reconstructed using insufficient projection samples [1]. If the projection samples truncate the patient's body, this can result in additional image artifacts. To overcome these sources of bias in conventional image based dynamic data analysis, we and others have been investigating the estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic model parameters directly from dynamic SPECT projection data by modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiopharmaceutical throughout the projected field of view [2-8]. In our previous work we developed a computationally efficient method for fully four-dimensional (4-D) direct estimation of spatiotemporal distributions from dynamic SPECT projection data [5], which extended Formiconi's least squares algorithm for reconstructing temporally static distributions [9]. In addition, we studied the biases that result from modeling various orders temporal continuity and using various time samplings [5]. the present work, we address computational issues associated with evaluating the statistical uncertainty of

  3. Principles for scaling of distributed direct potable water reuse systems: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James D

    2015-05-15

    Scaling of direct potable water reuse (DPR) systems involves tradeoffs of treatment facility economy-of-scale, versus cost and energy of conveyance including energy for upgradient distribution of treated water, and retention of wastewater thermal energy. In this study, a generalized model of the cost of DPR as a function of treatment plant scale, assuming futuristic, optimized conveyance networks, was constructed for purposes of developing design principles. Fractal landscapes representing flat, hilly, and mountainous topographies were simulated, with urban, suburban, and rural housing distributions placed by modified preferential growth algorithm. Treatment plants were allocated by agglomerative hierarchical clustering, networked to buildings by minimum spanning tree. Simulations assume advanced oxidation-based DPR system design, with 20-year design life and capability to mineralize chemical oxygen demand below normal detection limits, allowing implementation in regions where disposal of concentrate containing hormones and antiscalants is not practical. Results indicate that total DPR capital and O&M costs in rural areas, where systems that return nutrients to the land may be more appropriate, are high. However, costs in urban/suburban areas are competitive with current water/wastewater service costs at scales of ca. one plant per 10,000 residences. This size is relatively small, and costs do not increase significantly until plant service areas fall below 100 to 1000 homes. Based on these results, distributed DPR systems are recommended for consideration for urban/suburban water and wastewater system capacity expansion projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhezhelenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of increase of efficiency of production, transmission and distribution of electric energy have been formulated. The relation between the values of electricity losses during transmission via power grids of different countries and the level of the economies of these countries characterized by the value of gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita has been established. In the countries with a gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita less than 20 thousand US dollars electricity losses during its transmission via power grids are 1.5–2.5 times more than the ones transmitted via power grids of the industrialized countries where the specified purchasing power parity is in the range of 30.4–54.5 thousand US dollars. In the countries with more developed economies the technical culture of production, transmission and distribution of electricity is higher; the modern control systems of operation modes of electrical networks are used as well as of monitoring and accounting of electricity; also there are solvent and disciplined consumers in such countries as well as clear regulatory framework and tariff regulation system. However, the process of transmission and distribution of electricity is effective if not only low relative losses take place, but the normal (contractual requirements for carrying capacity, quality and reliability of electricity supply are provided. The possibility of analytical determination of the optimum value of reserve capacity of power plants providing the required level of reliability of the power system has been considered.

  5. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with spanwise alternatively distributed strips control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weidan; Lu, Lipeng; Fang, Jian; Moulinec, Charles; Yao, Yufeng

    2018-05-01

    The effect of spanwise alternatively distributed strips (SADS) control on turbulent flow in a plane channel has been studied by direct numerical simulations to investigate the characteristics of large-scale streamwise vortices (LSSVs) induced by small-scale active wall actuation, and their potential in suppressing flow separation. SADS control is realized by alternatively arranging out-of-phase control (OPC) and in-phase control (IPC) wall actuations on the lower channel wall surface, in the spanwise direction. It is found that the coherent structures are suppressed or enhanced alternatively by OPC or IPC, respectively, leading to the formation of a vertical shear layer, which is responsible for the LSSVs’ presence. Large-scale low-speed region can also be observed above the OPC strips, which resemble large-scale low-speed streaks. LSSVs are found to be in a statistically-converged steady state and their cores are located between two neighboring OPC and IPC strips. Their motions contribute significantly to the momentum transport in the wall-normal and spanwise directions, demonstrating their potential ability to suppress flow separation.

  7. In situ diagnostic of water distribution in thickness direction of MEA by neutron imaging. Focused on characteristics of water distribution in gas diffusion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaki, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Kobo, Norio; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Boillat, Pierre; Kramer, Denis; Scherer, Gunther G.; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    2008-01-01

    The mass transfer characteristics of gas diffusion layer (GDL) are closely related to cell performance in PEFC. In this study, In situ diagnostic of water distribution in thickness direction of MEA by Neutron Imaging has been carried out for three MEAs with different GDLs on cathode side as well as I-V characteristics. It was confirmed that this method is useful for analyzing water distribution in thickness direction of MEA. The relationship between I-V characteristics and liquid water distribution has been studied. (author)

  8. Pull-Based Distributed Event-Triggered Consensus for Multiagent Systems With Directed Topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinlei; Lu, Wenlian; Chen, Tianping

    2017-01-01

    This paper mainly investigates consensus problem with a pull-based event-triggered feedback control. For each agent, the diffusion coupling feedbacks are based on the states of its in-neighbors at its latest triggering time, and the next triggering time of this agent is determined by its in-neighbors' information. The general directed topologies, including irreducible and reducible cases, are investigated. The scenario of distributed continuous communication is considered first. It is proved that if the network topology has a spanning tree, then the event-triggered coupling algorithm can realize the consensus for the multiagent system. Then, the results are extended to discontinuous communication, i.e., self-triggered control, where each agent computes its next triggering time in advance without having to observe the system's states continuously. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is illustrated by a numerical example finally.

  9. Directional Wigner-Ville distribution and its application for rotating-machinery condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wan; Ha, Jae HOng; Shin, Hae Gon; Lee, Yoon Hee; Kim, Young Baik

    1996-01-01

    Vibration analysis is one of the most powerful tools available for the detection and isolation of incipient faults in mechanical systems. The methods of vibration analysis in use today and under continuous study are broad band vibration monitoring, time domain analysis, and frequency domain analysis. In recent years, great interest has been generated concerning the use of time-frequency representation and its application for a machinery diagnostics and condition monitoring system. The objective of the research described in this paper was to develop a new diagnostic tool for the rotating machinery. This paper introduces a new time-frequency representation, Directional Wigner-Ville Distribution, which analyses the time-frequency structure of the rotating machinery vibration

  10. Three-dimensional direct laser written graphitic electrical contacts to randomly distributed components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Bryce; Parkinson, Patrick; Scully, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    The development of cost-effective electrical packaging for randomly distributed micro/nano-scale devices is a widely recognized challenge for fabrication technologies. Three-dimensional direct laser writing (DLW) has been proposed as a solution to this challenge, and has enabled the creation of rapid and low resistance graphitic wires within commercial polyimide substrates. In this work, we utilize the DLW technique to electrically contact three fully encapsulated and randomly positioned light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in a one-step process. The resolution of the contacts is in the order of 20 μ m, with an average circuit resistance of 29 ± 18 kΩ per LED contacted. The speed and simplicity of this technique is promising to meet the needs of future microelectronics and device packaging.

  11. Experimental analysis of bidirectional reflectance distribution function cross section conversion term in direction cosine space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Samuel D; Nauyoks, Stephen E; Marciniak, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Of the many classes of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models, two popular classes of models are the microfacet model and the linear systems diffraction model. The microfacet model has the benefit of speed and simplicity, as it uses geometric optics approximations, while linear systems theory uses a diffraction approach to compute the BRDF, at the expense of greater computational complexity. In this Letter, nongrazing BRDF measurements of rough and polished surface-reflecting materials at multiple incident angles are scaled by the microfacet cross section conversion term, but in the linear systems direction cosine space, resulting in great alignment of BRDF data at various incident angles in this space. This results in a predictive BRDF model for surface-reflecting materials at nongrazing angles, while avoiding some of the computational complexities in the linear systems diffraction model.

  12. When Meaning Is Not Enough: Distributional and Semantic Cues to Word Categorization in Child Directed Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, Sara; Muñoz, Carmen; Amadó, Anna; Serrat, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important tasks in first language development is assigning words to their grammatical category. The Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis postulates that, in order to accomplish this task, children are guided by a neat correspondence between semantic and grammatical categories, since nouns typically refer to objects and verbs to actions. It is this correspondence that guides children's initial word categorization. Other approaches, on the other hand, suggest that children might make use of distributional cues and word contexts to accomplish the word categorization task. According to such approaches, the Semantic Bootstrapping assumption offers an important limitation, as it might not be true that all the nouns that children hear refer to specific objects or people. In order to explore that, we carried out two studies based on analyses of children's linguistic input. We analyzed child-directed speech addressed to four children under the age of 2;6, taken from the CHILDES database. The corpora were selected from the Manchester corpus. The corpora from the four selected children contained a total of 10,681 word types and 364,196 word tokens. In our first study, discriminant analyses were performed using semantic cues alone. The results show that many of the nouns found in parents' speech do not relate to specific objects and that semantic information alone might not be sufficient for successful word categorization. Given that there must be an additional source of information which, alongside with semantics, might assist young learners in word categorization, our second study explores the availability of both distributional and semantic cues in child-directed speech. Our results confirm that this combination might yield better results for word categorization. These results are in line with theories that suggest the need for an integration of multiple cues from different sources in language development.

  13. Distribution over pT of direct secondary ha drons in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    Transverse momentum distributions of direct secondary hadrons produced in proton, pion and kaon collisons with nucleons and nuclei are calculated in the additive quark model. Results of calculations are compared to the experimental data on production of neutral strange particles

  14. Interpreting dark matter direct detection independently of the local velocity and density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kribs, Graham D.; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate precisely what particle physics information can be extracted from a single direct detection observation of dark matter while making absolutely no assumptions about the local velocity distribution and local density of dark matter. Our central conclusions follow from a very simple observation: the velocity distribution of dark matter is positive definite, f(v)≥0. We demonstrate the utility of this result in several ways. First, we show a falling deconvoluted recoil spectrum (deconvoluted of the nuclear form factor), such as from ordinary elastic scattering, can be 'mocked up' by any mass of dark matter above a kinematic minimum. As an example, we show that dark matter much heavier than previously considered can explain the CoGeNT excess. Specifically, m χ Ge can be in just as good agreement as light dark matter, while m χ >m Ge depends on understanding the sensitivity of xenon to dark matter at very low recoil energies, E R < or approx. 6 keVnr. Second, we show that any rise in the deconvoluted recoil spectrum represents distinct particle physics information that cannot be faked by an arbitrary f(v). As examples of resulting nontrivial particle physics, we show that inelastic dark matter and dark matter with a form factor can both yield such a rise.

  15. Non-Maxwellian electron distributions resulting from direct laser acceleration in near-critical plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toncian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The irradiation of few-nm-thick targets by a finite-contrast high-intensity short-pulse laser results in a strong pre-expansion of these targets at the arrival time of the main pulse. The targets decompress to near and lower than critical densities with plasmas extending over few micrometers, i.e. multiple wavelengths. The interaction of the main pulse with such a highly localized but inhomogeneous target leads to the generation of a short channel and further self-focusing of the laser beam. Experiments at the Glass Hybrid OPCPA Scaled Test-bed (GHOST laser system at University of Texas, Austin using such targets measured non-Maxwellian, peaked electron distribution with large bunch charge and high electron density in the laser propagation direction. These results are reproduced in 2D PIC simulations using the EPOCH code, identifying direct laser acceleration (DLA [1] as the responsible mechanism. This is the first time that DLA has been observed to produce peaked spectra as opposed to broad, Maxwellian spectra observed in earlier experiments [2]. This high-density electrons have potential applications as injector beams for a further wakefield acceleration stage as well as for pump-probe applications.

  16. Direct laboratory observation of fluid distribution and its influence on acoustic properties of patchy saturated rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, M.; Clennell, B.; Pervukhina, M.; Shulakova, V.; Mueller, T.; Gurevich, B.

    2009-04-01

    samples (38 mm in diameter, approximately 60 mm long) were dried in oven under reduced pressure. In dynamic saturation experiments, samples were jacketed in the experimental cell, made from transparent for X-radiation material (PMMA). Distillate water was injected into the sample from the one side. Fluid distribution in such "dynamic" experiment: both spatial and time dependant was measured using X-ray Computer Tomograph (CT) with resolution 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm3. Velocities (Vp, and Vs) at ultrasonic frequency of 1 MHz, were measured in the direction perpendicular to initial direction of the fluid flow injection. Sample saturation was estimated from the CT results. In "quasi static" experiments samples were saturated during long period of time (over 2 weeks) to achieve uniform distribution of liquid inside the sample. Saturation was determined by measurement of the weight of water fraction. All experiments were performed at laboratory environments at temperature 25 C. Ultrasonic velocities and fluid saturations were measured simultaneously during water injection into sandstone core samples. The experimental results obtained on low-permeability samples show that at low saturation values the velocity-saturation dependence can be described by the Gassmann-Wood relationship. However, with increasing saturation a sharp increase of P-wave velocity is observed, eventually approaching the Gassmann-Hill relationship. We connect the characteristics of the transition behavior of the velocity-saturation relationships to the increasing size of the patches inside the rock sample. In particular, we show that for relatively large fluid injection rate this transition occurs at smaller degrees of saturation as compared with high injection rate. We model the experimental data using the so-called White model (Toms 2007) that assumes fluid patch distribution as a periodic assemblage of concentric spheres. We can observe reasonable agreement between experimental results and theoretical

  17. Status of the Direct Data Distribution (D(exp 3)) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Direct Data Distribution (D3) project will demonstrate an advanced, high-performance communications system that transmits information from an advanced technology payload carried by a NASA spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) to a small receiving terminal on Earth. The space-based communications package will utilize a solid-state, K-band phased-array antenna that electronically steers the radiated energy beam toward a low-cost, tracking ground terminal, thereby providing agile, vibration-free, electronic steering at reduced size and weight with increased reliability. The array-based link will also demonstrate new digital processing technology that will allow the transmission of substantially increased amounts of latency-tolerant data collected from the LEO spacecraft directly to NASA field centers, principal investigators, or into the commercial terrestrial communications network. The technologies demonstrated by D3 will facilitate NASA's transition from using Government-owned communication assets to using commercial communication services. The hardware for D3 will incorporate advanced technology components developed under the High Rate Data Delivery (HRDD) Thrust Area of NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Space Base Program at Glenn's Communications Technology Division. The flight segment components will include the electrically steerable phased-array antenna, which is being built by the Raytheon System Corporation and utilizes monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology operating at 19.05 GHz; and the digital encoder/modulator chipset, which uses four-channel orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The encoder/modulator will use a chipset developed by SICOM, Inc., which is both bandwidth and power efficient. The ground segment components will include a low-cost, open-loop tracking ground terminal incorporating a cryoreceiver to minimize terminal size without compromising receiver capability. The project is

  18. Hydrodynamic stability and Ti-tracer distribution in low-adiabat OMEGA direct-drive implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Tirtha R.

    We discuss the hydrodynamic stability of low-adiabat OMEGA direct-drive implosions based on results obtained from simultaneous emission and absorption spectroscopy of a titanium tracer added to the target. The targets were deuterium filled, warm plastic shells of varying thicknesses and filling gas pressures with a submicron Ti-doped tracer layer initially located on the inner surface of the shell. The spectral features from the titanium tracer are observed during the deceleration and stagnation phases of the implosion, and recorded with a time integrated spectrometer (XRS1), streaked crystal spectrometer (SSCA) and three gated, multi-monochromatic X-ray imager (MMI) instruments fielded along quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight. The time-integrated, streaked and gated data show simultaneous emission and absorption spectral features associated with titanium K-shell line transitions but only the MMI data provides spatially resolved information. The arrays of gated spectrally resolved images recorded with MMI were processed to obtain spatially resolved spectra characteristic of annular contour regions on the image. A multi-zone spectroscopic analysis of the annular spatially resolved spectra permits the extraction of plasma conditions in the core as well as the spatial distribution of tracer atoms. In turn, the titanium atom distribution provides direct evidence of tracer penetration into the core and thus of the hydrodynamic stability of the shell. The observations, timing and analysis indicate that during fuel burning the titanium atoms have migrated deep into the core and thus shell material mixing is likely to impact the rate of nuclear fusion reactions, i.e. burning rate, and the neutron yield of the implosion. We have found that the Ti atom number density decreases towards the center in early deceleration phase, but later in time the trend is just opposite, i.e., it increases towards the center of the implosion core. This is in part a consequence of the convergent

  19. SuperB R&D computing program: HTTP direct access to distributed resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fella, A.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Delprete, D.; Diacono, D.; Di Simone, A.; Franchini, P.; Donvito, G.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.; Tomassetti, L.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric energy e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a luminosity target of 1036cm-2s-1. The increasing network performance also in the Wide Area Network environment and the capability to read data remotely with good efficiency are providing new possibilities and opening new scenarios in the data access field. Subjects like data access and data availability in a distributed environment are key points in the definition of the computing model for an HEP experiment like SuperB. R&D efforts in such a field have been brought on during the last year in order to release the Computing Technical Design Report within 2013. WAN direct access to data has been identified as one of the more interesting viable option; robust and reliable protocols as HTTP/WebDAV and xrootd are the subjects of a specific R&D line in a mid-term scenario. In this work we present the R&D results obtained in the study of new data access technologies for typical HEP use cases, focusing on specific protocols such as HTTP and WebDAV in Wide Area Network scenarios. Reports on efficiency, performance and reliability tests performed in a data analysis context have been described. Future R&D plan includes HTTP and xrootd protocols comparison tests, in terms of performance, efficiency, security and features available.

  20. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: direct brine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelzel, D.M.; O'Brien, D.G.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Smith, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the treatment of direct brine releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty; and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented analyses indicate that direct brine releases do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for direct brine releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  1. Problem-Based Learning and Problem-Solving Tools: Synthesis and Direction for Distributed Education Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert S.; Deek, Fadi P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the design and implementation of problem-solving tools used in programming instruction are complementary with both the theories of problem-based learning (PBL), including constructivism, and the practices of distributed education environments. Examines how combining PBL, Web-based distributed education, and a problem-solving…

  2. Simulation of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor with axial and radial direction of permanent magnets magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Golenkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of computer simulation and experimental study of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor air gap throughout the length of the runner active part at different heights of the air gap between the runner and the inductor magnetic core for motors with axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization.

  3. Distributed Adaptive Finite-Time Approach for Formation-Containment Control of Networked Nonlinear Systems Under Directed Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujuan; Song, Yongduan; Ren, Wei

    2017-07-06

    This paper presents a distributed adaptive finite-time control solution to the formation-containment problem for multiple networked systems with uncertain nonlinear dynamics and directed communication constraints. By integrating the special topology feature of the new constructed symmetrical matrix, the technical difficulty in finite-time formation-containment control arising from the asymmetrical Laplacian matrix under single-way directed communication is circumvented. Based upon fractional power feedback of the local error, an adaptive distributed control scheme is established to drive the leaders into the prespecified formation configuration in finite time. Meanwhile, a distributed adaptive control scheme, independent of the unavailable inputs of the leaders, is designed to keep the followers within a bounded distance from the moving leaders and then to make the followers enter the convex hull shaped by the formation of the leaders in finite time. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is confirmed by the simulation.

  4. Inferring processes from spatial patterns: the role of directional and non-directional forces in shaping fish larvae distribution in a freshwater lake system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bertolo

    Full Text Available Larval dispersal is a crucial factor for fish recruitment. For fishes with relatively small-bodied larvae, drift has the potential to play a more important role than active habitat selection in determining larval dispersal; therefore, we expect small-bodied fish larvae to be poorly associated with habitat characteristics. To test this hypothesis, we used as model yellow perch (Perca flavescens, whose larvae are among the smallest among freshwater temperate fishes. Thus, we analysed the habitat association of yellow perch larvae at multiple spatial scales in a large shallow fluvial lake by explicitly modelling directional (e.g. due to water currents and non-directional (e.g. due to aggregation spatial patterns. This allowed us to indirectly assess the relative roles of drift (directional process and potential habitat choice on larval dispersal. Our results give weak support to the drift hypothesis, whereas yellow perch show a strong habitat association at unexpectedly small sizes, when compared to other systems. We found consistent non-directional patterns in larvae distributions at both broad and medium spatial scales but only few significant directional components. The environmental variables alone (e.g. vegetation generally explained a significant and biologically relevant fraction of the variation in fish larvae distribution data. These results suggest that (i drift plays a minor role in this shallow system, (ii larvae display spatial patterns that only partially covary with environmental variables, and (iii larvae are associated to specific habitats. By suggesting that habitat association potentially includes an active choice component for yellow perch larvae, our results shed new light on the ecology of freshwater fish larvae and should help in building more realistic recruitment models.

  5. Distributed Fault-Tolerant Quality Of Service Routing in Hybrid Directional Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Llewellyn, II, Larry C

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a distributed fault-tolerant routing protocol (EFDCB) for QoS supporting hybrid mobile ad hoc networks with the aim of mitigating QoS disruption time when network failures occur...

  6. Direct observation of the current distribution in thin superconducting strips using magneto-optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, T.H.; Baziljevich, M.; Bratsberg, H.; Galperin, Y.; Lindelof, P.E.; Shen, Y.; Vase, P.

    1996-01-01

    Magneto-optic imaging was used for a detailed study of the flux and current distribution of a long thin strip of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ placed in a perpendicular external magnetic field. The inverse magnetic problem, i.e., that of deriving from a field map the underlying current distribution, is formulated and solved for the strip geometry. Applying the inversion to the magneto-optically found field map we find on a model-independent basis the current distribution across the strip to be in remarkable agreement with the profile predicted by the Bean model. The paper also presents results on the behavior of the Bi-doped YIG film with in-plane anisotropy which we use as field indicator, explaining why previous measurements of flux density profiles have displayed surprisingly large deviations from the expected behavior. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Data Mining on Distributed Medical Databases: Recent Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Yasemin; Dogan, Firat

    As computerization in healthcare services increase, the amount of available digital data is growing at an unprecedented rate and as a result healthcare organizations are much more able to store data than to extract knowledge from it. Today the major challenge is to transform these data into useful information and knowledge. It is important for healthcare organizations to use stored data to improve quality while reducing cost. This paper first investigates the data mining applications on centralized medical databases, and how they are used for diagnostic and population health, then introduces distributed databases. The integration needs and issues of distributed medical databases are described. Finally the paper focuses on data mining studies on distributed medical databases.

  8. Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data from current meter casts in a world wide distribution from 1970-12-06 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 9700218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data were collected using current meter casts in a world wide distribution from December 6, 1970 to October 1,...

  9. Monitoring Distributed Real-Time Systems: A Survey and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodloe, Alwyn E.; Pike, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Runtime monitors have been proposed as a means to increase the reliability of safety-critical systems. In particular, this report addresses runtime monitors for distributed hard real-time systems. This class of systems has had little attention from the monitoring community. The need for monitors is shown by discussing examples of avionic systems failure. We survey related work in the field of runtime monitoring. Several potential monitoring architectures for distributed real-time systems are presented along with a discussion of how they might be used to monitor properties of interest.

  10. Seedling establishment and distribution of direct radiation in slit-shaped openings of Norway spruce forests in the intermediate Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brang, P.

    1996-01-01

    Direct radiation is crucial for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling establishment in high-montane and subalpine spruce forests. Fisheye photography was used to estimate the daily distribution of direct radiation in small forest openings on a north-northwest and a south facing slope near Sedrun (Grisons, Switzerland). In slit-shaped openings on the north-northwest facing slope long sunflecks mostly occurred in the afternoon, when the sun shines parallel to the slit axis. This is in accordance to the silvicultural intention. However, since the stands are clumpy and therefore pervious to sunlight, the daily sunfleck distribution is fairly even notwithstanding the slit orientation, and direct radiation at noon is the dominant form of incident energy. In small circular to rectangular openings on the south facing slope direct radiation peaks at noontide. A seeding trial imitating natural seedling establishment was set in place in openings on both slopes. Based on this trial, the relations among seedling establishment, aspect, slit shape, size, and orientation are discussed for Norway spruce forests in the intermediate Alps. The directional weather factors such as radiation and precipitation can be highly influenced by slits, which is why suitable microclimate for seedling establishment can be promoted provided the slits are oriented appropriately. Slits in which the most insolated edges are oriented windward are especially favourable

  11. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu...

  12. Direct assignment of molecular vibrations via normal mode analysis of the neutron dynamic pair distribution function technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry-Petit, A. M.; Sheckelton, J. P.; McQueen, T. M.; Rebola, A. F.; Fennie, C. J.; Mourigal, M.; Valentine, M.; Drichko, N.

    2015-01-01

    For over a century, vibrational spectroscopy has enhanced the study of materials. Yet, assignment of particular molecular motions to vibrational excitations has relied on indirect methods. Here, we demonstrate that applying group theoretical methods to the dynamic pair distribution function analysis of neutron scattering data provides direct access to the individual atomic displacements responsible for these excitations. Applied to the molecule-based frustrated magnet with a potential magnetic valence-bond state, LiZn 2 Mo 3 O 8 , this approach allows direct assignment of the constrained rotational mode of Mo 3 O 13 clusters and internal modes of MoO 6 polyhedra. We anticipate that coupling this well known data analysis technique with dynamic pair distribution function analysis will have broad application in connecting structural dynamics to physical properties in a wide range of molecular and solid state systems

  13. Direct numerical solution of the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation and spatial distribution of water around hydrophobic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Doi, Junta

    1995-09-01

    The Ornstein-Zernike integral equation (OZ equation) has been used to evaluate the distribution function of solvents around solutes, but its numerical solution is difficult for molecules with a complicated shape. This paper proposes a numerical method to directly solve the OZ equation by introducing the 3D lattice. The method employs no approximation the reference interaction site model (RISM) equation employed. The method enables one to obtain the spatial distribution of spherical solvents around solutes with an arbitrary shape. Numerical accuracy is sufficient when the grid-spacing is less than 0.5 Å for solvent water. The spatial water distribution around a propane molecule is demonstrated as an example of a nonspherical hydrophobic molecule using iso-value surfaces. The water model proposed by Pratt and Chandler is used. The distribution agrees with the molecular dynamics simulation. The distribution increases offshore molecular concavities. The spatial distribution of water around 5α-cholest-2-ene (C27H46) is visualized using computer graphics techniques and a similar trend is observed.

  14. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.benayas@emt.inrs.ca [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-14

    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  15. Directing filtration to narrow molecular weight distribution of oligodextran in an enzymatic membrane reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ziran; Luo, Jianquan; Pinelo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    ) should be minimized to reduce accumulation of large oligodextran molecules on the membrane surface, which might diffuse through the membrane and thus broaden the Mw distribution of the products in the permeate. Both dextranase and dextran caused membrane irreversible fouling. The fouling caused...... product, hypersaline wastewater discharge and potential safety hazards. In this work, a novel enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) system to produce oligodextran is proposed, whereby in-situ product recovery can be manipulated to control the Mw distribution of the resulting products. Results showed...... that the membrane material played an important role in the permeate flux and transmission of oligodextran. Among the tested membranes, a 20kDa polyethersulfone (PES) membrane was found to be optimal for building up the EMR, as it successfully controlled the oligodextran Mw within the desired range with a relatively...

  16. The distribution of snow accumulation across the Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard: direct measurements and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Taurisano, Andrea; Schuler, Thomas V.; Hagen, Jon Ove; Eiken, Trond; Loe, Even; Melvold, Kjetil; Kohler, Jack

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial variability in the snow accumulation on the Austfonna ice cap in Svalbard, Norway, based on the results of field investigations conducted in the spring of 1999, 2004 and 2005. During the campaigns ground penetrating radar measurements at 500 and 800 MHz were collected along profiles, along with additional manual snow sounding and pit stratigraphy work. The analysis of the data reveals a consistent pattern in the spatial distribution of the snow accumulati...

  17. Direct imaging of dopant distribution in polycrystalline ZnO films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenzo, F.; Aebersold, A.B.; Morales-Masis, M.; Ledinský, Martin; Escrig, S.; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Alexander, D.T.L.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Fejfar, Antonín; Hébert, C.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2017), s. 7241-7248 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC16-10429J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : dopant distribution * film polarity * grain boundaries * NanoSIMS * polycrystalline film * zinc oxide Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  18. Use of indicating material for direct indication of neutrons distributed photographically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.K.; Fico, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Electrons distributed photographically can be clearly indicated by a layer, which contains a crystalline polyacetylene connection. An indicating material which contained a short chain alkylester of diindiacid, a polyacetylene polyacidic alkylamide, a polyacetylene amine salt or a diindiolurethane proved particularly suitable. The materials are used in neutron radiography. The construction of the layers is described in detail. 11 extensive examples explain possible variations. (UWI) [de

  19. Distributed coordination of heterogeneous agents using a semantic overlay network and a goal-directed graphplan planner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Luís Lopes

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a distributed coordination system that allows agents to seamlessly cooperate in problem solving by partially contributing to a problem solution and delegating the subproblems for which they do not have the required skills or knowledge to appropriate agents. The coordination mechanism relies on a dynamically built semantic overlay network that allows the agents to efficiently locate, even in very large unstructured networks, the necessary skills for a specific problem. Each agent performs partial contributions to the problem solution using a new distributed goal-directed version of the Graphplan algorithm. This new goal-directed version of the original Graphplan algorithm provides an efficient solution to the problem of "distraction", which most forward-chaining algorithms suffer from. We also discuss a set of heuristics to be used in the backward-search process of the planning algorithm in order to distribute this process amongst idle agents in an attempt to find a solution in less time. The evaluation results show that our approach is effective in building a scalable and efficient agent society capable of solving complex distributable problems.

  20. Direct observation of two dimensional trace gas distributions with an airborne Imaging DOAS instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-P. Heue

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In many investigations of tropospheric chemistry information about the two dimensional distribution of trace gases on a small scale (e.g. tens to hundreds of metres is highly desirable. An airborne instrument based on imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy has been built to map the two dimensional distribution of a series of relevant trace gases including NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2O, O4, SO2, and BrO on a scale of 100 m.

    Here we report on the first tests of the novel aircraft instrument over the industrialised South African Highveld, where large variations in NO2 column densities in the immediate vicinity of several sources e.g. power plants or steel works, were measured. The observed patterns in the trace gas distribution are interpreted with respect to flux estimates, and it is seen that the fine resolution of the measurements allows separate sources in close proximity to one another to be distinguished.

  1. Cosmic ray intensity distribution in the vertical direction to solar equator plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosaka, Toru; Mori, Satoru; Sagisaka, Shuji.

    1983-01-01

    The data of the annual variation of cosmic ray intensity measured by neutron detectors were used to study the distribution of cosmic ray intensity vertical to the solar equator plane and its long term variation. The data used were obtained at Deep River, Kiel, Kerguelen Island, McMurdo, Ottawa, and Mt. Washington. All data showed annual variation. The patterns and degree of variation obtained in northern and southern hemisphere were similar. The summation dial representation of the annual variation and semi-annual variation of cosmic ray was obtained. The inversion of annual variation in 1958 - 1959 and 1968 - 1969 corresponded to the inversion of polarity of solar pole magnetic field. The semi-annual variation showed a complex behavior. The helio-latitudial distribution of cosmic ray intensity was obtained. The asymmetric distribution in relation to the solar equator was observed in the annual variation. The northward gradient of density in 1955 - 1958 and southward gradient in 1959 - 1968 were seen. (Kato, T.)

  2. The effect of the flow direction inside the header on two-phase flow distribution in parallel vertical channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchitto, A.; Fossa, M.; Guglielmini, G.

