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Sample records for direct susceptibility testing

  1. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

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    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  2. Susceptibility Testing

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    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... can develop resistance to the drugs used to treat them, but that type of testing is performed ...

  3. Direct susceptibility testing by disk diffusion on clinical samples : a rapid and accurate tool for antibiotic stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coorevits, L.; Boelens, J.; Claeys, G.

    We compared the accuracy of direct susceptibility testing (DST) with conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), both using disk diffusion, on clinical samples. A total of 123 clinical samples (respiratory tract samples, urine, vaginal and abdominal abscess discharges, bile fluid and a

  4. Performance and clinical significance of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing on urine from hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, K.B.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Verkaart, G.; Sturm, P.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections in the community and the hospital. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, specifically in the Gram-negative uropathogens, reliable, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility data would be useful to guide antimicrobial treatment. Direct

  5. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system.

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    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for rapid analysis of bronchial secretion samples in ventilator-associated pneumonia.

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    Kontopidou, Flora; Galani, Irene; Panagea, Theofano; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Souli, Maria; Paramythiotou, Elisabeth; Koukos, George; Karadani, Irene; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Giamarellou, Helen

    2011-08-01

    Two hundred and fifty tracheal aspirates were subjected to direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion, Etest and inoculation on antibiotic-enriched MacConkey agar plates. Results were compared with those obtained using an automated system on microorganisms recovered from standard quantitative culture. A total of 255 microorganisms were isolated from 194 positive samples by the standard quantitative procedure. A total of 85.1%, 82.5% and 72.5% agreement between direct disk diffusion, Etest and antibiotic-enriched MacConkey agar plates, respectively, and the standard procedure was observed in 64 microorganisms obtained from monomicrobial cultures that corresponded to 240 individual microorganism-antimicrobial agent combinations. Three (1.3%) and four (1.7%) very major errors for direct disk diffusion and Etest methods were observed, respectively. The antibiotic-enriched MacConkey agar plate method compared with the standard procedure demonstrated an unacceptable rate of very major (6.7%) and major errors (14.2%). Clinical evaluation of direct susceptibility tests based on the speculative impact on clinical practice by guiding patient's early treatment, if all positive cultures corresponded to infection, was correct in 79.9% for the direct disk diffusion test, 77.8% for the direct Etest method and 68.0% for antibiotic-enriched MacConkey agar plates. Direct diffusion tests (Etest or disk diffusion) applied on respiratory samples are rapid techniques that provide results comparable with standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing in <24 h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid identification and susceptibility testing of Candida spp. from positive blood cultures by combination of direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and direct inoculation of Vitek 2.

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    Evgeny A Idelevich

    Full Text Available Fungaemia is associated with high mortality rates and early appropriate antifungal therapy is essential for patient management. However, classical diagnostic workflow takes up to several days due to the slow growth of yeasts. Therefore, an approach for direct species identification and direct antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST without prior time-consuming sub-culturing of yeasts from positive blood cultures (BCs is urgently needed. Yeast cell pellets prepared using Sepsityper kit were used for direct identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS and for direct inoculation of Vitek 2 AST-YS07 card for AFST. For comparison, MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 testing were performed from yeast subculture. A total of twenty four positive BCs including twelve C. glabrata, nine C. albicans, two C. dubliniensis and one C. krusei isolate were processed. Applying modified thresholds for species identification (score ≥ 1.5 with two identical consecutive propositions, 62.5% of BCs were identified by direct MALDI-TOF MS. AFST results were generated for 72.7% of BCs directly tested by Vitek 2 and for 100% of standardized suspensions from 24 h cultures. Thus, AFST comparison was possible for 70 isolate-antifungal combinations. Essential agreement (minimum inhibitory concentration difference ≤ 1 double dilution step was 88.6%. Very major errors (VMEs (false-susceptibility, major errors (false-resistance and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result amounted to 33.3% (of resistant isolates, 1.9% (of susceptible isolates and 1.4% providing 90.0% categorical agreement. All VMEs were due to fluconazole or voriconazole. This direct method saved on average 23.5 h for identification and 15.1 h for AFST, compared to routine procedures. However, performance for azole susceptibility testing was suboptimal and testing from subculture remains indispensable to validate the direct finding.

  8. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

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    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  9. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

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    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  10. Introduction of Gram negative microrganisms rapid identification and direct susceptibility testing to reduce turnaround time in blood cultures

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    Maria Vittoria Mauro

    2017-12-01

    Results and Conclusions. Our study reveals the importance of direct methods that significantly reduce the turn around time and therefore has an impact on the successful outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections.

  11. qPCR-High resolution melt analysis for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium leprae directly from clinical specimens of leprosy patients.

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    Araujo, Sergio; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Truman, Richard W; Goulart, Isabela Maria B; Vissa, Varalakshmi; Li, Wei; Matsuoka, Masanori; Suffys, Philip; Fontes, Amanda B; Rosa, Patricia S; Scollard, David M; Williams, Diana L

    2017-06-01

    Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melting (qPCR-HRM) analysis has been recently described for rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium leprae. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the validity, reliability, and accuracy of this assay for M. leprae DST in clinical specimens. The specificity and sensitivity for determining the presence and susceptibility of M. leprae to dapsone based on the folP1 drug resistance determining region (DRDR), rifampin (rpoB DRDR) and ofloxacin (gyrA DRDR) was evaluated using 211 clinical specimens from leprosy patients, including 156 multibacillary (MB) and 55 paucibacillary (PB) cases. When comparing the results of qPCR-HRM DST and PCR/direct DNA sequencing, 100% concordance was obtained. The effects of in-house phenol/chloroform extraction versus column-based DNA purification protocols, and that of storage and fixation protocols of specimens for qPCR-HRM DST, were also evaluated. qPCR-HRM results for all DRDR gene assays (folP1, rpoB, and gyrA) were obtained from both MB (154/156; 98.7%) and PB (35/55; 63.3%) patients. All PCR negative specimens were from patients with low numbers of bacilli enumerated by an M. leprae-specific qPCR. We observed that frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues or archival Fite's stained slides were suitable for HRM analysis. Among 20 mycobacterial and other skin bacterial species tested, only M. lepromatosis, highly related to M. leprae, generated amplicons in the qPCR-HRM DST assay for folP1 and rpoB DRDR targets. Both DNA purification protocols tested were efficient in recovering DNA suitable for HRM analysis. However, 3% of clinical specimens purified using the phenol/chloroform DNA purification protocol gave false drug resistant data. DNA obtained from freshly frozen (n = 172), formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues (n = 36) or archival Fite's stained slides (n = 3) were suitable for qPCR-HRM DST analysis. The HRM-based assay was also able to

  12. qPCR-High resolution melt analysis for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium leprae directly from clinical specimens of leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Araujo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melting (qPCR-HRM analysis has been recently described for rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST of Mycobacterium leprae. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the validity, reliability, and accuracy of this assay for M. leprae DST in clinical specimens.The specificity and sensitivity for determining the presence and susceptibility of M. leprae to dapsone based on the folP1 drug resistance determining region (DRDR, rifampin (rpoB DRDR and ofloxacin (gyrA DRDR was evaluated using 211 clinical specimens from leprosy patients, including 156 multibacillary (MB and 55 paucibacillary (PB cases. When comparing the results of qPCR-HRM DST and PCR/direct DNA sequencing, 100% concordance was obtained. The effects of in-house phenol/chloroform extraction versus column-based DNA purification protocols, and that of storage and fixation protocols of specimens for qPCR-HRM DST, were also evaluated. qPCR-HRM results for all DRDR gene assays (folP1, rpoB, and gyrA were obtained from both MB (154/156; 98.7% and PB (35/55; 63.3% patients. All PCR negative specimens were from patients with low numbers of bacilli enumerated by an M. leprae-specific qPCR. We observed that frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues or archival Fite's stained slides were suitable for HRM analysis. Among 20 mycobacterial and other skin bacterial species tested, only M. lepromatosis, highly related to M. leprae, generated amplicons in the qPCR-HRM DST assay for folP1 and rpoB DRDR targets. Both DNA purification protocols tested were efficient in recovering DNA suitable for HRM analysis. However, 3% of clinical specimens purified using the phenol/chloroform DNA purification protocol gave false drug resistant data. DNA obtained from freshly frozen (n = 172, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues (n = 36 or archival Fite's stained slides (n = 3 were suitable for qPCR-HRM DST analysis. The HRM-based assay was also able

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

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    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. suitability of vitek 2 system in identification and susceptibility testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... errors that would not have had any clinical impact. Conclusion:These data suggest that direct Vitek would provide acceptable identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for Gram-negative bacilli. Compared to the standard method, the direct Vitek method would reduce turnaround time by at.

  15. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    , introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings....

  16. Antianaerobic Antimicrobials: Spectrum and Susceptibility Testing

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    Wexler, Hannah M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  17. Susceptibility testing of Entamoeba histolytica

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    Cedeno, J.R.; Krogstad, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    The growth of Entamoeba histolytica in microtiter plates in vitro in a variety of environments with reduced oxygen tensions is reported. With 3% O/sub 2/, 3% CO/sub 2/, and 94% N/sub 2/, the parasite growth in microtiter plates was identical to that in screw-capped culture tubes, as measured by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation and by quantitative parasite counts. There were no significant differences between the drug concentrations necessary to inhibit parasite growth by 50% based on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation vs those defined by quantitative parasite counts for the 15 antimicrobial agents tested (including seven drugs used for the treatment of amebiasis). This technique provides a reproducible method to quantitate the activity of potential antiamebic agents in vitro. The isotopic method should be of particular value in defining the metabolism of the parasite and effects of antimicrobial agents on it, whereas the morphologic method may be more valuable for workers with limited resources available to them.

  18. Children's differential susceptibility to parenting : An experimental test of “for better and for worse”

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    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel; Ellis, Bruce J.; Dekovic, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Differential susceptibility theory proposes that a subset of individuals exist who display enhanced susceptibility to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environments. This experiment represents the first attempt to directly test this assumption by exposing children

  19. Genetic testing for susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer: evaluating the impact of a direct-to-consumer marketing campaign on physicians' knowledge and practices.

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    Myers, Melanie F; Chang, Man-Huei; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Whitworth, William; Kassim, Sidibe; Litch, James A; Armstrong, Lori; Bernhardt, Barbara; Faucett, W Andrew; Irwin, Debra; Mouchawar, Judy; Bradley, Linda A

    2006-06-01

    To assess the impact of direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic testing for risk of breast and ovarian cancer by a biotechnology company on: 1) physicians' knowledge; 2) reasons given when asking questions about the test; and 3) physicians' practice patterns in two pilot cities where the campaign took place and two control cities. Survey of randomly selected family physicians, internists, obstetrician-gynecologists, and oncologists from May 1-May 21, 2003. Physicians' knowledge did not differ between pilot and control cities. Significant differences (pilot versus control cities) were seen in the reasons patients gave for asking questions about testing. More physicians in pilot cities (14%) than control cities (7%) reported an increase in the number of times they ordered genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer risk in the previous 6 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Awareness of professional guidelines and being in a practice with a policy on genetic testing for risk of breast and ovarian cancer were associated with physicians' behaviors and interest among patients in testing. Given the complexity and limitations of genetic testing for risk of breast and ovarian cancer, the development and broad dissemination of clinical guidelines and education of physicians are needed.

  20. E Test: a novel technique for antimicrobial susceptibility testing

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    Helio Silva Sader

    Full Text Available We describe the applicability of the E test (AB Biodisk Solna, Sweden, a new method for determining minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents against bacteria. This report is based on the literature review and on our own experience using the E test for susceptibility testing of the Xanthomonas maltophilia, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans group against eight different drugs.

  1. Direct Antiglobulin Test

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    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  2. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, I S; Larsen, A R; Sandven, P

    2003-01-01

    In the first attempt to establish a quality assurance programme for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones, 20 strains with different fluoroquinolone susceptibility patterns were distributed by the Supranational Reference Laboratory in Stockholm to the other...

  3. Personalized Genetic Testing and Norovirus Susceptibility

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    Natalie Prystajecky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of direct-to-consumer personalized genetic testing has enabled the public to access and interpret their own genetic information. Various genetic traits can be determined including resistance to norovirus through a nonsense mutation (G428A in the FUT2 gene. Although this trait is believed to confer resistance to the most dominant norovirus genotype (GII.4, the spectrum of resistance to other norovirus strains is unknown. The present report describes a cluster of symptomatic norovirus GI.6 infection in a family identified to have norovirus resistance through personalized genetic testing.

  4. High-throughput metal susceptibility testing of microbial biofilms.

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    Harrison, Joe J; Turner, Raymond J; Ceri, Howard

    2005-10-03

    -dependent. This method results in accurate, easily reproducible comparisons between the susceptibility of planktonic cells and biofilms to metals. Further, it was possible to make direct comparisons of the ability of different microbial strains to withstand metal toxicity. The data presented here also indicate that exposure time is an important variable in metal susceptibility testing of bacteria.

  5. Usefulness of Routine Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing Results for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of routine antibacterial susceptibility testing data in antibacterial resistance surveillance in Lagos Metropolis. The antibacterial susceptibility testing results of 3,961 clinical isolates of bacteria from four highly rated hospitals in Lagos metropolis were collated and ...

  6. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...

  7. Validity of direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility of microrganisms from bottles of blood culture

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    Carmela Mazzone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The blood culture is a very important laboratory test: if bacteremia or sepsis are suspected, the diagnosis of the pathogen and antibiotic therapy may be achieved making use of it. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility test carried out directly from the bottle may give important information in a shorter time. The introduction of the automatic instrumentation has improved the discovering of pathogens in the blood, however the elapsing time between the positive detection and the microbiological report is still along.The aim of our work was to verify the validity of the direct use of blood culture broth in which growth of microorganisms has been detected, which could reduce the response time of the bacteremia diagnosis. During the period February - July 2009, a total of 150 blood cultures were analysed:we compared the results obtained both by direct method and by reference method. 20 Gram positive microrganisms and 13 Gram negative microrganisms were respectively isolated and identified. The identification of Gram-negative and Gram-positive microrganisms showed an agreement of 100% between the direct and the reference method. For antibiotic susceptibility tests, among the Gram positive has reported 1.3% very major error, 2.9% major error and 1.4% minor error, while the Gram negative, respectivety 0.3%, 1.4%, 0%. The use of direct identification and susceptibility testing from positive blood cultures, can improve the response time and better efficiency in diagnostic procedures.

  8. Methodological Issues in Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Malassezia pachydermatis

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    Peano, Andrea; Pasquetti, Mario; Tizzani, Paolo; Chiavassa, Elisa; Guillot, Jacques; Johnson, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts have been developed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). These methods are intended to test the main pathogenic yeasts that cause invasive infections, namely Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans, while testing other yeast species introduces several additional problems in standardization not addressed by these reference procedures. As a consequence, a number of procedures have been employed in the literature to test the antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis. This has resulted in conflicting results. The aim of the present study is to review the procedures and the technical parameters (growth media, inoculum preparation, temperature and length of incubation, method of reading) employed for susceptibility testing of M. pachydermatis, and when possible, to propose recommendations for or against their use. Such information may be useful for the future development of a reference assay. PMID:29371554

  9. Validity of direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility of microrganisms from bottles of blood culture

    OpenAIRE

    Carmela Mazzone; Maria Luisa Laterza; Lucio Tauro

    2009-01-01

    The blood culture is a very important laboratory test: if bacteremia or sepsis are suspected, the diagnosis of the pathogen and antibiotic therapy may be achieved making use of it. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility test carried out directly from the bottle may give important information in a shorter time. The introduction of the automatic instrumentation has improved the discovering of pathogens in the blood, however the elapsing time between the positive detection and the microbio...

  10. Identification, isolation and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification, isolation and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Aeromonas veronii associated with an acute death of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus lunetas) in China. X Huang, K Wang, D Zong-Jun, Y Geng, Y Deng ...

  11. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

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    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    compare susceptibility between cell lines and between lineages within a laboratory and between laboratories (Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test). The objective being that the most sensitive cell line and lineages are routinely selected for diagnostic purposes.In comparing cell lines, we simulated "non......-cell-culture-adapted" virus by propagating the virus in heterologous cell lines to the one tested. A stock of test virus was produced and stored at - 80 °C and tests were conducted biannually. This procedure becomes complicated when several cell lines are in use and does not account for variation among lineages. In comparing...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...

  14. In Vitro Susceptibility Test of Different Clinical Isolates against Ceftriaxone

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    Syed Hakim Masood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic.Methods: 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method (NCCLS criteria. The susceptibility limit was ≥21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed >13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug.Results: Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli (95%, P. aeruginosa (92.7%, K. pneumonia (89.4% and S. typhi (87.2%. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms (83.8%.Conclusion: Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis.

  15. Antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods for natural products research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Bueno Sánchez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis underscores the need of continuous developments on new and efficient methods to determine the susceptibility of isolates of M. tuberculosis in the search for novel antimicrobial agents. Natural products constitute an important source of new drugs, but design and implementation of antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods are necessary for evaluate the different extracts and compounds. A number of biological assay methodologies are in current use, ranging from the classical disk diffusion and broth dilution assay format, to radiorespirometric (BACTEC, dye-based, and fluorescent/luminescence reporter assays. This review presents an analysis on the in vitro susceptibility testing methods developed for determinate antitubercular activity in natural products and related compounds (semi-synthetic natural products and natural products-derived compounds and the criteria to select the adequate method for determination of biological activity of new natural products.

  16. Evaluation of the BIOGRAM antimicrobial susceptibility test system.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amato, R F; Hochstein, L; Vernaleo, J R; Cleri, D J; Wallman, A A; Gradus, M S; Thornsberry, C

    1985-01-01

    BIOGRAM is an antimicrobial susceptibility test system for the determination of MICs from the standard disk diffusion test zone diameters. The system was challenged with 511 recent clinical isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, staphylococci, and enterococci. Results were compared with those obtained with the broth microdilution method. Appropriate control organisms were included with each test series. A total of 10,085 organism-drug com...

  17. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  18. Spectrophotometric reading of EUCAST antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Mortensen, K.L.; Verweij, P.E.; Mouton, J.W.; Arendrup, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of resistant Aspergillus isolates, objective, automated and high-throughput antifungal susceptibility testing is important. The EUCAST E.Def 9.3 reference method for MIC determination of Aspergillus species relies on

  19. Antiobiotics susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from Wdal Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiobiotics susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from Wdal Test Positive Patients at the Federal Medical Center, Gusau. SB Manga, IG Ameh, S Bashir, AG Muazu, B Danjuma, ML Ibrahim, K Abdullahi, J Mawak. Abstract. No Abstract Supplied. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  20. Improved method for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide.

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, W R; Kilburn, J O

    1982-01-01

    The acid medium required to test susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide (PZA) is a major problem in obtaining reliable test results. Satisfactory growth is usually obtained on Middlebrook and Cohn 7H10 medium at pH 5.5 if albumin-dextrose-catalase (ADC) supplement rather than oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase is used; however, some lots of ADC supplement still fail to support growth at this low pH. A rapid turbidimetric test was developed to determine the growth-suppo...

  1. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Tedizolid against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with improved in vitro and intracellular potency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant strains, and some species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) compared with that of linezolid. Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-recommended method of broth microdilution, susceptibility testing of 170 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria showed equivalent or lower (1- to 8-fold) MIC50 and/or MIC90 values fo...

  2. Accuracy of susceptibility testing of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen; de Kruif, Aart; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Decostere, Annemie

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility determinations relies on the bacterial species identification and the test methodology that is being used. In the present study, both aspects were investigated for 141 Pasteurella multocida and 34 Mannheimia haemolytica sensu lato isolates recovered from the upper respiratory tract of healthy calves. This was performed on the one hand by comparing of classical phenotyping with tDNA-PCR genotyping and on the other hand by pairwise comparison of disk diffusion with agar dilution results for seven antimicrobial compounds (ampicillin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, gentamicin, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, and the combination trimethoprim-sulfonamides). Phenotyping and genotyping correlated well (>90%). The pairwise comparisons of the susceptibility methods were investigated traditionally by means of error binding rates and sensitivity and specificity test characteristics. Obtained sensitivities (indication for absence of false susceptible results) were often lower than 85%, especially for older antimicrobial agents (oxytetracycline, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfonamides) and when M. haemolytica sensu lato was considered. Specificities (indication for absence of false-resistant results) exceeded 90% for almost all antimicrobial-bacterial combinations. The calculated test characteristics (sensitivities and specificities) were subsequently used in a second dataset of Pasteurellaceae from intensively (n = 99) and extensively housed calves (n = 196), to modify the apparent prevalence of antimicrobial resistance based upon disk diffusion results into an estimated true prevalence. It was concluded that the disk diffusion method is reliable in epidemiological studies like surveillance programs if resistance is sparse, whereas it needs to be interpreted with caution in situations where resistance is abundantly present.

  3. Genetic susceptibility testing for beryllium: worker knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Ken; Kukulka, Gary; Gorniewicz, John; Rayman, Kathleen; Sharp, Richard

    2011-07-01

    We sought to gain insight into workers' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on the subject of testing for genetic susceptibility to beryllium. Five focus groups were held with 30 current and former beryllium workers and nine family members. Audio recordings were transcribed and assessed by hierarchical coding using an inductive approach. Some workers were unclear about the distinction between genotoxicity and heritability. A key finding is that they perceived the benefits of a positive test result to be related to enhanced autonomous decision-making. The major concern cited by participants was potential abuse of genetic information by employers. Complete financial separation of a prospective testing entity from the employer was seen as crucial. A window of opportunity exists to create regional partnerships for translational research on genetic susceptibility testing. Such partnerships would involve labor, management, public health scientists, primary care professionals, and other stakeholders. They would be critical to identifying testing strategies that maximize worker autonomy along with the public health advantages of genetic testing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Electrochemical tests for pitting and crevice corrosion susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postlethwaite, J.

    1983-01-01

    Passive metals are being considered as container materials for the disposal of nuclear waste by deep burial. Localized corrosion is a potential problem and electrochemical techniques have an important role in the assessment of the susceptibility of these container materials to crevice and pitting corrosion. This paper critically reviews both the theoretical background and the experimental details of the electrochemical test methods presently used in both industrial and scientific studies of localized corrosion in both halide and non-halide solutions and identifies those areas where theory and experimental behaviour are in agreement and those areas for which there is neither well established theory nor an experimental test method

  5. A new approach for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimic, Mirko; Loli, Sebastian; Gilman, Robert H; Gutierrez, Andrés; Fuentes, Patricia; Cotrina, Milagros; Kirwan, Daniela; Sheen, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important drug in the treatment of tuberculosis. Microbiological methods of PZA susceptibility testing are controversial and have low reproducibility. After conversion of PZA into pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase enzyme, the drug is expelled from the bacteria by an efflux pump. To evaluate the rate of POA extrusion from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a parameter to detect PZA resistance. The rate of POA extrusion and PZA susceptibility determined by BACTEC 460 were measured for 34 strains in a previous study. PZA resistance was modeled in a logistic regression with the pyrazinoic efflux rate. POA efflux rate predicted PZA resistance with 70.83%-92.85% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with BACTEC 460. POA efflux rate could be a useful tool for predicting PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. Further exploration of this approach may lead to the development of new tools for diagnosing PZA resistance, which may be of public health importance.

  6. Children's differential susceptibility to parenting: An experimental test of "for better and for worse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G; Ellis, Bruce J; Deković, Maja

    2017-02-01

    Differential susceptibility theory proposes that a subset of individuals exist who display enhanced susceptibility to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environments. This experiment represents the first attempt to directly test this assumption by exposing children in the experimental group to both negative and positive feedback using puppet role-plays. It thereby serves as an empirical test as well as a methodological primer for testing differential susceptibility. Dutch children (N=190, 45.3% girls) between the ages of 4 and 6years participated. We examined whether negative and positive feedback would differentially affect changes in positive and negative affect, in prosocial and antisocial intentions and behavior, depending on children's negative emotionality. Results show that on hearing negative feedback, children in the experimental group increased in negative affect and decreased in positive affect more strongly than children in the control group. On hearing positive feedback, children in the experimental group tended to increase in positive affect and decrease in prosocial behavior. However, changes in response to negative or positive feedback did not depend on children's negative emotionality. Moreover, using reliable change scores, we found support for a subset of "vulnerable" children but not for a subset of "susceptible" children. The findings offer suggestions to guide future differential susceptibility experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumers' use of web-based information and their decisions about multiplex genetic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; McBride, Colleen M; Wade, Christopher; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Brody, Lawrence C; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2010-09-29

    Few data exist to inform concerns raised by online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic susceptibility tests, such as those offered by commercial entities like 23andme, Navigenics, and DNA Direct. The Multiplex Initiative, a population-based study of healthy adults, provides the first opportunity to evaluate how use of a Web-based decision tool that conveyed information about a genetic susceptibility test influenced individuals' test decisions. To inform the ongoing debate over whether individuals offered genetic susceptibility testing without the involvement of a health care provider (eg, through direct-to-consumer testing) can make informed decisions about testing when guided by online decision aids. Participants were 526 members of a large health maintenance organization aged 25 to 40 years old who visited a study website. Multivariate logistic regression models were tested to examine the association of website usage with downstream test decisions. Participants viewed an average of 2.9 of the 4 pages introducing the multiplex test, 2.2 of the 8 pages describing the health conditions, and 3.2 of the 15 pages describing the genes. For each page viewed, participants were more likely to describe their decision-making as easy (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.07) and to decide to be tested (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11). Healthy adults in this study perceived Web-based genomic information presented using evidence-based communications approaches to be helpful in supporting both decisions to test and not to test. Continued research is needed to ensure that these results generalize to target groups with lower literacy and less Internet savvy.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria that cause gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Romney M; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2015-06-01

    Gastroenteritis due to enteric pathogens is generally a self-limiting disease for which antimicrobial treatment is not required. However, treatment should be considered for cases of severe or prolonged diarrhea, extraintestinal isolation of bacteria, or diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, the elderly, and infants. Various resistance trends and current issues concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enteric pathogens are reviewed in this article, including Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and Clostridium difficile. Updated interpretive criteria from breakpoint-setting organizations are reviewed, along with explanations for recent changes in antimicrobial breakpoints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Lise, Kristensen,; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics......Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics...

  10. Assessment of diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brachyspira species using a ring test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasback, T.; Fellstrøm, C.; Bergsjo, B.

    2005-01-01

    There is no ring test for quality assessment available in Europe for diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious, anaerobic bacteria of the genus Brachyspira. Therefore, an international ring test for Brachyspira spp. was performed once a year during 2002-2004. Two sets...

  11. Microbial sensor for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-T; Wang, D-B; Li, C-Y; Deng, J-Y; Zhang, J-B; Bi, L-J; Zhang, X-E

    2018-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical in treating tuberculosis. We demonstrate the possibility of using a microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The sensor is made of an oxygen electrode with M. tuberculosis cells attached to its surface. This sensor monitors the residual oxygen consumption of M. tuberculosis cells after treatment with anti-TB drugs with glycerine as a carbon source. In principle, after drug pretreatment for 4-5 days, the response differences between the sensors made of drug-sensitive isolates are distinguishable from the sensors made of drug-resistant isolates. The susceptibility of the M. tuberculosis H37Ra strain, its mutants and 35 clinical isolates to six common anti-TB drugs: rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, levofloxacin and para-aminosalicylic acid were tested using the proposed method. The results agreed well with the gold standard method (LJ) and were determined in significantly less time. The whole procedure takes approximately 11 days and therefore has the potential to inform clinical decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the possible application of a dissolved oxygen electrode-based microbial sensor in M. tuberculosis drug resistance testing. This study used the microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The overall detection result of the microbial sensor agreed well with that of the conventional LJ proportion method and takes less time than the existing phenotypic methods. In future studies, we will build an O 2 electrode array microbial sensor reactor to enable a high-throughput drug resistance analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. [Rapid test for detection of susceptibility to cefotaxime in Enterobacteriaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerra, Gemma; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannik; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Tedizolid against Isolates of Nocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    There is a paucity of efficacious antimicrobials (especially oral) against clinically relevant species of Nocardia To date, all species of Nocardia have been susceptible to linezolid, the first commercially available oxazolidinone. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with previously reported improved in vitro and in vivo (intracellular) potency against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium sp. and Nocardia brasiliensis Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended broth microdilution method, 101 isolates of Nocardia spp., including 29 Nocardia cyriacigeorgica , 17 Nocardia farcinica , 13 Nocardia nova complex, 21 Nocardia brasiliensis , 5 Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis , and 5 Nocardia wallacei isolates and 11 isolates of less common species, were tested for susceptibility to tedizolid and linezolid. For the most common clinically significant species of Nocardia , tedizolid MIC 50 values were 0.25 μg/ml for N. nova complex, N. brasiliensis , N. pseudobrasiliensis , and N. wallacei , compared to linezolid MIC 50 values of 1, 2, 0.5, and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Tedizolid and linezolid MIC 90 values were 2 μg/ml for N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis Tedizolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values for both N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica were 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively, compared to linezolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Based on MIC 90 values, this study showed that tedizolid was 2- to 3-fold more active than linezolid in vitro against most common species of Nocardia , with the exception of the N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis , for which values were the same. These results may warrant evaluation of tedizolid as a potential treatment option for Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  15. Improvement of mupirocin E-test for susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondino, Pedro Juan José; Dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto; de Freire Bastos, Maria do Carmo; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2003-05-01

    Interpretation of the mupirocin E-test for low-level mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains has been improved by adding the indicator dye tetrazolium. E-tests were compared with agar dilution methods for assessing mupirocin susceptibility. MICs obtained by the agar dilution method and E-tests showed 89.3% agreement within 2 log(2) dilution criteria. The agreement between MICs increased to 100% in the 1 log(2) dilution definition when the indicator dye tetrazolium was added to the E-test. The use of the E-test with tetrazolium reduction is more accurate for determining mupirocin MICs for S. aureus strains.

  16. Flow cytometry susceptibility testing for conventional antifungal drugs and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Macrodilution Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Najafzadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last decade, the incidence of fungal infection has been increased in many countries. Because of the advent of resistant to antifungal agents, determination of an efficient strategic plan for treatment of fungal disease is an important issue in clinical mycology. Many methods have been introduced and developed for determination of invitro susceptibility tests. During the recent years, flow cytometry has developed to solving the problem and many papers have documented the usefulness of this technique. Materials and methods: As the first step, the invitro susceptibility of standard PTCC (Persian Type of Culture Collection strain and some clinical isolates of Candida consisting of Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyer and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by macrodilution broth method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines and flow cytometry susceptibility test. Results:  The data indicated that macro dilution broth methods and flow cytometry have the same results in determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole in C. albicans PTCC 5027 as well as clinical Candida isolates, such as C.albicans, C.dubliniensis, C.glabrata C.kefyr, and C.parapsilosis. Discussion: Comparing the results obtained by macrodilution broth and flow cytometry methods revealed that flow cytometry was faster. It is suggested that flow cytometry susceptibility test can be used as a powerful tool for determination of MIC and administration of the best antifungal drug in treatment of patients with Candida infections.

  17. Factors affecting griseofulvin susceptibility testing of Trichophyton rubrum in microcultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, T C; Artis, W M

    1982-01-01

    A microculture broth assay system for griseofulvin susceptibility testing of Trichophyton rubrum was further characterized. The effects of mass and number of colony-forming units of a fragmented mycelial inoculum, 5- or 8-day incubation periods, 25 or 32 degrees C incubation temperatures, and the solvents used to dissolve griseofulvin on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of griseofulvin were determined. An inoculum density with an absorbance of 0.600 at 450 nm ensured successful inoculation of all microcultures. Reduction of the inoculum mass to an absorbance of 0.200 lowered the number of colony-forming units in the inoculum by 60 to 80%. This decreased the efficiency of inoculation but did not alter the resulting MIC. There was no correlation between MIC and the number of colony-forming units used to initiate growth. Neither incubation temperature nor the length of incubation affected the MIC. The use of either acetone or ethanol to solubilize griseofulvin likewise had no effect on the MIC. The mean reproducibility of the MICs determined with the microculture method was 96%. Images PMID:7161372

  18. Family Matters: Adjustment to genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Oostrom, Iris

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCancer is generally feared because it is associated with death and severe physical suffering. It is one of the most common causes of death in the Netherlands. Breast and colon cancer are the most prevalent types of cancer among women. Frequently occurring types in men are cancer of colon, lung and prostate. About 5% of colorectal and breast cancer arises as a result of a mutation in an inherited cancer susceptibility gene. Knowledge about these cancer susceptibility genes has been...

  19. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Tedizolid against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with improved in vitro and intracellular potency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis , including multidrug-resistant strains, and some species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) compared with that of linezolid. Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-recommended method of broth microdilution, susceptibility testing of 170 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria showed equivalent or lower (1- to 8-fold) MIC 50 and/or MIC 90 values for tedizolid compared with that for linezolid. The tedizolid MIC 90 values for 81 isolates of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 12 isolates of M. abscessus subsp. massiliense were 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively, compared with linezolid MIC 90 values of 32 μg/ml for both. The MIC 90 values for 20 isolates of M. fortuitum were 2 μg/ml for tedizolid and 4 μg/ml for linezolid. Twenty-two isolates of M. chelonae had tedizolid and linezolid MIC 90 s of 2 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. One hundred forty-two slowly growing NTM, including 7/7 M. marinum , 7/7 M. kansasii , and 7/11 of other less commonly isolated species, had tedizolid MICs of ≤1 μg/ml and linezolid MICs of ≤4 μg/ml. One hundred isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex and eight M. simiae isolates had tedizolid MIC 50 s of 8 μg/ml and linezolid MIC 50 s 32 and 64 μg/ml, respectively. Nine M. arupense isolates had MIC 50 s of 4 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml for tedizolid and linezolid, respectively. These findings demonstrate a greater in vitro potency of tedizolid than linezolid against NTM and suggest that an evaluation of tedizolid as a potential treatment agent for infections caused by selected NTM is warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. In vitro susceptibility testing of Yersinia species to eight plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... V. amygdalina Del against Y. enterocolitica 0:03 to 17.7 mm for Citrus aurantifolia (christim) Swingle .... The inhibitory effect of neat ethanolic plant extracts and some natural antimicrobials against Yersinia sp. .... Susceptibility pattern of Yersinia sp. to the various antimicrobial agents (ethanolic extracts).

  1. Stain susceptibility of composite and ceramic CAD/CAM blocks versus direct resin composites with different resinous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Amal; Ardu, Stefano; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the stain susceptibility of CAD/CAM blocks and direct composite after long term exposure to various staining agents. 40 disk-shaped samples were fabricated from each of nine materials; six CAD/CAM (Vitablocs Mark II, Paradigm MZ100, Experimental Vita Hybrid Ceramic, Vita Enamic, Experimental Kerr and Lava Ultimate) and three direct composites (Filtek Supreme, Venus Diamond and Filtek Silorane). Samples were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) according to different staining solutions (distilled water, tea, red wine, coffee and artificial saliva). Initial L*a*b* values were assessed using a calibrated digital spectrophotometer. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions and stored in an incubator at 37 °C for 120 days. L*a*b* values were assessed again and color change (∆E) was calculated as difference between recorded L*a*b* values. ANOVA, and Duncan test were used to identify differences between groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences in ∆E values were detected between materials (p = 0.000). Among all staining solutions, the highest ∆E value was observed with red wine. The new CAD/CAM blocks (Vita Enamic, Vita Hybrid Ceramic and Lava Ultimate) showed the highest resistance to staining compared to the MZ100 composite resin blocks. Filtek Silorane, a direct composite, showed high stain resistance values compared to CAD/CAM materials and other direct composites. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks had lower staining susceptibility than methacrylate based direct composite. Staining susceptibility of the new resin based CAD/CAM materials Vita Enamic and Lava Ultimate was comparable to feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vitablocs Mark II). Filtek Silorane showed promising results that were comparable to some CAD/CAM blocks.

  2. Antifungal susceptibility testing for yeasts: how, when and why, according to the new EUCAST guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Manso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts and the development of interpretive breakpoints are nowadays very important topics both for the increasing incidence of invasive mycoses and number of available antifungal drugs and for the appearance of acquired resistance. The Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing (AFST of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST has recently released both the operative standards to evaluate the fermenting yeasts susceptibility against antimycotic drugs and the breakpoints for infections due to some Candida species and for some of the available antifungals. Antifungal susceptibility testing is mandatory on a routine base for: 1. therapeutic failure, 2. breakthrough fungemias, 3. on yeasts isolated from patients who recently received prophylactic antifungal treatments, and 4. when the deep-seated infection is due to less common yeasts, with an unknown susceptibility pattern. The Medical Mycology Committee (CoSM of the Italian Society of Clinical Microbiologists (AMCLI adopted the interpretive breakpoints of both CLSI and EUCAST. The operating procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing according to EUCAST is supported by the recommendation to use, when clinically necessary, validated commercial methods (Vitek2, Sensititre, E-test. Finally, the CoSM reports the recommendations for a correct management of antifungal susceptibility testing.

  3. Comparing the disk-diffusion and agar dilution tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France, respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC: ceftriaxone (CRO, cefixime (CFX, and cefpodoxime (CPD. Methods One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI and manufacturer’s standards for each of the three methods. The measured diameters by the disk diffusion method were tested for correlation with the MIC values by agar dilution. In addition, comparisons with the Etest® were made. Categorical results for concordance, based on standard CLSI cutoffs, between the disk diffusion and the other two methods, respectively, were tested using the Chi-square statistics. Reproducibility was tested for CFX across a 6-month interval by repeated disk tests. Results Across all 115 specimens, the disk diffusion tests produced good categorical agreements, exhibiting concordance of 93.1%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with agar dilution and 93.0%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with Etest®, for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. Pearson correlations between disk-diffusion diameters and agar dilution MIC’s were -0.59, -0.67, and -0.81 for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. The correlations between disk diffusion and Etest® were -0.58, -0.73, and -0.49. Pearson correlation between the CFX disk readings over a 6-month interval was 91%. Conclusions Disk diffusion tests remain to be a useful, reliable and fast screening method for qualitative antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime.

  4. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Bacteroides fragilis group isolates the need of susceptibility testing in routine laboratories is increasing. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing in case of different clinical isolates...... of Bacteroides spp by comparing zone diameter results with MICs obtained earlier during an Europe-wide antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, and to propose zone diameter breakpoints, which correlate for the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. We tested 381 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group to amoxicillin...... testing of B. fragilis group isolates for most relevant antibiotics in routine laboratories....

  5. E3 Testing of Directed Energy Systems: A Challenging Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Lyndell R

    2009-01-01

    .... Compatibility testing and susceptibility to electromagnetic radiation is required. Standards, such as MIL-STD-464 and MIL-STD-237D, are being revised to include HPM levels and frequencies for E3 tests...

  6. Rapid phenotypic assay of antimycobacterial susceptibility pattern by direct mycobacteria growth indicator tube and phage amplified biological assay compared to BACTEC 460 TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Goda, Tarek

    2007-03-01

    The performance of antimycobacterial susceptibility testing for the first line drugs (isoniazid, streptomycine, rifampicin and ethambutol) with mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) and by bacteriophage amplified biological assay by FAST-plaque TB-MDR were compared to automated radiometric BACTEC 460 TB system. This study was carried on 84 sputum samples of positive Zhiel-Neelsen (ZN) smears. Sputum samples were subjected to culture and antimycobacterial susceptibility testing by BACTEC 460 TB. Samples were also tested by direct susceptibility tests for isoniazid (INH), ethambutol, rifampicin (RIF) and streptomycine by MGIT. Sensitive and resistant isolates for RIF were further studied by FAST-plaque TB-MDR for RIF resistance. The commonest resistance pattern by BACTEC 460 TB was for INH (32%) followed by RIF (24%) either alone or in combination with other drugs. Multiple drugs resistance was 20%. The agreement between BACTEC 460 TB and direct MGIT for resistant strains was 100% for INH and ethambutol, 91.7% for rifampicin, 80% for streptomycine and was 90% for MDR. FAST-plaque TB-MDR detected correctly all RIF resistant strains and 97.2% of the sensitive strains. For majority of strains direct susceptibility tests were available within 6.34-6.404 days (95% confidence interval) with direct mycobacteria growth tube, while results for FAST-plaque TB-MDR appear within 10.5-11.5 days from the time that the sputum was received in the laboratory (95% confidence interval). From this study, we could conclude that direct MGIT AST is the quickest method for screening antimycobacterial susceptibility pattern for the drugs commonly used (INH, RIF, etambutol, streptomycin) as results were available within 6.34-6.404 days. Also FAST-plaque TB-MDR method is accurate for detection of rifampicin resistance after primary culture which can be used as a surrogate marker for presence of MDR strains and the results were available within 10.5-11.5 days.

  7. Susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Viridans streptococcal isolates against: quinolones, oxazolidinones and glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băncescu, Gabriela; Neagu, Amalia-Sofia; Radu-Popescu, Manuela; Nica, Maria; Dascălu, Amalia; Nistor, Irina; Bărbuceanu, Stefania-Felicia; Băncescu, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of 100 strains (pneumococci and viridans streptococci) isolated from oral and respiratory tract infections and their complications, against one antibiotic of each of the following classes: quinolones, oxazolidinones and glycopeptides. The Etest has been used in order to investigate the susceptibility of the isolates against levofloxacin, linezolid and vancomycin. As expected, the results of the study indicated that all isolates were susceptible to linezolid and vancomycin. In contrast to the pneumococcal isolates, which were all susceptible to levofloxacin, 10% of the viridans strains showed resistance to this quinolone. When fluoroquinolones are needed as an alternative to the beta-lactam antibiotics in infections in which oral streptococci are involved, the in vitro susceptibility testing is required.

  8. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  9. Auditory Tests for the Early Detection of Noise-Susceptible Individuals - A Literature Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vos, Joos

    2005-01-01

    ... of persons who are less susceptible to noise. The Netherlands Ministry of Defense contracted TNO Human Factors to investigate whether, at present, reliable auditory tests are available to determine at an early stage (i.e...

  10. A Novel Hypoxia Challenge Test Demonstrates Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Susceptibility to Acrolein Gas in Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of air pollution increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations including those with hypertension. Stress tests are useful for manifesting latent effects of exposure, particularly at low concentrations, often when no...

  11. Routine disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile and association with PCR ribotype 027

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, H M; Danielsen, T K; Justesen, U S

    2015-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin in Clostridium difficile has been reported, which emphasises the need for simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The aim of this study was to apply a published disc diffusion method and zone diameter breakpoint correlates...... to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) epidemiological minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cut-off values in a routine setting. Metronidazole and vancomycin zone diameters from 2702 isolates were recorded. Fifteen isolates had a metronidazole zone diameter below...... the published breakpoint (vancomycin zone diameter below the published breakpoint (

  12. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool......-in piezoelectric torque transducer. This technique results in a very sensitive measurement of friction, which furthermore enables recording of lubricant film breakdown as function of drawing distance. The proposed test is validated in an experimental investigation of the influence of lubricant viscosity...

  13. The dawn of consumer-directed testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Erica; Weissman, Scott M

    2018-03-07

    As the public's interest in genetics and genomics has increased, there has been corresponding and unprecedented growth in direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT). Although regulatory concerns have limited true DTC-GT available without a physician order, the paradigm has shifted to a model of consumer-directed genetic testing (CD-GT) in which patients are researching testing options and requesting specific genetic testing from their health-care providers. However, many nongenetics health-care providers do not have the background, education, interest, or time to order and/or interpret typical clinical genetic testing, let alone DTC-GT. The lines between CD-GT, DTC-GT, and traditional clinical genetic testing are also blurring with the same types of tests available in different settings (e.g., carrier screening) and tests merging medical and nonmedical results, increasing the complexity for consumer decision-making and clinician management. The genetics community has the training to work with CD-GT, but there has been a hesitancy to commit to working with these results and questions about what to do when consumers have more complicated asks, like interpretation of raw data. Additionally, at the rate with which CD-GT is growing, there are questions about having sufficient genetics professionals to meet the potential genetic counseling demand. While there are many complex questions and challenges, this market represents a chance for the genetics community to address and unmet need. We will review the history of the CD-GT/DTC-GT market and outline the issues and opportunities our profession is facing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Direct correlation of observed phonon anomalies and maxima in the generalized susceptibilities of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.J.; Freeman, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    The generalized susceptibility, chi(q), of both NbC and TaC determined from APW energy band calculations show large maxima to occur at precisely those q/sub max/ values at which soft phonon modes were observed by Smith. Maxima in chi(q) are predicted for other directions. The locus of these q/sub max/ values can be represented by a warped cube of dimension approximately 1.2(2π/a) in momentum space--in striking agreement with the soft mode surface proposed phenomenologically by Weber. In sharp contrast, the chi(q) calculated for both ZrC and HfC--for which no phonon anomalies have been observed--fall off in all symmetry directions away from the zone center. The phonon anomalies in the transition metal carbides are thus interpreted as due to an ''overscreening'' effect resulting from an anomalous increase of the response function of the conduction electrons

  15. Evaluation of semisolid agar method for antifungal susceptibility test of T. rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Razia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing fungal disease many newer antifungal drugs are available with different spectrum of activ­ity. Antifungal susceptibility test will help clinicians for selection of effective drug and thereby treatment of patient. Objective: The study was undertaken to perform a simple screening drug susceptibility test of T. rnbrum by Semi Solid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility (SAAS Method: Perfonnance of susceptibility method was assessed by comparing the MICs of three commonly prescribed antifungal agents namely- tluconazole (FCZ, itraconazole (ITZ and terbinafine (TER to the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute recommended M-38, a broth microdilution method. Results: In SAAS method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty five (86.2% were susceptible (MIC range 0.5-64 µg/ml to Fluconazole (FCZ and four (13.7% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In broth microdilution method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty six (89.6% were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to FCZ and three (10.3% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In case of both ITZ and TER, all were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to both methods. The SAAS method demonstrated the susceptibility pattern of T. rubrum against FCZ, ITZ and TER usually within 72 to 96 hours after organism isolation and results were concordance with the results of CLSI broth microdilution method. Conclusion: Though it is a newer method with proper standardization of the test method, SAAS method is simple and easily applicable screening method for susceptibility testing of antifungal agents against dermatophytes in any microbiology laboratories.

  16. [Multicenter Prospective Observational Study of Fungal Keratitis--Identification and Susceptibility Test of Fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Atsuko; Asari, Seishi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Ohashi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Shimomura, Yoshikazu; Fukuda, Masahiko; Sotozono, Chie; Hatano, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Hoshi, Saichi; Yaguchi, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Yokokura, Shunji; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Monden, Yu; Nejima, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the causative fungi of fungal keratitis in Japan and their drug susceptibility. Identification and antifungal susceptibility test for 8 drugs (micafungin, amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, miconazole and pimaricin) were performed using isolated fungi from patients with fungal keratitis treated at 27 facilities in Japan between November 1, 2011 and October 31, 2013. Fungal strains were detected in 72 (50.7%) out of 142 samples. The major isolates were Fusarium spp. (18), Candida parapsilosis (12), C. albicans (11) and Alternaria spp. (6), in all, fungi of 31 species were identified by gene analysis. In the yeast-like fungi, susceptibility rates were evident for more than 80% in voriconazole, pimaricin, flucytosine, micafungin, amphotericin B and fluconazole. In filamentous fungi, the susceptibility rate was less than 50% except for PMR (90%). Fusarium spp., which were susceptible to amphotericin B and pimaricin, showed lower susceptibility rates compared with other genera. Although various genera and species of fungi cause fungal keratitis, the obtained drug susceptibility data in this study demonstrates the different susceptibility patterns among the major isolates (Fusarium spp., C. parapsilosis, C. albicans and other groups). This is important evidence useful for fungal keratitis treatment.

  17. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  18. Perceived susceptibility and self-protective behavior: a field experiment to encourage home radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, N.D.; Sandman, P.M.; Roberts, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tested in a field experiment (N = 647) the hypothesis that perceptions of personal susceptibility are important in decisions to test one's home for radioactive radon gas. Experimental group subjects received a personal telephone call to tell them they lived in a high-risk area and a personal letter to reinforce the telephone message. After the intervention, experimental subjects were significantly more likely than minimal-treatment subjects to acknowledge the possibility of high radon levels in their homes. Perceptions of susceptibility and illness severity were significantly correlated with orders of radon test kits and with testing intentions. Nevertheless, there were no differences between groups in test orders or intentions. Results are discussed in terms of the difficulty of getting people to acknowledge susceptibility and the factors other than risk perceptions that influence self-protective behavior

  19. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...

