WorldWideScience

Sample records for direct reading presented

  1. Direct reading dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, I.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

  2. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  3. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading.

  4. Center for Direct Reading and Sensor Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Direct-reading methods and sensors are being used more frequently in many different settings ranging from personal monitoring of individual health to applications in...

  5. Direct reading fast microwave interferometer for EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1984-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive 4-mm direct reading fast (rise time approx. 100 μs) microwave interferometer is described. The system is particularly useful for density measurements on the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) during pulsed operation

  6. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca Adell, M.; Becerro Ruiz, E.; Alvarez Gonzalez, F.

    1964-01-01

    A description is given about the application of a direct-reading spectrometer the Quantometer, to the determination of boron. calcium, iron, titanium and vanadium in nuclear grade graphite. for boron the powdered sample is mixed with 1% cupric fluoride and excited in a 10-amperes direct current arc and graphite electrodes with a crater 7 mm wide and 10 mm deep. For the other elements a smaller crater has been used and dilution with a number of matrices has been investigated; the best results are achieved by employing 25% cupric fluoride. The sensitivity limit for boron is 0,15 ppm. (Author) 21 refs

  7. Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding for ESL learners struggling with reading. ... are intended to open up for debate a topic of critical importance to the country's education system. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Direct-reading dial for noise temperature and noise resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J.M.

    1967-01-01

    An attenuator arrangement for a noise generator is described. The scheme permits direct reading of both noise resistance and noise temperature¿the latter with a choice of source resistance.......An attenuator arrangement for a noise generator is described. The scheme permits direct reading of both noise resistance and noise temperature¿the latter with a choice of source resistance....

  9. New Directions in Reading Instruction--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Bess, Ed.

    The gains in knowledge about the nature of reading and how to most effectively teach it come from cognitive research. This booklet (in the form of a flipchart) synthesizes and summarizes much of the current research on effective instruction for improved literacy and greater student achievement. The booklet, a revised edition of "New…

  10. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane - a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Silke M

    2015-01-01

    Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. Participants were either from a left-to-right reading culture (UK) or from a mixed (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) reading culture (Hong Kong). In Experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical, and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In Experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left-to-right or in top-to-bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults started counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction.

  11. Implied reading direction and prioritization of letter encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Alex O; Nguyen, Elizabeth H L; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Capacity limits hinder processing of multiple stimuli, contributing to poorer performance for identifying two briefly presented letters than for identifying a single letter. Higher accuracy is typically found for identifying the letter on the left, which has been attributed to a right-hemisphere dominance for selective attention. Here, we use rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of letters in two locations at once. The letters to be identified are simultaneous and cued by rings. In the first experiment, we manipulated implied reading direction by rotating or mirror-reversing the letters to face to the left rather than to the right. The left-side performance advantage was eliminated. In the second experiment, letters were positioned above and below fixation, oriented such that they appeared to face downward (90° clockwise rotation) or upward (90° counterclockwise rotation). Again consistent with an effect of implied reading direction, performance was better for the top position in the downward condition, but not in the upward condition. In both experiments, mixture modeling of participants' report errors revealed that attentional sampling from the two locations was approximately simultaneous, ruling out the theory that the letter on one side was processed first, followed by a shift of attention to sample the other letter. Thus, the orientation of the letters apparently controls not when the letters are sampled from the scene, but rather the dynamics of a subsequent process, such as tokenization or memory consolidation. Implied reading direction appears to determine the letter prioritized at a high-level processing bottleneck. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether perceptual learning at early levels of visual processing would facilitate learning at higher levels of processing. This was examined by determining whether training the motion pathways by practicing leftright movement discrimination, as found previously, would improve the reading skills of inefficient readers significantly more than another computer game, a word discrimination game, or the reading program offered by the school. This controlled validation study found that practicing left-right movement discrimination 5-10 minutes twice a week (rapidly) for 15 weeks doubled reading fluency, and significantly improved all reading skills by more than one grade level, whereas inefficient readers in the control groups barely improved on these reading skills. In contrast to previous studies of perceptual learning, these experiments show that perceptual learning of direction discrimination significantly improved reading skills determined at higher levels of cognitive processing, thereby being generalized to a new task. The deficits in reading performance and attentional focus experienced by the person who struggles when reading are suggested to result from an information overload, resulting from timing deficits in the direction-selectivity network proposed by Russell De Valois et al. (2000), that following practice on direction discrimination goes away. This study found that practicing direction discrimination rapidly transitions the inefficient 7-year-old reader to an efficient reader.

  13. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane – a cross-cultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Melanie Goebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. In experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left to right or in top to bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults starting counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction.

  14. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of sodium uranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.

    1966-01-01

    We describe the application of the quantometer to the analysis of sodium uranate. To determine boron, cadmium, phosphorus and molybdenum contents, the samples are mixed with graphite powder (1:30) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc with 4x4,,5 mm cup graphite rods, using silver as internal standard. A not se deep cup and a dilution factor of 90 are more suitable for calcium, copper, iron, silicon and vanadium determination; cobalt and chromium are the internal standards. (Author) 6 refs

  15. Fostering Reading Comprehension and Self-Directed Learning in a Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Mendieta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research project was carried out at five public educational institutions by a group of English teacher-researchers based in different regions of Colombia. Due to a shared concern about the development of reading skills and self-regulation in the L2 classroom, a multiple case action research study was designed to examine whether the use of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR (Klingner, Vaughn & Schumm, 1998; Klingner & Vaughn, 1998 could foster reading comprehension in learners and at the same time help them become self-directed learners. Student pre and post questionnaires, reading tests and learning logs, as well as teacher's journals constituted the data collection methods used during the study. Results indicate that the use of CSR impacted participants' learning attitudes and habits positively.

  16. Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of soils and plant ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Alvarez, F.; Cellini, R. F.; Burriel, F.

    1966-01-01

    Two different techniques haves been tried to determine trace elements in soils and plant ashes using a direct reading spectrometer :1) the samples are mixed with graphite powder and excited on 2x4 mm graphite rods with a 13 amperes direct current arc: 2) a mixture of graphite and strontium carbonate is used as spectrochemical buffer, and 2x6 mm cup graphite rods in a 10 amperes direct current arc. We have studies the influence of sodium, potassium and calcium on the results. (Author)

  17. Reading direction and the central perceptual span in Urdu and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Kevin B; McGowan, Victoria A; White, Sarah J; Malik, Sameen; Abedipour, Lily; Jordan, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Normal reading relies on the reader making a series of saccadic eye movements along lines of text, separated by brief fixational pauses during which visual information is acquired from a region of text. In English and other alphabetic languages read from left to right, the region from which useful information is acquired during each fixational pause is generally reported to extend further to the right of each fixation than to the left. However, the asymmetry of the perceptual span for alphabetic languages read in the opposite direction (i.e., from right to left) has received much less attention. Accordingly, in order to more fully investigate the asymmetry in the perceptual span for these languages, the present research assessed the influence of reading direction on the perceptual span for bilingual readers of Urdu and English. Text in Urdu and English was presented either entirely as normal or in a gaze-contingent moving-window paradigm in which a region of text was displayed as normal at the reader's point of fixation and text outside this region was obscured. The windows of normal text extended symmetrically 0.5° of visual angle to the left and right of fixation, or asymmetrically by increasing the size of each window to 1.5° or 2.5° to either the left or right of fixation. When participants read English, performance for the window conditions was superior when windows extended to the right. However, when reading Urdu, performance was superior when windows extended to the left, and was essentially the reverse of that observed for English. These findings provide a novel indication that the perceptual span is modified by the language being read to produce an asymmetry in the direction of reading and show for the first time that such an asymmetry occurs for reading Urdu.

  18. Reading direction and the central perceptual span in Urdu and English.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B Paterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal reading relies on the reader making a series of saccadic eye movements along lines of text, separated by brief fixational pauses during which visual information is acquired from a region of text. In English and other alphabetic languages read from left to right, the region from which useful information is acquired during each fixational pause is generally reported to extend further to the right of each fixation than to the left. However, the asymmetry of the perceptual span for alphabetic languages read in the opposite direction (i.e., from right to left has received much less attention. Accordingly, in order to more fully investigate the asymmetry in the perceptual span for these languages, the present research assessed the influence of reading direction on the perceptual span for bilingual readers of Urdu and English. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Text in Urdu and English was presented either entirely as normal or in a gaze-contingent moving-window paradigm in which a region of text was displayed as normal at the reader's point of fixation and text outside this region was obscured. The windows of normal text extended symmetrically 0.5° of visual angle to the left and right of fixation, or asymmetrically by increasing the size of each window to 1.5° or 2.5° to either the left or right of fixation. When participants read English, performance for the window conditions was superior when windows extended to the right. However, when reading Urdu, performance was superior when windows extended to the left, and was essentially the reverse of that observed for English. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a novel indication that the perceptual span is modified by the language being read to produce an asymmetry in the direction of reading and show for the first time that such an asymmetry occurs for reading Urdu.

  19. Cogan's syndrome: present and future directions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Grainne

    2009-08-01

    Cogan\\'s syndrome, typified by the combination of interstitial keratitis and immune-mediated sensorineural hearing loss, is a rare condition, and commonly associated with a diagnostic delay. Using a standard search protocol, we review the literature to date, focusing on a number of key areas pertaining to diagnosis, presentation and treatment. Using a case illustration of atypical disease which led to fulminant aortic regurgitation, we highlight the need for continued and collaborative research in order to identify negative prognostic factors and thus tailor therapeutic regimens. Atypical Cogan\\'s syndrome is more commonly associated with systemic manifestations than typical disease, and may be refractory to immunosuppressive treatment. We discuss the application of laboratory (e.g antibodies targeting inner ear antigens) and radiological (PET-CT) aids to disease confirmation and detection of sub-clinical vascular inflammation. As illustrated by the included case description, some patients remain refractory to intense immunosuppression and delineation of adverse prognostic factors which may direct treatment, perhaps including the use of PET-CT, will contribute in the future to improving patient outcomes.

  20. How directional change in reading/writing habits relates to directional change in displayed pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hachoung; Oh, Songjoo

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that reading/writing habits may influence the appreciation of pictures. For example, people who read and write in a rightward direction have an aesthetic preference for pictures that face rightward over pictures that face leftward, and vice versa. However, correlations for this phenomenon have only been found in cross-cultural studies. Will a directional change in reading/writing habits within a culture relate to changes in picture preference? Korea is a good place to research this question because the country underwent gradual changes in reading/writing direction habits, from leftward to rightward, during the 20th century. In this study, we analyzed the direction of drawings and photos published in the two oldest newspapers in Korea from 1920-2013. The results show that the direction of the drawings underwent a clear shift from the left to the right, but the direction of the photos did not change. This finding suggests a close psychological link between the habits of reading/writing and drawing that cannot be accounted for simply by an accidental correspondence across different cultures.

  1. The Impact of Teaching Phonemic Awareness by Means of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement of Students with Reading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sharifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phonemic awareness is one of the most important predictors of reading skills that has been taught by different procedures. One of the procedures is implementation of direct instruction in instruction of phonemic awareness. Current study is one of the unique studies in Iran that investigate impact of direct instruction in phonemic awareness on reading achievement of students with reading disorder.Case: Three male second grade elementary students with reading disorder in a regular school in district six of the office of education in Tehran were selected. Multiple-baseline across subjects was selected as a research design. The following tests were used as diagnostic criteria: reading and dyslexia test and Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised. Moreover, a reading inventory consisting of 100 words was developed by researchers to assess the reading ability of the subjects. Data were collected in three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. During the intervention phase, the intervention strategies were used while during baseline and follow-up, data were collected without any intervention. Comparing three phases of the study, we may conclude that intervention package consisting of direct instruction of phonological awareness was an effective strategy in reading achievement of all three students. In addition, follow-up data indicated that the effects of the intervention procedures were stable across time.Conclusion: Direct instruction of phonological awareness was effective in reading achievement of students with reading disorder in elementary school and increasing their abilities in reading.

  2. Reading the Song of Songs through a spiritual direction lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy E. Lam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of the Song of Songs in spiritual direction is rare; yet, the Song of Songs (or Canticle of Canticles is a highly conducive case as it provides in nuce the poetics, lyrics, erotics, and aesthetics of human and divine love which is found nowhere else in Scripture. This article draws on these unique features, integrates the biblical and the experiential, and offers a poetics-praxis paradigm for use in contemporary spiritual praxis. With the poem’s metaphorical vineyard (a figurative term for the beloved herself serving as hermeneutical key, the beloved’s experience of love is interpreted through a multifaceted reading that is intrinsic to the poem, namely: eros [yearning]; mythos [searching]; mustikos [finding]; and kosmos [birthing]. In following the inner dynamism and dramatic tensions across the eight chapters of the Song, the fourfold reading traces the beloved’s transformation from a neglected vineyard (Can 1:6 to a generative vineyard (Can 8:12. The article concludes that transformation in love is a journey from depletion (the giving away of self towards deification (the giving of self in love, and suggests tending one’s own vineyard as a living testament to divine love and a living sacrament in the world.