    2012-01-01

    Uniform fluid distribution is essential for efficient operation of chemical-processing equipment such as contactors, reactors, mixers, burners and in most refrigeration equipment, where two phases are acting together. To obtain optimum distribution, proper consideration must be given to flow behaviour in the distributor, flow conditions upstream and downstream of the distributor, and the distribution requirements (fluid or phase) of the equipment. Even though the principles of single phase distribution have been well developed for more than three decades, they are frequently not taken in the right account by equipment designers when a mixture is present, and a significant fraction of process equipment consequently suffers from maldistribution. The experimental investigation presented in this paper is aimed at understanding the main mechanisms which drive the flow distribution inside a two-phase horizontal header in order to design improved distributors and to optimise the flow distribution inside compact heat exchanger. Experimentation was devoted to establish the influence of the inlet conditions and of the channel/distributor geometry on the phase/mass distribution into parallel vertical channels. The study is carried out with air–water mixtures and it is based on the measurement of component flow rates in individual channels and on pressure drops across the distributor. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2–1.2 and 1.5–16.5 m/s, respectively. In order to control the main flow direction inside the header, different fitting devices were tested; the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header has confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of

  3. Determinants of foreign direct investment in Tunisia: Empirical assessment based on an application of the autoregressive distributed Lag model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teheni El Ghak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the changing economic and political environment in Tunisia led to a renewed interest on the drivers of foreign direct investment, given its potential important gains. In this study, we investigated the impact of various factors over the period 1980-2012. In doing this, three categories of determinants were considered: economic, political and sociocultural variables. Empirical findings drawn from the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach show that variation in foreign direct investment inflow in the short-run and long-run is affected by the majority of variables considered, except exchange rate, urban population and gross domestic savings. As a matter of policy, it is essential that government should continue its efforts to create a macroeconomic environment which is attractive to foreign direct investment.

  4. Assessment of fragment projection hazard: probability distributions for the initial direction of fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Gubinelli, Gianfilippo; Landucci, Gabriele; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-08-30

    The evaluation of the initial direction and velocity of the fragments generated in the fragmentation of a vessel due to internal pressure is an important information in the assessment of damage caused by fragments, in particular within the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of chemical and process plants. In the present study an approach is proposed to the identification and validation of probability density functions (pdfs) for the initial direction of the fragments. A detailed review of a large number of past accidents provided the background information for the validation procedure. A specific method was developed for the validation of the proposed pdfs. Validated pdfs were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal angles of projection and for the initial velocity of the fragments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct Estimation of Power Distribution in Reactors for Nuclear Thermal Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Tunc; Miller, Don W.; Burghelea, Andrei

    2004-02-01

    A recently proposed constant temperature power sensor (CTPS) has the capability to directly measure the local power deposition rate in nuclear reactor cores proposed for space thermal propulsion. Such a capability reduces the uncertainties in the estimated power peaking factors and hence increases the reliability of the nuclear engine. The CTPS operation is sensitive to the changes in the local thermal conditions. A procedure is described for the automatic on-line calibration of the sensor through estimation of changes in thermal .conditions.

  6. Estimating hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation for the compilation of solar radiation distribution maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyama, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for estimating hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation. The essence of the method is the estimation of two important factors related to solar radiation, atmospheric transmittance and a dimensionless parameter, using empirical and physical equations and data from general meteorological observation stations. An equation for atmospheric transmittance of direct solar radiation and a dimensionless parameter representing diffuse solar radiation are developed. The equation is based on multiple regression analysis and uses three parameters as explanatory variates: calculated hourly extraterrestrial solar radiation on a horizontal plane, observed hourly sunshine duration and hourly precipitation as observed at a local meteorological observatory. The dimensionless parameter for estimating a diffuse solar radiation is then determined by linear least squares using observed hourly solar radiation at a local meteorological observatory. The estimated root mean square error (RMSE) of hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation is about 0.0-0.2 MJ¥m(-2)¥h(-1) in each mean period. The RMSE of the ten-day and monthly means of these quantities is about 0.0-0.2 MJ¥m(-2)¥h(-1), based on comparisons with AMeDAS station data, located at a distance of 6 km

  7. A Joint Optimal Decision on Shipment Size and Carbon Reduction under Direct Shipment and Peddling Distribution Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Min

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much research has focused on lowering carbon emissions in logistics. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on the joint shipment size and carbon reduction decisions by developing novel models for distribution systems under direct shipment and peddling distribution strategies. Unlike the literature that has simply investigated the effects of carbon costs on operational decisions, we address how to reduce carbon emissions and logistics costs by adjusting shipment size and making an optimal decision on carbon reduction investment. An optimal decision is made by analyzing the distribution cost including not only logistics and carbon trading costs but also the cost for adjusting carbon emission factors. No research has explicitly considered the two sources of carbon emissions, but we develop a model covering the difference in managing carbon emissions from transportation and storage. Structural analysis guides how to determine an optimal shipment size and emission factors in a closed form. Moreover, we analytically prove the possibility of reducing the distribution cost and carbon emissions at the same time. Numerical analysis follows validation of the results and demonstrates some interesting findings on carbon and distribution cost reduction.

  8. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Fibreoptic distributed temperature sensor with spectral filtration by directional fibre couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.; Babin, Sergei A.; Shelemba, Ivan S.

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a Raman-based all-fibre temperature sensor utilising a pulsed erbium fibre laser. The sensor is made of a standard single-mode telecom fibre, SMF-28, and includes a number of directional couplers as band-pass filters. The temperature profile along a 7-km fibreoptic line is measured with an accuracy of 2oC and a spatial resolution of 10 m. In data processing, we take into account the difference in attenuation between the spectral components of the backscatter signal.

  9. Direct simulation of groundwater transit-time distributions using the reservoir theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, David; Perrochet, Pierre

    Groundwater transit times are of interest for the management of water resources, assessment of pollution from non-point sources, and quantitative dating of groundwaters by the use of environmental isotopes. The age of water is the time water has spent in an aquifer since it has entered the system, whereas the transit time is the age of water as it exits the system. Water at the outlet of an aquifer is a mixture of water elements with different transit times, as a consequence of the different flow-line lengths. In this paper, transit-time distributions are calculated by coupling two existing methods, the reservoir theory and a recent age-simulation method. Based on the derivation of the cumulative age distribution over the whole domain, the approach accounts for the whole hydrogeological framework. The method is tested using an analytical example and its applicability illustrated for a regional layered aquifer. Results show the asymmetry and multimodality of the transit-time distribution even in advection-only conditions, due to the aquifer geometry and to the velocity-field heterogeneity. Résumé Les temps de transit des eaux souterraines sont intéressants à connaître pour gérer l'évaluation des ressources en eau dans le cas de pollution à partir de sources non ponctuelles, et aussi pour dater quantitativement les eaux souterraines au moyen des isotopes du milieu. L'âge de l'eau est le temps qu'elle a passé dans un aquifère depuis qu'elle est entrée dans le système, alors que le temps de transit est l'âge de l'eau au moment où elle quitte le système. L'eau à la sortie d'un aquifère est un mélange d'eaux possédant différents temps de transit, du fait des longueurs différentes des lignes de courant suivies. Dans ce papier, les distributions des temps de transit sont calculées en couplant deux méthodes, la théorie du réservoir et une méthode récente de simulation des âges. Basée sur la dérivation de la distribution cumulées des âges sur

  10. Experimental approaches for distribution and behavior of water in PEMFC under flow direction and differential pressure using neutron imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, TaeJoo; Kim, JongRok; Sim, CheulMuu; Lee, SeungWook; Kaviany, Massound; Son, SangYoung; Kim, MooHwan

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, we prepared a 3-parallel serpentine single PEMFC which has an active area of 25 cm 2 and a flow channel cross section of 1x1 mm. Distribution and transport of water in an operating PEMFC were observed by varying the flow directions (co-current and counter-current) in each channel and the differential pressures (100, 200, 300 kPa) applied between the anode and cathode channels. This investigation was performed at the neutron imaging facility at the NIST of which the collimation ratio and neutron fluence rate are 600, 7.2x10 6 n/s/cm 2 , respectively. Neutron image was continuously recorded by an amorphous silicon flat panel detector every 1 s during the operation of the fuel cell. It has been observed that the differential pressure affects the total amount of water produced while the flow direction affects the spatial distribution of water when the neutron images were analyzed for several different operating conditions. More specifically, the amount of water production in the fuel cell increased as the partial pressure increases at a given current density and the water production was more uniform for the counter current than the co-current case. It is shown that the neutron imaging technique is a powerful tool to visualize the PEMFC. The information on the water distribution and behavior at an operating PEMFC helps improve the efficiency of PEMFC.

  11. Minimal-Approximation-Based Distributed Consensus Tracking of a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Control Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yoo, Sung Jin

    2017-03-28

    A minimal-approximation-based distributed adaptive consensus tracking approach is presented for strict-feedback multiagent systems with unknown heterogeneous nonlinearities and control directions under a directed network. Existing approximation-based consensus results for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems in lower-triangular form have used multiple function approximators in each local controller to approximate unmatched nonlinearities of each follower. Thus, as the follower's order increases, the number of the approximators used in its local controller increases. However, the proposed approach employs only one function approximator to construct the local controller of each follower regardless of the order of the follower. The recursive design methodology using a new error transformation is derived for the proposed minimal-approximation-based design. Furthermore, a bounding lemma on parameters of Nussbaum functions is presented to handle the unknown control direction problem in the minimal-approximation-based distributed consensus tracking framework and the stability of the overall closed-loop system is rigorously analyzed in the Lyapunov sense.

  12. Fuel-air mixing and distribution in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Bracco, F. V.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for flows and combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines is applied to a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine to identify the main parameters that control its burning rate. It is concluded that the orientation of the six sprays of the main injector with respect to the air stream is important to enhance vaporization and the production of flammable mixture. In particular, no spray should be in the wake of any other spray. It was predicted that if such a condition is respected, the indicated efficiency would increase by some 6 percent at higher loads and 2 percent at lower loads. The computations led to the design of a new injector tip that has since yielded slightly better efficiency gains than predicted.

  13. Direct comparison between the angular distributions of the erythemal and eye-damaging UV irradiances: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, P; Parisi, A V

    2011-02-07

    Several broadband ultraviolet (UV) radiation angular distribution investigations have been previously presented. As the biologically damaging effectiveness of UV radiation is known to be wavelength dependent, it is necessary to expand this research into the distribution of the spectral UV. UV radiation is also susceptible to Rayleigh and Mie scattering processes, both of which are completely wavelength dependent. Additionally, the majority of previous measurements detailing the biologically damaging effect of spectral UV radiation have been oriented with respect to the horizontal plane or in a plane directed towards the sun (sun-normal), with the irradiance weighted against action spectra formulated specifically for human skin and tissue. However, the human body consists of very few horizontal or sun-normal surfaces. Extending the previous research by measuring the distribution of the spectral irradiance across the sky for the complete terrestrial solar UV waveband and weighting it against erythemal, photoconjunctivital and photokeratital action spectra allowed for the analysis of the differences between the biologically effective irradiance (UV(BE)) values intercepted at different orientations and the effect of scattering processes upon the homogeneity of these UV(BE) distributions. It was established that under the local atmospheric environment, the distribution profile of the UV(BE) for each biological response was anisotropic, with the highest intensities generally intercepted at inclination angles situated between the horizontal and vertical planes along orientations closely coinciding with the sun-normal. A finding from this was that the angular distributions of the erythemal UV(BE) and the photoconjunctivital UV(BE) were different, due to the differential scattering between the shorter and longer UV wavelengths within the atmosphere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NRC Information No. 88-86: Operating with multiple grounds in direct current distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During recent NRC maintenance inspections at Quad Cities, Oconee, and D.C. Cook power reactor facilities, it was found that plants had been operating with multiple grounds in the dc distribution systems for extended periods. Specific examples are described. Most nuclear power plant dc systems are two-wire ungrounded, combination battery/charger systems equipped with ground detection. Typical ground detection system features include a remote annunciator and a local indicator and/or recorder. Ground detectors are incorporated in the dc system so that if a single ground point does occur, immediate steps can be taken to clear the ground fault from the system. Failure to respond to a single ground will mask subsequent grounds. Multiple grounds can cause the indiscriminate operation of equipment, which may have safety consequences. Grounds can cause control circuit fuses to fail and can render important safety equipment inoperable as previously described. Furthermore, batteries have a designed capacity to supply power during a station blackout condition, and this capacity can be affected by the presence of unanalyzed loads in the form of multiple grounds. It is recognized that troubleshooting and finding grounds on a dc system are difficult tasks that may affect plant operation. The licensees previously mentioned have reviewed their designs and conditions for potential impact on safety system operability and have taken corrective actions to minimize the effect of grounds

  15. Effect of feed flow pattern on the distribution of permeate fluxes in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane

    2017-05-31

    The current study aims to highlight the effect of flow pattern on the variations of permeate fluxes over the membrane surface during desalination in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) flat module. To do so, a three dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model with embedded pore scale calculations is implemented to predict flow, heat and mass transfer in the DCMD module. Model validation is carried out in terms of average permeate fluxes with experimental data of seawater desalination using two commercially available PTFE membranes. Average permeate fluxes agree within 6% and less with experimental values without fitting parameters. Simulation results show that the distribution of permeate fluxes and seawater salinity over the membrane surface are strongly dependent on momentum and heat transport and that temperature and concentration polarization follow closely the flow distribution. The analysis reveals a drastic effect of recirculation loops and dead zones on module performance and recommendations to improve MD flat module design are drawn consequently.

  16. Crustal Density Variation Along the San Andreas Fault Controls Its Secondary Faults Distribution and Dip Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Moresi, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    The San Andreas fault forms a dominant component of the transform boundary between the Pacific and the North American plate. The density and strength of the complex accretionary margin is very heterogeneous. Based on the density structure of the lithosphere in the SW United States, we utilize the 3D finite element thermomechanical, viscoplastic model (Underworld2) to simulate deformation in the San Andreas Fault system. The purpose of the model is to examine the role of a big bend in the existing geometry. In particular, the big bend of the fault is an initial condition of in our model. We first test the strength of the fault by comparing the surface principle stresses from our numerical model with the in situ tectonic stress. The best fit model indicates the model with extremely weak fault (friction coefficient 200 kg/m3) than surrounding blocks. In contrast, the Mojave block is detected to find that it has lost its mafic lower crust by other geophysical surveys. Our model indicates strong strain localization at the jointer boundary between two blocks, which is an analogue for the Garlock fault. High density lower crust material of the Great Valley tends to under-thrust beneath the Transverse Range near the big bend. This motion is likely to rotate the fault plane from the initial vertical direction to dip to the southwest. For the straight section, north to the big bend, the fault is nearly vertical. The geometry of the fault plane is consistent with field observations.

  17. Evolution of a Directional Wave Spectrum in a 3D Marginal Ice Zone with Random Floe Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through a realistic marginal ice zone (MIZ), where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by coherent conservative wave scattering effects. Field experiments conducted by Wadhams et al. (1986) in the Greenland Sea generated important data on wave attenuation in the MIZ and, particularly, on whether the wave spectrum spreads directionally or collimates with distance from the ice edge. The data suggest that angular isotropy, arising from multiple scattering by ice floes, occurs close to the edge and thenceforth dominates wave propagation throughout the MIZ. Although several attempts have been made to replicate this finding theoretically, including by the use of numerical models, none have confronted this problem in a 3D MIZ with fully randomised floe distribution properties. We construct such a model by subdividing the discontinuous ice cover into adjacent infinite slabs of finite width parallel to the ice edge. Each slab contains an arbitrary (but finite) number of circular ice floes with randomly distributed properties. Ice floes are modeled as thin elastic plates with uniform thickness and finite draught. We consider a directional wave spectrum with harmonic time dependence incident on the MIZ from the open ocean, defined as a continuous superposition of plane waves traveling at different angles. The scattering problem within each slab is then solved using Graf's interaction theory for an arbitrary incident directional plane wave spectrum. Using an appropriate integral representation of the Hankel function of the first kind (see Cincotti et al., 1993), we map the outgoing circular wave field from each floe on the slab boundaries into a directional spectrum of plane waves, which characterizes the slab reflected and transmitted fields. Discretizing the angular spectrum, we can obtain a scattering matrix for each slab. Standard recursive

  18. Direct observation of the hydrogen peak in the energy distribution of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, D.; Toekesi, K.; Berenyi, Z.; Toth, J.; Koever, L.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Observation of the hydrogen peak is either challenging or impossible task for the conventional electron spectroscopy. Hydrogen was observed earlier in electron scattering experiments using transmission geometry and formvar film. In this work we show an alternative way for the detection of hydrogen peak analyzing the spectra of elastically backscattered electrons from polyethylene ((CH 2 ) n ). We take advantage of the fact that the elastic peak from polyethylene split into carbon and hydrogen components. The energy of the elastically scattered electrons is shifted from the nominal values due to the energy transfer between the primary electron and the target atoms (recoil effect). Due to the motion of the scattering atoms, a broadering of the energy width of the spectra takes place. We performed Monte Carlo simulation for 2 keV electrons penetrated and elastically backscattered from polyethylene sample. In our calculations both the elastic and inelastic scattering events were taken into account. We further assume that the thermal motion of the target atoms follows the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution. After each elastic scattering the recoil energy was calculated according to ref Fig. 1 shows the geometric configuration used in the calculation. The initial angle of incident beam (θ) was 50 deg. Fig. 2 shows the gray scale plot of the intensity of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene. The separation between the carbon and hydrogen peaks is clearly seen. Our results show that the multiple electron scattering causes only minor changes in the energy shifts and broadenings of elastic peaks. Moreover, our simulations are in good agreement with our experimental observations. (author)

  19. Direct observation of radial distribution change during tensile deformation of metallic glass by high energy X-ray diffraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, Toshio, E-mail: nasu@kekexafs.kj.yamagata-u.ac.j [Faculty of Education, Arts and Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata, 990-8560 (Japan); Sasaki, Motokatsu [Faculty of Education, Arts and Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata, 990-8560 (Japan); Usuki, Takeshi; Sekine, Mai [Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Takigawa, Yorinobu; Higashi, Kenji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Harima Science Garden City, Sayo town, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Sakurai, Masaki; Wei Zhang; Inoue, Akihisa [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-08-26

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the micro-mechanism of deformation behavior of metallic glasses. We report the results of direct observations of short-range and medium-range structural change during tensile deformation of metallic glasses by high energy X-ray diffraction method. Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} and Ni{sub 30}Zr{sub 70} metallic glass samples in the ribbon shape (1.5 mm width and 25 mum) were made by using rapid quenching method. Tensile deformation added to the sample was made by using special equipment adopted for measuring the high energy X-ray diffraction. The peaks in pair distribution function g(r) for Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} and N{sub 30}iZr{sub 70} metallic glasses move zigzag into front and into rear during tensile deformation. These results of direct observation on atomic distribution change for Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} and Ni{sub 30}Zr{sub 70} metallic glass ribbons during tensile deformation suggest that the micro-relaxations occur.

  20. SU-F-BRA-06: Dose Distributions for the CivaSheet Pd-103 Directional Brachytherapy Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, MJ [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A flexible polymer membrane (CivaSheet) has been developed by CivaTech Oncology, Inc. (Research Triangle Park, NC) for permanent brachytherapy. Distributed throughout the array are small plastic disks containing Pd-103 and gold foil shielding on one side to provide a directional dose distribution and facilitate imaging. This study evaluated dosimetry for the CivaSheet. Methods: Manufacturer-provided dimensional and compositional information for the device were compared to physical samples for validation of design information, then entered into the MCNP6 radiation transport code for dosimetry simulations. Three device sizes (6×6, 6×12, or 6×18 disk-arrays) were simulated as the membrane can be custom-sized preceding surgical placement. Dose to water was estimated with 0.01 cm resolution from the surface to 10 cm on both sides of the device. Because this is a novel device with calibration methods under development, results were normalized using DVHs to provide 90% prescription coverage to a plane positioned 0.5 cm from the front surfaces. This same normalization was used for creating isodose distributions. Results: Planar dose distributions of flat CivaSheets were relatively homogeneous with acceptable dose uniformity variations. Differences in the results between the differently sized CivaSheets were not significant. At 0.5 mm, 87% of the target volume was within the therapeutic dose range. Dose hotspots on the CivaSheet forward surfaces were directly above the disks. However, dose hotspots on the rear-facing surfaces were positioned between the disks. Doses in contact with the front surface were similar to those observed for currently available brachytherapy sources. Maximum doses that occurred on the rear surface were approximately 55 times lower than the dose on the front surface. Conclusion: Monte Carlo calculations validated the directional capabilities and advantageous dosimetry of the new Pd-103 brachytherapy device. It appears feasible to re

  1. Direct observation of cation distributions of ideal inverse spinel CoFe2O4 nanofibres and correlated magnetic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Xue

    2017-04-25

    Low-dimensional spinel ferrites have recently attracted increasing attention because their tunable magnetic properties make them attractive candidates as spin-filtering tunnel barriers in spintronic devices and as magnetic components in artificial multiferroic heterostructures. Although we know that the distribution of cations (Fe3+ and Co2+) in a spinel structure governs its magnetic properties, their distribution in the so-called ideal inverse spinel structure of a ferrite, CoFe2O4, has not yet been imaged with sub-ångstrom resolution. In this work, we fill this gap in evidence by reporting a direct observation of the distribution of cations in an ideal inverse spinel structure of CoFe2O4 nanofibres using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ordering of Co2+ and Fe3+ at the octahedral sites imaged along either [001], [011] or [-112] orientation was identified as 1 : 1, in accordance with the ideal inverse spinel structure. The saturation magnetisation calculated based on the crystal structure as determined from the TEM image is in good agreement with that measured experimentally on the spinel CoFe2O4 nanofibres, further confirming results from TEM.

  2. Direct calculation of unambiguous electron-density distributions of Langmuir-Blodgett films normal to the membrane plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieling, M. von; Bradaczek, H.

    1990-01-01

    In regard to X-ray diffraction, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films consisting of lipid bilayers represent a 'one-dimensional crystal' with a very small number of unit cells in the direction of stacking. Such bounded systems yield X-ray diffraction diagrams which, in certain respects, contain more information than those of the conventional effectively infinite single crystals. This additional information consists of the profiles of the broadened reflections and their dislocation from the reciprocal-lattice points. These profiles are specific for each different structure and hence enable the direct calculation of unambiguous electron-density distributions from a single set of intensity data. At first, the Q function (the generalized Patterson function), i.e. the distance statistics of the structure sought after is calculated from the intensity data. Thereafter, the unambiguous convolution square root of the Q function must be determined, which is identical to the unknown electron-density distribution. For this purpose two mathematically completely different methods were established and compared. They were applied to diffraction patterns of Langmuir-Blodgett films of simple synthetic lipids with characteristic molecular subunits and showed identical results within the experimental resolution. This verifies the structures and the methods to calculate them. Furthermore, all features of the simple structures were compatible with the expectations. All one-dimensional electron-density distributions showed the common features of lipid bilayers. The characteristic molecular subunits can be recognized and reveal some interesting details. In general, they yield information about orientation, conformation and localization of molecular subunits and membrane components. (orig.)

  3. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  4. TH-AB-201-05: Determining the Direction Distribution of the Primary Radiation for a Cyberknife-M6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzen, D; Schmidhalter, D; Volken, W; Mackeprang, P-H; Malthaner, M; K Fix, M; Manser, P; C Zanella, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation protection regulatory differentiates between primary and scatter radiation. Whereas for conventional clinical linear accelerators the solid angle for primary radiation is planar, the Cyberknife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) may point its beam in all spatial directions. In order to be able to judge on radiation protection calculations for a Cyberknife-M6 vault, the direction distribution for delivered plans was evaluated based on clinical experiences. Methods: The log-files of 121 delivered patient treatment plans were exported, divided into cranial and extra-cranial treatments and the delivered monitor units (MU) together with the corresponding beam directions were analyzed. This MU-weighted spatial distribution was then projected to a 9.5 × 5.9 × 3.9 m 3 vault, generating an “intensity map” using a binning of 50 × 50 cm 2 . The factor of direction (FOD) is reported as a fraction of the total applied MUs to the walls, ceiling and floor in the perspective of a patient lying in head-first-supine position on the couch. In this study, the term intFOD refers to the integral FOD and maxFOD refers to the maximal FOD for a single bin. Results: For all kind of treatments and collimators, intFOD and maxFOD for the wall behind the patient’s head is 0.0. The intFOD for the floor varies between 0.65 and 0.74. For the ceiling, maxFOD is 0.002 and 0.0 for cranial and extra-cranial cases, respectively. The intFOD for the wall at the patient’s feet, is 0.094 for cranial and 0.005 for extra-cranial cases. There is nearly no difference between the maxFOD of the right and left wall for cranial cases, whereas for extra-cranial cases these numbers differ by a factor of 1.75. Conclusion: The varying FODs for the Cyberknife were quantified based on delivered treatment plans. These findings are helpful regarding the design of Cyberknife vaults.

  5. Global direct pressures on biodiversity by large-scale metal mining: Spatial distribution and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, Diego I; Bringezu, Stefan; Schaldach, Rüdiger

    2016-09-15

    Biodiversity loss is widely recognized as a serious global environmental change process. While large-scale metal mining activities do not belong to the top drivers of such change, these operations exert or may intensify pressures on biodiversity by adversely changing habitats, directly and indirectly, at local and regional scales. So far, analyses of global spatial dynamics of mining and its burden on biodiversity focused on the overlap between mines and protected areas or areas of high value for conservation. However, it is less clear how operating metal mines are globally exerting pressure on zones of different biodiversity richness; a similar gap exists for unmined but known mineral deposits. By using vascular plants' diversity as a proxy to quantify overall biodiversity, this study provides a first examination of the global spatial distribution of mines and deposits for five key metals across different biodiversity zones. The results indicate that mines and deposits are not randomly distributed, but concentrated within intermediate and high diversity zones, especially bauxite and silver. In contrast, iron, gold, and copper mines and deposits are closer to a more proportional distribution while showing a high concentration in the intermediate biodiversity zone. Considering the five metals together, 63% and 61% of available mines and deposits, respectively, are located in intermediate diversity zones, comprising 52% of the global land terrestrial surface. 23% of mines and 20% of ore deposits are located in areas of high plant diversity, covering 17% of the land. 13% of mines and 19% of deposits are in areas of low plant diversity, comprising 31% of the land surface. Thus, there seems to be potential for opening new mines in areas of low biodiversity in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct and indirect costs for adverse drug events identified in medical records across care levels, and their distribution among payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanaelsson, Jennie; Hakkarainen, Katja M; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K; Gyllensten, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) cause considerable costs in hospitals. However, little is known about costs caused by ADEs outside hospitals, effects on productivity, and how the costs are distributed among payers. To describe the direct and indirect costs caused by ADEs, and their distribution among payers. Furthermore, to describe the distribution of patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity caused by ADEs according to socio-economic characteristics. In a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county, prevalence-based costs for ADEs were calculated. Two different methods were used: 1) based on resource use judged to be caused by ADEs, and 2) as costs attributable to ADEs by comparing costs among individuals with ADEs to costs among matched controls. Payers of costs caused by ADEs were identified in medical records among those with ADEs (n = 596), and costs caused to individual patients were described by socio-economic characteristics. Costs for resource use caused by ADEs were €505 per patient with ADEs (95% confidence interval €345-665), of which 38% were indirect costs. Compared to matched controls, the costs attributable to ADEs were €1631, of which €410 were indirect costs. The local health authorities paid 58% of the costs caused by ADEs. Women had higher productivity loss than men (€426 vs. €109, p = 0.018). Out-of-pocket costs displaced a larger proportion of the disposable income among low-income earners than higher income earners (0.7% vs. 0.2%-0.3%). We used two methods to identify costs for ADEs, both identifying indirect costs as an important component of the overall costs for ADEs. Although the largest payers of costs caused by ADEs were the local health authorities responsible for direct costs, employers and patients costs for lost productivity contributed substantially. Our results indicate inequalities in costs caused by ADEs, by sex and income. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nascent energy distribution of the Criegee intermediate CH2OO from direct dynamics calculations of primary ozonide dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, Mark; Ma, Yong-Tao; Jasper, Ahren W.; Harding, Lawrence B.; Hase, William L.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2018-05-01

    Ozonolysis produces chemically activated carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates, CIs) that are either stabilized or decompose directly. This branching has an important impact on atmospheric chemistry. Prior theoretical studies have employed statistical models for energy partitioning to the CI arising from dissociation of the initially formed primary ozonide (POZ). Here, we used direct dynamics simulations to explore this partitioning for decomposition of c-C2H4O3, the POZ in ethylene ozonolysis. A priori estimates for the overall stabilization probability were then obtained by coupling the direct dynamics results with master equation simulations. Trajectories were initiated at the concerted cycloreversion transition state, as well as the second transition state of a stepwise dissociation pathway, both leading to a CI (H2COO) and formaldehyde (H2CO). The resulting CI energy distributions were incorporated in master equation simulations of CI decomposition to obtain channel-specific stabilized CI (sCI) yields. Master equation simulations of POZ formation and decomposition, based on new high-level electronic structure calculations, were used to predict yields for the different POZ decomposition channels. A non-negligible contribution of stepwise POZ dissociation was found, and new mechanistic aspects of this pathway were elucidated. By combining the trajectory-based channel-specific sCI yields with the channel branching fractions, an overall sCI yield of (48 ± 5)% was obtained. Non-statistical energy release was shown to measurably affect sCI formation, with statistical models predicting significantly lower overall sCI yields (˜30%). Within the range of experimental literature values (35%-54%), our trajectory-based calculations favor those clustered at the upper end of the spectrum.

  8. Nascent energy distribution of the Criegee intermediate CH2OO from direct dynamics calculations of primary ozonide dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, Mark; Ma, Yong-Tao; Jasper, Ahren W; Harding, Lawrence B; Hase, William L; Klippenstein, Stephen J

    2018-05-07

    Ozonolysis produces chemically activated carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates, CIs) that are either stabilized or decompose directly. This branching has an important impact on atmospheric chemistry. Prior theoretical studies have employed statistical models for energy partitioning to the CI arising from dissociation of the initially formed primary ozonide (POZ). Here, we used direct dynamics simulations to explore this partitioning for decomposition of c-C 2 H 4 O 3 , the POZ in ethylene ozonolysis. A priori estimates for the overall stabilization probability were then obtained by coupling the direct dynamics results with master equation simulations. Trajectories were initiated at the concerted cycloreversion transition state, as well as the second transition state of a stepwise dissociation pathway, both leading to a CI (H 2 COO) and formaldehyde (H 2 CO). The resulting CI energy distributions were incorporated in master equation simulations of CI decomposition to obtain channel-specific stabilized CI (sCI) yields. Master equation simulations of POZ formation and decomposition, based on new high-level electronic structure calculations, were used to predict yields for the different POZ decomposition channels. A non-negligible contribution of stepwise POZ dissociation was found, and new mechanistic aspects of this pathway were elucidated. By combining the trajectory-based channel-specific sCI yields with the channel branching fractions, an overall sCI yield of (48 ± 5)% was obtained. Non-statistical energy release was shown to measurably affect sCI formation, with statistical models predicting significantly lower overall sCI yields (∼30%). Within the range of experimental literature values (35%-54%), our trajectory-based calculations favor those clustered at the upper end of the spectrum.