  20. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant......The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...

  1. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...... normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant...

  2. Cosmic curvature tested directly from observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenya, Mikhail; Linder, Eric V.; Shafieloo, Arman

    2018-03-01

    Cosmic spatial curvature is a fundamental geometric quantity of the Universe. We investigate a model independent, geometric approach to measure spatial curvature directly from observations, without any derivatives of data. This employs strong lensing time delays and supernova distance measurements to measure the curvature itself, rather than just testing consistency with flatness. We define two curvature estimators, with differing error propagation characteristics, that can crosscheck each other, and also show how they can be used to map the curvature in redshift slices, to test constancy of curvature as required by the Robertson-Walker metric. Simulating realizations of redshift distributions and distance measurements of lenses and sources, we estimate uncertainties on the curvature enabled by next generation measurements. The results indicate that the model independent methods, using only geometry without assuming forms for the energy density constituents, can determine the curvature at the ~6×10‑3 level.

  3. Utility of in-house fluconazole disk diffusion susceptibility testing in the treatment of candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, David W; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Arons, Viktoria; Hollins, Randy M; Rostas, Sara E; Weiser, Linda M; Baden, Lindsey R; Marty, Francisco M; Koo, Sophia

    2016-03-01

    Among 302 first candidemia episodes, 210 (69.6%) were initially treated with an echinocandin or polyene (E/P) antifungal drug. In 137 (72.5%) patients with fluconazole-susceptible isolates, treatment was changed to fluconazole based on disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Clinical outcomes were not compromised in patients receiving E/P who were de-escalated to fluconazole for treatment of candidemia based on disk diffusion results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Simplified Test for Blanching Susceptibility of Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.; Humphrey, Donald; Setlock, John

    2003-01-01

    GRCop-84 (Cu-8Cr-4Nb) is a dispersion-strengthened alloy developed for space-launch rocket engine applications, as a liner for the combustion chamber and nozzle ramp. Its main advantage over rival alloys, particularly NARloy-Z (Cu-Ag-Zr), the current liner alloy, is in high temperature mechanical properties. Further validation required that the two alloys be compared with respect to service performance and durability. This has been done, under conditions resembling those expected in reusable launch engine applications. GRCop-84 was found to have a superior resistance to static and cyclic oxidation up to approx. 700 C. In order to improve its performance above 700 C, Cu-Cr coatings have also been developed and evaluated. The major oxidative issue with Cu alloys is blanching, a mode of degradation induced by oxidation-reduction fluctuations in hydrogen-fueled engines. That fluctuation cannot be addressed with conventional static or cyclic oxidation testing. Hence, a further evaluation of the alloy substrates and Cu-Cr coating material necessitated our devising a test protocol that involves oxidaton-reduction cycles. This paper describes the test protocols used and the results obtained.

  5. Rubella, rubeola, and mumps in pregnant women: susceptibilities and strategies for testing and vaccinating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Flowers, Coy A; Congdon, Christine L

    2005-08-01

    To estimate rubella, rubeola, and mumps (MMR) susceptibilities in pregnant women and determine the percentage not immune to rubeola or mumps, depending on rubella immunity status. A secondary objective was to assess costs of vaccination and testing programs aimed at eliminating these viral susceptibilities to determine an optimal strategy. This was an observational study of women presenting for prenatal care. All women had MMR antibody titers measured. Viral susceptibilities were compared by age, gravidity, parity, and recall of vaccine booster. A logistic regression was performed to assess for predictors of MMR immunity. A cost comparison of different screening and vaccination strategies was performed. Overall, 91 (9.4%) women were susceptible to rubella, 161 (16.5%) to rubeola, and 159 (16.3%) to mumps. Three hundred seventeen (32.6%) were susceptible to at least 1 virus, whereas only 17 (1.7%) were susceptible to all 3. Of the women who were immune to rubella, a large percentage were not immune to either rubeola or mumps (n = 226, 25.6%). Only 74.2% of women who knew they had a booster vaccine were immune to all components of the MMR vaccine. Receiving a booster was predictive of immunity to all 3 viruses. A cost analysis demonstrated that broader screening strategies are more comprehensive and more expensive. The current screening and vaccine program has left many reproductive-aged women susceptible to rubella, rubeola, and mumps infections. Perhaps a more comprehensive viral screening program is needed to ensure immunity.

  6. Antifungal susceptibility and test for cure of candida species among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contexte: La résistance aux antimicrobiens chez les espèces de Candida est un problème de santé publique intense. L'objectif de l'étude était de déterminer le schéma de susceptibilité aux antifongiques et le test de guérison des espèces de Candida parmi les femmes en âge de procréer qui ont visité l'hôpital général de ...

  7. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.

    2005-01-01

    antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for bacterial isolates from aquatic animal species. QC ranges were established for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 when testing at 22, 28 and 35 degrees C (E. coli only) for 10 different antimicrobial agents...

  8. Sequence variant classification and reporting: recommendations for improving the interpretation of cancer susceptibility genetic test results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plon, S.E.; Eccles, D.M.; Easton, D.F.; Foulkes, W.D.; Genuardi, M.; Greenblatt, M.S.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Spurdle, A.B.; Tavtigian, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic testing of cancer susceptibility genes is now widely applied in clinical practice to predict risk of developing cancer. In general, sequence-based testing of germline DNA is used to determine whether an individual carries a change that is clearly likely to disrupt normal gene function.

  9. Standard versus biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing to guide antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Valerie; Ratjen, Felix

    2017-10-05

    The antibiotics used to treat pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis are typically chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed on bacteria traditionally grown in a planktonic mode (grown in a liquid). However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa actually grows in a biofilm (or slime layer) in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis with chronic pulmonary infections. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on biofilm rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. To compare biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy to conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. Most recent search: 19 June 2017.We also searched two ongoing trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Most recent searches: 24 August 2017 and 05 September 2017. Randomized controlled trials of antibiotic therapy based on biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing compared to antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Both authors independently selected trials, assessed their risk of bias and extracted data from eligible trials. Additionally, the review authors contacted the trial investigators to obtain further information. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE criteria. The searches identified two multicentre, randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trials eligible for inclusion

  10. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete

    2003-01-01

    Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards breakpoints, the percentage of concordant results increased to 98.4% and the performance between laboratories varied between 94.2 and 99.4% concordant results. For E. coli, S., aureus, and Salmonella, all laboratories except one had more than 97% concordant results......A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries......, whereas for Enterococcus spp., two laboratories had less than 90 % concordant results. Susceptibility testing of Salmonella to fluoroquinolones gave rise to almost 0.5% nonconcordant results and susceptibility testing of S. aureus to vancomycin resulted in that 1.8% of the strains were incorrectly...

  11. Evaluation of a radiometric method for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrand, J.J.; Spicer, A.D.; Groeschel, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pyrazinamide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires an acid environment. By controlling the method of acidification and the quality and quantity of the inoculum, the test can be performed with the BACTEC radiometric system (Johnston Laboratories, Towson, Md.). We acidified BACTEC 7H12 medium with buffered phosphoric acid and adjusted the test inoculum to 1/10 of that usually employed in BACTEC protocols; after 5 days of growth we correctly identified 36 of 36 strains susceptible to 50 micrograms of pyrazinamide per ml. All 18 resistant strains were classified as pyrazinamide resistant. (Susceptibility or resistance had been determined by standard plate assays.) The test was able to detect small resistant populations in artificial mixtures of 1 or 2% resistant bacteria with a susceptible strain (10 mixtures each). We tested 70 M. tuberculosis strains in acidified BACTEC 7H12 medium and by the plate dilution test at pH 5.5. All strains grew in the BACTEC medium, but three strains failed to grow on plates and were not tested further; the results of both methods agreed for the remaining strains

  12. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Malassezia yeast: comparison of two different methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Florencia D; Córdoba, Susana B; de Los Ángeles Sosa, María; Zalazar, Laura C; Fernández, Mariana S; Cattana, María E; Alegre, Liliana R; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J; Giusiano, Gustavo E

    2017-02-01

    All Malassezia species are lipophilic; thus, modifications are required in susceptibility testing methods to ensure their growth. Antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia species using agar and broth dilution methods has been studied. Currently, few tests using disc diffusion methods are being performed. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of Malassezia yeast against antifungal agents using broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods, then to compare both methodologies. Fifty Malassezia isolates were studied. Microdilution method was performed as described in reference document and agar diffusion test was performed using antifungal tablets and discs. To support growth, culture media were supplemented. To correlate methods, linear regression analysis and categorical agreement was determined. The strongest linear association was observed for fluconazole and miconazole. The highest agreement between both methods was observed for itraconazole and voriconazole and the lowest for amphotericin B and fluconazole. Although modifications made to disc diffusion method allowed to obtain susceptibility data for Malassezia yeast, variables cannot be associated through a linear correlation model, indicating that inhibition zone values cannot predict MIC value. According to the results, disc diffusion assay may not represent an alternative to determine antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia yeast. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Its utility in resource poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojary A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS test performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with the conventional method i.e., the proportion method. Methods: One hundred clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF by the conventional proportion method and CONRAS in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium enriched with growth supplements (MB7H9S. Results: The performance of the CONRAS test was evaluated using proportion method as the gold standard. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility of the CONRAS test to INH was 93.75 and 98.52% and for RIF it was 96.10 and 100% respectively. The mean time for reporting was 6.3 days and the test showed excellent reproducibility. The kappa (k value for INH was 0.92 and for RIF was 0.99, indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. Conclusions: CONRAS test is a rapid and reliable method of drug susceptibility for M. tuberculosis.

  14. [Susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to primary antituberculous drugs on chocolate agar: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Bilgin, Kemal; Akgüneş, Alper; Durupinar, Belma

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of chocolate agar as an alternative medium instead of Middlebrook 7H10 agar, for the susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains against isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (ETM). The susceptibility results obtained by chocolate agar were compared with the results of BACTEC 460 TB (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA) system which was accepted as the reference method. A total of 25 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were included to the study and susceptibility testing was performed on malachite green added-chocolate agar with some modifications of proportion method recommended by NCCLS. In our study when comparing the results obtained by chocolate agar with the results of BACTEC 460 TB system, the concordance rates for INH, STR, RIF and ETM were found as 88%, 88%, 84% and 72%, respectively. The specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of susceptibility testing on chocolate agar have been detected as 82.3%, 100%, 72.7% and 100% for INH; 78.5%, 100%, 78.5% and 100% for RIF; 83.3%, 84.2%, 94.1% and 62.5% for STR; 25%, 94.1%, 72.7% and 66.6% for ETM, respectively. The results of the susceptibility testing performed on chocolate agar were obtained on the 21st day of incubation for all isolates. In conclusion, the data from our study suggested that chocolate agar can be used as an alternative medium for the susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis, however, further studies with more isolates are needed for the standardisation of the method.

  15. Evaluation of susceptibility of high strength steels to delayed fracture by using cyclic corrosion test and slow strain rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songjie; Zhang Zuogui; Akiyama, Eiji; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki; Zhang Boping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate susceptibilities of high strength steels to delayed fracture, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) of notched bar specimens of AISI 4135 with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa and boron-bearing steel with 1300 MPa have been performed after cyclic corrosion test (CCT). During SSRT the humidity around the specimen was kept high to keep absorbed diffusible hydrogen. The fracture stresses of AISI 4135 steels decreased with increment of diffusible hydrogen content which increased with CCT cycles. Their delayed fracture susceptibilities could be successfully evaluated in consideration of both influence of hydrogen content on mechanical property and hydrogen entry.

  16. Change of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST: influence on cumulative hospital antibiograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Wolfensberger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A and after (period B changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011 guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3.1 (2013 guidelines. RESULTS: The majority of species/drug combinations showed no differences in susceptibility rates comparing periods A and B. However, in some gram-negative bacilli, decreased susceptibility rates were observed when comparing CLSI 2009 with EUCAST 1.3 within period B: Escherichia coli / cefepime, 95.8% (CLSI 2009 vs. 93.1% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.005; Enterobacter cloacae / cefepime, 97.0 (CLSI 2009 vs. 90.5% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.012; Pseudomonas aeruginosa / meropenem, 88.1% (CLSI 2009 vs. 78.3% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.002. These differences were still evident when comparing susceptibility rates according to the CLSI 2013 guideline with EUCAST 3.1 guideline. For P. aeruginosa and imipenem, a trend towards a lower antibiotic susceptibility rate in ICUs compared to general wards turned into a significant difference after the change to EUCAST: 87.9% vs. 79.8%, P=0.08 (CLSI 2009 and 86.3% vs. 76.8%, P=0.048 (EUCAST 1.3. CONCLUSIONS: The change of AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST led to a clinically relevant decrease of susceptibility rates in cumulative antibiograms for defined species/drug combinations, particularly in those with considerable differences in clinical susceptibility breakpoints between the two guidelines.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bovine digital dermatitis treponemes identifies macrolides for in vivo efficacy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N J; Brown, J M; Hartley, C; Smith, R F; Carter, S D

    2012-12-07

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a major infectious lameness of dairy cattle and sheep considered to be caused by treponemes. The aim of this study was to identify antibiotics effective against DD treponemes that might be useful in the treatment of ruminant DD in the future or to identify antibiotics useful in isolation studies. Here, a microdilution method was used to identify in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of treponemes cultured from DD lesions to eight relevant antibiotics. DD treponemes exhibited highest susceptibility to amoxicillin, azithromycin and gamithromycin. Unfortunately, amoxicillin whilst having potential for DD treatment in other animals (e.g. sheep) would require milk withhold periods in dairy cattle. DD treponemes were not particularly susceptible to two cephalosporins: cefalexin and ceftiofur, which do not require milk withhold. The bacteria demonstrated low susceptibility to trimethoprim and especially colistin suggesting these antimicrobials may be particularly useful in isolation of DD treponemes. The most promising high susceptibility results for macrolides indicate a rationale to consider veterinary licensed macrolides as DD treatments. Furthermore, given the DD treponeme antibiotic susceptibility similarities to established treatments for human treponematoses, identification of treponemacidal, long acting β-lactam analogues not requiring milk withhold may allow for development of a successful treatment for dairy cattle DD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karabulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT and epsilometer test (Etest methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (STM and ethambutol (ETM of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method.

  19. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  20. Comparison of E-test with other conventional susceptibility testing methods for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin against gram negative enteric bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Terry-Alli, O A; Daini, O A; Olabiyi, F A; Igharo, E A

    2012-06-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacteria has led to the need for a faster and reliable method for determining antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In a resource poor setting like ours, it's also important to look for methods that will be clinically and economically beneficial to the patient. This study was aimed at evaluating the Epsilometer test (E-test) and conventional methods for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Gram-negative enteric bacteria to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Disc diffusion, E-test, broth dilution and agar dilution methods were performed on 54 bacterial isolates. Using the E-test, 88.9% of bacterial isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 92.6% were resistant using broth microdilution, 96.3% were resistant using agar dilution and 72.2% were resistant using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of isolates for gentamicin showed significant difference for all the techniques (p 0.05). Both E-test and broth dilution methods showed high levels of agreement (p > 0.05), there were low levels of agreement between E-test and agar dilution method (p < 0.05), especially at MIC50. The E-test can therefore be considered a reliable method to determine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and it gives results which are at least as accurate as those obtained by the broth dilution method.

  1. .i.Aspergillus viridinutans./i. complex: polyphasic taxonomy, mating behaviour and antifungal susceptibility testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Z.; Hubka, V.; Svobodová, L.; Hamal, P.; Nováková, Alena; Matsuzawa, T.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 3 (2013), s. 162-163 ISSN 0933-7407. [Trends in Medical Mycology /6./. 11.10.2013-14.10.2013, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus viridinutans * polyphasic taxonomy * mating behaviour * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  3. Interpretive criteria for mupirocin susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus spp. using CLSI guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creagh, S

    2012-02-03

    Mupirocin is an antimicrobial agent commonly used to treat staphylococcal infection or to eliminate persistent carriage. To date, interpretive criteria have not been established to define susceptibility or resistance when performing mupirocin susceptibility testing. In this evaluation, using CLSI guidelines, a total of 502 staphylococci comprising 219 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, 222 methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 61 coagulase-negative staphylococci are tested by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and E-test. Disc diffusion using 5 microg mupirocin discs was found to be a reliable method to distinguish susceptible and resistant strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination was required to differentiate low-level and high-level resistance to mupirocin. E-test was found to be an accurate alternative to broth microdilution for the routine determination of MIC values of staphylococci to mupirocin. Broth microdilution and disc-diffusion results were plotted on a scattergram, and error rates were calculated. No errors were found using susceptibility criteria of < 4 microg\\/mL (MIC) and > 19 mm (zone diameter).

  4. Alignment of new tuberculosis drug regimens and drug susceptibility testing: a framework for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, William A.; Boehme, Catharina C.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Daniels, Colleen; Dowdy, David; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Gheuens, Jan; Kim, Peter; Kimerling, Michael E.; Kreiswirth, Barry; Lienhardt, Christian; Mdluli, Khisi; Pai, Madhukar; Perkins, Mark D.; Peter, Trevor; Zignol, Matteo; Zumla, Alimuddin; Schito, Marco

    2013-01-01

    New tuberculosis drug regimens are creating new priorities for drug susceptibility testing (DST) and surveillance. To minimise turnaround time, rapid DST will need to be prioritised, but developers of these assays will need better data about the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Efforts are

  5. Cost-effectiveness of rapid susceptibility testing against second-line drugs for tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowdy, D. W.; van't Hoog, A.; Shah, M.; Cobelens, F.

    2014-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against second-line tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is essential for improving outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases. To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of rapid DST for SLDs. We constructed a

  6. New recommendations for disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests for methicillin-resistant (heteroresistant) staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, L K; Thornsberry, C

    1984-01-01

    The agar disk diffusion susceptibility test was reevaluated for its ability to discriminate between susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (128 strains) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (19 strains) when tested with methicillin, oxacillin, and nafcillin. The results show that the current recommendations for disk potencies and interpretive zone diameters do not fit well with MIC correlates that we now recommend. Based on data from this study, we suggest that these parameters of the test be changed. For methicillin, we recommend a 10-micrograms disk with breakpoints of less than or equal to 11 mm (greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml) to indicate resistance and greater than or equal to 15 mm (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml) to indicate susceptibility. For oxacillin and nafcillin, we recommend 4-micrograms disks with breakpoints of less than or equal to 12 mm (greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to indicate resistance and greater than or equal to 16 mm (less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml) to indicate susceptibility. MIC breakpoints were from a broth microdilution system which used a medium containing salt. If one of these three penicillins were to be selected for routine tests, we would recommend oxacillin, based on our data, but we recognize that this may depend upon the population of staphylococci within a particular hospital. Images PMID:6562125

  7. Spectrophotometric reading of EUCAST antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meletiadis, J.; Leth Mortensen, K.; Verweij, P. E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Given the increasing number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of resistant Aspergillus isolates, objective, automated and high-throughput antifungal susceptibility testing is important. The EUCAST E.Def 9.3 reference method for MIC determination of Aspergillus species relies on vis...

  8. Direct testing of bronchoalveolar lavages from ventilator-associated pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Alexandre; Medrano, José; Mzali, Fatima; Balick-Weber, Claude-Charles; Bessède, Emilie; Picard, Walter; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Bébéar, Cécile M; Vargas, Frédéric; Hilbert, Gilles; Rogues, Anne Marie; Gruson, Didier

    2012-06-01

    In line with a rapid de-escalation of empirical antimicrobial therapy, this study assessed the validity of an E-test-based direct specimen testing method on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients. E-test strips were directly applied onto Mueller-Hinton agar plates seeded with BAL samples and read after 24 h of incubation. In parallel, the BAL samples were analyzed by the routine diagnostic laboratory. The microbroth dilution approach was used as a control method. In a cohort of 20 patients, 135 microorganism-antibiotic combinations were studied. Total agreement between the 2 methods was achieved for 88.9% combinations, with 1.5% very major errors (isolates susceptible by E-test and reported resistant by the diagnostic laboratory) and 9.6% major errors (isolates resistant by E-test and reported susceptible by the diagnostic laboratory). These results indicate that applying E-test directly on BAL samples is a promising method for obtaining susceptibility data after 24 h in critical patients with VAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for rapid AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology.

  10. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus Lung Disease: Drug Susceptibility Testing in Sputum Culture Negative Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Kobayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections, patients with M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAA lung disease are difficult to treat and no standard therapy has been established. Few reports have investigated the drug susceptibility of these strains. We retrospectively investigated how in vitro drug susceptibility testing (DST of MAA affects the induction of sputum conversion using pharmacotherapy. Methods: Patients with MAA lung disease diagnosed and treated between 2010 and 2014 at our hospital were enrolled and divided into Group A (sputum conversion without relapse within 1 year and Group B (persistent positive cultured or negative conversion with relapse. MAA was identified in M. abscessus using sequence with genotyping, and DST of MAA was performed. Results: We assessed 23 patients (9 males and 14 females. There were 8 patients in Group A and 15 in Group B. Higher prevalence of susceptible isolates for clarithromycin (CAM susceptibility on day 14 was noted in Group A than in Group B (P = 0.03 and no significant difference observed in the two groups for other drugs. Conclusions: In vitro DST of MAA, especially CAM susceptibility on day 14, affected the results of negative conversion. No other drugs were found to affect sputum culture negative conversion.

  11. SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST FOR FUNGI: CLINICAL AND LABORATORIAL CORRELATIONS IN MEDICAL MYCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ALASTRUEY-IZQUIERDO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYDuring recent decades, antifungal susceptibility testing has become standardized and nowadays has the same role of the antibacterial susceptibility testing in microbiology laboratories. American and European standards have been developed, as well as equivalent commercial systems which are more appropriate for clinical laboratories. The detection of resistant strains by means of these systems has allowed the study and understanding of the molecular basis and the mechanisms of resistance of fungal species to antifungal agents. In addition, many studies on the correlation of in vitro results with the outcome of patients have been performed, reaching the conclusion that infections caused by resistant strains have worse outcome than those caused by susceptible fungal isolates. These studies have allowed the development of interpretative breakpoints for Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., the most frequent agents of fungal infections in the world. In summary, antifungal susceptibility tests have become essential tools to guide the treatment of fungal diseases, to know the local and global disease epidemiology, and to identify resistance to antifungals.

  12. Development of a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    In this study a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets was investigated. The development of a suitable test procedure is based on the External-Loaded Hot Crack Test (PVC-Test). The test modification for resistance spot welding contains a constant tensile force load. The test method for determining the cracking susceptibility was experimentally verified for a high strength steel, a transformation induced plasticity steel (TR...

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase....... Consequently, susceptibility testing of all H. pylori strains is recommended in order to survey the development of resistance, and in our hands the described methodology was relatively easy to perform and the results were easy to read.......No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study...

  14. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik’s Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:29112122

  15. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik's Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-11-07

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria.

  16. Genetic Testing for TMEM154 Mutations Associated with Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Dustin T.; Simpson, Barry; Kijas, James W.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.

    2013-01-01

    In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal’s health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks. PMID:23408992

  17. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    Full Text Available In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal's health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154 has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes. The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks.

  18. Linking Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to transport direction: The Gavarnie Thrust, Axial Zone, Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcén, Marcos; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Soto, Ruth; Oliva-Urcía, Belén

    2017-04-01

    This work deals with the application of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), structural analysis and microstructural analysis to the study of shear zones. Mylonitized fault rocks have been sampled in the Gavarnie Trust, one of the main structures of the Pyrenean Axial Zone, which was structured as a south-verging antiformal stack during the Alpine Orogeny. In the studied area, the Gavarnie Unit (Silurian-Carboniferous, low grade metasedimentary rocks) overthrust the Millares and Bielsa Units (Permian and Cretaceous cover, Cambro-Ordovician medium grade metamorphic rocks and granitoids), with a minimum horizontal displacement of 12km. Three profiles of the shear zone were studied with the goal of observing changes in the transport direction, the strain distribution and the orientation of the magnetic ellipsoid., One profile is parallel to the basal thrust plane, where the core zone has been identified, and the other two are vertical transects (profiles 1 and 2), perpendicular to the thrust plane. The shear zone, developed into the hangingwall phyllitic Silurian and Devonian units, is at least 30 m wide. The structural analysis reveals that the Silurian rocks are the local detachment level, which becomes thinner and pinchs out completely towards the South, where the detachment level is within the Devonian units (Fourche de la Sede Fm.). In both vertical profiles, the shear zone shows a decrease in the strain from the contact with the Cretaceous limestones at the footwall, towards the upper limit of the shear zone. This is evidenced by the lower development of mylonitic foliations and SCC' structures and the upwards increase of brittle deformation. The transport direction inferred from SC structures (stretching lineations in S and C planes) is constant in all sites, with an average of N190E. AMS data are in perfect agreement with the structural analysis, being the magnetic foliation parallel to the S or C planes of the SC structures. The magnetic

  19. Comparative erythromycin and tylosin susceptibility testing of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Kadlec, Kristina; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Tylosin, a 16-membered macrolide, is - besides other indications - used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. So far, there is only limited information available on the tylosin susceptibility of streptococci isolated from mastitis. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate 303 streptococci from bovine mastitis, including 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 102 Streptococcus uberis, for their tylosin and erythromycin susceptibility by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion. Both tests followed the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For erythromycin, the results were interpreted using the CLSI-approved clinical breakpoints. Moreover, erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of macrolide resistance genes and for inducible macrolide resistance. In general, both testing methods showed a good correlation for the three streptococcal species, although for the erythromycin susceptibility testing 11 S. uberis isolates fell into the very major error category. All but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored at least one macrolide resistance gene, with the erm(B) gene being most common. Moreover, single isolates of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae proved to be inducibly macrolide-resistant. Since inducible macrolide resistance can easily switch to constitutive resistance, tylosin should not be used for the treatment of infections caused by inducibly resistant streptococci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Same-day identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing on positive blood cultures: a simple and inexpensive procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelegheer, K; Nulens, E

    2017-04-01

    Fast diagnostic tools are becoming a hot topic in microbiology, especially in the case of septic patients. Therefore, we attempted to develop a fast, inexpensive, accurate and easy method to identify bacteria and perform an antibiotic susceptibility test directly on positive blood cultures that could be used in a routine laboratory. A procedure based on centrifugation and washing steps was performed on 110 non-duplicated (including nine seeded) positive blood culture bottles. Direct identification (DID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was conducted on the pellet with the MALDI Biotyper and Phoenix, respectively. Identification (ID) to the species level was correct in 44/45 (97%) cases for Gram-negative bacteria and 44/56 (79%) cases for Gram-positive bacteria. In total, 98.9% of the AST results were identical to the routine laboratory result. No very major errors, four major errors and eight minor errors were detected. A reliable identification and a high AST agreement were obtained from blood cultures seeded with multi-resistant bacteria. We simulated the timeline of DID and demonstrated an identification and AST result within 24 h using Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-positive blood cultures as examples. We developed an easy, fast and cheap method to generate reliable ID and AST results. Moreover, this method may be used to obtain results within 24 h after incubating the blood culture bottles in the microbiology lab.

  2. Direct, Operational Field Test Evaluation, Institutional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES HAVE BEEN DEFINED AS NON-TECHNICAL ISSUES OR CONCERNS THAT INFLUENCE THE COURSE AND OUTCOME OF AN OPERATIONAL TEST. OFTEN THEY ARE EVENTS AND/OR CIRCUMSTANCES THAT AFFECT ADMINISTRATION, DESIGN, DEPLOYMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE O...

  3. Development of an Accelerated Test Method for the Determination of Susceptibility to Atmospheric Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical rationale is presented for use of a repetitive cyclic current reversal voltammetric technique for characterization of localized corrosion processes, including atmospheric corrosion. Applicability of this proposed experimental protocol is applied to characterization of susceptibility to crevice and pitting corrosion, atmospheric corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Criteria upon which relative susceptibility is based were determined and tested using two iron based alloys commonly in use at NASA-Kennedy; A36 (a low carbon steel) and 4130 (a low alloy steel). Practicality of the procedure was demonstrated by measuring changes in anodic polarization behavior during high frequency current reversal cycles of 25 cycles per second with 1 mA/sq cm current density amplitude in solutions containing Cl anions. The results demonstrated that, due to excessive polarization which affects conductivity of barrier corrosion product layers, A36 was less resistant to atmospheric corrosion than its 4130 counterpart; behavior which was also demonstrated during exposure tests.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study....../spot) as the inoculum and 72 h as the incubation time. A modest inoculum effect was noted for amoxicillin and metronidazole. By the methodology derived from our preliminary study, the susceptibilities of 230 H. pylori strains to six antibiotics were subsequently determined. The results were generally in accord...... with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase...

  5. Successful use of broth microdilution in susceptibility tests for methicillin-resistant (heteroresistant) staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornsberry, C; McDougal, L K

    1983-01-01

    We studied the broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedure to see whether it could be made reliable for determining resistance of staphylococci to methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, and cephalothin. With 45 selected strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 12 selected strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis we found that the addition of 2% NaCl to cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth permitted us to discriminate reliably between resistant and susceptible organisms. A screening test in which resistant staphylococci grew on agar containing 4% NaCl and methicillin (10 micrograms/ml), oxacillin (6 micrograms/ml), or nafcillin (6 micrograms/ml) incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h (additional 24 h if no growth) was also reliable. In vitro cephalothin resistance occurred in heteroresistant S. aureus but usually did not occur in heteroresistant S. epidermidis. PMID:6643661

  6. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6 % minor, no major and 1.2 % very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA......Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the o......CelloScope system, to perform rapid AST. The oCelloScope system demonstrated a very high accuracy (96 % overall agreement) when determining the resistance profiles of four reference strains, nine clinical isolates, including multi-drug-resistant isolates, and three positive blood cultures. AST of clinical isolates...

  7. Fluoromycobacteriophages for Rapid, Specific, and Sensitive Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of paramount importance as multiple- and extensively- drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis emerge and spread. We describe here a virus-based assay in which fluoromycobacteriophages are used to deliver a GFP or ZsYellow fluorescent marker gene to M. tuberculosis, which can then be monitored by fluorescent detection approaches including fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Pre-clinical evaluations show that addition of either Rifampicin or Streptomycin at the time of phage addition obliterates fluorescence in susceptible cells but not in isogenic resistant bacteria enabling drug sensitivity determination in less than 24 hours. Detection requires no substrate addition, fewer than 100 cells can be identified, and resistant bacteria can be detected within mixed populations. Fluorescence withstands fixation by paraformaldehyde providing enhanced biosafety for testing MDR-TB and XDR-TB infections. PMID:19300517

  8. Multisite reproducibility of the broth microdilution method for susceptibility testing of Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conville, Patricia S; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Witebsky, Frank G; Koziol, Deloris; Hall, Geraldine S; Killian, Scott B; Knapp, Cindy C; Warshauer, David; Van, Tam; Wengenack, Nancy L; Deml, Sharon; Woods, Gail L

    2012-04-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinical isolates of Nocardia is recommended to detect resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents; such testing is complicated by difficulties in inoculum preparation and test interpretation. In this study, six laboratories performed repetitive broth microdilution testing on single strains of Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia wallacei. For each isolate, a total of 30 microdilution panels from three different lots were tested at most sites. The goal of the study was to determine the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of susceptibility testing of this group of isolates. Acceptable agreement (>90% agreement at ±1 dilution of the MIC mode) was found for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and moxifloxacin. After eliminating MIC values from single laboratories whose results showed the greatest deviation from those of the remaining laboratories, acceptable agreement was also found for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, minocycline, and tobramycin. Results showed unsatisfactory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of ceftriaxone with N. cyriacigeorgica and N. wallacei, tigecycline with N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica, and sulfonamides with N. farcinica and N. wallacei. N. nova ATCC BAA-2227 is proposed as a quality control organism for AST of Nocardia sp., and the use of a disk diffusion test for sulfisoxazole is proposed as a check of the adequacy of the inoculum and to confirm sulfonamide MIC results.

  9. Effects of Nitrogen and Tensile Direction on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Ni-Free FeCrMnC-Based Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Ha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Febalance-19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21N, in wt % was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel (longitudinal and perpendicular (transverse to the rolling direction. It was found that alloying N was effective in increasing the resistance to SCC, while it was higher along the longitudinal direction than the transverse direction. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was assessed based on the electrochemical resistance to pitting corrosion, the corrosion morphology, and the fractographic analysis.

  10. Molecular Identification and Conventional Susceptibility Testing of Iranian Clinical Mycobacterium fortuitum Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Heidarieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are capable of producing diseases in humans. Since mycobacteria vary in their susceptibility, precise identification is critical for adoption of correct drug therapy. The main aim of this study was molecular identification and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Iranian clinically isolated Myocbacterium fortuitum.Materials and MethodsA total of 72 presumptively identified isolates of clinical atypical mycobacteria collected by Isfahan Research Center for Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine during 2006-2008 were included in the current study. A combination of conventional and molecular tests was applied to identify the isolates. Molecular methods including genus and group specific PCR and PCR-Restriction Algorithm (PRA based on hsp65 gene were applied to achieve exact identification of mycobacterial strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on M. fortuitum isolates was performed by in-house prepared broth microdilution test..ResultsOut of 72 collected atypical mycobacteria isolates, we identified 25 strains of M. fortuitum. All strains had the specific molecular markers of mycobacterial identity and similar species specific PRA pattern of the international type strain of M. fortuitum. Drug susceptibility testing showed that the M. fortuitum isolates are sensitive to amikacin, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin (100%, imipenem (92%, clarithromycin (76%, cefoxitin (56% and doxycycline (16%.ConclusionMolecular identification of atypical mycobacteria based on PRA is a reliable and rapid approach which can identify mycobacterial strains to the species level. Our study showed that M. fortuitum plays a significant role in pulmonary and extrapulmonary infection in patients and should be given proper considerations when clinical samples are processed.

  11. Use of linezolid susceptibility test results as a surrogate for the susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens to tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurenko, Gary; Bien, Paul; Bensaci, Mekki; Patel, Hina N; Thorne, Grace

    2014-09-20

    Tedizolid is a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial with potent activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Although tedizolid is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection, commercial susceptibility testing products for tedizolid are not currently available. This study evaluated the usefulness of applying linezolid susceptibility test results as a surrogate for predicting susceptibility to tedizolid in clinically significant Gram-positive pathogens. Gram-positive isolates (N = 10,702) were obtained from annual surveillance programs conducted between 2009 and 2012, from 3 tedizolid clinical trials, and from a preclinical study of the antibacterial activity of tedizolid. Susceptibility testing of linezolid and tedizolid was performed using the reference broth microdilution method in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution for tedizolid and linezolid against this set of isolates was consistent with that of previous reports. Scatter plot analysis of relevant subsets of organisms was performed and showed high categorical agreement between linezolid and tedizolid MIC results (>99% for staphylococci and streptococci; >98% for enterococci). Very major error rates (ie, tedizolid false-susceptible errors) were very low and within acceptable limits for a surrogate agent: S. aureus and other staphylococcal species, 0%; Enterococcus spp, 0.2%; and Streptococcus spp, 0%. High categorical agreement between MIC values for tedizolid and linezolid and low very major error rates were shown for all organism groups tested, supporting the use of linezolid as a reliable surrogate for tedizolid susceptibility testing.

  12. A flow cytometry method for testing the susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. to amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaducci, Tatiane; Matsumoto, Marcelo Teruyuki; Sardi, Janaina Cássia Orlandi; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    Human fungal infections have increased at an alarming rate in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptococcosis is the second most prevalent systemic fungal infection worldwide, and the most prevalent systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals, representing more than 70% of cases. The incidence of cryptococcosis is high in people with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with recent estimates indicating that there are one million cases of cryptococcal meningitis globally per year in AIDS patients. The aim of this research was to develop a rapid flow cytometric antifungal susceptibility test and to compare the results with the standard methods. A reference strain and clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B by flow cytometry using propidium iodide as indicator of viability. Flow cytometry (FC) results were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined by microdilution. The antifungal activity of amphotericin B ranged from MICs of 0.06 to 2μg/ml for the 11 isolates studied. The same results were found by FC. The FC method allows same-day results, assisting in the selection of appropriate antifungal therapies. These results demonstrate an excellent correlation between FC and the classic methods of testing for susceptibility to antifungal agents. This rapid diagnosis method makes it possible to quickly administer effective therapeutic interventions, often saving lives. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  14. A two-hour antibiotic susceptibility test by ATP-bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; García-Loygorri Jordán de Urries, María Cristina; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, María Purificación; Simarro Grande, María; Orduña Domingo, Antonio; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) in Clinical Microbiology laboratories is still time-consuming, and most procedures take 24h to yield results. In this study, a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test using ATP-bioluminescence has been developed. The design of method was performed using five ATCC collection strains of known susceptibility. This procedure was then validated against standard commercial methods on 10 strains of enterococci, 10 staphylococci, 10 non-fermenting gram negative bacilli, and 13 Enterobacteriaceae from patients. The agreement obtained in the sensitivity between the ATP-bioluminescence method and commercial methods (E-test, MicroScan and VITEK2) was 100%. In summary, the preliminary results obtained in this work show that the ATP-bioluminescence method could provide a fast and reliable AST in two hours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  16. Growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by polyoxyethylene stearate present in the BACTEC pyrazinamide susceptibility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A; Thibert, L; Desjardins, F; Siddiqi, S H; Dascal, A

    1996-01-01

    We have previously found that approximately 3.5% of 428 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis yield uninterpretable results in the BACTEC pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility test system, because of inadequate growth. We tested the hypothesis that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES), the ingredient of the reconstituting fluid for the test, was the cause of this growth inhibition. A total of 15 isolates known for their previously uninterpretable results and 100 randomly chosen clinical isolates were tested in parallel both with and without POES. Repeat testing of the isolates with previously uninterpretable results yielded results in the presence of POES in only seven (47%). In the absence of POES, all gave interpretable results but one such result showed false resistance. For the other 100 clinical isolates, interpretable results were obtained with and without POES, but growth was enhanced in the absence of POES, especially in the PZA-susceptible strains. This was evidenced by a decreased time to attain a growth index of 200 in the control vial (4.9 days without POES versus 5.8 days with POES; P interpretation of the test (7.4% without POES versus 2.2% with POES; P interpretable results indicating PZA resistance are obtained only in the absence of POES, the result should be confirmed by a pyrazinamidase assay or by the conventional proportion method. Routine omission of POES from the BACTEC test for all clinical strains is discouraged because of the unacceptably high false-resistance rates.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of grown blood cultures by combining culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction is rapid and effective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Beuving

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy in bacteraemia patients dramatically reduces mortality. A new method for RApid Molecular Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (RAMAST that can be applied directly to positive blood cultures was developed and evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Growth curves and antibiotic susceptibility of blood culture isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci and (facultative aerobic gram-negative rods were determined by incubating diluted blood cultures with and without antibiotics, followed by a quantitative universal 16S PCR to detect the presence or absence of growth. Testing 114 positive blood cultures, RAMAST showed an agreement with microbroth dilution of 96.7% for gram-negative rods, with a minor error (false-susceptibility with a intermediate resistant strain rate of 1.9%, a major error (false resistance rate of 0.8% and a very major error (false susceptibility rate of 0.6%. Agreement for S. aureus was 97.9%, with a very major error rate of 2.1%. Enterococcus species showed 95.0% agreement, with a major error rate of 5.0%. These agreements are comparable with those of the Phoenix system. Starting from a positive blood culture, the test was completed within 9 hours. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This new rapid method for antibiotic susceptibility testing can potentially provide accurate results for most relevant bacteria commonly isolated from positive blood cultures in less time than routine methods.

  18. Susceptibility testing and reporting of new antibiotics with a focus on tedizolid: an international working group report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark H; Dmitrieva, Natalia; Gales, Ana Cristina; Petukhova, Irina; Al-Obeid, Suleiman; Rossi, Flavia; M Blondeau, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    Inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics are among the most important factors in resistance development, and effective antibiotic stewardship measures are needed to optimize outcomes. Selection of appropriate antimicrobials relies on accurate and timely antimicrobial susceptibility testing. However, the availability of clinical breakpoints and in vitro susceptibility testing often lags behind regulatory approval by several years for new antimicrobials. A Working Group of clinical/medical microbiologists from Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Russia and the UK recently examined issues surrounding antimicrobial susceptibility testing for novel antibiotics. While commercially available tests are being developed, potential surrogate antibiotics may be used as marker of susceptibility. Using tedizolid as an example of a new antibiotic, this special report makes recommendations to optimize routine susceptibility reporting.

  19. Study on hydrogen assisted cracking susceptibility of HSLA steel by implant test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa Chakraborty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DMR-249A is an indigenously developed high strength low alloy steel for Indian ship building industry for making ship-hull and is extensively used in the construction of war ships and submarines. Welding electrodes conforming to SFA 5.5 AWS E8018 C1 has been indigenously developed for welding of this steel using shielded metal arc welding process. In the present study, susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking of DMR-249A steel welds made using this electrode has been assessed using implant test. Implant tests were conducted using this electrode at two different levels of diffusible hydrogen, measured using gas chromatography technique. It is observed that both the steel and the welding consumable are not susceptible to hydrogen assisted cracking even with a high diffusible hydrogen level of 9 mL/100g of weld metal. In implant tests, specimen did not fracture even after loading to stress levels higher than the yield strength of the base metal. The good resistance of this steel and the welding consumable, even with high levels of diffusible hydrogen, is attributed to absence of a susceptible microstructure in both the weld metal and heat affected zone. Hence, this study shows that, in the absence of a susceptible microstructure, hydrogen assisted cracking is unlikely to occur even if hydrogen level is high. It also confirms that in welding of DMR-249A with indigenously developed E8018 C1 electrode, hydrogen assisted cracking is not a concern and no preheating is required to avoid it during welding.

  20. On the Directionality Test of Peer Effects in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    One interesting idea in social network analysis is the directionality test that utilizes the directions of social ties to help identify peer effects. The null hypothesis of the test is that if contextual factors are the only force that affects peer outcomes, the estimated peer effects should not differ, if the directions of social ties are…

  1. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Burkholderia cepacia complex: significance of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Felicity K; Milne, Kathleen E N; Stead, David A; Gould, Ian M

    2016-11-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is notorious for the life-threatening pulmonary infections it causes in patients with cystic fibrosis. The multidrug-resistant nature of Bcc and differing infective Bcc species make the design of appropriate treatment regimens challenging. Previous synergy studies have failed to take account of the species of Bcc isolates. Etest methodology was used to facilitate minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial combination testing on 258 isolates of Bcc, identified to species level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The most active antimicrobials were trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline and minocycline (52.5%, 46.4% and 45.9% of isolates susceptible, respectively). Synergy was observed in 9.2% of the 1799 combinations tested; the most common synergistic combinations were tobramycin + ceftazidime, meropenem + tobramycin and levofloxacin + piperacillin/tazobactam (35.4%, 32.3% and 22.2% synergy, respectively). Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis revealed differences between Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans. Disparity in clinical outcome during infection with these two micro-organisms necessitates further investigation into the clinical outcomes of treatment regimens in light of species identification and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone of growth inhibition for four antimicrobials (fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of the ten Leptospira, seven had a growth inhibition zone of ≤ 21 mm for aztreonam, the zone diameter susceptibility break point for Enterobacteriaceae. This assay could find utility as a simple screening method during the epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Leptospira spp. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Ten years of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella from Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study analysed the trends in antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars and phage types from pigs in Denmark from 1997 to 2006. Methods: Salmonella isolates collected through the Salmonella surveillance programme in pigs were serotyped and phage-typed, and susceptibilities...... to the following antimicrobials were determined: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, colistin, streptomycin, sulphonamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Results: No significant development of resistance occurred within the most important serovars, except Salmonella Typhimurium. A major...... decrease in Salmonella Typhimurium DT12 occurred from 46.5% in 1998 to 16.8% in 2006 while DT120, DT170 and DT104 increased. Throughout the study period, 80.9% of the DT12 isolates remained susceptible to the antimicrobials tested despite an increase in antimicrobial consumption in pigs during the period...

  5. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  6. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Inconsistencies in Vancomycin Susceptibility Testing Methods, Limitations and Advantages of each Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himani; Agrawal, Charu; Madan, Molly; Pandey, Anita; Thakuria, Bhaskar

    2015-10-01

    Vancomycin may be ineffective against an increasing proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) well within the susceptible range. On the other hand it is common knowledge that determination of vancomycin MICs is method dependent. Therefore, given the apparent variability in vancomycin MIC results obtained with the different methods, the use of the vancomycin MIC to predict the outcome of serious S. aureus infections needs to take into account the method used and the results of studies using that particular method. Comparative study was carried out to evaluate the MICs obtained by BMD method, E-test, and Vitek 2 method and to detect inconsistencies in these vancomycin for 66 MRSA isolates obtained from various samples of patients attending the OPDs & IPDs within a period of one year. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the MICs obtained by BMD method, E-test, and Vitek 2 method to detect vancomycin susceptibility in 66 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various samples of patients attending the OPDs & IPDs within a period of one year. The study was conducted in Department of Microbiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut from January to December 2012. On determination of MICs for vancomycin for the MRSA isolates, all were identified as VSSA by BMD, E-Test & Vitek 2 methods. However, the vancomycin MIC values obtained by E-test correlated better with BMD method (correlation factor= 0.6727) than Vitek 2 (correlation factor=0.5316), indicating E-Test to be a better method for determination of vancomycin MICs as compared to Vitek 2. MRSA isolates with higher vancomycin MICs, even within the susceptibility range, are being observed more frequently which result in treatment failures with vancomycin. Because of the discrepancy that exists in vancomycin MIC results from different methods, the prediction of outcome of serious S.aureus infections should take into account the method used

  7. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badiee, P.; Badali, H.; Boekhout, T.; Diba, K.; Moghadam, A.G.; Hossaini Nasab, A.; Jafarian, H.; Mohammadi, R.; Mirhendi, H.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Shamsizadeh, A.; Soltani, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to

  8. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Malassezia spp. with an Optimized Colorimetric Broth Microdilution Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Cheryl; Buttafuoco, Antonino; Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P

    2017-06-01

    Malassezia is a genus of lipid-dependent yeasts. It is associated with common skin diseases such as pityriasis versicolor and atopic dermatitis and can cause systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Owing to the slow growth and lipid requirements of these fastidious yeasts, convenient and reliable antifungal drug susceptibility testing assays for Malassezia spp. are not widely available. Therefore, we optimized a broth microdilution assay for the testing of Malassezia that is based on the CLSI and EUCAST assays for Candida and other yeasts. The addition of ingredients such as lipids and esculin provided a broth medium formulation that enabled the growth of all Malassezia spp. and could be read, with the colorimetric indicator resazurin, by visual and fluorescence readings. We tested the susceptibility of 52 strains of 13 Malassezia species to 11 commonly used antifungals. MIC values determined by visual readings were in good agreement with MIC values determined by fluorescence readings. The lowest MICs were found for the azoles itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, with MIC 90 values of 0.03 to 1.0 μg/ml, 0.06 to 0.5 μg/ml, and 0.03 to 2.0 μg/ml, respectively. All Malassezia spp. were resistant to echinocandins and griseofulvin. Some Malassezia spp. also showed high MIC values for ketoconazole, which is the most widely recommended topical antifungal to treat Malassezia skin infections. In summary, our assay enables the fast and reliable susceptibility testing of Malassezia spp. with a large panel of different antifungals. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Testing in Human Influenza Viruses: A Laboratory Surveillance Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Sleeman, Katrina; Ballenger, Kristina; Nguyen, Ha T.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Sheu, Tiffany G.; Smagala, James; Li, Yan; Klimov, Alexander I.; Gubareva, Larisa V.