  3. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane ? a cross-cultural comparison

    OpenAIRE

    G?bel, Silke M.

    2015-01-01

    Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. Participants were either from a left-to-right reading culture (UK) or from a mixed (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) reading culture (Hong Kon...

  4. Direct speech quotations promote low relative-clause attachment in silent reading of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

    2018-07-01

    The implicit prosody hypothesis (Fodor, 1998, 2002) proposes that silent reading coincides with a default, implicit form of prosody to facilitate sentence processing. Recent research demonstrated that a more vivid form of implicit prosody is mentally simulated during silent reading of direct speech quotations (e.g., Mary said, "This dress is beautiful"), with neural and behavioural consequences (e.g., Yao, Belin, & Scheepers, 2011; Yao & Scheepers, 2011). Here, we explored the relation between 'default' and 'simulated' implicit prosody in the context of relative-clause (RC) attachment in English. Apart from confirming a general low RC-attachment preference in both production (Experiment 1) and comprehension (Experiments 2 and 3), we found that during written sentence completion (Experiment 1) or when reading silently (Experiment 2), the low RC-attachment preference was reliably enhanced when the critical sentences were embedded in direct speech quotations as compared to indirect speech or narrative sentences. However, when reading aloud (Experiment 3), direct speech did not enhance the general low RC-attachment preference. The results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest a quantitative boost to implicit prosody (via auditory perceptual simulation) during silent production/comprehension of direct speech. By contrast, when reading aloud (Experiment 3), prosody becomes equally salient across conditions due to its explicit nature; indirect speech and narrative sentences thus become as susceptible to prosody-induced syntactic biases as direct speech. The present findings suggest a shared cognitive basis between default implicit prosody and simulated implicit prosody, providing a new platform for studying the effects of implicit prosody on sentence processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of Print Exposure on Silent Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Quintino R.; Guerin, Julia M.

    2018-01-01

    Print exposure is an important causal factor in reading development. Little is known, however, of the mechanisms through which print exposure exerts an effect onto reading. To address this gap, we examined the direct and indirect effects of print exposure on silent reading fluency among college students (n = 52). More specifically, we focused on…

  6. The Neural Substrates for Letter String Readings in The Normal and Reverse Directions: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sheng; Saito, Takashi; Wu, Jing-Long; Ogasawara, Jun-Ichi; Yamauchi, Shuichi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Iramina, Keiji

    In order to investigate the difference in cortical activations between reading letter strings in the normal direction and the reverse direction, an fMRI study was conducted. In this study, the cortical activations elicited by Japanese letter string reading and Chinese letter string reading were investigated. The subjects performed the normal direction reading task (read letter strings from left to right), and the reverse direction reading task (read letter strings from right to left). According to the experimental results, the activated brain regions during the normal and the reverse direction reading tasks were compared. It was found that visuospatial transformation was involved in the reverse direction reading task, while this function was not significant during the normal direction reading task. Furthermore, we found that there was no significant difference in cortical activation between Japanese and Chinese letter string readings.

  7. Using signal ''KVANT-1'' direct-reading dosemeter for the purposes of personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinskij, G.A.; Karasev, V.S.; Mukhin, I.E.; Chumak, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is the description of ''KVANT-1'' dosemeter for monitoring personnel doses of gamma and X radiation. The dosemeter permits to judge on the radiation intensity, to control directly the dose being accumulated, to store the reading of the dose accumulated for a necessary period of time, to obtain sound signal in case of reaching the limit of a pre-set dose. Presented are a general view, block diagram, and the discription of the dosemeter desing and operation. Advantages of the ''KVANT-1'' dosemeter are shown as compared with the conventional personnel monitoring IFK-2,3 and KID-2 dosemeters [ru

  8. Theory of mind in emerging reading comprehension: A longitudinal study of early indirect and direct effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Lynette; Slade, Lance; Powell, Daisy; Levy, Joseph P

    2017-12-01

    The relation between children's theory of mind (ToM) and emerging reading comprehension was investigated in a longitudinal study over 2.5years. A total of 80 children were tested for ToM, decoding, language skills, and executive function (EF) at Time 1 (mean age=3;10 [years;months]). At Time 2 (mean age=6;03), children's word reading efficiency, language skills, and reading comprehension were measured. Mediation analysis showed that ToM at Time 1, when children were around 4years old, indirectly predicted Time 2 reading comprehension, when children were 6years old, via language ability after controlling for age, nonverbal ability, decoding, EF, and earlier language ability. Importantly, ToM at 4years also directly predicted reading comprehension 2.5years later at 6years. This is the first longitudinal study to show a direct contribution of ToM to reading comprehension in typical development. Findings are discussed in terms of the simple view of reading (SVR); ToM not only supports reading comprehension indirectly by facilitating language but also contributes to it directly over and above the SVR. The potential role of metacognition is considered when accounting for the direct contribution of early ToM to later reading comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reading Time Allocation Strategies and Working Memory Using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busler, Jessica N.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a useful method for controlling the timing of text presentations and studying how readers' characteristics, such as working memory (WM) and reading strategies for time allocation, influence text recall. In the current study, a modified version of RSVP (Moving Window RSVP [MW-RSVP]) was used to induce…

  10. Effect of Computerized Gloss Presentation Format on Reading Comprehension: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marefat, Hamideh; Rezaee, Abbas Ali; Naserieh, Farid

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, gloss presentation format or the location where a gloss appears with respect to its related target word has received renewed attention. Research suggested that different gloss presentation formats could have differential effects on reading comprehension and/or vocabulary learning. This study hypothesized that the effectiveness of…

  11. Filmless radiography - present possibilities and direction of future developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wocial, A.; Wojciechowski, Z.A.; Rozenblicki, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents introduction for new filmless radiography like CR Computed Radiography and DR Digital Radiography direct and non direct. The main factors are considered, which determine classification to different type of radiography. For each technique authors describe advantages and disadvantages supporting by practice examples. Paper contains a lot of practical information about a most of existing radiographic equipment at the NDT market. (author)

  12. The Effect of Presentation Strategy on Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study primarily aimed at examining the effect of presentation strategy on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To determine the effect of this strategy, 61 students who enrolled in English Language Center of Chabahar Maritime University were initially selected and then divided randomly into two classes one as an experimental group and the other one as the control group. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of a TOEFL (the PBT proficiency test. A reading comprehension test as pre-test administered to the subjects of both groups one week before the initiation of the study. The experimental group used the strategy three sessions each week for ten weeks, while the control group was trained based on the ordinary approaches of teaching reading comprehension. Presentation strategy was worked for every two weeks during the experiment and then at the end of each two-week instruction, an immediate posttest was administered according to the strategy worked. At the end of the study, a post-test was administered to both groups. The statistical techniques being applied were Paired Sample t-test and Independent Sample t-test. The results of the study revealed that presentation strategy had significant effect on promoting reading comprehension of intermediate EFL learners.

  13. Effect of Computerized Gloss Presentation Format on Reading Comprehension: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Naserieh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, gloss presentation format or the location where a gloss appears with respect to its related target word has received renewed attention. Research suggested that different gloss presentation formats could have differential effects on reading comprehension and/or vocabulary learning. This study hypothesized that the effectiveness of different computerized gloss presentation formats in reading comprehension could be explained by drawing on the split-attention effect within the framework of cognitive load theory. The effect predicts that when two related sources of information are physically separated (e.g., a target word and the respective gloss, cognitive resources are unnecessarily wasted, and learning is hindered. To test this hypothesis, 39 Persian-speaking L2 learners of English were divided into two experimental conditions, each being exposed to a text enhanced with either in-text or marginal glosses. Two measures of reading comprehension and three measures of cognitive load were employed. The participants’ initial differences in terms of grammatical knowledge and vocabulary size were balanced out, and their look-up behavior was also tracked. The results revealed that the participants with access to in-text glosses, compared with those with marginal glosses, experienced lower levels of cognitive load due to the elimination of split-attention and, accordingly, performed better on the reading com-prehension measures. Given the participants’ L2 proficiency level, the findings suggested that a text enhanced with in-text glosses tends to be instructionally more efficient.

  14. Reading the Song of Songs through a spiritual direction lens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-13

    3) essentials of spiritual direction, .... 1998:293–294), resulting in a preference for literal, erotic, and ... the practice, a relationship that impacts on the whole person within the .... personality integration and psychic wholeness.

  15. Neural Correlates of Word Recognition: A Systematic Comparison of Natural Reading and Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornrumpf, Benthe; Niefind, Florian; Sommer, Werner; Dimigen, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Neural correlates of word recognition are commonly studied with (rapid) serial visual presentation (RSVP), a condition that eliminates three fundamental properties of natural reading: parafoveal preprocessing, saccade execution, and the fast changes in attentional processing load occurring from fixation to fixation. We combined eye-tracking and EEG to systematically investigate the impact of all three factors on brain-electric activity during reading. Participants read lists of words either actively with eye movements (eliciting fixation-related potentials) or maintained fixation while the text moved passively through foveal vision at a matched pace (RSVP-with-flankers paradigm, eliciting ERPs). The preview of the upcoming word was manipulated by changing the number of parafoveally visible letters. Processing load was varied by presenting words of varying lexical frequency. We found that all three factors have strong interactive effects on the brain's responses to words: Once a word was fixated, occipitotemporal N1 amplitude decreased monotonically with the amount of parafoveal information available during the preceding fixation; hence, the N1 component was markedly attenuated under reading conditions with preview. Importantly, this preview effect was substantially larger during active reading (with saccades) than during passive RSVP with flankers, suggesting that the execution of eye movements facilitates word recognition by increasing parafoveal preprocessing. Lastly, we found that the N1 component elicited by a word also reflects the lexical processing load imposed by the previously inspected word. Together, these results demonstrate that, under more natural conditions, words are recognized in a spatiotemporally distributed and interdependent manner across multiple eye fixations, a process that is mediated by active motor behavior.

  16. Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca Adell, M.

    1964-01-01

    A Quantometer has been applied to the determination of aluminum, berylium, calcium, iron, silicon and zinc in magnesium alloys Magnox, after the conversion of the samples to the oxide. For the aluminum, whose concentration is relatively high, the conducting briquets technique with an interrupted discharge is employed, using the magnesium as the internal standard. For the other elements a total burning method with direct current arc is employed, using also the magnesium as the internal standard. (Author) 7 refs

  17. Reading and writing direction effects on the aesthetic appreciation of photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahboun, Sobh; Flumini, Andrea; Pérez González, Carmen; McManus, I Chris; Santiago, Julio

    2017-05-01

    Does reading and writing direction (RWD) influence the aesthetic appreciation of photography? Pérez González showed that nineteenth-century Iranian and Spanish professional photographers manifest lateral biases linked to RWD in their compositions. The present study aimed to test whether a population sample showed similar biases. Photographs with left-to-right (L-R) and right-to-left (R-L) directionality were selected from Pérez González's collections and presented in both original and mirror-reversed forms to Spanish (L-R readers) and Moroccan (R-L readers) participants. In Experiment 1, participants rated each picture for its aesthetic pleasingness. The results showed neither effects of lateral organization nor interactions with RWD. In Experiment 2, each picture and its mirror version were presented together and participants chose the one they liked better. Spaniards preferred rightward versions and Moroccans preferred leftward versions. RWD therefore affects aesthetic impressions of photography in our participants when people pay attention to the lateral spatial dimension of pictures. The observed directional aesthetic preferences were not sensitive to the sex of the model in the photographs, failing to support expectations from the hypotheses of emotionality and agency. Preferences were attributable to the interaction between general scanning strategies and scanning habits linked to RWD.

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF TEACHING FUTURE NAVIGATORS READING ENGLISH AUTHENTIC SAILING DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Приміна

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the psychological peculiarities of teaching future navigators reading English professional authentic documentation have been analyzed. The psychological foundations of understanding printed information in general and foreign information particularly have been disclosed. The processes of textual information perception and visual material perception comprehension have been analysed. The language levels of foreign text comprehension have been examined. The peculiarities of perceptual transformation of foreign language information while reading English sailing directions have been found out.