  9. Size distribution, directional source contributions and pollution status of PM from Chengdu, China during a long-term sampling campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Liang; Tian, Ying-Ze; Ma, Tong; Song, Dan-Lin; Zhou, Lai-Dong; Han, Bo; Feng, Yin-Chang; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-06-01

    Long-term and synchronous monitoring of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was conducted in Chengdu in China from 2007 to 2013. The levels, variations, compositions and size distributions were investigated. The sources were quantified by two-way and three-way receptor models (PMF2, ME2-2way and ME2-3way). Consistent results were found: the primary source categories contributed 63.4% (PMF2), 64.8% (ME2-2way) and 66.8% (ME2-3way) to PM 10 , and contributed 60.9% (PMF2), 65.5% (ME2-2way) and 61.0% (ME2-3way) to PM 2.5 . Secondary sources contributed 31.8% (PMF2), 32.9% (ME2-2way) and 31.7% (ME2-3way) to PM 10 , and 35.0% (PMF2), 33.8% (ME2-2way) and 36.0% (ME2-3way) to PM 2.5 . The size distribution of source categories was estimated better by the ME2-3way method. The three-way model can simultaneously consider chemical species, temporal variability and PM sizes, while a two-way model independently computes datasets of different sizes. A method called source directional apportionment (SDA) was employed to quantify the contributions from various directions for each source category. Crustal dust from east-north-east (ENE) contributed the highest to both PM 10 (12.7%) and PM 2.5 (9.7%) in Chengdu, followed by the crustal dust from south-east (SE) for PM 10 (9.8%) and secondary nitrate & secondary organic carbon from ENE for PM 2.5 (9.6%). Source contributions from different directions are associated with meteorological conditions, source locations and emission patterns during the sampling period. These findings and methods provide useful tools to better understand PM pollution status and to develop effective pollution control strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Theory for site-site pair distribution functions of molecular fluids. II. Approximations for the Percus--Yevick site-site direct correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1977-01-01

    A theory for site-site pair distribution functions of molecular fluids is derived from the Ornstein-Zernike equation. Atom-atom pair distribution functions of this theory which were obtained by using different approximations for the Percus-Yevick site-site direct correlation functions are compared

  11. Energy and direction distribution of neutrons in workplace fields: Implication of the results from the EVIDOS project for the set-up of simulated workplace fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Lacoste, V.; Reginatto, M.; Zimbal, A.

    2007-01-01

    Workplace neutron spectra from nuclear facilities obtained within the European project EVIDOS are compared with those of the simulated workplace fields CANEL and SIGMA and fields set-up with radionuclide sources at the PTB. Contributions of neutrons to ambient dose equivalent and personal dose equivalent are given in three energy intervals (for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons) together with the corresponding direction distribution, characterised by three different types of distributions (isotropic, weakly directed and directed). The comparison shows that none of the simulated workplace fields investigated here can model all the characteristics of the fields observed at power reactors. (authors)

  12. First Directly Retrieved Global Distribution of Tropospheric Column Ozone from GOME: Comparison with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sioris, Christopher E.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Martin, Randall V.; Fu, Tzung-May; Logan, Jennifer A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Palmer, Paul I.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We present the first directly retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements during December 1996 to November 1997. The retrievals clearly show signals due to convection, biomass burning, stratospheric influence, pollution, and transport. They are capable of capturing the spatiotemporal evolution of tropospheric column ozone in response to regional or short time-scale events such as the 1997-1998 El Nino event and a 10-20 DU change within a few days. The global distribution of tropospheric column ozone displays the well-known wave-1 pattern in the tropics, nearly zonal bands of enhanced tropospheric column ozone of 36-48 DU at 20degS-30degS during the austral spring and at 25degN-45degN during the boreal spring and summer, low tropospheric column ozone of 33 DU at some northern high-latitudes during the spring. Simulation from a chemical transport model corroborates most of the above structures, with small biases of <+/-5 DU and consistent seasonal cycles in most regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. However, significant positive biases of 5-20 DU occur in some northern tropical and subtropical regions such as the Middle East during summer. Comparison of GOME with monthly-averaged Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) tropospheric column ozone for these regions usually shows good consistency within 1 a standard deviations and retrieval uncertainties. Some biases can be accounted for by inadequate sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone, the different spatiotemporal sampling and the spatiotemporal variations in tropospheric column ozone.

  13. Direct reconstruction of the source intensity distribution of a clinical linear accelerator using a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaconstadopoulos, P; Levesque, I R; Maglieri, R; Seuntjens, J

    2016-02-07

    Direct determination of the source intensity distribution of clinical linear accelerators is still a challenging problem for small field beam modeling. Current techniques most often involve special equipment and are difficult to implement in the clinic. In this work we present a maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) approach to the source reconstruction problem utilizing small fields and a simple experimental set-up. The MLEM algorithm iteratively ray-traces photons from the source plane to the exit plane and extracts corrections based on photon fluence profile measurements. The photon fluence profiles were determined by dose profile film measurements in air using a high density thin foil as build-up material and an appropriate point spread function (PSF). The effect of other beam parameters and scatter sources was minimized by using the smallest field size ([Formula: see text] cm(2)). The source occlusion effect was reproduced by estimating the position of the collimating jaws during this process. The method was first benchmarked against simulations for a range of typical accelerator source sizes. The sources were reconstructed with an accuracy better than 0.12 mm in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to the respective electron sources incident on the target. The estimated jaw positions agreed within 0.2 mm with the expected values. The reconstruction technique was also tested against measurements on a Varian Novalis Tx linear accelerator and compared to a previously commissioned Monte Carlo model. The reconstructed FWHM of the source agreed within 0.03 mm and 0.11 mm to the commissioned electron source in the crossplane and inplane orientations respectively. The impact of the jaw positioning, experimental and PSF uncertainties on the reconstructed source distribution was evaluated with the former presenting the dominant effect.

  14. Energy efficient direct current distribution in commercially used buildings with smart power link to the AC distribution grid; Energieeffiziente Gleichstromverteilung in kommerziell genutzten Gebaeuden mit intelligenter Kopplung zum Niederspannungsnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Roland [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Boeke, Ulrich [Philips Group Innovation-Research, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maurer, Wilhelm [Infineon Technologies AG, Neubiberg (Germany); Zeltner, Stefan [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie (IISB), Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The joint undertaking ''Direct Current Components and Grid'' (DCC+G) takes on the strategic challenge to reduce energy consumption and thus the reduction of CO{sub 2} emission caused by commercially used buildings through research in the fields of Direct Current distribution at a voltage level of {+-} 380 V. The major energy consumers in commercially used buildings, ready for the ''net-zero-energy'' goal of the European Union, are heat pumps for heating, ventilation systems, air conditioning units, cooling units (HVAC), lighting systems and information technology. All these components and subsystems have in common, that the most efficient versions would benefit from a direct current supply. Additionally the local producers of electric energy like photovoltaic systems usually generate DC-current. A Direct Current distribution grid within buildings would avoid the repeating conversion from DC and AC an vice versa and therefore reduce conversion losses. Important components of a direct current distribution grid are central, smart, high efficient, bidirectional rectifiers replacing the large number of small, less efficient rectifiers used today. Such large central rectifiers units could additionally be used to actively improve the power quality of the smart local AC distribution grid. One major part of the described activities is to show energy savings of about 5 % of electrical energy with a 2-phase direct current distribution grid using a voltage level of {+-} 380 V. (orig.)

  15. Invertebrate distribution patterns and river typology for the implementation of the water framework directive in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadet C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Europe’s Water Framework Directive provided compelling reasons for developing tools for the biological assessment of freshwater ecosystem health in member States. Yet, the lack of published study for Europe’s overseas regions reflects minimal knowledge of the distribution patterns of aquatic species in Community’s outermost areas. Benthic invertebrates (84 taxa and land-cover, physical habitat and water chemistry descriptors (26 variables were recorded at fifty-one stations in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Ward’s algorithm were used to bring out patterns in community structure in relation to environmental conditions, and variation partitioning was used to specify the influence of geomorphology and anthropogenic disturbance on invertebrate communities. Species richness decreased from headwater to lowland streams, and species composition changed from northern to southern areas. The proportion of variation explained by geomorphological variables was globally higher than that explained by anthropogenic variables. Geomorphology and land cover played key roles in delineating ecological sub-regions for the freshwater biota. Despite this and the small surface area of Martinique (1080 km2, invertebrate communities showed a clear spatial turnover in composition and biological traits (e.g., insects, crustaceans and molluscs in relation to natural conditions.

  16. Folliculin directs the formation of a Rab34-RILP complex to control the nutrient-dependent dynamic distribution of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Georgina P; Yip, Yan Y; Sanger, Anneri; Morton, Penny E; Eden, Emily R; Dodding, Mark P

    2016-06-01

    The spatial distribution of lysosomes is important for their function and is, in part, controlled by cellular nutrient status. Here, we show that the lysosome associated Birt-Hoge-Dubé (BHD) syndrome renal tumour suppressor folliculin (FLCN) regulates this process. FLCN promotes the peri-nuclear clustering of lysosomes following serum and amino acid withdrawal and is supported by the predominantly Golgi-associated small GTPase Rab34. Rab34-positive peri-nuclear membranes contact lysosomes and cause a reduction in lysosome motility and knockdown of FLCN inhibits Rab34-induced peri-nuclear lysosome clustering. FLCN interacts directly via its C-terminal DENN domain with the Rab34 effector RILP Using purified recombinant proteins, we show that the FLCN-DENN domain does not act as a GEF for Rab34, but rather, loads active Rab34 onto RILP We propose a model whereby starvation-induced FLCN association with lysosomes drives the formation of contact sites between lysosomes and Rab34-positive peri-nuclear membranes that restrict lysosome motility and thus promote their retention in this region of the cell. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Direct production of feruloyl oligosaccharides and hemicellulase inducement and distribution in a newly isolated Aureobasidium pullulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-hong; Gu, Zhen-xin

    2014-02-01

    Studies were carried out to screen and identify strains that are able to directly produce ferulic oligosaccharides (FOs) from wheat bran (WB). The inducement and distribution of hemicellulases from strain 2012, which was identified as a non-melanin secreting strain of Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans), were also determined. In a 60 g/L WB solution, A. pullulans could produce 545 nmol/L FOs, 64.12 IU/mL xylanase and 0.14 IU/mL ferulic acid esterase (FAE). A. pullulans was cultivated in media with WB, glucose, xylose, sucrose, lactose or xylan as the carbon source, and hemicellulases were mainly induced by xylan and WB and inhibited by glucose and sucrose. Xylanase and FAE were mainly present in the culture filtrate, xylosidase in the hyphal filaments and arabinofuranosidase was a membrane-bound enzyme. The yield of FOs was positively correlated to the hemicellulases activity, and significantly positively (P < 0.05) correlated to the xylanase activity (r = 0.992).

  18. Characterisation of dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using a deterministic spatially distributed direct hydrograph travel time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, F.; Gironas, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The link between stream network structure and hydrologic response for natural basins has been extensively studied. It is well known that stream network organization and flow dynamics in the reaches combine to shape the hydrologic response of natural basins. Geomorphologic dispersion and hydrodynamic dispersion along with hillslope processes control to a large extent the overall variance of the hydrograph, particularly under the assumption of constant celerity throughout the basin. In addition, a third mechanism referred as to kinematic dispersion becomes relevant when considering spatial variations of celerity. On contrary, the link between the drainage network structure and overall urban terrain, and the hydrologic response in urban catchments has been much less studied. In particular, the characterization of the different dispersion mechanisms within urban areas remains to be better understood. In such areas artificial elements are expected to contribute to the total dispersion due to the variety of geometries and the spatial distribution of imperviousness. This work quantifies the different dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment, focusing on their relevance and the spatial scales involved. For this purpose we use the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph model, a deterministic spatially distributed direct hydrograph travel time model, which computes travel times in hillslope, pipe, street and channel cells using formulations derived from kinematic wave theory. The model was applied to the Aubeniere catchment, located in Nantes, France. Unlike stochastic models, this deterministic model allows the quantification of dispersion mechanism at the local scale (i.e. the grid-cell). We found that kinematic dispersion is more relevant for small storm events, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more significant for larger storms, as the mean celerity within the catchment increases. In addition, the total dispersion relates to the drainage area in

  19. Direct Photon Center-of-Mass Angular Distributions in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, Leslie F. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The center-of-mass angular distribution of direct photon events, resulting from proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV, as measured by the Collider Detector at Fermi lab ( CDF) during the 1988-1089 experimental run, is presented. The direct photon events are identified primarily through the direct photon's characteristic isolation from other particles. The main source of background is from rare fragmentation of QCD partons into single isolated neutral mesons, which decay into two or more photons. The background is removed statistically by exploitation of tile expected difference in the resulting shower profiles. The resulting angular distribution for direct photons, in the transverse momentum range from 22 to 45 Ge V is found to agree favorably with the predictions of Quantum Cbromodynamics (QCD) for an interaction with a fermion (spin 1/2) propagator.

  20. Direct Photon Center-of-Mass Angular Distributions in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, Leslie F. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The center-of-mass angular distribution of direct photon events, resulting from protonantiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV, as measured by the Collider Detector at Fermilab ( CDF) during the 1988-1089 experimental run, is presented . The direct photon events are identified primarily through the direct photon's characteristic isolation from other particles. The main source of background is from rare fragmentation of QCD partons into single isolated neutral mesons, which decay into two or more photons. The background is removed statistically by exploitation of tile expected difference in the resulting shower profiles. The resulting angular distribution for direct photons, in the transverse momemtum range from 22 to 45 Ge V is found to agree favorably with the predictions of Quantum Cbromodynamics (QCD) for an interaction with a fermion (spin 1/2) propagator

  1. Direct observation of cation distributions of ideal inverse spinel CoFe2O4 nanofibres and correlated magnetic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Xue; Zhang, Junwei; Zhu, Shimeng; Deng, Xia; Ma, Hongbin; Zhang, Junli; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Peng; Xue, Desheng; Mellors, Nigel J; Zhang, Xixiang; Peng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    multiferroic heterostructures. Although we know that the distribution of cations (Fe3+ and Co2+) in a spinel structure governs its magnetic properties, their distribution in the so-called ideal inverse spinel structure of a ferrite, CoFe2O4, has not yet been

  2. AIRGAP MAGNETIC INDUCTION DISTRIBUTION IN A COAXIALLY-LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH AXIAL AND RADIAL DIRECTION OF THE RUNNER PERMANENT MAGNETS MAGNETIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of theoretical and experimental research on magnetic induction distribution in the air gap of a coaxially-linear synchronous motor with reciprocal motion within the pole pitch and axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization are presented.

  3. Frequency Locking and Monitoring Based on Bi-directional Terahertz Radiation of a 3rd-Order Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J.R.; Kao, T.Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency

  4. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those

  5. Determination of power density distribution of fuel assemblies for research reactor by directly measuring the strontium-91 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liq-Ji

    1987-01-01

    This work described the investigations of reactor core power peaking and three dimensional power density distribution of present core configuration of Tsing Hua Open-pool reactor (THOR). An experimental program, based on non-destructive fuel gamma scanning of 91 Sr activities, provides the data of fission density distribution for individual fuel pin of four-rod TRIGA-LEU cluster or for MTR-type fuel assembly. The informations are essentially important for the safety of reactor operation and for fuel management especially for the mixed loading with three different types of fuel at present. The relative power peaking values and the power density distribution for present core are discussed. (author)

  6. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from UNKNOWN From World-Wide Distribution from 19850101 to 19851231 (NODC Accession 8900039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a backup of the 1985 tropical pacific subsurface (XBT/ MBT) thermal data. The current direction, salinity and temperature for Tropical Ocean Global...

  7. Effect of feed flow pattern on the distribution of permeate fluxes in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane; Naceur, Mohamed W.; Francis, Lijo; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to highlight the effect of flow pattern on the variations of permeate fluxes over the membrane surface during desalination in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) flat module. To do so, a three dimensional (3D

  8. Simulation of effects of direction and air flow speed on temperature distribution in the room covered by various roof materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukanto, H., E-mail: masheher@uns.ac.id; Budiana, E. P., E-mail: budiana.e@gmail.com; Putra, B. H. H., E-mail: benedictus.hendy@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The objective of this research is to get a comparison of the distribution of the room temperature by using three materials, namely plastic-rubber composite, clay, and asbestos. The simulation used Ansys Fluent to get the temperature distribution. There were two conditions in this simulations, first the air passing beside the room and second the air passing in front of the room. Each condition will be varied with the air speed of 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s, 5 m/s for each material used. There are three heat transfers in this simulation, namely radiation, convection, and conduction. Based on the ANSI/ ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, the results of the simulation showed that the best temperature distribution was the roof of plastic-rubber composites.

  9. A methodology to identify the intake charge cylinder-to-cylinder distribution in turbocharged direct injection Diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, José M.; Galindo, José; Serrano, José R.; Pla, Benjamín

    2008-06-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is currently the most important NOx emission control system. During the last few years the EGR rate has increased progressively as pollutant emission regulations have become more restrictive. High EGR rate levels have given the effect of the unsuitable EGR and air distribution between cylinders away, which causes undesirable engine behavior. In this sense, the study of the EGR distribution between cylinders achieves high importance. However, despite the fact that the EGR is continuously under study, not many studies have been undertaken to approach its distribution between cylinders. In concordance with the aspects outlined before, the aim of this paper is to propose a methodology that permits us to identify the EGR cylinder-to-cylinder dispersion in a commercial engine. In order to achieve this objective, experimental tests have been combined with both one-dimensional and three-dimensional fluid dynamic models.

  10. Factors affecting the potential of direct load control for non-generating utilities. Final report. [Distribution and wholesale power supply interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    Several alternatives are available for achieving load management, including direct or voluntary control of customer loads, customer or utility energy storage systems for diurnal load shifting, and expanded interconnection and operation of electric power systems. All of these alternatives are available to the fully integrated (generating, transmitting and distributing) electric utility and the analysis of their effects encompasses the power supply and delivery system. However, the costs and benefits of the alternatives to the fully integrated electric utility are perhaps not so obvious. Therefore, by considering a non-generating utility, this analysis focuses upon the distribution system and wholesale power supply interaction as a step toward an analysis including the power supply and delivery system. This report develops an analysis procedure and discusses some of the relevant factors to be consdered in the application of direct load control for a non-generating utility system. The analysis concentrates on the distribution system only to determine the effect of rates and payback as a result of direct load control. Thus, the study is responsive to the specific needs of the non-generating utility. This analysis of direct load control encompasses the determination of those loads amenable to control, the selection of a suitable one-way communications system to rend control and the estimation of expected benefits and costs. The complementary functions to the application of direct load control such as automatic meter reading via the addition of a bi-directional communications system and voltage control are not included in the analysis but are detailed for future consideration.

  11. Influence of swirl ratio on fuel distribution and cyclic variation under flash boiling conditions in a spark ignition direct injection gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Min; Hung, David L.S.; Wu, Qiang; Dong, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of swirl on fuel distribution studied using laser induced fluorescence. • Gradient is sufficient for fuel spatial distribution variation analysis. • Close relation between fuel distribution and flame initiation/development. • Quantitative analysis shows high swirl suppresses variation of fuel distribution. • High order modes capable of identifying the distribution fluctuation patterns. - Abstract: One effective way of suppressing the cycle-to-cycle variation in engine is to design a combustion system that is robust to the root causes of engine variation over the entire engine working process. Flash boiling has been demonstrated as an ideal technique to produce stable fuel spray. But the generation of stable intake flow and fuel mixture remains challenging. In this study, to evaluate the capability of enhanced swirl flow to produce repeatable fuel mixture formation, the fuel distribution inside a single cylinder optical engine under two swirl ratios were measured using laser induced fluorescence technique. The swirl ratio was regulated by a swirl control valve installed in one of the intake ports. A 266 nm wavelength laser sheet from a frequency-quadrupled laser was directed into the optical engine through the quartz liner 15 mm below the tip of the spark plug. The fluorescence signal from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in gasoline was collected by applying a 320–420 nm band pass filter mounted in front of an intensified charge coupled device camera. Test results show that the in-cylinder fuel distribution is strongly influenced by the swirl ratio. Specifically, under high swirl condition, the fuel is mainly concentrated on the left side of the combustion chamber. While under the low swirl flow, fuel is distributed more randomly over the observing plane. This agrees well with the measurements of the stable flame location. Additionally, the cycle-to-cycle variation of the fuel distribution were analyzed. Results show that well

  12. Thermo-mechanical characterization of epoxy nanocomposites with different carbon nanotube distributions obtained by solvent aided and direct mixing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarrelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different routes, namely solvent aided dispersion and direct mixing, were employed to disperse Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs into a mono-component epoxy system used as matrix for advanced composites. In the first route, MWCNTs were diluted in three different solvents (acetone, sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethanol and then mixed with the matrix by tip sonication. In the second case, carbonaceous nanoparticles were added directly into the hosting system and dispersion was carried out by using three different techniques (mechanical stirring, magnetic agitation and tip sonication. The effects of the solvents and agitation energy were investigated by optical microscopy at micron level, in order assess the more efficient dispersion procedure for the considered epoxy system. It was demonstrated that parameters associated with direct mixing rather than solvent solubility govern MWCNT dispersion. Optical analysis of the nanocomposite morphology evidenced a very low density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates in the case of direct mixed tip sonicated samples if compared to those obtained by solution aided dispersion. In addition, nanocomposites obtained by sonication showed the lowest density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates, also when compared with mechanically and magnetically stirred system. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA and Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA results confirm the final result that among the considered direct mixing techniques, the direct tip sonication represents the most efficient route for MWCNT dispersion. Moreover, the mixing temperature of the hosting matrix system represents a fundamental feature in enhancing the MWCNT de-bundling and dispersion. Small X-ray Scattering analysis revealed that a nanosized structure of nanotubes is formed in the case of the tip sonicated samples that is heuristically correlated with both the maximum enhancement of mechanical modulus and the maximum reduction of thermal expansion coefficients.

  13. Simple passive methods for the assessment of the directional and vertical distributions of wind-blown particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orza, J. A.G.; Cabello, M.; Mateo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and tested two types of passive collectors to study aeolian erosion in the field. The first passive sampler is a sticky pad that allows for directional particulate assessment by an automatic particle counting procedure. the second one features an omni-directional capture opening, and mass of retained particles is gravimetric ally quantified. Vertical arrays of these passive collectors have been constructed to obtain vertical profiles of the horizontal particle flux as a function of soil properties, nearby sources and wind speed. We present some first results from field campaigns. (Author) 3 refs.

  14. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those instruments. To assess the ability of laboratories to provide accurate Ultra Violet (UV) diffuse BRDF measurements, a BRDF measurement comparison was initiated by the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrom...

  15. Preferred Spatial Directions in the Universe. Part II. Matter Distributed along Orbital Trajectories, and Energy Produced from It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Using General Relativity we study the rotating space of an orbiting body (of the Earth in the Galaxy, for example. In such a space Einstein’s equations predict that: (1 the space cannot be empty; (2 it abhors a vacuum (i. e. a pure λ-field, and so it must also possess a substantive distribution (e. g. gas, dust, radiations, etc.. In order for Maxwell’s equations to satisfy Einstein’s equations, it is shown that: (1 a free electromagnetic field along the trajectory of an orbiting body must be present, by means of purely magnetic “standing” waves; (2 electromagnetic fields don’t satisfy the Einstein equations in a region of orbiting space bodies if there is no distribution of another substance (e. g. dust, gas or something else. The braking energy of a medium pervading space equals the energy of the space non-holonomic field. The energy transforms into heat and radiations within stars by a stellar energy mechanism due to the background space non-holonomity, so a star takes energy for luminosity from the space during the orbit. Employing this mechanism in an Earth-bound laboratory, we can obtain a new source of energy due to the fact that the Earth orbits in the non-holonomic fields of the space.

  16. Direct observation of crosssectional potential distribution in GaN-based MIS structures by Kelvin-probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Masamitsu; Kikawa, Junjiroh [Research Organization of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Fujishima, Tatsuya; Chikamatsu, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Otake, Hirotaka [Research and Development Headquarters, ROHM Co., Ltd., 21 Saiin Mizosaki-Cho, Ukyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8585 (Japan); Nanishi, Yasushi [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Cross-sectional potential distribution in GaN-based trench gate metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFET) at off- and operating-state has been investigated by using Kelvin-probe force microscopy to clarify the actual operating situation of trench gate MISFET. The potential distribution reflecting the wafer structure, n/p/n{sup -}/n{sup +}, is observed as shown in the right figure. At the off-state (the gate voltage is fixed to 0 V), it is found that the electric field at the internal p/n{sup -} interface become strong, on the contrary to that at top n/p interface is almost unchanged by the stepwise increase of the drain bias from 0 to 15 V. From the analysis of results obtained at operating state, we can confirm the situation how the channel forms by increasing the gate voltage. This information is useful for designing devices and improving their characteristics (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Effect of modulation of the particle size distributions in the direct solid analysis by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Friedrich K., E. Josue; Redrejo, M. J.

    2018-02-01

    The main goal of this work was to investigate, in a systematic way, the influence of the controlled modulation of the particle size distribution of a representative solid sample with respect to the more relevant analytical parameters of the Direct Solid Analysis (DSA) by Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) quantitative method. In particular, accuracy, uncertainty, linearity and detection limits were correlated with the main parameters of their size distributions for the following elements; Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. In all cases strong correlations were finded. The main conclusion of this work can be resumed as follows; the modulation of particles shape to lower average sizes next to a minimization of the width of particle size distributions, produce a strong increment of accuracy, minimization of uncertainties and limit of detections for DSA-TXRF methodology. These achievements allow the future use of the DSA-TXRF analytical methodology for development of ISO norms and standardized protocols for the direct analysis of solids by mean of TXRF.

  18. Direct deterministic method for neutronics analysis and computation of asymptotic burnup distribution in a recirculating pebble-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.K.; Gougar, H.D.; Ougouag, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A new deterministic method has been developed for the neutronics analysis of a pebble-bed reactor (PBR). The method accounts for the flow of pebbles explicitly and couples the flow to the neutronics. The method allows modeling of once-through cycles as well as cycles in which pebbles are recirculated through the core an arbitrary number of times. This new work is distinguished from older methods by the systematically semi-analytical approach it takes. In particular, whereas older methods use the finite-difference approach (or an equivalent one) for the discretization and the solution of the burnup equation, the present work integrates the relevant differential equation analytically in discrete and complementary sub-domains of the reactor. Like some of the finite-difference codes, the new method obtains the asymptotic fuel-loading pattern directly, without modeling any intermediate loading pattern. This is a significant advantage for the design and optimization of the asymptotic fuel-loading pattern. The new method is capable of modeling directly both the once-through-then-out fuel cycle and the pebble recirculating fuel cycle. Although it currently includes a finite-difference neutronics solver, the new method has been implemented into a modular code that incorporates the framework for the future coupling to an efficient solver such as a nodal method and to modern cross section preparation capabilities. In its current state, the deterministic method presented here is capable of quick and efficient design and optimization calculations for the in-core PBR fuel cycle. The method can also be used as a practical 'scoping' tool. It could, for example, be applied to determine the potential of the PBR for resisting nuclear-weapons proliferation and to optimize proliferation-resistant features. However, the purpose of this paper is to show that the method itself is viable. Refinements to the code are under way, with the objective of producing a powerful reactor physics

  19. Rupture directivity and slip distribution of the M 4.3 foreshock to the 1992 Joshua Tree earthquake, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.

    1996-01-01

    Details of the M 4.3 foreshock to the Joshua Tree earthquake were studied using P waves recorded on the Southern California Seismic Network and the Anza network. Deconvolution, using an M 2.4 event as an empirical Green's function, corrected for complicated path and site effects in the seismograms and produced simple far-field displacement pulses that were inverted for a slip distribution. Both possible fault planes, north-south and east-west, for the focal mechanism were tested by a least-squares inversion procedure with a range of rupture velocities. The results showed that the foreshock ruptured the north-south plane, similar to the mainshock. The foreshock initiated a few hundred meters south of the mainshock and ruptured to the north, toward the mainshock hypocenter. The mainshock (M 6.1) initiated near the northern edge of the foreshock rupture 2 hr later. The foreshock had a high stress drop (320 to 800 bars) and broke a small portion of the fault adjacent to the mainshock but was not able to immediately initiate the mainshock rupture.

  20. Direct observation of dopant distribution in GaAs compound semiconductors using phase-shifting electron holography and Lorentz microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirokazu; Otomo, Shinya; Minato, Ryuichiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2014-06-01

    Phase-shifting electron holography and Lorentz microscopy were used to map dopant distributions in GaAs compound semiconductors with step-like dopant concentration. Transmission electron microscope specimens were prepared using a triple beam focused ion beam (FIB) system, which combines a Ga ion beam, a scanning electron microscope, and an Ar ion beam to remove the FIB damaged layers. The p-n junctions were clearly observed in both under-focused and over-focused Lorentz microscopy images. A phase image was obtained by using a phase-shifting reconstruction method to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Differences in dopant concentrations between 1 × 10(19) cm(-3) and 1 × 10(18) cm(-3) regions were clearly observed by using phase-shifting electron holography. We also interpreted phase profiles quantitatively by considering inactive layers induced by ion implantation during the FIB process. The thickness of an inactive layer at different dopant concentration area can be measured from the phase image. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Study on direct dissolution of U-10Zr alloy and distribution of uranium and zirconium in liquid cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuxing; Gao Yuan

    1997-09-01

    The effect of dissolution time, temperature, total surface area of U-10Zr alloy pellets and stirring on the dissolution and dissolution rate of uranium in liquid cadmium were studied. Cadmium containing U and Zr dissolved from U-10Zr alloy at 475 degree C and 500 degree C respectively was analyzed with electron microanalyzer. The experimental results show that at 400 degree and 500 degree C with the stirring rate of some 150 r/min, the solubilities of uranium in liquid cadmium are 0.4% and 2.2%, respectively. At the first 30 min, the dissolution rates of U-10Zr alloy pellets are 0.05 g/(cm 2 ·h) and 0.32 g/(cm 2 ·h), respectively. The suitable dissolution conditions for U-10Zr alloy pellets in liquid cadmium (the ratio of the mass of liquid cadmium to that of the pellets ≅7) are: temperature, about 480 degree C; stirring rate, about 150 r/min; dissolution time, 4 h. The distribution of uranium and zirconium in cadmium is homogeneous

  2. What's in the input? Frequent frames in child-directed speech offer distributional cues to grammatical categories in Spanish and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisleder, Adriana; Waxman, Sandra R

    2010-11-01

    Recent analyses have revealed that child-directed speech contains distributional regularities that could, in principle, support young children's discovery of distinct grammatical categories (noun, verb, adjective). In particular, a distributional unit known as the frequent frame appears to be especially informative (Mintz, 2003). However, analyses have focused almost exclusively on the distributional information available in English. Because languages differ considerably in how the grammatical forms are marked within utterances, the scarcity of cross-linguistic evidence represents an unfortunate gap. We therefore advance the developmental evidence by analyzing the distributional information available in frequent frames across two languages (Spanish and English), across sentence positions (phrase medial and phrase final), and across grammatical forms (noun, verb, adjective). We selected six parent-child corpora from the CHILDES database (three English; three Spanish), and analyzed the input when children were aged 2 ; 6 or younger. In each language, frequent frames did indeed offer systematic cues to grammatical category assignment. We also identify differences in the accuracy of these frames across languages, sentences positions and grammatical classes.