    2010-01-01

    Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are vital in managing seasonal and pandemic influenza infections. NAI susceptibilities of virus isolates (n = 5540) collected during the 2008–2009 influenza season were assessed in the chemiluminescent neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assay. Box-and-whisker plot analyses of log-transformed IC50s were performed for each virus type/subtype and NAI to identify outliers which were characterized based on a statistical cutoff of IC50 >3 interquartile ranges (IQR) from the 75th percentile. Among 1533 seasonal H1N1 viruses tested, 1431 (93.3%) were outliers for oseltamivir; they all harbored the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA) and were reported as oseltamivir-resistant. Only 15 (0.7%) of pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses tested (n = 2259) were resistant to oseltamivir. All influenza A(H3N2) (n = 834) and B (n = 914) viruses were sensitive to oseltamivir, except for one A(H3N2) and one B virus, with D151V and D197E (D198E in N2 numbering) mutations in the NA, respectively. All viruses tested were sensitive to zanamivir, except for six seasonal A(H1N1) and several A(H3N2) outliers (n = 22) which exhibited cell culture induced mutations at residue D151 of the NA. A subset of viruses (n = 1058) tested for peramivir were sensitive to the drug, with exception of H275Y variants that exhibited reduced susceptibility to this NAI. This study summarizes baseline susceptibility patterns of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, and seeks to contribute towards criteria for defining NAI resistance. PMID:21994620

  10. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006 (SNI has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control. This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004 were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006.

  11. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.E.; Hoffner, S.E.; Ansehn, S.

    1988-01-01

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria

  12. Are Adolescents with ADHD Interested in Genetic Testing for Nicotine Addiction Susceptibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Herbert

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well-established that some adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are at increased risk for cigarette smoking. Current research on the genetic basis of this association could ultimately translate into genetic tests capable of identifying smoking-prone adolescents with ADHD. In this study we examined 81 ADHD affected adolescents’ (age 13–21 interest in genetic testing for nicotine addiction susceptibility. Fifty-seven percent of adolescents indicated a fair amount of interest or more in testing. Most adolescents indicated that the personal information revealed from testing would be either useful (29% or interesting (37%. Implications for genetically-informed smoking prevention and cessation interventions in high risk adolescents with ADHD are discussed.

  13. Individual susceptibility to UV and ionizing radiations: DNA repair evaluated by the comets test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alapetite, C.

    1999-01-01

    Some patients having a cancer treated by radiotherapy can suffer from an hypersensitivity with respect to UV and ionizing radiations which corresponds to an inter-individual variability of the response to the geno-toxic stress induced by radiations. A predictive approach of this risk has been developed which shows the interest of an analysis of the individual capacities of repair of DNA radio-lesions. This approach uses the alkaline comets test. The application of this test to the patients' lymphocytes shows a high percentage of severe reactions of normal tissues after the radiotherapy course with a high residual level of broken DNA strands which gives evidence for a repair defect. The retrospective application of this test to breast cancers with radiotherapy complications without any genetical predisposition has permitted to validate this test in order to use it as a predictive diagnosis of the individual susceptibility of patients with respect to radiotherapy. (J.S.)

  14. Evaluation of a semi-automated reporter phage assay for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaiee, Niaz; January, Vanessa; Barthus, Charmaine; Lambrick, Maureen; Roditi, Denise; Behr, Marcel A; Jacobs, William R; Steyn, Lafras M

    2008-01-01

    In a prospective study conducted by laboratory technologists in a diagnostic laboratory in Cape Town, South Africa, a semi-automated phage-based antibiotic susceptibility assay was implemented and the performance of the luciferase reporter mycobacteriophage (LRP) system for susceptibility testing of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates against rifampin and isoniazid was evaluated. Two hundred consecutive clinical MGIT cultures of MTC species were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility assays were set up manually for the LRP and BACTEC radiometric systems (BACTEC) and read in a plate luminometer and the BACTEC 460 instrument, respectively. Discrepant susceptibility results were resolved by the conventional agar proportion method. Of the 200 secondary cultures prepared for this study, 9 (4.5%) were lost to contamination (LRP 4, BACTEC 1, both 4). All of the remaining 191 cultures underwent susceptibility testing by both methods and the overall agreement between the LRP and BACTEC was 98.4% (rifampin 100%; isoniazid 96.9%). Of the 6 discrepant cultures tested by the agar proportion method, 2 gave results in agreement with the LRP. The sensitivity of the LRP for detection of drug-resistant isolates was 100% for both rifampin (n=9) and isoniazid (n=12). The median turnaround time for susceptibility testing was 2 days with the LRP and 9 days with BACTEC. In conclusion, the semi-automated LRP-based assay offers a rapid and practical approach for accurate susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis cultures in diagnostic laboratories with limited financial resources, but with competent technologists.

  15. Exploring dispositional tendencies to seek online information about direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Ryan S; Richards, Adam S; Koehly, Laura M; McBride, Colleen M

    2012-12-01

    Varying perspectives exist regarding the implications of genetic susceptibility testing for common disease, with some anticipating adverse effects and others expecting positive outcomes; however, little is known about the characteristics of people who are most likely to be interested in direct-to-consumer genetic testing. To that end, this study examines the association of individual dispositional differences with health risk perceptions and online information seeking related to a free genetic susceptibility test. Healthy adults enrolled in a large health maintenance organization were surveyed by telephone. Eligible participants (N = 1,959) were given access to a secure website that provided risk and benefit information about a genetic susceptibility test and given the option to be tested. Neuroticism was associated with increased perceptions of disease risk but not with logging on. Those scoring high in conscientiousness were more likely to log on. We found no evidence that neuroticism, a dispositional characteristic commonly linked to adverse emotional response, was predictive of online genetic information seeking in this sample of healthy adults.

  16. In vitro susceptibility testing of fluoroquinolone activity against Salmonella: recent changes to CLSI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphries, R. M.; Fang, F. C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2012-01-01

    this issue by revising the ciprofloxacin break points for Salmonella species. It is critical for clinicians and laboratory workers to be aware of the multiple technical issues surrounding these revised break points. In this article, we review FQ resistance mechanisms in Salmonella, their clinical...... significance, and data supporting the revised ciprofloxacin break points. We encourage clinical laboratories to adopt the revised CLSI ciprofloxacin break points for all Salmonella isolates in which susceptibility testing is indicated and discuss the technical issues for laboratories using commercial...

  17. Evaluation of automated systems for aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones susceptibility testing for Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichang Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated systems (MicroScan WalkAway 96 Plus, Phoenix 100, and Vitek 2 Compact are widely used in clinical laboratories nowadays. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of these three systems for susceptibility testing of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones against Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE. Methods A total of 75 CRE isolates were used in this study. Quinolone resistance determinants (QRDs (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6′-Ib-cr, oqxAB and qepA and aminoglycoside resistance determinants (ARDs (aac(6′-Ib, armA, npmA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD and rmtE of these CRE were screened by PCR. The MICs of aminoglycosides (gentamicin and amikacin and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin to CRE obtained with the automated systems were compared with the reference method (agar dilution method. Results Totally, 97.3% (73/75 of CRE harbored QRDs. The qnr gene was the most common QRD determinant identified in 68 (96.7%, followed by aac (6′-Ib-cr in 56 (74.7%, oqxAB in 23 (30.7%, and qepA in 2 (2.7%, respectively. 22.7% (17/75 of CRE harbored ARD determinants. rmtA, rmtB and npmA were identified among these isolates in 6 (8.0%, 6 (8.0% and 5 (6.7%, respectively. A total of 900 results were obtained in this study. Overall, the total error rate was 9.89%. Twenty-eight very major errors (3.11%, 22 major errors (2.44% and 39 minor errors (4.33% were identified against agar dilution method. The very major errors were almost evenly distributed between results for fluoroquinolones (2.89% and aminoglycosides (3.33%, while the major errors and minor errors were more commonly found in the results of fluoroquinolones (3.11% and 6.44%, respectively than aminoglycosides (1.78% and 2.22%, respectively. Conclusions Our study shows that testing difficulties in susceptibility testing do exist in automated systems. We suggest clinical laboratories using automated systems should consider using a second

  18. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility tests on polystyrene and metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coraça-Huber, D C; Fille, M; Hausdorfer, J; Pfaller, K; Nogler, M

    2012-06-01

    We compared the MBEC™-HTP assay plates made of polystyrene with metal discs composed of TMZF(®) and CrCo as substrates for biofilm formation. Staphylococcus aureus was grown on polystyrene and on metal discs made of titanium and chrome-cobalt. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by examining the recovery of cells after antibiotic exposure and by measuring the biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was assessed with planktonic cells. Bacterial growth was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The antibiotic concentration for biofilm inhibition (BIC) was higher than the MIC for all antibiotics. Microscopic images showed the biofilm structure characterized by groups of cells covered by a film. All models allowed biofilm formation and testing with several antibiotics in vitro. Gentamicin and rifampicin are the most effective inhibitors of Staph. aureus biofilm-related infections. We recommend MBEC™-HTP assay for rapid testing of multiple substances and TMZF(®) and CrCo discs for low-throughput testing of antibiotic susceptibility and for microscopic analysis. In vitro assays can improve the understanding of biofilms and help developing methods to eliminate biofilms from implant surfaces. One advantage of the TMZF(®) and CrCo discs as biofilm in vitro assay is that these metals are commonly used for orthopaedic implants. These models are usable for future periprosthetic joint infection studies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. A cost-effective smartphone-based antimicrobial susceptibility test reader for drug resistance testing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve W.; Tseng, Derek; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is commonly used for determining microbial drug resistance, but routine testing, which can significantly reduce the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, is not regularly performed in resource-limited and field-settings due to technological challenges and lack of trained diagnosticians. We developed a portable cost-effective smartphone-based colorimetric 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) reader capable of automated AST without the need for a trained diagnostician. This system is composed of a smartphone used in conjunction with a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment, which holds a set of inexpensive light-emitting-diodes and fiber-optic cables coupled to the 96-well MTP for enabling the capture of the transmitted light through each well by the smartphone camera. Images of the MTP plate are captured at multiple exposures and uploaded to a local or remote server (e.g., a laptop) for automated processing/analysis of the results using a custom-designed smartphone application. Each set of images are combined to generate a high dynamic-range image and analyzed for well turbidity (indicative of bacterial growth), followed by interpretative analysis per plate to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and drug susceptibility for the specific bacterium. Results are returned to the originating device within 1 minute and shown to the user in tabular form. We demonstrated the capability of this platform using MTPs prepared with 17 antibiotic drugs targeting Gram-negative bacteria and tested 82 patient isolate MTPs of Klebsiella pneumoniae, achieving well turbidity accuracy of 98.19%, MIC accuracy of 95.15%, and drug susceptibility interpretation accuracy of 99.06%, meeting the FDA defined criteria for AST.

  20. Differential susceptibility or diathesis stress? Testing longitudinal associations among parenting, temperament and children’s problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Beijers, R.; Smeekens, Sanny; Dekovic, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated longitudinal associations among parenting, children's temperamental negative affectivity, and internalizing and externalizing behavior. Second, we tested whether findings confirmed the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility theory when conducting

  1. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium Avium subsp. Avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Parvandar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We suggest drug susceptibility testing for more nontuberculous mycobateria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, as well as molecular basics of drug sensitivity in order to detect resistance genes of pathogenic M. avium subsp. avium.

  2. Direct gram stain and urease test to detect Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, K G; Dworkin, B M

    1990-01-01

    Antral biopsies were obtained by gastrointestinal endoscopy on 143 adult patients with dyspeptic symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer disease. A direct Gram stain and a direct urease test were performed on each biopsy in addition to culture. Forty-three biopsies (30%) were considered positive for Helicobacter pylori based on culture or histologic examination, or both. Thirty-one biopsies (72% sensitivity) were positive for both direct tests, whereas 95 of 100 negative cultures were negative for both tests. Thirty-eight of the 43 positive biopsies were Gram stain positive (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 100%). The direct urease test alone was positive at 4 hr for 29 biopsies (sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 100%) and at 24 hr for 38 biopsies (sensitivity, 74%; specificity, 95%). Rapid presumptive diagnosis of H. pylori in antral biopsies was obtained when at least one direct test, Gram stain or urease, was positive.

  3. Susceptibility testing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark. Evaluation of three different media of MIC-determinations and tablet diffusion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, F M; Jensen, N E

    1999-02-12

    This study was conducted to compare the applicability of three different media in sensitivity testing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by means of MIC and tablet diffusion tests. The media used were: modified PPLO agar, chocolatized Mueller-Hinton-II and Columbia agar supplemented with NAD. Seven antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, trimethoprim + sulfadiazine and tylosin, against 40 randomly selected A. pleuropneumoniae isolates. In general, good agreement was found between results obtained with all combinations of media, most antimicrobials tested and the two-test systems. Some variations between media were observed for spectinomycin, tiamulin and tylosin. For ceftiofur and trimethoprim + sulfadiazine some isolates with low MIC-values were classified as resistant using tablet diffusion, indicating that the break points of resistance for these antimicrobials using the tablet diffusion tests need adjustment. Using current break points for resistance with MIC-determinations, all isolates tested susceptible to ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, tiamulin and trimethoprim + sulfadiazine. A larger number of isolates tested resistant to spectinomycin and tylosin on all three media using both MIC determinations and tablet diffusion.

  4. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ramadan El-Jade

    Full Text Available Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  5. New insights into the mechanism of action of pyrazinamide, implications for susceptibility testing, and future regimens*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Although the exact mechanism of action of PZA is not known yet, it is widely accepted that PZA is a prodrug requiring transformation to pyrazinoic acid, the active form, by the mycobacterial enzyme encoded by the pncA gene. Most clinical resistance indeed appears to be a result of a diverse range of mutations in this gene and sequencing of the pncA gene has been shown to have excellent predictive power for PZA resistance. The wider availably of pncA sequencing in combination with databases of the phenotypic implications of these mutations has helped make genetic testing for PZA resistance a practical proposition. For the past decades, it has been generally accepted that an extracellular low pH is required for PZA activity but work in our laboratory [1] and others [2] has recently challenged this assumption. Alternative bacterial stresses, apart from a reduced pH of the growth media (such as reduced temperature, can also induce a PZA-susceptible phenotype. The characterization of spontaneous in vitro-resistant pyrazinoic acid mutants selected under neutral pH conditions suggests a key role for the pantothenate/coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway. This has profound implications for the mechanism of action of PZA as well as potentially the bacterial population against which PZA is active in the host. These findings will be discussed as well as their implications for further research and the future of PZA susceptibility testing.

  6. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas...... paper disks for EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar....

  7. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp.: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kristensen, Lise; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged to become a significant nosocomial pathogen. However, detection may be challenging and treatment possibilities are limited. Reports of resistance to linezolide, daptomycin and tigecycline underline the need for reliable susceptibility testing...... with respect to these compounds. We evaluated the in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline against a panel of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci by broth microdilution (BMD). Etest for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of these four antibiotics and two disc...... diffusion assays for detecting VRE and for susceptibility testing against tigecycline and linezolid were evaluated. Before susceptibility testing, all isolates were classified by polymerase chain reaction as vanA or vanB gene positive or vanA/B gene negative. Linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline had...

  8. Use of linezolid susceptibility test results as a surrogate for the susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens to tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone

    OpenAIRE

    Zurenko, Gary; Bien, Paul; Bensaci, Mekki; Patel, Hina; Thorne, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background Tedizolid is a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial with potent activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Although tedizolid is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection, commercial susceptibility testing products for tedizolid are not currently available. This study evaluated the useful...

  9. Contributions of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests to the retreatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Horta Andrade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the efficacy of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB with regard to treatment outcomes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ST profiles. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 144 patients treated at a referral hospital in Brazil. All of them had undergone prior treatment, were smear-positive for TB and received a standardized retreatment regimen. Fisher's 2-tailed exact test and the χ2 test were used; RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results The patients were cured in 84 (58.3% cases. Failure was associated with relapsed treatment and abandonment (n=34. Culture tests were obtained for 103 (71.5% cases; 70 (48.6% had positive results. ST results were available for 67 (46.5% cases; the prevalence of acquired resistance was 53.7%. There were no significant differences between those who achieved or not therapeutic success (p=0.988, despite being sensitive or resistant to 1 or more drugs. Rifampicin resistance was independently associated with therapeutic failure (OR: 4.4, 95% CI:1.12-17.37, p=0.034. For those cases in which cultures were unavailable, a 2nd model without this information was built. In this, return after abandonment was significantly associated with retreatment failure (OR: 3.59, 95% CI:1.17-11.06, p=0.026. Conclusions In this cohort, the general resistance profile appeared to have no influence on treatment outcome, except in cases of rifampicin resistance. The form of reentry was another independent predictor of failure. The use of bacterial culture identification and ST in TB management must be re-evaluated. The recommendations for different susceptibility profiles must also be improved.

  10. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Layne, R.R. [Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, OK (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  11. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it's industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported

  12. Differential Susceptibility to Social Contexts : Putting "For Better and For Worse" to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    The differential susceptibility model asserts that individuals vary in their general susceptibility to environmental influences.Crucially, the very children that are disproportionately vulnerable to harsh and low-quality parenting, may benefit disproportionately from supportive and high-quality

  13. Standard test method for determining susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of 2XXX and 7XXX Aluminum alloy products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a uniform procedure for characterizing the resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of high-strength aluminum alloy wrought products for the guidance of those who perform stress-corrosion tests, for those who prepare stress-corrosion specifications, and for materials engineers. 1.2 This test method covers method of sampling, type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure for determining the susceptibility to SCC of 2XXX (with 1.8 to 7.0 % copper) and 7XXX (with 0.4 to 2.8 % copper) aluminum alloy products, particularly when stressed in the short-transverse direction relative to the grain structure. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are provided for information. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and de...

  14. Evaluation of Etest for Susceptibility Testing of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbón, Manzour Hernando; del Socorro Orozco, Maria; Labrada, Luz Angela; Tovar, Rafael; Weigle, Kristen A.; Wanger, Audrey

    2000-01-01

    To prescribe effective treatment schemes for patients with tuberculosis, more-efficient susceptibility testing techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis are needed, especially in regions with multidrug resistance. Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) is a simple technique that provides quantitative drug susceptibility results for M. tuberculosis in 5 to 10 days from a culture grown at low cost. The performance of Etest was compared to that of the reference proportion method, using 95 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates of which 42.1% (40 of 95) were resistant to at least one antibiotic by the reference method. Overall agreement between Etest and the reference method was 98.9% (94 of 95) for detection of multidrug resistance; for resistance to individual drugs, agreement was 97.9% (93 of 95) for rifampin, 96.0% (92 of 95) for ethambutol, 94.7% (90 of 95) for isoniazid, and 85.3% (81 of 95) for streptomycin. This study supports the utility of Etest for timely detection of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis and for use in tuberculosis control programs. PMID:11101602

  15. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Machen

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS. After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012 category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012 minor error, 1.7% (7/1012 major error, and 1.3% (13/1012 very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001. Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.

  16. Same Day Identification and Full Panel Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria from Positive Blood Culture Bottles Made Possible by a Combined Lysis-Filtration Method with MALDI-TOF VITEK Mass Spectrometry and the VITEK2 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F. (Wayne)

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001). Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24551067

  17. Drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci by the Phoenix automated microbiology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokeng Gertrude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance is an emerging problem among streptococcal and enterococcal species. Automated diagnostic systems for species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST have become recently available. We evaluated drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci using the recent Phoenix system (BD, Sparks, MD. Diagnostic tools included the new SMIC/ID-2 panel for streptococci, and the PMIC/ID-14 for enterococci. Two-hundred and fifty isolates have been investigated: β-hemolytic streptococci (n = 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 50, viridans group streptococci (n = 32, Enterococcus faecium (n = 40, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 43, other catalase-negative cocci (n = 20. When needed, species ID was determined using molecular methods. Test bacterial strains were chosen among those carrying clinically-relevant resistance determinants (penicillin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides. AST results of the Phoenix system were compared to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values measured by the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Results Streptococci: essential agreement (EA and categorical agreement (CA were 91.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Major (ME and minor errors (mE accounted for 0.1% and 1.1% of isolates, respectively. No very major errors (VME were produced. Enterococci: EA was 97%, CA 96%. Small numbers of VME (0.9%, ME (1.4% and mE (2.8% were obtained. Overall, EA and CA rates for most drugs were above 90% for both genera. A few VME were found: a teicoplanin and high-level streptomycin for E. faecalis, b high-level gentamicin for E. faecium. The mean time to results (± SD was 11.8 ± 0.9 h, with minor differences between streptococci and enterococci. Conclusion The Phoenix system emerged as an effective tool for quantitative AST. Panels based on dilution tests provided rapid and accurate MIC values with regard to clinically-relevant streptococcal and enterococcal

  18. [Confirming the Utility of RAISUS Antifungal Susceptibility Testing by New-Software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Tomoko; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Haruki; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2017-08-15

    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods for susceptibility tests of yeast are used in Japan. On the other hand, the methods have some disadvantage; 1) reading at 24 and 48 h, 2) using unclear scale, approximately 50% inhibition, to determine MICs, 3) calculating trailing growth and paradoxical effects. These makes it difficult to test the susuceptibility for yeasts. Old software of RAISUS, Ver. 6.0 series, resolved problem 1) and 2) but did not resolve problem 3). Recently, new software of RAISUS, Ver. 7.0 series, resolved problem 3). We confirmed that using the new software made it clear whether all these issue were settled or not. Eighty-four Candida isolated from Aichi Medical University was used in this study. We compared the MICs obtained by using RAISUS antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts RSMY1, RSMY1, with those obtained by using ASTY. The concordance rates (±four-fold of MICs) between the MICs obtained by using ASTY and RSMY1 with the new software were more than 90%, except for miconazole (MCZ). The rate of MCZ was low, but MICs obtained by using CLSI methods and Yeast-like Fungus DP 'EIKEN' methods, E-DP, showed equivalent MICs of RSMY1 using the new software. The frequency of skip effects on RSMY1 using the new software markedly decreased relative to RSMY1 using the old software. In case of showing trailing growth, the new software of RAISUS made it possible to choice the correct MICs and to put up the sign of trailing growth on the result screen. New software of RAISUS enhances its usability and the accuracy of MICs. Using automatic instrument to determine MICs is useful to obtain objective results easily.

  19. Evaluation of rapid alternative methods for drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mengatto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to compare the performance of a commercial method (MGIT and four inexpensive drug susceptibility methods: nitrate reductase assay (NRA, microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay, MTT test, and broth microdilution method (BMM. A total of 64 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were studied. The Lowenstein-Jensen proportion method (PM was used as gold standard. MGIT, NRA, MODS, and MTT results were available on an average of less than 10 days, whereas BMM results could be reported in about 20 days. Most of the evaluated tests showed excellent performance for isoniazid and rifampicin, with sensitivity and specificity values > 90%. With most of the assays, sensitivity for ethambutol was low (62-87% whereas for streptomycin, sensitivity values ranged from 84 to 100%; NRA-discrepancies were associated with cultures with a low proportion of EMB-resistant organisms while most discrepancies with quantitative tests (MMT and BMM were seen with isolates whose minimal inhibitory concentrations fell close the cutoff. MGIT is reliable but still expensive. NRA is the most inexpensive and easiest method to perform without changing the organization of the routine PM laboratory performance. While MODS, MTT, and BMM, have the disadvantage from the point of view of biosafety, they offer the possibility of detecting partial resistant strains. This study shows a very good level of agreement of the four low-cost methods compared to the PM for rapid detection of isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin resistance (Kappa values > 0.8; more standardization is needed for ethambutol.

  20. Lyophilized microculture susceptibility test for ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, and griseofulvin against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, T C; Mothershead, M A; Artis, W M

    1983-07-01

    A lyophilized microculture antimycotic susceptibility testing system for ketoconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin, and clotrimazole is described. Microculture plates were loaded with 100 microliters of medium and 10 microliters of appropriate concentrations of the four antimycotics and were lyophilized to complete dryness. The lyophilized plates were stored at -70 degrees C or 4 degrees C or in a desiccator at 25 degrees C. Samples from each storage condition were rehydrated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months and inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Robin) Blanchard ATCC 18748. All of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) generated from the lyophilized microcultures were within one experimental dilution of MICs derived from fresh microcultures. The ability of reconstituted lyophilized microcultures to consistently produce MICs comparable to MICs derived from fresh microcultures was characterized. Nine dermatophyte isolates were tested five times each over a 70-day period. The MICs derived were reproducible and comparable to MICs determined by freshly prepared microculture tests. Lyophilization of freshly prepared antimycotic-containing microcultures does not alter the MIC resolution of the testing system and provides an effective method of storage of prepared antimycotic tests for ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, and griseofulvin.

  1. Can disc diffusion susceptibility tests assess the antimicrobial activity of engineered nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmouli, Angeliki; Valenti, Marco; van Rijn, Erwin; Beaumont, Hubertus J. E.; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2018-03-01

    The use of disc diffusion susceptibility tests to determine the antibacterial activity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is questionable because their low diffusivity practically prevents them from penetrating through the culture media. In this study, we investigate the ability of such a test, namely the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test, to determine the antimicrobial activity of Au and Ag ENPs having diameters from 10 to 40 nm on Escherichia coli cultures. As anticipated, the tests did not show any antibacterial effects of Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their negligible diffusivity through the culture media. Ag NPs on the other hand exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity that was independent of their size. Considering that Ag, in contrast to Au, dissolves upon oxidation and dilution in aqueous solutions, the apparent antibacterial behavior of Ag NPs is attributed to the ions they release. The Kirby-Bauer method, and other similar tests, can therefore be employed to probe the antimicrobial activity of ENPs related to their ability to release ions rather than to their unique size-dependent properties. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility: awareness and interest among women in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, E S; Rimer, B K; Strigo, T S

    1997-01-10

    Previous research has suggested that demand for genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility may be quite high, even among those at relatively low risk of carrying a mutation. This study examined the extent to which a group of female HMO enrollees were aware of the discovery of the BRCA1 gene and, without having received detailed information about the test, whether they would be interested in being tested to find out if they have the gene. Factors associated with awareness of and interest in testing were also examined. Four hundred seventy-three women age 50 and over, almost all of whom did not have an increased risk of breast cancer based on family history, were surveyed by telephone. Fifty-one percent of respondents had heard about the discovery of a breast cancer gene. In logistic regression analysis, women who described themselves as comfortable financially, had at least some college education, and were premenopausal were more likely to have heard of the gene discovery than women who were not comfortable financially, had no more than a high school education, and were postmenopausal. Sixty-nine percent of the respondents said that they would be interested in being tested to find out if they had a breast cancer gene. Women who were younger than 60, white, believed their family would benefit if they had a mammogram, and believed that regular mammograms give them a feeling of control over their health, were more likely to be interested in testing than those who were 60 or older, African-American or other, and did not believe that their family would benefit if they had a mammogram or that mammograms give them a feeling of control over their health. These findings have implications for education and counseling. Women who express an interest in being tested must be made fully aware of the limitations and possible consequences of testing. Special efforts may be needed to make information about testing available to women who have low levels of education.

  3. What Is Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are marketed directly to consumers via television, print advertisements, or the Internet. This form of testing, which ... history also affect a person’s risk of developing many disorders. These factors are discussed during a consultation ...

  4. Medium-dependent zone size discrepancies associated with susceptibility testing of group D streptococci against various cephalosporins.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahm, D F; Baker, C N; Jones, R N; Thornsberry, C

    1983-01-01

    Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar media from various commercial sources, either supplemented or not supplemented with 5% sheep blood, were studied to determine their effect on disk diffusion susceptibility testing results obtained with 90 strains of group D streptococci and four cephalosporins. The cephalosporins investigated included cephalothin, cefamandole, moxalactam, and cefotaxime. Results showed that a number of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium strains were susceptible to cephal...

  5. Status of NRC approval of EPRI electromagnetic interference susceptibility testing guidelines for digital equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Shank, J.W.; Yoder, C.

    1996-01-01

    Historically, nuclear power plants installing digital equipment have been required to conduct expensive, site-specific electromagnetic interference (EMI) surveys to demonstrate that EMI will not affect the operation of sensitive electronic equipment. Consequently, EPRI formed a Utility Working Group which developed a set of generic EMI susceptibility testing guidelines, which were published as an EPRI report in September 1994. These guidelines are based upon EMI survey data obtained from several different plants and include criteria for determining their applicability. The Working Group interacted with NRC staff to obtain NRC approval. In April 1996, the NRC issued a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) endorsing the guidelines as a valid means of demonstrating EMI compatibility. The issuance of this SER was conditional on issuing a revision to the EPRI EMI Guidelines. This paper summarizes the guidelines, the NRC SER, and the current status of Revision 1 to the report

  6. Polymyxins: Antibacterial Activity, Susceptibility Testing, and Resistance Mechanisms Encoded by Plasmids or Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent; Jayol, Aurélie; Nordmann, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    SUMMARYPolymyxins are well-established antibiotics that have recently regained significant interest as a consequence of the increasing incidence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin and polymyxin B are being seriously reconsidered as last-resort antibiotics in many areas where multidrug resistance is observed in clinical medicine. In parallel, the heavy use of polymyxins in veterinary medicine is currently being reconsidered due to increased reports of polymyxin-resistant bacteria. Susceptibility testing is challenging with polymyxins, and currently available techniques are presented here. Genotypic and phenotypic methods that provide relevant information for diagnostic laboratories are presented. This review also presents recent works in relation to recently identified mechanisms of polymyxin resistance, including chromosomally encoded resistance traits as well as the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1. Epidemiological features summarizing the current knowledge in that field are presented. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Specific heat, susceptibility and frequency of inharmonic oscillator a test of the variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.R. da; Tsallis, C.

    1978-05-01

    The quality of approximation of the Variational Method in Statistical Mechanics is tested in the case of a classical anharmonic oscillator with a potential of the x 2 sup(n)-type and also of the (x 2 )+(x 4 )-type. Comparison between the variational and exact results for the specific heat, the electric susceptibility and the mean oscillation frequence, shows that the Variational Method leads to surprisingly good results in the whole domain of temperatures (from T=0 to T→infinite). In the particular case of the specific heat, this method leads to the exact result for a potential of the x 2 (supn)-type, and gives, for a potential of the (x 2 )+(x 4 )-type, the exact or almost exact asymptotic behaviours (T→0 and T→infinite) [pt

  8. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve...... cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. Vet...... species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) - the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre...

  9. Ethical, legal and social implications of prenatal and preimplantation genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-W; Hui, E C

    2009-01-01

    With the progress in cancer genetics and assisted reproductive technologies, it is now possible for cancer gene mutation carriers not only to reduce cancer mortality through the targeting of surveillance and preventive therapies, but also to avoid the birth of at-risk babies through the choice of different means of reproduction. Thus, the incidence of hereditary cancer syndromes may be decreased in the future. The integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies raises certain ethical, legal and social issues beyond either genetic testing or assisted reproductive technology itself. In this paper, the reproductive decisions/choices of at-risk young couples and the ethical, legal and social concerns of prenatal genetic testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for susceptibility to hereditary cancer syndromes are discussed. Specifically, three ethical principles related to the integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies, i.e. informed choice, beneficence to children and social justice, and their implications for the responsible translation of these medical techniques into common practice of preventive medicine are highlighted.

  10. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  11. Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research. PMID:23114772

  12. Comparative assessment of seller's staining test (SST) and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion:The relatively low sensitivity of the SST observed in this study calls for its replacement with the dFAT for accurate ... seller's staining test (SST) and direct fluorescent antibody test for rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies. Afri Health Sci. 2016 ... lack of laboratory equipment and reliable reagents16,17.

  13. Direction-Dependence Analysis: A Confirmatory Approach for Testing Directional Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; von Eye, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The concept of direction dependence has attracted growing attention due to its potential to help decide which of two competing linear regression models (X ? Y or Y ? X) is more likely to reflect the correct causal flow. Several tests have been proposed to evaluate hypotheses compatible with direction dependence. In this issue, Thoemmes (2015)…

  14. Multicenter Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandra S.; Howard, Wanita J.; Weinstein, Melvin P.; Bruckner, David A.; Hindler, Janet F.; Saubolle, Michael; Doern, Gary V.

    2007-01-01

    This multicenter study evaluated the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System STREP panel (BD Diagnostic Systems). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) with 13 agents was performed on 2,013 streptococci (938 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates; 396 group B streptococci [GBS]; 369 viridans group streptococci [VGS]; 290 beta-hemolytic streptococcus groups A, C, and G; and 20 other streptococci) with the Phoenix system and a broth microdilution reference method. Clinical and challenge isolates were tested against cefepime, cefotaxime (CTX), ceftriaxone (CTR), clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, linezolid, meropenem, penicillin (PEN), tetracycline (TET), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Clinical isolates with major errors or very major errors (VMEs) were retested in duplicate by both methods. The final results for clinical isolates showed the following trends. For all of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested, categorical agreement (CA) was 92 to 100%, with one exception—VGS-PEN (87% CA; all errors were minor). For S. pneumoniae, there was one major error with CLI (0.1%) and one or two VMEs with CTX (4%), CTR (4.5%), ERY (0.9%), and TET (0.7%). For groups A, C, and G, the CA was 97 to 100% and the only VMEs were resolved by additional reference laboratory testing. For GBS, there was only one VME (TET, 0.3%) and D-zone testing of 23 isolates with CLI major errors (one isolate unavailable) revealed inducible CLI resistance. For VGS, the major error rates were 0 to 3% and VMEs occurred with seven agents (3.5 to 7.1%). The mean times required for organism groups to generate results ranged from 8.4 to 9.4 h. The Phoenix system provided reliable and rapid AST results for most of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. PMID:17652483

  15. Correcting a Fundamental Flaw in the Paradigm for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi C. Ersoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing cause of death worldwide, resulting in a global ‘call to action’ to avoid receding into an era lacking effective antibiotics. Despite the urgency, the healthcare industry still relies on a single in vitro bioassay to determine antibiotic efficacy. This assay fails to incorporate environmental factors normally present during host-pathogen interactions in vivo that significantly impact antibiotic efficacy. Here we report that standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST failed to detect antibiotics that are in fact effective in vivo; and frequently identified antibiotics that were instead ineffective as further confirmed in mouse models of infection and sepsis. Notably, AST performed in media mimicking host environments succeeded in identifying specific antibiotics that were effective in bacterial clearance and host survival, even though these same antibiotics failed in results using standard test media. Similarly, our revised media further identified antibiotics that were ineffective in vivo despite passing the AST standard for clinical use. Supplementation of AST medium with sodium bicarbonate, an abundant in vivo molecule that stimulates global changes in bacterial structure and gene expression, was found to be an important factor improving the predictive value of AST in the assignment of appropriate therapy. These findings have the potential to improve the means by which antibiotics are developed, tested, and prescribed.

  16. Predicament in detection and reporting of extended spectrum beta lactamase production in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Butt, E.; Raza, S.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study was planned to determine the dilemma of inadvertent detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriaceaewhen using inhibition zone size of antibiotic disks of Cefotaxime or Aztreonam in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Screening and double disk tests were adopted as per CLSI. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as control strain. Among total specimens of 5346, there were 348 isolates of Escherichia coli(n=235), Klebsiella pneumonia (n=92), Klebsiella oxytoca(n=3) or Proteus mirabilus(n=18). The screening method recommended by CLSI significantly falsely detected ESBL production in 79 (32.3%) isolates (p<0.0001). ESBL detection is important as its frequency is high and treatment of the infection varies with the presence and absence of ESBL. To avoid false reporting, proper phenotypic detection of ESBL confirmatory method-like double-disk synergy test, should be used routinely. (author)

  17. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the broth microdilution method with 7H9 broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have evaluated the broth microdilution method (BMM for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 43 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and H37Rv as a control strain were studied. All isolates were tested by the proportion method and the BMM for isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RIF, streptomycin (STR, and ethambutol (ETM. The proportion method was carried out according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ medium. The BMM was carried out using 7H9 broth with 96 well-plates. All strains were tested at 3.2-0.05 µg/ml, 16-0.25 µg/ml, 32-0.5 µg/ml, and 32-0.5 µg/ml concentrations for INH, RIF, STR, and ETM, respectively. When the BMM was compared with the proportion method, sensitivity was 100, 100, 96.9, and 90.2%, while specificity was 100, 85.7, 90.9, and 100% for INH, RIF, STR, and ETM, respectively. The plates were examined 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after incubation. The majority of the result were obtained at 14th days after incubation, while the proportion method result were ended in 21-28 days. According to our results, it may be suggested that the BMM is suitable for early determining of multidrug-resistance-M. tuberculosis strains in developed or developing countries.

  18. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Chhstl J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N = 271) rated the

  19. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N=271) rated the

  20. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Riedijk, S.R.; Dooren, S. van; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N=271) rated the

  1. Direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations: what it takes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Paul; Stevens, Neil

    2015-02-20

    The uncertainty principle being a cornerstone of quantum mechanics, it is surprising that, in nearly 90 years, there have been no direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations. This lacuna was due to the absence of two essential ingredients: appropriate measures of measurement error (and disturbance) and precise formulations of such relations that are universally valid and directly testable. We formulate two distinct forms of direct tests, based on different measures of error. We present a prototype protocol for a direct test of measurement uncertainty relations in terms of value deviation errors (hitherto considered nonfeasible), highlighting the lack of universality of these relations. This shows that the formulation of universal, directly testable measurement uncertainty relations for state-dependent error measures remains an important open problem. Recent experiments that were claimed to constitute invalidations of Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation, are shown to conform with the spirit of Heisenberg's principle if interpreted as direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations for error measures that quantify distances between observables.

  2. Bile Culture and Susceptibility Testing of Malignant Biliary Obstruction via PTBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haipeng; Guo Zhi, E-mail: jieruke@yahoo.com.cn; Xing Wenge; Guo Xiuying; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo [Tinajin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Key Cancer Prevention and Treatment Laboratory (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the information obtained by bile culture and susceptibility testing for malignant biliary obstruction by a retrospective one-center study. Methods: A total of 694 patients with malignant biliary obstruction received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during the period July 2003 to September 2010, and subsequently, bile specimens were collected during the procedure. Among the 694 patients, 485 were men and 209 were women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean age 62 years). Results: A total of 42.9% patients had a positive bile culture (298 of 694). Further, 57 species of microorganisms and 342 strains were identified; gram-positive bacteria accounted for 50.9% (174 of 342) and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 41.5% (142 of 342) of these strains. No anaerobes were obtained by culture during this study. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (41 of 342, 11.9%), Escherichia coli (34 of 342, 9.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28 of 342, 8.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (19 of 342, 5.5%), Enterococcus (18 of 342, 5.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (16 of 342, 4.7%). The percentage of {beta}-lactamase-producing gram-positive bacteria was 27.6% (48 of 174), and the percentage of gram-negative bacteria was 19.7% (28 of 142). The percentage of enzyme-producing Escherichia coli was 61.7% (21 of 34). Conclusion: The bile cultures in malignant biliary obstruction are different from those in the Tokyo Guidelines and other benign biliary obstruction researches, which indicates that a different antibacterial therapy should be applied. Thus, knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility data could aid in the better use of antibiotics for the empirical therapy of biliary infection combined with malignant biliary obstruction.

  3. [Application of the BACspreader™ Microbe Dispersion Counter in drug susceptibility test onMycobacterium tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Li, J; Zhang, Y Y; Wu, J; Wang, L L; Yu, C L; Shen, X; Zhu, G F

    2017-04-12

    Objective: To evaluate the application of the BACspreader™ Microbe Dispersion Counter in drug susceptibility test (DST) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Methods: The MTB strains were dispersed and diluted to 1.0 McFarland standard turbidity, by means of BACspreader™ Microbe Dispersion Counter and manual grinding method, respectively. The bacterial dispersion effect and bacterial activity were tested by microscope and colony counting method. During Jan. 2015 to June 2015, a total of 726 isolates of MTB were collected in all district tuberculosis hospitals of Shanghai. The bacterial suspension dispersed by instrument and manual grinding, were inoculated in slant medium for DST (Proportion Method), and then incubated in 37 ℃ incubator for 28 days and the DST results were reported. The effects of the 2 different bacterial dispersion methods were compared by comparing DST results and counting the bacterial colony which grew in high and low concentration control media. Paired chi-square test was used for statistical analysis, and the significance level was 0.05. Results: Compared to the manual grinding method, the MTB colony could be better dispersed by BACspreader™ Microbe Dispersion Counter, without reducing the bacterial activity. The DST results of 726 mycobacterial isolates were the same by different bacterial dispersion methods. The count of bacterial colony growing in high concentration control medium was significantly different between of the 2 dispersion methods (χ(2)=8.0, P DST results. Introducing the BACspreader™ Microbe Dispersion Counter to MTB DST could automate the DST process, make the testing results objective and standardized, and reduce personal error in the tests.

  4. Evaluation of MGIT 960 System for the Second-Line Drugs Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many laboratories validate DST of the second-line drugs by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the critical concentration and perform DST for the 2nd line drugs. We evaluated 193 clinical strains of M. tuberculosis isolated from patients in South Korea. Testing the critical concentration of six second-line drugs was performed by MGIT 960 and compared with L-J proportion method. The critical concentration was determined to establish the most one that gave the difference between drug resistance and susceptibility in MGIT960 system. Good agreement of the following concentrations was found: Concordance was 95% for 0.5 μg/mL of moxifloxacin; 93.6%, 1.0 μg/mL of levofloxacin; 97.5%, 2.5 μg/mL of kanamycin; 90.6%, 2.5 μg/mL of capreomycin; 86.2%, 5.0 μg/mL of ethionamide; and 90.8%, 2.0 μg/mL of ρ-aminosalicylic acid. The critical concentrations of the four drugs, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin, were concordant and reliable for testing 2nd line drug resistance. Further study of ethionamide and ρ-aminosalicylic acid is required.

  5. Infant temperament, parenting, and externalizing behavior in first grade: a test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H; Corwyn, Robert F

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the differential susceptibility hypothesis as it pertains to relations between infant temperament, parenting, and behavior problems in first grade. Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care were used in a series of hierarchical regression analyses focused on interactions between three aspects of parenting (harshness, sensitivity, productive activity) and temperament as they affect teacher-reported externalizing behavior in first grade. Step #1 included family income-to-needs, maternal education, gender, life events, and amount of child care as control variables, plus infant temperament and the three parenting variables. Step #2 included a single interaction term, the interaction between one of the key parenting variables and child temperament. Results showed stronger relations between maternal sensitivity and behavior problems for children with difficult temperaments. Likewise, relations between opportunities for productivity and behavior problems were stronger for children with difficult temperaments. Trends were in the same direction for harsh parenting but did not quite reach statistical significance. Having access to experiences that promote coping and build self-regulatory capacities seems particularly valuable for children with difficult temperaments.

  6. Spin susceptibility as a test of unitary limit in disordered graphene systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, I.; Biter, T.-L.

    2018-03-01

    We analyzed the static spin susceptibility of graphene systems in the presence of disorder and a small energy gap. We considered the case of strong scatterers (unitary limit). The temperature and impurity concentration effects were analyzed. The critical value of the impurity concentration was calculated. The behavior of the spin susceptibility for different values of the impurity concentration is discussed.

  7. Hepatitis B reactivation during or after direct acting antiviral therapy - implication for susceptible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jacinta A; Yu, Ming-Lung; Chung, Raymond T

    2017-06-01

    The FDA issued a warning following 24 cases of HBV reactivation during DAA therapy for HCV, including individuals with inactive, occult and past HBV infection. Clinical presentations ranged from asymptomatic fluctuations in HBV DNA to fulminant hepatic failure, liver transplantation and death. The mechanism is unknown. Areas covered: HCV/HBV coinfection is common, particularly in regions endemic for HBV. HCV and HBV utilize host factors to support replication; both viruses evade/impair host immunity. Clinical presentations of HBV reactivation during DAAs are summarized. Other causes of HBV reactivation are revisited and recent data regarding HBV reactivation are presented. Expert opinion: HBV reactivation during DAAs for HCV occurs, with life-threatening consequences in some individuals. The risk of HBV reactivation is observed in all HBV stages. The rapid removal of HCV likely alters and liberates host-viral ± viral-viral interactions that lead to increased HBV replication. As immune reconstitution occurs with HCV removal, host recognition of HBV DNA likely ensues followed by vigorous host immune responses leading to liver injury (HBV flare). These cases highlight the importance of HBV testing prior to initiating DAA therapy, the need for close monitoring of HBV during therapy and timely administration of anti-HBV therapy to prevent serious sequelae.

  8. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  9. Comparative assessment of seller's staining test (SST) and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies causes 55, 000 annual human deaths globally and about 10,000 people are exposed annually in Nigeria. Diagnosis of animal rabies in most African countries has been by direct microscopic examination. In Nigeria, the Seller's stain test (SST) was employed until 2009. Before then, both SST and dFAT ...

  10. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyukwang Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  11. Formation of Linear Gradient of Antibiotics on Microfluidic Chips for High-throughput Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunggyu; Lee, Seokhun; Jeon, Jessie S.

    2017-11-01

    To determine the most effective antimicrobial treatments of infectious pathogen, high-throughput antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) is critically required. However, the conventional AST requires at least 16 hours to reach the minimum observable population. Therefore, we developed a microfluidic system that allows maintenance of linear antibiotic concentration and measurement of local bacterial density. Based on the Stokes-Einstein equation, the flow rate in the microchannel was optimized so that linearization was achieved within 10 minutes, taking into account the diffusion coefficient of each antibiotic in the agar gel. As a result, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antibiotic against P. aeruginosa could be immediately determined 6 hours after treatment of the linear antibiotic concentration. In conclusion, our system proved the efficacy of a high-throughput AST platform through MIC comparison with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) range of antibiotics. This work was supported by the Climate Change Research Hub (Grant No. N11170060) of the KAIST and by the Brain Korea 21 Plus project.

  12. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lim, Hwijoon; Myung, Hyun

    2016-06-22

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  13. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lim, Hwijoon; Myung, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online. PMID:27338406

  14. Direct to confusion: lessons learned from marketing BRCA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloff, Ellen; Caplan, Arthur

    2008-06-01

    Myriad Genetics holds a patent on testing for the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, and therefore has a forced monopoly on this critical genetic test. Myriad launched a Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) marketing campaign in the Northeast United States in September 2007 and plans to expand that campaign to Florida and Texas in 2008. The ethics of Myriad's patent, forced monopoly and DTC campaign will be reviewed, as well as the impact of this situation on patient access and care, physician liability, and the future of DTC campaigns for genetic testing.

  15. [Advantages and disadvantages of direct-to-consumer genetic tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Camilla Worm; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø

    2017-03-13

    Direct-to-consumer genetic tests are sold over the internet to consumers all over the world - including Denmark. No regulation of these tests has been introduced neither in Denmark nor in Europe, even though they have been on the market since 2007. Such tests have several advantages, but indeed also a long list of potential disadvantages, which are most often ignored, and among these is insufficient training of general practitioners in performing the necessary counselling but also the risk of increased expenses to unnecessary follow-up consultations.