  19. Statistical Literacy: High School Students in Reading, Interpreting and Presenting Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiyusholeh, M.; Budayasa, K.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    One of the foundations for high school students in statistics is to be able to read data; presents data in the form of tables and diagrams and its interpretation. The purpose of this study is to describe high school students’ competencies in reading, interpreting and presenting data. Subjects were consisted of male and female students who had high levels of mathematical ability. Collecting data was done in form of task formulation which is analyzed by reducing, presenting and verifying data. Results showed that the students read the data based on explicit explanations on the diagram, such as explaining the points in the diagram as the relation between the x and y axis and determining the simple trend of a graph, including the maximum and minimum point. In interpreting and summarizing the data, both subjects pay attention to general data trends and use them to predict increases or decreases in data. The male estimates the value of the (n+1) of weight data by using the modus of the data, while the females estimate the weigth by using the average. The male tend to do not consider the characteristics of the data, while the female more carefully consider the characteristics of data.

  20. Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading.

  1. Optical design and performance of a dual-grating, direct-reading spectrograph for spectrochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaus, D.W.; Kline, J.V.; Bieniewski, T.M.; Dow, G.S.; Apel, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    An all-mirror optical system is used to direct the light from a variety of spectroscopic sources to two 2-m spectrographs that are placed on either side of a sturdy vertical mounting plate. The gratings were chosen so that the first spectrograph covers the ultraviolet spectral region, and the second spectrograph covers the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions. With the over 2.5 m of focal curves, each ultraviolet line is available at more than one place. Thus, problems with close lines can be overcome. The signals from a possible maximum of 256 photoelectric detectors go to a small computer for reading and calculation of the element abundances. To our knowledge, no other direct-reading spectrograph has more than about 100 fixed detectors. With an inductively-coupled-plasma source, our calibration curves, and detection limits, are similar to those of other workers using a direct-reading spectrograph

  2. Optical Design And Performance Of A Dual-Grating, Direct-Reading Spectrograph For Spectrochemical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, David W.; Kline, John V.; Bieniewski, Thomas M.; Dow, Grove S.; Apel, Charles T.

    1980-11-01

    An all-mirror optical system is used to direct the light from a variety of spectroscopic sources to two 2-m spectrographs that are placed on either side of a sturdy vertical mounting plate. The gratings were chosen so that the first spectrograph covers the ultraviolet spectral region, and the second spectrograph covers the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions. With the over 2.5 m of focal curves, each ultraviolet line is available at more than one place. Thus, problems with close lines can be overcome. The signals from a possible maximum of 256 photoelectric detectors go to a small computer for reading and calculation of the element abundances. To our knowledge, no other direct-reading spectrograph has more than about 100 fixed detectors. With an inductively-coupled-plasma source, our calibration curves, and detection limits, are similar to those of other workers using a direct-reading spectrograph.

  3. The present state and future directions of PDF methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.

  4. Improved reading measures in adults with dyslexia following transcranial direct current stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heth, Inbahl; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the contribution of the dorsal system to word reading, we explored transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects when adults with developmental dyslexia received active stimulation over the visual extrastriate area MT/V5, which is dominated by magnocellular input. Stimulation was administered in 5 sessions spread over two weeks, and reading speed and accuracy as well as reading fluency were assessed before, immediately after, and a week after the end of the treatment. A control group of adults with developmental dyslexia matched for age, gender, reading level, vocabulary and block-design WAIS-III sub-tests and reading level was exposed to the same protocol but with sham stimulation. The results revealed that active, but not sham stimulation, significantly improved reading speed and fluency. This finding suggests that the dorsal stream may play a role in efficient retrieval from the orthographic input lexicon in the lexical route. It also underscores the potential of tDCS as an intervention tool for improving reading speed, at least in adults with developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contextual modulation of reading rate for direct versus indirect speech quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, the processing consequences of this distinction are largely unclear. In two experiments, participants were asked to either orally (Experiment 1) or silently (Experiment 2, eye-tracking) read written stories that contained either a direct speech or an indirect speech quotation. The context preceding those quotations described a situation that implied either a fast-speaking or a slow-speaking quoted protagonist. It was found that this context manipulation affected reading rates (in both oral and silent reading) for direct speech quotations, but not for indirect speech quotations. This suggests that readers are more likely to engage in perceptual simulations of the reported speech act when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech quotations, as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Matching is not naming: a direct comparison of lexical manipulations in explicit and implicit reading tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alecia C; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2013-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of reading is of considerable interest, yet analyzing data from subjects reading words aloud during functional MRI data collection can be difficult. Therefore, many investigators use surrogate tasks such as visual matching or rhyme matching to eliminate the need for spoken output. Use of these tasks has been justified by the presumption of "automatic activation" of reading-related neural processing when a word is viewed. We have tested the efficacy of using a nonreading task for studying "reading effects" by directly comparing blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity in subjects performing a visual matching task and an item naming task on words, pseudowords (meaningless but legal letter combinations), and nonwords (meaningless and illegal letter combinations). When compared directly, there is significantly more activity during the naming task in "reading-related" regions such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supramarginal gyrus. More importantly, there are differing effects of lexicality in the tasks. A whole-brain task (matching vs. naming) by string type (word vs. pseudoword vs. nonword) by BOLD timecourse analysis identifies regions showing this three-way interaction, including the left IFG and left angular gyrus (AG). In the majority of the identified regions (including the left IFG and left AG), there is a string type × timecourse interaction in the naming but not the matching task. These results argue that the processing performed in specific regions is contingent on task, even in reading-related regions and is thus nonautomatic. Such differences should be taken into consideration when designing studies intended to investigate reading. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Adapting a MOOC for Research: Lessons Learned from the First Presentation of "Literature and Mental Health: Reading for Wellbeing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    The University of Warwick's FutureLearn MOOC "Literature and Mental Health: Reading for Wellbeing," which began its first presentation February 2016, was identified as an opportunity to conduct some research into the course subject area, "reading for wellbeing" or "bibliotherapy". Since 2013, a substantial body of…

  8. Directional Scanning as a Function of Stimulus Characteristics, Reading Habits, and Directional Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Israel; And Others

    1977-01-01

    "32 English readers and 32 Hebrew readers were shown stimuli with directional characteristics (English and Hebrew letters) and stimuli with no directional characteristics (arrays of different circles, bars, colors, and geometric figures) for scanning. The results showed that, while directional stimulus characteristics affected the direction…

  9. Improvement of lithium chloride dew-point hygrometer for direct reading and controlling of relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.Z.; Chu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The lithium chloride dew-point hygrometer has many advantages over other types of hygrometers. However, it only reads and controls the dew-point temperature of air instead of the relative humidity, which is more important in industry, agriculture, food storage, and hygiene. This paper describes a new hygrometer which is based on the same principle as the lithium chloride dew-point hygrometer, but it can read and control the relative humidity directly. The instrument is quick in response and the ranges of temperature and relative humidity are quite large. Its accuracy is normally within 3% RH and its precision is within 2% RH.

  10. GaN-on-Silicon - Present capabilities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Timothy

    2018-02-01

    Gallium Nitride, in the form of epitaxial HEMT transistors on various substrate materials, is the newest and most promising semiconductor technology for high performance devices in the RF, microwave, and mmW arenas. This is particularly true for GaN-on-Silicon based devices and MMIC's which enable both state-of-the-art high frequency functionality and the ability to scale production into large wafer diameter CMOS foundries. The design and development of GaN-on-Silicon structures and devices will be presented beginning with the basic material parameters, growth of the required epitaxial construction, and leading to the fundamental operational theory of high frequency, high power HEMTs. In this discussion comparisons will be made with alternative substrate materials with emphasis on contrasting the inherent advantages of a silicon based system. Theory of operation of microwave and mmW high power HEMT devices will be presented with special emphasis on fundamental limitations of device performance including inherent frequency limiting transit time analysis, required impedance transformations, internal and external parasitic reactance, thermal impedance optimization, and challenges improved by full integration into monolithic MMICs. Lastly, future directions for implementing GaN-on-Silicon into mainstream CMOS silicon semiconductor technologies will be discussed.

  11. Direct laser writing of auxetic structures: present capabilities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengsbach, Stefan; Lantada, Andrés Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and that display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several micromanufacturing technologies have already been applied to the development of auxetic geometries and devices, additional precision is needed to take full advantage of their special mechanical properties. In this study we present a very promising approach for the development of auxetic metamaterials and devices based on the use of direct laser writing. The process stands out for its precision and complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries attainable without the need of supporting structures. To our knowledge it represents one of the first examples of the application of this technology to the manufacture of auxetic geometries and mechanical metamaterials, with details even more remarkable than those shown in very recent studies, almost reaching the current limit of this additive manufacturing technology. We have used some special 3D auxetic designs whose remarkable NPR has been previously highlighted. (paper)

  12. Some present - day considerations about the reading processes, comprehension and text construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraima García Valdés

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the way how reading constitute s today a challenge in secondary school, so as to make the reading processes more efficient and how the processes of text comprehension and text construction are essential to develop reading skills. The better this component is developed in the lesson, the greater the su ccess of speaking and writing; this way the educator will contribute to develop the communicative competence in the oral and written forms of the language.

  13. Performing T-tests to Compare Autocorrelated Time Series Data Collected from Direct-Reading Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Industrial hygienists now commonly use direct-reading instruments to evaluate hazards in the workplace. The stored values over time from these instruments constitute a time series of measurements that are often autocorrelated. Given the need to statistically compare two occupational scenarios using values from a direct-reading instrument, a t-test must consider measurement autocorrelation or the resulting test will have a largely inflated type-1 error probability (false rejection of the null hypothesis). A method is described for both the one-sample and two-sample cases which properly adjusts for autocorrelation. This method involves the computation of an "equivalent sample size" that effectively decreases the actual sample size when determining the standard error of the mean for the time series. An example is provided for the one-sample case, and an example is given where a two-sample t-test is conducted for two autocorrelated time series comprised of lognormally distributed measurements.

  14. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of nuclear graphite; Analisis espectroquimico de lectura directa de grafito nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Adell, M; Becerro Ruiz, E; Alvarez Gonzalez, F

    1964-07-01

    A description is given about the application of a direct-reading spectrometer the Quantometer, to the determination of boron. calcium, iron, titanium and vanadium in nuclear grade graphite. for boron the powdered sample is mixed with 1% cupric fluoride and excited in a 10-amperes direct current arc and graphite electrodes with a crater 7 mm wide and 10 mm deep. For the other elements a smaller crater has been used and dilution with a number of matrices has been investigated; the best results are achieved by employing 25% cupric fluoride. The sensitivity limit for boron is 0,15 ppm. (Author) 21 refs.

  15. Present status and future prospects for direct drive laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    If one assumes that the best short wavelength laser will have an efficiency of 5--7%, and if one assumes that reasonable cost electricity requires that the product of laser efficiency and pellet gain be greater than 10--15, then pellet grains for laser fusion must be at least 150--300. The only laser fusion concept with any potential for energy applications then seems to be directly driven targets with moderately thin shells and 1/4 micron KrF laser light. This direct drive concept has potential pellet energy gains of 200--300

  16. Unpacking Direct and Indirect Relationships of Short-Term Memory to Word Reading: Evidence From Korean-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Park, Soon-Gil

    2017-08-01

    We examined the relations of short-term memory (STM), metalinguistic awareness (phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) to word reading in Korean, a language with a relatively transparent orthography. STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN have been shown to be important to word reading, but the nature of the relations of STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN to word reading has rarely been investigated. Two alternative models were fitted. In the indirect relation model, STM was hypothesized to be indirectly related to word reading via metalinguistic awareness and RAN. In the direct and indirect relations model, STM was hypothesized to be directly and indirectly related to word reading. Results from 207 beginning readers in South Korea showed that STM was directly related to word reading as well as indirectly via metalinguistic awareness and RAN. Although the direct effect of STM was relatively small (.16), the total effect incorporating the indirect effect was substantial (.42). These results suggest that STM is an important, foundational cognitive capacity that underpins metalinguistic awareness and RAN as well as word reading, and further indicate the importance of considering both direct and indirect effects of language and cognitive skills on word reading.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulations for Combustion Science: Past, Present, and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. This chapter attempts to provide a brief historical review of the progress in DNS of turbulent combustion during the past decades. Major scientific accomplishments and contributions towards fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion will be summarized and future challenges and research needs will be proposed.

  18. Direct Numerical Simulations for Combustion Science: Past, Present, and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.

    2017-12-12

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. This chapter attempts to provide a brief historical review of the progress in DNS of turbulent combustion during the past decades. Major scientific accomplishments and contributions towards fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion will be summarized and future challenges and research needs will be proposed.

  19. Altered patterns of directed connectivity within the reading network of dyslexic children and their relation to reading dysfluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Žarić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD and moderately dysfluent (MDD dyslexics. Results indicated weaker occipital to inferior-temporal connectivity for words in both dyslexic groups relative to TRs. Furthermore, SDDs exhibited stronger connectivity from left central to right inferior-temporal and occipital sites for words relative to TRs, and for false fonts relative to both MDDs and TRs. Importantly, reading fluency was positively related with forward and negatively with backward connectivity. Our results suggest disrupted visual processing of words in both dyslexic groups, together with a compensatory recruitment of right posterior brain regions especially in the SDDs during word and false font processing. Functional connectivity in the brain’s reading network may thus depend on the level of reading dysfluency beyond group differences between dyslexic and typical readers.