  3. Effects of Cardinal Direction on Distribution and Populational Dynamism of Oak Leaf Roller (Tortrix viridana L. on Quercus infectoria Oliv. and Q. libani Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza zargaran

    2018-01-01

    was used by employing a 25 m rope, a slope gauge, and a compass to locate the sampling transects. SPSS 18 and the 2×4 factorial split plot in time design were used as the statistical method for studying the effects of various cardinal directions and of oak species on abundance of the European oak leaf roller, and Tukey’s HSD test was employed for comparison of the means. Results and Discussion This pest has a single annual generation and five larval instars. It overwinters, and spends the entire summer, autumn, and winter, as eggs. Eggs are hatch in late March. Larvae pierce buds to enter into and feed inside them, and large larvae can leave buds and start feeding on other buds. The results showed that in both years the number of leaf-roller moth larvae were more on Q. infectoria in comparison to Lebanon oaks and it seems that oak species (Q. infectoria is more preferable for the pest to feed upon than Lebanon oaks. Studying populational changes of the oak leaf-roller moth in the geographical directions proved that for both of the tree species the maximum and the minimum number of larvae were respectively in the east and the west in 2014. In 2015, it also became clear that the highest and the lowest frequency of the larvae were respectively in the south and the north. The obtained results confirmed the influence of wind direction on distribution orientation of leaf-roller moth larvae. The number of oak leaf-roller moth larvae significantly increased in 2015 in comparison to the previous year which can be due to the temperature increase in this year. Conclusions The number of larvae of the European oak leaf roller on Aleppo oak trees was larger compared to Lebanon oak trees both in 2014 and in 2015, which shows this pest prefers Aleppo oak trees over Lebanon oak trees as its food supply. The number of larvae on both oak species in 2015 was considerably larger compared to the previous year, which may have been caused by increased temperatures in 2015. Study of

  4. Direct detection of neutral metal atoms in electron-stimulated desorption: Al from CH3O/Al(111) - velocity distribution and absolute yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, J.E.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Electron-stimulated desorption of neutral aluminum from the system CH 3 O/Al(111) has been directly monitored via quasiresonant photoionization with 193 nm excimer laser light and confirmed by two-step resonant ionization, utilizing the Al 3d 2 D manifold. Velocity distribution measurements for the neutral Al peak at ∼ 800 m/s for 1 keV incident electron energy. An absolute yield of 3.2 x 10 -6 Al atoms/electron was determined by comparison with sputtering measurements in the same apparatus. This is the first observation of electron-stimulated metal desorption from adsorbate-covered metallic surfaces

  5. A validation of a ray-tracing tool used to generate bi-directional scattering distribution functions for complex fenestration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeil, A.; Jonsson, C.J.; Appelfeld, David

    2013-01-01

    , or daylighting systems. However, such tools require users to provide bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) data that describe the solar-optical performance of the CFS. A free, open-source Radiance tool genBSDF enables users to generate BSDF data for arbitrary CFS. Prior to genBSDF, BSDF data.......We explain the basis and use of the genBSDF tool and validate the tool by comparing results for four different cases to BSDF data produced via alternate methods. This validation demonstrates that BSDFs created with genBSDF are comparable to BSDFs generated analytically using TracePro and by measurement...

  6. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN. The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz, followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD (1σ of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications.

  7. Direct determination of platinum group elements and their distributions in geological and environmental samples at the ng g{sup -1} level using LA-ICP-IDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) was applied to the direct and simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements (PGEs) Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in geological and environmental samples. A special laser ablation system with high ablation rates was used, along with sector field ICP-MS. Special attention was paid to deriving the distributions of PGEs in the pulverized samples. IDMS could not be applied to the (mono-isotopic) Rh, but the similar ablation behavior of Ru and Rh allowed Rh to be simultaneously determined via relative sensitivity coefficients. The laser ablation process produces hardly any oxide ions (which usually cause interference in PGE analysis with liquid sample injection), so the ICP-MS can be run in its low mass resolution but high-sensitivity mode. The detection limits obtained for the geological samples were 0.16 ng g{sup -1}, 0.14 ng g{sup -1}, 0.08 ng g{sup -1}, 0.01 ng g{sup -1} and 0.06 ng g{sup -1} for Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt, respectively. LA-ICP-IDMS was applied to different geological reference materials (TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, SARM-7) and the road dust reference material BCR-723, which are only certified for some of the PGEs. Comparisons with certified values as well as with indicative values from the literature demonstrated the validity of the LA-ICP-IDMS method. The PGE concentrations in subsamples of the road dust reference material correspond to a normal distribution, whereas the distributions in the geological reference materials TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, and SARM-7 are more complex. For example, in the case of Ru, a logarithmic normal distribution best fits the analyzed concentrations in TDB-1 subsamples, whereas a pronounced nugget effect was found for Pt in most geological samples. (orig.)

  8. Direct determination of platinum group elements and their distributions in geological and environmental samples at the ng g(-1) level using LA-ICP-IDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G

    2005-10-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) was applied to the direct and simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements (PGEs) Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in geological and environmental samples. A special laser ablation system with high ablation rates was used, along with sector field ICP-MS. Special attention was paid to deriving the distributions of PGEs in the pulverized samples. IDMS could not be applied to the (mono-isotopic) Rh, but the similar ablation behavior of Ru and Rh allowed Rh to be simultaneously determined via relative sensitivity coefficients. The laser ablation process produces hardly any oxide ions (which usually cause interference in PGE analysis with liquid sample injection), so the ICP-MS can be run in its low mass resolution but high-sensitivity mode. The detection limits obtained for the geological samples were 0.16 ng g(-1), 0.14 ng g(-1), 0.08 ng g(-1), 0.01 ng g(-1) and 0.06 ng g(-1) for Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt, respectively. LA-ICP-IDMS was applied to different geological reference materials (TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, SARM-7) and the road dust reference material BCR-723, which are only certified for some of the PGEs. Comparisons with certified values as well as with indicative values from the literature demonstrated the validity of the LA-ICP-IDMS method. The PGE concentrations in subsamples of the road dust reference material correspond to a normal distribution, whereas the distributions in the geological reference materials TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, and SARM-7 are more complex. For example, in the case of Ru, a logarithmic normal distribution best fits the analyzed concentrations in TDB-1 subsamples, whereas a pronounced nugget effect was found for Pt in most geological samples.

  9. Seasonal distribution of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in a river in Taiwan evaluated with culture-confirmed and direct DNA extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Min-Che; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Shen, Shu-Min; Huang, Jen-Te; Kao, Po-Min; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the presence and amount of Legionella in along a river in Taiwan, and the relations between seasonal distribution of Legionella spp. and geographic characteristics in the watershed were also evaluated. Water samples were pre-treated and analyzed with culture-confirmed and direct DNA extraction methods. For culture-confirmed method, water samples were cultivated through a series of selective media, and candidate colonies were confirmed by PCR. For direct DNA extraction method, direct DNA extraction was performed from pre-treated water samples. The DNA extracts were analyzed with PCR and DNA sequence analysis for species determination, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to quantify Legionella concentration in the water sample. In all, 150 water samples were included in this study, with 73 (48.6%) water samples detected with Legionella spp., and 17 with L. pneumophila. Over 80% Legionella spp. detections were through direct DNA extraction method, but more than 80% L. pneumophila detections were through culture-confirmed method. While detection of Legionella spp. was done with two methods, positive results were found through only one method. Legionella spp. was detected in all seasons with detection rate ranging between 34.3-58.8% and seasonal average concentration from 1.9 × 102 to 7.1 × 103 CFU/L. Most of the L. pneumophila detections were from samples collected in fall (38.2%) and summer (6.0%), which also coincided with increased cases of Legionellosis reported through Center of Disease Control in Taiwan. The high prevalence and concentration of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in the surface waters should be further evaluated for potential health risks.

  10. Direct visualization of the vortex distributions in a superconducting film with a Penrose array of magnetic pinning centers: Symmetry induced giant vortex state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.B.G.; Silhanek, A.V.; Van de Vondel, J.; Raes, B.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Using scanning Hall probe microscopy a direct visualization of the flux distribution in a Pb film covering a fivefold Penrose array of Co dots is obtained. We demonstrate that stable vortex configurations can be found for fields H ∼ 0.8H 1 , H 1 and 1.6H 1 , where H 1 corresponds to one flux quantum per pinning site. The vortex pattern at 0.8H 1 corresponds to one vacancy in one of the vertices of the thin tiles whereas at 1.6H 1 the vortex structure can be associated with one interstitial vortex inside each thick tile. Strikingly, for H = 1.6H 1 interstitial and pinned vortices arrange themselves in ring-like structures ('vortex corrals') which favor the formation of a giant vortex state at their center.

  11. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Smith, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty; and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  12. Rapid screening and distribution of bioactive compounds in different parts of Berberis petiolaris using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awantika Singh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berberis petiolaris Wall. ex G. Don, an unexplored medicinal plant belonging to the family Berberidaceae, is a large deciduous shrub found in Western Himalaya between 1800–3000 m. Chemical profiling of fruit, leaf, root and stem was done by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the plant parts. The bioactive compounds, including magnoflorine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, thalifendine/berberrubine, demethyleneberberine, reticuline, 8-oxoberberine, N-methyltetrahydroberberine, tetrahydropalmatine, tetrahydroberberine and palmatine, were identified by their exact mass measurement and the corresponding molecular formula of each compound. A comparative study of distribution pattern for all these bioactive alkaloids showed qualitative and quantitative variations in different parts of B. petiolaris. Principal component analysis clearly discriminated each part of B. petiolaris plant. Keywords: Berberis petiolaris, Alkaloids, Profiling, DART–TOF–MS, Statistical analysis

  13. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl via Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the solar wind electron halo can be formed by the scattering of the strahl. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions) a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a very limited energy range. When the magnetic field is well off the nominal solar wind flow direction such filaments are inconsistent with any local forces and are probably the result of strong scattering. Furthermore, observations indicates that the strahl component is frequently and significantly anisotropic (Tper/Tpal approx.2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  14. Dependence of the wind climate of Ireland on the direction distribution of geostrophic wind; Die Abhaengigkeit des Windklimas von Irland von der Richtungsverteilung des geostrophischen Windes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, H.P. [Forskningcenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark). Afdelingen for Vindenergi og Atmosfaerefysik

    1998-01-01

    The wind climate of Ireland is calculated using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The dependence of the simulated wind energy on the direction distribution of geostrophic wind is studied. As geostrophic winds from the south-west are most frequent, sites on the north-west coast are particularly suited for wind power stations. In addition, geostrophic wind increases from the south-east to the north-west. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Windklima von Irland wurde mit dem Karlsruher Atmosphaerischen Mesoskaligen Modell KAMM berechnet. Hier wird die Abhaengigkeit der simultierten Windenergie von der Richtungsverteilung des geostrophischen Windes untersucht. Da geostrophische Winde aus Suedwest am haeufigsten vorkommen, eignet sich besonders die Nordwestkueste als Standort fuer Windkraftanlagen. Zusaetzlich nimmt auch der mittlere geostrophische Wind von Suedost nach Nordwest zu. (orig.)

  15. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, Jon Craig; Johnson, J.D.; Smith, L.N.; Anderson, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  16. Impact of size and distribution of installed PV power in E-W direction on the level in which selected consumers’ energy needs were met

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necka Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the energy needs of selected consumers and to select the PV installed capacity in the east and west panels orientation (E-W. The analysis was carried out for two variants. The first concerned the impact of the installation power of a PV source on the contracted power in its symmetric east and west position. The second variant was the result of previous observations and studies of the authors of this paper. Thus, in this variant, the unbalanced power of PV E-W in relation to the S azimuth has been analyzed, taking into account the characteristics of the recipients' needs and the variation of the PV power installed. The analyses show that an increase in meeting the energy demand for two of the tested plants at symmetrical power distribution to the east and west occurred only when the installed power was increased to the level of approx. 1.4-1.6 of the contracted power. However, the power distribution in the E-W direction has a very strong effect on the energy amount that is generated in the power plant and cannot be used due to the lack of demand in the plant.

  17. Performance Analysis of Polarization Modulated DirectDetection Optical CDMA Systems over Turbulent FSO LinksModeled by the Gamma-Gamma Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a theoretical study to characterize the transmission of optical code division multiple access (CDMA systems deploying polarization shift keying (PolSK over a free space optical (FSO link under the impact of atmospheric turbulence. In our analysis, a novel transceiver architecture for atmospheric OCDMA FSO systems based on polarization modulation with direct detection is proposed and discussed. A detailed analytical model for PolSK-OCDMA systems over a turbulent FSO link is provided. Further, we derive a closed-form bit error ratio (BER and outage probability expressions, taking into account the multiple-access interference (MAI, optical noise and the atmospheric turbulence effect on the FSO link modeled by the Gamma-Gamma distribution. Finally, the results of this study show the most significant parameters that degrade the transmission performance of the PolSK-OCDMA signal over FSO links and indicate that the proposed approach offers improved bit error ratio (BER performances compared to the on-off-keying (OOK modulation scheme in the presence of turbulence.

  18. Size distribution, chemical composition and oxidation reactivity of particulate matter from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yueqi; Zhu, Lei; Fang, Junhua; Zhuang, Zhuyue; Guan, Chun; Xia, Chen; Xie, Xiaomin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol-gasoline blended fuels have been widely applied in markets recently, as ethanol reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and improves anti-knock performance. However, its effects on particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine still need further investigation. In this study, the effects of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels on particle size distributions, number concentrations, chemical composition and soot oxidation activity of GDI engine were investigated. It was found that ethanol-gasoline blended fuels increased the particle number concentration in low-load operating conditions. In higher load conditions, the ethanol-gasoline was effective for reducing the particle number concentration, indicating that the chemical benefits of ethanol become dominant, which could reduce soot precursors such as large n-alkanes and aromatics in gasoline. The volatile organic mass fraction in ethanol-gasoline particulates matter was higher than that in gasoline particulate matter because ethanol reduced the amount of soot precursors during combustion and thereby reduced the elemental carbon proportions in PM. Ethanol addition also increased the proportion of small particles, which confirmed the effects of ethanol on organic composition. Ethanol-gasoline reduced the concentrations of most PAH species, except those with small aromatic rings, e.g., naphthalene. Soot from ethanol-gasoline has lower activation energy of oxidation than that from gasoline. The results in this study indicate that ethanol-gasoline has positive effects on PM emissions control, as the soot oxidation activity is improved and the particle number concentrations are reduced at moderate and high engine loads. - Highlights: • Ethanol-gasoline reduces elemental carbon in PM. • Ethanol-gasoline increases volatile organic fraction in PM. • Soot generated from ethanol-gasoline has higher oxidation activity.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of flow over dissimilar, randomly distributed roughness elements: A systematic study on the effect of surface morphology on turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghi, Pourya; Stroh, Alexander; Schlatter, Philipp; Frohnapfel, Bettina

    2018-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations are used to investigate turbulent flow in rough channels, in which topographical parameters of the rough wall are systematically varied at a fixed friction Reynolds number of 500, based on a mean channel half-height h and friction velocity. The utilized roughness generation approach allows independent variation of moments of the surface height probability distribution function [thus root-mean-square (rms) surface height, skewness, and kurtosis], surface mean slope, and standard deviation of the roughness peak sizes. Particular attention is paid to the effect of the parameter Δ defined as the normalized height difference between the highest and lowest roughness peaks. This parameter is used to understand the trends of the investigated flow variables with departure from the idealized case where all roughness elements have the same height (Δ =0 ). All calculations are done in the fully rough regime and for surfaces with high slope (effective slope equal to 0.6-0.9). The rms roughness height is fixed for all cases at 0.045 h and the skewness and kurtosis of the surface height probability density function vary in the ranges -0.33 to 0.67 and 1.9 to 2.6, respectively. The goal of the paper is twofold: first, to investigate the possible effect of topographical parameters on the mean turbulent flow, Reynolds, and dispersive stresses particularly in the vicinity of the roughness crest, and second, to investigate the possibility of using the wall-normal turbulence intensity as a physical parameter for parametrization of the flow. Such a possibility, already suggested for regular roughness in the literature, is here extended to irregular roughness.

  20. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  1. Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S.; Choi, J.; Yeom, K.; Bae, C.

    2007-10-01

    The droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation of a slit injector were investigated under varied fuel temperature and air flow conditions. This variance in fuel temperature and air flow represents the altered spray momentum and external forces acting upon the spray. Phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to investigate the effect of fuel temperature and air flow on droplet size distribution. The in-cylinder mixture formation process and the factors affecting the in-cylinder mixture distribution were analyzed under various fuel temperature and air flow conditions using laser induced fluorescence (LIF). When the fuel temperature and air flow velocity increased, the smaller droplets were entrained to the upper and central parts of the spray altering the initial droplet size distribution. The reduced spray momentum decreased the spray penetration in the combustion chamber, and the interaction between the spray and piston bowl was degraded. This phenomenon eventually caused a relatively lean and dispersed mixture distribution near the spark plug at high fuel temperatures. The optimal spray momentum and external force depend on the fuel quantity (air-fuel ratio) and piston bowl shape. Consequently, the spray momentum and the external forces acting upon the spray should be optimized to form the stoichiometric and well-distributed mixture near the spark plug.

  2. Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S; Choi, J; Yeom, K; Bae, C

    2007-01-01

    The droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation of a slit injector were investigated under varied fuel temperature and air flow conditions. This variance in fuel temperature and air flow represents the altered spray momentum and external forces acting upon the spray. Phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to investigate the effect of fuel temperature and air flow on droplet size distribution. The in-cylinder mixture formation process and the factors affecting the in-cylinder mixture distribution were analyzed under various fuel temperature and air flow conditions using laser induced fluorescence (LIF). When the fuel temperature and air flow velocity increased, the smaller droplets were entrained to the upper and central parts of the spray altering the initial droplet size distribution. The reduced spray momentum decreased the spray penetration in the combustion chamber, and the interaction between the spray and piston bowl was degraded. This phenomenon eventually caused a relatively lean and dispersed mixture distribution near the spark plug at high fuel temperatures. The optimal spray momentum and external force depend on the fuel quantity (air-fuel ratio) and piston bowl shape. Consequently, the spray momentum and the external forces acting upon the spray should be optimized to form the stoichiometric and well-distributed mixture near the spark plug

  3. GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration of measured acceleration field to obtain the 3D pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A PIV based method to reconstruct the volumetric pressure field by direct integration of the 3D material acceleration directions has been developed. Extending the 2D virtual-boundary omni-directional method (Omni2D, Liu & Katz, 2013), the new 3D parallel-line omni-directional method (Omni3D) integrates the material acceleration along parallel lines aligned in multiple directions. Their angles are set by a spherical virtual grid. The integration is parallelized on a Tesla K40c GPU, which reduced the computing time from three hours to one minute for a single realization. To validate its performance, this method is utilized to calculate the 3D pressure fields in isotropic turbulence and channel flow using the JHU DNS Databases (http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). Both integration of the DNS acceleration as well as acceleration from synthetic 3D particles are tested. Results are compared to other method, e.g. solution to the Pressure Poisson Equation (e.g. PPE, Ghaemi et al., 2012) with Bernoulli based Dirichlet boundary conditions, and the Omni2D method. The error in Omni3D prediction is uniformly low, and its sensitivity to acceleration errors is local. It agrees with the PPE/Bernoulli prediction away from the Dirichlet boundary. The Omni3D method is also applied to experimental data obtained using tomographic PIV, and results are correlated with deformation of a compliant wall. ONR.

  4. Investigations of the mass and charge distribution of fission products from the 238U(n14,f) reaction by direct Ge(Li) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroczy, S.

    1979-01-01

    The fission yields can be measured by the well-known activation method if it is taken into account that the fission process results in 5-6 nuclides in an isobaric chain. The method which is based only on the gamma-spectrometric measurement of the irradiated fissioning sample is referred to as the direct Ge(Li) method for fission yield measurement. The thesis contains detailed description of the direct Ge(Li) method. The method was tested by the measurement of cumulative yields of 47 fission products and independent yields of 7 products in the reaction of 238 U(n 14 ,f). These are the members of 37 mass chains in the A=83-149 mass number region. The half-lives of the studied products are in the range of Tsub(1/2)=10 2 -10 9 s; the gamma spectrometric method was improved by extending its applicability to the measurement of short-lived products. Applying short irradiation time (5 min) the yields of 16 fission products with half-lives shorter than 1 hour could be measured. The lowest measured partial fission cross sections (yields) are in the order of 1 mb (0.1%). The accuracy of the yield measured by the direct Ge(Li) method is as high as or higher than that obtained radiochemically, especially for the products measured by many intensive gamma lines. (author)

  5. Direct visualization of electroporation-assisted in vivo gene delivery to tumors using intravital microscopy – spatial and time dependent distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachs Gabi U

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroporation is currently receiving much attention as a way to increase drug and DNA delivery. Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of electrogene therapy using a range of therapeutic genes for the treatment of experimental tumors. However, the transfection efficiency of electroporation-assisted DNA delivery is still low compared to viral methods and there is a clear need to optimize this approach. In order to optimize treatment, knowledge about spatial and time dependency of gene expression following delivery is of utmost importance in order to improve gene delivery. Intravital microscopy of tumors growing in dorsal skin fold window chambers is a useful method for monitoring gene transfection, since it allows non-invasive dynamic monitoring of gene expression in tumors in a live animal. Methods Intravital microscopy was used to monitor real time spatial distribution of the green fluorescent protein (GFP and time dependence of transfection efficiency in syngeneic P22 rat tumor model. DNA alone, liposome-DNA complexes and electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using two different sets of electric pulse parameters were compared. Results Electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz was superior to other methods and resulted in 22% increase in fluorescence intensity in the tumors up to 6 days post-transfection, compared to the non-transfected area in granulation tissue. Functional GFP was detected within 5 h after transfection. Cells expressing GFP were detected throughout the tumor, but not in the surrounding tissue that was not exposed to electric pulses. Conclusions Intravital microscopy was demonstrated to be a suitable method for monitoring time and spatial distribution of gene expression in experimental tumors and provided evidence that electroporation-assisted gene delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz is an effective method, resulting in early onset and homogenous

  6. Direct visualization of electroporation-assisted in vivo gene delivery to tumors using intravital microscopy – spatial and time dependent distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemazar, Maja; Wilson, Ian; Dachs, Gabi U; Tozer, Gillian M; Sersa, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    Electroporation is currently receiving much attention as a way to increase drug and DNA delivery. Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of electrogene therapy using a range of therapeutic genes for the treatment of experimental tumors. However, the transfection efficiency of electroporation-assisted DNA delivery is still low compared to viral methods and there is a clear need to optimize this approach. In order to optimize treatment, knowledge about spatial and time dependency of gene expression following delivery is of utmost importance in order to improve gene delivery. Intravital microscopy of tumors growing in dorsal skin fold window chambers is a useful method for monitoring gene transfection, since it allows non-invasive dynamic monitoring of gene expression in tumors in a live animal. Intravital microscopy was used to monitor real time spatial distribution of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and time dependence of transfection efficiency in syngeneic P22 rat tumor model. DNA alone, liposome-DNA complexes and electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using two different sets of electric pulse parameters were compared. Electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz was superior to other methods and resulted in 22% increase in fluorescence intensity in the tumors up to 6 days post-transfection, compared to the non-transfected area in granulation tissue. Functional GFP was detected within 5 h after transfection. Cells expressing GFP were detected throughout the tumor, but not in the surrounding tissue that was not exposed to electric pulses. Intravital microscopy was demonstrated to be a suitable method for monitoring time and spatial distribution of gene expression in experimental tumors and provided evidence that electroporation-assisted gene delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz is an effective method, resulting in early onset and homogenous distribution of gene expression in the syngeneic P22 rat tumor model

  7. On the “Cracking” Scheme in the Paper “A Directional Coupler Attack Against the Kish Key Distribution System” by Gunn, Allison and Abbott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsien-Pu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN secure key distribution. We proved in a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett. 13 (2014 1450016] that GAA’s mathematical model is unphysical. Here we analyze GAA’s cracking scheme and show that, in the case of a loss-free cable, it provides less eavesdropping information than in the earlier (Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv mean-square-based attack [Kish LB, Scheuer J, Phys. Lett. A 374:2140-2142 (2010], while it offers no information in the case of a lossy cable. We also investigate GAA’s claim to be experimentally capable of distinguishing—using statistics over a few correlation times only—the distributions of two Gaussian noises with a relative variance difference of less than 10-8. Normally such distinctions would require hundreds of millions of correlations times to be observable. We identify several potential experimental artifacts as results of poor KLJN design, which can lead to GAA’s assertions: deterministic currents due to spurious harmonic components caused by ground loops, DC offset, aliasing, non-Gaussian features including non-linearities and other non-idealities in generators, and the timederivative nature of GAA’s scheme which tends to enhance all of these artifacts.

  8. Surface potential distribution and airflow performance of different air-exposed electrode plasma actuators at different alternating current/direct current voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang; Yan, Hui-Jie; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Hua, Yue; Ren, Chun-Sheng, E-mail: rchsh@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Key laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have been intensely studied for a number of years due to their potential applications for aerodynamic control. In this paper, four types of actuators with different configurations of exposed electrode are proposed. The SDBD actuators investigated are driven by dual-power supply, referred to as a fixed AC high voltage and an adjustable DC bias. The effects of the electrode structures on the dielectric surface potential distribution, the electric wind velocity, and the mean thrust production are studied, and the dominative factors of airflow acceleration behavior are revealed. The results have shown that the actions of the SDBD actuator are mainly dependent on the geometry of the exposed electrode. Besides, the surface potential distribution can effectively affect the airflow acceleration behavior. With the application of an appropriate additional DC bias, the surface potential will be modified. As a result, the performance of the electric wind produced by a single SDBD can be significantly improved. In addition, the work also illustrates that the actuators with more negative surface potential present better mechanical performance.

  9. Surface potential distribution and airflow performance of different air-exposed electrode plasma actuators at different alternating current/direct current voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liang; Yan, Hui-Jie; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Hua, Yue; Ren, Chun-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have been intensely studied for a number of years due to their potential applications for aerodynamic control. In this paper, four types of actuators with different configurations of exposed electrode are proposed. The SDBD actuators investigated are driven by dual-power supply, referred to as a fixed AC high voltage and an adjustable DC bias. The effects of the electrode structures on the dielectric surface potential distribution, the electric wind velocity, and the mean thrust production are studied, and the dominative factors of airflow acceleration behavior are revealed. The results have shown that the actions of the SDBD actuator are mainly dependent on the geometry of the exposed electrode. Besides, the surface potential distribution can effectively affect the airflow acceleration behavior. With the application of an appropriate additional DC bias, the surface potential will be modified. As a result, the performance of the electric wind produced by a single SDBD can be significantly improved. In addition, the work also illustrates that the actuators with more negative surface potential present better mechanical performance

  10. Direct Determination of Molecular Weight Distribution of Calf-Thymus DNAs and Study of Their Fragmentation under Ultrasonic and Low-Energy IR Irradiations. A Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohammad A; Bertorelle, Franck; Doussineau, Tristan; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-06-09

    Calf-thymus (CT-DNA) is widely used as binding agent. The commercial samples are known to be "highly polymerized DNA" samples. CT-DNA is known to be fragile in particular upon ultrasonic wave irradiation. Degradation products might have dramatic consequence on its bio-sensing activity, and an accurate determination of the molecular weight distribution and stability of commercial samples is highly demanded. We investigated the sensitivity of charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), a single-molecule MS method, both with single-pass and ion trap CDMS ("Benner" trap) modes to the determination of the composition and stability (under multiphoton IR irradiation) of calf-thymus DNAs. We also investigated the changes of molecular weight distributions in the course of sonication by irradiating ultrasonic wave to CT-DNA. We report for the first time, the direct molecular weight (MW) distribution of DNA sodium salt from calf-thymus revealing two populations at high (~10 MDa) and low (~3 MDa) molecular weights. We evidence a transition between the high-MW to the low-MW distribution, confirming that the low-MW distribution results from degradation of CT-DNA. Finally, we report also IRMPD experiments carried out on trapped single-stranded linear DNAs from calf-thymus allowing to extract their activation energy for unimolecular dissociation. We show that single-pass CDMS is a direct, efficient and accurate MS-based approach to determine the composition of calf-thymus DNAs. Furthermore, ion trap CDMS allows us to evaluate the stability (both under multiphoton IR irradiation and in the course of sonication by irradiating ultrasonic wave) of calf-thymus DNAs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of organic solar cells: Direct measurement of potential distributions by scanning Kelvin probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saive, Rebecca; Mueller, Christian; Schinke, Janusz; Lovrincic, Robert; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparison of the potential distribution along the cross section of bilayer poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells, which show normal and anomalous, S-shaped current-voltage (IV) characteristics. We expose the cross sections of the devices with a focussed ion beam and measure them with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. We find that in the case of S-shaped IV-characteristics, there is a huge potential drop at the PCBM/Al top contact, which does not occur in solar cells with normal IV-characteristics. This behavior confirms the assumption that S-shaped curves are caused by hindered charge transport at interfaces.

  12. Understanding S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of organic solar cells: Direct measurement of potential distributions by scanning Kelvin probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saive, Rebecca; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Mueller, Christian; Schinke, Janusz; Lovrincic, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We present a comparison of the potential distribution along the cross section of bilayer poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells, which show normal and anomalous, S-shaped current-voltage (IV) characteristics. We expose the cross sections of the devices with a focussed ion beam and measure them with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. We find that in the case of S-shaped IV-characteristics, there is a huge potential drop at the PCBM/Al top contact, which does not occur in solar cells with normal IV-characteristics. This behavior confirms the assumption that S-shaped curves are caused by hindered charge transport at interfaces

  13. Direct Observation of Surface Potential Distribution in Insulation Resistance Degraded Acceptor-Doped BaTiO3 Multilayered Ceramic Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kootak; Lee, Tae Hyung; Suh, Jun Min; Park, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Soon; Choi, Jaeho; Jang, Ho Won

    2018-05-01

    Insulation resistance (IR) degradation in BaTiO3 is a key issue for developing miniaturized multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with high capacity. Despite rapid progress in BaTiO3-based MLCCs, the mechanism of IR degradation is still controversial. In this study, we demonstrate the Al doping effect on IR degradation behavior of BaTiO3 MLCCs by electrical measurements and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). As the Al doping concentration in BaTiO3 increases, IR degradation of MLCCs seems to be suppressed from electrical characterization results. However, SKPM results reveal that the conductive regions near the cathode become lager with Al doping after IR degradation. The formation of conducting regions is attributed to the migration of oxygen vacancies, which is the origin of IR degradation in BaTiO3, in dielectric layers. These results imply that acceptor doping in BaTiO3 solely cannot suppress the IR degradation in MLCC even though less asymmetric IR characteristics and IR degradation in MLCCs with higher Al doping concentration are observed from electrical characterization. Our results strongly suggest that observing the surface potential distribution in IR degraded dielectric layers using SKPM is an effective method to unravel the mechanism of IR degradation in MLCCs.

  14. Direct comparison of {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}Th and POC particle-size distributions and export fluxes at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gillian, E-mail: gstewart@qc.cuny.ed [Queens College, CUNY Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Moran, S. Bradley, E-mail: moran@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Lomas, Michael W., E-mail: Michael.Lomas@bios.ed [Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, GE01 (Bermuda); Kelly, Roger P., E-mail: rokelly@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Particle-reactive, naturally occurring radionuclides are useful tracers of the sinking flux of organic matter from the surface to the deep ocean. Since the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) began in 1987, the disequilibrium between {sup 234}Th and its parent {sup 238}U has become widely used as a technique to measure particle export fluxes from surface ocean waters. Another radionuclide pair, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, can be used for the same purpose but has not been as widely adopted due to difficulty with accurately constraining the {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb radiochemical balance in the ocean and because of the more time-consuming radiochemical procedures. Direct comparison of particle flux estimated in different ocean regions using these short-lived radionuclides is important in evaluating their utility and accuracy as tracers of particle flux. In this paper, we present paired {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb data from oligotrophic surface waters of the subtropical Northwest Atlantic and discuss their advantages and limitations. Vertical profiles of total and particle size-fractionated {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th activities, together with particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, were measured during three seasons at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Both {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th reasonably predict sinking POC flux caught in sediment traps, and each tracer provides unique information about the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  15. Improvement of personalized Monte Carlo-aided direct internal contamination monitoring: optimization of calculation times and measurement methodology for the establishment of activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Jad

    2011-01-01

    To optimize the monitoring of female workers using in vivo spectrometry measurements, it is necessary to correct the typical calibration coefficients obtained with the Livermore male physical phantom. To do so, numerical calibrations based on the use of Monte Carlo simulations combined with anthropomorphic 3D phantoms were used. Such computational calibrations require on the one hand the development of representative female phantoms of different size and morphologies and on the other hand rapid and reliable Monte Carlo calculations. A library of female torso models was hence developed by fitting the weight of internal organs and breasts according to the body height and to relevant plastic surgery recommendations. This library was next used to realize a numerical calibration of the AREVA NC La Hague in vivo counting installation. Moreover, the morphology-induced counting efficiency variations with energy were put into equation and recommendations were given to correct the typical calibration coefficients for any monitored female worker as a function of body height and breast size. Meanwhile, variance reduction techniques and geometry simplification operations were considered to accelerate simulations. Furthermore, to determine the activity mapping in the case of complex contaminations, a method that combines Monte Carlo simulations with in vivo measurements was developed. This method consists of realizing several spectrometry measurements with different detector positioning. Next, the contribution of each contaminated organ to the count is assessed from Monte Carlo calculations. The in vivo measurements realized at LEDI, CIEMAT and KIT have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method and highlighted the valuable contribution of Monte Carlo simulations for a more detailed analysis of spectrometry measurements. Thus, a more precise estimate of the activity distribution is given in the case of an internal contamination. (author)

  16. The tightness of control procedures in the legal protection provided by jurisdiction against directives issued by the Federal Government - a problem of competence distribution between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, B.