  16. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    Background: This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Patients and methods: Cancer-related distress, worry and risk

  17. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Bröcker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Cancer-related distress, worry and risk perception were assessed in 271

  18. Impact of Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Antibiotic Selection Strategy on the Emergence and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R; Gift, Thomas L; Chesson, Harrell W; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-11-27

    Increasing antibiotic resistance limits treatment options for gonorrhea. We examined the impact of a hypothetical point-of-care (POC) test reporting antibiotic susceptibility profiles on slowing resistance spread. A mathematical model describing gonorrhea transmission incorporated resistance emergence probabilities and fitness costs associated with resistance based on characteristics of ciprofloxacin (A), azithromycin (B), and ceftriaxone (C). We evaluated time to 1% and 5% prevalence of resistant strains among all isolates with the following: (1) empiric treatment (B and C), and treatment guided by POC tests determining susceptibility to (2) A only and (3) all 3 antibiotics. Continued empiric treatment without POC testing was projected to result in >5% of isolates being resistant to both B and C within 15 years. Use of either POC test in 10% of identified cases delayed this by 5 years. The 3 antibiotic POC test delayed the time to reach 1% prevalence of triply-resistant strains by 6 years, whereas the A-only test resulted in no delay. Results were less sensitive to assumptions about fitness costs and test characteristics with increasing test uptake. Rapid diagnostics reporting antibiotic susceptibility may extend the usefulness of existing antibiotics for gonorrhea treatment, but ongoing monitoring of resistance patterns will be critical. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Evaluation of a direct method for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility assessment of microrganisms isolated from blood cultures by automatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Frugoni

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of blood cultures in the septic patient is to address a correct therapeutic approach. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility test carried out directly from the bottle may give important information in short time.The introduction of the automatic instrumentation has improved the discovering of pathogens in the blood, however the elapsing time between the positive detection and the microbiological report is still along. Is the evaluation of this study a fast, easy, cheap method to be applied to the routine, which could reduce the response time in the bacteraemia diagnosis.The automatic systems Vitek Senior (bioMérieux, and Vitek 2 (bioMérieux were used at Pio Albergo Trivulzio (Centre1 and at Istituto dei Tumori (Centre2 respectivetly.To remove blood cells, 7 ml. of the culture has been moved by vacuum sampling in a test tube and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 1000 rpm the supernatant has been further centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3000 rpm.0.5 ml. of BHI has been added to the pellet o sediment.The concentration of bacterial suspension has been fit for the inoculation. At the same time has been prepared standard cultures in suitable culture media were carried out for comparison. In the centro1 and centro2 have been isolated and identify respectively 63 and 31 Gram negative, and, 32 and 40 gram positive microorganisms have been isolated and identify in the Centre1 and Centre2 respectively.The identification Gram-negative and Gram positive microorganisms showed an agreement of 100% and 86.2% and 93.3% and 65.78% respectively between the direct and the standard method. For antibiotic susceptibility tests, 903 (Centre1 and 491 (Centre2 and 396 and 509 compounds were totally assessed in Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria respectively.The analysis has highlighted that: Centre1 has reported 0.30% very major errors (GE, 0.92% major errors (EM, 1.23% minor errors (Em. Centre 2 showed 0.57% very major errors (GE, 0.09% major errors

  20. LEGAL ASPECTS OF DIRECT-TO-CONSUMER GENETIC TESTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Yaneva – Deliverska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. Most of the time, testing is used to find changes that are associated with inherited disorders. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. The main difference between direct-to-consumer genetic testing and the standard genetic testing is the way informational support is provided in internet offers of testing. Counselling may be offered as an additional special service at extra costs and at the customer's request. It may also be that a recommendation or at least an offer is given for the customer to contact a doctor or health practitioner from the company via phone for counselling.In a liberal society the fundamental individual rights can be considered to include access to medical treatment and diagnostics that may be helpful for improving one's health condition or that can help an individual make decisions regarding life style and health. At the European level, there are no binding legal regulations that specifically apply for genetic testing. In some European counties, national laws, require a responsible medical person to be involved before a genetic test is provided. The Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine was adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 November 1996, while an Additional Protocol to the Convention, concerning Genetic Testing for Health Purposes, was adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 7 May 2008.Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is closely watched by the community of medical genetics and counsellors, and the EU funded Eurogentest Network of Excellence.In 2010, the European Society of Human Genetics has releaseda statement on direct-to-consumer gene testing for health-related purposes. The European Society of Human Genetics is concerned about the way in which commercial companies are

  1. Socioeconomic influences on the effects of a genetic testing direct-to-consumer marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D J; Harris, J; Jorgensen, C M; Myers, M F; Kuniyuki, A

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests is beginning to appear in select markets, and little independent evaluation has been conducted on the effects of this marketing on consumer attitudes or behavior. The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of socioeconomic status on women's reactions to such a campaign, including knowledge of the test, perceptions of personal risk, communications with others about the test, and interest in pursuing the test. The only United States provider of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility (BRCA1/2 testing) conducted a pilot marketing campaign that targeted women aged 25-54 and their health care providers in 2 cities, Atlanta, Ga., and Denver, Colo. The design for the evaluation was a post campaign consumer survey, based on a cross-sectional stratified random sample of women in the 2 intervention sites and 2 comparison sites. The campaign had no differential impact by socioeconomic status. However, there was a consistent relationship between socioeconomic status and several outcome variables, including knowledge of the test, beliefs about the test, and desire to know about genetic risk. These data indicate that socioeconomic status may play a role in uptake of genetic services, regardless of response to a media campaign. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Quality assurance for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Latin American and Caribbean countries, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Pam; Martin, Irene; Galarza, Patricia; Carvallo, Marıa Elena Trigoso; Araya Rodriguez, Pamela; Cruz, Olga Marina Sanabria; Hernandez, Alina Llop; Martinez, Mario Fabian; Borthagaray, Graciela; Payares, Daisy; Moreno, José E; Chiappe, Marina; Corredor, Aura Helena; Thakur, Sidharath Dev; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2018-04-19

    A Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility quality control comparison programme was re-established in Latin America and the Caribbean to ensure antimicrobial susceptibility data produced from the region are comparable nationally and internationally. Three panels, consisting of N. gonorrhoeae isolates comprising reference strains and other characterised isolates were sent to 11 participating laboratories between 2013 and 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for these isolates were determined using agar dilution, Etest or disc diffusion methods. Modal minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for each panel isolate/antibiotic combination were calculated. The guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were used for interpretations of antimicrobial susceptibility. The agreement of MICs with the modal MICs was determined for each of the participating laboratories as well as for each of the antibiotics tested. Five of 11 laboratories that participated in at least one panel had an overall average agreement between participants' MIC results and modal MICs of >90%. For other laboratories, agreements ranged from 60.0% to 82.4%. The proportion of agreement between interpretations for all the antibiotics, except penicillin and tetracycline, was >90%. The percentages of agreement between MIC results and their modes for erythromycin, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were >90%. Tetracycline, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin agreement ranged from 84.5% to 89.1%, while penicillin had 78.8% agreement between MICs and modal MICs. The participating laboratories had acceptable results, similar to other international quality assurance programmes. It is important to ensure continuation of the International Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Quality Control Comparison Programme to ensure that participants can identify and correct any problems in antimicrobial susceptibility testing for N. gonorrhoeae as they arise and continue to generate reproducible

  3. Candidemia: Speciation and Antifungal susceptibility testing from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswari Rajesh Gandham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Invasive fungal infections are an important nosocomial health problem, candidal infections being the most common. Candidal bloodstream infections (BSIs account for one-fourth of the nosocomial BSIs. Candida albicans once the most common has now been replaced by nonalbicans Candida, accounting for majority of cases of candidal infections. The knowledge and understanding of specific risk factors, epidemiology, prophylactic measures, and outcomes with relation to speciation are changing rapidly. Emergence of antifungal resistance is a cause of concern. With this background, a prospective study was undertaken. Aims and Objectives: To isolate Candida spp. from blood cultures of patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected septicemia; to identify and speciate Candida isolates and carry out the antifungal susceptibility test; to determine incidence of candidemia; to find out the crude mortality rate in candidemia patients. Materials and Methods: Blood cultures received in the Department of Microbiology from various critical care units over a 1-year period were included in this study. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and routine bacteriological cultures. Speciation of suspected Candida growth was done by conventional and automated system. Results: A total of 225 out of 839 blood cultures were culture positive. A total of 196 were bacterial pathogens. Candida spp. were isolated in 29 samples. These included 10 cases of Candida tropicalis, 8 Candida parapsilosis, and three cases each of C. albicans and Candida krusei. Fluconazole resistance was seen (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥64 μg/ml in 4 isolates, 2 of C. krusei and 2 of Candida haemulonii. Incidence of candidemia was 3.46%. Crude mortality rate in the present study was 24%.

  4. Testing of a direct drive generator for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, L.M. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The normal drive train of a wind turbine consists a gearbox and a 4 to 8 poles asynchronous generator. The gearbox is an expensive and unreliable components and this paper deals with testing of a direct drive synchronous generator for a gearless wind turbine. The Danish company Belt Electric has constructed and manufactured a 27 kW prototype radial flux PM-generator (DD600). They have used cheap hard ferrite magnets in the rotor of this PM-generator. This generator has been tested at Riso and the test results are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The tests have been done with three different load types (1: resistance; 2: diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance; 3: AC-capacitor, diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance). 1 ref., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Photographic and Luminometric Detection of Luciferase Reporter Phages for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbón, Manzour Hernando; Guarín, Nora; Ferro, Beatriz Eugenia; Rodríguez, Ana Lucía; Labrada, Luz Angela; Tovar, Rafael; Riska, Paul F.; Jacobs, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Luciferase reporter phages (LRPs) have proven to be efficient tools for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Luminometric detection of LRP activity offers higher sensitivity and quantitative results, while a Polaroid film detection method offers a “low-tech” inexpensive alternative that is called the Bronx box. In this work we evaluated, improved, and compared the performance of the luminometer and the Bronx box formats for drug susceptibility testing with LRPs by using 51 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis, with the agar proportion method (PM) serving as reference. The sensitivity in detecting resistance to isoniazid and rifampin, antibiotics that define multidrug resistance (MDR), was 100% for both methods. The turnaround time for results was reduced from 3 weeks for PM to 54 or 94 h for luminometry or the Bronx box, respectively. These results support the utility of LRPs as a screening test for the surveillance of MDR tuberculosis. PMID:14532245

  6. Effects of maternal sensitivity on low birth weight children's academic achievement: a test of differential susceptibility versus diathesis stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) postulates that some children are more affected - for better and for worse - by developmental experiences, including parenting, than others. Low birth weight (LBW, 1,500-2,499 g) may not only be a predictor for neurodevelopmental impairment but also a marker for prenatally programmed susceptibility. The aim was to test if effects of sensitive parenting on LBW and very LBW (VLBW, academic achievement are best explained by a differential susceptibility versus diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Nine hundred and twenty-two children ranging from 600 g to 5,140 g birth weight were studied as part of a prospective, geographically defined, longitudinal investigation of neonatal at-risk children in South Germany (Bavarian Longitudinal Study). Sensitive parenting during a structured mother-child interaction task was observed and rated at age 6 years. Academic achievement was assessed with standardized mathematic, reading, and spelling/writing tests at age 8 years. Maternal sensitivity positively predicted the academic achievement of both LBW (n = 283) and VLBW (n = 202) children. Confirmatory-comparative and model-fitting analysis (testing LBW vs. NBW and VLBW vs. NBW) indicated that LBW and VLBW children were more susceptible than NBW to the adverse effects of low-sensitive, but not beneficial effects of high-sensitive parenting. Findings proved more consistent with the diathesis stress than differential-susceptibility model of person-X-environment interaction: LBW and VLBW children's exposure to positive parenting predicted catch-up to their NBW peers, whereas exposure to negative parenting predicted much poorer functioning. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Clinical Practice: Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: To test or not to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing, laboratory-based genetic services are offered directly to the public without an independent healthcare professional being involved. The committee of the Southern African Society for Human Genetics (SASHG) appeals to the public and clinicians to be cautious when considering ...

  8. Typhoid outbreak in Songkhla, Thailand 2009-2011: clinical outcomes, susceptibility patterns, and reliability of serology tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannee Limpitikul

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes, the reliability of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S ser. Typhi IgM and IgG rapid tests, and the susceptibility patterns and the response to treatment during the 2009-2011 typhoid outbreak in Songkhla province in Thailand. METHOD: The medical records of children aged <15 years with S ser. Typhi bacteremia were analysed. The efficacy of the typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests and susceptibility of the S ser. Typhi to the current main antibiotics used for typhoid (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, were evaluated. RESULTS: S ser. Typhi bacteremia was found in 368 patients, and all isolated strains were susceptible to all 6 antimicrobials tested. Most of the patients were treated with ciprofloxacin for 7-14 days. The median time (IQR of fever before treatment and duration of fever after treatment were 5 (4, 7 days and 4 (3, 5 days, respectively. Complications of ascites, lower respiratory symptoms, anemia (Hct <30%, and ileal perforation were found in 7, 7, 22, and 1 patients, respectively. None of the patients had recurrent infection or died. The sensitivities of the typhoid IgM and IgG tests were 58.3% and 25.6% respectively, and specificities were 74.1% and 50.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients were diagnosed at an early stage and treated with a good outcome. All S ser. Typhi strains were susceptible to standard first line antibiotic typhoid treatment. The typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests had low sensitivity and moderate specificity.

  9. Standard Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover two tests as follows: 1.1.1 Method A, Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid Test (Sections 3-10, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting the boiling ferric sulfate—50 % sulfuric acid test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to intergranular corrosion (see Terminology G 15), which may be encountered in certain service environments. The uniform corrosion rate obtained by this test method, which is a function of minor variations in alloy composition, may easily mask the intergranular corrosion components of the overall corrosion rate on alloys N10276, N06022, N06059, and N06455. 1.1.2 Method B, Mixed Acid-Oxidizing Salt Test (Sections 11-18, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting a boiling 23 % sulfuric + 1.2 % hydrochloric + 1 % ferric chloride + 1 % cupric chloride test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to display a step function increa...

  10. Direct Tension Test Using a Plate Specimen in Cohesive Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shin-Ichi

    Hydraulic fracturing is probably one of the causes of leakage and collapse in a dam body or foundation. Water pressure develops cracks and this is one of the causes for hydraulic fracturing. It is important to evaluate characteristics of tensile strength in the foundation and embankment material of fill-dam to examine development conditions of the cracks. It is possible to evaluate tensile strength of hard rocks and metals by fixing both ends of the specimen with chucks and making it work directly. However, it is not possible to use the same method for soft material like cohesive soil. Hence direct tensile test was performed in this research by the plate type specimen used for the calculation of energy release rate (J integral). Then the stress distribution in the specimen and the energy release rate were calculated by FEM to examine a form of the specimen useful for the direct tensile test of cohesive soil. Consequently it is considered that tensile strength of cohesive soil can be measured by adjusting height of the specimen and length of the initial crack to a suitable value respectively.

  11. Susceptibility Testing of Malassezia Species Using the Urea Broth Microdilution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuka; Kano, Rui; Murai, Tae; Watanabe, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2000-01-01

    A urea broth microdilution method to assay the susceptibilities of seven Malassezia species was developed. This method indicated the same sensitivities as the agar plate dilution method for isolates of Malassezia furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. slooffiae, and M. sympodialis. PMID:10898698

  12. Drug susceptibility testing in microaerophilic parasites: Cysteine strongly affects the effectivities of metronidazole and auranofin, a novel and promising antimicrobial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leitsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen. However, drug susceptibility assays can be strongly affected by certain compounds in the growth media. In the case of microaerophilic parasites, cysteine which is added in large amounts as an antioxidant is an obvious candidate because it is highly reactive and known to modulate the toxicity of metronidazole in several microaerophilic parasites.In this study, it was attempted to reduce cysteine concentrations as far as possible without affecting parasite viability by performing drug susceptibility assays under strictly anaerobic conditions in an anaerobic cabinet. Indeed, T. vaginalis and E. histolytica could be grown without any cysteine added and the cysteine concentration necessary to maintain G. lamblia could be reduced to 20%. Susceptibilities to metronidazole were found to be clearly reduced in the presence of cysteine. With auranofin the protective effect of cysteine was extreme, providing protection to concentrations up to 100-fold higher as observed in the absence of cysteine. With three other drugs tested, albendazole, furazolidone and nitazoxanide, all in use against G. lamblia, the effect of cysteine was less pronounced. Oxygen was found to have a less marked impact on metronidazole and auranofin than cysteine but bovine bile which is standardly used in growth media for G

  13. Quality-control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae type strain (ATCC 27164(T))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bergsjø, B.

    2006-01-01

    There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth diluti....... The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78(T) ATCC 27164(T) is a suitable quality control strain. This is a first step toward standardization of methods regarding this anaerobe....

  14. Comparative evaluation of three antifungal susceptibility test methods for Candida albicans isolates and correlation with response to fluconazole therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhnke, M; Schmidt-Westhausen, A; Engelmann, E; Trautmann, M

    1996-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities were determined for 56 Candida albicans isolates obtained from the oral cavities of 41 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The agents tested included fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine, and amphotericin B. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution technique following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards document M27-P (M27-P micro), a broth microdilution technique using high-resolution medium (HR micro), and t...

  15. Direct assay of filter media following DEOX testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Lind, R.P.; Giglio, J.J.; Cummings, D.G.; Huntley, M.W.; Morgan, C.D.; Bateman, K.J.; Wahlquist, D.L.; Sell, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    The direct assay of filter media by gamma spectrometry following DEOX testing has distinct advantages over analytical chemistry. Prior to using gamma spectrometry for the quantification of cesium (Cs- 137), a calibration must be established with known sources since gamma spectrometry yields relative results. Quantitative analytical chemistry, in particular ICP-MS, has been performed on the filter media for comparison to the gamma spectrometry data. The correlation of gamma spectrometry to ICP-MS data is presented to justify the continued use of gamma spectrometry for filter media. (authors)

  16. Direct testing of blood cultures for detection of streptococcal antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetkowski, M A; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

    1982-07-01

    A direct, rapid, and simple method for the detection of streptococcal antigens of Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, and G from blood cultures was developed by using a coagglutination test. Fifty-five clinical specimens and 117 simulated blood cultures containing gram-positive cocci were tested. Out of 6,261 clinical blood cultures screened, 55 cultures from 53 patients were positive, with organisms resembling streptococci, by Gram stain. Of these cultures, 78% (43 of 55) were pure cultures of streptococci, and 22% (12 of 55) were mixed with at least one other organism. Of the 43 pure cultures only, correct reactions were obtained (grouping correctly or giving no cross-reactions, or both) with 86% (37 of 43) of the isolates, 12% (5 of 43) exhibited cross-reactions, and 2% (1 of 43) gave false-negative reactions. All of the cross-reacting isolates were Streptococcus pneumoniae, which reacted with the group C reagent, and the false-negative reaction occurred with a Streptococcus bovis isolate. However, by using a direct modified bile solubility test, the correct identification of the S. pneumoniae isolates was obtained. Therefore, by using the modified bile solubility test in conjunction with the direct grouping method, 98% (42 of 43) of the isolates in pure culture could be identified accurately and rapidly after the detection of a positive Gram stain. Correct grouping reactions were obtained with 83% (10 of 12) of the mixed blood cultures, and false-negative results occurred with 17% (2 of 12) of them. Both cultures contained an enterococcus and a gram-negative rod. Of the 117 simulated blood cultures, there was only one incorrect grouping reaction; this occurred with an S. bovis isolate that cross-reacted with the group C reagent. The direct grouping reaction was positive when blood cultures contained a minimum of 1 x 10(8) to 8 x 10(8) colony-forming units per ml. In general, this procedure provided information on the identification of the organism 24 h earlier than

  17. A stepwise procedure to test contractility and susceptibility to injury for the rodent quadriceps muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J.P. Pratt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies.  Biological markers can also be used in measuring muscle injury, such as increased creatine kinase levels in the blood, but these are not always correlated with loss in muscle function (i.e. loss of force production.  This is even true of histological findings from animals, which provide a “direct measure” of damage, but do not account for loss of function.  The most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force.  To date, animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle.  Here we describe an in vivo animal model for the quadriceps, with abilities to measure torque, produce a reliable muscle injury, and follow muscle recovery within the same animal over time.  We also describe a second model used for direct measurement of force from an isolated quadriceps muscle in situ. 

  18. Molecular and Growth-Based Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex for Ethambutol Resistance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell A. Yakrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethambutol (EMB is used as a part of drug regimens for treatment of tuberculosis (TB. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates to EMB can be discerned by DNA sequencing to detect mutations in the embB gene associated with resistance. US Public Health Laboratories (PHL primarily use growth-based drug susceptibility test (DST methods to determine EMB resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC provides a service for molecular detection of drug resistance (MDDR by DNA sequencing and concurrent growth-based DST using agar proportion. PHL and CDC test results were compared for 211 MTBC samples submitted to CDC from September 2009 through February 2011. Concordance between growth-based DST results from PHL and CDC was 88.2%. A growth-based comparison of 39 samples, where an embB mutation associated with EMB resistance was detected, revealed a higher percentage of EMB resistance by CDC (84.6% than by PHL (59.0% which was significant (P value = 0.002. Discordance between all growth-based test results from PHL and CDC was also significant (P value = 0.003. Most discordance was linked to false susceptibility using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 (MGIT growth-based system. Our analysis supports coalescing growth-based and molecular results for an informed interpretation of potential EMB resistance.

  19. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing and Orphan Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew; Levenson, James; Quillin, John

    2017-08-01

    Since the introduction of the Orphan Drug Act (ODA) in 1983, orphan drug approvals in the United States have jumped from growth is widely attributed to the financial incentives the ODA gives to companies that develop these medicines, and it is likely to continue for a unique reason: partnerships between pharmaceutical firms and direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies. This emerging trend is the subject of this article, which begins by considering how rare-disease drugs are regulated and the rising interest in nonclinical genetic testing. It then outlines how DTC companies analyze DNA and how their techniques benefit researchers and drug developers. Then, after an overview of the current partnerships between DTCs and drug developers, it examines concerns about privacy and cost brought up by these partnerships. The article concludes by contrasting the enormous positive potential of DTC-pharma relationships and their concomitant dangers, especially to consumer privacy and cost to the healthcare system.

  20. Task 2 - Limits for High-Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Testing - CS114 (NRC-HQ-60-14-D-0015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moses, Rebecca J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A principal focus of Task 2 under this project was for ORNL to evaluate the basis for susceptibility testing against high-frequency conducted interference and to establish recommendations to resolve concerns about the severity of test limits for the conducted susceptibility (CS) test, CS114, from MIL-STD-461. The primary concern about the test limit has been characterized by the EPRI EMI Working Group in the following terms: Demonstrating compliance with the CS114 test limits recommended in TR-102323 has proven to be problematic, even for components that have been tested to commercial standards and demonstrated proper operation in industrial applications [6]. Specifically, EPRI notes that the CS114 limits approved in regulatory documents are significantly higher than those invoked by the US military and similar commercial standards in the frequency range below 200 kHz. For this task, ORNL evaluated the original approach to establishing the test limit, EPRI technical findings from a review of the limit, and the regulatory basis through which the currently approved limits were accepted. Based on this analysis, strategies have been developed regarding changes to the CS114 limit that can resolve the technical concerns raised by the industry. Guided by the principles that reasonable assurance of safety must not be compromised but excessive conservatism should be reduced, recommendations on a suitable basis for a revised limit have been developed and can be incorporated into the planned Revision 2 of RG 1.180.

  1. Isolation, cultivation, and in vitro susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veinović Gorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. The agents of Lyme borreliosis are borrelia, bacteria of the family Spirochaetaceae, which are grouped in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. Borreliae are fastidious, slow-growing and biochemically inactive bacteria that need special attention and optimal conditions for cultivation. The isolation of Borrelia from clinical material and their cultivation is a time-consuming and demanding procedure. Cultivation lasts from 9 up to 12 weeks, which is much longer than is necessary to grow most other human bacterial pathogens. Although B. burgdorferi sensu lato is susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobial agents in vitro, up to now the susceptibility of individual Borrelia species to antibiotics is defined only partially. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175011

  2. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  3. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaz......Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  5. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  6. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and E-Test Methods for Doripenem Susceptibility of Nosocomial Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Cekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Acinetobacter species are amoung the most common two cause of infections isolated from patients of intensive care unit in our hospital. Doripenem which acts by inhibiting cell wall synthesis is resently introduced for use in our country is broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to carbapenems. There are many studies investigating the susceptibility of doripenem of Acinetobacter baumannii which is isolated as a cause of ventilatory associated pneumonia in the literature. We aimed to compare e-test and disc diffusion methods for doripenem susceptibility of acinetobacter baumannii strains as nosocomial infections Acinetobacter baumanni isolates detected as nosocomial infection. Material and Method:. Between January to December, 2009 a total of 94 Acinetobacter baumanni strains isolated from different clinical specimens from intensive care units have been studied for doripenem susceptibility by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Minimal inhibitory consantrations (MIC were accepted as; sensitive %u22641 %u03BCg/ml, intermadiate 2-4 %u03BCg/ml, resistant >4 %u03BCg/ml and diameters of inhibition zone with 10 µg disc; sensitive

  7. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vulvovaginal Candida species among women attending antenatal clinic in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Khan,1 Jawad Ahmed,2 Amina Gul,3 Aamer Ikram,1 Farida Khurram Lalani1 1Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, National University of Management Sciences, CMH Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 2Department of Microbiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Department of Microbiology, Khyber Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is considered as a pervasive gynecological problem among women worldwide. Owing to this fact, in the current study, we aimed at assessing the prevalence rate of Candida spp. causing VVC in symptomatic pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Methods: This study was carried out in the tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar during the period of July 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016. The study group included 450 pregnant women in the age group of 17–44 years with symptoms of excessive vaginal discharge, pain and pruritis. In all, 108 pregnant women were culture positive for Candida. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST was conducted on specimens against various azoles and polyene F group of antifungals. Results: Out of 108 Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swabs, there were 45 (41.7% Candida albicans, 18 (16.7% Candida tropicalis, 18 (16.7% Candida krusei, 16 (14.8% Candida glabrata and 11 (10.2% Candida dubliniensis. According to age distribution, 27 years was the mean age. Pregnancy trimester distribution among patients was as follows: 21 (19.4% patients were in their first trimester, 65 (60.2% patients were in their second trimester and 22 (20.4% patients were in the third trimester. Susceptibility of fluconazole was determined as follows: 33.3% of the Candida isolates were sensitive, 4.6% were susceptible dose dependent (SDD and 62% were resistant. Susceptibility of Candida spp. with respect to nystatin in patients with VVC was as follows: 25% were

  8. Comparison of disc diffusion, Etest and broth microdilution for testing susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Liang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the increasing use of polymyxins to treat infections due to multidrug resistant Gram-negative in many countries, it is important to evaluate different susceptibility testing methods to this class of antibiotic. Methods Susceptibility of 109 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins was tested comparing broth microdilution (reference method, disc diffusion, and Etest using the new interpretative breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Twenty-nine percent of isolates belonged to endemic clone and thus, these strains were excluded of analysis. Among 78 strains evaluated, only one isolate was resistant to polymyxin B by the reference method (MIC: 8.0 μg/mL. Very major and major error rates of 1.2% and 11.5% were detected comparing polymyxin B disc diffusion with the broth microdilution (reference method. Agreement within 1 twofold dilution between Etest and the broth microdilution were 33% for polymyxin B and 79.5% for colistin. One major error and 48.7% minor errors were found comparing polymyxin B Etest with broth microdilution and only 6.4% minor errors with colistin. The concordance between Etest and the broth microdilution (reference method was respectively 100% for colistin and 90% for polymyxin B. Conclusion Resistance to polymyxins seems to be rare among hospital carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates over a six-year period. Our results showed, using the new CLSI criteria, that the disc diffusion susceptibility does not report major errors (false-resistant results for colistin. On the other hand, showed a high frequency of minor errors and 1 very major error for polymyxin B. Etest presented better results for colistin than polymyxin B. Until these results are reproduced with a large number of polymyxins-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, susceptibility to polymyxins should be confirmed by a reference method.

  9. Development of a 96-well catheter-based microdilution method to test antifungal susceptibility of Candida biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweze, Emeka I; Ghannoum, Adam; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Mukherjee, Pranab K

    2012-01-01

    Candida biofilms, which are often associated with device-related infections, including catheter-related bloodstream infections, are resistant to commonly used antifungal agents. Current microtitre (96-well) plate-based methods to determine the antifungal susceptibility of these biofilms do not involve clinically relevant substrates (e.g. catheters), and are not well suited for evaluating the surface topography and three-dimensional architecture of biofilms. We describe a simple, reproducible catheter-based microtitre plate method to form biofilms and evaluate their antifungal susceptibility. Biofilms were formed by Candida species on 5 mm catheter discs placed in microtitre plates and quantified using metabolic conversion of a formazan dye (XTT). The morphology, surface topography and three-dimensional architecture of these biofilms were evaluated by fluorescence, confocal scanning laser and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The optimized XTT method was used to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of formed Candida biofilms to fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and anidulafungin. Maximum XTT activity was achieved within 90 min. All tested Candida strains formed robust biofilms on catheter discs at both 24 and 48 h (P = 0.66). Biofilms exhibited typical gross morphology, surface topography and architecture, and no difference in biofilm thickness (P = 0.37). The three tested azoles were not active against the biofilms (MIC ≥ 64 mg/L), but anidulafungin possessed potent activity against them (MIC = 0.063-0.125 mg/L). The developed method is simple, rapid and reproducible, and requires relatively small amounts of drug. It can be used to perform both high-resolution microscopic analysis of the topography and architecture of biofilms, and evaluation of their antifungal susceptibility.

  10. [Drug susceptibility test guided therapy and novel empirical quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a network Meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Q Y; Yu, R B; Shi, R H

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and the risk of adverse effect of drug susceptibility test guided therapy and novel empirical quadruple therapy for Helicobacter ( H .) pylori infection. Methods: Literature retrieval was conducted by using major databases. Related papers published up to June 2015 were considered eligible if they were randomized control trials comparing different pharmacological formulations for H. pylori infection and used in a network Meta-analysis and a single rate Meta-analysis to evaluate the relative and absolute rates of H. pylori eradication and the risk of adverse effect. The Jadad score was used to evaluate the methodological quality. Funnel plot was constructed to evaluate the risk of publication bias. Begg's rank correlation test or Egger's regression intercept test was done for the asymmetry of funnel plot. Results: Twenty randomized control trials for the treatment of 6 753 initial treated patients with H. pylori infection were included. Drug susceptibility test guided therapy was significantly superior to concomitant therapy, hybrid therapy, sequential therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy. The culture-based therapy had the highest likelihood of improving clinical efficacy, with lowest risk of adverse effect. Concomitant therapy had the highest probability of causing adverse effect despite its effectiveness. Hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy were associated with lower risk of adverse effect and higher effectiveness. Conclusion: Drug susceptibility test guided therapy showed superiority to other 4 interventions for H. pylori eradication mentioned above. Hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy might be applied in the settings where the culture-based strategy is not available.

  11. Evaluation of an Automated System for Reading and Interpreting Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Fastidious Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Idelevich

    Full Text Available Results of disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing depend on individual visual reading of inhibition zone diameters. Therefore, automated reading using camera systems might represent a useful tool for standardization. In this study, the ADAGIO automated system (Bio-Rad was evaluated for reading disk diffusion tests of fastidious bacteria. 144 clinical isolates (68 β-haemolytic streptococci, 28 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 18 viridans group streptococci, 13 Haemophilus influenzae, 7 Moraxella catarrhalis, and 10 Campylobacter jejuni were tested on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/L β-NAD (MH-F, Oxoid according to EUCAST. Plates were read manually with a ruler and automatically using the ADAGIO system. Inhibition zone diameters, indicated by the automated system, were visually controlled and adjusted, if necessary. Among 1548 isolate-antibiotic combinations, comparison of automated vs. manual reading yielded categorical agreement (CA without visual adjustment of the automatically determined zone diameters in 81.4%. In 20% (309 of 1548 of tests it was deemed necessary to adjust the automatically determined zone diameter after visual control. After adjustment, CA was 94.8%; very major errors (false susceptible interpretation, major errors (false resistant interpretation and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result, calculated according to the ISO 20776-2 guideline, accounted to 13.7% (13 of 95 resistant results, 3.3% (47 of 1424 susceptible results and 1.4% (21 of 1548 total results, respectively, compared to manual reading. The ADAGIO system allowed for automated reading of disk diffusion testing in fastidious bacteria and, after visual validation of the automated results, yielded good categorical agreement with manual reading.

  12. Frequent major errors in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial strains distributed under the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Quality Assurance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, R

    2012-07-01

    The Quality Assurance Program (QAP) of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) was a proficiency testing system developed to service the laboratory animal discipline. The QAP comprised the distribution of bacterial strains from various species of animals for identification to species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). Identification capabilities were below acceptable standards. This study evaluated AST results using the DKFZ compilations of test results for all bacterial strains showing the number of participants reporting the strain as resistant (R), sensitive (S) or intermediate susceptible (I) to each antibiotic substance used. Due to lack of information about methods used, it was assumed that what the majority of the participants reported (R or S) was the correct test result and that an opposite result was a major error (ME). MEs occurred in 1375 of 14,258 (9.7%) of test results and ME% ranged from 0% to 23.2% per bacterial group-agent group combination. Considerable variation in MEs was found within groups of bacteria and within groups of agents. In addition to poor performance in proper species classification, the quality of AST in laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories seems far below standards considered acceptable in human diagnostic microbiology.

  13. Alternating current magnetic susceptibility of a molecular magnet submonolayer directly patterned onto a micro superconducting quantum interference device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Pérez, M. J.; Luis, F.; Bellido, E.; Ruiz-Molina, D.; Miguel, R. de; Sesé, J.; Lostao, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the controlled integration, via dip pen nanolithography, of monolayer dots of ferritin-based CoO nanoparticles (12 μ B ) into the most sensitive areas of a microSQUID sensor. The nearly optimum flux coupling between these nanomagnets and the microSQUID improves the achievable sensitivity by a factor 10 2 , enabling us to measure the linear susceptibility of the molecular array down to very low temperatures (13 mK). This method opens the possibility of applying ac susceptibility experiments to characterize two-dimensional arrays of single molecule magnets within a wide range of temperatures and frequencies.

  14. The direct measurement of dose enhancement in gamma test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, E.A.; Snowden, D.P.; Cappelli, J.R.; Mittleman, S.; Lowe, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The design and use of a dual cavity ionization chamber for routine measurement of dose enhancement factors in Co-60 gamma test facilities is described. The enhancement factors can be derived directly from the chamber measurements without recourse to reference data that may be difficult to obtain. It is shown, in agreement with earlier work, that the maximum dose enhancement factors can be altered by a factor two as a result of Compton scatter from relatively small amounts of low or high atomic number materials next to the target. The dual chamber permits the ready detection of such effects. This relatively simple device reliably reproduced earlier results obtained by more involved equipment and procedures. Measured enhancement factors are reported for new material combinations not previously examined and compared with recent calculations

  15. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran : comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Boekhout, Teun; Diba, Kambiz; Moghadam, Abdolkarim Ghadimi; Hossaini Nasab, Ali; Jafarian, Hadis; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Soltani, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to

  16. WHO global salm-surv external quality assurance system (EQAS): an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Angulo, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    susceptibility testing through international training courses and an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS). In 2000, 44 WHO Global Salm-Surv member laboratories from 35 countries determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for eight "blinded" Salmonella isolates. For serotyping, 73...

  17. DIRECT PHOTOGRAMMETRY USING UAV: TESTS AND FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chiabrando

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the quality of high resolution acquisition platforms for geomatic applications has decidedly increased, especially in the performance of the sensors devoted to image acquisition. The small size of these new sensors combined with the increase in resolution allows them to be easily mounted onto Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs; in particular, calibrated, very-high-resolution digital cameras for photogrammetric purposes such as digital terrain model (DTM and digital surface model (DSM extraction, orthophotos, and map realization have been used. In this case, the UAV performance allows a high quality product to be obtained, considering the pixel size and the accuracy of the DTM/DSM which could be obtained with automatic procedures. Several navigation sensors (GPS/GNSS and IMU-MEMS are embedded into UAVs in order to realize autonomous flight. The quality of these sensors, in terms of accuracy, depends on the model of UAV and its purpose. The navigation solution (position and attitude is estimated by the internal UAV sensor and can be employed to directly georeference the images, in order to produce an quick and easy description and analysis of the overlooked area. This is a good condition for semi-automatic procedures using a bundle-block photogrammetric approach. But is it possible to realize a direct photogrammetry? And what are the limits? Several tests were carried out over different areas and in different conditions using three different UAVs belonging to the Geomatics group of the Politecnico di Torino. In this paper, an investigation of the limits of some commercial UAVs is reported, defining a dedicated procedure to valuate their performance, especially considering the use of UAVs for direct photogrammetry.

  18. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will Lewis, Compiler

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2005. Fifty new projects were selected for funding this year, and five FY 2004 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.4 million, for an average per project cost of just under $100,000. Two external audits of SDRD accounting practices were conducted in FY 2005. Both audits found the program's accounting practices consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 413.2A, and one included the observation that the NTS contractor ''did an exceptional job in planning and executing year-start activities.'' Highlights for the year included: the filing of 18 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2005 projects; programmatic adoption of 17 FY 2004 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2005 projects; and the successful completion of 55 R and D projects, as presented in this report

  19. Adolescent behavioral and neural reward sensitivity: a test of the differential susceptibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J S; Arias Vásquez, A; von Rhein, D; van der Meer, D; Franke, B; Hoekstra, P J; Heslenfeld, D J; Oosterlaan, J; Faraone, S V; Buitelaar, J K; Hartman, C A

    2016-04-05

    Little is known about the causes of individual differences in reward sensitivity. We investigated gene-environment interactions (GxE) on behavioral and neural measures of reward sensitivity, in light of the differential susceptibility theory. This theory states that individuals carrying plasticity gene variants will be more disadvantaged in negative, but more advantaged in positive environments. Reward responses were assessed during a monetary incentive delay task in 178 participants with and 265 without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from N=261 families. We examined interactions between variants in candidate plasticity genes (DAT1, 5-HTT and DRD4) and social environments (maternal expressed emotion and peer affiliation). HTTLPR short allele carriers showed the least reward speeding when exposed to high positive peer affiliation, but the most when faced with low positive peer affiliation or low maternal warmth. DAT1 10-repeat homozygotes displayed similar GxE patterns toward maternal warmth on general task performance. At the neural level, DRD4 7-repeat carriers showed the least striatal activation during reward anticipation when exposed to high maternal warmth, but the most when exposed to low warmth. Findings were independent of ADHD severity. Our results partially confirm the differential susceptibility theory and indicate the importance of positive social environments in reward sensitivity and general task performance for persons with specific genotypes.

  20. Use of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Guidelines for Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing in New York State Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehlbauch, Julia A.; Hannett, George E.; Salfinger, Max; Archinal, Wendy; Monserrat, Catherine; Carlyn, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing is vital for patient care and surveillance of emerging antimicrobial resistance. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) outlines generally agreed upon guidelines for reliable and reproducible results. In January 1997 we surveyed 320 laboratories participating in the New York State Clinical Evaluation Program for General Bacteriology proficiency testing. Our survey addressed compliance with NCCLS susceptibility testing guidelines for bacterial species designated a problem (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species) or fastidious (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) organism. Specifically, we assessed compliance with guidelines for inoculum preparation, medium choice, number of disks per plate, and incubation conditions for disk diffusion tests. We also included length of incubation for S. aureus and Enterococcus species. We found overall compliance with the five characteristics listed above in 80 of 153 responding laboratories (50.6%) for S. aureus and 72 of 151 (47.7%) laboratories for Enterococcus species. The most common problem was an incubation time shortened to less than 24 h. Overall compliance with the first four characteristics was reported by 92 of 221 (41.6%) laboratories for S. pneumoniae, 49 of 163 (30.1%) laboratories for H. influenzae, and 11 of 77 (14.3%) laboratories for N. gonorrhoeae. Laboratories varied from NCCLS guidelines by placing an excess number of disks per plate. Laboratories also reported using alternative media for Enterococcus species, N. gonorrhoeae, and H. influenzae. This study demonstrates a need for education among clinical laboratories to increase compliance with NCCLS guidelines. PMID:10970381

  1. New interpretive criteria for danofloxacin antibacterial susceptibility testing against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael T; Papich, Mark G; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent approved for use in veterinary medicine to treat and control bovine respiratory disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida. Susceptible minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoint (≤0.25 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (≥22 mm) values for danofloxacin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida were first approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2003. However, intermediate and resistant breakpoint values were not established because only susceptible wild-type populations were evident at the time of breakpoint approvals. Since then, nonsusceptible isolates of M. haemolytica and P. multocida have been identified. We report danofloxacin intermediate MIC breakpoint (0.5 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (18-21 mm), as well as danofloxacin-resistant MIC breakpoint (≥1 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (≤17 mm), based on scattergram plots of MIC values versus disk zone diameters and calculated error-bound rates using M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolates recovered from bovine respiratory disease in North America in 2004-2014. These newly established intermediate and resistant clinical breakpoint values have been endorsed by CLSI and can be used for interpreting results from antibacterial susceptibility testing of danofloxacin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolated from bovine respiratory disease.

  2. Multifactor-dimensionality reduction versus family-based association tests in detecting susceptibility loci in discordant sib-pair studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Ma, Qianli; Yu, Yi; Farrell, John; Farrer, Lindsay A; Wilcox, Marsha A

    2005-01-01

    Complex diseases are generally thought to be under the influence of multiple, and possibly interacting, genes. Many association methods have been developed to identify susceptibility genes assuming a single-gene disease model, referred to as single-locus methods. Multilocus methods consider joint effects of multiple genes and environmental factors. One commonly used method for family-based association analysis is implemented in FBAT. The multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR) is a multilocus method, which identifies multiple genetic loci associated with the occurrence of complex disease. Many studies of late onset complex diseases employ a discordant sib pairs design. We compared the FBAT and MDR in their ability to detect susceptibility loci using a discordant sib-pair dataset generated from the simulated data made available to participants in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14. Using FBAT, we were able to identify the effect of one susceptibility locus. However, the finding was not statistically significant. We were not able to detect any of the interactions using this method. This is probably because the FBAT test is designed to find loci with major effects, not interactions. Using MDR, the best result we obtained identified two interactions. However, neither of these reached a level of statistical significance. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the disease trait and noise in the data. PMID:16451606

  3. Multifactor-dimensionality reduction versus family-based association tests in detecting susceptibility loci in discordant sib-pair studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Ma, Qianli; Yu, Yi; Farrell, John; Farrer, Lindsay A; Wilcox, Marsha A

    2005-12-30

    Complex diseases are generally thought to be under the influence of multiple, and possibly interacting, genes. Many association methods have been developed to identify susceptibility genes assuming a single-gene disease model, referred to as single-locus methods. Multilocus methods consider joint effects of multiple genes and environmental factors. One commonly used method for family-based association analysis is implemented in FBAT. The multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR) is a multilocus method, which identifies multiple genetic loci associated with the occurrence of complex disease. Many studies of late onset complex diseases employ a discordant sib pairs design. We compared the FBAT and MDR in their ability to detect susceptibility loci using a discordant sib-pair dataset generated from the simulated data made available to participants in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14. Using FBAT, we were able to identify the effect of one susceptibility locus. However, the finding was not statistically significant. We were not able to detect any of the interactions using this method. This is probably because the FBAT test is designed to find loci with major effects, not interactions. Using MDR, the best result we obtained identified two interactions. However, neither of these reached a level of statistical significance. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the disease trait and noise in the data.

  4. First isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Chromobacterium violaceum from oysters in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berebichez-Fridman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative, anaerobic, non-sporing, fermentative and oxidase-positive coccobacillus. Human infections caused by Chromobacterium violaceum are infrequent. There are a few reported cases in several countries. Those infections appear after a skin contact with soil or contaminated water. Infections can progress to necrotizing metastatatic lesions and multiple abscesses of the lung, liver, skin, spleen, lymph nodes and brain with fatal septicemia. Infections caused by this bacterium have a high lethality rate, with a low recovery rate among survivors. It has been described that this bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics. Materials and methods: Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated, cultivated, and identified from oysters from thirteen different restaurants in Mexico City and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Results: Four isolations of Chromobacterium violaceum were obtained from oysters. Three of them corresponded to biotype 36 and all of them had a confidence factor of 0.987. All isolations were resistant to Carbencillin, Cephalothin and Cephotaxime. Two isolations were also resistant to Ampicillin and one was resistant to Amikacin. All isolations were sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin, Netilmicin, Nitrofurantoin, Pefloxacine and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. Conclusions: The presence of Chromabacterium violaceum in food obtained from salt marshes that usually are eaten fresh (like oysters means a high potential risk for human health because this bacterium has been associated with high morbidity and mortality. In our report, this bacterium showed resistance to several antibacterial agents. Patients should be cautions when eating fresh seafood, and healthcare personnel should suspect an infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum if the patient presents with sepsis, enteritis or abscesses and they have risk factors for acquiring this

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Danielsen, T K L; Hall, V

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C. difficile by ......Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C...... University Hospitals, Denmark. Furthermore, ten clinical isolates of C. difficile from the Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, University Hospital of Wales, with known reduced susceptibility to either metronidazole or vancomycin, were included. Isolates were tested with Etest gradient strips and disk diffusion...... towards metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin on Brucella Blood Agar supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. We found an excellent agreement between inhibition zone diameter and MICs. For each MIC value, the inhibition zones varied from 0 to 8 mm, with 93% of values within 6 mm for metronidazole, 95...

  6. Ethical and clinical practice considerations for genetic counselors related to direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Christopher H; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2006-11-15

    Several companies utilize direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for genetic tests and some, but not all, bypass clinician involvement by offering DTC purchase of the tests. This article examines how DTC marketing strategies may affect genetic counselors, using available cardiovascular disease susceptibility tests as an illustration. The interpretation of these tests is complex and includes consideration of clinical validity and utility, and the further complications of gene-environment interactions and pleiotropy. Although it is unclear to what extent genetic counselors will encounter clients who have been exposed to DTC marketing strategies, these strategies may influence genetic counseling interactions if they produce directed interest in specific tests and unrealistic expectations for the tests' capacity to predict disease. Often, a client's concern about risk for cardiovascular diseases is best addressed by established clinical tests and a family history assessment. Ethical dilemmas may arise for genetic counselors who consider whether to accept clients who request test interpretation or to order DTC-advertised tests that require a clinician's authorization. Genetic counselors' obligations to care for clients extend to interpreting DTC tests, although this obligation may be fulfilled by referral or consultation with specialists. Genetic counselors do not have an obligation to order DTC-advertised tests that have minimal clinical validity and utility at a client's request. This can be a justified restriction on autonomy based on consideration of risks to the client, the costs, and the implications for society. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Direct antiglobulin test positivity in multi-transfused thalassemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Red cell allo- and auto-immunization is a well recognized problem in multi-transfused thalassemic patients. We conducted this study on 301 multi-transfused thalassemic patients under the Thalassemia Transfusion Programme of Advanced Pediatric Centre of PGIMER. Aims and Objectives: The study was designed to determine the frequency of alloimmunization and autoimmunization in multi-transfused thalassemic patients and to establish the specificity of alloantibody to red cell antigens, if alloimmunization is detected. Materials and Methods: The antibody screening was performed by the conventional tube technique using commercially available three cell screening panel (Diamed Switzerland by saline, low ionic strength solution (LISS and albumin indirect antiglobulin test (IAT. Samples with alloantibodies were then tested with red cell identification panel to determine the alloantibody specificity. Autoantibody screening was performed by direct antiglobulin test (DAT during pre-transfusion testing. Results: Of the 301 patients, 52 (17.28% were found to have antibodies (-allo and –autoantibodies. A total of 11 red cell alloantibodies were detected in 10 patients and the specificities were anti-Kell in 6(54.5%, anti-D in 2(18.2%, anti-c in 1(9.1% and a combination of anti-E (9.1% and anti-Jkb in 1 (9.1% patients. DAT was positive in 48 (15.9% patients. The frequency of autoantibody was significantly higher in alloimmunized group as compared to non-alloimmunized group (60% V/s 14.4%. Also, the pre-transfusion hemoglobin was significantly lower in the immunized group (8.5 gm/dl V/s 9.0 gm/dl; p=0.03 than the non-immunized group. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we suggest antigen typing of all thalassemia major patients for ABO, Rh and Kell antigens before initiating transfusion therapy. Also, screening for allo- and auto-antibodies at regular intervals should be done prior to each transfusion.

  8. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  9. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  10. Results of Use of WHO Global Salm-Surv External Quality Assurance System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella Isolates from 2000 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Jensen, Arne Bent

    2009-01-01

    to 3% in 2007. Consistent difficulties were observed in susceptibility testing of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. Regional variations in performance were observed, with laboratories in central Asia, Africa, and the Middle East...

  11. A case of Candida famata sepsis in a very low birth weight infant successfully treated with fluconazole following antifungal susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpee Raturi

    2015-01-01

    This case report highlights the growing number of cases arising due to nonalbicans Candida infections in the neonatal intensive care units and the usefulness of antifungal susceptibility testing in deciding optimal antifungal therapy and preventing the emergence of drug resistance.