  20. The written voice: implicit memory effects of voice characteristics following silent reading and auditory presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    After being familiarized with two voices, either implicit (auditory lexical decision) or explicit memory (auditory recognition) for words from silently read sentences was assessed among 32 men and 32 women volunteers. In the silently read sentences, the sex of speaker was implied in the initial words, e.g., "He said, ..." or "She said...". Tone in question versus statement was also manipulated by appropriate punctuation. Auditory lexical decision priming was found for sex- and tone-consistent items following silent reading, but only up to 5 min. after silent reading. In a second study, similar lexical decision priming was found following listening to the sentences, although these effects remained reliable after a 2-day delay. The effect sizes for lexical decision priming showed that tone-consistency and sex-consistency were strong following both silent reading and listening 5 min. after studying. These results suggest that readers create episodic traces of text from auditory images of silently read sentences as they do during listening.

  1. Issues in vaccinology: Present challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Dylan; Openshaw, Peter Jm; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Vaccination is a principal and highly cost-effective means of controlling infectious diseases, providing direct protection against pathogens by conferring long-lasting immunological memory and inducing population-level herd immunity. Despite rapid ongoing progress in vaccinology, there remain many obstacles to the development and deployment of novel or improved vaccines; these include the underlying science of how to induce and sustain appropriate protective immune responses as well as bureaucratic, logistic and socio-political hurdles. The failure to distribute and administer existing vaccines to at-risk communities continues to account for a large proportion of infant mortality worldwide: almost 20 million children do not have access to basic vaccines and several million still die each year as a result. While emerging epidemic or pandemic diseases pose a significant threat to global health and prosperity, there are many infectious diseases which provide a continuous or cyclical burden on healthcare systems which also need to be addressed. Gaps in knowledge of the human immune system stand in the way of developing technologies to overcome individual and pathogenic variation. The challenges in tackling infectious disease and directions that the field of preventive medicine may take to improve the current picture of global health are the focus of this review. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Direct and Indirect Teaching: Using E-Books for Supporting Vocabulary, Word Reading, and Story Comprehension for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of direct and indirect teaching of vocabulary and word reading on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children following use of an electronic storybook (e-book). The children in each age group were randomly assigned to an intervention group which read the e-book or to a control group which was afforded the regular school…

  3. Effect of Repeated Reading and Self-Directed Behavior on Reading Skills and Generalization of the Reading Skills of Third-Grade Hill Tribe Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compan, Boonlert; Iamsupasit, Sompoch; Samuels, Jay

    A study tested a method for developing reading fluency with third-grade Hill Tribe children in a welfare school in Chiang Mai, a city located in northern Thailand. Most of the students were bilingual, speaking their native tongues and Thai, their second language. Only 18.7% of the Hill Tribe population can read Thai, and many students fail to…

  4. Early Intervention Practices in China: Present Situation and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xijie

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention services to young children with developmental delays in China have experienced significant growth since 1978, the beginning of the period of Reform and Opening. This article described the present situation of early intervention practices in mainland China, framed around the key components and guiding principles of Guralnick's…

  5. Estimating the cost of blood: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Gombotz, Hans; Theusinger, Oliver M; Spahn, Donat R

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the costs associated with blood products requires sophisticated knowledge about transfusion medicine and is attracting the attention of clinical and administrative healthcare sectors worldwide. To improve outcomes, blood usage must be optimized and expenditures controlled so that resources may be channeled toward other diagnostic, therapeutic, and technological initiatives. Estimating blood costs, however, is a complex undertaking, surpassing simple supply versus demand economics. Shrinking donor availability and application of a precautionary principle to minimize transfusion risks are factors that continue to drive the cost of blood products upward. Recognizing that historical accounting attempts to determine blood costs have varied in scope, perspective, and methodology, new approaches have been initiated to identify all potential cost elements related to blood and blood product administration. Activities are also under way to tie these elements together in a comprehensive and practical model that will be applicable to all single-donor blood products without regard to practice type (e.g., academic, private, multi- or single-center clinic). These initiatives, their rationale, importance, and future directions are described.

  6. Reading Matthew 13 as a prophetic discourse: The four parables presented in public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Scholtz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the task of Jesus’ disciples could be to juxtapose new and old unconditional prophecies concerning the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 13 can be read as a prophetic discourse and specific, prophetic referents are identified to gain insight into the prophecies contained in these parables. From a pre-millennial perspective, the kingdom of heaven is seen to exist in terms of the New Covenant in a spiritual sense from the cross of Christ onwards, but it will also be established in a literal sense in terms of the Davidic Covenant when Christ returns. This article discusses the four parables of Matthew 13 that were presented in public. ’n Ondersoek na Matteus 13 as ’n profetiese diskoers: Die vier gelykenisse wat in die openbaar aangebied is. Hierdie artikel stel voor dat dit die taak van Jesus se dissipels sou kon wees om nuwe en ou onvoorwaardelike profesieë oor die koninkryk van die hemele met mekaar te vergelyk. Matteus 13 kan as ’n profetiese diskoers gelees word en spesifieke, profetiese referente word geïdentifiseer om die profesieë in hierdie gelykenisse te begryp. Vanuit ’n pre-millenniale perspektief blyk dit dat die koninkryk van die hemele in ’n geestelike sin in terme van die Nuwe Verbond vanaf Christus se kruis en daarna bestaan, maar dit sal ook in ’n letterlike sin tot stand kom in terme van die Dawidiese Verbond wanneer Christus terugkeer. Hierdie artikel bespreek die vier gelykenisse van Matteus 13 wat in die openbaar aangebied is.

  7. Setting-up of a direct reading emission spectrometer and its adaptation for plutonium handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, A.G.; Godbole, S.V.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Porwal, N.K.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Sastry, M.D.; Srinivasan, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    A Jarrell-Ash 750 AtomComp 1100 series direct reading emission spectrometer was set up and its performance features were checked with regard to analysis of uranium-based samples using d.c. arc/inductively coupled argon plasma excitation techniques. The instrument has been subsequently modified to enable handling of plutonium-based samples. The modifications include building up of a specially designed glove-box around the excitation sources and consequent changes in the electro-mechanical controls associated with them. The modified system was extensively used for the trace metal assay of FBTR fuel sample. (author)

  8. Kinetic physics in ICF: present understanding and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Collins, G.

    2018-06-01

    Kinetic physics has the potential to impact the performance of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Systematic anomalies in the National Ignition Facility implosion dataset have been identified in which kinetic physics may play a role, including inferred missing energy in the hohlraum, drive asymmetry in near-vacuum hohlraums, low areal density and high burn-averaged ion temperatures (〈Ti 〉) compared with mainline simulations, and low ratios of the DD-neutron and DT-neutron yields and inferred 〈Ti 〉. Several components of ICF implosions are likely to be influenced or dominated by kinetic physics: laser-plasma interactions in the LEH and hohlraum interior; the hohlraum wall blowoff, blowoff/gas and blowoff/ablator interfaces; the ablator and ablator/ice interface; and the DT fuel all present conditions in which kinetic physics can significantly affect the dynamics. This review presents the assembled experimental data and simulation results to date, which indicate that the effects of long mean-free-path plasma phenomena and self-generated electromagnetic fields may have a significant impact in ICF targets. Simulation and experimental efforts are proposed to definitively quantify the importance of these effects at ignition-relevant conditions, including priorities for ongoing study.

  9. Molybdenum-99 production at ANSTO: present and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlevy, T.M.; Hetherington, E.; Juric, J.; Hwang, T.; La Riviere, C.; Rutherford, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) decays to give technetium-99m ( 99 Tc m ), the most versatile diagnostic radioisotope used in approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. ANSTO (formerly the AAEC) has supplied technetium generators to the medical community since 1967-68. From small-scale beginnings, 99 Tc m - generators are now also supplied to customers in New Zealand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, Korea and China. 99 Mo is produced in HIFAR by the fission of uranium-235 ( 235 U). Uranium (2.2% 235 U) dioxide pellets are irradiated and then chemically processed to separate and purify the 99 Mo for generator production. The current process involves alumina column separation of 99 Mo from uranium and other fission products; desorption of 99 Mo with ammonia; evaporation to dryness to remove volatile impurities; secondary purification of 99 Mo on alumina. Recent studies have sought to optimize the 99 Mo yield to meet an increasing market demand. These studies focused on two major stages of the process - alumina column separation and evaporation/ boil down. The effects of changes in pH of loading solution, rates of loading and desorption, volume of eluting solvent and temperature of evaporation have been investigated. The results of tracer and production scale experiments will be presented and the impacts upon future 99 Mo production in Australia discussed

  10. The MCMI-III: present and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, T; Davis, R D

    1997-02-01

    Both the original Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-I; Millon, 1977) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II; Millon, 1987) were refined and strengthened on a regular basis by both theoretic logic and research data. This aspiration has continued. The new Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III; Millon, 1994) has been further coordinated with the most recent official diagnostic schema, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) in an even more explicit way than before. Although the publication of the first version of the MCMI preceded the publication of the DSM-IV, its author played a major role in formulating the official manual's personality disorders, contributing thereby to their conceptual correspondence. The DSM-III-R (APA, 1987) was subsequently published in the same year as the MCMI-II; the inventory was modified in its final stages to make it as consonant as possible with the conceptual changes introduced in the then forthcoming official classification. The present version of the MCMI, the MCMI-III, strengthens these correspondences further by drawing on many of the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV to serve as the basis for drafting the inventory's items. This article reports on a select set of theoretical and empirical developments that are being carefully weighed for possible inclusion in future MCMIs, or as a guide in the refinement process of future MCMIs.

  11. How the nature of science is presented to elementary students in science read-alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Seema

    Students as early as elementary school age are capable of learning the aspects of the nature of science (NOS), and the National Benchmarks incorporate the NOS as part of the learning objectives for K--2 students. Learning more about elementary science instruction can aid in understanding how the NOS can be taught or potentially integrated into current teaching methods. Although many teaching methods exist, this study will focus on read-alouds because they are recommended for and are very common in elementary schools. The read-aloud practice is particularly helpful to young students because most of these students have a higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension. One of the main components of the read-aloud practice is the discourse that takes place about the trade book. Both explicit and implicit messages are communicated to students by teachers' language and discussion that takes place in the classroom. Therefore, six multisite naturalistic case studies were conducted to understand elementary teachers' understanding of the NOS, students' understandings of the NOS, trade book representations of the NOS, and read-aloud practices and understandings in upstate New York. The findings of the study revealed that teachers and students held mostly naive and mixed understandings of the NOS. The trade books that had explicit connections to the NOS helped teachers discuss NOS related issues, even when the teachers did not hold strong NOS views. Teachers who held more informed NOS views were able to ask students NOS related questions. All teachers showed they need guidance on how to translate their NOS views into discussion and see the significance of the NOS in their classroom. Explicit NOS instruction can improve student understanding of the NOS, however the focus should be not only on teachers and their NOS understanding but also on the books used. These results show that quality trade books with explicit connections to the NOS are a useful instructional tool

  12. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Michael; Uffmann, Martin; Weber, Michael; Balassy, Csilla; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Prokop, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes, one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a flat panel direct detector unit (DR; Diagnost, Philips). The DR images were obtained with the same and with 50% of the dose used for the CR images. Images were evaluated in a blinded side-by-side comparison. Eight radiologists ranked the visually perceivable difference in image quality using a three-point scale. Then, three radiologists scored the visibility of anatomic landmarks in low and high attenuation areas and image noise. Statistical analysis was based on Friedman tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests at a significance level of P<0.05. DR was judged superior to CR for the delineation of structures in high attenuation areas of the mediastinum even when obtained with 50% less dose (P<0.001). The visibility of most pulmonary structures was judged equivalent with both techniques, regardless of acquisition dose and speed level. Scores for image noise were lower for DR compared with CR, with the exception of DR obtained at a reduced dose. Thus, in this clinical preference study, DR was equivalent or even superior to the most modern dual read-out CR, even when obtained with 50% dose. A further dose reduction does not appear to be feasible for DR without significant loss of image quality. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Jigsaw II, Reading-Writing-Presentation, and Computer Animations on the Teaching of "Light" Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Yasemin; Yildiz, Emre; Çaliklar, Seyma; Simsek, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Jigsaw II technique, reading-writing-presentation method, and computer animation on students' academic achievements, epistemological beliefs, attitudes towards science lesson, and the retention of knowledge in the "Light" unit covered in the 7th grade. The sample of the study consists…