    1992-01-01

    The tightness of control procedures in the legal protection provided by jurisdiction against directives issued by the Federal Government - a problem of competence distribution between the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court? The article examines questions of recourse to the competent court, problems concerning the admissibility of legal proceedings before the Federal Admininstrative Court, the competence of the Laender in performing administrative acts on behalf of the Federation, the effectiveness of legal protection and the relationship between the Laender and the Federation in terms of responsibility for constitutional rights. The legal protection offered by administrative law, against a directive of the Federal Government is wholly ineffective, as there is no legal position a Land could bring into play to defened itself against a directive leading to unlawful action. Inequites which thus occur can however be met via a dispute between the Federation and the Laender as provided by the constitution, as the content of a directive becomes relevant in attempts to exert influence on the competence issue. Ultimately the rulings of the Basic Law on competence serve to protect the citizen and the community against excesses. In this connection the constitutional rights in their capacity as negative competence rulings disqualify executive acts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. The effect of ethanol concentration on the direct ethanol fuel cell performance and products distribution: A study using a single fuel cell/attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, M. H. M. T.; Nandenha, J.; Buzzo, G. S.; Silva, J. C. M.; Spinacé, E. V.; Neto, A. O.; De Souza, R. F. B.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of ethanol concentration on the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) performance and products distribution were studied in situ using a single fuel cell/ATR-FTIR setup. The experiments were performed at 80 °C using commercial Pt3Sn/C as anodic catalyst and the concentrations of ethanol solution were varied from 0.1 to 2.0 mol L-1. An increase in power density was observed with the increase of ethanol concentration to 1.0 mol L-1, while the band intensities analysis in the FTIR spectra revealed an increase of acetic acid/acetaldehyde ratio with the increase of ethanol concentration. Also, from FTIR spectra results, it could be concluded that the acetic acid production follow parallel mechanisms; that is, it does not require the presence of acetaldehyde as an intermediate.

  18. The effect of bi-directional reflectance distribution function on the estimation of vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI): A case study of the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire in northwestern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.; Matsuyama, H.; Tsuzuki, H.; Sweda, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dependence of the satellite data on sun/sensor geometry must be considered in the case of monitoring vegetation from satellites. Vegetation structure causes uneven scattering of sunlight, which is expressed by bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of BRDF of monitoring vegetation using the reflectance of visible and near-infrared bands. We investigated the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire (main species: spruce) in the northwestern Canada. BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) was measured in the seven sites of some succession stages, along with the measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and biomass. The main results obtained in this study are summarized as follows. (1) In each site, the difference of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) value around 0.1-0.2 was caused by BRDF when the sensor angle was changed from -15deg to 15 deg, being equivalent to the standard image of IKONOS. Also, LAI estimated by NDVI varied from 22% to 65% of the average. (2) The robustness of other vegetation indices to BRDF was compared. The reflectance of the near-infrared band normalized by the sum of other bands (nNIR), and Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI) were investigated along with NDVI. It is clarified that nNIR was most robust in the site where vegetation existed. GEMI was most robust in the sites of scarce vegetation, while NDVI was strongly affected by BRDF in such sites

  19. Influence of Electron Molecule Resonant Vibrational Collisions over the Symmetric Mode and Direct Excitation-Dissociation Cross Sections of CO2 on the Electron Energy Distribution Function and Dissociation Mechanisms in Cold Pure CO2 Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L D; Colonna, G; Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; D'Ammando, G; Laricchiuta, A; Capitelli, M

    2016-05-05

    A new set of electron-vibrational (e-V) processes linking the first 10 vibrational levels of the symmetric mode of CO2 is derived by using a decoupled vibrational model and inserted in the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (eedf). The new eedf and dissociation rates are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding ones obtained by using the e-V cross sections reported in the database of Hake and Phelps (H-P). Large differences are, on the contrary, found when the experimental dissociation cross sections of Cosby and Helm are inserted in the Boltzman equation. Comparison of the corresponding rates with those obtained by using the low-energy threshold energy, reported in the H-P database, shows differences up to orders of magnitude, which decrease with the increasing of the reduced electric field. In all cases, we show the importance of superelastic vibrational collisions in affecting eedf and dissociation rates either in the direct electron impact mechanism or in the pure vibrational mechanism.

  20. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... learned. In addition, the uniquely comprehensive world survey outlines direct democracy provisions in 214 countries and territories and indicates which, if any, of these provisions are used by each country or territory at both the national and sub-national levels. Furthermore, the world survey includes...

  1. Directing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoff, Ernest

    Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

  2. Communication Facilities for Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barladeanu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of physical networks and communication protocols in Distributed Systems can have a direct impact on system efficiency and reliability. This paper tries to identify efficient mechanisms and paradigms for communication in distributed systems.

  3. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  4. Directed polymers versus directed percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin-Healy, Timothy

    1998-10-01

    Universality plays a central role within the rubric of modern statistical mechanics, wherein an insightful continuum formulation rises above irrelevant microscopic details, capturing essential scaling behaviors. Nevertheless, occasions do arise where the lattice or another discrete aspect can constitute a formidable legacy. Directed polymers in random media, along with its close sibling, directed percolation, provide an intriguing case in point. Indeed, the deep blood relation between these two models may have sabotaged past efforts to fully characterize the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, to which the directed polymer belongs.

  5. Future Directions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A lot of interesting problems. How to combine complexity allocation and power distribution at the Central Office. How to combine thousands of tones for low complexity channel estimation. How to take care of instantaneous symbol energies to only cancel dominant crosstalkers?

  6. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  7. Distribución de poros en una ladera de pampa ondulada cultivada con siembre directa Pore distribution on a hillslope under direct sowing in the rolling Pampa region of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Castiglioni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Para seleccionar las opciones de manejo mas adecuadas en suelos erosionados, es imprescindible identificar primeramente que atributos edáficos son modificados a partir de dicho proceso de degradación. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto del diferente grado de erosión hídrica en un Argiudol Vértico cultivado con siembra directa, sobre la distribución de poros a dos profundidades (0-5 cm y 5-10 cm. La toma de muestras se realizó sobre tres transectas paralelas siguiendo la dirección de la pendiente. En cada una de ellas y a intervalos de 8 m se determinó el volumen que ocuparon distintas clases por tamaño de poro, la porosidad total y la profundidad al horizonte argílico. También se cuantificó en distintos puntos del área de trabajo la textura de los dos estratos estudiados. Si bien en el área bajo estudio la profundidad al horizonte argílico fluctuó entre 32 y 19 cm y el contenido de arcilla tuvo variaciones del 22,6 (0-5 cm y 28,0% (5-10 cm, no se observaron diferencias significativas en el volumen ocupado por las distintas categorías de poro estudiadas entre suelos con distinto grado de erosión. Al realizar un reagrupamiento de las observaciones de acuerdo a su porosidad total, se evidenció en cada estrato que las situaciones con mayor porosidad total presentaron un mayor volumen (PIn order to select the most appropriate management techniques for eroded soils it is essential to first of all identify those soil attributes modified by this degradation process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different degrees of water erosion in a Vertic Argiudoll under direct sowing on the distribution of pores at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm. Sampling was carried out in three parallel transects in the slope direction. The volume occupied by different pore-size classes, total porosity and depth to the argilic horizon were measured at 8 m-intervals in each transect. Soil texture was also measured at

  8. Distributional Inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, A.H.; van der Meulen, E.A.; Poortema, Klaas; Schaafsma, W.

    1995-01-01

    The making of statistical inferences in distributional form is conceptionally complicated because the epistemic 'probabilities' assigned are mixtures of fact and fiction. In this respect they are essentially different from 'physical' or 'frequency-theoretic' probabilities. The distributional form is

  9. Direct Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austern, N. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-01-15

    In order to give a unified presentation of one point of view, these lectures are devoted only to a detailed development of the standard theories of direct reactions, starting from basic principles. Discussion is given of the present status of the theories, of the techniques used for practical calculation, and of possible future developments. The direct interaction (DI) aspects of a reaction are those which involve only a few of the many degrees of freedom of a nucleus. In fact the minimum number of degrees of freedom which must be involved in a reaction are those required to describe the initial and final channels, and DI studies typically consider these degrees of freedom and no others. Because of this simplicity DI theories may be worked out in painstaking detail. DI processes concern only part of the wave function for a problem. The other part involves complicated excitations of many degrees of freedom, and gives the compound nucleus (CN) effects. While it is extremely interesting to learn how to separate DI and CN effects in an orderly manner, if they are both present in a reaction, no suitable method has yet been found. Instead, current work stresses the kinds of reactions and the kinds of final states in which DI effects dominate and in which CN effects may almost be forgotten. The DI cross-sections which are studied are often extremely large, comparable to elastic scattering cross-sections. (author)

  10. Future direction of direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

    2010-11-01

    Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

  11. Poisson distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The random variable X taking values 0,1,2,…,x,… with probabilities pλ(x) = e−λλx/x!, where λ∈R0+ is called a Poisson variable, and its distribution a Poisson distribution, with parameter λ. The Poisson distribution with parameter λ can be obtained as the limit, as n → ∞ and p → 0 in such a way that

  12. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  13. Dyadic distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, B I

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of pointwise dyadic derivative dyadic distributions are introduced as continuous linear functionals on the linear space D d (R + ) of infinitely differentiable functions compactly supported by the positive half-axis R + together with all dyadic derivatives. The completeness of the space D' d (R + ) of dyadic distributions is established. It is shown that a locally integrable function on R + generates a dyadic distribution. In addition, the space S d (R + ) of infinitely dyadically differentiable functions on R + rapidly decreasing in the neighbourhood of +∞ is defined. The space S' d (R + ) of dyadic distributions of slow growth is introduced as the space of continuous linear functionals on S d (R + ). The completeness of the space S' d (R + ) is established; it is proved that each integrable function on R + with polynomial growth at +∞ generates a dyadic distribution of slow growth. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  14. 房产税调节收入分配的机理、条件与改革方向%Mechanism,Condition and Reform Direction of the Regulation of Property Tax for Income Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄潇

    2014-01-01

    房产税在影响居民收入和财富的同时,还通过转移支付来改善中低收入群体的住房和公共服务,具有调节收入分配的功能。房产税收入用于转移支付、税制设计与住房供应体系形成良性耦合、税基宽泛、税率合适、计税依据合理以及法律保障等是房产税有效发挥调节收入分配功能的条件。调节收入分配是我国房产税改革的重要目标。虽然从沪、渝房产税试点改革实践看,房产税整体上尚不能有效调节收入分配,但不能以此否定房产税所具备的调节收入分配的功能。目前,税基过窄、计税依据不合理、房产估价等配套措施不成熟是制约我国房产税有效调节收入分配的主要因素,也是房产税进一步改革的方向。要积极推进房产税扩围改革,并尽快实现以房屋市场价值作为计税依据,不断增强房产税调节收入分配的功能。%Property tax has the function to adjust income distribution by affecting the income and wealth of Chinese residents and by using transfer payment to improve the housing and public service of the residents with middle and low income.The condition for property tax can effectively play a role in the adjustment of income distribution by applying property tax to transfer payment,by virtuously coupling between tax system design and housing supply system,by extensive tax basis,by proper tax rate,by rational taxation laws,and by legal protection and so on. The adjustment of income distribution is an important goal of China’s reform of property tax,although property tax as a whole can still not effectively regulate income distribution based on the pilot property tax reform practice in Shanghai and Chongqing,the function for property tax to regulate income distribution can not be denied.Currently, the main factors to restrict effective regulation function of income distribution by China’s property tax emanate from immature measures

  15. Fuzzy barrier distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecki, E.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions often produce a fusion barrier distribution with structures displaying a fingerprint of couplings to highly collective excitations [1]. Basically the same distribution can be obtained from large-angle quasi-elastic scattering, though here the role of the many weak direct-reaction channels is unclear. For 2 0N e + 9 0Z r we have observed the barrier structures expected for the highly deformed neon projectile, but for 2 0N e + 9 2Z r we find completely smooth distribution (see Fig.1). We find that transfer channels in these systems are of similar strength but single particle excitations are significantly stronger in the latter case. They apparently reduce the 'resolving power' of the quasi-elastic channel, what leads to smeared out, or 'fuzzy' barrier distribution. This is the first case when such a phenomenon has been observed.(author)

  16. Direct Bandgap Group IV Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0049 Direct Bandgap group IV Materials Hung Hsiang Cheng NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY Final Report 01/21/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY 1 ROOSEVELT RD. SEC. 4 TAIPEI CITY, 10617 TW 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...14. ABSTRACT Direct bandgap group IV materials have been long sought for in both academia and industry for the implementation of photonic devices

  17. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τc for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ1 in directed networks, where λ1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (λ1-λ2), and algebraic connectivity μN-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ1 decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρD. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  18. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  19. Distribution automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenemeyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Distribution Automation (DA) System enhances the efficiency and productivity of a utility. It also provides intangible benefits such as improved public image and market advantages. A utility should evaluate the benefits and costs of such a system before committing funds. The expenditure for distribution automation is economical when justified by the deferral of a capacity increase, a decrease in peak power demand, or a reduction in O and M requirements

  20. Direct measurement of the interaction energy between solids and gases--3. Comparison of the calorimetric titration method with the amine titration method for the determination of acid strength distribution of the silica-alumina surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, H.; Masuda, T.; Tsutsumi, K.; Takahashi, H.

    1978-07-01

    Comparison of the calorimetric titration method with the amine titration method for the determination of acid strength distribution of the silica-alumina surface was carried out for a catalyst containing 13% by wt alumina and evacuated at 400/sup 0/C at 0.00001 mm Hg for five hours. The heats of adsorption of ammonia on silica-alumina poisoned with Hammett indicators of 8.2 to 3.3 pK/sub a/ were also measured to obtain the relation between the dissociation constant of the acid (pK/sub a/) and the heat of adsorption. At pK/sub a/ values of -5.6 and +3.3, the differential heats of adsorption were 76.1 and 55.1 kj/mole, respectively. The number of acid sites calculated from the heat vs. adsorbed-amount curve was about twice as large as that determined by amine titration. The discrepancy is discussed.

  1. Directional Dependence in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss and propose methods that may be of use to determine direction of dependence in non-normally distributed variables. First, it is shown that standard regression analysis is unable to distinguish between explanatory and response variables. Then, skewness and kurtosis are discussed as tools to assess deviation from…

  2. Distributed creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly...... used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science......, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews...

  3. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  4. The tensor distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, A D; Zhu, S; Zhan, L; McMahon, K; de Zubicaray, G I; Meredith, M; Wright, M J; Toga, A W; Thompson, P M

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitized gradients along a minimum of six directions, second-order tensors (represented by three-by-three positive definite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g., crossing fiber tracts. Recently, a number of high-angular resolution schemes with more than six gradient directions have been employed to address this issue. In this article, we introduce the tensor distribution function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric positive definite matrices. Using the calculus of variations, we solve the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, the orientation distribution function (ODF) can easily be computed by analytic integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, a tensor orientation distribution function (TOD) may also be derived from the TDF, allowing for the estimation of principal fiber directions and their corresponding eigenvalues.

  5. Chlorhexidine whole-body washing of patients reduces methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and has a direct effect on the distribution of the ST5-MRSA-II (New York/Japan) clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Meza, Maria Elena; Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Echániz-Aviles, Gabriela; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Martínez-Reséndez, Michel Fernando; Valero-Moreno, Vanessa; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes the skin of hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To prevent colonization and infection by S. aureus, better disinfection practices are required. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine whole-body washing on hospital-acquired S. aureus infections among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a tertiary hospital in Mexico. The study was conducted over 18 months to evaluate the effect of 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate (CXG) whole-body washing of ICU adult patients on chlorhexidine and antibiotic resistance, biofilm production and clonal distribution of S. aureus in a tertiary care hospital. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for CXG, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production by S. aureus isolates were determined. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) were used for molecular typing of MRSA isolates.Results/Key findings. We included 158 isolates. A reduction in antibiotic resistance in the study period was observed for clindamycin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, oxacillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. None of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility to CXG. Most of the isolates were non-biofilm producers (147/158). The most commonly identified clone was a descendant of the ST5-MRSA-II (New York/Japan) clone. This clone decreased during the intervention period and reappeared markedly in the post-intervention period. During the post-intervention period, two isolates were related with the clone ST8-MRSA-IV (also known as USA300). Our findings suggest that the CXG bathing favored the reduction of healthcare-associated MRSA isolates and a temporary reduction of the predominant ST5-MRSA-II (New York/Japan) clone.

  6. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  7. Resummation of transverse momentum distributions in distribution space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2016-11-01

    Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. Important examples are the total transverse momentum q_T in color-singlet production, N-jettiness (with thrust or beam thrust as special cases), but also jet mass and more complicated jet substructure observables. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called (renormalization group) evolution equations. We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one (through canonical scale choices) to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution's evolution kernel directly in distribution space. We apply this technique to the q_T distribution, where the two-dimensional nature of convolutions leads to additional difficulties (compared to one-dimensional cases like thrust), and for which the resummation in distribution (or momentum) space has been a long-standing open question. For the first time, we show how to perform the RG evolution fully in momentum space, thereby directly resumming the logarithms [ln"n(q"2_T/Q"2)/q"2_T]_+ appearing in the physical q_T distribution. The resummation accuracy is then solely determined by the perturbative expansion of the associated anomalous dimensions.

  8. Distributed propulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Robin; Rosvall, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    En prestandaanalys utfördes på en SAAB 2000 som referensobjekt. Olika metoder för att driva flygplan på ett miljövänligare sätt utvärderades tillsammans med distributed propulsion. Efter undersökningar valdes elmotorer tillsammans med Zink-luft batterier för att driva SAAB 2000 med distributed propulsion. En prestandaanalys utfördes på detta plan på samma sätt som för den ursprungliga SAAB 2000. Resultaten jämfördes och slutsatsen blev att räckvidden var för kort för att konfigurationen skull...

  9. Quasihomogeneous distributions

    CERN Document Server

    von Grudzinski, O

    1991-01-01

    This is a systematic exposition of the basics of the theory of quasihomogeneous (in particular, homogeneous) functions and distributions (generalized functions). A major theme is the method of taking quasihomogeneous averages. It serves as the central tool for the study of the solvability of quasihomogeneous multiplication equations and of quasihomogeneous partial differential equations with constant coefficients. Necessary and sufficient conditions for solvability are given. Several examples are treated in detail, among them the heat and the Schrödinger equation. The final chapter is devoted to quasihomogeneous wave front sets and their application to the description of singularities of quasihomogeneous distributions, in particular to quasihomogeneous fundamental solutions of the heat and of the Schrödinger equation.

  10. Distributed SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Lewis A.; Valachis, Dimitris; Anderson, Sean; Gough, David W.; Nicholson, David; Greenway, Phil

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we have developed techniques for Simultaneous Localization and Map Building based on the augmented state Kalman filter. Here we report the results of experiments conducted over multiple vehicles each equipped with a laser range finder for sensing the external environment, and a laser tracking system to provide highly accurate ground truth. The goal is simultaneously to build a map of an unknown environment and to use that map to navigate a vehicle that otherwise would have no way of knowing its location, and to distribute this process over several vehicles. We have constructed an on-line, distributed implementation to demonstrate the principle. In this paper we describe the system architecture, the nature of the experimental set up, and the results obtained. These are compared with the estimated ground truth. We show that distributed SLAM has a clear advantage in the sense that it offers a potential super-linear speed-up over single vehicle SLAM. In particular, we explore the time taken to achieve a given quality of map, and consider the repeatability and accuracy of the method. Finally, we discuss some practical implementation issues.

  11. Method of forecasting power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneto, Kunikazu.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain forecasting results at high accuracy by reflecting the signals from neutron detectors disposed in the reactor core on the forecasting results. Method: An on-line computer transfers, to a simulator, those process data such as temperature and flow rate for coolants in each of the sections and various measuring signals such as control rod positions from the nuclear reactor. The simulator calculates the present power distribution before the control operation. The signals from the neutron detectors at each of the positions in the reactor core are estimated from the power distribution and errors are determined based on the estimated values and the measured values to determine the smooth error distribution in the axial direction. Then, input conditions at the time to be forecast are set by a data setter. The simulator calculates the forecast power distribution after the control operation based on the set conditions. The forecast power distribution is corrected using the error distribution. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Distributional Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Beare, Brendan K.

    2009-01-01

    Suppose that X and Y are random variables. We define a replicating function to be a function f such that f(X) and Y have the same distribution. In general, the set of replicating functions for a given pair of random variables may be infinite. Suppose we have some objective function, or cost function, defined over the set of replicating functions, and we seek to estimate the replicating function with the lowest cost. We develop an approach to estimating the cheapest replicating function that i...

  13. Mail distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the mail distribution and collection times will be modified for the following buildings: 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 69, 40, 70, 101, 102, 109, 118, 152, 153, 154, 155, 166, 167, 169, 171, 174, 261, 354, 358, 576, 579 and 580. Complementary Information on the new times will be posted on the entry doors and left in the mail boxes of each building. TS/FM Group

  14. Distribution switchgear

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Stan

    2004-01-01

    Switchgear plays a fundamental role within the power supply industry. It is required to isolate faulty equipment, divide large networks into sections for repair purposes, reconfigure networks in order to restore power supplies and control other equipment.This book begins with the general principles of the Switchgear function and leads on to discuss topics such as interruption techniques, fault level calculations, switching transients and electrical insulation; making this an invaluable reference source. Solutions to practical problems associated with Distribution Switchgear are also included.

  15. ESR spectroscopy and electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy can map out the electron distribution in a molecule, in much the same way as proton NMR spectroscopy can map out the proton distribution, and it provides some of the most direct evidence for the principal concepts underlying the electronic theory of organic structure and mechanism. This is illustrated for phenomena of conjugation, hyper-conjugation, substituent effects in annulenes, Hueckel theory, ring strain, the Mills-Nixon effect, and ion pairing. (author)

  16. A wide-range direction neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; D'Errico, F.; Hecker, O.; Matzke, M.

    2002-01-01

    A new device is presented which has been developed for measuring the energy and direction of distribution of neutron fluence in fields of broad energy spectra (thermal to 100 MeV) and with a high background of photon, electron and muon radiation. The device was tested in reference fields with different energy and direction distributions of neutron fluence. The direction-integrated fluence spectra agree fairly well with reference spectra. In all cases, the ambient and personal dose equivalent values calculated from measured direction-differential spectra are within 35% of the reference values. Independent measurements of the directional dose equivalent were performed with a directional dose equivalent monitor based on superheated drop detectors

  17. Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...... standards of the networks. To address this need in a timely and effective manner, simplified methodologies and practical rules of thumbs are often applied to assess the DER hosting capacity of existing distribution networks, avoiding thus detailed and time consuming analytical studies. The scope...

  18. Algorithm for counting large directed loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianconi, Ginestra [Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Gulbahce, Natali [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-06-06

    We derive a Belief-Propagation algorithm for counting large loops in a directed network. We evaluate the distribution of the number of small loops in a directed random network with given degree sequence. We apply the algorithm to a few characteristic directed networks of various network sizes and loop structures and compare the algorithm with exhaustive counting results when possible. The algorithm is adequate in estimating loop counts for large directed networks and can be used to compare the loop structure of directed networks and their randomized counterparts.

  19. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Clark, Nancy H [Corrales, NM; Boyes, John D [Albuquerque, NM; Ranade, Satishkumar J [Las Cruces, NM

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  20. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L Gillies

    Full Text Available We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia's two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia's shellfish ecosystems.

  1. Electric power distribution: in the direction of a competitive market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.R.A. de.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of electric power sector deregulation, occurred in several countries, frequently followed of privatization, which the aim is activate the competition and, consequently, the efficiency between the companies of the electric power sector. The competition in the supply market of electric power, by the Great Britain, France, Spain and United States are shown as an example of this energy policy. (C.G.C.)

  2. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Chris L.; McLeod, Ian M.; Alleway, Heidi K.; Cook, Peter; Crawford, Christine; Creighton, Colin; Diggles, Ben; Ford, John; Hamer, Paul; Heller-Wagner, Gideon; Lebrault, Emma; Le Port, Agnès; Russell, Kylie; Sheaves, Marcus; Warnock, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia’s two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia’s shellfish ecosystems. PMID:29444143

  3. Resummation of transverse momentum distributions in distribution space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2016-11-15

    Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. Important examples are the total transverse momentum q{sub T} in color-singlet production, N-jettiness (with thrust or beam thrust as special cases), but also jet mass and more complicated jet substructure observables. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called (renormalization group) evolution equations. We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one (through canonical scale choices) to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution's evolution kernel directly in distribution space. We apply this technique to the q{sub T} distribution, where the two-dimensional nature of convolutions leads to additional difficulties (compared to one-dimensional cases like thrust), and for which the resummation in distribution (or momentum) space has been a long-standing open question. For the first time, we show how to perform the RG evolution fully in momentum space, thereby directly resumming the logarithms [ln{sup n}(q{sup 2}{sub T}/Q{sup 2})/q{sup 2}{sub T}]{sub +} appearing in the physical q{sub T} distribution. The resummation accuracy is then solely determined by the perturbative expansion of the associated anomalous dimensions.

  4. Resummation of transverse momentum distributions in distribution space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Tackmann, Frank J. [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-22

    Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. Important examples are the total transverse momentum q{sub T} in color-singlet production, N-jettiness (with thrust or beam thrust as special cases), but also jet mass and more complicated jet substructure observables. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called (renormalization group) evolution equations. We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one (through canonical scale choices) to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution’s evolution kernel directly in distribution space. We apply this technique to the q{sub T} distribution, where the two-dimensional nature of convolutions leads to additional difficulties (compared to one-dimensional cases like thrust), and for which the resummation in distribution (or momentum) space has been a long-standing open question. For the first time, we show how to perform the RG evolution fully in momentum space, thereby directly resumming the logarithms [ln{sup n} (q{sub T}{sup 2}/Q{sup 2})/q{sub T}{sup 2}]{sub +} appearing in the physical q{sub T} distribution. The resummation accuracy is then solely determined by the perturbative expansion of the associated anomalous dimensions.

  5. Handbook of distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, In Gyu

    1992-01-01

    This book tells of business strategy and distribution innovation, purpose of intelligent distribution, intelligent supply distribution, intelligent production distribution, intelligent sale distribution software for intelligence and future and distribution. It also introduces component technology keeping intelligent distribution such as bar cord, OCR, packing, and intelligent auto-warehouse, system technology, and cases in America, Japan and other countries.

  6. Distributed sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Donald B; Carlin, John B; Iyengar, S Sitharama; Brooks, Richard R; University, Clemson

    2014-01-01

    An Overview, S.S. Iyengar, Ankit Tandon, and R.R. BrooksMicrosensor Applications, David ShepherdA Taxonomy of Distributed Sensor Networks, Shivakumar Sastry and S.S. IyengarContrast with Traditional Systems, R.R. BrooksDigital Signal Processing Background, Yu Hen HuImage-Processing Background Lynne Grewe and Ben ShahshahaniObject Detection and Classification, Akbar M. SayeedParameter Estimation David FriedlanderTarget Tracking with Self-Organizing Distributed Sensors R.R. Brooks, C. Griffin, D.S. Friedlander, and J.D. KochCollaborative Signal and Information Processing: AnInformation-Directed Approach Feng Zhao, Jie Liu, Juan Liu, Leonidas Guibas, and James ReichEnvironmental Effects, David C. SwansonDetecting and Counteracting Atmospheric Effects Lynne L. GreweSignal Processing and Propagation for Aeroacoustic Sensor Networks, Richard J. Kozick, Brian M. Sadler, and D. Keith WilsonDistributed Multi-Target Detection in Sensor Networks Xiaoling Wang, Hairong Qi, and Steve BeckFoundations of Data Fusion f...

  7. Review of Congestion Management Methods for Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing congestion management methods for distribution networks with high penetration of DERs documented in the recent research literatures. The congestion management methods for distribution networks reviewed can be grouped into two categories – market methods and direct...... control methods. The market methods consist of dynamic tariff, distribution capacity market, shadow price and flexible service market. The direct control methods are comprised of network reconfiguration, reactive power control and active power control. Based on the review of the existing methods...

  8. Direct measurements of neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzschuh, E [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    The direct measurements have so far given no indication for a nonzero (positive) mass of any of the three known neutrinos. The experiments measuring the tau and the muon neutrino are good shape. The tritium experiments are in an unfortunate situation. It is unclear to me whether the problems are experimental or theoretical or a combination of both. The electronic final states distribution have been calculated, but the results have never been tested experimentally. The most important question to be answered is about the validity of the sudden approximation. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  9. Direct selling particularities

    OpenAIRE

    Greifová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the parcularities of direct selling, self regulation of this industry, multi-level marketing which is the most used sales method in the field of direct selling. The part of the thesis is dedicated to the issue of customer psychology that is very important for achieving success in direct selling. Main goals are to provide readers with the general view of direct selling and analysis of growing possibilities of the industry in the future.

  10. Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    future business . In defense systems, the key to future business is the existence of funded programs. Military commanders understand the lethality and...directed energp capabilities that can provide visibiliy into the likey futur business case for sustaining directed energy industry capabilities...the USD (I) staff to be afocalpointfor advocating improvement in all dimensions of directed energy intelligence. - The Director, Defense Inteligence

  11. Anisotropy of dark matter velocity distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Keiko I.

    2018-01-01

    Direct detection of dark matter with directional sensitivity has the potential to discriminate the dark matter velocity distribution. Especially, it will be suitable to discriminate isotropic distribution from anisotropic one. Analyzing data produced with Monte-Carlo simulation, required conditions for the discrimination is estimated. If energy threshold of detector is optimized, $O(10^3-10^4)$ event number is required to discriminate the anisotropy.

  12. Generalized PageRank on Directed Configuration Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ningyuan; Litvak, Nelli; Olvera-Cravioto, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Note: formula is not displayed correctly. This paper studies the distribution of a family of rankings, which includes Google’s PageRank, on a directed configuration model. In particular, it is shown that the distribution of the rank of a randomly chosen node in the graph converges in distribution to

  13. A Distributional Representation Model For Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Junlin, Zhang; Heng, Cai; Tongwen, Huang; Huiping, Xue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a very concise deep learning approach for collaborative filtering that jointly models distributional representation for users and items. The proposed framework obtains better performance when compared against current state-of-art algorithms and that made the distributional representation model a promising direction for further research in the collaborative filtering.

  14. Differentially Private Distributed Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.

    2016-12-11

    The growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) creates the possibility of decentralized systems of sensing and actuation, potentially on a global scale. IoT devices connected to cloud networks can offer Sensing and Actuation as a Service (SAaaS) enabling networks of sensors to grow to a global scale. But extremely large sensor networks can violate privacy, especially in the case where IoT devices are mobile and connected directly to the behaviors of people. The thesis of this paper is that by adapting differential privacy (adding statistically appropriate noise to query results) to groups of geographically distributed sensors privacy could be maintained without ever sending all values up to a central curator and without compromising the overall accuracy of the data collected. This paper outlines such a scheme and performs an analysis of differential privacy techniques adapted to edge computing in a simulated sensor network where ground truth is known. The positive and negative outcomes of employing differential privacy in distributed networks of devices are discussed and a brief research agenda is presented.