  12. The role of epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs/ECOFFs) in antifungal susceptibility testing and interpretation for uncommon yeasts and moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Turnidge, John

    2016-01-01

    The role of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to aid in selecting the best agent for the treatment of bacterial and fungal diseases. This has been best achieved by the setting of breakpoints by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for prevalent Candida spp. versus anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) also has set breakpoints for prevalent and common Candida and Aspergillus species versus amphotericin B, itraconazole, and posaconazole. Recently, another interpretive category, the epidemiological cut off value, could aid in the early identification of strains with acquired resistance mechanisms. CLSI has postulated that epidemiological cut off values may, with due caution, aid physicians in managing mycosis by species where breakpoints are not available. This review provides (1) the criteria and statistical approach to establishing and estimating epidemiological cut off values (ECVs), (2) the role of the epidemiological cut off value in establishing breakpoints, (3) the potential role of epidemiological cut off values in clinical practice, (4) and the wide range of CLSI-based epidemiological cut off values reported in the literature as well as EUCAST and Sensititre Yeast One-ECVs. Additionally, we provide MIC/MEC (minimal inhibitory concentrations/minimum effective concentrations) ranges/modes of each pooled distribution used for epidemiological cut off value calculation. We focus on the epidemiological cut off value, the new interpretive endpoint that will identify the non-wild type strains (defined as potentially harboring resistance mechanisms). However, we emphasize that epidemiological cut off values will not categorize a fungal isolate as susceptible or resistant as breakpoints do, because the former do not account for the pharmacology of the antifungal agent or the findings from clinical outcome studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Espa

  13. Irradiation Programs and Test Plans to Assess High-Fluence Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teysseyre, Sebastien [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    . Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a known issue in current reactors. In a 60 year lifetime, reactor core internals may experience fluence levels up to 15 dpa for boiling water reactors (BWR) and 100+ dpa for pressurized water reactors (PWR). To support a safe operation of our fleet of reactors and maintain their economic viability it is important to be able to predict any evolution of material behaviors as reactors age and therefore fluence accumulated by reactor core component increases. For PWR reactors, the difficulty to predict high fluence behavior comes from the fact that there is not a consensus of the mechanism of IASCC and that little data is available. It is however possible to use the current state of knowledge on the evolution of irradiated microstructure and on the processes that influences IASCC to emit hypotheses. This report identifies several potential changes in microstructure and proposes to identify their potential impact of IASCC. The susceptibility of a component to high fluence IASCC is considered to not only depends on the intrinsic IASCC susceptibility of the component due to radiation effects on the material but to also be related to the evolution of the loading history of the material and interaction with the environment as total fluence increases. Single variation type experiments are proposed to be performed with materials that are representative of PWR condition and with materials irradiated in other conditions. To address the lack of IASCC propagation and initiation data generated with material irradiated in PWR condition, it is proposed to investigate the effect of spectrum and flux rate on the evolution of microstructure. A long term irradiation, aimed to generate a well-controlled irradiation history on a set on selected materials is also proposed for consideration. For BWR, the study of available data permitted to identify an area of concern for long term performance of component. The efficiency of

  14. Interim susceptibility testing for ceftaroline, a new MRSA-active cephalosporin: selecting potent surrogate β-lactam markers to predict ceftaroline activity against clinically indicated species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Stilwell, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the bio-active form of parenterally administered ceftaroline fosamil, is a unique broad-spectrum cephalosporin with in vitro and in vivo activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and was approved for clinical use by the United States Food and Drug Administration in October 2010. In over a year since ceftaroline fosamil approval, no widely used commercial susceptibility test system has added this new compound to its product, therefore requiring use of alternative agar diffusion methods for clinical microbiology laboratories that want to test clinical isolates for ceftaroline susceptibility. An alternative strategy of applying a surrogate β-lactam class marker agent was assessed here, using results from 14,902 organisms (2008-2010) sampled in the USA. Very high and acceptable accuracy (≥ 99.75%) was observed for predicting ceftaroline susceptibility as follows: 1) use of imipenem or meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at ≤ 8 μg/mL (susceptible and intermediate categories) when testing S. aureus; 2) use of ceftriaxone MIC at ≤ 2 μg/mL (susceptible and intermediate categories) when testing Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as other streptococci (S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae); and 3) use of ceftriaxone, or cefepime, or ceftazidime at ≤ 2 μg/mL (susceptible category) when testing Haemophilus influenzae. Only when testing indicated Enterobacteriaceae species using ceftriaxone susceptibility results did the ceftaroline-nonsusceptible errors increase (4.11%). These presented analyses offer a validated surrogate marker strategy for ceftaroline susceptibility testing, pending development and validation by the commonly used automated systems and agar diffusion commercial methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging Resistance, New Antimicrobial Agents  …  but No Tests! The Challenge of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Current US Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R M; Hindler, J A

    2016-07-01

    Accurate and timely performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by the clinical laboratory is paramount to combating antimicrobial resistance. The ability of laboratories in the United States to effectively perform ASTs is challenged by several factors. Some, such as new resistance mechanisms and the associated evolution of testing recommendations and breakpoints, are inevitable. Others are entirely man-made. These include unnecessarily strict US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limitations on how commercial AST systems can be used for diagnostic testing, the absence of up-to-date performance data on these systems, and the lack of commercially available FDA-cleared tests for newer antimicrobial agents or for older agents with updated breakpoints. This viewpoint will highlight contemporary AST challenges faced by the clinical laboratory, and propose some solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam susceptibility tests with anaerobic bacteria by the thioglycolate disk elution method.

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, A L; Packer, R R; Jones, R N

    1985-01-01

    Tests were performed with 104 anaerobic microorganisms to evaluate the thioglycolate disk elution technique for the detection of resistance to cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam. An unacceptably high false-resistance rate and a poor reproducibility record make the disk elution procedure unsatisfactory for routine testing of this drug or combination of drugs.

  17. State of the art report on the materials testing capabilities for IASCC susceptibility testing at SCK-CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.-W.; Boydens, P.; Vankeerbergen, R.; Van Nieuwenhove, R.; Van Dyck, S

    1999-08-01

    An overview of the current IASCC testing facilities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN is given. The testing techniques are reviewed, and their capabilities as well as their limitations are discussed. Possible future developments in testing techniques are discussed. IASCC is caused by a complex interaction between materials, its environment and mechanical stresses. Characterisation techniques assessing mechanical stresses as well as electrochemical and microstructural characteristics are reported on.

  18. Test Directions as a Critical Component of Test Design: Best Practices and the Impact of Examinee Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of test directions is to familiarize examinees with a test so that they respond to items in the manner intended. However, changes in educational measurement as well as the U.S. student population present new challenges to test directions and increase the impact that differential familiarity could have on the validity of test score…

  19. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  20. Molecular identification and amphotericin B susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Aspergillus from 11 hospitals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Min Seok; Shin, Jong Hee; Choi, Min Ji; Park, Yeon Joon; Lee, Hye Soo; Koo, Sun Hoe; Lee, Won Gil; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the species distribution and amphotericin B (AMB) susceptibility of Korean clinical Aspergillus isolates by using two Etests and the CLSI broth microdilution method. A total of 136 Aspergillus isolates obtained from 11 university hospitals were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and β-tubulin genomic regions. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AMB were determined in Etests using Mueller-Hinton agar (Etest-MH) and RPMI agar (Etest-RPG), and categorical agreement with the CLSI method was assessed by using epidemiological cutoff values. ITS sequencing identified the following six Aspergillus species complexes: Aspergillus fumigatus (42.6% of the isolates), A. niger (23.5%), A. flavus (17.6%), A. terreus (11.0%), A. versicolor (4.4%), and A. ustus (0.7%). Cryptic species identifiable by β-tubulin sequencing accounted for 25.7% (35/136) of the isolates. Of all 136 isolates, 36 (26.5%) had AMB MICs of ≥2 μg/mL by the CLSI method. The categorical agreement of Etest-RPG with the CLSI method was 98% for the A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. versicolor complexes, 87% for the A. terreus complex, and 37.5% for the A. flavus complex. That of Etest-MH was ≤75% for the A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor complexes but was higher for the A. fumigatus complex (98.3%). Aspergillus species other than A. fumigatus constitute about 60% of clinical Aspergillus isolates, and reduced AMB susceptibility is common among clinical isolates of Aspergillus in Korea. Molecular identification and AMB susceptibility testing by Etest-RPG may be useful for characterizing Aspergillus isolates of clinical relevance.

  1. Abnormal directed migration of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Potential role in increased susceptibility to bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aglas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients are at higher risks of bacterial infection than healthy subjects. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN are the first line of nonspecific cellular defence against these infections. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal directed migration of PMN may be one reason for the increased infection rate of RA patients. PMN migration was investigated in 68 peripheral blood samples of 15 RA patients compared with 64 samples of healthy controls in a novel whole blood in vitro membrane filter assay. The migration of PMNs from RA patients and controls was stimulated using the bacterial chemoattractant N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP. Unstimulated PMN migration of RA patients was increased compared with healthy controls as measured by the following parameters: (a absolute number of migrant PMNs (1954 ± 87 vs. 1238 ± 58 PMN/mm2, (b percentage of PMNs migrated into the filter (total migration index, TMI (28.6 ± 0.9 vs. 24.0 ± 0.8 %, (c the distance half the migrating PMNs had covered (distribution characteristic, DC (22.6 ± 1.1 vs. 16.1 ± 0.6 mm and (d the product of TMI and DC (neutrophil migratory activity, NMA (669.0 ± 45.0 vs. 389.0 ± 18.9. fMLP stimulated PMNs of RA patients showed defective migration compared to unstimulated samples as shown by (a a reduced number of migrant PMNs (1799 ± 93 PMN/mm2, (b lower TMI (26.1 ± 0.9 %, (c unremarkable altered distribution characteristic (22.9 ± 0.8 mm and (d significant reduced migratory activity (600.0 ± 30.0. Our data suggest that the high incidence of infections in RA patients may partly be caused by defective migratory activity of PMNs to bacterial chemoattractants as demonstrated by fMLP.

  2. Development of laser beam welding transverse-varestraint test for assessment of solidification cracking susceptibility in laser welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Eun-Joon; Baba, Hayato; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate the solidification cracking susceptibility in laser welds of type 310S stainless steel, a transverse-Varestraint testing system using a laser beam welding apparatus was newly constructed. The timing-synchronization between the laser oscillator, welding robot and hydraulic pressure devices was established by employing high-speed camera observations together with electrical signal control among the three components. Moreover, the yoke-drop time measured by the camera was used to prevent underestimation of the crack length. The laser beam melt-run welding used a variable welding speed from 10.0 to 40.0 mm/s, while the gas tungsten arc welding varied the welding speed from 1.67 to 5.00 mm/s. As the welding speed increased from 1.67 to 40.0mm/s, the solidification brittle temperature range of type 310S stainless steel welds was reduced from 146 to 120 K. It follows that employing the laser beam welding process mitigates the solidification cracking susceptibility for type 310S stainless steel welds.

  3. Resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs and practices in drug susceptibility testing in Moldova, 1995-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, V; Arnadottir, Th; Laticevschi, D

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate practices in initial drug susceptibility testing (DST) in Moldova, anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and the implications for tuberculosis control. Retrospective record review in the national reference laboratory. Of 3463 cases, 57.1% were recorded as 'new' and 24.6% as 'retreatment' cases; previous treatment status was not recorded for 18.3%. Of the 'new' cases, 1655 were correctly classified according to international recommendations and 322 were misclassified. The number of cases increased from 443 in 1995 to 939 in 1999; the proportion of 'retreatment' increased from 17.4% to 35.5%, 'any drug resistance' from 20.3% to 41.6%, and 'multidrug resistance' from 2.7% to 11.2%. In 1998-1999, 'any drug resistance' and 'multidrug resistance' in 800 previously untreated cases were respectively 29.1% and 5.3%, and respectively 61.0% and 21.9% in 521 'retreatment' cases. Of a total of 216 'multidrug-resistant' cases in 1998-1999, 21.8% were reported resistant to ethambutol and 81.5% to streptomycin. Initial specimens for culture are frequently taken late, after the start of treatment, compromising their usefulness for case management or surveillance. Inadequate treatment has led to an increase in the number of cases, the proportion of previously treated cases and the prevalence of drug resistance. In 1998-1999, a high proportion of cases with 'multidrug resistance' were susceptible to ethambutol.

  4. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.

    2004-01-01

    A special BUT-transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all measured directly, thus...... enabling accurate measurement of friction and direct determination of lubricant film breakdown for varying normal pressure, sliding speed, tool radius and tool preheat temperature. The transducer is applied in an experimental investigation focusing on limits of lubrication in drawing of stainless steel...

  5. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.

    2006-01-01

    A special Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all...... measured directly, thus enabling accurate measurement of friction and direct determination of lubricant film breakdown for varying normal pressure, sliding speed, tool radius and tool preheat temperature. The transducer is applied in an experimental investigation focusing on limits of lubrication...... in drawing of stainless steel showing the influence of varying process conditions and the performance of different lubricants....

  6. Comprehensive embryo testing. Experts' opinions regarding future directions: an expert panel study on comprehensive embryo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Kristien; Dondorp, Wybo J; Geraedts, Joep P M; de Wert, Guido M

    2013-05-01

    What do scientists in the field of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) consider to be the future direction of comprehensive embryo testing? Although there are many biological and technical limitations, as well as uncertainties regarding the meaning of genetic variation, comprehensive embryo testing will impact the IVF/PGD practice and a timely ethical reflection is needed. Comprehensive testing using microarrays is currently being introduced in the context of PGD and PGS, and it is to be expected that whole-genome sequencing will also follow. Current ethical and empirical sociological research on embryo testing focuses on PGD as it is practiced now. However, empirical research and systematic reflection regarding the impact of comprehensive techniques for embryo testing is missing. In order to understand the potential of this technology and to be able to adequately foresee its implications, we held an expert panel with seven pioneers in PGD. We conducted an expert panel in October 2011 with seven PGD pioneers from Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Participants expected the use of comprehensive techniques in the context of PGD. However, the introduction of these techniques in embryo testing requires timely ethical reflection as it involves a shift from choosing an embryo without a particular genetic disease (i.e. PGD) or most likely to result in a successful pregnancy (i.e. PGS) to choosing the best embryo based on a much wider set of criteria. Such ethical reflection should take account of current technical and biological limitations and also of current uncertainties with regard to the meaning of genetic variance. However, ethicists should also not be afraid to look into the future. There was a general agreement that embryo testing will be increasingly preceded by comprehensive preconception screening, thus enabling smart combinations of genetic testing. The group was composed of seven participants from

  7. Changes to perceptions of the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing after APOE genotyping for Alzheimer disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kurt D.; Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Green, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions about the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing are among the best predictors of test utilization. How actual testing changes such perceptions has yet to be examined. Methods In a clinical trial, first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease received genetic risk assessments for Alzheimer disease including APOE disclosure. Participants rated 11 possible benefits associated with genetic testing (pros) and 10 risks or limitations (cons) before genetic risk disclosure and again 12 months afterward. Results Pros were rated higher than cons at baseline (3.53 vs. 1.83, P cons did not change (1.88 vs. 1.83, P = 0.199) except for a three-item discrimination subscale which increased (2.07 vs. 1.92, P = 0.012). Among specific pros and cons, three items related to prevention and treatment changed the most. Conclusion The process of APOE genetic risk assessment for Alzheimer disease sensitizes some to its limitations and the risks of discrimination; however, 1-year after disclosure, test recipients still consider the pros to strongly outweigh the cons. PMID:21270636

  8. Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from domestically acquired infections in Finland by phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE and MLVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Taru; Kyyhkynen, Aino; Halkilahti, Jani; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja

    2015-07-02

    Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serotype Typhimurium (STM) is the most common agent of domestically acquired salmonellosis in Finland. Subtyping methods which allow the characterization of STM are essential for effective laboratory-based STM surveillance and for recognition of outbreaks. This study describes the diversity of Finnish STM isolates using phage typing, antimicrobial susceptible testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and compares the discriminatory power and the concordance of these methods. A total of 375 sporadic STM isolates were analysed. The isolates were divided into 31 definite phage (DT) types, dominated by DT1 (47 % of the isolates), U277 (9 % of the isolates) and DT104 (8 % of the isolates). Of all the isolates, 62 % were susceptible to all the 12 antimicrobials tested and 11 % were multidrug resistant. Subtyping resulted in 83 different XbaI-PFGE profiles and 111 MLVA types. The three most common XbaI-PFGE profiles (STYM1, STYM7 and STYM8) and one MLVA profile with three single locus variants accounted for 56 % and 49 % of the STM isolates, respectively. The studied isolates showed a genetic similarity of more than 70 % by XbaI-PFGE. In MLVA, 71 % of the isolates lacked STTR6 and 77 % missed STTR10p loci. Nevertheless, the calculated Simpson's diversity index for XbaI-PFGE was 0.829 (95 % CI 0.792-0.865) and for MLVA 0.867 (95 % CI 0.835-0.898). However, the discriminatory power of the 5-loci MLVA varied among the phage types. The highest concordance of the results was found between XbaI-PFGE and phage typing (adjusted Wallace coefficient was 0.833 and adjusted Rand coefficient was 0.627). In general, the calculated discriminatory power was higher for genotyping methods (MLVA and XbaI-PFGE) than for phenotyping methods (phage typing). Overall, comparable diversity indices were calculated for PFGE and MLVA (both DI > 0.8). However, MLVA was phage type dependent

  9. Informed consent in direct-to-consumer personal genome testing: the outline of a model between specific and generic consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnik, Eline M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Schermer, Maartje H N

    2014-09-01

    Broad genome-wide testing is increasingly finding its way to the public through the online direct-to-consumer marketing of so-called personal genome tests. Personal genome tests estimate genetic susceptibilities to multiple diseases and other phenotypic traits simultaneously. Providers commonly make use of Terms of Service agreements rather than informed consent procedures. However, to protect consumers from the potential physical, psychological and social harms associated with personal genome testing and to promote autonomous decision-making with regard to the testing offer, we argue that current practices of information provision are insufficient and that there is a place--and a need--for informed consent in personal genome testing, also when it is offered commercially. The increasing quantity, complexity and diversity of most testing offers, however, pose challenges for information provision and informed consent. Both specific and generic models for informed consent fail to meet its moral aims when applied to personal genome testing. Consumers should be enabled to know the limitations, risks and implications of personal genome testing and should be given control over the genetic information they do or do not wish to obtain. We present the outline of a new model for informed consent which can meet both the norm of providing sufficient information and the norm of providing understandable information. The model can be used for personal genome testing, but will also be applicable to other, future forms of broad genetic testing or screening in commercial and clinical settings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.T.; Claas, E.C.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both an increase in and regional differences in erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported. To determine the accuracy of routine tests for erythromycin resistance, 48 erythromycin-resistant isolates from various laboratories that

  11. Direct Simple Shear Test Data Analysis using Jupyter Notebooks on DesignSafe-CI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, M.; Esteva, M.; Brandenberg, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the large number of files and their complex structure, managing data generated during natural hazards experiments requires scalable and specialized tools. DesignSafe-CI (https://www.designsafe-ci.org/) is a web-based research platform that provides computational tools to analyze, curate, and publish critical data for natural hazards research making it understandable and reusable. We present a use case from a series of Direct Simple Shear (DSS) experiments in which we used DS-CI to post-process, visualize, publish, and enable further analysis of the data. Current practice in geotechnical design against earthquakes relies on the soil's plasticity index (PI) to assess liquefaction susceptibility, and cyclic softening triggering procedures, although, quite divergent recommendations on recommended levels of plasticity can be found in the literature for these purposes. A series of cyclic and monotonic direct simple shear experiments was conducted on three low-plasticity fine-grained mixtures at the same plasticity index to examine the effectiveness of the PI in characterization of these types of materials. Results revealed that plasticity index is an insufficient indicator of the cyclic behavior of low-plasticity fine-grained soils, and corrections for pore fluid chemistry and clay minerology may be necessary for future liquefaction susceptibility and cyclic softening assessment procedures. Each monotonic, or cyclic experiment contains two stages; consolidation and shear, which include time series of load, displacement, and corresponding stresses and strains, as well as equivalent excess pore-water pressure. Using the DS-CI curation pipeline we categorized the data to display and describe the experiment's structure and files corresponding to each stage of the experiments. Two separate notebooks in Python 3 were created using the Jupyter application available in DS-CI. A data plotter aids visualizing the experimental data in relation to the sensor from which it was

  12. Genetic susceptibility to Gilbert's syndrome in a valencian population; efficacy of the fasting test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A K; Escartín, N; Monzó, C; Guzmán, C; Ferrer, I; González-Muñoz, C; Peña, P; Monzó, V; Marcaida, G; Rodríguez-López, R

    To describe the populational distribution of the UGT1A1*28 variant (genetic variant code rs8175347) located in the promotor of the UGT gene and correlate its genotypes with the results of the fasting test, as well as its relationship with the biochemical disorder of Gilbert's syndrome (GS) in a Valencian population. We studied the prevalence of the genotypes (TA) 6/6 (TA) 6/7 and (TA) 7/7 of the deleterious variant rs8175347 in 144 patients with hyperbilirubinemia, 38 of whom had previously undergone the fasting test to diagnose GS, and in 150 control patients. By analysing the genomic region of the TATA box of the UGT1A1 gene promotor using Sanger sequencing, we established the correlation between the rs8175347 genotypes and the fasting test results and with the patients' biochemical disorders. The rate of heterozygosity of allele (TA) 7 in the control population was 32% and increased to 87.59% among the patients with suspected GS. The rate of genotype TA 7/7 was 81.94% among the patients with hyperbilirubinemia, compared with 11.33% in the control patients. The fasting test showed a 15.79% rate of false negatives and a 5.26% rate of false positives. The high frequency of allele (TA) 7 among the Valencian control population, almost double the 5% reported for European control patients, confirms the high rate of GS reported in the Spanish population, without observing significant differences between the geographical ends of the country. The efficacy and reliability of the fasting test for the diagnosis of GS is questionable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  13. Direct-to-consumer personal genome testing and cancer risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellcross, Cecelia A; Page, Patricia Z; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The last several years has witnessed an explosion in genomics, with the advent of genome-wide association studies revealing hundreds of DNA variants significantly associated with most common diseases, including cancer. On the heels of these scientific advances came the direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing industry. Genome-wide scans for disease have been marketed and sold directly to the public, without the involvement of a health care provider. Unlike genetic testing for mutations in known hereditary cancer susceptibility genes such as BRCA1/2, these genomic profiles examine DNA variants, which typically have a minimal risk impact, and account for only a fraction of the heritable component of cancer. Furthermore, risk information provided to consumers does not account for family history or other known risk factors. The clinical validity and utility of personal genome scans for disease risk prediction remain for the most part unestablished, although some argue lack of evidence of harm and the possibility that positive impacts on health behaviors or genetic awareness may result from consumer use. The DTC genetic testing industry has sparked significant controversy not only among the scientific community, but also among professional societies and government agencies.In this review, we present some of the history and methodological considerations of DTC genomic profiling, with a focus on cancer risk prediction. The literature regarding consumer awareness and utilization is explored, including understanding, expectations, and behavioral and psychological responses to DTC genomic risk prediction. Primary care provider and genetic professional knowledge and perceptions of DTC genomic profiling are also addressed. Ethical and scientific controversy surrounding the DTC genetic testing industry is presented, along with policy recommendations, regulatory actions, and the changing landscape of the DTC genetic testing market in response. Although our understanding of the

  14. Comparison of EUCAST and CLSI broth microdilution methods for the susceptibility testing of 10 systemically active antifungal agents when tested against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-06-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for amphotericin B, flucytosine, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 357 isolates of Candida. The isolates were selected from global surveillance collections to represent both wild-type (WT) and non-WT MIC results for the azoles (12% of fluconazole and voriconazole results were non-WT) and the echinocandins (6% of anidulafungin and micafungin results were non-WT). The study collection included 114 isolates of Candida albicans, 73 of C. glabrata, 76 of C. parapsilosis, 60 of C. tropicalis, and 34 of C. krusei. The overall essential agreement (EA) between EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 78.9% (posaconazole) to 99.6% (flucytosine). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods and species of Candida was assessed using previously determined CLSI epidemiological cutoff values. The overall CA between methods was 95.0% with 2.5% very major (VM) and major (M) discrepancies. The CA was >93% for all antifungal agents with the exception of caspofungin (84.6%), where 10% of the results were categorized as non-WT by the EUCAST method and WT by the CLSI method. Problem areas with low EA or CA include testing of amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and isavuconazole against C. glabrata, itraconazole, and posaconazole against most species, and caspofungin against C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. We confirm high level EA and CA (>90%) between the 2 methods for testing fluconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin against all 5 species. The results indicate that the EUCAST and CLSI methods produce comparable results for testing the systemically active antifungal agents against the 5 most common species of Candida; however, there are several areas where additional

  15. Effects of broth composition and light condition on antimicrobial susceptibility testing of ionic silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaokun; Liu, Lihong; Pareek, Vishnu; Becker, Thomas; Liang, Junli; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AgNO3 against bacteria were investigated in a variety of microorganism culture broths. Broth- and light-dependent MIC values were observed and correlated negatively with nano-Ag speciation development. We advocate here the importance of broth and light standardization in Ag antimicrobial test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A direct test of perturbative QCD at small x

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D

    1994-01-01

    We show that recent data from HERA on the proton structure function F_2 at small x and large Q^2 provide a direct confirmation of the double asymptotic scaling prediction of perturbative QCD. A linear rise of \\ln F_2 with the scaling variable \\sigma is observed throughout the kinematic region probed at HERA, and the measured slope is in excellent agreement with the QCD prediction. This provides a direct determination of the leading coefficient of the beta function. At large values of the scaling variable \\rho the data display a small but statistically significant scaling violation.

  17. Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast isolated from corneal infections Teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Degaspare Monte Mascaro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast isolates obtained from cases of keratitis. METHODS: Susceptibility testing of 15 yeast strains isolated from corneal infections to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was performed using the NCCLS broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Most episodes of eye infections were caused by Candida albicans. The antifungal drugs tested showed the following minimal inhibitory concentration values against yeast isolates: 0.125-0.5 µg/ml for amphotericin B; 0.125->64.0 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.015-1.0 µg/ml for itraconazole and 0.015-0.125 µg/ml for ketoconazole. Despite the fact that all Candida isolates were judged to be susceptible to azoles, one isolate showed a minimal inhibitory concentration value significantly higher than a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration of all tested isolates. Rhodotorula rubra was resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most yeast isolates from corneal infections are usually susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles, they exhibit a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentration values for antifungal drugs. The identification of strains at species level and their susceptibility pattern to antifungal drugs should be considered before determining the concentration to be used in topical antifungal formulations in order to optimize therapeutic response in eye infections.OBJETIVO: Relatar resultados e avaliar a aplicabilidade do teste de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais oculares. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se teste de suscetibilidade pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, padronizado pelo NCCLS-EUA, em 15 amostras de leveduras de infecções corneanas a anfotericina B, fluconazol, itraconazol e ketoconazol. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos episódios de infecção corneal foi causada por Candida albicans. As drogas antifúngicas testadas exibiram valores de concentra

  18. The evaluation of a positive direct antiglobulin test (autocontrol) in pretransfusion testing revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, W J; Barnes, B A; Steiner, E A; Oberman, H A; Averill, D B; Butch, S H

    1986-01-01

    Direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) using anti-IgG were performed on 65,049 blood samples from prospective transfusion recipients; 3570 tests (5.49%) were positive. Using criteria published previously (primarily excluding patients not transfused within the preceding 14 days), 778 samples from other than neonatal patients were selected for further evaluation. Eluates that did not react were obtained on 518 (66.6%) of these samples. Warm-reactive autoantibodies were apparent in 192 eluates, while 16 contained drug-related antibodies, anti-A or anti-B from prior transfusion with ABO mismatched blood components, or anti-D passively acquired from immune serum globulin. Fifty-two eluates contained alloantibodies; however, in only six of these cases did the corresponding serum lack unexpected alloantibodies, as determined by routine pretransfusion studies. Three additional weakly reactive clinically significant alloantibodies were detected solely through additional serum tests performed on DAT-positive samples. On the basis of these findings, the DAT had a low predictive value when used to detect the early manifestations of an immune response to recently transfused red cells. Elimination of the autocontrol from routine pretransfusion testing, therefore, carries minimal risk to patients yet will undoubtedly contribute to the containment of health care costs. Moreover, the risk is lower than that associated with the elimination of the antiglobulin crossmatch.

  19. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der J.A.M.; Beerda, B.; Ooms, M.; Silveira de Souza, A.; Hagen, M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviour test batteries are used to identify aggressive dogs. The Dutch Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB)-test has been used since 2001 to select against unwanted aggression and fear in specific dog breeds, though much is unknown yet regarding its reliability, validity and feasibility. In this

  20. The role of drug susceptibility testing in controlling drug resistant tuberculosis: Challenges and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoffner

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Reliable and timely detection of drug-resistant TB is needed, which is best achieved with molecular assays. In this author's opinion, rapid detection of resistance to isoniazid should be included with rifampicin resistance examination. In MDR, timely detection of the XDR defining agents and PZA is urgently needed. Development and validation of such tests should be a priority, as well as establishing QMS for the implementation and routine use of molecular rapid diagnostics. Each country should develop national diagnostic algorithms for how, when and where rapid molecular assays should be used for early detection of drug-resistant TB.

  1. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased

  2. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Kaja K; Tambs, Kristian; Kise, Marit S; Magnus, Per; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2010-07-15

    Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline) and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results). We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8), maternal self-esteem (RSES), and satisfaction with life (SWLS). The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166) with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224). The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9), self-esteem (p = 0.2), satisfaction with life (p = 0.2), or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48). Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased risk of maternal worry was found if the mother

  3. Detection of thrombocytic antibodies with the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test and the radioimmuno-Coombs test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettenboerger, D.; Vith, E.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of application of the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test were studied in order to optimise the test parameters: The ultimate aim was to standardize the test method and compare its sensitivity in detecting various platelet antibodies with platelet indirect radioactive Coombs-test and the platelet immunofluorescence test. (orig.) [de

  4. Direct sunlight facility for testing and research in HCPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciortino, Luisa, E-mail: luisa.sciortino@unipa.it; Agnello, Simonpietro, E-mail: luisa.sciortino@unipa.it; Bonsignore, Gaetano; Cannas, Marco; Gelardi, Franco Mario; Napoli, Gianluca; Spallino, Luisa [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 PA (Italy); Barbera, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 PA, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G. S. Vaiana, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 PA (Italy); Buscemi, Alessandro; Montagnino, Fabio Maria; Paredes, Filippo [IDEA s.r.l., Contrada Molara, Zona Industriale III Fase, 90018 Termini Imerese (Panama) (Italy); Candia, Roberto; Collura, Alfonso; Di Cicca, Gaspare; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Varisco, Salvo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G. S. Vaiana, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 PA (Italy)

    2014-09-26

    A facility for testing different components for HCPV application has been developed in the framework of 'Fotovoltaico ad Alta Efficienza' (FAE) project funded by the Sicilian Regional Authority (PO FESR Sicilia 2007/2013 4.1.1.1). The testing facility is equipped with an heliostat providing a wide solar beam inside the lab, an optical bench for mounting and aligning the HCPV components, electronic equipments to characterize the I-V curves of multijunction cells operated up to 2000 suns, a system to circulate a fluid in the heat sink at controlled temperature and flow-rate, a data logging system with sensors to measure temperatures in several locations and fluid pressures at the inlet and outlet of the heat sink, and a climatic chamber with large test volume to test assembled HCPV modules.

  5. Effects of hardness and test temperature on the stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of carbon steel in simulated BWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Guen; Akashi, Masatsune

    1998-01-01

    Carbon steels which are used for such as water supply line, core spray line, and clean up heat exchanger in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Plant, are main structural materials as well as an austenitic stainless steels, and Ni based alloys. It has been well known that carbon steels can become susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in BWR primary coolant water environments, i.e., the high-temperature, high-purity water containing dissolved oxygen. Nevertheless, their sensitivity of SCC appears to be markedly smaller compared to that of weld-sensitized Type 304 stainless steels, whole failure has often been observed. This paper examines the critical condition, especially effects of hardness, and temperature for the initiation of SCC by means of Slow Strain Rate Tensile (SSRT) test, and Creviced Bent Beam (CBB) test as laboratory accelerated tests. It has been shown that, (1) Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) initiates over hardness of Hv 400 for single bead weld material, simulated corner weld; (2) in middle temperature domain around 160 to 190degC range, so many stress-corrosion cracks initiate, but each crack is not so deep, on the other hand, in high temperature domain, stress-corrosion cracks initiate few in number, but each cracks is developed so deep. (author)

  6. Genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates from population-based tuberculosis prevalence survey in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Addo, Samuel Ofori; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Mosi, Lydia; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2017-12-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively. Out of 361 isolates, 165 (45.7%) MTBC and 120 (33.2%) NTM (made up of 14 different species) were identified to the species levels whiles 76 (21.1%) could not be completely identified. The MTBC comprised 161 (97.6%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4 (2.4%) Mycobacterium africanum. Isoniazid and rifampicin monoresistant MTBC isolates were 18/165 (10.9%) and 2/165(1.2%) respectively whiles 11/165 (6.7%) were resistant to both drugs. Majority 42/120 (35%) of NTM were M. fortuitum. DST of 28 M. avium complex and 8 M. abscessus complex species revealed that all were susceptible to macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin) and aminoglycosides (kanamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin). Our research signifies an important contribution to TB control in terms of knowledge of the types of mycobacterium species circulating and their drug resistance patterns in Ghana.

  7. Proposal for agar disk diffusion interpretive criteria for susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens using cefoperazone 30μg disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Lindeman, Cynthia J; Peters, Thomas; Watts, Jeffrey L; Schwarz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Cefoperazone is a third generation cephalosporin which is commonly used for bovine mastitis therapy. Bacterial pathogens involved in bovine mastitis are frequently tested for their susceptibility to cefoperazone. So far, the cefoperazone susceptibility testing using 30μg disks has been hampered by the lack of quality control (QC) ranges as well as the lack of interpretive criteria. In 2014, QC ranges for 30 μg cefoperazone disks have been established for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC ® 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC ® 25922. As a next step, interpretive criteria for the susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens should be developed. For this, 637 bovine mastitis pathogens (including 112 S. aureus, 121 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 103 E. coli, 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 100 Streptococcus uberis) were investigated by agar disk diffusion according to the document Vet01-A4 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) using 30μg cefoperazone disks and the results were compared to the corresponding MIC values as determined by broth microdilution also according to the aforementioned CLSI document. Based on the results obtained and taking into account the achievable milk concentration of cefoperazone after regular dosing, the following interpretive criteria were proposed as a guidance for mastitis diagnostic laboratories: for staphylococci and E. coli ≥23mm (susceptible), 18-22mm (intermediate) and ≤17mm (resistant) and for streptococci ≥18mm (susceptible), and ≤17mm (non-susceptible). These proposed interpretive criteria shall contribute to a harmonization of cefoperazone susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Benchmarking of direct and indirect friction tests in micro forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Calaon, Matteo; Arentoft, M.

    2012-01-01

    to qualify the tribological performance of the particular forming scenario. In this work the application of a simulative sliding friction test at micro scale is studied. The test setup makes it possible to measure the coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding motion. The results confirm a sizeable...... increase in the coefficient of friction when the work piece size is scaled down. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.......The sizeable increase in metal forming friction at micro scale, due to the existence of size effects, constitutes a barrier to the realization of industrial micro forming processes. In the quest for improved frictional conditions in micro scale forming operations, friction tests are applied...

  9. Impact of gene patents and licensing practices on access to genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to cancer: comparing breast and ovarian cancers with colon cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; DeRienzo, Christopher; Carbone, Julia; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Conover, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    Genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer can be compared with similar testing for colorectal cancer as a "natural experiment." Inherited susceptibility accounts for a similar fraction of both cancers and genetic testing results guide decisions about options for prophylactic surgery in both sets of conditions. One major difference is that in the United States, Myriad Genetics is the sole provider of genetic testing, because it has sole control of relevant patents for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, whereas genetic testing for familial colorectal cancer is available from multiple laboratories. Colorectal cancer-associated genes are also patented, but they have been nonexclusively licensed. Prices for BRCA1 and 2 testing do not reflect an obvious price premium attributable to exclusive patent rights compared with colorectal cancer testing, and indeed, Myriad's per unit costs are somewhat lower for BRCA1/2 testing than testing for colorectal cancer susceptibility. Myriad has not enforced patents against basic research and negotiated a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Cancer Institute in 1999 for institutional BRCA testing in clinical research. The main impact of patenting and licensing in BRCA compared with colorectal cancer is the business model of genetic testing, with a sole provider for BRCA and multiple laboratories for colorectal cancer genetic testing. Myriad's sole-provider model has not worked in jurisdictions outside the United States, largely because of differences in breadth of patent protection, responses of government health services, and difficulty in patent enforcement.

  10. Efficacy of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (DRIT) For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies is an acute, infectious disease mostly transmitted through bites from an infected animal. Dogs majorly transmit rabies to humans. Human rabies is not curable once clinical signs commence, but can be prevented. The aim of this study was to find an appropriate diagnostic test suitable for use in Nigeria and other ...

  11. Direct current testing to measure corrosiveness of wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; Donald S. Stone; James T. Gilbertson

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative test that mimics the corrosion behaviour of metals in contact with treated wood without using wood specimens would be of great value in rapidly evaluating the corrosiveness of new wood preservatives. The objective of this study was to determine whether the linear polarisation resistance of metals immersed in a solution of preservative chemicals is related...

  12. Rapid identification and susceptibility testing of uropathogenic microbes via immunosorbent ATP-bioluminescence assay on a microfluidic simulator for antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xinyan

    2015-02-17

    The incorporation of pathogen identification with antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was implemented on a concept microfluidic simulator, which is well suited for personalizing antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The microfluidic device employs a fiberglass membrane sandwiched between two polypropylene components, with capture antibodies immobilized on the membrane. The chambers in the microfluidic device share the same geometric distribution as the wells in a standard 384-well microplate, resulting in compatibility with common microplate readers. Thirteen types of common uropathogenic microbes were selected as the analytes in this study. The microbes can be specifically captured by various capture antibodies and then quantified via an ATP bioluminescence assay (ATP-BLA) either directly or after a variety of follow-up tests, including urine culture, antibiotic treatment, and personalized antibiotic therapy simulation. Owing to the design of the microfluidic device, as well as the antibody specificity and the ATP-BLA sensitivity, the simulator was proven to be able to identify UTI pathogen species in artificial urine samples within 20 min and to reliably and simultaneously verify the antiseptic effects of eight antibiotic drugs within 3-6 h. The measurement range of the device spreads from 1 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(5) cells/mL in urine samples. We envision that the medical simulator might be broadly employed in UTI treatment and could serve as a model for the diagnosis and treatment of other diseases.

  13. [Direct to consumer genetic testing: is it the moment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoril, Jérôme; Bogard, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of new human genome sequencing technologies at the beginning of the 2000, commercial companies have developped direct to consumer genomic services, which means without medical prescription. From 2007 to 2013, many companies have offered services assesing associated risk with human public health in the world especially in the United States. This kind of company is forbidden in France. From 2009 to 2013, in United States, under the pressure of national or state health administrations, these companies have been progressively forbidden. However, in certain parts of the world, companies are still offering such services. The latter raise many different questions such as ethical, juridical, medical, scientific, educative, professional one. Many studies and debates have demonstrated their limit and the lack of usefulness and advantage in the field of human health for the time being. The commercialization of this type of services has arrived all too soon et is not yet ripe. In our time of globalization, with the lack of international rules controlling direct access to genetic services in the field of human health, there is an urgent need to regulate. International administrations and politicians must act fast. Inevitably, under the pressure of lobbies and citizens, companies (multinational or not) will develop especially as 1) new sequencing technologies evolve rapidly, 2) are cheaper from year to year, 3) scientific and medical knowledges are progressing quickly, 4) services are spreading faster through the web and other networks.

  14. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters... test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and... covered products at least once every seven years. For direct heating equipment, the proposed amendments...

  15. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters... residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters. This rulemaking is intended to fulfill... water heaters, possible clarifications and improvement of the direct heating equipment test procedures...

  16. Comparative evaluation of three antifungal susceptibility test methods for Candida albicans isolates and correlation with response to fluconazole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, M; Schmidt-Westhausen, A; Engelmann, E; Trautmann, M

    1996-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities were determined for 56 Candida albicans isolates obtained from the oral cavities of 41 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The agents tested included fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine, and amphotericin B. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution technique following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards document M27-P (M27-P micro), a broth microdilution technique using high-resolution medium (HR micro), and the Etest with solidified yeast-nitrogen base agar. The in vitro findings were correlated with in vivo response to fluconazole therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis. For all C. albicans isolates from patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis not responding to fluconazole MICs were found to be > or = 6.25 micrograms/ml by the M27-P micro method and > or = 25 micrograms/ml by the HR micro method as well as the Etest. However, for several C. albicans isolates from patients who responded to fluconazole therapy MICs found to be above the suggested breakpoints of resistance. The appropriate rank order of best agreement between the M27-P micro method and HR micro method was amphotericin B > fluconazole > flucytosine > ketoconazole > itraconazole. The appropriate rank order with best agreement between the M27-P micro method and the Etest was flucytosine > amphotericin B > fluconazole > ketoconazole > or = itraconazole. It could be concluded that a good correlation between in vitro resistance and clinical failure was found with all methods. However, the test methods used in this study did not necessarily predict clinical response to therapy with fluconazole. PMID:8940474

  17. Analytic laboratory performance of a point of care urine culture kit for diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, E; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gal, M; Wootton, M; Howe, R; Francis, N; Goossens, H; Butler, C C

    2015-10-01

    Currently available point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for managing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in general practice are limited by poor performance characteristics, and laboratory culture generally provides results only after a few days. This laboratory evaluation compared the analytic performance of the POC UK Flexicult(™) (Statens Serum Institut) (SSI) urinary kit for quantification, identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing and routine UK National Health Service (NHS) urine processing to an advanced urine culture method. Two hundred urine samples routinely submitted to the Public Health Wales Microbiology Laboratory were divided and: (1) analysed by routine NHS microbiological tests as per local laboratory standard operating procedures, (2) inoculated onto the UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit and (3) spiral plated onto Colorex Orientation UTI medium (E&O Laboratories Ltd). The results were evaluated between the NHS and Flexicult(™ )methods, and discordant results were compared to the spiral plating method. The UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit was compared to routine NHS culture for identification of a pure or predominant uropathogen at ≥ 10(5) cfu/mL, with a positive discordancy rate of 13.5% and a negative discordancy rate of 3%. The sensitivity and specificity were 86.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73.8-93.7] and 82.6% (95% CI 75.8-87.7), respectively. The UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit was comparable to routine NHS urine processing in identifying microbiologically positive UTIs in this laboratory evaluation. However, the number of false-positive samples could lead to over-prescribing of antibiotics in clinical practice. The Flexicult(™) SSI kit could be useful as a POC test for UTIs in primary care but further pragmatic evaluations are necessary.

  18. Communication: Direct tests of single-parameter aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents accurate data for the physical aging of organic glasses just below the glass transition probed by monitoring the following quantities after temperature up and down jumps: the shear-mechanical resonance frequency (∼360 kHz), the dielectric loss at 1 Hz, the real part of the die......This paper presents accurate data for the physical aging of organic glasses just below the glass transition probed by monitoring the following quantities after temperature up and down jumps: the shear-mechanical resonance frequency (∼360 kHz), the dielectric loss at 1 Hz, the real part...... Tool-Narayanaswamy aging formalism, which makes it possible to calculate one relaxation curve directly from another without any fitting to analytical functions....

  19. Stationarity test with a direct test for heteroskedasticity in exchange rate forecasting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin, Aye Aye; Chau, Wong Hong; Seong, Lim Chee; Bin, Raymond Ling Leh; Teng, Kevin Low Lock

    2017-05-01

    Global economic has been decreasing in the recent years, manifested by the greater exchange rates volatility on international commodity market. This study attempts to analyze some prominent exchange rate forecasting models on Malaysian commodity trading: univariate ARIMA, ARCH and GARCH models in conjunction with stationarity test on residual diagnosis direct testing of heteroskedasticity. All forecasting models utilized the monthly data from 1990 to 2015. Given a total of 312 observations, the data used to forecast both short-term and long-term exchange rate. The forecasting power statistics suggested that the forecasting performance of ARIMA (1, 1, 1) model is more efficient than the ARCH (1) and GARCH (1, 1) models. For ex-post forecast, exchange rate was increased from RM 3.50 per USD in January 2015 to RM 4.47 per USD in December 2015 based on the baseline data. For short-term ex-ante forecast, the analysis results indicate a decrease in exchange rate on 2016 June (RM 4.27 per USD) as compared with 2015 December. A more appropriate forecasting method of exchange rate is vital to aid the decision-making process and planning on the sustainable commodities' production in the world economy.

  20. Extended Time Test Accommodation: Directions for Future Research and Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LoriAnn S. Stretch

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several pieces of legislation, most recently No Child Left Behind, hinge on effective..assessment of students with disabilities. Mandated inclusion and mandated accountability for..progress raises many interesting questions regarding how to fairly, effectively, and validly..perform assessments on students with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to summarize..and discuss current research on extended time testing, particularly the implications of ETTA..for assessment. Research indicates that in regard to students with learning disabilities..practitioners and researchers need (a to find ways to provide realistic, not inflated, estimates..of a student's ability, (b to determine if test instruments are suitable for use with students..with learning disabilities, (c to consider whether students with learning disabilities were..included in the normative and validation samples, (d to know that scores from..accommodated assessments should be tentative, and (e to weigh whether scores from..assessments that are not validated are more useful than information available from other..sources.

  1. [Analysis of direct immunofluorescence tests for trachoma diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N H; Gentil, R M; Caraça, M; Suzuki, C K; Melles, H H

    1996-04-01

    For the confirmation of trachoma foci in places where no previous cases had been reported, the State Health Secretariat of S. Paulo makes provision for the realization of laboratory exams, particularly because the disease was considered to have been eradicated from the State in the seventies. During the epidemiological investigations, conjunctival scrapings were collected from the subjects with inflammatory trachoma (TF/TI), clinically diagnosed. The results of the immunofluorescence (DFA) exams were analysed in the light of the frequency of the appropriate exams and their positive results, by the quantity of elementary bodies (EB) found. A total of 385 slides were studied, the criteria for positivity being 5 or more EBs. The test's sensitivity was 19.9%. The DFA test is considered to be the best laboratorial exam to be used in field work, though it does not show a sufficient sensitivity to confirm all clinically diagnosed cases of trachoma; it can only confirm the circulation of the aetiological agent within a community. In endemic areas the clinical diagnosis continues to be the criterion for case confirmation.

  2. Evaluation of the Illinois Change of Direction Test in Youth Elite Soccer Players of Different Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Amara, Samiha; Jaric, Slobodan; Hammami, Mehréz; Hachana, Younés

    2017-09-01

    Change of direction ability is an essential pre-requisite in team sports athletes. The Illinois change of direction test has been routinely used for testing change of direction ability in soccer players. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Illinois change of direction test in young elite soccer players in terms of its reliability, usefulness and relationship with body size. A total of one hundred and ninety-four male, national-level soccer players were recruited. They were classified into four age groups (U-8, U-10, U-12 and U-14). Participants were tested using the Illinois change of direction test twice, and basic indices of body size were obtained. The Illinois change of direction scores showed high relative and absolute reliability in all age groups (all intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.91, and the standard error of measurement was direction test could detect small changes in performance in the U-10 and U-12 groups. However, it could only detect moderate changes in performance in the U-8 and U-14 groups. Although the Illinois change of direction test detected significant performance differences among groups, scores were not significantly related to body size (-0.30 0.05). Taking into account the test's high reliability and the appropriate level of usefulness, these results might support the use of the Illinois change of direction test as a standard measure for quantifying change of direction ability in young soccer players.

  3. Direct-to-consumer Genetic Testing: Changes in the EU Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slokenberga, Santa

    2015-12-01

    Rapid advances in genomics and technology have rendered genetic testing services easily accessible to consumers over the Internet in the form of direct-to-consumer genetic testing. In the EU, the IVD Directive has been animadverted for its inability to tackle the challenges direct-to-consumer genetic testing has posed. Currently, the EU legislation is in a transition state. It is thus, timely to assess, to what extent the proposed IVD Regulation is intended to address the performance requirements and utility of direct-to-consumer genetic tests, which are made available to consumers within the EU over the Internet, and discuss the developments vis-à-vis the IVD Directive. To compare with the IVD Directive, the IVD Regulation presents a major shift in how direct-to-consumer genetic testing is treated in the E U. It remains unclear, whether and how the EU requirements can be applied beyond the EU market.