  14. Examining the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal paired associate learning on Chinese word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George; Liu, Cuina; Xu, Shiyang

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning, traditionally measured with paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, has been found to predict reading ability in several languages. However, it remains unclear whether it also predicts word reading in Chinese, which is known for its ambiguous print-sound correspondences, and whether its effects are direct or indirect through the effects of other reading-related skills such as phonological awareness and rapid naming. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal PAL on word reading in an unselected sample of Chinese children followed from the second to the third kindergarten year. A sample of 141 second-year kindergarten children (71 girls and 70 boys; mean age=58.99months, SD=3.17) were followed for a year and were assessed at both times on measures of visual-verbal PAL, rapid naming, and phonological awareness. In the third kindergarten year, they were also assessed on word reading. The results of path analysis showed that visual-verbal PAL exerted a significant direct effect on word reading that was independent of the effects of phonological awareness and rapid naming. However, it also exerted significant indirect effects through phonological awareness. Taken together, these findings suggest that variations in cross-modal associative learning (as measured by visual-verbal PAL) place constraints on the development of word recognition skills irrespective of the characteristics of the orthography children are learning to read. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew; Walsh, Peter T

    2013-08-01

    Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the

  16. Direct lexical control of eye movements in reading: Evidence from a survival analysis of fixation durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Eyal M.; Reichle, Erik D.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; Sheridan, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Participants’ eye movements were monitored in an experiment that manipulated the frequency of target words (high vs. low) as well as their availability for parafoveal processing during fixations on the pre-target word (valid vs. invalid preview). The influence of the word-frequency by preview validity manipulation on the distributions of first fixation duration was examined by using ex-Gaussian fitting as well as a novel survival analysis technique which provided precise estimates of the timing of the first discernible influence of word frequency on first fixation duration. Using this technique, we found a significant influence of word frequency on fixation duration in normal reading (valid preview) as early as 145 ms from the start of fixation. We also demonstrated an equally rapid non-lexical influence on first fixation duration as a function of initial landing position (location) on target words. The time-course of frequency effects, but not location effects was strongly influenced by preview validity, demonstrating the crucial role of parafoveal processing in enabling direct lexical control of reading fixation times. Implications for models of eye-movement control are discussed. PMID:22542804

  17. Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends were identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered

  18. Rapid analysis of fertilizers by the direct-reading thermometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, I; Sipos, B

    1972-05-01

    The authors have developed rapid methods for the determination of the main components of fertilizers, namely phosphate, potassium and nitrogen fixed in various forms. In the absence of magnesium ions phosphate is precipitated with magnesia mixture; in the presence of magnesium ions ammonium phosphomolybdate is precipitated and the excess of molybdate is reacted with hydrogen peroxide. Potassium is determined by precipitation with silico-fluoride. For nitrogen fixed as ammonium salts the ammonium ions are condensed in a basic solution with formalin to hexamethylenetetramine; for nitrogen fixed as carbamide the latter is decomposed with sodium nitrite; for nitrogen fixed as nitrate the latter is reduced with titanium(III). In each case the temperature change of the test solution is measured. Practically all essential components of fertilizers may be determined by direct-reading thermometry; with this method and special apparatus the time of analysis is reduced to at most about 15 min for any determination.

  19. Direct reading spectrochemical determination of aluminium, iron and silicon in fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.

    1966-01-01

    A quantitative spectrochemical method for the determination of Al, Fe and Si in fluorite has been worked out. The sample was supported in a graphite electrode with crater of 5 mm. in diameter, 2,5 mm deep, and burned by a d.c. are in a direct reading spectrometer. The excitation of samples has been studied without dilution as well as using graphite powder as diluent in the ratios 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9; the latter factor was chosen. Ag, Ca, Co, Cr, Mo and Sn were tested as internal standards. It has not been found any significant inter element effect. It is necessary to use natural fluorite as base material for the standards. (Author) 5 refs

  20. Sex Mediates the Effects of High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on "Mind-Reading".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A K; Huang, J; Hunold, A; Meinzer, M

    2017-12-16

    Sex differences in social cognitive ability are well established, including measures of Theory of Mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to investigate if sex mediates the effects of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) administered to a key hub of the social brain (i.e., the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dmPFC) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Forty healthy young adults (18-35 years) were randomly allocated to receive either anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS in sham HD-tDCS controlled, double blind designs. In each of the two sessions, subjects completed the RMET. Anodal stimulation to the dmPFC increased accuracy on the RMET in females only. To assure regional specificity we performed a follow-up study stimulating the right temporoparietal junction and found no effect in either sex. The current study is the first to show improved performance on the RMET after tDCS to the dmPFC in females only. The polarity-specific effects and use of focal HD-tDCS provide evidence for sex-dependent differences in dmPFC function in relation to the RMET. Future studies using tDCS to study or improve ToM, need to consider sex. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical dosimetry with plastic scintillators - Almost energy independent, direct absorbed dose reading with high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, U; Fluehs, D [Department of Radiotherapy, Essen (Germany). Div. of Clinical Radiation Physics; Fluehs, D; Kolanoski, H [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-08-01

    Clinical dosimetry is still far behind the goal to measure any spatial or temporal distribution of absorbed dose fast and precise without disturbing the physical situation by the dosimetry procedure. NE 102A plastic scintillators overcome this border. These tissue substituting dosemeter probes open a wide range of new clinical applications of dosimetry. This versatile new dosimetry system enables fast measurement of the absorbed dose to water in water also in regions with a steep dose gradient, close to interfaces, or in partly shielded regions. It allows direct reading dosimetry in the energy range of all clinically used external photon and electron beams, or around all branchytherapy sources. Thin detector arrays permit fast and high resolution measurements in quality assurance, such as in-vivo dosimetry or even afterloading dose monitoring. A main field of application is the dosimetric treatment planning, the individual optimization of brachytherapy applicators. Thus, plastic scintillator dosemeters cover optimally all difficult fields of clinical dosimetry. An overview about its characteristics and applications is given here. 20 refs, 1 fig.

  2. A direct reading on-line flowrate meter for use in radiochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, B.V.; Kaimal, C.K.R.; Siddiqui, I.A.; Kumar, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    A device for measurement and remote direct reading display of the flowrates of streams in a radiochemical plant is described. The device is interposed in the measured stream and consists of a syphon pot with a specially developed attachment on the discharge line. Differential pressure switches are used to trigger a timer device at set levels in the pot and the time required for filling the pot during each cycle is measured and is used to compute and display the flowrate. The device is accurate and reliable and is simple to fabricate and install. It is maintenance-free since it has no moving parts. It is also suggested that a manometer with conductive contacts could be used in place of the d.p. switches. The background and various stages of development of the device are described. The operating data is tabulated and parameters required for plant applications are indicated in detail. A simple method to detect and correct for errors due to drift in d.p. switch setting is also outlined. Sketches of typical syphon pot, the schematic of the apparatus and suggested layout for application in radiochemical plant are also included. (author). 11 figures, 6 tables

  3. Teaching Reading Comprehension and Language Skills to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities Using Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Margaret M.; Nelson, Cynthia; Hinton, Vanessa; Franklin, Toni M.; Strozier, Shaunita D.; Terry, LaTonya; Franklin, Susan

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research demonstrating Direct Instruction (DI) as an effective reading comprehension intervention for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities (DD). Previous research has shown that DI, when portions of the program were implemented, resulted in increased skills (Flores & Ganz, 2007; Flores…

  4. Direct and Indirect Roles of Morphological Awareness in the English Reading Comprehension of Native English, Spanish, Filipino, and Vietnamese Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested three hypotheses about the direct and indirect contributions of derivational morphological awareness to English reading comprehension in sixth-grade students from differing language backgrounds (n= 952). Students included Spanish-speaking, Filipino-speaking, and Vietnamese-speaking language minority learners as well as native…

  5. Comparison of fine particle measurements from a direct-reading instrument and a gravimetric sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Young; Magari, Shannon R; Herrick, Robert F; Smith, Thomas J; Christiani, David C

    2004-11-01

    Particulate air pollution, specifically the fine particle fraction (PM2.5), has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in general population studies. Occupational exposure to fine particulate matter can exceed ambient levels by a large factor. Due to increased interest in the health effects of particulate matter, many particle sampling methods have been developed In this study, two such measurement methods were used simultaneously and compared. PM2.5 was sampled using a filter-based gravimetric sampling method and a direct-reading instrument, the TSI Inc. model 8520 DUSTTRAK aerosol monitor. Both sampling methods were used to determine the PM2.5 exposure in a group of boilermakers exposed to welding fumes and residual fuel oil ash. The geometric mean PM2.5 concentration was 0.30 mg/m3 (GSD 3.25) and 0.31 mg/m3 (GSD 2.90)from the DUSTTRAK and gravimetric method, respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient for the gravimetric and DUSTTRAK PM2.5 concentrations was 0.68. Linear regression models indicated that log, DUSTTRAK PM2.5 concentrations significantly predicted loge gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations (p gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations was found to be modified by surrogate measures for seasonal variation and type of aerosol. PM2.5 measurements from the DUSTTRAK are well correlated and highly predictive of measurements from the gravimetric sampling method for the aerosols in these work environments. However, results from this study suggest that aerosol particle characteristics may affect the relationship between the gravimetric and DUSTTRAK PM2.5 measurements. Recalibration of the DUSTTRAK for the specific aerosol, as recommended by the manufacturer, may be necessary to produce valid measures of airborne particulate matter.

  6. Reading Matthew 13 as a prophetic discourse: The four parables presented in private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Scholtz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The task of Jesus’ disciples might be to juxtapose ‘new and old’ unconditional prophecies of the kingdom of heaven. After describing its setting, the four parables in Matthew 13, presented in private, are considered from a pre-millennial perspective. The parable of the hidden treasure may indicate how Jesus Christ first authenticates and then hides his authority and power to rule as King in terms of the Davidic Covenant over the literal Davidic kingdom – before he then goes to the cross. Having been to the cross, the parable of the pearl merchant may show how the first, spiritual phase of the kingdom commences when Christ Jesus starts his pearl ministry as High Priest in terms of the New Covenant. The parable of the dragnet has in view the transition from the spiritual phase of the kingdom into its future phase. An overview of the four privately given parables of Matthew 13 is then provided. After this a summary of the new and old prophecies contained in the eight parables of Matthew 13 is presented, followed by the conclusion. ’n Ondersoek na Matteus 13 as ’n profetiese diskoers: Die vier gelykenisse wat privaat aangebied is. Die taak van Jesus se dissipels sou kon wees om ‘nuwe en ou’ onvoorwaardelike profesieë van die koninkryk van die hemele met mekaar te vergelyk. Nadat die konteks beskryf is, word die vier gelykenisse in Matteus 13 wat privaat aangebied is vanuit ’n pre-millenniale perspektief oorweeg. Die gelykenis van die verborge skat sou kon aantoon hoe Jesus Christus sy gesag en mag om as Koning in terme van die Dawidiese Verbond oor die letterlike Dawidiese koninkryk te regeer, eers bevestig en dan verberg – waarna Hy kruis toe gaan. Nadat Hy gekruisig is, sou die gelykenis van die pêrelkoper kon aantoon hoe die eerste, geestelike fase van die koninkryk ’n aanvang neem as Christus Jesus sy pêrelbediening as Hoëpriester in terme van die Nuwe Verbond begin. Die gelykenis van die net toon die

  7. Attentional asymmetry between visual hemifields is related to habitual direction of reading and its implications for debate on cause and effects of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Mojtaba; Verghese, Ashika; Vidyasagar, Trichur R

    2018-02-01

    A major controversy regarding dyslexia is whether any of the many visual and phonological deficits found to be correlated with reading difficulty cause the impairment or result from the reduced amount of reading done by dyslexics. We studied this question by comparing a visual capacity in the left and right visual hemifields in people habitually reading scripts written right-to-left or left-to-right. Selective visual attention is necessary for efficient visual search and also for the sequential recognition of letters in words. Because such attentional allocation during reading depends on the direction in which one is reading, asymmetries in search efficiency may reflect biases arising from the habitual direction of reading. We studied this by examining search performance in three cohorts: (a) left-to-right readers who read English fluently; (b) right-to-left readers fluent in reading Farsi but not any left-to-right script; and (c) bilingual readers fluent in English and in Farsi, Arabic, or Hebrew. Left-to-right readers showed better search performance in the right hemifield and right-to-left readers in the left hemifield, but bilingual readers showed no such asymmetries. Thus, reading experience biases search performance in the direction of reading, which has implications for the cause and effect relationships between reading and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Reading, Writing, and Presenting Original Scientific Research: A Nine-Week Course in Scientific Communication for High School Students†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, Elizabeth S.; Malpede, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    High school students are not often given opportunities to communicate scientific findings to their peers, the general public, and/or people in the scientific community, and therefore they do not develop scientific communication skills. We present a nine-week course that can be used to teach high school students, who may have no previous experience, how to read and write primary scientific articles and how to discuss scientific findings with a broad audience. Various forms of this course have been taught for the past 10 years as part of an intensive summer research program for rising high school seniors that is coordinated by the Young Scientist Program at Washington University in St. Louis. The format presented here includes assessments for efficacy through both rubric-based methods and student self-assessment surveys. PMID:26753027