  15. Optimizing electrical distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Electrical utility distribution systems are in the middle of an unprecedented technological revolution in planning, design, maintenance and operation. The prime movers of the revolution are the major economic shifts that affect decision making. The major economic influence on the revolution is the cost of losses (technical and nontechnical). The vehicle of the revolution is the computer, which enables decision makers to examine alternatives in greater depth and detail than their predecessors could. The more important elements of the technological revolution are: system planning, computers, load forecasting, analytical systems (primary systems, transformers and secondary systems), system losses and coming technology. The paper is directed towards the rather unique problems encountered by engineers of utilities in developing countries - problems that are being solved through high technology, such as the recent World Bank-financed engineering computer system for Sri Lanka. This system includes a DEC computer, digitizer, plotter and engineering software to model the distribution system via a digitizer, analyse the system and plot single-line diagrams. (author). 1 ref., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  16. Coping with distributed computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormell, L.

    1992-09-01

    The rapid increase in the availability of high performance, cost-effective RISC/UNIX workstations has been both a blessing and a curse. The blessing of having extremely powerful computing engines available on the desk top is well-known to many users. The user has tremendous freedom, flexibility, and control of his environment. That freedom can, however, become the curse of distributed computing. The user must become a system manager to some extent, he must worry about backups, maintenance, upgrades, etc. Traditionally these activities have been the responsibility of a central computing group. The central computing group, however, may find that it can no longer provide all of the traditional services. With the plethora of workstations now found on so many desktops throughout the entire campus or lab, the central computing group may be swamped by support requests. This talk will address several of these computer support and management issues by providing some examples of the approaches taken at various HEP institutions. In addition, a brief review of commercial directions or products for distributed computing and management will be given

  17. Distribution planning with reliability options for distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebolle, David; Gomez, Tomas; Cossent, Rafael; Frias, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) has resulted in increasing penetration levels of distributed generation (DG). However, large-scale connection of DG involves profound changes in the operation and planning of electricity distribution networks. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) play a key role since these agents have to provide flexibility to their networks in order to integrate DG. Article 14.7 of EU Electricity Directive states that DSOs should consider DG as an alternative to new network investments. This is a challenging task, particularly under the current regulatory framework where DSOs must be legally and functionally unbundled from other activities in the electricity sector. This paper proposes a market mechanism, referred to as reliability options for distributed generation (RODG), which provides DSOs with an alternative to the investment in new distribution facilities. The mechanism proposed allocates the firm capacity required to DG embedded in the distribution network through a competitive auction. Additionally, RODG make DG partly responsible for reliability and provide DG with incentives for a more efficient operation taking into account the network conditions. (author)

  18. Distribution planning with reliability options for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebolle, David [Union Fenosa Distribucion, C/Antonio Lopez, 19, 28026 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Tomas; Cossent, Rafael; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) has resulted in increasing penetration levels of distributed generation (DG). However, large-scale connection of DG involves profound changes in the operation and planning of electricity distribution networks. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) play a key role since these agents have to provide flexibility to their networks in order to integrate DG. Article 14.7 of EU Electricity Directive states that DSOs should consider DG as an alternative to new network investments. This is a challenging task, particularly under the current regulatory framework where DSOs must be legally and functionally unbundled from other activities in the electricity sector. This paper proposes a market mechanism, referred to as reliability options for distributed generation (RODG), which provides DSOs with an alternative to the investment in new distribution facilities. The mechanism proposed allocates the firm capacity required to DG embedded in the distribution network through a competitive auction. Additionally, RODG make DG partly responsible for reliability and provide DG with incentives for a more efficient operation taking into account the network conditions. (author)

  19. Breakdown of interdependent directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Stanley, H Eugene; Gao, Jianxi

    2016-02-02

    Increasing evidence shows that real-world systems interact with one another via dependency connectivities. Failing connectivities are the mechanism behind the breakdown of interacting complex systems, e.g., blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. Previous research analyzing the robustness of interdependent networks has been limited to undirected networks. However, most real-world networks are directed, their in-degrees and out-degrees may be correlated, and they are often coupled to one another as interdependent directed networks. To understand the breakdown and robustness of interdependent directed networks, we develop a theoretical framework based on generating functions and percolation theory. We find that for interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks the directionality within each network increases their vulnerability and exhibits hybrid phase transitions. We also find that the percolation behavior of interdependent directed scale-free networks with and without degree correlations is so complex that two criteria are needed to quantify and compare their robustness: the percolation threshold and the integrated size of the giant component during an entire attack process. Interestingly, we find that the in-degree and out-degree correlations in each network layer increase the robustness of interdependent degree heterogeneous networks that most real networks are, but decrease the robustness of interdependent networks with homogeneous degree distribution and with strong coupling strengths. Moreover, by applying our theoretical analysis to real interdependent international trade networks, we find that the robustness of these real-world systems increases with the in-degree and out-degree correlations, confirming our theoretical analysis.

  20. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  1. Records Management Directive

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Records Management Directive provides guidelines for the management of OPM records, and identifies the records management...

  2. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  3. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legger, F

    2014-01-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  4. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legger, F.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  5. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  6. An exponential distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the probabilistic evaluation of product life on the example of the exponential distribution. The exponential distribution is special one-parametric case of the weibull distribution.

  7. Strategic Directions in Object-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Guerroui, Rachid

    1996-01-01

    This paper has provided an overview of the field of object-oriented programming. After presenting a historical perspective and some major achievements in the field, four research directions were introduced: technologies integration, software components, distributed programming, and new paradigms. In

  8. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  9. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  10. Probability distribution relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry Abdelkader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interesting to show the most famous distributions and their relations to the other distributions in collected diagrams. Four diagrams are sketched as networks. The first one is concerned to the continuous distributions and their relations. The second one presents the discrete distributions. The third diagram is depicted the famous limiting distributions. Finally, the Balakrishnan skew-normal density and its relationship with the other distributions are shown in the fourth diagram.

  11. Distribución de la porosidad de un suelo franco arcilloso (alfisol en condiciones semiáridas después de 15 años bajo siembra directa Soil porosity distribution of a clay loam soil (alfisol in semi-arid conditions after 15 years under direct drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Isabel Cerisola

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un estudio más amplio sobre evolución de las propiedades físicas de un suelo sometido a tres sistemas de labranza, se realizó, en dos campañas consecutivas, un seguimiento de la distribución de la porosidad del suelo según su origen, en parcelas cultivadas bajo siembra directa continua durante 15 años. En el ensayo se consideró un trayecto de 2 metros de longitud, perpendicular a la dirección de las labores, donde se realizaron mediciones de densidad aparente seca y contenido de humedad. El cultivo extensivo de secano (cereal, en cada una de las dos campañas, fue cebada de ciclo corto y de ciclo largo. El calendario de la toma de datos de las variables medidas se fijó en 5 fechas por campaña. La porosidad estructural del suelo, debida principalmente a la alternancia de ciclos de humectación - desecación, fue calculada cada 5 cm y hasta 35 cm de profundidad. Este proceso de fisuración natural resulta suficiente para asegurar un buen drenaje y facilitar el desarrollo radicular de las plantas, siempre y cuando el contenido de humedad se mantenga dentro de la capacidad de retención de agua.On a long-term essay under direct drilling, the evolution of the physical properties of a clay loam soil, such as distribution by origin of soil porosity, has been assessed during two growing seasons. The cereal crops in each growing seasons were spring barley and winter barley, respectively. Soil physical properties were measured on a 2 m length transect located in a perpendicular line to the direction of vehicular traffic for field operations. Five sampling opportunities, within crop cycle, were used to measure the variables. Structural soil porosity, due principally to shrinkage and swelling cycles, was assessed in the 0 to 35 cm depth soil profile. This natural process seemed to be sufficient to guarantee good drainage and normal crop development, unless in the moisture content range included in field capacity.

  12. Distribution function of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N. Wyn; An, Jin H.

    2006-01-01

    There is good evidence from N-body simulations that the velocity distribution in the outer parts of halos is radially anisotropic, with the kinetic energy in the radial direction roughly equal to the sum of that in the two tangential directions. We provide a simple algorithm to generate such cosmologically important distribution functions. Introducing r E (E), the radius of the largest orbit of a particle with energy E, we show how to write down almost trivially a distribution function of the form f(E,L)=L -1 g(r E ) for any spherical model - including the 'universal' halo density law (Navarro-Frenk-White profile). We in addition give the generic form of the distribution function for any model with a local density power-law index α and anisotropy parameter β and provide limiting forms appropriate for the central parts and envelopes of dark matter halos. From those, we argue that, regardless of the anisotropy, the density falloff at large radii must evolve to ρ∼r -4 or steeper ultimately

  13. Direction selective structural-acoustic coupled radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hee-Seon; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a method of designing a structural-acoustic coupled radiator that can emit sound in the desired direction. The structural-acoustic coupled system is consisted of acoustic spaces and wall. The wall composes two plates and an opening, and the wall separates one space that is highly reverberant and the other that is unbounded without any reflection. An equation is developed that predicts energy distribution and energy flow in the two spaces separated by the wall, and its computational examples are presented including near field acoustic characteristics. To design the directional coupled radiator, Pareto optimization method is adapted. An objective is selected to maximize radiation power on a main axis and minimize a side lobe level and a subjective is selected direction of the main axis and dimensions of the walls geometry. Pressure and intensity distribution of the designed radiator is also presented.

  14. Reactor power distribution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoizumi, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To grasp the margin for the limit value of the power distribution peaking factor inside the reactor under operation by using the reactor power distribution monitor. Constitution: The monitor is composed of the 'constant' file, (to store in-reactor power distributions obtained from analysis), TIP and thermocouple, lateral output distribution calibrating apparatus, axial output distribution synthesizer and peaking factor synthesizer. The lateral output distribution calibrating apparatus is used to make calibration by comparing the power distribution obtained from the thermocouples to the power distribution obtained from the TIP, and then to provide the power distribution lateral peaking factors. The axial output distribution synthesizer provides the power distribution axial peaking factors in accordance with the signals from the out-pile neutron flux detector. These axial and lateral power peaking factors are synthesized with high precision in the three-dimensional format and can be monitored at any time. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Limitations of the Porter-Thomas distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenmüller, Hans A.

    2017-12-01

    Data on the distribution of reduced partial neutron widths and on the distribution of total gamma decay widths disagree with the Porter-Thomas distribution (PTD) for reduced partial widths or with predictions of the statistical model. We recall why the disagreement is important: The PTD is a direct consequence of the orthogonal invariance of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) of random matrices. The disagreement is reviewed. Two possible causes for violation of orthogonal invariance of the GOE are discussed, and their consequences explored. The disagreement of the distribution of total gamma decay widths with theoretical predictions cannot be blamed on the statistical model.

  16. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  17. Variation of wave directional spread parameters along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.

    through a directional wave spectrum, which represents distribution of wave energies over various wave frequencies and directions. Most widely practiced technique for directional data collection involves use of the floating buoys. The data analysis.... Estimation of directional spectra from the maximum entropy principle, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Tokyo, Japan 1986; vol. I: 80-85. [6] Kuik AJ, Vledder G, Holthuijsen LH. A method for the routine...

  18. FAA Directives System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Consistent with the Federal Aviation Administration's mission to foster a safe, : secure, and efficient aviation system is the need for an effective and efficient : process for communitcating policy and procedures. The FAA Directives System : provide...

  19. Assessing directionality in context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    In support of first-language interpreting as the exclusive interpreting direction, ... some light on the possible interaction between two independent variables, .... the “local context” refers to the setting, genre, participants, and aims of the event.

  20. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  1. The ''energy tax'' directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    As Austria dropped its reservation, U.E. Economics and Finance Ministers gave, on 20 March at Brussels, their political agreement to the proposed Directive on a Community framework for the taxation of energy products. (author)

  2. On bivariate geometric distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayakumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of bivariate geometric distribution using univariate and bivariate geometric compounding are obtained. Autoregressive models with marginals as bivariate geometric distribution are developed. Various bivariate geometric distributions analogous to important bivariate exponential distributions like, Marshall-Olkin’s bivariate exponential, Downton’s bivariate exponential and Hawkes’ bivariate exponential are presented.

  3. Directed GF-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Arenas

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of directed fractal structure, which is a generalization of the concept of fractal structure (introduced by the authors. We study the relation with transitive quasiuniformities and inverse limits of posets. We define the concept of GF-compactification and apply it to prove that the Stone-Cech compactification can be obtained as the GF-compactification of the directed fractal structure associated to the Pervin quasi-uniformity.

  4. Institutional distributed energy interconnection barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided an introduction to Encorp Inc., a leading provider of network technology and infrastructure management solutions for the distributed energy market. Encorp develops and markets software and hardware technology solutions for communications, control and networking of distributed energy. It is developing and implementing real-time, distributed energy-focused solutions for a wide variety of applications through new products and services which are technology neutral, and easily networked. Encorp controls more than 500 MW of distributed power with a total of 127 customers. This paper reviewed 3 barriers (regulatory, contractual/tariffs, and business practices) based on US experience. The challenge remaining is to determine if microgrids can be used effectively, and to determine the limitations of bi-directional power flows. The key issues regarding how end-users can share the costs and maximize on the benefits of distributed energy resources include: standby service charges, departing load charges, regulatory uncertainty, rate class degradation, lack of incentives for utility cost reduction, and lack of ability to create experimental tariffs. tabs., figs

  5. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  6. Distributed Data Management and Distributed File Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girone, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The LHC program has been successful in part due to the globally distributed computing resources used for collecting, serving, processing, and analyzing the large LHC datasets. The introduction of distributed computing early in the LHC program spawned the development of new technologies and techniques to synchronize information and data between physically separated computing centers. Two of the most challenges services are the distributed file systems and the distributed data management systems. In this paper I will discuss how we have evolved from local site services to more globally independent services in the areas of distributed file systems and data management and how these capabilities may continue to evolve into the future. I will address the design choices, the motivations, and the future evolution of the computing systems used for High Energy Physics.

  7. Distributed routing algorithms to manage power flow in agent-based active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.; Georgiadis, G.; Papatriantafilou, M.; Anh-Tuan, L.; Bertling, L.

    2010-01-01

    The current transition from passive to active electric distribution networks comes with problems and challenges on bi-directional power flow in the network and the uncertainty in the forecast of power generation from grid-connected renewable and distributed energy sources. The power flow management

  8. Advance directives: survey of primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-04-01

    To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients' perspectives on a family doctor's role in initiating discussions about advance directives. A self-administered patient questionnaire. A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients' expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  9. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the

  10. Distributed Merge Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  11. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  12. Directed network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Derenyi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

  13. Directivity of singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jers, Harald

    2005-09-01

    Studies of acoustical balance between singers within a choir by means of room acoustical measurements have shown that the directional sound propagation of the source is important. For this reason the directivity of female and male singers for different vowels has been measured in this investigation. Measurements of a pilot study and some first measurements in 1998 have been supplemented with new measurements and an enhanced setup. A special measurement setup with reference and recording microphones was used to collect the directivity data. A resolution of 10 deg for azimuth and elevation angle was obtained. The results will be shown in 3D spherical plots with frequency adjustments in semitones from 80 to 8000 Hz. The measurements are compared to an artificial singer's directivity, and the influence of a sheet music binder in front of a singer will be shown. The results give information on the directivity of singers and are relevant for the prediction of self-to-other-ratios that result from placement and formation aspects within a choir.

  14. Estimating directional epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rouzic, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Epistasis, i.e., the fact that gene effects depend on the genetic background, is a direct consequence of the complexity of genetic architectures. Despite this, most of the models used in evolutionary and quantitative genetics pay scant attention to genetic interactions. For instance, the traditional decomposition of genetic effects models epistasis as noise around the evolutionarily-relevant additive effects. Such an approach is only valid if it is assumed that there is no general pattern among interactions—a highly speculative scenario. Systematic interactions generate directional epistasis, which has major evolutionary consequences. In spite of its importance, directional epistasis is rarely measured or reported by quantitative geneticists, not only because its relevance is generally ignored, but also due to the lack of simple, operational, and accessible methods for its estimation. This paper describes conceptual and statistical tools that can be used to estimate directional epistasis from various kinds of data, including QTL mapping results, phenotype measurements in mutants, and artificial selection responses. As an illustration, I measured directional epistasis from a real-life example. I then discuss the interpretation of the estimates, showing how they can be used to draw meaningful biological inferences. PMID:25071828

  15. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  16. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  17. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  18. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.J.I.; Gamage, K.A.A.; Taylor, G.C.

    2013-06-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  19. Antiquark distributions in the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, M.; Carey, T.; Garvey, G.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study of quark and antiquark distributions in the nucleon has been a major endeavor in nuclear and particle physics. Results from a recent deep-inelastic scattering experiment suggest the surprising possibility that the up and down antiquark distributions in the proton are not symmetric. A sensitive and direct determination of the antiquark distributions in the proton can be made by comparing the Drell-Yan cross sections on hydrogen versus deuterium targets. The authors have proposed a new experiment (E866) at Fermilab to carry out such measurements. E866 has been taking data since September 1996. Preliminary results show that the apparatus is working very well. The authors anticipate having seven months of beam in 1997, which would allow them to achieve the sensitivities for a definitive measurement of flavor symmetry of sea quarks in the proton

  20. Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Cessa, J R; Moya-Cessa, H; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

    2008-08-01

    We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a classical signal in space and (spatial) frequency and position and momentum for a quantum system. Probably the most well known of them is the Wigner distribution function. We show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihaczek's complex energy function, and Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions. We do this by showing how they may be obtained from ordered forms of creation and annihilation operators and by obtaining them in terms of expectation values in different eigenbases.

  1. Direct reading dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, I.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

  2. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  3. Predictable return distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions......-of-sample analyses show that the relative accuracy of the state variables in predicting future returns varies across the distribution. A portfolio study shows that an investor with power utility can obtain economic gains by applying the empirical return distribution in portfolio decisions instead of imposing...

  4. The direction of time

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Ever a source of philosophical conjecture and debate, the concept of time represents the beating heart of physics. This final work by the distinguished physicist Hans Reichenbach represents the culmination and integration of a lifetime's philosophical contributions and inquiries into the analysis of time. The result is an outstanding overview of such qualitative, or topological, attributes of time as order and direction.Beginning with a discussion of the emotive significance of time, Reichenbach turns to an examination of the time order of mechanics, the time direction of thermodynamics and m

  5. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  6. The limiting distribution of extremal exchange rate yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.A.B. Hols (Martien); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractSeveral nonnested fat-tailed distributions have been advocated for modelling exchange rate returns. Instead of directly estimating these nonnested distributions we investigate the extremal distribution of the returns. The advantage is that the parameter which characterizes the amount of

  7. Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A corporate profile of Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. was presented for the benefit of shareholders. Direct Energy is responsible for marketing and distributing natural gas to residential, commercial and industrial customers. The company owns physical natural gas reserves that serve as a supply hedge to its growing customer base. The highlights for the natural gas distribution income fund (OPTUS) for 1998 were described. OPTUS acquired WestCastle Energy, adding 38 mmcf/d of natural gas supply. It also amalgamated Channel Lake Petroleum and WestCastle Energy into Direct Energy and created the production division, Direct Energy Resources. It also formed Energy America with Sempra Energy, adding over 160,000 retail customers in Michigan and Ohio. Direct Energy's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, and statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  8. NEWTPOIS- NEWTON POISSON DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative poisson distribution program, NEWTPOIS, is one of two programs which make calculations involving cumulative poisson distributions. Both programs, NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715) and CUMPOIS (NPO-17714), can be used independently of one another. NEWTPOIS determines percentiles for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and calculates percentiles for chi-square distributions with even degrees of freedom. It can be used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. NEWTPOIS determines the Poisson parameter (lambda), that is; the mean (or expected) number of events occurring in a given unit of time, area, or space. Given that the user already knows the cumulative probability for a specific number of occurrences (n) it is usually a simple matter of substitution into the Poisson distribution summation to arrive at lambda. However, direct calculation of the Poisson parameter becomes difficult for small positive values of n and unmanageable for large values. NEWTPOIS uses Newton's iteration method to extract lambda from the initial value condition of the Poisson distribution where n=0, taking successive estimations until some user specified error term (epsilon) is reached. The NEWTPOIS program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly on most C compilers. The program format is interactive, accepting epsilon, n, and the cumulative probability of the occurrence of n as inputs. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 30K. NEWTPOIS was developed in 1988.

  9. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  10. Danish directional adverbs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Danish directional adverbs (DDA) (for instance op ’up’, ned ’down’, and ud ’out’) are characterized by an important special feature as satellites – they have different forms: a zero-form (ud-Ø), a form with a derivative e-suffix (ud-e), and a third form with a prepositional ad-suffix (‘ wards’). ...

  11. Directional loudness perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka

    developed. The research and modeling of loudness have mainly been concerned with the temporal and spectral aspects of sounds, while the spatial aspects have mostly been overlooked. This PhD thesis investigates the spatial aspects of loudness perception, namely, how does the direction from which a sound...

  12. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  13. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  14. Direct photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeggild, H.

    1986-11-01

    The author reviews the experiments on direct photon production in hadronic collisions. After a description of the experimental methods for the study of such processes he presents some results on differential cross sections and the γ/π 0 ratio in π - p, π + p, pp, and anti pp processes as well as in reactions of π - , π + , and p on carbon. (HSI)

  15. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  16. Direct Lending Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    In its third year, direct lending is working well for college students and administration. It is a simpler, faster, more efficient way of getting loan funds to students that cuts out financial middlemen. It helps students manage their finances better when repaying loans, promotes competition, stimulates program innovation, leads to greater…

  17. Advanced directives: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Negrini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In Italy Advanced directives have not been regulated by law yet. Moreover, there is a confusion of concepts: advanced directives, refusal of treatment, medical futility and euthanasia are not synonymous.DISCUSSION The following aspects are then discussed: object of directives; elapse of time between their expression and their application; knowledge of the directives and their obligatory nature. The refusal of a treatment that can save a person’s life is a critical subject. There are different ethical points of view: according to lay ethics, the patient’s self-determination prevails; the religious viewpoint, instead, says that life is a gift which we cannot dispose of. In any case, the patient will be confronted with the professional autonomy of the doctor. Should the doctor save a patient’s life in any case or should he achieve best clinical practice, in respect of his will? The doctor should interpret the patient’s will but with caution and judgment. An exemption from responsibility should be provided by law for doctors who respect patient’s living will.

  18. Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.

    ’ involves only the significant wave height, zero crossing wave period and water depth, the spreading function based on ‘s 3 ’ can be used for practical appli- cation. In the model based on ‘s 3 ’ the mean wave direction is an input and this has...-linearity parameter can be recommended for practical use as it provides an averaged distribution. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, for funding the project titled “Directional wave modelling...

  19. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  20. Distributed multiscale computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale models combine knowledge, data, and hypotheses from different scales. Simulating a multiscale model often requires extensive computation. This thesis evaluates distributing these computations, an approach termed distributed multiscale computing (DMC). First, the process of multiscale

  1. CUMULVS: Collaborative infrastructure for developing distributed simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J.A.; Papadopoulos, P.M.; Geist, G.A. II

    1997-03-01

    The CUMULVS software environment provides remote collaboration among scientists by allowing them to dynamically attach to, view, and steer a running simulation. Users can interactively examine intermediate results on demand, saving effort for long-running applications gone awry. In addition, it provides fault tolerance to distributed applications via user-directed checkpointing, heterogeneous task migration and automatic restart. This talk describes CUMULVS and how this tool benefits scientists developing large distributed applications.

  2. Distributed Cloud Storage Using Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Marton A.; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2014-01-01

    Distributed storage is usually considered within acloud provider to ensure availability and reliability of the data.However, the user is still directly dependent on the quality of asingle system. It is also entrusting the service provider with largeamounts of private data, which may be accessed by a successfulattack to that cloud system or even be inspected by governmentagencies in some countries. This paper advocates a generalframework for network coding enabled distributed storage overmulti...

  3. Energy saving based on the reduction of losses in the transmission and distribution of the power generated incrementing the transmission capacities by means of the use of direct current; Ahorro de energia basado en la reduccion de perdidas en la transmision y redistribucion de la generacion al ampliar las capacidades de transmision por medio del empleo de la transmision en corriente directa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meraz Ateca, E.; Alanis Rodriguez, J.P.; Salinas Barrera, H.; Arechiga Rodriguez, L.D.; Guerrero Garza, J.J. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    alternating current terminal is recovered from the power lines and there will not be generation restrictions because of the unavailability of alternating current power lines; the achieved reliability is not evaluated, but it will be another benefit. The other option proposed for the project of utilization of power lines with direct current, consists in modifying or using the tie that will be constructed for the Rio Escondido Thermal Electric Station to the Northern Zone and that will operate in parallel with the alternating current network. This project provides the benefits of saving losses of about 20 MW. It is also achieved the increase in effective transmission capacity towards the Northern Zone, due to the fact that it will be Also available a controlled power mean, which facilitates the dispatch functions and re-distribution of power flows in the alternating current network. This tie is proposed of 500 MW operating in bi-polar form at least of 400 KV and reaching up to the Chihuahua Zone, allowing besides the re-dispatching of units to the Northern Zone in counting with greater capacity of effective transmission. The saving in re-dispatching could be significative; additionally, this tie will free transmission capacity from the Coal Power Stations towards the Monterrey Zone. This paper does not get deeper into the advantages regarding the dynamic behavior of the electric system in operating these ties in direct current, but they are not less important, since they can contribute with great benefits to the system during disturbance or emergency conditions. [Espanol] El presenta trabajo propone el empleo de la tecnologia de transmision en corriente directa, que proporciona un ahorro de perdidas de orden del 50% al transmitir la misma cantidad de potencia que la linea energizada en corriente alterna, asi como el contar con una mayor capacidad de transmision, dado que la limitante en la linea trabajando en corriente directa esta dada por su capacidad termica. El aspecto del

  4. Energy saving based on the reduction of losses in the transmission and distribution of the power generated incrementing the transmission capacities by means of the use of direct current; Ahorro de energia basado en la reduccion de perdidas en la transmision y redistribucion de la generacion al ampliar las capacidades de transmision por medio del empleo de la transmision en corriente directa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meraz Ateca, E; Alanis Rodriguez, J P; Salinas Barrera, H; Arechiga Rodriguez, L D; Guerrero Garza, J J [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    alternating current terminal is recovered from the power lines and there will not be generation restrictions because of the unavailability of alternating current power lines; the achieved reliability is not evaluated, but it will be another benefit. The other option proposed for the project of utilization of power lines with direct current, consists in modifying or using the tie that will be constructed for the Rio Escondido Thermal Electric Station to the Northern Zone and that will operate in parallel with the alternating current network. This project provides the benefits of saving losses of about 20 MW. It is also achieved the increase in effective transmission capacity towards the Northern Zone, due to the fact that it will be Also available a controlled power mean, which facilitates the dispatch functions and re-distribution of power flows in the alternating current network. This tie is proposed of 500 MW operating in bi-polar form at least of 400 KV and reaching up to the Chihuahua Zone, allowing besides the re-dispatching of units to the Northern Zone in counting with greater capacity of effective transmission. The saving in re-dispatching could be significative; additionally, this tie will free transmission capacity from the Coal Power Stations towards the Monterrey Zone. This paper does not get deeper into the advantages regarding the dynamic behavior of the electric system in operating these ties in direct current, but they are not less important, since they can contribute with great benefits to the system during disturbance or emergency conditions. [Espanol] El presenta trabajo propone el empleo de la tecnologia de transmision en corriente directa, que proporciona un ahorro de perdidas de orden del 50% al transmitir la misma cantidad de potencia que la linea energizada en corriente alterna, asi como el contar con una mayor capacidad de transmision, dado que la limitante en la linea trabajando en corriente directa esta dada por su capacidad termica. El aspecto del

  5. Angular distributions as lifetime probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.

  6. Use of direct marketing in nonprofit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non profit organizations represent very heterogenus group of organizations which can be determined by the fact that they are being used as forums for creation and distribution of new ideas. Their aim is to raise public awareness on the purpose they promote and get the reply for their initiatives for gaining support in form of monetary sources for charities, vote for political candidate or achieving a communicational goal. Non governmental organizations, as the dominant form of non profit organizations, are being founded with mission to raise public awareness on some issue or provide help to certain marginalized group. The direct marketing instruments and techniques are considered to be very useful for achieving mission formulated that way. They are, by their nature, precisely targeted and objective-oriented and require direct reply. Apart from that, direct marketing activities are cost-efficient, costs that they generate can be shown in financial reports, and results of undertaken initiatives are directly measurable. All the mentioned lead to conclusion that direct marketing is, for additional reasons, even more appropriate for NPOs having in mind that they usually have limited available resources. In the relevant literature two main roles of direct marketing in non profit organizations are mentioned - managing relations with representatives of stakeholder groups and fundraising. In this paper, therefore, after the facts referring functioning of NPOs, direct marketing strategies used for mentioned purposes will be presented consequently.

  7. Personalized direct marketing using digital publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Cheeniyil L.; Prabhakaran, Jayasree K.

    2006-02-01

    In today's cost-conscious business climate, marketing and customer service decision makers are increasingly concerned with how to increase customer response and retention rates. Companies spend large amounts of money on Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions and data acquisition but they don't know how to use the information stored in these systems to improve the effectiveness of their direct marketing campaigns. By leveraging the customer information they already have, companies can create personalized, printed direct mail programs that generate high response rates, greater returns, and stronger customer loyalty, while gaining a significant edge over their competitors. To reach the promised land of one-to-one direct marketing (personalized direct marketing - PDM), companies need an end-to-end solution for creating, managing, printing, and distributing personalized direct mail "on demand." Having access to digital printing is just one piece of the solution. A more complete approach includes leveraging personalization technology into a useful direct marketing tool that provides true one-to-one marketing, allowing variable images and text in a personalized direct mail. This paper discusses integration of CRM with a Print-on-Demand solution so as to create truly personalized printed marketing campaigns for one or many individuals based on the profile information, preferences and purchase history stored in the CRM.

  8. Taming astrophysical bias in direct dark matter searches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pato, M.; Strigari, L.E.; Trotta, R.; Bertone, G.

    2013-01-01

    We explore systematic biases in the identification of dark matter in future direct detection experiments and compare the reconstructed dark matter properties when assuming a self-consistent dark matter distribution function and the standard Maxwellian velocity distribution. We find that the

  9. Optimized constitutive distributions visualized by lamina formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2017-01-01

    For optimal design most parameters may be classified in size, shape, and topology, such as simple density variables and parameters for surface description. Density and surface can be rather directly visualized. Extending the design to material design in sense of design of distributions of constit......For optimal design most parameters may be classified in size, shape, and topology, such as simple density variables and parameters for surface description. Density and surface can be rather directly visualized. Extending the design to material design in sense of design of distributions...

  10. TRANSMUTED EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    MEROVCI, FATON

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we generalize the exponentiated exponential distribution using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw etal. [6] to develop a transmuted exponentiated exponential distribution. Theproperties of this distribution are derived and the estimation of the model parameters is discussed. An application to real data set are finally presented forillustration

  11. Leadership for Distributed Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, J.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an

  12. Fuzzy extractors for continuous distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    We show that there is a direct relation between the maximum length of the keys extracted from biometric data and the error rates of the biometric system. The length of the bio-key depends on the amount of distinguishing information that can be extracted from the source data. This information can be used a-priori to evaluate the potential of the biometric data in the context of a specific cryptographic application. We model the biometric data more naturally as a continuous distribution and we ...

  13. Deterministic Secure Direct Communication Using Mixed state

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show an improved ping-pong protocol which is based on the protocol showed by Kim Bostrom and Timo Felbinger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 187902 (2002); quant-ph/0209040]. We show that our protocol is asymptotically secure key distribution and quasisecure direct communication using a single photon resource. And this protocol can be can be carried out with great efficiency and speed using today's technology.

  14. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  15. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...