  4. Advances in rapid identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory: implications for patient care and antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian P. Maurer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Early availability of information on bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of key importance for the management of infectious diseases patients. Currently, using traditional approaches, it usually takes at least 48 hours for identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the slowness of diagnostic procedures drives prolongation of empiric, potentially inappropriate, antibacterial therapies. Over the last couple of years, the improvement of available techniques (e.g. for susceptibility testing, DNA amplification assays, and introduction of novel technologies (e.g. MALDI-TOF has fundamentally changed approaches towards pathogen identification and characterization. Importantly, these techniques offer increased diagnostic resolution while at the same time shorten the time-to-result, and are thus of obvious importance for antimicrobial stewardship. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in medical microbiology with special emphasis on the impact of novel techniques on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  5. Development of direct multi-hazard susceptibility assessment method for post-earthquake reconstruction planning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrouli, Olga; Rana, Sohel; van Westen, Cees; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2017-04-01

    After the devastating 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, reconstruction activities have been delayed considerably, due to many reasons, of a political, organizational and technical nature. Due to the widespread occurrence of co-seismic landslides, and the expectation that these may be aggravated or re-activated in future years during the intense monsoon periods, there is a need to evaluate for thousands of sites whether these are suited for reconstruction. In this evaluation multi-hazards, such as rockfall, landslides, debris flow, and flashfloods should be taken into account. The application of indirect knowledge-based, data-driven or physically-based approaches is not suitable due to several reasons. Physically-based models generally require a large number of parameters, for which data is not available. Data-driven, statistical methods, depend on historical information, which is less useful after the occurrence of a major event, such as an earthquake. Besides, they would lead to unacceptable levels of generalization, as the analysis is done based on rather general causal factor maps. The same holds for indirect knowledge-driven methods. However, location-specific hazards analysis is required using a simple method that can be used by many people at the local level. In this research, a direct scientific method was developed where local level technical people can easily and quickly assess the post-earthquake multi hazards following a decision tree approach, using an app on a smartphone or tablet. The methods assumes that a central organization, such as the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management, generates spatial information beforehand that is used in the direct assessment at a certain location. Pre-earthquake, co-seismic and post-seismic landslide inventories are generated through the interpretation of Google Earth multi-temporal images, using anaglyph methods. Spatial data, such as Digital Elevation Models, land cover maps, and geological maps are

  6. Test elements of direct sums and free products of free Lie algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We give a characterization of test elements of a direct sum of free Lie algebras in terms of test elements of the factors. In addition, we construct certain types of test elements and we prove that in a free product of free Lie algebras, product of the homogeneous test elements of the factors is also a test element.

  7. Test elements of direct sums and free products of free Lie algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give a characterization of test elements of a direct sum of free Lie algebras in terms of test elements of the factors. In addition, we construct certain types of test elements and we prove that in a free product of free Lie algebras, product of the homogeneous test elements of the factors is also a test element.

  8. State of play in direct-to-consumer genetic testing for lifestyle-related diseases: market, marketing content, user experiences and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukko, Paula

    2013-02-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests have aroused controversy. Critics have argued many of the tests are not backed by scientific evidence, misguide their customers and should be regulated more stringently. Proponents suggest that finding out genetic susceptibilities for diseases could encourage healthier behaviours and makes the results of genetics research available to the public. This paper reviews the state of play in DTC genetic testing, focusing on tests identifying susceptibilities for lifestyle-related diseases. It will start with mapping the market for the tests. The paper will review (1) research on the content of the online marketing of DTC tests, (2) studies on the effects of DTC genetic tests on customers and (3) academic and policy proposals on how to regulate the tests. Current studies suggest that the marketing of DTC genetic tests often exaggerates their predictive powers, which could misguide consumers. However, research indicates that the tests do not seem to have major negative effects (worry and confusion) but neither do they engender positive effects (lifestyle change) on current users. Research on regulation of the tests has most commonly suggested regulating the marketing claims of the companies. In conclusion, the risks and benefits of DTC genetic tests are less significant than what has been predicted by critics and proponents, which will be argued reflects broader historical trends transforming health and medicine.

  9. Testing evolutionary models of senescence: traditional approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Chloe; Conneely, Karen N

    2014-12-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the existence of senescence is a paradox. Why has senescence not been more effectively selected against given its associated decreases in Darwinian fitness? Why does senescence exist and how has it evolved? Three major theories offer explanations: (1) the theory of mutation accumulation suggested by PB Medawar; (2) the theory of antagonistic pleiotropy suggested by GC Williams; and (3) the disposable soma theory suggested by TBL Kirkwood. These three theories differ in the underlying causes of aging that they propose but are not mutually exclusive. This paper compares the specific biological predictions of each theory and discusses the methods and results of previous empirical tests. Lifespan is found to be the most frequently used estimate of senescence in evolutionary investigations. This measurement acts as a proxy for an individual's rate of senescence, but provides no information on an individual's senescent state or "biological age" throughout life. In the future, use of alternative longitudinal measures of senescence may facilitate investigation of previously neglected aspects of evolutionary models, such as intra- and inter-individual heterogeneity in the process of aging. DNA methylation data are newly proposed to measure biological aging and are suggested to be particularly useful for such investigations.

  10. Identification of treatment strategies for Mycoplasma genitalium-related urethritis in male patients by culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium was first isolated from urethral swab specimens of male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. However, the isolation of M. genitalium strains from clinical specimens has been difficult. Co-cultivation with Vero cells is one available technique for the isolation of M. genitalium. The strains that can be used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution or agar dilution methods are limited. Macrolides, such as azithromycin (AZM), have the strongest activity against M. genitalium. However, AZM-resistant strains have emerged and spread. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene contribute to the organism's macrolide resistance, which is similar to the effects of the mutations in macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Of the fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin (MFLX) and sitafloxacin have the strongest activities against M. genitalium, while levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are not as effective. Some clinical trials on the treatment of M. genitalium-related urethritis are available in the literature. A doxycycline regimen was microbiologically inferior to an AZM regimen. For cases of treatment failure with AZM regimens, MFLX regimens were effective.

  11. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kendall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  12. Impact of enhanced tuberculosis diagnosis in South Africa: a mathematical model of expanded culture and drug susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, David W; Chaisson, Richard E; Maartens, Gary; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Dorman, Susan E

    2008-08-12

    South Africa has high rates of tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. Expanding access to culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) for TB diagnosis may help control this epidemic, but the potential impact of existing and novel TB diagnostics is uncertain. By fitting to World Health Organization epidemiological estimates, we developed a compartmental difference-equation model of the TB/HIV epidemic among South African adults. Performing culture and DST in 37% of new cases and 85% of previously treated cases was projected to save 47,955 lives (17.2% reduction in TB mortality, 95% simulation interval (S.I.) 8.9-24.4%), avert 7,721 MDR-TB cases (14.1% reduction, 95% S.I. 5.3-23.8%), and prevent 46.6% of MDR-TB deaths (95% S.I. 32.6-56.0%) in South Africa over 10 years. Used alone, expanded culture and DST did not reduce XDR-TB incidence, but they enhanced the impact of transmission-reduction strategies, such as respiratory isolation. In South Africa, expanding TB culture and DST could substantially reduce TB, and particularly MDR-TB, mortality. Control of XDR-TB will require additional interventions, the impact of which may be enhanced by improved TB diagnosis.

  13. Ward-Specific Rates of Nasal Cocolonization with Methicillin-Susceptible and -Resistant Staphylococcus spp. and Potential Impact on Molecular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lustig, Sebastien; Lhoste, Yannick; Valour, Florent; Guerin, Claude; Aubrun, Frederic; Tigaud, Sylvestre; Laurent, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    We report that the rates of nasal cocolonization with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci can vary widely between patients admitted to different wards within a single hospital. Such cocolonization can greatly influence the performance of molecular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) screening tests depending on the methods used and targets selected. PMID:23658254

  14. [Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Candida species to amphotericin B by E-test and previously proposed MIC breakpoints on two different media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Sehnaz; Sancak, Banu; Arikan, Sevtap

    2008-04-01

    Although much work has concentrated on defining a reliable and reproducible method for determining in vitro susceptibility of Candida species to amphotericin B, there still has been limitations of the proposed techniques. In this study, amphotericin B minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and susceptibility categories of 212 Candida strains (57 C. glabrata, 53 C. lusitaniae, 51 C. krusei and 51 C. tropicalis) were determined by E-test on RPMI agar (RPG) and antibiotic medium 3 agar (AM3) both supplemented with 2% glucose. The results were interpreted according to the proposed MIC breakpoints (> or = 0.38 microg/ml on RPG, >1 microg/ml on AM3) and discrepancies between susceptibility categories were investigated. While all Candida strains included in the study were determined to be susceptible on AM3 by amphotericin B E-test at 48h, 36.3% of the isolates were classified as resistant on RPG at 48 hours. On RPG, C. krusei strains showed the highest resistance rate (94.1% at 48 h), followed by C. tropicalis (35.3% at 48 h) and C. glabrata (17.5% at 48h). At 48h of incubation, 98.1% of C. lusitaniae isolates were found to be susceptible on RPG. The categorical agreement rates between the results obtained on two media and for C. lusitaniae and C. glabrata were 98.1% and 82.5% at 48 hours. For C. tropicalis and C. krusei, the rates of agreement were 64.7% and 5.9% at 48 hours. Conclusively, according to the previously proposed MIC breakpoints for amphotericin B E-test on RPG and AM3, discrepancies between susceptibility categories of Candida species were of remarkable significance.

  15. Consenso sobre las pruebas de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos en Enterobacteriaceae Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Famiglietti

    2005-03-01

    , and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  16. A score test for comparing cross-sectional survival data with a fraction of non-susceptible patients and its application in clinical immunology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Flora Jonas

    Full Text Available In cross-sectional studies of time-to-event data collected by patient examinations at a single random point in time, a fraction of them will not experience the event regardless of the length of the follow-up time. This is the case in clinical immunology studies that include a mixed population, with both immune-reactive and immune-tolerant (or non-susceptible patients. In these cases, classical tests of current status data may perform poorly. New methods for testing these data are needed.In the two-sample comparison setting, we propose a score test for testing the null hypothesis that survival does not differ in either the non-susceptible fraction or the time-to-event distribution among the susceptible fraction.In a wide range of scenarios, simulation results show interesting improvements in power for the proposed score test compared to the logrank-type test in most of the configurations we investigated. In a cross-sectional study of drug immunogenicity among treated multiple sclerosis patients, the proposed score test reveals that gender is associated with the immunogenicity of interferon.

  17. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    -pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...... B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to interpret the results...... and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of 110 clinical...

  18. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species complex in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Manso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Aspergillus spp. infection can be encountered in the antifungal drug-exposed patient due to selection of intrinsically resistant species or isolates with acquired resistance belonging to species that are normally susceptible. Resistance to triazoles is not common in Aspergillus spp., however, triazole resistance in A. fumigatus appears to be increasing in several European countries in recent years and can be clinically relevant. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Aspergillus spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important.

  19. Asymmetry of the Modified Illinois Change of Direction Test Impacts Young Elite Soccer Players' Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouissi, Mehdi; Chtara, Moktar; Berriri, Ahmed; Owen, Adam; Chamari, Karim

    2016-06-01

    The modified Illinois change of direction test (MICODT) is an asymmetrical test because the numbers of changes of direction performed to the right and to the left are unequal. Therefore, it is possible that the asymmetry of this test may influence agility performance testing. The aim of this study was to compare two opposite/mirrored versions of the modified Illinois change of direction test. Forty-six right-footed soccer players (17.2 ± 1.6 years-old) participated in the study. Players performed a modified Illinois change of direction test and a mirrored version of this test "inverted modified Illinois change of direction test" (I/MICODT) in a randomized and counter-balanced order. Paired t-test was used to determine whether significant differences existed between time performances of the tests as a within-subjects measure. Players were thereafter stratified into MICODT group or I/MICODT group according to their best performance and independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups. The analysis revealed no significant difference in time performance between the two versions of test as a within-subjects measure (P > 0.05, ES = 0.05). However, significant better time performances among inverted modified Illinois change of direction group (52% of players) were found when compared to the modified Illinois change of direction group (48% of players) (P direction test must be considered as an asymmetrical test because it underestimates more than half of the players' agility performances. Therefore, fitness coaches should take these results into account when using this test.

  20. Influence of different susceptibility testing methods and media on determination of the relevant fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations for heavy trailing Candida isolates with low-high phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Sehnaz; Sancak, Banu; Hascelik, Gulsen; Arikan, Sevtap

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the incidence of trailing growth with fluconazole in 101 clinical Candida isolates (49 C. albicans and 52 C. tropicalis) and tried to establish the convenient susceptibility testing method and medium for fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. MICs were determined by CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest methods on RPMI-1640 agar supplemented with 2% glucose (RPG) and on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% glucose and 0.5 μg ml(-1) methylene blue (GMB). BMD and Etest MICs were read at 24 and 48 h, and susceptibility categories were compared. All isolates were determined as susceptible with BMD, Etest-RPG and Etest-GMB at 24 h. While all isolates were interpreted as susceptible at 48 h on Etest-RPG and Etest-GMB, one C. albicans isolate was interpreted as susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and two C. tropicalis isolates were interpreted as resistant with BMD. On Etest-RPG, trailing growth caused widespread microcolonies within the inhibition zone and resulted in confusion in MIC determination. On Etest-GMB, because of the nearly absence of microcolonies within the zone of inhibition, MICs were evaluated more easily. We conclude that, for the determination of fluconazole MICs of trailing Candida isolates, the Etest method has an advantage over BMD and can be used along with this reference method. Moreover, GMB appears more beneficial than RPG for the fluconazole Etest. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Validation of the MicroScan-96 for the species identification and methicillin susceptibility testing of clinical significant coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteet, L; Goossens, H; Ieven, M

    2012-05-01

    An automated system, MicroScan WalkAway-96, in conjugation with Combo Pos® 28 panels, was validated for the identification and methicillin susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The performance of this system was evaluated on 428 CNS. Identification results were compared using a validated in-house method. Methicillin susceptibility was compared with oxacillin MIC testing and the presence of the mecA gene by PCR (in-house real-time method). The MicroScan system correctly identified 94.6% of the staphylococci (405 out of 428). 3.5% of the strains (15 out of 428) were not correctly identified. 1.9% of the isolates (8 out of 428) were correctly identified with a low probability. Identification of Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus lugdunensis was determined with the least accuracy. Microscan combines both oxacillin and cefoxitin for determination of the methicillin susceptibility result. Correlation between this result and the mecA method was 97.6%. Correlation with the oxacillin MIC method was also 97.6%. Fourteen isolates showed a discrepant result, 8 were reported to be resistant in mecA-negative strains, 2 were reported false-susceptible in mecA positive strains and 4 strains showed a discrepant result with oxacillin MIC, but not with mecA determination. The automated system can be considered a simple and reliable method for identification and methicillin susceptibility of CNS.

  2. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca; Boucher, Joseph; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi This study indicates trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as an acceptable surrogate for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. Copyright © 2016 Sadaka et al.

  3. A Novel and Validated Protocol for Performing MIC Tests to Determine the Susceptibility of Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates to Florfenicol and Oxytetracycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Contreras-Lynch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validated protocol, using a novel, specifically formulated medium, to perform broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility assays of the salmonid bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for florfenicol and oxytetracycline against 58 P. salmonis isolates recovered from various outbreaks occurred in Chilean salmonid farms were determined using this protocol. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI analysis was applied to these data to calculate appropriate protocol-specific epidemiological cut-off values. These cut-off values allow the isolates to be categorized as either fully susceptible wild type (WT members of this species, or as manifesting reduced susceptibility non-wild type (NWT. The distribution of MIC values of florfenicol was bimodal and the distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.896 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis calculated a cut-off value of ≤0.25 μg mL-1 and categorized 33 (56% of the isolates as manifesting reduced susceptibility to florfenicol. For the oxytetracycline MIC data the NRI analysis also treated the distribution as bimodal. The distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.951 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis gave a cut-off value of ≤0.5 μg mL-1 and categorized five isolates (9% as manifesting reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline. The susceptibility testing protocol developed in this study was capable of generating MIC data from all the isolates tested. On the basis of the precision of the data it generated, and the degree of separation of values for WT and NWT it achieved, it is argued that this protocol has the performance characteristics necessary for it to be considered as a standard protocol.

  4. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  5. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing of Salmonella enterica: detection of acquired resistance and selection of zone diameter breakpoints for levofloxacin and ofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Howie, Rebecca L; Crump, John A; Whichard, Jean M

    2014-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) have become a mainstay for treating severe Salmonella infections in adults. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella is mostly due to mutations in the topoisomerase genes, but plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms have also been described. In 2012, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) revised the ciprofloxacin interpretive criteria (breakpoints) for disk diffusion and MIC test methods for Salmonella. In 2013, the CLSI published MIC breakpoints for Salmonella to levofloxacin and ofloxacin, but breakpoints for assigning disk diffusion results to susceptible (S), intermediate (I), and resistant (R) categories are still needed. In this study, the MICs and inhibition zone diameters for nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin were determined for 100 clinical isolates of nontyphi Salmonella with or without resistance mechanisms. We confirmed that the new levofloxacin MIC breakpoints resulted in the highest category agreement (94%) when plotted against the ciprofloxacin MICs and that the new ofloxacin MIC breakpoints resulted in 92% category agreement between ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. By applying the new MIC breakpoints in the MIC zone scattergrams for levofloxacin and ofloxacin, the following disk diffusion breakpoints generated the least number of errors: ≥28 mm (S), 19 to 27 mm (I), and ≤18 mm (R) for levofloxacin and ≥25 mm (S), 16 to 24 mm (I), and ≤15 mm (R) for ofloxacin. Neither the levofloxacin nor the ofloxacin disk yielded good separation of isolates with and without resistance mechanisms. Further studies will be needed to develop a disk diffusion assay that efficiently detects all isolates with acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones.

  6. Comparison of slide agglutination test and direct immunofluorescence assay for identification of Legionella isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, W L; Wilkinson, H W; Benson, R F

    1983-01-01

    It is technically impractical for many clinical laboratories to use the direct immunofluorescence assay for identifying and serogrouping clinical isolates of Legionella. We compared the results obtained with the direct immunofluorescence assay with the results of a simple and less-demanding slide agglutination test for identifying 15 serogroups representing seven Legionella species. The slide agglutination test was in complete agreement with the direct immunofluorescence assay, and the serogr...

  7. Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data--The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Kohlmann

    Full Text Available Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of cAST data analysis in the setting of a German routine clinical microbiology laboratory during 2 consecutive years.We developed various program scripts to assess the consequences ensuing from different algorithms for calculation of cumulative antibiograms from the data collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory in 2013 and 2014.One of the most pronounced effects was caused by exclusion of screening cultures for multi-drug resistant organisms which decreased the MRSA rate in some cases to one third. Dependent on the handling of duplicate isolates, i.e. isolates of the same species recovered from successive cultures on the same patient during the time period analyzed, we recorded differences in resistance rates of up to 5 percentage points for S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae and up to 10 percentage points for P. aeruginosa. Stratification by site of care and specimen type, testing of antimicrobials selectively on resistant isolates, change of interpretation rules and analysis at genus level instead of species level resulted in further changes of calculated antimicrobial resistance rates.The choice of parameters for cAST data analysis may have a substantial influence on calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Consequently, comparability of cAST reports from different clinical microbiology laboratories may be limited. We suggest that laboratories communicate the strategy used for cAST data analysis as long as national guidelines for standardized cAST data

  8. Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data--The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Gatermann, Sören G

    2016-01-01

    Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST) data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of cAST data analysis in the setting of a German routine clinical microbiology laboratory during 2 consecutive years. We developed various program scripts to assess the consequences ensuing from different algorithms for calculation of cumulative antibiograms from the data collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory in 2013 and 2014. One of the most pronounced effects was caused by exclusion of screening cultures for multi-drug resistant organisms which decreased the MRSA rate in some cases to one third. Dependent on the handling of duplicate isolates, i.e. isolates of the same species recovered from successive cultures on the same patient during the time period analyzed, we recorded differences in resistance rates of up to 5 percentage points for S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae and up to 10 percentage points for P. aeruginosa. Stratification by site of care and specimen type, testing of antimicrobials selectively on resistant isolates, change of interpretation rules and analysis at genus level instead of species level resulted in further changes of calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. The choice of parameters for cAST data analysis may have a substantial influence on calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Consequently, comparability of cAST reports from different clinical microbiology laboratories may be limited. We suggest that laboratories communicate the strategy used for cAST data analysis as long as national guidelines for standardized cAST data analysis and reporting

  9. Comparison of the Cathra Repliscan II, the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card, and the Micro-Media System Fox Panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, N E; Kelly, M T; Latimer, J M; Tison, D L; Hysmith, R M

    1985-06-01

    A comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the Cathra Repliscan II agar dilution system (Diagnostic Equipment, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.), the AutoMicrobic system with Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Micro-Media Fox Panel micro broth dilution system (Micro-Media Systems, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) in determining MICs of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. Of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one of the three systems. The 188 remaining organisms included 158 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas spp., 5 Acinetobacter sp., 3 Aeromonas spp., and 2 Vibrio spp. A total of 2,256 organism-antibiotic combinations were analyzed for each system. An MIC was considered correct if two of the three systems were in agreement. When disagreements occurred, correct MICs were determined by the standard agar dilution method. With this criterion, overall agreements of the Cathra Repliscan II system, AutoMicrobic system, and Micro-Media Fox Panel system were 94.7, 94.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Tetracycline (20%), nitrofurantoin (20%), and ampicillin (16%) accounted for 56% of the discrepancies observed. These results indicate that all three systems perform with a high degree of accuracy for susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

  10. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult® Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter

    2015-10-26

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro-pathogens in veterinary practice. Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of 110 clinical isolates. Bacteriuria was reported by the laboratory in 25 (35 %) samples from the field study. The sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A for detection of bacteriuria were 83 and 100 %, respectively. Bacterial species were correctly identified in 53 and 100 % of the positive samples by clinical staff and the investigator, respectively. The susceptibility results were interpreted correctly by clinical staff for 70 % of the 94 drug-strain combinations. Higher percentages of correct interpretation were observed when the results were interpreted by the investigator in both the field (76 %) and the in vitro study (94 %). The most frequent errors were false resistance to β-lactams (ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and cephalotin) in Escherichia coli for Flexicult Vet A, and false amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance in E. coli and false ampicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for Flexicult Vet B. The latter error can be prevented by categorizing staphylococcal strains growing in the oxacillin compartment as resistant to all β-lactams. Despite the

  11. Evaluation of the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing results of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria in a Slovenian tertiary-care hospital in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeverica, Samo; Kolenc, Urša; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Papst, Lea

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints. The most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis group with 31% (n = 817), Gram positive anaerobic cocci (GPACs) with 22% (n = 589), Prevotella with 14% (n = 313) and Propionibacterium with 8% (n = 225). Metronidazole has retained full activity (100%) against all groups of anaerobic bacteria intrinsically susceptible to it. Co-amoxiclav and imipenem were active against most tested anaerobes with zero or low resistance rates. However, observed resistance to co-amoxiclav (8%) and imipenem (1%) is worrying especially among B. fragilis group isolates. High overall resistance (23%) to clindamycin was detected in our study and was highest among the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, GPACs and Clostridium. Routine testing of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria is feasible and provides good surveillance data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Schultz, Adrian B; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Berry, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Field sport coaches must use reliable and valid tests to assess change-of-direction speed in their athletes. Few tests feature linear sprinting with acute change- of-direction maneuvers. The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) was designed to assess field sport change-of-direction speed, and includes a linear 5-meter (m) sprint, 45° and 90° cuts, 3- m sprints to the left and right, and a linear 10-m sprint. This study analyzed the reliability and validity of this test, through comparisons to 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20 m intervals) and Illinois agility run (IAR) performance. Eighteen Australian footballers (age = 23.83 ± 7.04 yrs; height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m; mass = 85.36 ± 13.21 kg) were recruited. Following familiarization, subjects completed the 20-m sprint, CODAT, and IAR in 2 sessions, 48 hours apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed relative reliability. Absolute reliability was analyzed through paired samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) determining between-session differences. Typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), and differences between the TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC), also assessed absolute reliability and test usefulness. For the validity analysis, Pearson's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) analyzed between-test relationships. Results showed no between-session differences for any test (p = 0.19-0.86). CODAT time averaged ~6 s, and the ICC and CV equaled 0.84 and 3.0%, respectively. The homogeneous sample of Australian footballers meant that the CODAT's TE (0.19 s) exceeded the usual 0.2 x standard deviation (SD) SWC (0.10 s). However, the CODAT is capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC calculated as 0.5 x SD = 0.25 s). There was a near perfect correlation between the CODAT and IAR (r = 0.92), and very large correlations with the 20-m sprint (r = 0.75-0.76), suggesting that the CODAT was a valid change-of-direction speed test. Due to movement specificity, the CODAT has value for field sport

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the E test, Löwenstein-Jensen proportion, and DNA sequencing methods among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates discrepancies, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Moura Freixo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin (SM, isoniazid (INH, and/or rifampin (RIF as determined by the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM were compared with the E test, a minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility method. Discrepant isolates were further evaluated by BACTEC and by DNA sequence analyses for mutations in genes most often associated with resistance to these drugs (rpsL, katG, inhA, and rpoB. Preliminary discordant E test results were seen in 75% of isolates resistant to SM and in 11% to INH. Discordance improved for these two drugs (63% for SM and none for INH when isolates were re-tested but worsened for RIF (30%. Despite good agreement between phenotypic results and sequencing analyses, wild type profiles were detected on resistant strains mainly for SM and INH. It should be aware that susceptible isolates according to molecular methods might contain other mechanisms of resistance. Although reproducibility of the LJPM susceptibility method has been established, variable E test results for some M. tuberculosis isolates poses questions regarding its reproducibility particularly the impact of E test performance which may vary among laboratories despite adherence to recommended protocols. Further studies must be done to enlarge the evaluated samples and looked possible mutations outside of the hot spot sequenced gene among discrepant strains.

  14. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoldus, Jared M; Isabel, Nathalie; Floate, Kevin D; Blenis, Peter; Thomas, Barb R

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis). We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined]) zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal pathogens in plant

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated from pigs during 1968 to 1971 and during 1995 and 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Friis, N. F.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for enrofloxacin, lincomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin and tylosin, of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, isolated from pigs at notably different intervals (1968-71 and 1995-96). Each group comprised 21 low passage isolates......-71 were highly susceptible, whereas the isolates from 1995-96 could be divided into a highly susceptible (nine isolates) and relatively resistant (12 isolates) group. This difference between old and new strains was statistically significant (p=0.0000415). The remaining agents, enrofloxacin, lincomycin...

  16. Evaluation of the Illinois Change of Direction Test in Youth Elite Soccer Players of Different Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negra Yassine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Change of direction ability is an essential pre-requisite in team sports athletes. The Illinois change of direction test has been routinely used for testing change of direction ability in soccer players. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Illinois change of direction test in young elite soccer players in terms of its reliability, usefulness and relationship with body size. A total of one hundred and ninety-four male, national-level soccer players were recruited. They were classified into four age groups (U-8, U-10, U-12 and U-14. Participants were tested using the Illinois change of direction test twice, and basic indices of body size were obtained. The Illinois change of direction scores showed high relative and absolute reliability in all age groups (all intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.91, and the standard error of measurement was 0.05. Taking into account the test’s high reliability and the appropriate level of usefulness, these results might support the use of the Illinois change of direction test as a standard measure for quantifying change of direction ability in young soccer players.

  17. Fidelity susceptibility in the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Chen

    2018-01-01

    Quantum criticality usually occurs in many-body systems. Recently it was shown that the quantum Rabi model, which describes a two-level atom coupled to a single model cavity field, presents quantum phase transitions from a normal phase to a superradiate phase when the ratio between the frequency of the two-level atom and the frequency of the cavity field extends to infinity. In this work, we study quantum phase transitions in the quantum Rabi model from the fidelity susceptibility perspective. We found that the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility present universal finite-size scaling behaviors near the quantum critical point of the Rabi model if the ratio between frequency of the two-level atom and frequency of the cavity field is finite. From the finite-size scaling analysis of the fidelity susceptibility, we found that the adiabatic dimension of the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility of fourth order in the Rabi model are 4 /3 and 2, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation length critical exponent and the dynamical critical exponent in the quantum critical point of the Rabi model are found to be 3 /2 and 1 /3 , respectively. Since the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility are the moments of the quantum noise spectrum which are directly measurable by experiments in linear response regime, the scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the Rabi model could be tested experimentally. The simple structure of the quantum Rabi model paves the way for experimentally observing the universal scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility at a quantum phase transition.

  18. Correlation between genotypic and phenotypic testing for resistance to rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Haiti: investigation of cases with discrepant susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ocheretina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has recommended use of molecular-based tests MTBDRplus and GeneXpert MTB/RIF to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in developing and high-burden countries. Both tests are based on detection of mutations in the Rifampin (RIF Resistance-Determining Region of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase gene (rpoB. Such mutations are found in 95-98% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains determined to be RIF-resistant by the "gold standard" culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST. We report the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 153 consecutive clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains diagnosed as RIF-resistant by molecular tests in our laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 133 isolates (86.9% were resistant to both RIF and Isoniazid and 4 isolates (2.6% were RIF mono-resistant in MGIT SIRE liquid culture-based DST. However the remaining 16 isolates (10.5% tested RIF-sensitive by the assay. Five strains with discordant genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility results had RIF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC close to the cut-off value of 1 µg/ml used in phenotypic susceptibility assays and were confirmed as resistant by DST on solid media. Nine strains had sub-critical RIF MICs ranging from 0.063 to 0.5 µg/ml. Finally two strains were pan-susceptible and harbored a silent rpoB mutation. Our data indicate that not only detection of the presence but also identification of the nature of rpoB mutation is needed to accurately diagnose resistance to RIF in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Observed clinical significance of low-level resistance to RIF supports the re-evaluation of the present critical concentration of the drug used in culture-based DST assays.

  19. Counseling Customers: Emerging Roles for Genetic Counselors in the Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, A.; Kelly, S.; Wyatt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing

  20. Effect of point-of-care susceptibility testing in general practice on appropriate prescription of antibiotics for patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infection: a diagnostic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne; Cordoba, Gloria; Møller Sørensen, Tina; Rem Jessen, Lisbeth; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Siersma, Volkert; Bjerrum, Lars

    2017-10-16

    To investigate the effect of adding point-of-care (POC) susceptibility testing to POC culture on appropriate use of antibiotics as well as clinical and microbiological cure for patients with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in general practice. Open, individually randomised controlled trial. General practice. Women with suspected uncomplicated UTI, including elderly patients above 65, patients with recurrent UTI and patients with diabetes. The sample size calculation predicted 600 patients were needed. Flexicult SSI-Urinary Kit was used for POC culture and susceptibility testing and ID Flexicult was used for POC culture only. Primary outcome: appropriate antibiotic prescribing on the day after consultation defined as either (1) patient with UTI: to prescribe a first-line antibiotic to which the infecting pathogen was susceptible or a second line if a first line could not be used or (2) patient without UTI: not to prescribe an antibiotic. UTI was defined by typical symptoms and significant growth in a reference urine culture performed at one of two external laboratories. clinical cure on day five according to a 7-day symptom diary and microbiological cure on day 14. Logistic regression models taking into account clustering within practices were used for analysis. 20 general practices recruited 191 patients for culture and susceptibility testing and 172 for culture only. 63% of the patients had UTI and 12% of these were resistant to the most commonly used antibiotic, pivmecillinam. Patients randomised to culture only received significantly more appropriate treatment (OR: 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.99), p=0.03). There was no significant difference in clinical or microbiological cure. Adding POC susceptibility testing to POC culture did not improve antibiotic prescribing for patients with suspected uncomplicated UTI in general practice. Susceptibility testing should be reserved for patients at high risk of resistance and complications. NCT02323087

  1. A multi-annual landslide inventory for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility - Two test cases in Vorarlberg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieher, Thomas; Perzl, Frank; Rössel, Monika; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Markart, Gerhard; Geitner, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological landslide inventories provide crucial input data for any study on the assessment of landslide susceptibility, hazard or risk. Several approaches for assessing landslide susceptibility have been proposed to identify areas particularly vulnerable to this natural hazard. What they have in common is the need for data of observed landslides. Therefore the first step of any study on landslide susceptibility is usually the compilation of a geomorphological landslide inventory using a geographical information system. Recent research has proved the feasibility of orthophoto interpretation for the preparation of an inventory aimed at the delineation of landslides with the use of distinctive signs in the imagery data. In this study a multi-annual landslide inventory focusing on shallow landslides (i.e. translational soil slides of 0-2 m in depth) was compiled for two study areas in Vorarlberg (Austria) from the interpretation of nine orthophoto series. In addition, derivatives of two generations of airborne laser scanning data aided the mapping procedure. Landslide scar areas were delineated on the basis of a high-resolution differential digital terrain model. The derivation of landslide volumes, depths and depth-to-length ratios are discussed. Results show that most mapped landslides meet the definition of a shallow landslide. The inventory therefore provides the data basis for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility and allows for the application of various modelling techniques.

  2. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Escherichia coli Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in 20 Chinese Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xiaoli; Cavaco, Lina; Lv, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 222 urinary Escherichia coli isolates from 20 tertiary hospitals in 15 different provinces and 4 municipalities in mainland China were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, phylogrouping, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. A subset of 138 suspected...

  3. Standard practice for preparation and use of direct tension stress-corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing, preparing, and using ASTM standard tension test specimens for investigating susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking. Axially loaded specimens may be stressed quantitatively with equipment for application of either a constant load, constant strain, or with a continuously increasing strain. 1.2 Tension test specimens are adaptable for testing a wide variety of product forms as well as parts joined by welding, riveting, or various other methods. 1.3 The exposure of specimens in a corrosive environment is treated only briefly because other standards are being prepared to deal with this aspect. Meanwhile, the investigator is referred to Practices G35, G36, G37, and G44, and to ASTM Special Technical Publication 425 (1).

  4. A New Twist to the Kirby-Bauer Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Activity?Increasing Antibiotic Sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens through Thermal Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbig, Donald G.; Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Aubihl, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic sensitivity and the effect of temperature on microbial growth are two standard laboratory activities found in most microbial laboratory manuals. We have found a novel way to combine the two activities to demonstrate how temperature can influence antibiotic sensitivity using a standard incubator in instructional laboratory settings. This activity reinforces the important concepts of microbial growth and temperature along with Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility testing. We found t...

  5. Anticoagulant Carryover May Influence Clot Formation in Direct Tube Coagulase Tests from Blood Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Varettas, Kerry; Mukerjee, Chinmoy; Taylor, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    The tube coagulase test (TCT) performed directly from positive blood culture bottles has been used to reduce the turnaround time for identifying Staphylococcus aureus. Most reports have shown the test to be specific but often lacking sufficient sensitivity to be useful. In a prospective study of blood culture bottles (BCB) signaling positive, with a Gram-stained smear showing gram-positive cocci resembling staphylococci, the sensitivity of the direct TCT was improved by diluting the BCB broth...

  6. Effects of Clay and Moisture Content on Direct Shear Tests for Clay-Sand Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Muawia A. Dafalla

    2013-01-01

    The direct shear test using shear box is commonly recommended by practicing geotechnical engineers to obtain the cohesion and angle of internal friction for granular soils. The clay liners involve sand as a main constituent with added clay of variable proportions. This research aims at investigating the reliability of using the direct shear test for different clay contents and different moisture contents using an adequate shearing strain. These factors were found to affect the bilinear trends...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated from pigs during 1968 to 1971 and during 1995 and 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Friis, N. F.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for enrofloxacin, lincomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin and tylosin, of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, isolated from pigs at notably different intervals (1968-71 and 1995-96). Each group comprised 21 low passage isolates......-71 were highly susceptible, whereas the isolates from 1995-96 could be divided into a highly susceptible (nine isolates) and relatively resistant (12 isolates) group. This difference between old and new strains was statistically significant (p=0.0000415). The remaining agents, enrofloxacin, lincomycin......, tiamulin and tetracycline, showed an unaltered good activity against M. hyosynoviae. The resistance to tylosin seems now to occur so often that this antibiotic cannot be recommended for therapeutic use any more. The most probable explanation for the emergence of resistance is the intensive use of tylosin...

  8. Oligonucleotide array-based identification of species in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in isolates from blood cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Nan-Yao; Su, Siou Cing; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Wang, Li-Rong; Yan, Jin-Jou; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2008-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, Acinetobacter genomic species (gen. sp.) 3, and Acinetobacter gen. sp. 13TU, which are included in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, are difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. An array with six oligonucleotide probes based on the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (ITS) region was developed to differentiate species in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex. Validation of the array with a reference collection of 52 strains of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and 137 strains of other species resulted in an identification sensitivity and specificity of 100%. By using the array, the species distribution of 291 isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex from patients with bacteremia were determined to be A. baumannii (221 strains [75.9%]), Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3 (67 strains [23.0%]), Acinetobacter gen. sp. 13TU (2 strains [0.7%]), and unidentified Acinetobacter sp. (1 strain [0.3%]). The identification accuracy of the array for 12 randomly selected isolates from patients with bacteremia was further confirmed by sequence analyses of the ITS region and the 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the 291 isolates from patients with bacteremia revealed that A. baumannii strains were less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3. All Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3 strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, imipenem, and meropenem; but only 67.4%, 90%, and 86% of the A. baumannii strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, imipenem, and meropenem, respectively. The observed significant variations in antimicrobial susceptibility among different species in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex emphasize that the differentiation of species within the complex is relevant from a clinical-epidemiological point of view.

  9. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158 Met genotype, parenting practices and adolescent alcohol use: testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucht, Manfred; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Treutlein, Jens; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2012-04-01

      Recently, first evidence has been reported for a gene-parenting interaction (G × E) with regard to adolescent alcohol use. The present investigation set out to extend this research using the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158) Met polymorphism as a genetic susceptibility factor. Moreover, the current study examined whether a potential G×E would be consistent with one of two models of gene-environment interplay (genetic vulnerability vs. differential susceptibility).   Data were collected as part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study following the outcome of early risk factors from birth into adulthood. Two hundred and eighty-five participants (130 males, 155 females) were genotyped for the COMT Val(158) Met polymorphism and were administered an alcohol interview, providing measures of current frequency and amount of drinking at ages 15 and 19 years. Information on three dimensions of perceived parenting behavior was obtained from the 15-year-olds.   Adolescents homozygous for the Met allele showed higher drinking activity at age 19 years when their parents had engaged in less supervision or were less involved, while their drinking activity was reduced under conditions of favorable parenting. No such relationship was found in individuals carrying the Val allele.   The present findings correspond with the pattern of results predicted by the differential susceptibility hypothesis, suggesting that environmental variation would have a greater impact in individuals carrying a genetic susceptibility such that, in this group, exposure to negative environmental conditions would result in more adverse outcomes and the experience of favorable conditions would lead to more positive outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Multifactor-dimensionality reduction versus family-based association tests in detecting susceptibility loci in discordant sib-pair studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Yi; Ma Qianli; Meng Yan; Farrell John; Farrer Lindsay A; Wilcox Marsha A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Complex diseases are generally thought to be under the influence of multiple, and possibly interacting, genes. Many association methods have been developed to identify susceptibility genes assuming a single-gene disease model, referred to as single-locus methods. Multilocus methods consider joint effects of multiple genes and environmental factors. One commonly used method for family-based association analysis is implemented in FBAT. The multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (M...

  11. Molecular identification and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from patients with onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Pakshir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Candida species are the most opportunistic fungi affecting the nails and resulting in onychomycosis. In this study, we identified and evaluated in-vitro susceptibility of the recovered isolates against fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VRC, and clotrimazole (CLT using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 document. Materials and Methods: From patients with either clinically or mycologically proven onychomycosis, 97 isolates comprising of seven Candida species were isolated, which were identified by both conventional and molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In addition, Candida dubliniensis was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Antifungal susceptibility of each isolate against the three azoles applied in this study was determined using the CLSI microdilution reference method M27-A3. Results: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (n=44, followed by C. albicans (n=23, C. tropicalis (n=13, C. glabrata (n=7, C. krusei (n=6, C. guilliermondii (n=3, and C. dubliniensis (n=1. All the isolates were susceptible to CLT. VRC had lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for the isolates compared to FLC. Geometric mean MIC values of VRC, FLC, and CLT for C. parapsilosis isolates were 0.07 µg/ml, 0.8 µg/ml, and 0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Collectively, all species exhibited greater susceptibility to VRC in comparison to C. albicans (P≤0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that non-albicans Candida species were the most common etiologic agents of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis. The major antifungal agents used in clinics to empirically treat yeast onychomycosis are FLC and CLT. Our data suggested that CLT is a better choice for the treatment of Candida onychomycosis, especially in drug resistant cases.

  12. Genotyping and antifungal susceptibility testing of multiple Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from otitis and dermatitis cases in pets: is it really worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Blanco, José L

    2016-01-01

    A total of 216 colonies of Malassezia pachydermatis from 28 cases of fungal otitis or dermatitis in pets were genotyped by M13 fingerprinting and tested for antifungal susceptibility. A huge genetic diversity was found (157 M13 types in total), with all animals having a polyclonal pattern of infection (5.4 ± 1.5 genotypes/sample). Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most genetic diversity (44%) was found at the within sample level. In contrast, variability in antifungal susceptibility among isolates from the same sample was less important, with different M13 types displaying in most cases identical or very similar MIC results. Most isolates displayed high in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, terbinafine and all azoles tested except fluconazole, for which MIC values were always ≥4 μg/ml and a 26.9% of isolates displayed values ≥32 μg/ml. We conclude that although characterization of multiple yeast isolates results in a considerable increase in laboratory workload and expenses, it may help to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of M. pachydermatis in a given patient population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Comparison of M.I.C.E. and Etest with CLSI agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloiza H Campana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the performance of M.I.C.E. and Etest methodologies to that of agar dilution for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. METHODS: A total of 100 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected from hospitalized patients at a teaching hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was performed using the reference CLSI agar dilution method (2009, Etest and M.I.C.E. methodologies. The MIC values were interpreted according to CLSI susceptibility breakpoints and compared by regression analysis. RESULTS: In general, the essential agreement (±1-log2 between M.I.C.E. and CLSI agar dilution was 93.0%, 84.0% and 77.0% for linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively. Essential agreement rates between M.I.C.E. and Etest were excellent (>90.0% for all antibiotics tested. Both strips (M.I.C.E. and Etest yielded two very major errors for linezolid. Unacceptable minor rates were observed for teicoplanin against CoNS and for vancomycin against S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, linezolid and teicoplanin MICs against all staphylococci and S. aureus, respectively, were more accurately predicted by M.I.C.E. strips. However, the Etest showed better performance than M.I.C.E. for predicting vancomycin MICs against all staphylococci. Thus, microbiologists must be aware of the different performance of commercially available gradient strips against staphylococci.

  14. Reverberant Acoustic Testing and Direct Field Acoustic Testing Acoustic Standing Waves and their Impact on Structural Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    The aerospace industry has been using two methods of acoustic testing to qualify flight hardware: (1) Reverberant Acoustic Test (RAT), (2) Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT). The acoustic field obtained by RAT is generally understood and assumed to be diffuse, expect below Schroeder cut-of frequencies. DFAT method of testing has some distinct advantages over RAT, however the acoustic field characteristics can be strongly affected by test setup such as the speaker layouts, number and location of control microphones and control schemes. In this paper the following are discussed based on DEMO tests performed at APL and JPL: (1) Acoustic wave interference patterns and acoustic standing waves, (2) The structural responses in RAT and DFAT.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  16. Advances in prenatal screening for Down syndrome: II first trimester testing, integrated testing, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    The acceptability of prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome is dependent, in part, on the gestational age at which the testing is offered. First trimester screening could be advantageous if it has sufficient efficacy and can be effectively delivered. Two first trimester maternal serum screening markers, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), are useful for identifying women at increased risk for fetal Down syndrome. In addition, measurement of an enlarged thickness of the subcutaneous fluid-filled space at the back of the neck of the developing fetus (referred to as nuchal translucency or NT) has been demonstrated to be an indicator for these high-risk pregnancies. When these three parameters are combined, estimates for Down syndrome efficacy exceed those currently attainable in the second trimester. Women who are screen-positive in the first trimester can elect to receive cytogenetic testing of a chorionic villus biopsy. The first trimester tests could also, theoretically, be combined with the second trimester maternal serum screening tests (integrated screening) to obtain even higher levels of efficacy. There are, however, several practical limitations to first trimester and integrated screening. These include scheduling of testing within relatively narrow gestational age intervals, availability of appropriately trained ultrasonographers for NT measurement, risks associated with chorionic villus biopsy, and costs. There is also increasing evidence that an enlarged NT measurement is indicative of a high risk for spontaneous abortion and for fetal abnormalities that are not detectable by cytogenetic analysis. Women whose fetuses show enlarged NT, therefore, need first trimester counseling regarding their Down syndrome risks and the possibility of other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Follow-up ultrasound and fetal echocardiography in the second trimester are also indicated. First trimester

  17. Effect of point-of-care susceptibility testing in general practice on appropriate prescription of antibiotics for patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Cordoba, Gloria; Møller Sørensen, Tina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of adding point-of-care (POC) susceptibility testing to POC culture on appropriate use of antibiotics as well as clinical and microbiological cure for patients with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in general practice. DESIGN: Open......, individually randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practice. PARTICIPANTS: Women with suspected uncomplicated UTI, including elderly patients above 65, patients with recurrent UTI and patients with diabetes. The sample size calculation predicted 600 patients were needed. INTERVENTIONS: Flexicult SSI-Urinary...... the infecting pathogen was susceptible or a second line if a first line could not be used or (2) patient without UTI: not to prescribe an antibiotic. UTI was defined by typical symptoms and significant growth in a reference urine culture performed at one of two external laboratories. SECONDARY OUTCOMES...