  9. Preventative Reading Interventions Teaching Direct Mapping of Graphemes in Texts and Set-for-Variability Aid At-Risk Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Robert; Georgiou, George; Parrila, Rauno; Maiorino, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated two experimenter-delivered, small-group word reading programs among at-risk poor readers in Grade 1 classes of regular elementary schools using a two-arm, dual-site-matched control trial intervention. At-risk poor word readers (n = 201) were allocated to either (a) Direct Mapping and Set-for-Variability (DMSfV) or (b) Current or…

  10. Digital direction device model to reduce private reading difference in analog survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Oh Il; Song, Goan Suk; Jang, Dong Chul

    2005-01-01

    Because dosimeter used in radiation measurement is shown different response for same dose rate according to kind and energy of measurement sample radiation, must know kind and energy of radiation of each device to get exact measurement. Therefore in using of detector at work, it's very important to make an estimate of the reaction according to radiation. This is adequate by the correction. But as important thing of authoritativeness about d that is used dosimeter and gets may be impact by measurer private interpretation difference as proof reading. The reliability to the results according to the detector associated with the correction and the private reading difference

  11. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  12. The opening and reading behavior of business-to-business direct mail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wulf, K; Hoekstra, JC; Commandeur, HR

    Companies who are able to optimize their target audience's opening and reading behavior of commercial business-to-business mailings realize two objectives at the same time: increase response rates of these mailings and lift the level of exposure of their company, its products, and/or services.

  13. The Effects of Arousal Presented by a Pedagogical Agent on English Language Learners' Situational Interest, Cognitive Load and Reading Comprehension in Online Reading Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobisz, Jack

    2017-01-01

    This research examined how four different animated pedagogical agent implementations, which focus on perceptual and inquiry arousal conditions of attention as defined in Keller's ARCS model of motivational design (Keller, 2009), impact English language learners' situational interest, cognitive load, and reading comprehension in online readings…

  14. PRESENT AND FUTURE OF NATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS COMPLIANT WITH EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina, LUȚĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial statements are the basic form to submit accounting information and they envisage the provision of information on an enterprise's financial status, performance and cash flow. The quality of financial reporting arises from accounting norms that impose a joint terminology ensuring accounting information's comparability, communication and understanding. In the European Union, the standards adopted by the Council of European Communities aim at harmonizing accounting systems, preparing and submitting annual financial statements. To apply them, member states must first incorporate them into their own legislations resorting over time to various implementation solutions, which involves certain difficulties due to economic, social and political peculiarities. In this respect, the European Parliament has adopted Directive 2013/34/EU regarding annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements and associated reports of various types of enterprises. The present paper envisages a comparative study of old directives (Fourth Directive and Seventh Directive and the new Directive.

  15. EC-directive optical radiation - present state of consultation; EG-Richtlinie optische Strahlung - aktueller Beratungsstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipke, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The draft of a directive on the protection of workers from risks related to radiation in the range from 100 nm to 1 mm (Laser, UV-radiation) is discussed on EC-level. The European concept of regulations on occupational safety and health is outlined and put into reference with other directives on the protection against physical agents (vibrations, noise, electromagnetic fields). Building up on this the present state of consultation of a directive on optical radiation is represented, including major points of consideration. (orig.)

  16. Mobile phone quality vs. Direct quality: How the presentation format affects earwitness identification accuracy.

    OpenAIRE

    Par Anders Granhag; Anders Eriksson; Lisa Ohman

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to gain insight into the effect of mobile phone quality on voice identification using an ecologically realistic design. A total of 165 participants were exposed to an unfamiliar voice, either directly recorded or mobile phone recorded, for 40 seconds. After a two week delay, they were asked to identify the target-voice in a 7 voice target-present line-up. We used a between subjects design, where half of the subjects were exposed to a directly recorded line-up, and the ...

  17. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  18. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  19. Contextual Modulation of Reading Rate for Direct versus Indirect Speech Quotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., "Mary said: "I'm hungry"") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., "Mary said [that] she was hungry"). However, the processing consequences of this distinction are largely unclear. In two experiments, participants were asked to either orally (Experiment 1) or silently (Experiment 2,…

  20. The Effects of Pre- Versus Post-Presentation Input Flooding via Reading on the Young Iranian EFL Learners' Acquisition of Simple Past Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhtegar, Omid; Gholami, Javad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the possible effects of pre-versus post-presentation input flooding via reading on simple past tense acquisition among young Iranian EFL learners. Sixty one elementary EFL learners were divided into two experimental and one control group. The experimental groups were exposed to pre and post presentation…

  1. Dealing with the size-of-source effect in the calibration of direct-reading radiation thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, P. [Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-11

    The majority of general-purpose low-temperature handheld radiation thermometers are severely affected by the size-of-source effect (SSE). Calibration of these instruments is pointless unless the SSE is accounted for in the calibration process. Traditional SSE measurement techniques, however, are costly and time consuming, and because the instruments are direct-reading in temperature, traditional SSE results are not easily interpretable, particularly by the general user. This paper describes a simplified method for measuring the SSE, suitable for second-tier calibration laboratories and requiring no additional equipment, and proposes a means of reporting SSE results on a calibration certificate that should be easily understood by the non-specialist user.

  2. Development of direct reading dosimeters for the dose 0-3 mSv and 0-5 mSv ranges for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, P.V.; Shirkar, Y.B.; Patil, A.S.; Madgaonkar, P.P.; Kale, K.L.; Guhagarkar, H.V.; Gandhi, D.P.; Gupta, S.K.; Kothiyal, G.P.; Sahni, V.C.

    1998-01-01

    Direct reading dosimeters (DRDs) are widely used to measure cumulative dose received by personnel working at nuclear reactor sites or in other environment having x- and gamma rays. A DRD operates on the principle of gold leaf electroscope, and is a small, rugged, hermetically sealed, self reading type device easily carried by an individual in his pocket. The development of dosimeters suitable for the dose ranges 0-3 mSv and 0-5 mSv is reported

  3. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of sodium uranate; Analisis espectroquimico de lectura directa de uranato sodico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M; Capdevila, C

    1966-07-01

    We describe the application of the quantometer to the analysis of sodium uranate. To determine boron, cadmium, phosphorus and molybdenum contents, the samples are mixed with graphite powder (1:30) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc with 4x4,5 mm cup graphite rods, using silver as internal standard. A not se deep cup and a dilution factor of 90 are more suitable for calcium, copper, iron, silicon and vanadium determination; cobalt and chromium are the internal standards. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. Direct-acting DNA alkylating agents present in aqueous extracts of areca nut and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chiung-Wen; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2012-11-19

    Areca nut is a carcinogen to humans and has been strongly associated with oral premalignant and malignant diseases. Previous studies speculated the presence of unknown direct-acting mutagens present in aqueous extracts of areca nut. We hypothesized whether any direct-acting alkylating agents are present in areca nut and its commercial products. In this study, calf thymus DNA was treated with four different aqueous extracts obtained from unripe and ripe areca nuts or their commercial products, namely, pan masala (without tobacco) and gutkha (with tobacco). Three N-alkylated purines including N7-methylguanine (N7-MeG), N3-methyladenine (N3-MeA), and N7-ethylguanine (N7-EtG) were detected using sensitive and specific isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. The results showed that four types of aqueous extracts significantly induced the formation of N7-MeG and N3-MeA in a linear dose-response manner. Extracts from unripe areca nut exhibited higher methylating potency than those of ripe areca nut, while gutkha had higher methylating potency than pan masala. Meanwhile, gutkha made with areca nut and tobacco, was the only extract found to induce the formation of N7-EtG. Overall, this study first demonstrated that the presence of direct-acting alkylating agents in areca nut and its commercial products exist at a level that is able to cause significant DNA damage. Our findings may provide another mechanistic rationale for areca nut-mediated oral carcinogenesis and also highlight the importance and necessity of the identification of these direct-acting alkylating agents.

  5. Engineered artificial antigen presenting cells facilitate direct and efficient expansion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coukos George

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of a standardized platform for the rapid expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs with anti-tumor function from patients with limited TIL numbers or tumor tissues challenges their clinical application. Methods To facilitate adoptive immunotherapy, we applied genetically-engineered K562 cell-based artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs for the direct and rapid expansion of TILs isolated from primary cancer specimens. Results TILs outgrown in IL-2 undergo rapid, CD28-independent expansion in response to aAPC stimulation that requires provision of exogenous IL-2 cytokine support. aAPCs induce numerical expansion of TILs that is statistically similar to an established rapid expansion method at a 100-fold lower feeder cell to TIL ratio, and greater than those achievable using anti-CD3/CD28 activation beads or extended IL-2 culture. aAPC-expanded TILs undergo numerical expansion of tumor antigen-specific cells, remain amenable to secondary aAPC-based expansion, and have low CD4/CD8 ratios and FOXP3+ CD4+ cell frequencies. TILs can also be expanded directly from fresh enzyme-digested tumor specimens when pulsed with aAPCs. These "young" TILs are tumor-reactive, positively skewed in CD8+ lymphocyte composition, CD28 and CD27 expression, and contain fewer FOXP3+ T cells compared to parallel IL-2 cultures. Conclusion Genetically-enhanced aAPCs represent a standardized, "off-the-shelf" platform for the direct ex vivo expansion of TILs of suitable number, phenotype and function for use in adoptive immunotherapy.

  6. 77 FR 16973 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reopening the comment period on specific data related to a proposed rule published in the Federal Register of March 29,, to establish standards that would be considered in determining whether the major statement in direct-to- consumer (DTC) television and radio advertisements relating to the side effects and contraindications of an advertised prescription drug intended for use by humans is presented in a clear, conspicuous, and neutral manner. In the Federal Register of January 27, 2012, FDA announced that it had added a document to the docket for the proposed rulemaking concerning a study entitled ``Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Distraction on Consumer Understanding of Risk and Benefit Information in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Television Advertisements'' (Distraction Study) and the public was given until February 27, 2012, to comment on this study as it relates to the proposed standards. FDA is reopening the comment period for the rulemaking proceeding in response to a request for more time to submit comments to the Agency.

  7. 77 FR 4273 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reopening the comment period on specific data related to a proposed rule published in the Federal Register of March 29, 2010 (75 FR 15376), to establish standards that would be considered in determining whether the major statement in direct-to-consumer (DTC) television and radio advertisements relating to the side effects and contraindications of an advertised prescription drug intended for use by humans is presented in a clear, conspicuous, and neutral manner. FDA is announcing that it has added a document to the docket for the proposed rulemaking concerning a study entitled: ``Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Distraction on Consumer Understanding of Risk and Benefit Information in Direct-to- Consumer Prescription Drug Television Advertisements'' (Distraction Study). This study was designed to investigate some advertising factors that could influence consumers' understanding of a drug's risks. This document reopens the comment period for the rulemaking proceeding to allow an opportunity for comment on the study as it relates to the proposed standards.

  8. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. 26.405... but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. If the IRB finds that an...: (a) The intervention or procedure holds out the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subject...

  9. 45 CFR 46.405 - Research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. 46.405 Section 46.405 Public Welfare... risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. HHS will conduct or fund... procedure that holds out the prospect of direct benefit for the individual subject, or by a monitoring...

  10. 21 CFR 50.52 - Clinical investigations involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects. 50.52 Section 50.52... investigations involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to individual... prospect of direct benefit for the individual subject, or by a monitoring procedure that is likely to...