  16. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  17. Direct use in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a public laboratory, Noi'i O Puna, that was established in Hawaii to support direct use research in 1985, tapping the previously unutilized heat in brines from the HGP-A well. Two rounds of small grants were offered to entrepreneurs. With the closure of the HGP-A power plant in late 1989, Noi'i O Puna is expanding its facilities. When the HGP-A well is back in service, Noi'i O Puna will be able to support additional research and development projects, as well as pre-commercial ventures. Direct use industries, which support existing agricultural activities in the region have good potential

  18. Direct Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krajačić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Today we use numerous methods of direct communications, for which we use a technical term Unified Communications. It is almost impossible to imagine the business world today without Unified Communications, which are improving productivity and reducing costs. The goal of using Unified Communications is to ensure a consistent user experience at any location and any device. Skype for Business, a Microsoft product, is one of the solutions for Unified Communications and is described in this thesis...

  19. Directional borehole antenna - Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1992-02-01

    A directional antenna has been developed for the borehole radar constructed during phase 2 of the Stripa project. The new antenna can determine the azimuth of a strong reflector with an accuracy of about 3 degrees as confirmed during experiments in Stripa, although the ratio of borehole diameter to wavelength is small, about 0.03. The antenna synthesizes the effect of a loop antenna rotating in the borehole from four signals measured in turn by a stationary antenna. These signals are also used to calculate an electric dipole signal and a check sum which is used to examine the function of the system. The theory of directional antennas is reviewed and used to design an antenna consisting of four parallel wires. The radiation pattern of this antenna is calculated using transmission line theory with due regard to polarization, which is of fundamental importance for the analysis of directional data. In particular the multipole expansion of the field is calculated to describe the antenna radiation pattern. Various sources of error, e.g. the effect of the borehole, are discussed and the methods of calibrating the antenna are reviewed. The ambiguity inherent in a loop antenna can be removed by taking the phase of the signal into account. Typical reflectors in rock, e.g. fracture zones an tunnels, may be modelled as simple geometrical structures. The corresponding analysis is described and exemplified on measurements from Stripa. Radar data is nowadays usually analyzed directly on the computer screen using the program RADINTER developed within the Stripa project. An algorithm for automatic estimation of the parameters of a reflector have been tested with some success. The relation between measured radar data and external coordinates as determined by rotational indicators is finally expressed in terms of Euler angles. (au)

  20. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  1. Future directions for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC

  2. Perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1963-10-15

    The objective of direct conversion is high electrical output for minimum total cost, and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment, and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy, and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (auth)

  3. Farm Management: rethinking directions?

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2004-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However has the study of Farm Management within Australia made significant contributions to agriculture or lagged in the background. Is it contributing to better Farm Management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leadin...

  4. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  5. Language Constructs for Data Partitioning and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Crooks

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a survey of language features for distributed memory multiprocessor systems (DMMs, in particular, systems that provide features for data partitioning and distribution. In these systems the programmer is freed from consideration of the low-level details of the target architecture in that there is no need to program explicit processes or specify interprocess communication. Programs are written according to the shared memory programming paradigm but the programmer is required to specify, by means of directives, additional syntax or interactive methods, how the data of the program are decomposed and distributed.

  6. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  7. Direction of arrival estimation based on information geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutiño Minguez, M.A.; Pribic, R; Leus, G.J.T.; Dong, Min; Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new direction of arrival (DOA) estimation approach is devised using concepts from information geometry (IG). The proposed method uses geodesic distances in the statistical manifold of probability distributions parametrized by their covariance matrix to estimate the direction of

  8. Light distribution system comprising spectral conversion means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , longer wavelength,a spectral conversion characteristics of the spectral conversion fibre being essentially determined by the spectral absorption and emission properties of the photoluminescent agent, the amount of photo- luminescent agent,and the distribution of the photoluminescent agent in the spectral......System (200, 300) for the distribution of white light, having a supply side (201, 301, 401) and a delivery side (202, 302, 402), the system being configured for guiding light with a multitude of visible wavelengths in a propagation direction P from the supply side to the distribution side...... of providing a light distribution system and a method of correcting the spectral transmission characteristics of a light distribution system are disclosed....

  9. Armas estratégicas e poder no sistema internacional: o advento das armas de energia direta e seu impacto potencial sobre a guerra e a distribuição multipolar de capacidades Strategic weapons and power in international system: the arise of direct energy weapons and their potential impact over the war and multipolar distribution of capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Schiavo Ávila

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O pós-Guerra Fria (1991-2006 apresenta uma mudança significativa no cenário estratégico: a maior acessibilidade da tecnologia militar e o surgimento de novas armas capazes de modificar o poder coercitivo dos países - como as armas de energia direta - acabam pondo em xeque a ideia de que a primazia nuclear é condição suficiente para garantir a unipolaridade. Focando-se no atual recrudescimento das tensões entre EUA e Rússia - especialmente com a proposta norte-americana de implementação do Escudo Antimíssil no Leste Europeu - e analisando as relações de poder entre os três países, procuramos revelar que tipo de competição ocorrerá no sistema internacional nas próximas décadas. O presente artigo analisa as reais possibilidades de que a primazia nuclear norte-americana se torne efetiva, uma vez que, para tanto, é necessário o desarmamento estratégico das demais potências. Como uma guerra nuclear entre os três países possui um custo político muito elevado, as disputas tendem a ser decididas na esfera das operações. Para ilustrar esta última afirmação, usamos um cenário contrafactual de guerra nuclear limitada entre Estados Unidos, Rússia e China, por meio do qual tentamos evidenciar as precondições táticas e operacionais para uma eventual vitória da coalizão sino-russa.The evolution of the Post-Cold War (1991-2006 international system shows a significant amount of change regarding the strategic capabilities of United States, Russia, and China. The rise of a new class of strategic weapons called directed energy weapons (lasers and high power microwaves, as well as the great costs associated with the quest for nuclear primacy, demand closer examination of the current assumption about the links between nuclear primacy and unipolar distribution of power in the International System. Starting with the current tensions between US and Russia, we try to reveal in this article what kind of competition might be observed

  10. Current distribution tomography for determination of internal current density distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailey, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of current densities inside a cylindrical object using measurements of the magnetic fields outside the object. The cross section of the object is discretized with the current assumed constant over each defined region. Magnetic fields outside the object are related to the internal current densities through a geometry matrix which can be inverted to yield a solution for the current densities in terms of the measured fields. The primary limitation of this technique results from singularities in the geometry matrix that arise due to cylindrical symmetry of the problem. Methods for circumventing the singularities to obtain information about the distribution of current densities are discussed. This process of current distribution tomography is designed to determine internal body current densities using measurements of the external magnetic field distribution. It is non-invasive, and relatively simple to implement. Although related to a more general study of magnetic imaging which has been used to investigate endogenous currents in the brain and other parts of the body, it is restricted to currents either applied directly or induced by exposure to an external field. The research is related to public concern about the possibility of health effects resulting from exposure to power frequency electric and magnetic fields

  11. AngularJS directives

    CERN Document Server

    Vanston, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.

  12. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  13. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  14. Does direct experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miralles, Francesc; Giones, Ferran; Gozun, Brian

    2017-01-01

    of being engaged in entrepreneurial behavior on entrepreneurial intention. We aim to shed light on whether the direct experience reinforces an individual’s entrepreneurial intention or reduces it. Building on an extended version of the planned behavior theory, we use the behavioral reasoning theory...... and an individual’s intention by introducing behavioral reasoning theory. These results provide support to initiatives to adapt entrepreneurship promotion efforts to the specific characteristics of the participants.......Entrepreneurial behavior research has used intention models to explain how an individual’s beliefs shape the attitudes and motivations that influence entrepreneurial intention. Nevertheless, as entrepreneurship promotion initiatives become global, it becomes relevant to explore the consequences...

  15. Directions for further research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minsaas, Atle; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    Green transportation logistics is an area that combines the following: (a) it is relatively new in terms of research carried out thus far, (b) it has become increasingly important for both industry and society, and (c) it is rich in topics for further research, both basic and applied. In this final...... chapter of this book we discuss directions for further research in this area. We do so by taking stock of (1) related recommendations of project SuperGreen, and (2) related activities mainly in European research. Links between research and policy-making as two activities that should go hand in hand...

  16. Directionally Solidified Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Vidrio , Vol. 44 [5] (2005) pp 347 - 352. 9. F. W. Dynys and A. Sayir, "Self Assemble Silicide Architectures by Directional Solidification," Journal...Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio , Vol. 43 [4] (2004) pp 753 - 758. 21. A. Sayir and F. S. Lowery, "Combustion-Resistance of Silicon-Based Ceramics...Espafiola de Cerdmica y Vidrio , Vol. 43 [3], 2004. ISSN-0366-3175-BSCVB9. 14 37. P. Berger, A. Sayir and M. H. Berger, "Nuclear Microprobe using Elastic

  17. Weighted Lomax distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, N M

    2016-01-01

    The Lomax distribution (Pareto Type-II) is widely applicable in reliability and life testing problems in engineering as well as in survival analysis as an alternative distribution. In this paper, Weighted Lomax distribution is proposed and studied. The density function and its behavior, moments, hazard and survival functions, mean residual life and reversed failure rate, extreme values distributions and order statistics are derived and studied. The parameters of this distribution are estimated by the method of moments and the maximum likelihood estimation method and the observed information matrix is derived. Moreover, simulation schemes are derived. Finally, an application of the model to a real data set is presented and compared with some other well-known distributions.

  18. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  19. Laboratory directed research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  20. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO 2 . The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  1. Are Parton Distributions Positive?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  2. Are parton distributions positive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  3. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  4. Direct access to INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludev, I.S.; Romanenko, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna

  5. Direct thermal dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  6. Remote direct memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  7. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, Christian, E-mail: weinheimer@uni-muenster.de [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Direct neutrino mass experiments are complementary to searches for neutrinoless double {beta}-decay and to analyses of cosmological data. The previous tritium beta decay experiments at Mainz and at Troitsk have achieved upper limits on the neutrino mass of about 2 eV/c{sup 2} . The KATRIN experiment under construction will improve the neutrino mass sensitivity down to 200 meV/c{sup 2} by increasing strongly the statistics and-at the same time-reducing the systematic uncertainties. Huge improvements have been made to operate the system extremely stably and at very low background rate. The latter comprises new methods to reject secondary electrons from the walls as well as to avoid and to eject electrons stored in traps. As an alternative to tritium {beta}-decay experiments cryo-bolometers investigating the endpoint region of {sup 187}Re {beta}-decay or the electron capture of {sup 163}Ho are being developed. This article briefly reviews the current status of the direct neutrino mass measurements.

  8. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  9. Cost allocation model for distribution networks considering high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in distribution networks and the competitive environment of electricity markets impose the use of new approaches in several domains. The network cost allocation, traditionally used in transmission networks, should be adapted and used...... in the distribution networks considering the specifications of the connected resources. The main goal is to develop a fairer methodology trying to distribute the distribution network use costs to all players which are using the network in each period. In this paper, a model considering different type of costs (fixed......, losses, and congestion costs) is proposed comprising the use of a large set of DER, namely distributed generation (DG), demand response (DR) of direct load control type, energy storage systems (ESS), and electric vehicles with capability of discharging energy to the network, which is known as vehicle...

  10. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  11. Electric distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, A A

    2010-01-01

    "Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--

  12. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  13. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  14. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  15. Distribution of Chinese names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  16. Statistical distribution sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

  17. Anomalies in the GRBs' distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoly, Zsolt; Horvath, Istvan; Hakkila, Jon; Toth, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous objects known: they outshine their host galaxies making them ideal candidates for probing large-scale structure. Earlier, the angular distribution of different GRBs (long, intermediate and short) has been studied in detail with different methods and it has been found that the short and intermediate groups showed deviation from the full randomness at different levels (e.g. Vavrek, R., et al. 2008). However these result based only angular measurements of the BATSE experiment, without any spatial distance indicator involved.Currently we have more than 361 GRBs with measured precise position, optical afterglow and redshift, mainly due to the observations of the Swift mission. This sample is getting large enough that it its homogeneous and isotropic distribution a large scale can be checked. We have recently (Horvath, I. et al., 2014) identified a large clustering of gamma-ray bursts at redshift z ~ 2 in the general direction of the constellations of Hercules and Corona Borealis. This angular excess cannot be entirely attributed to known selection biases, making its existence due to chance unlikely. The scale on which the clustering occurs is disturbingly large, about 2-3 Gpc: the underlying distribution of matter suggested by this cluster is big enough to question standard assumptions about Universal homogeneity and isotropy.

  18. Field distribution in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chang Zhang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The field distribution in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler corresponds to the special solution of a Laplace equation in a cylindrical coordinate system with a boundary value problem of sinusoidal ripples. This paper is devoted to the physical and mathematical treatment for an analytical solution of the field distribution in the coaxial electrostatic wiggler. The explicit expression of the solution indicates that the field distribution in the coaxial electrostatic wiggler varies according to a periodic function in the longitudinal direction, and is related to the first and second kinds of modified Bessel functions in the radial direction, respectively. Comparison shows excellent agreement between the analytical formula and the computer simulation technology (CST results. The physical application of the considered system and its analytical solution are discussed.

  19. Angular distributions in pre-equilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Gupta, S.K.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay

    1982-10-01

    A new model is proposed for calculating angular distributions in preequilibrium reactions. In this model, as in the model of Feshbach et al. the system consisting of target plus projectile initially branches into two sets of states with either no particle in the continuum (multistep compound states) or with at least one particle in the continuum (multistep direct states). The two chains of states are treated independently by solving two sets of master equations. The multistep compound emission is assumed to be isotropic while the angular distribution of the multistep direct emission is described using the fast particle model of Mantzouranis et al. The angular distributions for 14.6 MeV neutrons calculated using this model are found to be in better agreement with the data than the fast particle model. (author)

  20. Direct saccharification of milo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-28

    Crude or unrefined milo grain is pulverized to less than 100 mesh, suspended in water, and directly saccharified with enzymes. Thus, 10 kg of pulverized milo (100 mesh) was suspended in 20 liters water, liquified in the presence of bacterial amylase at 90/sup 0/ for 30 minutes and autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120/sup 0/, the liquifaction autoclave procedures were then repeated. The liquified preparation was saccharified in the presence of bacterial glucoamylase at 55/sup 0/ for 72 hours. The percentage saccharification of unrefined milo was 92-97%, which was comparable to that obtained with refined milo or a milo starch preparation. The saccharified milo preparation, when used as a sugar source in glutamic acid, lysine, or inosine fermentation, also showed similar efficiency to that of saccharified milo starch.

  1. Site directed recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  2. Nanoparticles and direct immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobili, Terrika A

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the immune system with nanomaterials is an intensely active area of research. Specifically, the capability to induce immunosuppression is a promising complement for drug delivery and regenerative medicine therapies. Many novel strategies for immunosuppression rely on nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for small-molecule immunosuppressive compounds. As a consequence, efforts in understanding the mechanisms in which nanoparticles directly interact with the immune system have been overshadowed. The immunological activity of nanoparticles is dependent on the physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles and its subsequent cellular internalization. As the underlying factors for these reactions are elucidated, more nanoparticles may be engineered and evaluated for inducing immunosuppression and complementing immunosuppressive drugs. This review will briefly summarize the state-of-the-art and developments in understanding how nanoparticles induce immunosuppressive responses, compare the inherent properties of nanomaterials which induce these immunological reactions, and comment on the potential for using nanomaterials to modulate and control the immune system. PMID:27229901

  3. Directionally positionable neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, W.E.; Bumgardner, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is apparatus for forming and directionally positioning a neutron beam. The apparatus includes an enclosed housing rotatable about a first axis with a neutron source axially positioned on the axis of rotation of the enclosed housing but not rotating with the housing. The rotatable housing is carried by a vertically positionable arm carried on a mobile transport. A collimator is supported by the rotatable housing and projects into the housing to orientationally position its inlet window at an adjustably fixed axial and radial spacing from the neutron source so that rotation of the enclosed housing causes the inlet window to rotate about a circle which is a fixed axial distance from the neutron source and has the axis of rotation of the housing as its center. (author)

  4. PhysDoc: A Distributed Network of Physics Institutions: Collecting, Indexing, and Searching High Quality Documents by Using Harvest; The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: Mission, Current Activities, and Future Directions; Information Services for Higher Education: A New Competitive Space; Intellectual Property Conservancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severiens, Thomas; Hohlfeld, Michael; Zimmermann, Kerstin; Hilf, Eberhard R.; von Ossietzky, Carl; Weibel, Stuart L.; Koch, Traugott; Hughes, Carol Ann; Bearman, David

    2000-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss a variety to topics, including a distributed network of physics institutions documents called PhysDocs which harvests information from the local Web-servers of professional physics institutions; the Dublin Core metadata initiative; information services for higher education in a competitive environment; and…

  5. Distributed security in closed distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    properties. This is also restricted to distributed systems in which the set of locations is known a priori. All this follows techniques borrowed from both the model checking and the static analysis communities. In the end, we reach a step towards solving the problem of enforcing security in distributed...... systems. We achieve the goal of showing how this can be done, though we restrict ourselves to closed systems and with a limited set of enforceable security policies. In this setting, our approach proves to be efficient. Finally, we achieve all this by bringing together several fields of Computer Science......The goal of the present thesis is to discuss, argue and conclude about ways to provide security to the information travelling around computer systems consisting of several known locations. When developing software systems, security of the information managed by these plays an important role...

  6. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin J O'Gorman

    Full Text Available The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  7. System for forecasting a reactor power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoda, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Yasuo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To dispense with frequent running of detector in a BWR type reactor and permit calculation of the prevailing value and forecast value of power distribution in a specified region in an on-line basis. Constitution: The prevailing power distribution P sub(OZ) (where Z indicates a position in the axial direction) at a given position is estimated by prevailing power distribution estimating means, and the average prevailing power distribution Q sub(OZ) in the core is estimated while making correction of a primary neutron distribution model by core average characteristic measuring means. Then, the estimated core average power distribution Q sub(Z) after alteration of the core flow rate or alteration of Xe concentration is estimated by core average power distribution estimating means. At this time, a forecast power distribution P sub(Z) in a specified region after alteration of the flow rate or alteration of the Xe concentration is calculated on the basis of a relation P sub(Z) = (Q sub(Z)/Q sub(OZ)) by using P sub(OZ), Q sub(OZ) and Q sub(Z). The above calculations are carried out in a short period of time by using a process computer. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  9. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size. PMID:23284818

  10. Directional epithermal neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.; Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A borehole tool for epithermal neutron die-away logging of subterranean formations surrounding a borehole is described which consists of: (a) a pulsed source of fast neutrons for irradiating the formations surrounding a borehole, (b) at least one neutron counter for counting epithermal neutrons returning to the borehole from the irradiated formations, (c) a neutron moderating material, (d) an outer thermal neutron shield providing a housing for the counter and the moderating material, (e) an inner thermal neutron shield dividing the housing so as to provide a first compartment bounded by the inner thermal neutron shield and a first portion of the outer thermal neutron shield and a second compartment bounded by the inner thermal neutron shield and a second portion of the outer thermal neutron shield, the counter being positioned within the first compartment and the moderating material being positioned within the second compartment, and (f) means for positioning the borehole tool against one side of the borehole wall and azimuthally orienting the borehole tool such that the first chamber is in juxtaposition with the borehole wall, the formation epithermal neutrons penetrating into the first chamber through the first portion of the outer thermal neutron shield are detected by the neutron counter for die-away measurement, thereby maximizing the directional sensitivty of the neutron counter to formation epithermal neutrons, the borehole fluid epithermal neutrons penetrating into the second chamber through the second chamber through the second portion of the outer thermal neutron shield are largely slowed down and lowered in energy by the moderating material and absorbed by the inner thermal neutron shield before penetrating into the first chamber, thereby minimizing the directional sensitivity of the neutron counter to borehole fluid epithermal neutrons

  11. Distributed intelligence in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    The CAMAC digital interface standard has served us well since 1969. During this time there have been enormous advances in digital electronics. In particular, low cost microprocessors now make it feasible to consider use of distributed intelligence even in simple data acquisition systems. This paper describes a simple extension of the CAMAC standard which allows distributed intelligence at the crate level

  12. Distributed intelligence in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A simple extension of the CAMAC standard is described which allows distributed intelligence at the crate level. By distributed intelligence is meant that there is more than one source of control in a system. This standard is just now emerging from the NIM Dataway Working Group and its European counterpart. 1 figure

  13. Wigner distribution in optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Testorf, M.; Hennelly, B.; Ojeda-Castañeda, J.

    2009-01-01

    In 1932 Wigner introduced a distribution function in mechanics that permitted a description of mechanical phenomena in a phase space. Such a Wigner distribution was introduced in optics by Dolin and Walther in the sixties, to relate partial coherence to radiometry. A few years later, the Wigner

  14. Cache Oblivious Distribution Sweeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    We adapt the distribution sweeping method to the cache oblivious model. Distribution sweeping is the name used for a general approach for divide-and-conquer algorithms where the combination of solved subproblems can be viewed as a merging process of streams. We demonstrate by a series of algorith...

  15. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  16. Distributed Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.

    1987-01-01

    In the past five years, distributed operating systems research has gone through a consolidation phase. On a large number of design issues there is now considerable consensus between different research groups. In this paper, an overview of recent research in distributed systems is given. In turn, the

  17. Intelligent distribution network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, F.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution networks (medium voltage and low voltage) are subject to changes caused by re-regulation of the energy supply, economical and environmental constraints more sensitive equipment, power quality requirements and the increasing penetration of distributed generation. The latter is seen as

  18. Smart Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD, is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  19. The Distributed Criterion Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This article describes and illustrates a novel form of the changing criterion design called the distributed criterion design, which represents perhaps the first advance in the changing criterion design in four decades. The distributed criterion design incorporates elements of the multiple baseline and A-B-A-B designs and is well suited to applied…

  20. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  1. Advanced Distribution Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Avazov, Artur; Sobinova, Lubov Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  2. Advanced Distribution Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  3. Advanced Distribution Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazov Artur R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  4. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  5. Distributed Analysis in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Fanfani, Alessandra; Sanches, Jose Afonso; Andreeva, Julia; Bagliesi, Giusepppe; Bauerdick, Lothar; Belforte, Stefano; Bittencourt Sampaio, Patricia; Bloom, Ken; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Brew, Chris; Calloni, Marco; Cesini, Daniele; Cinquilli, Mattia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Dong, Liang; Dongiovanni, Danilo; Donvito, Giacinto; Dykstra, David; Edelmann, Erik; Egeland, Ricky; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Evans, Dave; Fanzago, Federica; Farina, Fabio; Feichtinger, Derek; Fisk, Ian; Flix, Josep; Grandi, Claudio; Guo, Yuyi; Happonen, Kalle; Hernandez, Jose M; Huang, Chih-Hao; Kang, Kejing; Karavakis, Edward; Kasemann, Matthias; Kavka, Carlos; Khan, Akram; Kim, Bockjoo; Klem, Jukka; Koivumaki, Jesper; Kress, Thomas; Kreuzer, Peter; Kurca, Tibor; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Letts, James; Linden, Tomas; Lueking, Lee; Maes, Joris; Magini, Nicolo; Maier, Gerhild; McBride, Patricia; Metson, Simon; Miccio, Vincenzo; Padhi, Sanjay; Pi, Haifeng; Riahi, Hassen; Riley, Daniel; Rossman, Paul; Saiz, Pablo; Sartirana, Andrea; Sciaba, Andrea; Sekhri, Vijay; Spiga, Daniele; Tuura, Lassi; Vaandering, Eric; Vanelderen, Lukas; Van Mulders, Petra; Vedaee, Aresh; Villella, Ilaria; Wicklund, Eric; Wildish, Tony; Wissing, Christoph; Wurthwein, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment expects to manage several Pbytes of data each year during the LHC programme, distributing them over many computing sites around the world and enabling data access at those centers for analysis. CMS has identified the distributed sites as the primary location for physics analysis to support a wide community with thousands potential users. This represents an unprecedented experimental challenge in terms of the scale of distributed computing resources and number of user. An overview of the computing architecture, the software tools and the distributed infrastructure is reported. Summaries of the experience in establishing efficient and scalable operations to get prepared for CMS distributed analysis are presented, followed by the user experience in their current analysis activities.

  6. Managing Distributed Software Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby

    Increasingly, software projects are becoming geographically distributed, with limited face-toface interaction between participants. These projects face particular challenges that need careful managerial attention. This PhD study reports on how we can understand and support the management...... of distributed software projects, based on a literature study and a case study. The main emphasis of the literature study was on how to support the management of distributed software projects, but also contributed to an understanding of these projects. The main emphasis of the case study was on how to understand...... the management of distributed software projects, but also contributed to supporting the management of these projects. The literature study integrates what we know about risks and risk-resolution techniques, into a framework for managing risks in distributed contexts. This framework was developed iteratively...

  7. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    . Programming a modular, self-reconfigurable robot is however a complicated task: the robot is essentially a real-time, distributed embedded system, where control and communication paths often are tightly coupled to the current physical configuration of the robot. To facilitate the task of programming modular....... This approach allows the programmer to dynamically distribute behaviors throughout a robot and moreover provides a partial abstraction over the concrete physical shape of the robot. We have implemented a prototype of a distributed control diffusion system for the ATRON modular, self-reconfigurable robot......, self-reconfigurable robots, we present the concept of distributed control diffusion: distributed queries are used to identify modules that play a specific role in the robot, and behaviors that implement specific control strategies are diffused throughout the robot based on these role assignments...

  8. Distributed Language and Dialogism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Sune Vork

    2015-01-01

    addresses Linell’s critique of Distributed Language as rooted in biosemiotics and in theories of organism-environment systems. It is argued that Linell’s sense-based approach entails an individualist view of how conspecific Others acquire their status as prominent parts of the sense-maker’s environment......This article takes a starting point in Per Linell’s (2013) review article on the book Distributed Language (Cowley, 2011a) and other contributions to the field of ‘Distributed Language’, including Cowley et al. (2010) and Hodges et al. (2012). The Distributed Language approach is a naturalistic...... and anti-representational approach to language that builds on recent developments in the cognitive sciences. With a starting point in Linell’s discussion of the approach, the article aims to clarify four aspects of a distributed view of language vis-à-vis the tradition of Dialogism, as presented by Linell...

  9. Pervasive Electricity Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Tahir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Now a days a country cannot become economically strong until and unless it has enough electrical power to fulfil industrial and domestic needs. Electrical power being the pillar of any country’s economy, needs to be used in an efficient way. The same step is taken here by proposing a new system for energy distribution from substation to consumer houses, also it monitors the consumer consumption and record data. Unlike traditional manual Electrical systems, pervasive electricity distribution system (PEDS introduces a fresh perspective to monitor the feeder line status at distribution and consumer level. In this system an effort is taken to address the issues of electricity theft, manual billing, online monitoring of electrical distribution system and automatic control of electrical distribution points. The project is designed using microcontroller and different sensors, its GUI is designed in Labview software.

  10. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I.; Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  11. Distribution Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution Integration Distribution Integration The goal of NREL's distribution integration research is to tackle the challenges facing the widespread integration of distributed energy resources NREL engineers mapping out a grid model on a whiteboard. NREL's research on the integration of

  12. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid eSepehrband

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy, or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI. The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.

  13. Intelligent Control and Operation of Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad

    methodology to ensure efficient control and operation of the future distribution networks. The major scientific challenge is thus to develop control models and strategies to coordinate responses from widely distributed controllable loads and local generations. Detailed models of key Smart Grid (SG) elements...... in this direction but also benefit distribution system operators in the planning and development of the distribution network. The major contributions of this work are described in the following four stages: In the first stage, an intelligent Demand Response (DR) control architecture is developed for coordinating...... the key SG actors, namely consumers, network operators, aggregators, and electricity market entities. A key intent of the architecture is to facilitate market participation of residential consumers and prosumers. A Hierarchical Control Architecture (HCA) having primary, secondary, and tertiary control...

  14. Balanced distributed coding of omnidirectional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Vijayaraghavan; Tosic, Ivana; Frossard, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed coding scheme for the representation of 3D scenes captured by stereo omni-directional cameras. We consider a scenario where images captured from two different viewpoints are encoded independently, with a balanced rate distribution among the different cameras. The distributed coding is built on multiresolution representation and partitioning of the visual information in each camera. The encoder transmits one partition after entropy coding, as well as the syndrome bits resulting from the channel encoding of the other partition. The decoder exploits the intra-view correlation and attempts to reconstruct the source image by combination of the entropy-coded partition and the syndrome information. At the same time, it exploits the inter-view correlation using motion estimation between images from different cameras. Experiments demonstrate that the distributed coding solution performs better than a scheme where images are handled independently, and that the coding rate stays balanced between encoders.

  15. Cometary dust size distributions from flyby spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, N.

    1988-01-01

    Pior to the Halley flybys in 1986, the distribution of cometary dust grains with particle size were approximated using models which provided reasonable fits to the dynamics of dust tails, anti-tails, and infrared spectra. These distributions have since been improved using fluence data (i.e., particle fluxes integrated over time along the flyby trajectory) from three spacecraft. The fluence derived distributions are appropriate for comparison with simultaneous infrared photometry (from Earth) because they sample the particles in the same way as the IR data do (along the line of sight) and because they are directly proportional to the concentration distribution in that region of the coma which dominates the IR emission

  16. Distributed model predictive control made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Negenborn, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of computer science, communication, and information technology has enabled the application of control techniques to systems beyond the possibilities of control theory just a decade ago. Critical infrastructures such as electricity, water, traffic and intermodal transport networks are now in the scope of control engineers. The sheer size of such large-scale systems requires the adoption of advanced distributed control approaches. Distributed model predictive control (MPC) is one of the promising control methodologies for control of such systems.   This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of distributed MPC approaches, while at the same time making clear directions of research that deserve more attention. The core and rationale of 35 approaches are carefully explained. Moreover, detailed step-by-step algorithmic descriptions of each approach are provided. These features make the book a comprehensive guide both for those seeking an introduction to distributed MPC as well as for those ...

  17. Coatings for directional eutectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  18. New directions in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This news brief relates some new directions, since its inception in 1988, which the Family Welfare Association of Guatemala (APROFAM) will be undertaking during 1996-97. In December 1997, APROFAM restructured its program to include reproductive health services with family planning services. The program will target rural Mayan communities. The program will be working toward service sustainability, due to reduced external support. In October 1996 a new board was established that will focus on marketing, IEC, finance and administration, rural development, and clinical services. Meetings between the new board of directors of APROFAM and JOICFP focused on the use of integrated programs as a model for widespread programming among the rural Mayan population. The integrated program that was implemented by JOICFP was successful in reaching Mayan communities of Solola. This population was difficult to reach with conventional family planning approaches. The integrated program was successful in establishing trust with and participation of the rural Mayans. Activities such as parasite control, skills training, and income generation for women were useful in establishing trust and promoting self-reliance. Integrated programs will refocus on family planning and developing self-reliance. The UNFPA will be conducting an annual internal evaluation as a means of sharing information and deepening understanding of project implementation.

  19. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  20. Centralized versus distributed propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The functions and requirements of auxiliary propulsion systems are reviewed. None of the three major tasks (attitude control, stationkeeping, and shape control) can be performed by a collection of thrusters at a single central location. If a centralized system is defined as a collection of separated clusters, made up of the minimum number of propulsion units, then such a system can provide attitude control and stationkeeping for most vehicles. A distributed propulsion system is characterized by more numerous propulsion units in a regularly distributed arrangement. Various proposed large space systems are reviewed and it is concluded that centralized auxiliary propulsion is best suited to vehicles with a relatively rigid core. These vehicles may carry a number of flexible or movable appendages. A second group, consisting of one or more large flexible flat plates, may need distributed propulsion for shape control. There is a third group, consisting of vehicles built up from multiple shuttle launches, which may be forced into a distributed system because of the need to add additional propulsion units as the vehicles grow. The effects of distributed propulsion on a beam-like structure were examined. The deflection of the structure under both translational and rotational thrusts is shown as a function of the number of equally spaced thrusters. When two thrusters only are used it is shown that location is an important parameter. The possibility of using distributed propulsion to achieve minimum overall system weight is also examined. Finally, an examination of the active damping by distributed propulsion is described.

  1. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    For example, the outcome of this study could help further development of ... selection of the years was informed by the availability of gridded population data. The dataset .... slight difference in the directional distribution of the economic activity.