  18. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. Methods In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. Results The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846. The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95% and 4 μg/ml (96%; 1 μg/ml (95% and 8 μg/ml (95%; 0.5 μg/ml (99% and 19 μg/ml (98%; and 4 μg/ml (95% and 64 μg/ml (95%, respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P < 0.05. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the susceptibility patterns of Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  19. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Target Attainment Analyses To Evaluate In Vitro Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wart, Scott A.; Ambrose, Paul G.; Rubino, Christopher M.; Khariton, Tatiana; Riccobene, Todd A.; Friedland, H. David; Critchley, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    To provide support for in vitro susceptibility test interpretive criteria decisions for ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as dose adjustment recommendations for renal impairment, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) target attainment was evaluated for simulated patients administered intravenous (i.v.) ceftaroline fosamil at 600 mg twice daily (q12h) and simulated patients with renal impairment administered various dosing regimens. Using a previously developed population PK model, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate ceftaroline plasma concentration profiles for simulated patients with normal renal function or mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment. Using these profiles, the percentage of time during the dosing interval that free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC (f%T>MIC) for ceftaroline at steady state was calculated. Percentages of simulated patients achieving f %T>MIC targets for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae based on murine infection models were calculated by MIC. At MICs of 2 mg/liter for S. aureus and 1 mg/liter for S. pneumoniae, the percentages of simulated patients with normal renal function and mild renal impairment following administration of ceftaroline fosamil at 600 mg q12h, moderate renal impairment following administration of ceftaroline fosamil at 400 mg q12h, and severe renal impairment following administration of ceftaroline fosamil at 300 mg q12h achieving f %T>MIC targets (≥26 for S. aureus and ≥44 for S. pneumoniae) exceeded 90%. The results of these analyses, which suggested that in vitro susceptibility test interpretive criteria defining susceptible could be as high as MICs of ≤2 and ≤1 mg/liter for ceftaroline against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae, respectively, provide support for current FDA and CLSI criteria, which define susceptible as MICs of 1 and 0.5 mg/liter, respectively. Recommendations for dose adjustments for patients with renal impairment were also

  20. Variation in Direct Access to Tests to Investigate Cancer: A Survey of English General Practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Nicholson

    Full Text Available The 2015 NICE guidelines for suspected cancer recommend that English General Practitioners have direct access to diagnostic tests to investigate symptoms of cancer that do not meet the criteria for urgent referral. We aimed to identify the proportion of GPs in England with direct access to these tests.We recruited 533 English GPs through a national clinical research network to complete an online survey about direct access to laboratory, radiology, and endoscopy tests in the three months leading up to the release of the 2015 NICE guidance. If they had direct access to a diagnostic test, GPs were asked about the time necessary to arrange a test and receive a report. Results are reported by NHS sub-region and, adjusting for sampling, for England as a whole.Almost all GPs reported direct access to x-ray and laboratory investigations except faecal occult blood testing (54%, 95% CI 49-59% and urine protein electrophoresis (89%, 95% CI 84-92%. Fewer GPs had direct access to CT scans (54%, 95% CI 49-59% or endoscopy (colonoscopy 32%, 95% CI 28-37%; gastroscopy 72%, 95% CI 67-77%. There was significant variation in direct access between NHS regions for the majority of imaging tests-for example, from 20 to 85% to MRI. Apart from x-ray, very few GPs (1-22% could access radiology and endoscopy within the timescales recommended by NICE. The modal request to test time was 2-4 weeks for routine radiology and 4-6 weeks for routine endoscopy with results taking another 1-2 weeks.At the time that the 2015 NICE guideline was released, local investment was required to not only provide direct access but also reduce the interval between request and test and speed up reporting. Further research using our data as a benchmark is now required to identify whether local improvements in direct access have been achieved in response to the NICE targets. If alternative approaches to test access are to be proposed they must be piloted comprehensively and underpinned by robust

  1. Presence-only approach to assess landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility: a test for the Mili catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi

    2016-06-29

    This study evaluates the performances of the presence-only approach, Maximum Entropy, in assessing landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility within the Mili catchment (Sicily, Italy). This catchment underwent several meteorological stresses, resulting in hundreds of shallow rapid mass movements between 2007 and 2011. In particular, the area has become known for two disasters, which occurred in 2009 and 2010; the first weather system did not pass directly over the catchment; however, peak rainfall was registered over the basin during the second meteorological event. Field data were collected to associate the depth from the slope surface that material was mobilised at the triggering zone to each mass movement within the catchment. This information has been used to model the landslide susceptibility for two classes of processes, divided into shallow failures for maximum depths of 1 m and deep ones in case of values equal or greater than 1 m. Topographic attributes from a 2-m DEM were used as predictors, together with medium resolution vegetation indexes derived from ASTER scenes and geological, land use and tectonic maps. The presence-only approach discriminated between the two depth classes at the landslide trigger zone, producing excellent prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 50 randomly generated replicates. The role of each predictor was assessed to ascertain the significance to the final model output. This work uses simple field measurements to produce triggering-thickness susceptibility, which is a novel approach and may perform better as a proxy for landslide hazard assessments with respect to more common susceptibility practises. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) of food origin: A comparison of agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzón-Durán, Laura; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are a major concern to public and animal health. Thirty MRS (Staphylococcus aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. sciuri, and S. xylosus) isolates from meat and poultry preparations were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials (belonging to seven different categories) of clinical significance using both the standard agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized system (Sensi Test Gram-positive). It is worth stressing that 16 isolates (53.33%) exhibited an extensively drug-resistant phenotype (XDR). The average number of resistances per strain was 4.67. These results suggest that retail meat and poultry preparations are a likely vehicle for the transmission of multi-drug resistant MRS. Resistance to erythromycin was the commonest finding (76.67% of strains), followed by tobramycin, ceftazidime (66.67%), ciprofloxacin (56.67%) and fosfomycin (53.33%). An agreement (kappa coefficient) of 0.64 was found between the two testing methods. Using the agar disc diffusion as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the miniaturized test were 98.44%, 69.44% and 83.33%, respectively. Most discrepancies between the two methods were due to isolates that were susceptible according to the disc diffusion method but resistant according to the miniaturized test (false positives). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Variation in Direct Access to Tests to Investigate Cancer: A Survey of English General Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Brian D.; Oke, Jason L.; Rose, Peter W.; Mant, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2015 NICE guidelines for suspected cancer recommend that English General Practitioners have direct access to diagnostic tests to investigate symptoms of cancer that do not meet the criteria for urgent referral. We aimed to identify the proportion of GPs in England with direct access to these tests. Methods We recruited 533 English GPs through a national clinical research network to complete an online survey about direct access to laboratory, radiology, and endoscopy tests in the three months leading up to the release of the 2015 NICE guidance. If they had direct access to a diagnostic test, GPs were asked about the time necessary to arrange a test and receive a report. Results are reported by NHS sub-region and, adjusting for sampling, for England as a whole. Results Almost all GPs reported direct access to x-ray and laboratory investigations except faecal occult blood testing (54%, 95% CI 49–59%) and urine protein electrophoresis (89%, 95% CI 84–92%). Fewer GPs had direct access to CT scans (54%, 95% CI 49–59%) or endoscopy (colonoscopy 32%, 95% CI 28–37%; gastroscopy 72%, 95% CI 67–77%). There was significant variation in direct access between NHS regions for the majority of imaging tests—for example, from 20 to 85% to MRI. Apart from x-ray, very few GPs (1–22%) could access radiology and endoscopy within the timescales recommended by NICE. The modal request to test time was 2–4 weeks for routine radiology and 4–6 weeks for routine endoscopy with results taking another 1–2 weeks. Conclusion At the time that the 2015 NICE guideline was released, local investment was required to not only provide direct access but also reduce the interval between request and test and speed up reporting. Further research using our data as a benchmark is now required to identify whether local improvements in direct access have been achieved in response to the NICE targets. If alternative approaches to test access are to be proposed they must be

  4. Mycobacterial genomic DNA from used Xpert MTB/RIF cartridges can be utilised for accurate second-line genotypic drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Rouxjeane; Derendinger, Brigitta; de Vos, Margaretha; Pillay, Samantha; Dolby, Tanya; Simpson, John; Kitchin, Natasha; Ruiters, Ashley; van Helden, Paul D; Warren, Robin M; Theron, Grant

    2017-11-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a widely-used test for tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin-resistance. Second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), which is recommended by policymakers, typically requires additional specimen collection that delays effective treatment initiation. We examined whether cartridge extract (CE) from used Xpert TB-positive cartridges was, without downstream DNA extraction or purification, suitable for both genotypic DST (MTBDRplus, MTBDRsl), which may permit patients to rapidly receive a XDR-TB diagnosis from a single specimen, and spoligotyping, which could facilitate routine genotyping. To determine the limit-of-detection and diagnostic accuracy, CEs from dilution series of drug-susceptible and -resistant bacilli were tested (MTBDRplus, MTBDRsl). Xpert TB-positive patient sputa CEs (n = 85) were tested (56 Xpert-rifampicin-susceptible, MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl; 29 Xpert-rifampicin-resistant, MTBDRsl). Spoligotyping was done on CEs from dilution series and patient sputa (n = 10). MTBDRplus had high non-valid result rates. MTBDRsl on CEs from dilutions ≥10 3 CFU/ml (C T  ≤ 24, >"low" Xpert semiquantitation category) was accurate, had low indeterminate rates and, on CE from sputa, highly concordant with MTBDRsl isolate results. CE spoligotyping results from dilutions ≥10 3 CFU/ml and sputa were correct. MTBDRsl and spoligotyping on CE are thus highly feasible. These findings reduce the need for additional specimen collection and culture, for which capacity is limited in high-burden countries, and have implications for diagnostic laboratories and TB molecular epidemiology.

  5. Direct testing of scale effects in metal forming friction and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Calaon, Matteo; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling of metal forming operations from macro to micro scale implies significant changes caused by size effects, among these the friction increase, which has been reported by researchers using indirect test methods such as ring-compression test and double-cup-extrusion test. In the present...... work a new test equipment is developed for direct friction measurements in the range from macro to micro scale. Investigations confirm a significant friction increase when downscaling. Visual inspection of the work pieces show this to be explained by the amount of open and closed lubricant pockets....

  6. System-Level Validation High-Level Modeling and Directed Test Generation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mingsong; Koo, Heon-Mo; Mishra, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    This book covers state-of-the art techniques for high-level modeling and validation of complex hardware/software systems, including those with multicore architectures.  Readers will learn to avoid time-consuming and error-prone validation from the comprehensive coverage of system-level validation, including high-level modeling of designs and faults, automated generation of directed tests, and efficient validation methodology using directed tests and assertions.  The methodologies described in this book will help designers to improve the quality of their validation, performing as much validation as possible in the early stages of the design, while reducing the overall validation effort and cost.

  7. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major factor for eradication failure. Molecular tests including fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and dual priming oligonucleotide-PCR (DPO-PCR) play critical roles in the detection of antibiotic susceptibility; however, limited knowledge is known about application of multiple genetic analysis system (MGAS) in the area of H. pylori identification and antibiotics resistance detection.The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotics resistance using different molecular tests and evaluate the treatment outcomes of E-test-based genotypic resistance.A total of 297 patients with dyspepsia complaint were recruited for gastroscopies. Ninety patients with H. pylori culture positive were randomly divided into 2 groups (test group and control group). E-test, general PCR, and MGAS assay were performed in test group. Patients in control group were treated with empirical therapy (rabeprazole + bismuth potassium citrate + amoxicillin [AMX] + clarithromycin [CLR]), whereas patients in test group received quadruple therapy based on E-test results twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The eradication effect of H. pylori was confirmed by C-urea breath test after at least 4 weeks when treatment was finished.Rapid urease test showed 46.5% (128/297) patients with H. pylori infection, whereas 30.3% (90/297) patients were H. pylori culture positive. E-test showed that H. pylori primary resistance rate to CLR, AMX, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin (LVX) was 40.0% (18/45), 4.4% (2/45), 53.3% (24/45), 0% (0/45), and 55.6% (25/45), respectively. In addition, there are many multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, and the MDR strains have higher minimum inhibitory concentration than their single-drug resistant counterparts. Considering E-test as the reference test, the sensitivities of general PCR and MGAS in detecting CLR resistance were 83.3% (15/18) and 94.4% (17

  8. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  9. Study of the Effect of Specimen Shape in Direct Tension Tests on Cohesive Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shin-Ichi

    It is important to evaluate characteristics of tensile strength of foundation and embankment material of fill-dam for the examination of the development conditions of crack which is one of the causes for hydraulic fracturing. Though it is possible to evaluate the tensile strength of hard rock by fixing both ends of the specimen with chucks and making it work directly, it is not possible to use the same method for soft material like cohesive soil. Hence direct tensile test was performed in this research to measure the tensile strength by changing the column type specimen for the compression test into an I-shaped specimen and using the devices that were experimentally-made for the test. Moreover, the stress generated in the specimen was calculated by the FEM analysis and the form of the specimen for the direct tensile test was suggested. It gave useful result for the direct tensile test, with the specimen being further thinned only in the center part of the I-shaped specimen.

  10. Direct antiglobulin ("Coombs") test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, George B; Lichtman, Marshall A

    2014-04-01

    We have reviewed the literature to identify and characterize reports of warm-antibody type, autoimmune hemolytic anemia in which the standard direct antiglobulin reaction was negative but a confirmatory test indicated that the red cells were opsonized with antibody. Three principal reasons account for the absence of a positive direct antiglobulin test in these cases: a) IgG sensitization below the threshold of detection by the commercial antiglobulin reagent, b) low affinity IgG, removed by preparatory washes not conducted at 4°C or at low ionic strength, and c) red cell sensitization by IgA alone, or rarely (monomeric) IgM alone, but not accompanied by complement fixation, and thus not detectable by a commercial antiglobulin reagent that contains anti-IgG and anti-C3. In cases in which the phenotype is compatible with warm-antibody type, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and the direct antiglobulin test is negative, an alternative method to detect low levels of IgG sensitization, use of 4°C, low ionic strength washes to prepare the cells for the direct antiglobulin test reaction to permit retention and identification of low affinity IgG antibodies, and, if the latter are uninformative, testing for sensitization with an anti-IgA, and, if necessary, an anti-IgM reagent identifies cases of warm-antibody type, immune hemolysis not verified by a commercial reagent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, Keith D; Harhay, Dayna M; Apley, Michael D; Lubbers, Brian V; Clawson, Michael L; Schuller, Gennie; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Capik, Sarah F; Riviere, Jim E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Tessman, Ronald K

    2016-08-30

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M. haemolytica isolates. M. haemolytica (n=276), P. multocida (n=253), and H. somni (n=78) were isolated from feedlot cattle diagnosed with BRD. Gamithromycin susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was utilized to determine the presence/absence of macrolide resistance genes and to genetically type M. haemolytica. Generalized linear mixed models were built for analysis. There was not a significant difference between MM and CON groups in regards to the likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica or P. multocida. The likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica differed significantly by state of origin in this study. A single M. haemolytica genetic subtype was associated with an over whelming majority of the observed resistance. H. somni isolation counts were low and statistical models would not converge. Phenotypic resistance was predicted with high sensitivity and specificity by WGS. Additional studies to elucidate the relationships between phenotypic expression of resistance/genetic determinants for resistance and clinical response to antimicrobials are necessary to inform judicious use of antimicrobials in the context of relieving animal disease and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the PREVI® Isola automated seeder system compared to reference manual inoculation for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, S; van Belkum, A; Fulchiron, C; Huguet, R; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    The disk diffusion (DD) method remains the most popular manual technique for antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) in clinical microbiology laboratories. This is because of its simplicity, reproducibility, and limited cost compared to (automated) microdilution systems, which are usually less sensitive at detecting certain important mechanisms of resistance. Here, we evaluate the PREVI® Isola automated seeder system using a new protocol for spreading bacterial suspensions (eight deposits of calibrated inocula of bacteria, followed by two rounds of rotation) in comparison with manual DD reference testing on a large series of clinical and reference strains. The average time required for seeding one agar plate for DD with this new protocol was 51 s per plate, i.e., 70 agar plates/h. Reproducibility and repeatability was assessed on three reference and three randomly chosen clinical strains, as usually requested by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), and was excellent compared to the manual method. The standard deviations of zones of growth inhibition showed no statistical discrimination. The correlation between the two methods, assessed using 294 clinical isolates and a panel of six antibiotics (n = 3,528 zones of growth inhibition measured), was excellent, with a correlation coefficient of 0.977. The new PREVI® Isola protocol adapted for DD had a sensitivity of 99 % and a specificity of 100 % compared to the manual technique for interpreting DD as recommended by the EUCAST.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections to fluoroquinolones and detection of gyrA mutations in resistant strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari-Nakhjavani F.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Widespread uses of fluoroquinolones have resulted in increasing incidences of resistance against these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from patients with Urinary Tract Infection against common fluoroquinolones and detection of mutations in the gyrA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 164 E.coli isolates from patients with UTI, was evaluated by disk agar diffusion (DAD and MIC methods. Polymerase chain reaction of E.coli strains were performed by amplification of Quinolone Resistance Determining Region (QRDR of gyrA gene. PCR products were tested by Conformational Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis (CSGE and those with hetrodublexes were selected and examined by DNA sequencing. According to disc agar diffusion, 49.3% were resistant to nalidixic acid, 41.4% to norfloxacin, 44.5% to ofloxacin and 40.2 % to ciprofloxacin. By Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC testing a high-level of resistance (42.1% to ciprofloxacin was observed. Mutations in codons 83 and 87 in all 81 isolates were positive by CSGE method.

  14. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.

  15. Genetic counseling and the ethical issues around direct to consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Alice K; Ho, Anita

    2012-06-01

    Over the last several years, direct to consumer(DTC) genetic testing has received increasing attention in the public, healthcare and academic realms. DTC genetic testing companies face considerable criticism and scepticism,particularly from the medical and genetic counseling community. This raises the question of what specific aspects of DTC genetic testing provoke concerns, and conversely,promises, for genetic counselors. This paper addresses this question by exploring DTC genetic testing through an ethic allens. By considering the fundamental ethical approaches influencing genetic counseling (the ethic of care and principle-based ethics) we highlight the specific ethical concerns raised by DTC genetic testing companies. Ultimately,when considering the ethics of DTC testing in a genetic counseling context, we should think of it as a balancing act. We need careful and detailed consideration of the risks and troubling aspects of such testing, as well as the potentially beneficial direct and indirect impacts of the increased availability of DTC genetic testing. As a result it is essential that genetic counselors stay informed and involved in the ongoing debate about DTC genetic testing and DTC companies. Doing so will ensure that the ethical theories and principles fundamental to the profession of genetic counseling are promoted not just in traditional counseling sessions,but also on a broader level. Ultimately this will help ensure that the public enjoys the benefits of an increasingly genetic based healthcare system.

  16. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  17. Health system tests CRM data base. Community Health Network uses direct mail to boost physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2003-01-01

    A six-month pilot patient retention project for Community Health Network (CHN), Indianapolis, ran from July 2002 to January 2003. It was a direct mail campaign on behalf of some members of the group practices owned by CHN, designed to test the use of the system's CRM database. Patients of the physicians received personal, dynamically-generated cards reminding them to schedule appointments and tests. Each mailing cost $1.76, including production and mailing.

  18. Infection control, genetic assessment of drug resistance and drug susceptibility testing in the current management of multidrug/extensively-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, Graham H.; Lange, Christoph; Albrecht, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Europe has the highest documented caseload and greatest increase in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) of all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This survey examines how recommendations for M/XDR-TB management are being implemented. METHODS: TBNET is a pan......-European clinical research collaboration for tuberculosis. An email survey of TBNET members collected data in relation to infection control, access to molecular tests and basic microbiology with drug sensitivity testing. RESULTS: 68/105 responses gave valid information and were from countries within the WHO...... widely available (88%), even in lower income and especially in high incidence countries. Molecular tests for other first line and second line drugs were less accessible (76 and 52% respectively). A third of physicians considered that drug susceptibility results were delayed by > 2 months. CONCLUSION...

  19. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Slovenia: availability, ethical dilemmas and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrecar, Irena; Peterlin, Borut; Teran, Natasa; Lovrecic, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, many private companies are advertising direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), mostly with no or only minor clinical utility and validity of tests and without genetic counselling. International professional community does not approve provision of DTC GT and situation in some EU countries has been analysed already. The aim of our study was to analyse current situation in the field of DTC GT in Slovenia and related legal and ethical issues. Information was retrieved through internet search, performed independently by two authors, structured according to individual private company and the types of offered genetic testing. Five private companies and three Health Insurance Companies offer DTC GT and it is provided without genetic counselling. Available tests include testing for breast cancer, tests with other health-related information (complex diseases, drug responses) and other tests (nutrigenetic, ancestry, paternity). National legislation is currently being developed and Council of Experts in Medical Genetics has issued an opinion about Genetic Testing and Commercialization of Genetic Tests in Slovenia. Despite the fact that Slovenia has signed the Additional protocol to the convention on human rights and biomedicine, concerning genetic testing for health purposes, DTC GT in Slovenia is present and against all international recommendations. There is lack of or no medical supervision, clinical validity and utility of tests and inappropriate genetic testing of minors is available. There is urgent need for regulation of ethical, legal, and social aspects. National legislation on DTC GT is being prepared.

  20. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseker, Charles M.; Mayer, Tamara D.; Crosby, Tina C.

    2012-01-01

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for the fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas...

  1. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  2. Comparison of Two Different Disk Diffusion Agar Tests in Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility for E-Coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is one of the most common infections during childhood and E-Coli is the more predominant pathogen recovered in UTI. Disk Diffusion agar test is a method of choice because it is cost effective, simple, and now routinely used for detection of antibiotic susceptibility. A rapid increase in antibiotic resistance in our region made the authors to design a study to compare this traditional method with two different disk diffusion agar tests.Materials & Methods: Our study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 in Be’sat teaching hospital on 100 pediatric patients ranged 15 days to 13 years old with positive urine culture for E-coli. Antibiogram detection was performed by disk diffusion agar test with two different kits as Padtan-Teb (made in Iran and Mast (made in the U.K. for Co-trimoxazol, Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Nalidixic Acid, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. At last the data was analyzed by McNemar test.Results: Co-trimoxazol obtained the lowest (23% Padtan-Teb and 26% Mast and Nitrofurantoin had the highest (86% Padtan-Teb and 97% Mast sensitivity in the two methods which were used in our study. The results were statistically significant for Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. The data was analyzed by Mc Memar test.Conclusion: According to our study the results of antibiotic susceptibility were more compatible with other non national Disk diffusion agar test and thus we recommend that our manufactures in Iran should increase the quality of their products.

  3. Anisotropy of out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility of rocks as a tool for direct determination of magnetic sub-fabrics of some minerals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.; Pokorný, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17 (2015), s. 5321-5321 ISSN 1029-7006. [EGU General Assembly. 17.4.2015-22.4.2015, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : palaeomagnetism * magnetic susceptibility * minerals Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2015/EGU2015-5321.pdf

  4. Test Results from a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Component level testing of power conversion units proposed for use in fission surface power systems has typically been done using relatively simple electric heaters for thermal input. These heaters do not adequately represent the geometry or response of proposed reactors. As testing of fission surface power systems transitions from the component level to the system level it becomes necessary to more accurately replicate these reactors using reactor simulators. The Direct Drive Gas-Brayton Power Conversion Unit test activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center integrates a reactor simulator with an existing Brayton test rig. The response of the reactor simulator to a change in Brayton shaft speed is shown as well as the response of the Brayton to an insertion of reactivity, corresponding to a drum reconfiguration. The lessons learned from these tests can be used to improve the design of future reactor simulators which can be used in system level fission surface power tests.

  5. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Boekhout, Teun; Diba, Kambiz; Moghadam, Abdolkarim Ghadimi; Hossaini Nasab, Ali; Jafarian, Hadis; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Soltani, Jafar

    2017-11-21

    Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846). The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95%) and 4 μg/ml (96%); 1 μg/ml (95%) and 8 μg/ml (95%); 0.5 μg/ml (99%) and 19 μg/ml (98%); and 4 μg/ml (95%) and 64 μg/ml (95%), respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates) in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  6. Use of Monte Carlo simulation to determine pharmacodynamic cutoffs of amoxicillin to establish a breakpoint for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien F; Laffont, Céline M; Croubels, Siska; De Backer, Patrick; Zemirline, Claudine; Bousquet, Eric; Guyonnet, Jérôme; Ferran, Aude A; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2014-02-01

    To determine pharmacodynamic cutoffs with pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic principles and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for use of amoxicillin in pigs to set interpretive criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 191 plasma disposition curves of amoxicillin obtained from 21 IV, 104 IM, and 66 PO administrations corresponding to 2,098 plasma concentrations. A population model of amoxicillin disposition in pigs was developed for PO and IM administration. The MCS method was then used to determine, for various dosage regimens, the proportion of pigs achieving plasma amoxicillin concentrations greater than a selection of possible minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.0625 to 4 mg/L for at least 40% of a 24-hour period. A target attainment rate (TAR) of 90% was never achieved with the breakpoint recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (0.5 mg/L) when the usual recommended dosage (20 mg/kg/d) was used. Only by dividing the orally administered daily dose into 12-hour administration intervals was a TAR > 90% achieved when the total dose was at least 40 mg/kg for a pathogen having an MIC ≤ 0.0625 mg/L. For the IM route, the TAR of 90% could only be achieved for MICs of 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/L with the use of 15 and 30 mg/kg doses, respectively. Population kinetics and MCS are required to determine robust species-specific interpretive criteria (susceptible, intermediate, and resistant classifications) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing breakpoints (taking into account interanimal variability).

  7. Significance tests to determine the direction of effects in linear regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Michael; von Eye, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have discussed asymmetric interpretations of the Pearson correlation coefficient and have shown that higher moments can be used to decide on the direction of dependence in the bivariate linear regression setting. The current study extends this approach by illustrating that the third moment of regression residuals may also be used to derive conclusions concerning the direction of effects. Assuming non-normally distributed variables, it is shown that the distribution of residuals of the correctly specified regression model (e.g., Y is regressed on X) is more symmetric than the distribution of residuals of the competing model (i.e., X is regressed on Y). Based on this result, 4 one-sample tests are discussed which can be used to decide which variable is more likely to be the response and which one is more likely to be the explanatory variable. A fifth significance test is proposed based on the differences of skewness estimates, which leads to a more direct test of a hypothesis that is compatible with direction of dependence. A Monte Carlo simulation study was performed to examine the behaviour of the procedures under various degrees of associations, sample sizes, and distributional properties of the underlying population. An empirical example is given which illustrates the application of the tests in practice. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... by bacteria belonging to the genus Neisseria, such as epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis...

  9. Initial experience of direct-to-test endoscopic ultrasonography for suspected choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Paul; Phull, Perminder

    2015-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound has become an invaluable tool in the investigation of patients with suspected pancreatobiliary disease. We set out to determine whether a "direct-to-test" endoscopic ultrasound procedure could be offered to selected patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. We included patients referred to our general gastroenterology service with clinical history, symptomatology and/or laboratory results compatible with choledocholithiais. Almost all patients had already had a transabdominal ultrasound performed at the request of their general practitioner. All patients underwent direct-to-test day-case endoscopic ultrasound under conscious sedation. Procedures were performed by a single practitioner using an oblique-viewing radial echoendoscope. The diagnostic yield and frequencies of discharge, onward referral and follow-up were determined. Overall diagnostic yield of direct-to-test endoscopic ultrasound was 61%. The most common diagnoses were cholelithiasis (18%) and choledocholithiasis (11%); one periampullary cancer was also detected. A definitive outcome (discharge or referral for a therapeutic procedure) occurred in 14 of 28 patients (50%). The remaining 14 patients underwent further out-patient evaluation. Eventual diagnoses in this group included autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and drug-induced hepatitis. For patients with suspected biliary disease, direct-to-test endoscopic ultrasound has a high diagnostic yield, and may be an appropriate mode of investigation. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Microwave testing of high-Tc based direct current to a single flux quantum converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Fischer, Gerd Michael; Ivanov, Z. G.

    1994-01-01

    Design, simulation, and experimental investigations of a direct current to a single flux quantum converter loaded with a Josephson transmission line and driven by an external 70 GHz microwave oscillator are reported. The test circuit includes nine YBaCuO Josephson junctions aligned on the grain...

  11. Modification of Irrational Ideas and Test Anxiety through Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Gerard E.; Tosi, Donald J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students (N=48). The Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH) treatment group was significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects. (Author/JAC)

  12. Consumer Perceptions of Interactions With Primary Care Providers After Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomic Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, Cathelijne H.; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Roberts, J. Scott; Green, Robert C.; IV, Mack T. Ruffin; Krier, Joel B.; Helm, Margaret H.; Lehmann, Lisa S.; Kraft, Peter; Le, Lan Q.; Ostergren, Jenny; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Couper, Mick P.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Kiefer, Amy K.; Braunstein, Glenn D.; Crawford, Scott D.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Chen, Clara A.; Wang, Catharine; Gray, Stacy W.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Gollust, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genomic testing (PGT) allows individuals to learn about their genetic makeup without going through a physician, but some consumers share their results with their primary care provider (PCP). Objective: To describe the characteristics and perceptions of

  13. The Effect of Formative Testing and Self-Directed Learning on Mathematics Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Mohamad Syarif; Satriani, Retni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of formative testing and self-directed learning on mathematics learning outcomes. The research was conducted at an elementary school in central Jakarta during the 2014/2015 school year. Seventy-two fourth-grade students who were selected using random sampling participated in this study. Data…

  14. Design, construction, and testing of the direct absorption receiver panel research experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, J.M.; Rush, E.E.; Matthews, C.W.; Stomp, J.M.; Imboden, J.; Dunkin, S.

    1990-01-01

    A panel research experiment (PRE) was designed, built, and tested as a scaled-down model of a direct absorption receiver (DAR). The PRE is a 3-MW{sub t}DAR experiment that will allow flow testing with molten nitrate salt and provide a test bed for DAR testing with actual solar heating. In a solar central receiver system DAR, the heat absorbing fluid (a blackened molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down a vertical panel (rather than through tubes as in conventional receiver designs) and absorbs the concentrated solar flux directly. The ability of the flowing salt film to absorb flux directly. The ability of the flowing salt film to absorb the incident solar flux depends on the panel design, hydraulic and thermal fluid flow characteristics, and fluid blackener properties. Testing of the PRE is being conducted to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of the DAR concept. The DAR concept is being investigated because it offers numerous potential performance and economic advantages for production of electricity when compared to other solar receiver designs. The PRE utilized a 1-m wide by 6-m long absorber panel. The salt flow tests are being used to investigate component performance, panel deformations, and fluid stability. Salt flow testing has demonstrated that all the DAR components work as designed and that there are fluid stability issues that need to be addressed. Future solar testing will include steady-state and transient experiments, thermal loss measurements, responses to severe flux and temperature gradients and determination of peak flux capability, and optimized operation. In this paper, we describe the design, construction, and some preliminary flow test results of the Panel Research Experiment. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A rapid method for testing in vivo the susceptibility of different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi to active chemotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny S. Filardi

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A method is described which permits to determine in vivo an in a short period of time (4-6 hours the sensitivity of T. cruzo strains to known active chemotherapeutic agents. By using resistant- and sensitive T. cruzi stains a fairly good correlation was observed between the results obtained with this rapid method (which detects activity against the circulating blood forms and those obtained with long-term schedules which involve drug adminstration for at least 20 consecutive days and a prolonged period of assessment. This method may be used to characterize susceptibility to active drugs used clinically, provide infomation on the specific action against circulating trypomastigotes and screen active compounds. Differences in the natural susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi strains to active drugs have been already reported using different criteria, mostly demanding long-term study of the animal (Hauschka, 1949; Bock, Gonnert & Haberkorn, 1969; Brener, Costa & Chiari, 1976; Andrade & Figueira, 1977; Schlemper, 1982. In this paper we report a method which detects in 4-6 hours the effect of drugs on bloodstream forms in mice with established T. cruzi infections. The results obtained with this method show a fairly good correlation with those obtained by prolonged treatment schedules used to assess the action of drugs in experimental Chagas' disease and may be used to study the sensitivity of T. cruzi strains to active drugs.No presente trabalho descreve-se um metodo que permite determinar in vivo e em curto espaço de tempo (4-6 horas a sensibilidade de cepas de T. cruzi a agentes terapeuticos ativos na doença de Chagas. Usando-se cepas sensíveis e resistentes aos medicamentos foi possível observar uma boa correlação entre os resultados obtidos com o método rápido (que detecta atividade contra as formas circulantes do parasita e aqueles obtidos com esquema de acao prolongada que envolve a administração da droga por 20 dias e posterior avalia

  16. Replication of Non-Trivial Directional Motion in Multi-Scales Observed by the Runs Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    Non-trivial autocorrelation in up-down statistics in financial market price fluctuation is revealed by a multi-scale runs test(Wald-Wolfowitz test). We apply two models, a stochastic price model and dealer model to understand this property. In both approaches we successfully reproduce the non-stationary directional price motions consistent with the runs test by tuning parameters in the models. We find that two types of dealers exist in the markets, a short-time-scale trend-follower and an extended-time-scale contrarian who are active in different time periods.

  17. Evaluation of Etest and macrodilution broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida sp strains isolated from oral cavities of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Maria do Rosário R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the Etest and the reference broth macrodilution susceptibility test for fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B was performed with 59 of Candida species isolated from the oral cavities of AIDS patients. The Etest method was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and the reference method was performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards document M27-A guidelines. Our data showed that there was a good correlation between the MICs obtained by the Etest and broth dilution methods. When only the MIC results at ± 2 dilutions for both methods were considered, the agreement rates were 90.4% for itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B and 84.6% for fluconazole of the C. albicans tested. In contrast, to the reference method, the Etest method classified as susceptible three fluconazole-resistant isolates and one itraconazole-resistant isolate, representing four very major errors. These results indicate that Etest could be considered useful for antifungal sensitivity evaluation of yeasts in clinical laboratories.

  18. Maternal play behaviors, child negativity, and preterm or low birthweight toddlers' visual-spatial outcomes: testing a differential susceptibility hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth-Bart, Janean E; Miller, Kyle E; Hane, Amanda

    2012-04-01

    We examined the joint roles of child negative emotionality and parenting in the visual-spatial development of toddlers born preterm or with low birthweights (PTLBW). Neonatal risk data were collected at hospital discharge, observer- and parent-rated child negative emotionality was assessed at 9-months postterm, and mother-initiated task changes and flexibility during play were observed during a dyadic play interaction at 16-months postterm. Abbreviated IQ scores, and verbal/nonverbal and visual-spatial processing data were collected at 24-months postterm. Hierarchical regression analyses did not support our hypothesis that the visual-spatial processing of PTLBW toddlers with higher negative emotionality would be differentially susceptible to parenting behaviors during play. Instead, observer-rated distress and a negativity composite score were associated with less optimal visual-spatial processing when mothers were more flexible during the 16-month play interaction. Mother-initiated task changes did not interact with any of the negative emotionality variables to predict any of the 24-month neurocognitive outcomes, nor did maternal flexibility interact with mother-rated difficult temperament to predict the visual-spatial processing outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal play behaviors, child negativity, and preterm or low birthweight toddlers’ visual-spatial outcomes: Testing a differential susceptibility hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Miller, Kyle E.; Hane, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the joint roles of child negative emotionality and parenting in the visual-spatial development of toddlers born preterm or with low birthweights (PTLBW). Method Neonatal risk data were collected at hospital discharge, observer- and parent-rated child negative emotionality was assessed at 9-months postterm, and mother-initiated task changes and flexibility during play were observed during a dyadic play interaction at 16-months postterm. Abbreviated IQ scores, and verbal/nonverbal and visual-spatial processing data were collected at 24-months postterm. Results Hierarchical regression analyses did not support our hypothesis that the visual-spatial processing of PTLBW toddlers with higher negative emotionality would be differentially susceptible to parenting behaviors during play. Instead, observer-rated distress and a negativity composite score were associated with less optimal visual-spatial processing when mothers were more flexible during the 16-month play interaction. Mother-initiated task changes did not interact with any of the negative emotionality variables to predict any of the 24-month neurocognitive outcomes, nor did maternal flexibility interact with mother-rated difficult temperament to predict the visual-spatial processing outcomes. PMID:22209050

  20. Evaluating the evidence: direct-to-consumer screening tests advertised online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Kimberly M; Mackey, Timothy K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-09-01

    Unsupervised online direct-to-consumer (DTC) access to medical services has rapidly expanded to medical screening tests, which have not been critically evaluated for their evidence basis. The objective of this study is to identify the scope of online-advertised DTC screening tests, outline the evidence for use of available DTC testing and suggest regulatory reform to address the relevant issues. An observational study of website advertisements, testing services and counselling/follow-up services for DTC testing was conducted. Data were collected from websites between 4 April and 1 June 2011. Each website was assessed for tests offered, advertised indications and availability of counselling/follow-up services. Advertised testing indications were compared with US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations and/or specialty guidelines and categorized as Supported, Against, Insufficient Evidence or No Guidance. Of 20 companies identified as offering DTC screening tests, 95% (19/20) do not clearly offer pretest counselling, post-test counselling and/or test follow-up. One hundred and twenty-seven different tests were identified. Only 19/127 (15%) could be Supported for screening in a target group selected for testing; 38/127 (30%) were given recommendations to avoid use in specific target group(s) selected for testing ('Against recommendations'); 29/127 (23%) had Insufficient Evidence of value, and for 64/127 (50%) No Guidance could be given. Only 4/127 (3%) tests were Supported for general screening use. Virtually all identified medical tests advertised and offered DTC are not recommended for use in screening by evidence-based guidelines. Limited oversight may lead to inaccurate self-diagnosis, treatment and wasted health resources.

  1. [Direct-to-consumer genetic testing through Internet: marketing, ethical and social issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducournau, Pascal; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Bulle, Alexandre; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We probably did not anticipate all the consequences of the direct to consumer genetic tests on Internet, resulting from the combined skills of communication and genomic advances. What are the commercial strategies used by the companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic tests on Internet and what are the different social expectations on which they focus? Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the web sites offering such tests, it seems that these companies target a triple market based on: the "healthism" which raises health and hygiene to the top of the social values; the contemporary demands of the users to become actual actors of health decisions; and finally on the need for bio-social relationships. These three commercial strategies underlie various ethical and societal issues justifying a general analysis.

  2. Performing T-tests to Compare Autocorrelated Time Series Data Collected from Direct-Reading Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Industrial hygienists now commonly use direct-reading instruments to evaluate hazards in the workplace. The stored values over time from these instruments constitute a time series of measurements that are often autocorrelated. Given the need to statistically compare two occupational scenarios using values from a direct-reading instrument, a t-test must consider measurement autocorrelation or the resulting test will have a largely inflated type-1 error probability (false rejection of the null hypothesis). A method is described for both the one-sample and two-sample cases which properly adjusts for autocorrelation. This method involves the computation of an "equivalent sample size" that effectively decreases the actual sample size when determining the standard error of the mean for the time series. An example is provided for the one-sample case, and an example is given where a two-sample t-test is conducted for two autocorrelated time series comprised of lognormally distributed measurements.

  3. Direction dependence analysis: A framework to test the direction of effects in linear models with an implementation in SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; Li, Xintong

    2018-04-16

    In nonexperimental data, at least three possible explanations exist for the association of two variables x and y: (1) x is the cause of y, (2) y is the cause of x, or (3) an unmeasured confounder is present. Statistical tests that identify which of the three explanatory models fits best would be a useful adjunct to the use of theory alone. The present article introduces one such statistical method, direction dependence analysis (DDA), which assesses the relative plausibility of the three explanatory models on the basis of higher-moment information about the variables (i.e., skewness and kurtosis). DDA involves the evaluation of three properties of the data: (1) the observed distributions of the variables, (2) the residual distributions of the competing models, and (3) the independence properties of the predictors and residuals of the competing models. When the observed variables are nonnormally distributed, we show that DDA components can be used to uniquely identify each explanatory model. Statistical inference methods for model selection are presented, and macros to implement DDA in SPSS are provided. An empirical example is given to illustrate the approach. Conceptual and empirical considerations are discussed for best-practice applications in psychological data, and sample size recommendations based on previous simulation studies are provided.

  4. Analysis of direct-to-consumer marketed Chlamydia trachomatis diagnostic tests in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinton, Nils; Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Håheim, Håkon; Garstad, Kjersti; Mørch-Reiersen, Lisa Therese; Moghaddam, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Background In 2014, and for the first time in Norway, a pharmacy chain started selling home sampling kits for Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) detection. Direct-to-consumer diagnostic kits for C. trachomatis have been available in Norway from an Internet company since 2005. There has been little assessment of persons who purchase direct-to-consumer diagnostic tests for sexually transmissible infections (STIs) detection and if low-risk populations are being unnecessarily encouraged to buy these tests. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in customers who purchased home sampling kits from the pharmacy chain and from the commercial Internet Co. were compared to that of patients attending STI clinics and other free primary healthcare services. Prevalences of other STIs in pharmacy and Internet customers were also determined. The prevalence of C. trachomatis among pharmacy customers was 11%, almost identical to the prevalence among Internet customers (12%). In comparison, the prevalence among patients attending STI clinics in Oslo was 7.2%, which is similar to the prevalence among patients who have been tested through primary healthcare services. The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium was two-fold less than that of C. trachomatis in the STI and primary physician population, and significantly less in the Internet and the pharmacy population. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was not detected in urine samples from pharmacy customers or from Internet customers. Both pharmacy and Internet C. trachomatis home-sampling kits seem to be purchased by the right risk population. Marketing of direct-to-consumer N. gonorrhoeae tests and possibly M. genitalium tests cannot be justified in Norway. Direct-to-consumer diagnostic tests should be actively utilised as part of national programs in preventing the spread of C. trachomatis.

  5. Evaluating online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests: informed choices or buyers beware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geransar, Rose; Einsiedel, Edna

    2008-03-01

    Commercialization of genetic technologies is expanding the horizons for the marketing and sales of genetic tests direct-to-consumers (DTCs). This study assesses the information provision and access requirements that are in place for genetic tests that are being advertised DTC over the Internet. Sets of key words specific to DTC genetic testing were entered into popular Internet search engines to generate a list of 24 companies engaging in DTC advertising. Company requirements for physician mediation, genetic counseling arrangements, and information provision were coded to develop categories for quantitative analysis within each variable. Results showed that companies offering risk assessment and diagnostic testing were most likely to require that testing be mediated by a clinician, and to recommend physician-arranged counseling. Companies offering enhancement testing were less likely to require physician mediation of services and more likely to provide long-distance genetic counseling. DTC advertisements often provided information on disease etiology; this was most common in the case of multifactorial diseases. The majority of companies cited outside sources to support the validity of claims about clinical utility of the tests being advertised; companies offering risk assessment tests most frequently cited all information sources. DTC advertising for genetic tests that lack independent professional oversight raises troubling questions about appropriate use and interpretation of these tests by consumers and carries implications for the standards of patient care. These implications are discussed in the context of a public healthcare system.

  6. Test Results From a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a closed cycle system incorporating a turboaltemator, recuperator, and gas cooler connected by gas ducts to an external gas heater. For this series of tests, the BPCU was modified by replacing the gas heater with the Direct Drive Gas heater or DOG. The DOG uses electric resistance heaters to simulate a fast spectrum nuclear reactor similar to those proposed for space power applications. The combined system thermal transient behavior was the focus of these tests. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points. At each point it was subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed or DOG electrical input. This paper outlines the changes made to the test unit and describes the testing that took place along with the test results.

  7. Isolation of Candida Species from Gastroesophageal Lesions among Pediatrics in Isfahan, Iran: Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates by E-test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. The aim of this study is collection and molecular identification of Candida species from gastroesophageal lesions among pediatrics in Isfahan, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ranges for clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients underwent endoscopy (130 specimens from gastritis and 70 samples from esophagitis were included in this study between April 2015 and November 2015. All specimens were subcultured on sabouraud dextrose agar, and genomic DNA of all strains was extracted using boiling method. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region were used for the identification of all Candida strains. MIC ranges were determined for itraconazole (ITC, amphotericin B (AmB, and fluconazole (FLU by E-test. Results: Twenty of 200 suspected patients (10% were positive by direct microscopy and culture. Candida albicans was the most common species (60% followed by Candida glabrata (30%, Candida parapsilosis (5%, and Candida kefyr (5%. MIC ranges were determined for FLU (0.125–8 μg/mL, ITC (0.008–0.75 μg/mL, and AmB (0.008–0.75 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Every colonization of Candida species should be considered as a potentially factor of mucocutaneous candidiasis and should be treated with antifungal drugs.

  8. First report of environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other fungi from pigeon droppings in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and in vitro susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans and other fungi in samples of pigeon droppings collected from Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: One hundred and twelve withered pigeon dropping samples were collected from 12 different districts. Using the dilution plate technique, samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and esculin agar. Colonies were examined microscopically and C. neoformans identification is confirmed by India ink preparation, observation of urease activity and brown pigmentation on esculin medium. Susceptibility patterns of five yeast species and four molds against five antifungal drugs were tested using agar disk diffusion method. Results: C. neoformans was recovered from 38 samples (34%. Na'aman valley was recorded to be the highest contaminated site (66.7% with C. neoformans, while the samples collected from Al Awaly district were considered as the lowest contaminated samples (6.7%. Also, twenty species related to sixteen genera of fungi other than C. neoformans were recovered from which, three yeast genera were recorded. The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that the nine tested fungal species were sensitive to Mycosat, while Fungican exerted inhibition zones of four species only. C. neoformans was moderately sensitive towards all tested compounds but it can resist Flucoral where no inhibition zone could be detected. Conclusions: Our results are considered to be the first report on the environmental prevalence of C. neoformans in pigeon feces in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The data indicated that pigeon droppings can be considered as a potential source of this basidiomycetous yeast in addition to other fungal species in this region.

  9. Comparison of tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz effects on susceptible and resistant populations of Varroa destructor in a vial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Stara, Jitka; Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the western honeybee, Apis mellifera. The development of acaricide resistance in Varroa populations is a global issue. Discriminating concentrations of acaricides are widely used to detect pest resistance. Two methods, using either glass vials or paraffin capsules, are used to screen for Varroa resistance to various acaricides. We found the glass vial method to be useless for testing Varroa resistance to acaridices, so we developed a polypropylene vial bioassay. This method was tested on tau-fluvalinate-, acrinathrin-, and amitraz-resistant mite populations from three apiaries in Czechia. Acetone was used as a control and technical grade acaricide compounds diluted in acetone were applied to the polypropylene vials. The solutions were spread on the vial surface by rolling the vial, and were then evaporated. Freshly collected Varroa females were placed in the vials and the mortality of the exposed mites was measured after 24 h. The Varroa populations differed in mortality between the apiaries and the tested compounds. Mites from the Kyvalka site were resistant to acrinathrin, tau-fluvalinate, and amitraz, while mites from the Postrizin site were susceptible to all three acaricides. In Prelovice apiary, the mites were susceptible to acrinathrin and amitraz, but not to tau-fluvalinate. The calculated discriminating concentrations for tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz were 0.66, 0.26 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that polyproplyne vial tests can be used to determine discriminating concentrations for the early detection of acaricide resistant Varroa. Finally, multiple-resistance in Kyvalka may indicate metabolic resistance.

  10. Case of cytomegalovirus-associated direct anti-globulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Saeko; Sato, Masanori; Sasaki, Goro; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Tsutomu; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old boy developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia after a negative direct anti-globulin test. The concentration of erythrocyte membrane-associated immunoglobulin G, determined using an immunoradiometric assay, correlated with disease activity. He was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) both serologically and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicating that his autoimmune hemolytic anemia was directly caused by CMV infection. Since anti-CMV immunoglobulin G was not absorbed by the patient's erythrocytes, cross-reaction between erythrocyte antigens and CMV was not likely a causative factor for hemolysis. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: an experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkel, Martina; Cooper, Dave; Packer, Craig; Slotow, Rob

    2011-07-01

    Disease can dramatically influence the dynamics of endangered wildlife populations, especially when they are small and isolated, with increased risk of inbreeding. In Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), a small, enclosed reserve in South Africa, a large lion (Panthera leo) population arose from a small founder group in the 1960s and started showing conspicuous signs of inbreeding. To restore the health status of the HiP lion population, outbred lions were translocated into the existing population. In this study, we determined the susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and the prevalence of antibody to feline viruses of native lions, and compared the findings with those from translocated outbred lions and their offspring. Antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, and feline coronavirus were present in the lion population, but there was no significant difference in antibody prevalence between native and translocated lions and their offspring, and these feline viruses did not appear to have an effect on the clinical health of HiP lions. However, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which was previously absent from HiP, appears to have been introduced into the lion population through translocation. Within 7 yr, the prevalence of antibody to FIV increased up to 42%. Bovine tuberculosis posed a major threat to the inbred native lion population, but not to translocated lions and their offspring. More than 30% of the native lion population died from bTB or malnutrition compared with lions and their offspring. We have demonstrated that management of population genetics through supplementation can successfully combat a disease that threatens population persistence. However, great care must be taken not to introduce new diseases into populations through translocation.

  12. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainie Alenkær Madsen

    Full Text Available Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  13. [Standardization of a direct agglutination test for the immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviarez, Yenny; Lares, María; Viettri, Mercedes; Aguilar, Cruz M; Herrera, Leidi; Ferrer, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Chagas' disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and its immunological diagnosis is mainly based on the detection of antibodies against T. cruzi using tests such as the ELISA, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). The main disadvantage of the IHAT is the need to prepare sheep erythrocytes, whose availability is limited and they have a short duration once prepared. However, there are alternative tests, such as the direct agglutination test (DAT). To standardize the direct agglutination test for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were prepared using two protocols, with and without trypsin treatment. The parasites were stained and optimal conditions for parasitic concentration and serum dilutions were determined. We evaluated the technique using sera from patients with Chagas disease, from healthy individuals and from individuals with other parasitic diseases. The optimal parasitic concentration was 500 x 10(6) parasites/ml using stained parasites without trypsin treatment. The optimal serum dilutions were 1/25, 1/50 y 1/100 and the cut-off point was the 1/50 dilution. The diagnostic indices for the standardized technique were as follows: Sensitivity, 94.3% (95% CI: 79.5-99.0) and specificity, 96.3% (95% CI: 88.8-99.0), with positive and negative predictive values of 91.7% (95% CI: 76.4-97.8) and 97.5% (95% CI: 90.4-99.6), respectively. Cross-reaction was observed only in three sera from individuals with visceral leishmaniasis. The results were compared with those obtained by IHA, ELISA, and IFA, and the concordance rate was 96% and the kappa index, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81-0.99). The standardized direct agglutination test could be useful for immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease.

  14. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid; Kus, Julianne V

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. © Crown copyright 2017.