  11. Direct repair of spondylolysis presenting after correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptan, Wael M T; ElMiligui, Yasser H; ElSharkawi, Mohammad M

    2011-02-01

    Although spondylolysis is found in 6% of idiopathic scoliosis patients, very little was reported on management of pars defects in this group. These patients with painful spondylolysis are most eligible for direct repair of the defect rather than lumbosacral fusion in an attempt to save motion segments. The aim of this work was to analyze the clinical and radiologic outcome of pars repair in a group of adolescents who presented after surgical correction of their idiopathic scoliosis. A prospective nonrandomized study. Ten consecutive patients with spondylolysis presenting after an average of 3 months (range, 2-7 months) from correction of their idiopathic scoliosis with low back pain not responding to conservative therapy and interfering with everyday activities. The mean age at operation was 16 years (range, 14-19 years). Total blood loss, operative time, and hospital stay were recorded. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS), and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire. Fusion of the pars interarticularis was assessed using plain, lateral, and oblique radiographs and a computed tomography (CT) scan. The surgical technique consisted of thorough debridement of the defect, impacting the gap created with a tricortical iliac crest graft, and rigid fixation by either pedicle screws and a V-shaped rod (five patients) or a cable-screw construct (five patients). Patients were followed up for an average of 4.5 years (range, 2-7 years). Nine patients had a good-to-excellent result, returned to normal everyday life, and participated in sports when desired. The mean ODI, VAS, and SRS total scores were 11 (range, 0-34), 1.1 (range, 0-2), and 92 (range, 61-108), respectively. Follow-up radiographs and CT scans revealed healing of all defects in nine cases, no signs of disc degeneration in any, and no implant-related complications. The results of direct repair of spondylolysis in idiopathic scoliosis patients were

  12. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  13. Developing reading literacy by reading badge

    OpenAIRE

    Rejc, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    Reading is a fundamental activity of our society and is present in all areas of a person’s life. Authors who deal with reading define reading with different definitions, some of them I also presented in my master’s degree thesis. The ways of reading, typology of readers and knowledge of different reading models are only some of the important theoretical facts that serve as a basis for the research and defining reading. Reading motivation is an important motivational factor, which encourages a...

  14. Seeking a Utopia in the Past to Endure the Present: A Jungian Reading of The Realms of Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram R. Sistani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts a Jungian approach to Margaret Drabble’s novel The Realms of Gold. Jungian reading has been taken up to unravel the distinctive characteristics which make this novel so unique and popular. The focus of the paper is to classify the main characters of the novel in terms of their psychological types.  In this novel from the beginning the reader is introduced to an atmosphere which is related to the personality of the main character Frances Wingate. Her thoughts are introduced to the readers in form of monologues. By the usage of these monologues and the narrator’s judgments on the characters their psychological types can be implied. The protagonist is compared with the other major characters to illuminate to what extent different types can get along with each other. In Jungian psychology knowing about our psychological type is a crucial issue in the process of individuation. It gets more significance when it comes to opposite sex relationships or generally any kinds of interaction.

  15. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, Francois; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak x2122 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  16. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Laboratoire de Metrologie des Aerosols, Rue du Morvan, CS 60027, 54519 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Gensdarmes, Francois [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Laboratoire de Physique et de Metrologie des Aerosols, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Thomas, Dominique [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique, LSGC/CNRS, Nancy Universite, BP 2041, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: sebastien.bau@inrs.fr

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak{sup x2122} 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  17. Present status and future directions of the Mayo/IBM PACS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Richard L.; Forbes, Glenn S.; Gehring, Dale G.; Salutz, James R.; Pavlicek, William

    1991-07-01

    This joint project began in 1988 and was motivated by the need to develop an alternative to the archival process in place at that time (magnetic tape) for magnetic resonance imaging and neurological computed tomography. In addition, this project was felt to be an important step in gaining the necessary clinical experience for the future implementation of various aspects of electronic imaging. The initial phase of the project was conceived and developed to prove the concept, test the fundamental components, and produce performance measurements for future work. The key functions of this phase centered on attachment of imaging equipment (GE Signa) and archival processes using a non-dedicated (institutionally supplied) local area network (LAN). Attachment of imaging equipment to the LAN was performed using commercially available devices (Ethernet, PS/2, Token Ring). Image data were converted to ACR/NEMA format with retention of the vendor specific header information. Performance measurements were encouraging and led to the design of following projects. The second phase has recently been concluded. The major features of this phase have been to greatly expand the network, put the network into clinical use, establish an efficient and useful viewing station, include diagnostic reports in the archive data, provide wide area network (WAN) capability via ISDN, and establish two-way real-time video between remote sites. This phase has heightened both departmental and institutional thought regarding various issues raised by electronic imaging. Much discussion regarding both present as well as future archival processes has occurred. The use of institutional LAN resources has proven to be adequate for the archival function examined thus far. Experiments to date have shown that use of dedicated resources will be necessary for retrieval activities at even a basic level. This report presents an overview of the background present status and future directions of the project.

  18. Crossreactive autoantibodies directed against cutaneous and joint antigens are present in psoriatic arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Dolcino

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by erosions and new bone formation. Diagnosis of PsA is mainly clinical and there are no biomarkers available. Moreover in PsA autoantibodies have not been described so far. Indeed an autoimmune origin has been suggested but never proven. Aim of the study was to investigate the possible presence of autoantibodies typically associated with PsA.We used pooled IgG immunoglobulins derived from 30 patients with PsA to screen a random peptide library in order to identify disease relevant autoantigen peptides.Among the selected peptides, one was recognised by nearly all the patients' sera. The identified peptide (PsA peptide: TNRRGRGSPGAL shows sequence similarities with skin autoantigens, such as fibrillin 3, a constituent of actin microfibrils, desmocollin 3, a constituent of the desmosomes and keratin 78, a component of epithelial cytoskeleton. Interestingly the PsA peptide shares homology with the nebulin-related anchoring protein (N-RAP, a protein localized in the enthesis (point of insertion of a tendon or ligament to the bone, which represents the first affected site during early PsA. Antibodies affinity purified against the PsA peptide recognize fibrillin, desmocollin, keratin and N-RAP. Moreover antibodies directed against the PsA peptide are detectable in 85% of PsA patients. Such antibodies are not present in healthy donors and are present in 13/100 patients with seroposive rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In seronegative RA these antibodies are detectable only in 3/100 patients.Our results indicate that PsA is characterized by the presence of serum autoantibodies crossreacting with an epitope shared by skin and joint antigens.

  19. Directional backlight liquid crystal autostereoscopic display: technical challenges, research progress, and prospect (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hang; Li, Kunyang; Zhou, Yangui; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Recent upsurge on virtual and augmented realities (VR and AR) has re-ignited the interest to the immerse display technology. The VR/AR technology based on stereoscopic display is believed in its early stage as glasses-free, or autostereoscopic display, will be ultimately adopted for the viewing convenience, visual comfort and for the multi-viewer purposes. On the other hand, autostereoscopic display has not yet received positive market response for the past years neither with stereoscopic displays using shutter or polarized glasses. We shall present the analysis on the real-world applications, rigid user demand, the drawbacks to the existing barrier- and lenticular lens-based LCD autostereoscopy. We shall emphasize the emerging autostereoscopic display, and notably on directional backlight LCD technology using a hybrid spatial- and temporal-control scenario. We report the numerical simulation of a display system using Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method with the human retina as the real image receiver. The system performance is optimized using newly developed figure of merit for system design. The reduced crosstalk in an autostereoscopic system, the enhanced display quality, including the high resolution received by the retina, the display homogeneity without Moiré- and defect-pattern, will be highlighted. Recent research progress including a novel scheme for diffraction-free backlight illumination, the expanded viewing zone for autostereoscopic display, and the novel Fresnel lens array to achieve a near perfect display in 2D/3D mode will be introduced. The experimental demonstration will be presented to the autostereoscopic display with the highest resolution, low crosstalk, Moiré- and defect- pattern free.

  20. Presenting efficacy information in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Aikin, Kathryn J; Chowdhury, Dhuly; Moultrie, Rebecca R; Rupert, Douglas J

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated whether presenting prescription drug efficacy information in direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising helps individuals accurately report a drug's benefits and, if so, which numerical format is most helpful. We conducted a randomized, controlled study of individuals diagnosed with high cholesterol (n=2807) who viewed fictitious prescription drug print or television ads containing either no drug efficacy information or efficacy information in one of five numerical formats. We measured drug efficacy recall, drug perceptions and attitudes, behavioral intentions, and drug risk recall. Individuals who viewed absolute frequency and/or percentage information more accurately reported drug efficacy than participants who viewed no efficacy information. Participants who viewed relative frequency information generally reported drug efficacy less accurately than participants who viewed other numerical formats. Adding efficacy information to DTC ads-both in print and on television-may potentially increase an individual's knowledge of a drug's efficacy, which may improve patient-provider communication and promote more informed decisions. Providing quantitative efficacy information in a combination of formats (e.g., absolute frequency and percent) may help patients remember information and make decisions about prescription drugs. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. 34 CFR 97.405 - Research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. 97.405 Section 97.405 Education Office... the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. ED conducts or funds research in which the... holds out the prospect of direct benefit for the individual subject, or by a monitoring procedure that...

  2. Effects of EFL Individual Learner Variables on Foreign Language Reading Anxiety and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Hsin-Yi

    2016-08-01

    Past research has shown an association between foreign language reading anxiety and reading strategy. However, individual variables tend to affect foreign language anxiety and strategy use. The present study examined a hypothesized model that specified direct and indirect effects among English and foreign languages readers' distinct variables, including academic level; self-perceived English level; and satisfaction with reading proficiency, reading anxiety, and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. A total of 523 volunteer Taiwanese college students provided 372 valid responses to a written questionnaire (281 women and 91 men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 1.1) containing the translated versions of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, Survey of Reading Strategies Inventory, and self-assessment background questionnaire. The results showed that self-evaluation of reading proficiency did not correlate with academic level and readers' perceptions. Satisfaction had a direct effect on foreign language reading anxiety but not on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Results of path analysis demonstrated that the perception learners who had their own reading proficiency predicted their foreign language reading anxiety and was a mediating variable for metacognitive reading strategy use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Reading assessment and training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to ensure ourselves and the general public that the workers in the Nuclear Materials Processing Department (NMPD) could read, follow, and understand procedures. Procedures were randomly selected and analyzed for reading levels. A tenth grade reading level was established as the standard for all NMPD employees. Employees were tested to determine reading levels and approximately 12% could not read at the target level. A Procedure Walk-Through Evaluation was administered to each person not reaching tenth grade reading level. This was a job performance measure given to ensure that the worker was competent in his/her present job, and should remain there while completing reading training. A mandatory Reading Training Program utilizing Computer Based Training was established. This program is self-paced, individualized instruction and provided to the worker on Company time. Results of the CBT Program have been very good. Instruction is supplemented with test-taking skills seminars, practice exams, individual conferences with their own reading specialist, and some self-directed study books. This paper describes the program at Savannah River Site

  4. Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of soils and plant ashes; Analisis espectroquimico de lectura directa de suelos y cenizas de plantas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M; Alvarez, F; Cellini, R F; Burriel, F

    1966-07-01

    Two different techniques haves been tried to determine trace elements in soils and plant ashes using a direct reading spectrometer :1) the samples are mixed with graphite powder and excited on 2x4 mm graphite rods with a 13 amperes direct current arc: 2) a mixture of graphite and strontium carbonate is used as spectrochemical buffer, and 2x6 mm cup graphite rods in a 10 amperes direct current arc. We have studies the influence of sodium, potassium and calcium on the results. (Author)

  5. The Nursing Home Culture-Change Movement: Recent Past, Present, and Future Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anna N.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a retrospective approach to critique the research base underlying the nursing home culture-change movement--an effort to radically transform the nation's nursing homes by delivering resident-directed care and empowering staff. The article traces the development of the movement from its inception 10 years ago to 2005, when the…

  6. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  7. Label-free direct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of nucleic acids (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Xie, Hainan; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Recently, plasmonic-based biosensing has experienced an unprecedented level of attention, with a particular focus on the nucleic acid detection, offering efficient solutions to engineer simple, fast, highly sensitive sensing platforms while overcoming important limitations of PCR and microarray techniques. In the broad field of plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has arisen as a powerful analytical tool for detection and structural characterization of biomolecules. Today applications of SERS to nucleic acid analysis largely rely on indirect strategies, which have been demonstrated very effective for pure sensing purposes but completely dismiss the exquisite structural information provided by the direct acquisition of the biomolecular vibrational fingerprint. Contrarily, direct label-free SERS of nucleic acid shows an outstanding potential in terms of chemical-specific information which, however, remained largely unexpressed mainly because of the inherent poor spectral reproducibility and/or limited sensitivity. To address these limitations, we developed a fast and affordable high-throughput screening direct SERS method for gaining detailed genomic information on nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and for the characterization and quantitative recognition of DNA interactions with exogenous agents. The simple strategy relies on the electrostatic adhesion of DNA/RNA onto positively-charged silver colloids that promotes the nanoparticle aggregation into stable clusters yielding intense and reproducible SERS spectra at picogram level (i.e. the analysis can be performed without the necessity of amplification steps thus providing realistic direct information of the nucleic acid in its native state). We anticipate this method to gain a vast impact and set of applications in different fields, including medical diagnostics, genomic screening, drug discovery, forensic science and even molecular electronics.