  2. Laser direct writing using submicron-diameter fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Yang, Guoguang; Bai, Jian; Xu, Jianfeng; Hou, Changlun; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.

  3. Technologies for distributed defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  4. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  5. Distributed analysis at LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Mike; Egede, Ulrik; Paterson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The distributed analysis experience to date at LHCb has been positive: job success rates are high and wait times for high-priority jobs are low. LHCb users access the grid using the GANGA job-management package, while the LHCb virtual organization manages its resources using the DIRAC package. This clear division of labor has benefitted LHCb and its users greatly; it is a major reason why distributed analysis at LHCb has been so successful. The newly formed LHCb distributed analysis support team has also proved to be a success.

  6. Agile distributed software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Mathiassen, Lars; Aaen, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    While face-to-face interaction is fundamental in agile software development, distributed environments must rely extensively on mediated interactions. Practicing agile principles in distributed environments therefore poses particular control challenges related to balancing fixed vs. evolving quality...... requirements and people vs. process-based collaboration. To investigate these challenges, we conducted an in-depth case study of a successful agile distributed software project with participants from a Russian firm and a Danish firm. Applying Kirsch’s elements of control framework, we offer an analysis of how...

  7. Money distribution with intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Caio Augusto Colnago

    2013-01-01

    This pap er analyzes the distribution of money holdings in a commo dity money search-based mo del with intermediation. Intro ducing heterogeneity of costs to the Kiyotaki e Wright ( 1989 ) mo del, Cavalcanti e Puzzello ( 2010) gives rise to a non-degenerated distribution of money. We extend further this mo del intro ducing intermediation in the trading pro cess. We show that the distribution of money matters for savings decisions. This gives rises to a xed p oint problem for the ...

  8. Direct UV-written broadband directional broadband planar waveguide couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation.......We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation....

  9. Tsallis distribution as a standard maximum entropy solution with 'tail' constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercher, J.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We show that Tsallis' distributions can be derived from the standard (Shannon) maximum entropy setting, by incorporating a constraint on the divergence between the distribution and another distribution imagined as its tail. In this setting, we find an underlying entropy which is the Renyi entropy. Furthermore, escort distributions and generalized means appear as a direct consequence of the construction. Finally, the 'maximum entropy tail distribution' is identified as a Generalized Pareto Distribution

  10. Research on the optimization of vehicle distribution routes in logistics enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhigou; Ma, Mengkun

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern logistics, the vehicle routing problem has become one of the urgent problems in the logistics industry. The rationality of distribution route planning directly affects the efficiency and quality of logistics distribution. This paper first introduces the definition of logistics distribution and the three methods of optimizing the distribution routes, and then analyzes the current vehicle distribution route by using a representative example, finally puts forward the optimization schemes of logistics distribution route.

  11. Theoretical method for determining particle distribution functions of classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1980-01-01

    An equation which involves the triplet distribution function and the three-particle direct correlation function is obtained. This equation was derived using an analogue of the Ornstein--Zernike equation. The new equation is used to develop a variational method for obtaining the triplet distribution function of uniform one-component atomic fluids from the pair distribution function. The variational method may be used with the first and second equations in the YBG hierarchy to obtain pair and triplet distribution functions. It should be easy to generalize the results to the n-particle distribution function

  12. Income dynamics with a stationary double Pareto distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Alexis Akira

    2011-04-01

    Once controlled for the trend, the distribution of personal income appears to be double Pareto, a distribution that obeys the power law exactly in both the upper and the lower tails. I propose a model of income dynamics with a stationary distribution that is consistent with this fact. Using US male wage data for 1970-1993, I estimate the power law exponent in two ways--(i) from each cross section, assuming that the distribution has converged to the stationary distribution, and (ii) from a panel directly estimating the parameters of the income dynamics model--and obtain the same value of 8.4.

  13. Over-Distribution in Source Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Holliday, R. E.; Nakamura, K.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, over-distribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Over-distribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the two are disentangled. We investigated whether over-distribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly over-distribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, over-distribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of over-distribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list-order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that predicts that (a) over-distribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

  14. Trends of distributed generation development in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskinis, Vaclovas; Norvaisa, Egidijus; Galinis, Arvydas; Konstantinaviciute, Inga

    2011-01-01

    The closure of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, impact of recent global recession of the economy, as well as changes and problems posed by the global climate change require significant alterations in the Lithuanian energy sector development. This paper describes the current status and specific features of the Lithuanian power system, and in particular discusses the role of the distributed generators. Country's energy policy during last two decades was focused on substantial modernisation of the energy systems, their reorganisation and creation of appropriate institutional structure and necessary legal basis. The most important factors stimulating development of distributed generation in Lithuania are the following: international obligations to increase contribution of power plants using renewable energy sources into electricity production balance; development of small (with capacity less than 50 MW) cogeneration power plants; implementation of energy policy directed to promotion of renewable energy sources and cogeneration. Analysis of the legal and economic environment, as well as principles of regulation of distributed generation and barriers to its development is presented. - Highlights: → Paper describes current status and specific features of the Lithuanian power system. → Analysis of the legal and economic environment regarding distributed generation. → Current situation is not favourable for distributed generation development. → Problems, barriers, principles of regulation of distributed generation is presented. → New energy policy regarding distributed generation and renewables.

  15. Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päivinen, Jussi; Grapputo, Alessandro; Kaitala, Veijo; Komonen, Atte; Kotiaho, Janne S; Saarinen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2005-03-01

    Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals), we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

  16. Learning Networks Distributed Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van Bruggen, Jan; Spoelstra, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Learning Networks Distributed Environment is a prototype of an architecture that allows the sharing and modification of learning materials through a number of transport protocols. The prototype implements a p2p protcol using JXTA.

  17. Sheaves of Schwartz distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damyanov, B.P.

    1991-09-01

    The theory of sheaves is a relevant mathematical language for describing the localization principle, known to be valid for the Schwartz distributions (generalized functions). After introducing some fundamentals of sheaves and the basic facts about distribution spaces, the distribution sheaf D Ω of topological C-vector spaces over an open set Ω in R n is systematically studied. A sheaf D M of distributions on a C ∞ -manifold M is then introduced, following a definition of Hoermander's for its particular elements. Further, a general definition of sheaves on a manifold, that are locally isomorphic to (or, modelled on) a sheaf on R n , in proposed. The sheaf properties of D M are studied and this sheaf is shown to be locally isomorphic to D Ω , as a sheaf of topological vector spaces. (author). 14 refs

  18. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  19. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  20. Financing Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.

    2001-06-29

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market.

  1. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  2. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  3. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  4. A Distributed Ledger for Supply Chain Physical Distribution Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyan Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains (SC span many geographies, modes and industries and involve several phases where data flows in both directions from suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, to customers. This data flow is necessary to support critical business decisions that may impact product cost and market share. Current SC information systems are unable to provide validated, pseudo real-time shipment tracking during the distribution phase. This information is available from a single source, often the carrier, and is shared with other stakeholders on an as-needed basis. This paper introduces an independent, crowd-validated, online shipment tracking framework that complements current enterprise-based SC management solutions. The proposed framework consists of a set of private distributed ledgers and a single blockchain public ledger. Each private ledger allows the private sharing of custody events among the trading partners in a given shipment. Privacy is necessary, for example, when trading high-end products or chemical and pharmaceutical products. The second type of ledger is a blockchain public ledger. It consists of the hash code of each private event in addition to monitoring events. The latter provide an independently validated immutable record of the pseudo real-time geolocation status of the shipment from a large number of sources using commuters-sourcing.

  5. Tradeoffs in distributed databases

    OpenAIRE

    Juntunen, R. (Risto)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In a distributed database data is spread throughout the network into separated nodes with different DBMS systems (Date, 2000). According to CAP-theorem three database properties — consistency, availability and partition tolerance cannot be achieved simultaneously in distributed database systems. Two of these properties can be achieved but not all three at the same time (Brewer, 2000). Since this theorem there has b...

  6. Distributed generation hits market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it's highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can't handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities

  7. Tourism distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The distribution channels link the customers with the businesses. For many years, the tourism businesses may have distributed their products and services through intermediaries. However, the latest advances in technology have brought significant changes in this regard. More individuals and corporate customers are increasingly benefiting of ubiquitous technologies, including digital media. The development of mobile devices and their applications, are offering a wide range of possibilities to t...

  8. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  9. Distributed password cracking

    OpenAIRE

    Crumpacker, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Password cracking requires significant processing power, which in today's world is located at a workstation or home in the form of a desktop computer. Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is the conduit to this significant source of processing power and John the Ripper is the key. BOINC is a distributed data processing system that incorporates client-server relationships to generically process data. The BOINC structu...

  10. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  11. TensorFlow Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Joshua V.; Langmore, Ian; Tran, Dustin; Brevdo, Eugene; Vasudevan, Srinivas; Moore, Dave; Patton, Brian; Alemi, Alex; Hoffman, Matt; Saurous, Rif A.

    2017-01-01

    The TensorFlow Distributions library implements a vision of probability theory adapted to the modern deep-learning paradigm of end-to-end differentiable computation. Building on two basic abstractions, it offers flexible building blocks for probabilistic computation. Distributions provide fast, numerically stable methods for generating samples and computing statistics, e.g., log density. Bijectors provide composable volume-tracking transformations with automatic caching. Together these enable...

  12. Intelligent distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a selection of refereed and revised papers of the Intelligent Distributed Computing Track originally presented at the third International Symposium on Intelligent Informatics (ISI-2014), September 24-27, 2014, Delhi, India.  The papers selected for this Track cover several Distributed Computing and related topics including Peer-to-Peer Networks, Cloud Computing, Mobile Clouds, Wireless Sensor Networks, and their applications.

  13. Parton Distributions Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, L. de; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of impacts of distributed generation integration in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sujiang; Zhou, Erbiao; Ji, Fengkun; Cao, Xinhui; Liu, Lingshuang; Liu, Zifa; Wang, Xuyang; Cai, Xiaoyu

    2018-04-01

    All Distributed generation (DG) as the supplement to renewable energy centralized utilization, is becoming the focus of development direction of renewable energy utilization. With the increasing proportion of DG in distribution network, the network power structure, power flow distribution, operation plans and protection are affected to some extent. According to the main impacts of DG, a comprehensive evaluation model of distributed network with DG is proposed in this paper. A comprehensive evaluation index system including 7 aspects, along with their corresponding index calculation method is established for quantitative analysis. The indices under different access capacity of DG in distribution network are calculated based on the IEEE RBTS-Bus 6 system and the evaluation result is calculated by analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The proposed model and method are verified effective and validity through case study.

  15. Status and future of the direct sales market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuMaresq, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Three topics of interest concerning the direct purchase of natural gas, were discussed. The three topics were: (1) the Ontario market, past, present and future, along with an analysis of market segmentation, (2) Ontario local distribution companies (LDC) separation, or separating the merchant role from the distribution role, and (3) the status of direct purchase in Alberta. Changes in the natural gas market since deregulation in 1985, were also reviewed. It was noted that today, only a handful of agents, brokers and marketers of natural gas are vying for the market; customers are looking to purchase gas at a price lower than the LDC buy/sell price; and there is pressure for the LDCs to separate the merchant functions from the distribution functions in most of the provinces in Canada. The direct and long term impact of these developments will be to enhance competition among distributors

  16. Directional sensitivity of MuSTAnG muon telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeva Marina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate directional sensitivity of MuSTAnG muon telescope by deriving the distribution of secondary muons, which create the counting rate of telescope, by asymptotic directions of primary protons. This distribution, defined as “directivity function”, allows us to clarify protons appearing from which direction essentially contribute to counting rate of detector. Directivity function has different behavior for the muons falling on the telescope at different zenith and polar angles. Vertical, West, and East fluxes exhibit strong maximums near the asymptotic longitude about 61°, whereas North and South fluxes have larger spread distributions. About 65% of muons, which create the Vertical counting rate of MuSTAnG, are produced by the primary protons, coming in the interval of asymptotic longitudes about (50°, 80°. Using directivity function will allow one to more correctly determine the location of interplanetary disturbances. Analogous analysis, made for other muon detectors, will clarify their directional sensitivities, improving by this the forecasting capability of network of ground-based muon detectors.

  17. A direct Newton-Raphson economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.E.; Chen, S.T.; Huang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to solve the real-time economic dispatch problem using an alternative Jacobian matrix considering system constraints. The transition loss is approximately expressed in terms of generating powers and the generalized generation shift distribution factor. Based on this expression, a set of simultaneous equations of Jacobian matrix is formulated and solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The proposed method eliminates the penalty factor calculation, and solves the economic dispatch directly. The proposed method obtains very fast solution speed and maintains good accuracy from test examples. It is good approach to solve the economic dispatch problem

  18. A Review of Multivariate Distributions for Count Data Derived from the Poisson Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, David; Yang, Eunho; Allen, Genevera; Ravikumar, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    The Poisson distribution has been widely studied and used for modeling univariate count-valued data. Multivariate generalizations of the Poisson distribution that permit dependencies, however, have been far less popular. Yet, real-world high-dimensional count-valued data found in word counts, genomics, and crime statistics, for example, exhibit rich dependencies, and motivate the need for multivariate distributions that can appropriately model this data. We review multivariate distributions derived from the univariate Poisson, categorizing these models into three main classes: 1) where the marginal distributions are Poisson, 2) where the joint distribution is a mixture of independent multivariate Poisson distributions, and 3) where the node-conditional distributions are derived from the Poisson. We discuss the development of multiple instances of these classes and compare the models in terms of interpretability and theory. Then, we empirically compare multiple models from each class on three real-world datasets that have varying data characteristics from different domains, namely traffic accident data, biological next generation sequencing data, and text data. These empirical experiments develop intuition about the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each class of multivariate distribution that was derived from the Poisson. Finally, we suggest new research directions as explored in the subsequent discussion section.

  19. Progress on Protection Strategies to Mitigate the Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Norshahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of distributed generation (DG based on renewable energy sources leads to its high integration in the distribution network (DN. Despite its well-known benefits, mainly in improving the distribution system reliability and security, there are challenges encountered from a protection system perspective. Traditionally, the design and operation of the protection system are based on a unidirectional power flow in the distribution network. However, the integration of distributed generation causes multidirectional power flows in the system. Therefore, the existing protection systems require some improvement or modification to address this new feature. Various protection strategies for distribution system have been proposed so that the benefits of distributed generation can be fully utilized. This paper reviews the current progress in protection strategies to mitigate the impact of distributed generation in the distribution network. In general, the reviewed strategies in this paper are divided into: (1 conventional protection systems and (2 modifications of the protection systems. A comparative study is presented in terms of the respective benefits, shortcomings and implementation cost. Future directions for research in this area are also presented.

  20. Estimation of directional wave spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Bhat, S.S.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    Directional properties of ocean waves are of great economic interest. The knowledge of wave directionality is important for the design of maritime structures and offshore operations. Two main aspects are considered for this study for the data...

  1. Estimation of wave directional spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    One of the useful measures of waves directional spreading at a given location is the directional spreading parameter. This paper presents a new approach to arrive at its characteristic value using the computational technique of Artificial Neural...

  2. Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

  3. Innovative tool of direct marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Maksymova

    2010-01-01

    The aspects of direct marketing activation on the basis of interactive applications introduction are examined. Basic advantages, linked with the use of the integrated marketing communications during formation of direct marketing strategies are open up.

  4. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  5. Directional wave measurements and modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Bhat, S.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    Some of the results obtained from analysis of the monsoon directional wave data measured over 4 years in shallow waters off the west coast of India are presented. The directional spectrum computed from the time series data seems to indicate...

  6. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  7. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-09-01

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  8. Raytracing and Direct-Drive Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andrew J.; Bates, Jason; Fyfe, David; Eimerl, David

    2013-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of laser imprinting and drive asymmetries in directly driven targets requires the ability to distinguish between raytrace noise and the intensity structure produced by the spatial and temporal incoherence of optical smoothing. We have developed and implemented a smoother raytrace algorithm for our mpi-parallel radiation hydrodynamics code, FAST3D. The underlying approach is to connect the rays into either sheets (in 2D) or volume-enclosing chunks (in 3D) so that the absorbed energy distribution continuously covers the propagation area illuminated by the laser. We will describe the status and show the different scalings encountered in 2D and 3D problems as the computational size, parallelization strategy, and number of rays is varied. Finally, we show results using the method in current NIKE experimental target simulations and in proposed symmetric and polar direct-drive target designs. Supported by US DoE/NNSA.

  9. Scanner for the recording of radioactivity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebeck, U.

    1975-01-01

    In a scintiscanner comprising an upper measuring head and a lower measuring head and associated write heads, the activity distribution measured by the lower measuring head is recorded in the form of a mirror-image if the write heads in the two recording directions are moved in the same direction with respect to each other. However, if the write heads in the one recording direction are displaced opposite to each other, a correct recording is obtained, but it is then very difficult to compare the scintigrams recorded by the measuring heads. The invention describes a simple mechanical device by means of which the write heads can be moved in the same or in the opposite direction with respect to each other. (auth)

  10. On-Line Detection of Distributed Attacks from Space-Time Network Flow Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baras, J. S; Cardenas, A. A; Ramezani, V

    2003-01-01

    .... The directionality of the change in a network flow is assumed to have an objective or target. The particular problem of detecting distributed denial of service attacks from distributed observations is presented as a working framework...

  11. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from non-disinfected drinking water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...

  12. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... smokeless tobacco only in a direct, face-to-face exchange between the retailer and the consumer. Examples of... retailer may distribute or cause to be distributed any free samples of smokeless tobacco: (i) To a sports...

  13. Ripple distribution for nonlinear fiber-optic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, Mariia; Sygletos, Stylianos; Turitsyn, Sergei

    2017-02-06

    We demonstrate data rates above the threshold imposed by nonlinearity on conventional optical signals by applying novel probability distribution, which we call ripple distribution, adapted to the properties of the fiber channel. Our results offer a new direction for signal coding, modulation and practical nonlinear distortions compensation algorithms.

  14. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.H.; Gallacher, J.G.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z.X.; Dias, J.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz

  15. Smart curtailment for congestion management in LV distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A. N.M.M.; Rahman, M. T.; Nguyen, P. H.; Bliek, F. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) leads to capacity challenges, i.e. network congestions, in the low-voltage (LV) distribution networks. A number of strategies are being widely studied to tackle the challenges with direct switching actions such as load shedding or power

  16. Distribution System Pricing with Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hledik, Ryan [The Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazar, Jim [The Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Technological changes in the electric utility industry bring tremendous opportunities and significant challenges. Customers are installing clean sources of on-site generation such as rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. At the same time, smart appliances and control systems that can communicate with the grid are entering the retail market. Among the opportunities these changes create are a cleaner and more diverse power system, the ability to improve system reliability and system resilience, and the potential for lower total costs. Challenges include integrating these new resources in a way that maintains system reliability, provides an equitable sharing of system costs, and avoids unbalanced impacts on different groups of customers, including those who install distributed energy resources (DERs) and low-income households who may be the least able to afford the transition.

  17. Renewable resource policy when distributional impacts matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The standard assumption in bioeconomic resource models is that optimal policies maximize the present value of economic surplus to society. This assumption implies that regulatory agencies should not be concerned with the distributional consequences of management strategies. Both contemporary welfare-theoretic and rent-seeking approaches suggests distributional issues are important in designing resource management policies. This paper explores resource management when the managing agency has preferences defined over the economic welfare of various groups with a direct economic interest in the use of resources. Policy schemes consistent with this approach are derived and compared with standard results. 42 refs

  18. Increased Observability in Electric Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander Maria

    infrastructure in distribution grids. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental verifications of the investigated concepts wherever applicable. Electric grids are changing, and so are the roles of system operators. The interest in sustainable energy and the rapidly increasing number of Distributed Energy...... that DSO areas are not necessarily self-sufficient. Missing power is covered by neighbouring areas to confine problems in a small region, which is demonstrated in SYSLAB on a two-area, grid-connected setup. The results highlight the advantages of harnessing the information obtained directly from...

  19. Effective distributions of quasiparticles for thermal photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    It has been found in recent heavy-ion experiments that the second and the third flow harmonics of direct photons are larger than most theoretical predictions. In this study, I construct effective parton phase-space distributions with in-medium interaction using quasiparticle models so that they are consistent with a lattice QCD equation of state. Then I investigate their effects on thermal photons using a hydrodynamic model. Numerical results indicate that elliptic flow and transverse momentum spectra are modified by the corrections to Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions.

  20. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  1. 2015 Plan. Project 6: urban and rural distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The main development trends of distribution systems in 2015 Plan is studied, with the data of market continuity, costs and evolution of the physique system. Some factors that will influence the evolution of the distribution systems are presented and the impacts of economic view are discussed. The strategic lines that will give direction for the distribution expansion, including the energy conservation are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  2. Relaxation of Distributed Data Aggregation for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    2 3.1 Gossip algorithms for distributed averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.2 Distributed particle filtering...algorithm that had direct access to all of the measurements. We use gossip algorithms (discussed in Section 3.1) to diffuse information across the...2 3.1 Gossip algorithms for distributed averaging We begin by discussing gossip algorithms, which we use to synchronize and spread infor- mation

  3. Overlapping clusters for distributed computation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirrokni, Vahab (Google Research, New York, NY); Andersen, Reid (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA); Gleich, David F.

    2010-11-01

    Scalable, distributed algorithms must address communication problems. We investigate overlapping clusters, or vertex partitions that intersect, for graph computations. This setup stores more of the graph than required but then affords the ease of implementation of vertex partitioned algorithms. Our hope is that this technique allows us to reduce communication in a computation on a distributed graph. The motivation above draws on recent work in communication avoiding algorithms. Mohiyuddin et al. (SC09) design a matrix-powers kernel that gives rise to an overlapping partition. Fritzsche et al. (CSC2009) develop an overlapping clustering for a Schwarz method. Both techniques extend an initial partitioning with overlap. Our procedure generates overlap directly. Indeed, Schwarz methods are commonly used to capitalize on overlap. Elsewhere, overlapping communities (Ahn et al, Nature 2009; Mishra et al. WAW2007) are now a popular model of structure in social networks. These have long been studied in statistics (Cole and Wishart, CompJ 1970). We present two types of results: (i) an estimated swapping probability {rho}{infinity}; and (ii) the communication volume of a parallel PageRank solution (link-following {alpha} = 0.85) using an additive Schwarz method. The volume ratio is the amount of extra storage for the overlap (2 means we store the graph twice). Below, as the ratio increases, the swapping probability and PageRank communication volume decreases.

  4. Distributed wireless quantum communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xu-Tao; Xu Jin; Zhang Zai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The distributed wireless quantum communication network (DWQCN) has a distributed network topology and transmits information by quantum states. In this paper, we present the concept of the DWQCN and propose a system scheme to transfer quantum states in the DWQCN. The system scheme for transmitting information between any two nodes in the DWQCN includes a routing protocol and a scheme for transferring quantum states. The routing protocol is on-demand and the routing metric is selected based on the number of entangled particle pairs. After setting up a route, quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping are used for transferring quantum states. Entanglement swapping is achieved along with the process of routing set up and the acknowledgment packet transmission. The measurement results of each entanglement swapping are piggybacked with route reply packets or acknowledgment packets. After entanglement swapping, a direct quantum link between source and destination is set up and quantum states are transferred by quantum teleportation. Adopting this scheme, the measurement results of entanglement swapping do not need to be transmitted specially, which decreases the wireless transmission cost and transmission delay. (general)

  5. Distributed computing at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormell, L.; White, R.

    1993-05-01

    The rapid increase in the availability of high performance, cost- effective RISC/UNIX workstations has been both a blessing and a curse. The blessing of having extremely powerful computing engines available on the desk top is well-known to many users. The user has tremendous freedom, flexibility, and control of his environment. That freedom can, however, become the curse of distributed computing. The user must become a system manager to some extent, he must worry about backups, maintenance, upgrades, etc. Traditionally these activities have been the responsibility of a central computing group. The central computing group, however, may find that it can no linger provide all of the traditional services. With the plethora of workstations now found on so many desktops throughout the entire campus or lab, the central computing group may be swamped by support requests. This talk will address several of these computer support and management issues by discussing the approach taken at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. In addition, a brief review of the future directions of commercial products for distributed computing and management will be given

  6. Distributed computing at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormell, L.R.; White, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The rapid increase in the availability of high performance, cost-effective RISC/UNIX workstations has been both a blessing and a curse. The blessing of having extremely powerful computing engines available on the desk top is well-known to many users. The user has tremendous freedom, flexibility, and control of his environment. That freedom can, however, become the curse of distributed computing. The user must become a system manager to some extent, he must worry about backups, maintenance, upgrades, etc. Traditionally these activities have been the responsibility of central computing group. The central computing group, however, may find that it can no longer provide all of the traditional services. With the plethora of workstations now found on so many desktops throughout the entire campus or lab, the central computing group may be swamped by support requests. This talk will address several of these computer support and management issues by discussing the approach taken at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). In addition, a brief review of the future directions of commercial products for distributed computing and management will be given

  7. Distribution definition of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerler, W.

    1979-01-01

    By starting from quantum mechanics it turns out that a rather general definition of quantum functional integrals can be given which is based on distribution theory. It applies also to curved space and provides clear rules for non-linear transformations. The refinements necessary in usual definitions of path integrals are pointed out. Since the quantum nature requires special care with time sequences, it is not the classical phase space which occurs in the phase-space form of the path integral. Feynman's configuration-space form only applies to a highly specialized situation, and therefore is not a very advantageous starting point for general investigations. It is shown that the commonly used substitutions of variables do not properly account for quantum effects. The relation to the traditional ordering problem is clarified. The distribution formulation has allowed to treat constrained systems directly at the quantum level, to complete the path integral formulation of the equivalence theorem, and to define functional integrals also for space translation after the transition to fields. (orig.)

  8. Spatial Distribution of Market Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Morshedul Islam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to find the location pattern, distribution and their sphere of influences of market centers in Rangpur City Corporation, Bangladesh. Rangpur is facing some problems like a traffic jam, noisy environment, population pressure etc due to the over population in full day long in the center of this city, all of the whole sale and retail sale markets are located in the middle. Location of Market is always influencing the daily life of the city population who are directly or indirectly connected with the market. If the market strategically distributed in an area they don’t face such kind of problems. Analysis or investigation shows that at about all of the market centers are located in the center of Rangpur and in the residential area of Rangpur. The maximum 67% market centers are found in the high-income residential area. Rangpur City Corporation, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and survey of Bangladesh provided the maps, reports and relevant documents of the study. The spatial dispersion pattern of market centers is clustered together at one place 0.33(Nearest Neighbor Index value, R found in the study area. Geographical Information System (GIS and other software also used to analyze the maps and diagrams. Investigation refers that, the market of Rangpur city have a clustered pattern and different levels of market centers found on the bases of centrality scores. By this centrality scores or levels, found the variation of influencing spheres of market centers in Rangpur City.

  9. Mean-field level analysis of epidemics in directed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiazeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Zengrong [Mathematics Department, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)], E-mail: wangjiazen@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zrongliu@online.sh.cn

    2009-09-04

    The susceptible-infected-removed spreading model in a directed graph is studied. The mean-field level rate equations are built with the degree-degree connectivity correlation element and the (in, out)-degree distribution. And the outbreak threshold is obtained analytically-it is determined by the combination of connectivity probability and the degree distribution. Furthermore, the methods of calculating the degree-degree correlations in directed networks are presented. The numerical results of the discrete epidemic processes in networks verify our analyses.

  10. Mean-field level analysis of epidemics in directed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiazeng; Liu, Zengrong

    2009-01-01

    The susceptible-infected-removed spreading model in a directed graph is studied. The mean-field level rate equations are built with the degree-degree connectivity correlation element and the (in, out)-degree distribution. And the outbreak threshold is obtained analytically-it is determined by the combination of connectivity probability and the degree distribution. Furthermore, the methods of calculating the degree-degree correlations in directed networks are presented. The numerical results of the discrete epidemic processes in networks verify our analyses.

  11. Seveso directive: the leading innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzani, V.; Zanelli, S.

    1998-01-01

    Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major accident hazards caused by dangerous substances, also known as 'Seveso-II' Directive, was adopted by the European Council on December 1996. The member states of the European Community shall bring into force the Directive not later than February 1999. Some innovative aspects of the Directive are discussed. In particular, this paper focuses on the effects of the new criteria for the identification of establishments to which the Directive obligations will apply and for land use planning in the vicinity of the establishments [it

  12. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  13. Scaling the Poisson Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2014-01-01

    We derive the additive property of Poisson random variables directly from the probability mass function. An important application of the additive property to quality testing of computer chips is presented.

  14. Vaginal drug distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David F; Yuan, Andrew; Gao, Yajing

    2015-09-15

    This review presents and applies fundamental mass transport theory describing the diffusion and convection driven mass transport of drugs to the vaginal environment. It considers sources of variability in the predictions of the models. It illustrates use of model predictions of microbicide drug concentration distribution (pharmacokinetics) to gain insights about drug effectiveness in preventing HIV infection (pharmacodynamics). The modeling compares vaginal drug distributions after different gel dosage regimens, and it evaluates consequences of changes in gel viscosity due to aging. It compares vaginal mucosal concentration distributions of drugs delivered by gels vs. intravaginal rings. Finally, the modeling approach is used to compare vaginal drug distributions across species with differing vaginal dimensions. Deterministic models of drug mass transport into and throughout the vaginal environment can provide critical insights about the mechanisms and determinants of such transport. This knowledge, and the methodology that obtains it, can be applied and translated to multiple applications, involving the scientific underpinnings of vaginal drug distribution and the performance evaluation and design of products, and their dosage regimens, that achieve it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sparse distributed memory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  16. Distributed processor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharov, B.

    1976-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency in high-energy physics and in other fields to solve computational problems by distributing tasks among the resources of inter-coupled processing devices and associated system elements. This trend has gained further momentum more recently with the increased availability of low-cost processors and with the development of the means of data distribution. In two lectures, the broad question of distributed computing systems is examined and the historical development of such systems reviewed. An attempt is made to examine the reasons for the existence of these systems and to discern the main trends for the future. The components of distributed systems are discussed in some detail and particular emphasis is placed on the importance of standards and conventions in certain key system components. The ideas and principles of distributed systems are discussed in general terms, but these are illustrated by a number of concrete examples drawn from the context of the high-energy physics environment. (Auth.)

  17. ABOUT DIRECT SALES IN THE WORLD, EUROPE AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct sale represents a modern product distribution system directly to consumers, generally, directly to their homes, to their workplace or other places, beside retail shops. The best known type of direct sale, the Network Marketing or Multilevel Marketing implies the existence of a network of distributors which earn income from selling on commission, to which they add the trade markup. This paper is based upon the analysis of these types of sales starting with the study of specialized literature especially by foreign authors, mainly Americans, with the analysis of statistical data presented by several organizations such as SELDIA (The European Direct Selling Association, MLM International Romania, ACVD (Association of Direct Selling Companies in Romania, as well as the legal regulations within this field. In conclusion, the paper presents an interesting comparison of the sales and structure volume between the Europe and Romania.

  18. Multimedia Distribution: A View from the Supply Side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Myles

    1998-01-01

    Describes how multimedia products start as ideas and go through the stages of design, production, manufacturing, and marketing. Highlights include corporate consolidation, market distribution in 1997, encyclopedias and the growing Internet trend, direct marketers and sales, CD-ROM and DVD (digital video disk), costs, and future directions. (AEF)

  19. Experiments to measure the gluon helicity distribution in protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Beddo, M.E.; Underwood, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Several experiments are described that could obtain information about the gluon helicity distribution in protons. These experiments include inclusive direct-γ, direct-γ + jet, jet, and jet + jet production with colliding beams of longitudinally-polarized protons. Some rates and kinematics are also discussed

  20. A New Distribution-Random Limit Normal Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiaolin; Yang, Shuzhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new distribution to improve tail risk modeling. Based on the classical normal distribution, we define a new distribution by a series of heat equations. Then, we use market data to verify our model.