  15. Direct to consumer genetic testing-law and policy concerns in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, Aisling

    2017-11-25

    With rapid scientific and technological advances, the past few years has witnessed the emergence of a new genetic era and a growing understanding of the genetic make-up of human beings. These advances have propelled the introduction of companies offering direct to consumer (DTC) genetic testing, which facilitates the direct provision of such tests to consumers, (for example, via the internet). Although DTC genetic testing offers benefits by enhancing consumer accessibility to such technology, promoting proactive healthcare and increasing genetic awareness, it presents a myriad of challenges, from an ethical, legal and regulatory perspective. As DTC genetic testing usually eliminates the need for a medical professional in accessing genetic tests, this lack of professional guidance and counselling may result in misinterpretation and confusion regarding results. In addition, an evident concern relates to the scientific validity and quality of these tests. A further problem arising is the lack or inadequacy of regulation in this field. Despite the increasing accessibility of DTC genetic testing, this legislative vacuum is apparent in Ireland, where there is no concrete legislation. This article explores the main ethical, legal and regulatory issues arising with the advent of rapid advances in DTC genetic testing in Ireland. Further, with inevitable future advances in genetic science, as well as increasing internet accessibility, the challenges presented are likely to become more amplified. In consideration of the ethical and legal challenges, this paper highlights the regulation of DTC genetic testing as a growing concern in Ireland, recognising its importance to both the scientific community as well as in respect of enhancing consumer confidence in such technologies.

  16. Direct comparison of unloading compliance and potential drop techniques in J-integral testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Single-specimen J-integral testing is performed commonly with the unloading compliance technique. Use of modern instrumentation techniques and powerful desktop computers have made this technique a standard. However, this testing technique is slow and tedious, with the loading rate fixed at a slow quasi-static rate. For these reasons the dc potential drop technique was investigated for crack length measurement during a J-integral test. For direct comparison, both unloading compliance and potential drop were used simultaneously during a J-integral test. The results showed good agreement between the techniques. However, the potential drop technique showed an offset in crack length due to plastic blunting processes. Taking this offset into account, J/sub Ic/ values calculated by both techniques compared well.

  17. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64% (8 bovines and 5 ovines were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92% comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69% of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  18. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abe; Kemal, Jelalu; Alemayehu, Haile; Habte Mariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  19. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Manso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the management of fungaemia have occurred in the last decade with increased use of fluconazole prophylaxis, of empirical treatment and of echinocandins as first-line agents for documented disease. The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Candida may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug naïve patient The variation in resistance rates between centers emphasizes that it is essential to have knowledge of the local Candida species distribution and antifungal resistance rates to guide initial therapy for Candida BSI. Moreover, all Candida isolates from blood and normally sterile sites should be identified to the species level. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Candida spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important. Vitek 2®, Etest® and Sensititre YeastOne® provided a high degree of essential agreement and comparable sensitivity and specificity to BMD-RPMI for identifying resistance to azole and echinocandins in Candida spp.

  20. Testing a community water supply well located near a stream for susceptibility to stream contamination and low-flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Maddox, N. S.; Tysor, E. H.; Swanson, J.; Degon, A.; Howard, J.; Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Newman, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    A community well is the primary water supply to the town of El Rito. This small rural town in is located in a semi-arid, mountainous portion of northern New Mexico where water is scarce. The well is 72 meters from a nearby intermittent stream. Initial tritium sampling suggests a groundwater connection between the stream and well. The community is concerned with the sustainability and future quality of the well water. If this well is as tightly connected to the stream as the tritium data suggests, then the well is potentially at risk due to upstream contamination and the impacts of extended drought. To examine this, we observed the well over a two-week period performing pump and recovery tests, electrical resistivity surveys, and physical observations of the nearby stream. We also collected general chemistry, stable isotope and radon samples from the well and stream. Despite the large well diameter, our pump test data exhibited behavior similar to a Theis curve, but the rate of drawdown decreased below the Theis curve late in the test. This decrease suggests that the aquifer is being recharged, possibly through delayed yield, upwelling of groundwater, or from the stream. The delayed yield hypothesis is supported by our electrical resistivity surveys, which shows very little change in the saturated zone over the course of the pump test, and by low values of pump-test estimated aquifer storativity. Observations of the nearby stream showed no change in stream-water level throughout the pump test. Together this data suggests that the interaction between the stream and the well is low, but recharge could be occurring through other mechanisms such as delayed yield. Additional pump tests of longer duration are required to determine the exact nature of the aquifer and its communication with the well.

  1. Test of the CLAS12 RICH large scale prototype in the direct proximity focusing configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Anefalos Pereira, S; Barion, L.; Benmokhtar, F; Brooks, W; Cisbani, E; Contalbrigo, M; El Alaoui, A; Hafidi, K; Hoek, M; Kubarovsky, V; Lagamba, L; Lucherini, V; Malaguti, R; Mirazita, M; Montgomery, R A; Movsisyan, A; Musico, P; Orlandi, A; Orecchini, D; Pappalardo, L L; Perrino, R; Phillips, J; Pisano, S; Rossi, P; Squerzanti, S; Tomassini, S; Turisini, M; Viticchiè, A

    2016-01-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c up to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and high-packed and high-segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large scale prototype of the RICH detector performed with the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. The tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1:500 in the whole momentum range.

  2. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. The diagnostic significance of the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in anemic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slappendel, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was positive in 134 (36.1%) of 371 anemic dogs with internal diseases. Four principal types of reaction were recognized: IgG alone in 15 (11.2%), IgG + C′ in 41 (30.6%), C′ alone in 74 (55.2%) and IgM + C′ in 2 (1.5%). Rarely, IgM and/or IgA reactions occurred in

  4. Correntropy-based partial directed coherence for testing multivariate Granger causality in nonlinear processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rohit; Tangirala, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    Identification of directional influences in multivariate systems is of prime importance in several applications of engineering and sciences such as plant topology reconstruction, fault detection and diagnosis, and neurosciences. A spectrum of related directionality measures, ranging from linear measures such as partial directed coherence (PDC) to nonlinear measures such as transfer entropy, have emerged over the past two decades. The PDC-based technique is simple and effective, but being a linear directionality measure has limited applicability. On the other hand, transfer entropy, despite being a robust nonlinear measure, is computationally intensive and practically implementable only for bivariate processes. The objective of this work is to develop a nonlinear directionality measure, termed as KPDC, that possesses the simplicity of PDC but is still applicable to nonlinear processes. The technique is founded on a nonlinear measure called correntropy, a recently proposed generalized correlation measure. The proposed method is equivalent to constructing PDC in a kernel space where the PDC is estimated using a vector autoregressive model built on correntropy. A consistent estimator of the KPDC is developed and important theoretical results are established. A permutation scheme combined with the sequential Bonferroni procedure is proposed for testing hypothesis on absence of causality. It is demonstrated through several case studies that the proposed methodology effectively detects Granger causality in nonlinear processes.

  5. Attitudes about regulation among direct-to-consumer genetic testing customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Juli Murphy; Green, Robert C; Kaufman, David

    2013-05-01

    The first regulatory rulings by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services are expected soon. As the process of regulating these and other genetic tests moves ahead, it is important to understand the preferences of DTC genetic testing customers about the regulation of these products. An online survey of customers of three DTC genetic testing companies was conducted 2-8 months after they had received their results. Participants were asked about the importance of regulating the companies selling DTC genetic tests. Most of the 1,046 respondents responded that it would be important to have a nongovernmental (84%) or governmental agency (73%) monitor DTC companies' claims to ensure the consistency with scientific evidence. However, 66% also felt that it was important that DTC tests be available without governmental oversight. Nearly, all customers favored a policy to ensure that insurers and law enforcement officials could not access their information. Although many DTC customers want access to genetic testing services without restrictions imposed by the government regulation, most also favor an organization operating alongside DTC companies that will ensure that the claims made by the companies are consistent with sound scientific evidence. This seeming contradiction may indicate that DTC customers want to ensure that they have unfettered access to high-quality information. Additionally, policies to help ensure privacy of data would be welcomed by customers, despite relatively high confidence in the companies.

  6. Incorporating Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Testing into Large-Scale Wildlife Rabies Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Middel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an incursion of the mid-Atlantic raccoon variant of the rabies virus into southern Ontario, Canada, in late 2015, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies (dRIT was employed on a large scale to establish the outbreak perimeter and to diagnose specific cases to inform rabies control management actions. In a 17-month period, 5800 wildlife carcasses were tested using the dRIT, of which 307 were identified as rabid. When compared with the gold standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT, the dRIT was found to have a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.2%. Positive and negative test agreement was shown to be 98.3% and 99.1%, respectively, with an overall test agreement of 98.8%. The average cost to test a sample was $3.13 CAD for materials, and hands-on technical time to complete the test is estimated at 0.55 h. The dRIT procedure was found to be accurate, fast, inexpensive, easy to learn and perform, and an excellent tool for monitoring the progression of a wildlife rabies incursion.

  7. Comprehension and Data-Sharing Behavior of Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Test Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Scott P; Coleman, Jason; Najjar, Lotfollah; Fruhling, Ann; Bastola, Dhundy R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate current direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic customers' ability to interpret and comprehend test results and to determine if honest brokers are needed. One hundred and twenty-two customers of the DTC genetic testing company 23andMe were polled in an online survey. The subjects were asked about their personal test results and to interpret the results of two mock test cases (type 2 diabetes and multiple sclerosis), where results were translated into disease probability for an individual compared to the public. When asked to evaluate the risk, 72.1% correctly assessed the first case and 77% were correct on the second case. Only 23.8% of those surveyed were able to interpret both cases correctly. x03C7;2 and logistic regression were used to interpret the results. Participants who took the time to read the DTC test-provided supplemental material were 3.93 times (p = 0.040) more likely to correctly interpret the test results than those who did not. The odds for correctly interpreting the test cases were 3.289 times (p = 0.011) higher for those who made more than USD 50,000 than those who made less. Survey results were compared to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) phase 4 cycle 3 data to evaluate national trends. Most of the subjects were able to correctly interpret the test cases, yet a majority did not share their results with a health-care professional. As the market for DTC genetic testing grows, test comprehension will become more critical. Involving more health professionals in this process may be necessary to ensure proper interpretations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseker, Charles M; Mayer, Tamara D; Crosby, Tina C; Carson, Jeremy; Dalsgaard, Inger; Darwish, Ahmed M; Gaunt, Patricia S; Gao, Dana X; Hsu, Hui-Min; Lin, Tsang L; Oaks, J Lindsay; Pyecroft, Melissa; Teitzel, Charlene; Somsiri, Temdoung; Wu, Ching C

    2012-11-19

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for the fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 against 10 antimicrobials (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) in diluted (4 g l-1) cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth incubated at 28 and 18°C for 44-48 and 92-96 h, respectively. QC ranges were set for 9 of the 10 antimicrobials. Most of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions (16 of 18, 9 drugs at both temperatures) for A. salmonicida ATCC 33658 were centered on a single median MIC ± 1 two-fold drug dilution resulting in a QC range that spanned 3 dilutions. More of the E. coli ATCC 25922 MIC distributions (7 of 16) were centered between 2 MIC dilutions requiring a QC range that spanned 4 dilutions. A QC range could not be determined for E. coli ATCC 25922 against 2 antimicrobials at the low temperature. These data and their associated QC ranges have been approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), and will be included in the next edition of the CLSI M49-A Guideline. This method represents the first standardized reference method for testing fish pathogenic Flavobacterium spp.

  9. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Quiping; Sun, Xiaodong; Chtistensen, Richard; Blue, Thomas; Yoder, Graydon; Wilson, Dane

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  10. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of a Testing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of validating a probability of detection (POD) testing system using directed design of experiments (DOE) includes recording an input data set of observed hit and miss or analog data for sample components as a function of size of a flaw in the components. The method also includes processing the input data set to generate an output data set having an optimal class width, assigning a case number to the output data set, and generating validation instructions based on the assigned case number. An apparatus includes a host machine for receiving the input data set from the testing system and an algorithm for executing DOE to validate the test system. The algorithm applies DOE to the input data set to determine a data set having an optimal class width, assigns a case number to that data set, and generates validation instructions based on the case number.

  11. Consumer direct access to clinical laboratory testing: what are the critical issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David S; Pontius, C Anne

    2003-01-01

    Americans are demanding, independent people. In most aspects of our lives, we are used to walking into a store or other place of business with the expectation that the personnel working for the business will make every effort to satisfy our requests quickly and without the need for a third party to intervene or approve the transaction. Hence, the popularity of convenience stores, do-it-yourself stores and kits, and e-commerce. The delivery of health-care services, however, generally does not conform to this model. Before most diagnostic tests or treatments are ordered, patients usually consult a physician. In many cases, prior to tests or treatments being performed, additional consultations are required with insurance plans. But the winds of change, they are a-blowing. More and more, people demand an active role in managing their health care. One emerging trend is direct patient access to clinical laboratory testing (1).

  12. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Quiping [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Chtistensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yoder, Graydon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-08

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  13. Process Sensitivity, Performance, and Direct Verification Testing of Adhesive Locking Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Leatherwood, Michael D.; Montoya, Michael D.; Kato, Ken A.; Akers, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Phase I: The use of adhesive locking features or liquid locking compounds (LLCs) (e.g., Loctite) as a means of providing a secondary locking feature has been used on NASA programs since the Apollo program. In many cases Loctite was used as a last resort when (a) self-locking fasteners were no longer functioning per their respective drawing specification, (b) access was limited for removal & replacement, or (c) replacement could not be accomplished without severe impact to schedule. Long-term use of Loctite became inevitable in cases where removal and replacement of worn hardware was not cost effective and Loctite was assumed to be fully cured and working. The NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) and United Space Alliance (USA) recognized the need for more extensive testing of Loctite grades to better understand their capabilities and limitations as a secondary locking feature. These tests, identified as Phase I, were designed to identify processing sensitivities, to determine proper cure time, the correct primer to use on aerospace nutplate, insert and bolt materials such as A286 and MP35N, and the minimum amount of Loctite that is required to achieve optimum breakaway torque values. The .1900-32 was the fastener size tested, due to wide usage in the aerospace industry. Three different grades of Loctite were tested. Results indicate that, with proper controls, adhesive locking features can be successfully used in the repair of locking features and should be considered for design. Phase II: Threaded fastening systems used in aerospace programs typically have a requirement for a redundant locking feature. The primary locking method is the fastener preload and the traditional redundant locking feature is a self-locking mechanical device that may include deformed threads, non-metallic inserts, split beam features, or other methods that impede movement between threaded members. The self-locking resistance of traditional locking features can be directly verified

  14. First evaluation after implementation of a quality control system for the second line drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis joint efforts in low and high incidence countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Hillemann

    Full Text Available Three networks/projects involving 27 European countries were established to investigate the quality of second-line drug (SLD susceptibility testing with conventional and molecular methods. 1. The "Baltic-Nordic TB-Laboratory Network" comprised 11 reference laboratories in the Baltic-Nordic States. They performed SLD testing in the first phase with a panel of 20 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. After several laboratories made technical changes a second panel of 10 strains with a higher proportion of resistant strains were tested. Although the concordance for Ofloxacin, Kanamycin, and Capreomycin was consistently high, the largest improvements in performance were achieved for the analysis of Ofloxacin resistant (from 88.9 to 95.0%, and Capreomycin resistant (from 71.0 to 88.9% strains. 2. Within the FP7 TB PAN-NET project (EU Grant agreement 223681 a quality control panel to standardize the EQA (External Quality Assurance for first-line drugs (FLD and SLD testing for phenotypic and molecular methods was established. The strains were characterized by their robustness, unambiguous results when tested, and low proportion of secondary drug resistances. 3. The (European Reference Laboratory Network-TB ERLN-TB network analyzed four different panels for drug resistance testing using phenotypic and molecular methods; in two rounds in 2010 the 31 participating laboratories began with 5 strains, followed by 10 strains and 6 additional crude DNA extracts in 2011 and 2012 were examined by conventional DST and molecular methods. Overall, we demonstrated the importance of developing inter-laboratory networks to establish quality assurance and improvement of SLD testing of M. tuberculosis.

  15. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Williams, Alun; McNamee, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Ahmetov, Ildus; Ashley, Euan; Byrne, Nuala; Camporesi, Silvia; Collins, Malcolm; Dijkstra, Paul; Eynon, Nir; Fuku, Noriyuki; Garton, Fleur C; Hoppe, Nils; Holm, Søren; Kaye, Jane; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Maase, Kamiel; Moran, Colin; North, Kathryn N; Pigozzi, Fabio; Wang, Guan

    2015-01-01

    The general consensus among sport and exercise genetics researchers is that genetic tests have no role to play in talent identification or the individualised prescription of training to maximise performance. Despite the lack of evidence, recent years have witnessed the rise of an emerging market of direct-to-consumer marketing (DTC) tests that claim to be able to identify children's athletic talents. Targeted consumers include mainly coaches and parents. There is concern among the scientific community that the current level of knowledge is being misrepresented for commercial purposes. There remains a lack of universally accepted guidelines and legislation for DTC testing in relation to all forms of genetic testing and not just for talent identification. There is concern over the lack of clarity of information over which specific genes or variants are being tested and the almost universal lack of appropriate genetic counselling for the interpretation of the genetic data to consumers. Furthermore independent studies have identified issues relating to quality control by DTC laboratories with different results being reported from samples from the same individual. Consequently, in the current state of knowledge, no child or young athlete should be exposed to DTC genetic testing to define or alter training or for talent identification aimed at selecting gifted children or adolescents. Large scale collaborative projects, may help to develop a stronger scientific foundation on these issues in the future. PMID:26582191

  16. Anticoagulant carryover may influence clot formation in direct tube coagulase tests from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry; Mukerjee, Chinmoy; Taylor, Peter C

    2005-09-01

    The tube coagulase test (TCT) performed directly from positive blood culture bottles has been used to reduce the turnaround time for identifying Staphylococcus aureus. Most reports have shown the test to be specific but often lacking sufficient sensitivity to be useful. In a prospective study of blood culture bottles (BCB) signaling positive, with a Gram-stained smear showing gram-positive cocci resembling staphylococci, the sensitivity of the direct TCT was improved by diluting the BCB broth 1:10 in saline before inoculating 0.1 ml into 1.0 ml of 10% pooled human plasma. It was hypothesized that the improved sensitivity might be explained by reduced carryover of the anticoagulant sodium polyanetholesulfonate (SPS) used in blood culture media. By titrating the inoculum size and the concentration of SPS in an in vitro checkerboard assay, it was shown that concentrations of SPS >0.0008% prevented plasma coagulation. The 1:10 dilution of blood culture broth reduced the amount of residual SPS carried over to the TCT to a level (0.0005%) that did not impair plasma coagulation. The direct TCT inoculated with a 1:10 saline dilution of blood culture broth achieved 100% specificity and sensitivity within 4 h of inoculation without reducing the quality or quantity of coagulum.

  17. A new rapid colourimetric method for testing Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin: a crystal violet decolourisation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new and accurate method for the detection of isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using a crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA. Fifty-five M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from culture stocks stored at -80ºC were tested. After bacterial inoculation, the samples were incubated at 37ºC for seven days and 100 µL of CV (25 mg/L stock solution was then added to the control and sample tubes. The tubes were incubated for an additional 24-48 h. CV (blue/purple was decolourised in the presence of bacterial growth; thus, if CV lost its colour in a sample containing a drug, the tested isolate was reported as resistant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and agreement for INH were 92.5%, 96.4%, 96.1%, 93.1% and 94.5%, respectively, and 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 94.8% and 96.3%, respectively, for RIF. The results were obtained within eight-nine days. This study shows that CVDA is an effective method to detect M. tuberculosis resistance to INH and RIF in developing countries. This method is rapid, simple and inexpensive. Nonetheless, further studies are necessary before routine laboratory implementation.

  18. Standard test method for determining the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of 5XXX series Aluminum alloys by mass loss after exposure to nitric acid (NAMLT Test)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for constant immersion intergranular corrosion testing of 5XXX series aluminum alloys. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to wrought products. 1.3 This test method covers type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Developmental toxicology: new directions workshop: refining testing strategies and study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Kimberly C; Fenton, Suzanne E; Hansen, Deborah K; Harrouk, Wafa; Kim, James H; Shuey, Dana

    2011-10-01

    In April 2009, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a two-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions." The third session of the workshop focused on ways to refine animal studies to improve relevance and predictivity for human risk. The session included five presentations on: (1) considerations for refining developmental toxicology testing and data interpretation; (2) comparative embryology and considerations in study design and interpretation; (3) pharmacokinetic considerations in study design; (4) utility of genetically modified models for understanding mode-of-action; and (5) special considerations in reproductive testing for biologics. The presentations were followed by discussion by the presenters and attendees. Much of the discussion focused on aspects of refining current animal testing strategies, including use of toxicokinetic data, dose selection, tiered/triggered testing strategies, species selection, and use of alternative animal models. Another major area of discussion was use of non-animal-based testing paradigms, including how to define a "signal" or adverse effect, translating in vitro exposures to whole animal and human exposures, validation strategies, the need to bridge the existing gap between classical toxicology testing and risk assessment, and development of new technologies. Although there was general agreement among participants that the current testing strategy is effective, there was also consensus that traditional methods are resource-intensive and improved effectiveness of developmental toxicity testing to assess risks to human health is possible. This article provides a summary of the session's presentations and discussion and describes some key areas that warrant further consideration. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Design and radiation tests on a LED based emergency evacuation directional lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Trikoupis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    A LED (Light Emitting Diode) based directional lighting system has been designed to indicate the best evacuation direction for applications like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel. The design includes constraints for redundancy required by safety systems and for components selection by radiation effects. Most of the literature for radiation effects on LEDs concern digital communications systems, although some recent reports do exist for visible spectrum power LEDs and the reduction in light output versus dose is coherent with the results presented in this paper. Prototype lighting units were irradiated in CERN’s CHARM facility up to a Total Integrated Dose (TID) of 870 Gy and no failures were observed. This paper describes the basic design, presents field tests and the effects of radiation on the LEDs luminance.

  1. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  2. World Year of Physics: A direct test of E=mc2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Simon; Thompson, James K.; Myers, Edmund G.; Brown, John M.; Dewey, Maynard S.; Kessler, Ernest G.; Deslattes, Richard D.; Börner, Hans G.; Jentschel, Michael; Mutti, Paolo; Pritchard, David E.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most striking predictions of Einstein's special theory of relativity is also perhaps the best known formula in all of science: E=mc2. If this equation were found to be even slightly incorrect, the impact would be enormous - given the degree to which special relativity is woven into the theoretical fabric of modern physics and into everyday applications such as global positioning systems. Here we test this mass-energy relationship directly by combining very accurate measurements of atomic-mass difference, Δm, and of γ-ray wavelengths to determine E, the nuclear binding energy, for isotopes of silicon and sulphur. Einstein's relationship is separately confirmed in two tests, which yield a combined result of 1-Δmc2/E=(-1.4+/-4.4)×10-7, indicating that it holds to a level of at least 0.00004%. To our knowledge, this is the most precise direct test of the famous equation yet described.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Direct Tension Test for Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete cracking strength can be defined as the tensile strength of concrete subjected to pure tension stress. However, as it is difficult to apply direct tension load to concrete specimens, concrete cracking is usually quantified by the modulus of rupture for flexural members. In this study, a new direct tension test setup for cylindrical specimens (101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height similar to those used in compression test is developed. Double steel plates are used to obtain uniform stress distributions. Finite element analysis for the proposed test setup is conducted. The uniformity of the stress distribution along the cylindrical specimen is examined and compared with rectangular cross section. Fuzzy image pattern recognition method is used to assess stress uniformity along the specimen. Moreover, the probability of cracking at different locations along the specimen is evaluated using probabilistic finite element analysis. The experimental and numerical results of the cracking location showed that gravity effect on fresh concrete during setting time might affect the distribution of concrete cracking strength along the height of the structural elements.

  4. Culture and Next-generation sequencing-based drug susceptibility testing unveil high levels of drug-resistant-TB in Djibouti: results from the first national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliani, Elisa; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Waberi, Yacine; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Falzon, Dennis; Dean, Anna; Zignol, Matteo; Supply, Philip; Abdoulkader, Mohamed Ali; Hassangue, Hawa; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2017-12-15

    Djibouti is a small country in the Horn of Africa with a high TB incidence (378/100,000 in 2015). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and resistance to second-line agents have been previously identified in the country but the extent of the problem has yet to be quantified. A national survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of MDR-TB among a representative sample of TB patients. Sputum was tested using XpertMTB/RIF and samples positive for MTB and resistant to rifampicin underwent first line phenotypic susceptibility testing. The TB supranational reference laboratory in Milan, Italy, undertook external quality assurance, genotypic testing based on whole genome and targeted-deep sequencing and phylogenetic studies. 301 new and 66 previously treated TB cases were enrolled. MDR-TB was detected in 34 patients: 4.7% of new and 31% of previously treated cases. Resistance to pyrazinamide, aminoglycosides and capreomycin was detected in 68%, 18% and 29% of MDR-TB strains respectively, while resistance to fluoroquinolones was not detected. Cluster analysis identified transmission of MDR-TB as a critical factor fostering drug resistance in the country. Levels of MDR-TB in Djibouti are among the highest on the African continent. High prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and second-line injectable agents have important implications for treatment regimens.

  5. Profiling of Leptospira interrogans, L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii by SE-AFLP, PFGE and susceptibility testing--a continuous attempt at species and serovar differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Lilenbaum, Walter; Neto, José S F; Freitas, Julio C; Morais, Zenaide M; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; da Costa, Barbara L P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-03-09

    Leptospirosis is a widespread systemic zoonosis, considered as reemerging in certain developing countries. Although the cross agglutinin absorption test is still considered the standard method for Leptospira identification, it presents several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to characterize Leptospira spp. isolated from various hosts by genotyping and broth microdilution susceptibility testing in an attempt to differentiate Leptospira species, serogroups and serovars. Forty-seven isolates were studied. They were previously serotyped, and species confirmation was performed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis enabled the distinction of L. interrogans from L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii in two main clusters. Among L. interrogans, it was possible to differentiate into two new clusters the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from the serogroups Canicola and Pomona. L. santarosai isolates presented higher genetic variation than the other species in both techniques. Interestingly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cluster analysis also provided Leptospira serogroup differentiation. Further studies are necessary regarding serovar Bananal isolates, as they presented the highest MIC values for most of the antimicrobials tested. All studied techniques successfully distinguished Leptospira species and serogroups. Despite being library-dependent methods, these approaches are less labor intensive and more economically viable, particularly SE-AFLP, and can be implemented in most reference laboratories worldwide to enable faster Leptospira typing.

  6. Direct and nearby lightning strike interaction with test power distribution lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Jens Daniel

    The interaction of direct and nearby rocket-triggered lightning with two unenergized three-phase power distribution lines of about 800 m length was studied at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Florida. A horizontally-configured line was tested in 1999 and 2000, a vertically-configured line in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and a vertically-configured line with overhead ground wire in 2004. All lines were equipped with arresters and, additionally, in 2003, the vertical line had a polemounted transformer. During the 2000, 2001, and 2002 direct strike experiments, arresters frequently failed, but there was no arrester failures either during the 2003 direct strike experiment when the transformer was on the line or during the 2004 direct strike experiment when the lightning current was injected into the overhead ground wire. All line configurations except the one tested in 2004 commonly exhibited flashovers. The division of return stroke currents for the vertically-configured line was initially similar to the division on the horizontally-configured line (that is, the arresters closest to the strike point conducted the bulk of the impulsive current). After some tens of microseconds the currents in all arresters on the vertically-configured line equalized, while the close arrester currents on the horizontally-configured line still conducted significantly more current than the remote arresters. The lightning current division for direct strikes to a phase conductor is successfully modeled with the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) for the vertically-configured line and, if the residual voltage of the close arresters is reduced by 20%, successfully modeled for the horizontally-configured line. Currents on the vertically-configured line induced by nearby lightning strikes were measured and compared to results calculated using the LIOV-EMTP96 code. It was found that during a lightning strike 11 m from a grounded line pole, a significant fraction of

  7. SREBP-Dependent Triazole Susceptibility in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Mediated through Direct Transcriptional Regulation of erg11A (cyp51A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    As triazole antifungal drug resistance during invasive Aspergillus fumigatus infection has become more prevalent, the need to understand mechanisms of resistance in A. fumigatus has increased. The presence of two erg11 (cyp51) genes in Aspergillus spp. is hypothesized to account for the inherent resistance of this mold to the triazole fluconazole (FLC). Recently, an A. fumigatus null mutant of a transcriptional regulator in the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) family, the ΔsrbA strain, was found to have increased susceptibility to FLC and voriconazole (VCZ). In this study, we examined the mechanism engendering the observed increase in A. fumigatus triazole susceptibility in the absence of SrbA. We observed a significant reduction in the erg11A transcript in the ΔsrbA strain in response to FLC and VCZ. Transcript levels of erg11B were also reduced but not to the extent of erg11A. Interestingly, erg11A transcript levels increased upon extended VCZ, but not FLC, exposure. Construction of an erg11A conditional expression strain in the ΔsrbA strain was able to restore erg11A transcript levels and, consequently, wild-type MICs to the triazole FLC. The VCZ MIC was also partially restored upon increased erg11A transcript levels; however, total ergosterol levels remained significantly reduced compared to those of the wild type. Induction of the erg11A conditional strain did not restore the hypoxia growth defect of the ΔsrbA strain. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role for SrbA-mediated regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis and triazole drug interactions in A. fumigatus that may have clinical importance. PMID:22006005

  8. Magnetic fabric and flow direction in the Ediacaran Imider dyke swarms (Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco), inferred from the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otmane, Khadija; Errami, Ezzoura; Olivier, Philippe; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Ennih, Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Located in the Imiter Inlier (Eastern Saghro, Anti-Atlas, Morocco), Ediacaran volcanic dykes have been studied for their petrofabric using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique. Four dykes, namely TF, TD, FF and FE show andesitic compositions and are considered to belong to the same dyke swarm. They are oriented respectively N25E, N40E, N50E, and N10E and have been emplaced during a first tectonic event. The dyke FW, oriented N90E displays a composition of alkali basalt and its emplacement is attributed to a subsequent tectonic event. These rocks are propylitized under greenschist facies conditions forming a secondary paragenesis constituted by calcite, chlorite, epidote and sericite. The dykes TF, TD, FF and FE are sub-volcanic calc-alkaline, typical of post-collisional basalts/andesites, belonging to plate margin andesites. The FW dyke shows a within-plate basalt signature; alkaline affinity reflecting a different petrogenetic process. The thermomagnetic analyses show a dominantly ferromagnetic behaviour in the TF dyke core carried by single domain Ti-poor magnetite, maghemite and pyrrhotite. The dominantly paramagnetic susceptibilities in TF dyke rims and TD, FE, FF and FW dykes are controlled by ilmenite, amphibole, pyroxene and chlorite. The magnetic fabrics of the Imider dykes, determined by our AMS study, allows us to reconstitute the tectonic conditions which prevailed during the emplacement of these two generations of volcanic dykes. The first tectonic event was characterized by a roughly NE-SW compression and the second tectonic event is characterized by an E-W shortening followed by a relaxation recording the end of the Pan-African orogeny in the eastern Anti-Atlas.

  9. Direct mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) test in semen at follow-up after testicular biopsy of maldescended testes operated in puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Brandt, B; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1990-01-01

    In thirty patients bilateral orchiopexy was performed in puberty. At the operation twenty-five patients underwent bilateral testicular biopsies, and five patients underwent unilateral biopsies only. In adulthood the semen was analysed for antisperm antibodies by the direct mixed antiglobulin reac...... reaction (MAR) IgG test. In none of the cases a positive direct MAR IgG test was found....

  10. Internet-Based Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinelli, Sara; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Gelatti, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GT) are easily purchased through the Internet, independent of a physician referral or approval for testing, allowing the retrieval of genetic information outside the clinical context. There is a broad debate about the testing validity, their impact on individuals, and what people know and perceive about them. Objective The aim of this review was to collect evidence on DTC-GT from a comprehensive perspective that unravels the complexity of the phenomenon. Methods A systematic search was carried out through PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase, in addition to Google Scholar according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist with the key term “Direct-to-consumer genetic test.” Results In the final sample, 118 articles were identified. Articles were summarized in five categories according to their focus on (1) knowledge of, attitude toward use of, and perception of DTC-GT (n=37), (2) the impact of genetic risk information on users (n=37), (3) the opinion of health professionals (n=20), (4) the content of websites selling DTC-GT (n=16), and (5) the scientific evidence and clinical utility of the tests (n=14). Most of the articles analyzed the attitude, knowledge, and perception of DTC-GT, highlighting an interest in using DTC-GT, along with the need for a health care professional to help interpret the results. The articles investigating the content analysis of the websites selling these tests are in agreement that the information provided by the companies about genetic testing is not completely comprehensive for the consumer. Given that risk information can modify consumers’ health behavior, there are surprisingly few studies carried out on actual consumers and they do not confirm the overall concerns on the possible impact of DTC-GT. Data from studies that investigate the quality of the tests offered confirm that they are not informative, have little predictive

  11. Isolation, molecular identification and quinolone-susceptibility testing of Arcobacter spp. isolated from fresh vegetables in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana; Bayas Morejón, Isidro Favián; Ferrús, María Antonia

    2017-08-01

    Some species of the Arcobacter genus are considered emerging foodborne and waterborne enteropathogens. However, the presence of Arcobacter spp. in vegetables very little is known, because most studies have focused on foods of animal origin. On the other hand, quinolones are considered as first-line drugs for the treatment of infection by campylobacteria in human patients, but few data are currently available about the resistance levels to these antibiotics among Arcobacter species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of arcobacters isolated from fresh vegetables such as lettuces, spinaches, chards and cabbages. Resistance to quinolones of the isolates was also investigated. One hundred fresh vegetables samples purchased from seven local retail markets in Valencia (Spain) during eight months were analysed. The study included 41 lettuces, 21 spinaches, 34 chards and 4 cabbages. Samples were analysed by culture and by molecular methods before and after enrichment. By culture, 17 out of 100 analysed samples were Arcobacter positive and twenty-five isolates were obtained from them. Direct detection by PCR was low, with only 4% Arcobacter spp. positive samples. This percentage increased considerably, up 20%, after 48 h enrichment. By polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), 17 out of the 25 isolates were identified as A. butzleri and 8 as A. cryaerophilus. Only two A. butzleri isolates showed resistance to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The sequencing of a fragment of the QRDR region of the gyrA gene from the quinolones-resistant isolates revealed the presence of a mutation in position 254 of this gene (C-T transition). This study is the first report about the presence of pathogenic species of Arcobacter spp. in chards and cabbages and confirms that fresh vegetables can act as transmission vehicle to humans. Moreover, the presence of A. butzleri quinolone resistant in vegetables could

  12. Multi Directional Repeated Sprint Is a Valid and Reliable Test for Assessment of Junior Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Daneshfar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 10 × (6 × 5 m multi-directional repeated sprint ability test (RSM in elite young team handball (TH players. Participants were members of the Iranian national team (n = 20, age 16.4 ± 0.7 years, weight 82.5 ± 5.5 kg, height 184.8 ± 4.6 cm, body fat 15.4 ± 4.3%. The validity of RSM was tested against a 10 × (15 + 15 m repeated sprint ability test (RSA, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1, squat jump (SJ and countermovement jump (CMJ. To test the reliability of RSM, the participants repeated the testing sessions of RSM and RSA 1 week later. Both RSA and RSM tests showed good to excellent reliability of the total time (TT, best time (BT, and weakest time (WT. The results of the correlation analysis showed significant inverse correlations between maximum aerobic capacity and TT in RSA (r = −0.57, p ≤ 0.05 and RSM (r = −0.76, p ≤ 0.01. There was also a significant inverse correlation between maximum aerobic capacity with fatigue index (FI in RSA test (r = −0.64, p ≤ 0.01 and in RSM test (r = −0.53, p ≤ 0.05. BT, WT, and TT of RSA was largely-to-very largely correlated with BT (r = 0.58, p ≤ 0.01, WT (r = 0.62, p ≤ 0.01, and TT (r = 0.65, p ≤ 0.01 of RSM. BT in RSM was also correlated with FI in RSM (r = 0.88, p ≤ 0.01. In conclusion, based on the findings of the current study, the recently developed RSM test is a valid and reliable test and should be utilized for assessment of repeated sprint ability in handball players.

  13. Direction and Integration of Experimental Ground Test Capabilities and Computational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper groups and summarizes the salient points and findings from two AIAA conference panels targeted at defining the direction, with associated key issues and recommendations, for the integration of experimental ground testing and computational methods. Each panel session utilized rapporteurs to capture comments from both the panel members and the audience. Additionally, a virtual panel of several experts were consulted between the two sessions and their comments were also captured. The information is organized into three time-based groupings, as well as by subject area. These panel sessions were designed to provide guidance to both researchers/developers and experimental/computational service providers in defining the future of ground testing, which will be inextricably integrated with the advancement of computational tools.

  14. APPLICATION OF DIRECT CONTACT TEST IN EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC DENTURE BASE RESINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kostić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of acrylic denture base resins is widely spread in dental practice. They belong to the group of biomaterials due to their role of morphological and functional substituent in the mouth. However, clinical practice has shown that some toxic ingredients of these materials may lead to adverse local and even systemic changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate cytotoxic effect of various denture base resins on cell culture using direct contact test. The effect of four different acrylic materials on HeLa cell structure was evaluated. Upon light microscopy analysis, MTT test was performed without previous removal of material samples. The obtained values of MTT indicate that cell proliferation is dependant on the type of acrylic denture base resins. Cold polymerization denture base resins showed mild inhibitory effect on the cell culture growth. The signs of toxicity were not observed in heat polymerization denture base resins.

  15. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yanci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT. The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i the higher level group (G1, n = 20: 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years; and ii the lower level group (G2, n = 21: Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years. Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s, while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests.

  16. Factors associated with positive direct antiglobulin tests in pretransfusion patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, P T; Chin, C A; Reid, M E; Burns, M A

    1985-01-01

    During routine pretransfusion testing, the presence of IgG on patient red cells is suggested by a positive autocontrol and confirmed by a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) using monospecific anti-IgG sera. Most IgG on patient red cells detected in this manner are of unknown etiology. We recently showed an association between elevated serum globulin levels and positive DAT with unreactive eluate in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the present study, we wished to determine whether elevated serum globulin levels contribute to some of the positive DAT encountered in pretransfusion testing of patients without AIDS. 76 patients with positive DAT were compared with 90 controls without IgG detected on their red cells during pretransfusion testing. The rate of elevated serum globulin levels was 75% in positive DAT cases versus 29% in controls (p less than 0.001); the odds ratio was 7.6. Elevated blood urea nitrogen levels occurred in 42% of cases versus 19% of controls (p less than 0.025); the odds ratio was 3.1. Cases and controls were not significantly different with regard to age, sex, race, quinidine usage, or hyperalimentation. Elevated serum globulin and blood urea nitrogen levels are significantly associated with a positive DAT with unreactive eluate in pretransfusion patients.

  17. MELCOR 1.8.2 Assessment: IET direct containment heating tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1993-10-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze several of the IET direct containment heating experiments done at 1:10 linear scale in the Surtsey test facility at Sandia and at 1:40 linear scale in the corium-water thermal interactions (CWTI) COREXIT test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. These MELCOR calculations were done as an open post-test study, with both the experimental data and CONTAIN results available to guide the selection of code input. Basecase MELCOR results are compared to test data in order to evaluate the new HPME DCH model recently added in MELCOR version 1.8.2. The effect of various user-input parameters in the HPME model, which define both the initial debris source and the subsequent debris interaction, were investigated in sensitivity studies. In addition, several other non-default input modelling changes involving other MELCOR code packages were required in our IET assessment analyses in order to reproduce the observed experiment behavior. Several calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in our DCH IET assessment analyses.

  18. Counseling customers: emerging roles for genetic counselors in the direct-to-consumer genetic testing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna; Kelly, Susan E; Wyatt, Sally

    2013-04-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing companies offer genetic counseling. There has been no examination to date of this service provision, whether it meets critics' concerns and implications it may have for the genetic counseling profession. Considering the increasing relevance of genetics in healthcare, the complexity of genetic information provided by DTC GT, the mediating role of the internet in counseling, and potential conflicts of interest, this is a topic which deserves further attention. In this paper we offer a discourse analysis of ways in which genetic counseling is represented on DTC GT websites, blogs and other online material. This analysis identified four types of genetic counseling represented on the websites: the integrated counseling product; discretionary counseling; independent counseling; and product advice. Genetic counselors are represented as having the following roles: genetics educator; mediator; lifestyle advisor; risk interpreter; and entrepreneur. We conclude that genetic counseling as represented on DTC GT websites demonstrates shifting professional roles and forms of expertise in genetic counseling. Genetic counselors are also playing an important part in how the genetic testing market is taking shape. Our analysis offers important and timely insights into recent developments in the genetic counseling profession, which have relevance for practitioners, researchers and policy makers concerned with the evolving field of personal genomics.

  19. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  20. DCH-2: Results from the second experiment performed in the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Nichols, R.T.; Brockmann, J.E.; Ross, J.W.; Oliver, M.S.; Lucero, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This test involved 80 kg of molten core debris simulant ejected under pressure into a 1:10 linear scale model of a reactor cavity. The apparatus was placed in the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility to allow direct measurement of the temperature and pressure rise of the contained atmosphere. The molten material was ejected from the cavity as a dense cloud of particles and gas. The dispersed debris caused a rapid pressurization of the 103-m 3 atmosphere. Peak pressures ranged from 0.22 to 0.31 MPa above the ambient level. Peak temperatures were from 759 0 C to 1335 0 C, with the highest values recorded near the top of the chamber. Much of the debris (∼70%) was found adhered to the top and sides of the steel chamber. The pattern of the retained material suggested that the debris field propagated around the chamber following the contour of the vessel. Aerosol measurements indicated that ∼1% to ∼6.6% of the ejected mass was in the size range less than 10μm aerodynamic diameter. 8 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Direct Shear Tests of Sandstone Under Constant Normal Tensile Stress Condition Using a Simple Auxiliary Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Duofeng; Huang, Da

    2017-06-01

    Tension-shear failure is a typical failure mode in the rock masses in unloading zones induced by excavation or river incision, etc., such as in excavation-disturbed zone of deep underground caverns and superficial rocks of high steep slopes. However, almost all the current shear failure criteria for rock are usually derived on the basis of compression-shear failure. This paper proposes a simple device for use with a servo-controlled compression-shear testing machine to conduct the tension-shear tests of cuboid rock specimens, to test the direct shear behavior of sandstone under different constant normal tensile stress conditions ( σ = -1, -1.5, -2, -2.5 and -3 MPa) as well as the uniaxial tension behavior. Generally, the fracture surface roughness decreases and the proportion of comminution areas in fracture surface increases as the change of stress state from tension to tension-shear and to compression-shear. Stepped fracture is a primary fracture pattern in the tension-shear tests. The shear stiffness, shear deformation and normal deformation (except the normal deformation for σ = -1 MPa) decrease during shearing, while the total normal deformation containing the pre-shearing portion increases as the normal tensile stress level (| σ|) goes up. Shear strength is more sensitive to the normal tensile stress than to the normal compressive stress, and the power function failure criterion (or Mohr envelope form of Hoek-Brown criterion) is examined to be the optimal criterion for the tested sandstone in the full region of tested normal stress in this study.

  2. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Williams, Alun; McNamee, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Ahmetov, Ildus; Ashley, Euan; Byrne, Nuala; Camporesi, Silvia; Collins, Malcolm; Dijkstra, Paul; Eynon, Nir; Fuku, Noriyuki; Garton, Fleur C; Hoppe, Nils; Holm, Søren; Kaye, Jane; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Maase, Kamiel; Moran, Colin; North, Kathryn N; Pigozzi, Fabio; Wang, Guan

    2015-12-01

    The general consensus among sport and exercise genetics researchers is that genetic tests have no role to play in talent identification or the individualised prescription of training to maximise performance. Despite the lack of evidence, recent years have witnessed the rise of an emerging market of direct-to-consumer marketing (DTC) tests that claim to be able to identify children's athletic talents. Targeted consumers include mainly coaches and parents. There is concern among the scientific community that the current level of knowledge is being misrepresented for commercial purposes. There remains a lack of universally accepted guidelines and legislation for DTC testing in relation to all forms of genetic testing and not just for talent identification. There is concern over the lack of clarity of information over which specific genes or variants are being tested and the almost universal lack of appropriate genetic counselling for the interpretation of the genetic data to consumers. Furthermore independent studies have identified issues relating to quality control by DTC laboratories with different results being reported from samples from the same individual. Consequently, in the current state of knowledge, no child or young athlete should be exposed to DTC genetic testing to define or alter training or for talent identification aimed at selecting gifted children or adolescents. Large scale collaborative projects, may help to develop a stronger scientific foundation on these issues in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Comparison of PCR, Culture, and Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Testing for Detection of Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffelholz, Mike J.; Thompson, Curt J.; Long, Karla S.; Gilchrist, Mary J. R.

    1999-01-01

    We prospectively compared the performance of culture, direct fluorescent-antibody testing (DFA), and an in-house-developed PCR test targeting the repeated insertion sequence IS481 for the detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. We tested 319 consecutive paired specimens on which all three tests were performed. A total of 59 specimens were positive by one or more tests. Of these, 5 were positive by all three tests, 2 were positive by culture and PCR, 16 were positive by PCR and DFA, 28 were positive by PCR only, and 8 were positive by DFA only. Any specimen positive by culture was considered to be a true positive, as were specimens positive by both PCR and DFA. Specimens positive only by PCR or DFA were considered discrepant, and their status was resolved by review of patient histories. Patients with symptoms meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical case definition for pertussis and who had a specimen positive by PCR or DFA were considered to have true B. pertussis infections. Of the 28 patients positive by PCR only, 20 met the clinical case definition for pertussis, while 3 of the 8 patients positive by DFA only met the clinical case definition. After resolution of the status of discrepant specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 15.2, 100, 100, and 87.5%, respectively, for culture; 93.5, 97.1, 84.3, and 98.9%, respectively, for PCR; and 52.2, 98.2, 82.8, and 92.4%, respectively, for DFA. The actual positive predictive value of PCR was probably greater, as several PCR-positive patients who did not meet the clinical case definition had symptoms consistent with typical or atypical pertussis. PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of B. pertussis. PMID:10449467

  4. Coagulase-negative staphylococci from non-mastitic bovine mammary gland: characterization of Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus haemolyticus by antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Mateja; Zdovc, Irena; Avberšek, Jana; Ocepek, Matjaž; Pengov, Andrej; Podpečan, Ožbalt

    2012-05-01

    During routine microbiological examination of milk samples from dairy cows without clinical signs of mastitis, quarter milk samples of 231 dairy cows from 12 herds were investigated for the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The isolates were identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase test and the commercial kit, API Staph. CNS was detected in 29% (67/231) of the cows. A total of seven CNS species were identified with the most prevalent being Staphylococcus (Staph.) chromogenes (30%) and Staph. haemolyticus (28·8%), followed by Staph. simulans (11·2%), Staph. xylosus (11·2%), Staph. epidermidis (7·5%), Staph. hyicus (6·3%) and Staph. sciuri (5%). The predominant species, Staph. chromogenes and Staph. haemolyticus, were further characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing using the agar disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Considerable resistance to ampicillin and penicillin was observed in both species. Isolates with identical or highly similar PFGE profiles were detected at the herd level despite a marked heterogeneity seen for both species. On the basis of somatic cell count, absence of clinical signs of inflammation and heterogeneity of genotypes, we assume that CNS isolated in this study could not be considered as important causative agents of the bovine mammary gland inflammation.

  5. Evaluation of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) and the string test for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Meredith H; Reimer-McAtee, Melissa J; Gilman, Robert H; Lozano, Daniel; Saravia, Ruth; Pajuelo, Monica; Bern, Caryn; Castro, Rosario; Espinoza, Magaly; Vallejo, Maya; Solano, Marco; Challapa, Roxana; Torrico, Faustino

    2015-06-06

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people worldwide. Diagnosing TB is difficult, and is more challenging in resource-scarce settings where culture-based diagnostic methods rely on poorly sensitive smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN). We performed a cross-sectional study examining the diagnostic utility of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility liquid culture (MODS) versus traditional Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and Lowenstein Jensen culture (LJ) of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) in HIV-infected patients in Bolivia. For sputum scarce individuals we assessed the value of the string test and induced sputum for TB diagnosis. The presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the sputum of 107 HIV-positive patients was evaluated by ZN, LJ, and MODS. Gastric secretion samples obtain