  8. Theme: Parents and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue concentrates on the theme "Parents and Reading." It presents articles on sharing books with young children, using public relations in a reading program, guiding preschool learning, assessing language readiness, working with reading problems, and teaching reading readiness in Wisconsin kindergartens. Resources and a review of…

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  10. Top down viewing of the inductively coupled plasma using a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and an all mirror optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, C.T.; Duchane, D.V.; Palmer, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Using an all-mirror optical system, an inductively coupled plasma is viewed top down and the light is directed to a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph. Top down viewing of the plasma, with masking of the image of the argon plasma torus at the spectrograph entrance slit, significantly reduces background signal from the source and permits the use of the depth of field of the optical system to achieve compromise conditions for viewing the plasma. Light from the plasma source is introduced to the optical system by means of a mirror situated directly over the plasma. The system is exhausted in such a way that cool air flowing past the mirror forms a thermal barrier between the mirror and the plasma. Elements such as copper and lead have atomic and ionic lines which tend to exhibit self absorption when viewed top down through the cooler ground state atoms in the plume of the plasma. One of the approaches to this problem is to shear off the plume of the plasma with a jet of air directed across the tip of the plasma. A second approach is to make use of the dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and real-time computer system which easily permits the setting of alternate lines for each element so that self absorption and matrix effects are minimized. The design of the dual-grating, direct-reading spectrograph allows for the mounting of more than 200 13-mm-dia photomultiplier tubes along the focal curves. In an effort to demonstrate the use of fiber optics as a viable technique for the closer placement of exit slits, a red sensitive photomultiplier tube was coupled with a 30-cm fiber-optic ribbon to detect light from the Li 670.784 nm line on the focal curve. It was successful and had the added advantages of absorbing second-order ultraviolet light

  11. There Is More to Mind Reading than Having Theory of Mind Concepts: New Directions in Theory of Mind Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Dana; Apperly, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    For more than 30 years, researchers have focused on the important transition that children undergo between the ages of 3 and 5, when they start to solve mind-reading problems that require reasoning about complex mental states, such as beliefs. The main question for debate has been whether, during that transition, children acquire new concepts…

  12. Present status of direct drive inertial confinement fusion research at ILE Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Nakai, Sadao

    1993-01-01

    The activities of direct drive implosion experiments at ILE of Osaka Univ. are focused on the planar- and spherical-target experiments relating to Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the implosion experiments of cryogenic targets with low density plastic foam shell overcoated by a solid plastic layer. In the spherical shell target implosions a very early x-ray emission (refer as pre-emission hereafter) has been observed at the center of the target. The appearance of the pre-emission is related to the illumination nonuniformity. The appearance time of the pre-emission, the electron temperature of the source plasma of the pre-emission and the possibility of Rayleigh-Taylor instability have been studied experimentally to understand the mechanism of the pre-emission. Shell break up by Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been concluded to be the most probable mechanism of the pre-emission

  13. Rehabilitation and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Past, Present, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Nochajski, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the history of disability in the United States and discusses the three paradigms: rehabilitation, independent living, and support and empowerment that have guided rehabilitative services for persons with disabilities. Within the context of this historical background, the article also presents various models used to define and classify disability. The effect and influence of society's perceptions of people with disabilities on the evolution and refinem...

  14. The Present Situation and the Future Perspectives of Foreign Direct Investment in Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Qefalia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed increased globalization of the world economy as result of technological changes, trade liberalization and privatization policies. Balkan countries as developing nations are in the realization process of the globalization changes of the world economy. Being in the process for entry into the EU, many changes are being done to integrate with the global economic trends. The research has shown that after the fall of communism in the 1990s the Balkan Region brought significant political and economic changes. The change in attitude led to a removal of direct blockage for FDI. As a result, continued deregulation and privatization has been widespread. However, history of FDI is relatively short for Balkan Region in comparison with other countries. The economy opened up capital inflows only at the beginning of 1990s, and is still showing low shares in the total of Central and Eastern European flow. Despite Balkans competitive advantage due to its geographical location and its resources, it is still far from other Central European countries in achieving the same level of FDI. This situation came as a result of: political instability, low intraregional trade, the small size of national markets, huge institutional corruption and weak judiciary system. Among the more successful Balkan recipients of FDI has been Bulgaria and Romania, while Greece has been a major source of FDI for the transition economies of the Balkan region. Greek investment is driven in part by the availability of low cost labor in the nearby transition economies. The focus of this article is to analyze and evaluate the current performance of FDI in Balkan Region and how the governments can improve this performance.

  15. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  16. Boiler recirculation pumps for nuclear power stations - present state of development. Directions for planning, operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattias, H.B.

    1976-01-01

    Boiler recirculation pumps are important components of modern power stations. The development of large recirculation pumps up to a driving power of 1,500 kW was faced with some problems in meeting the plant requirements. In this paper, the present state of development is dealt with. The development problems in the fields of hydrodynamics, cavitation, corrosion and erosion are dealt with as well as the problems of the design of the casing with regard to thermodynamics and strength. Finally, operational experience with the boiler recirculation pump for 600 MW power stations will be reported on. (orig./AK) [de

  17. The one-dimensional transport codes MAKOKOT. Presentation and directions for use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capes, H.; Mercier, C.; Morera, J.P.

    1986-06-01

    In this note are presented the different one-dimensional evolution codes available to date under the generic name MAKOKOT. They are six principal codes: - TRANS: for ion and electron transport; -NEUTRE: for neutrals; -IMPUR: for impurities; -ECRH: for electron cyclotron resonance; -DENT: for sawtooth modelling and analysis; -BILAN: for global verification of conservation. One supplementary code is added which is an impurity evolution code; it takes in account, in 1-D geometry, the buffer zone generated by the limiter between the hot plasma and the wall. An abundant bibliography is given. A comprehensive manner of using is given which underlines the use versatility of these codes [fr

  18. Present international patterns of foreign direct investment: underlying causes and some policy implications for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Chesnais

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of the 1980s has been the substantial fall in the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI to the developing countries and also, with the limited exception of the Asian NIE (Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and China, to the newly industrialized countries, in particular those in Latin America. FDI has been concentrated more than ever among the advanced industrialized countries of OECD. The same period has witnessed a number of extremely important changes, both in the nature and location of basic or key technologies, the role of technology in industrial competitiveness; the most appropriate industrial management paradigm following the difficulties of the "Fordist" one; the nature of predominant international supply or market structures; and the relationships between productive and financial capital. Today a number of governments in developing countries and in NIC, among them the new government of Brazil, are again engaged in an attempt to attract FDI and to make foreign capital one of the major pillars of industrial revival and future growth. This paper argues that this policy objective is both fairly illusory and largely mistaken. It is fairly illusory in that it seriously underestimates the nature and strength of the structural factors which have been at work since the mid-1970s and seriously modified the strategies and investment priorities of the TNC which under took the brunt of the investment in developing countries and NICs in the earlier "golden age" of the 1960s and 1970s . The objective of luring foreign capital again to Brazil in ways and on a level similar to the 1960s is also largely mistaken in that it fails to recognize that the change in technological paradigms has modified the parameters of international technology transfers (cf. Ernst and O'Connor, 1989 and made indigenous and endogenous industrial growth dependent to a much higher degree than in the previous period (19601975 on factors which foreign capital

  19. Present status and future directions of the JAERI superconducting RF linac-based FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, EJ.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimori, M.; Sawamura, M.; Hajima, R.; Nagai, R.; Kikuzawa, N.; Nishimori, N.; Shizuma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 2.34kW FEL light and l00kW electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in February 2000. Twice larger output than the present program goal of 1kW was achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 2 years program goal is the 100kW class FEL light and a few MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual and engineering design options needed for such a very high power operation will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the existing facility. Finally, several applications, table-top superconducting rf linac based FELs, and an X-ray FEL R and D will be discussed as a next-five years program at JAERI-FEL laboratory. (author)

  20. Action-Specific Influences on Perception and Post-Perceptual Processes: Present Controversies and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbeck, John W.; Witt, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The action-specific perception account holds that people perceive the environment in terms of their ability to act in it. In this view, for example, decreased ability to climb a hill due to fatigue makes the hill visually appear to be steeper. Though influential, this account has not been universally accepted, and in fact a heated controversy has emerged. The opposing view holds that action capability has little or no influence on perception. Heretofore, the debate has been quite polarized, with efforts largely being focused on supporting one view and dismantling the other. We argue here that polarized debate can impede scientific progress and that the search for similarities between two sides of a debate can sharpen the theoretical focus of both sides and illuminate important avenues for future research. In this paper, we present a synthetic review of this debate, drawing from the literatures of both approaches, to clarify both the surprising similarities and the core differences between them. We critically evaluate existing evidence, discuss possible mechanisms of action-specific effects, and make recommendations for future research. A primary focus of future work will involve not only the development of methods that guard against action-specific post-perceptual effects, but also development of concrete, well-constrained underlying mechanisms. The criteria for what constitutes acceptable control of post-perceptual effects and what constitutes an appropriately specific mechanism vary between approaches, and bridging this gap is a central challenge for future research. PMID:26501227

  1. Reciprocal Relations between Intrinsic Reading Motivation and Reading Competence: A Comparison between Native and Immigrant Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ai; Pfost, Maximilian; Artelt, Cordula

    2018-01-01

    The present study compares native and immigrant students regarding the direction and the strength of the relation between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence. Within the framework of the German National Educational Panel Study, 4,619 secondary school students were included in the analyses. The present study confirmed the reciprocal…

  2. Reading faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nation

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  3. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  4. [Study on the method for the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current arc full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-hong; Yao, Jian-zhen; Tang, Rui-ling; Zhang, Xue-mei; Li, Wen-ge; Zhang, Qin

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determmation of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES) was established. Direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectrometer with a large area of solid-state detectors has functions of full spectrum direct reading and real-time background correction. The new electrodes and new buffer recipe were proposed in this paper, and have applied for national patent. Suitable analytical line pairs, back ground correcting points of elements and the internal standard method were selected, and Ge was used as internal standard. Multistage currents were selected in the research on current program, and each current set different holding time to ensure that each element has a good signal to noise ratio. Continuous rising current mode selected can effectively eliminate the splash of the sample. Argon as shielding gas can eliminate CN band generating and reduce spectral background, also plays a role in stabilizing the are, and argon flow 3.5 L x min(-1) was selected. Evaporation curve of each element was made, and it was concluded that the evaporation behavior of each element is consistent, and combined with the effects of different spectrographic times on the intensity and background, the spectrographic time of 35s was selected. In this paper, national standards substances were selected as a standard series, and the standard series includes different nature and different content of standard substances which meet the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples. In the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limits for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 1.1, 0.09, 0.01, 0.41, and 0.56 microg x g(-1) respectively, and the precisions (RSD, n=12) for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 4.57%-7.63%, 5.14%-7.75%, 5.48%-12.30%, 3.97%-10.46%, and 4.26%-9.21% respectively. The analytical accuracy was

  5. Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of magnesium alloys; Analisis espectroquimico de lectura directa de aleaciones de magnesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Adell, M

    1964-07-01

    A Quantometer has been applied to the determination of aluminum, berylium, calcium, iron, silicon and zinc in magnesium alloys Magnox, after the conversion of the samples to the oxide. For the aluminum, whose concentration is relatively high, the conducting briquets technique with an interrupted discharge is employed, using the magnesium as the internal standard. For the other elements a total burning method with direct current arc is employed, using also the magnesium as the internal standard. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. A Content Analysis of College Reading Association/Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers Teacher Education Publications: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Jeanne Shay; Lewis-Spector, Jill; Price, Debra; Doorn, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a content analysis of the publications of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers (ALER), previously known as College Reading Association (CRA), in the area of preservice teacher education in literacy. As a service to the organization, 71 articles published in ALER's flagship…

  7. Direct reading spectrochemical determination of aluminium, iron and silicon in fluorite; Determinacion espectroquimica de lectura directa de aluminio, hierro y silicio en fluorita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M

    1966-07-01

    A quantitative spectrochemical method for the determination of Al, Fe and Si in fluorite has been worked out. The sample was supported in a graphite electrode with crater of 5 mm. in diameter, 2,5 mm deep, and burned by a d.c. are in a direct reading spectrometer. The excitation of samples has been studied without dilution as well as using graphite powder as diluent in the ratios 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9; the latter factor was chosen. Ag, Ca, Co, Cr, Mo and Sn were tested as internal standards. It has not been found any significant inter element effect. It is necessary to use natural fluorite as base material for the standards. (Author) 5 refs.

  8. Protein-scaffold Directed Nanoscale Assembly of T Cell Ligands: Artificial Antigen Presentation with Defined Valency, Density and Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mason R; Tolbert, Stephanie V; Wen, Fei

    2018-05-07

    Tuning antigen presentation to T cells is a critical step in investigating key aspects of T cell activation. However, existing technologies have limited ability to control the spatial and stoichiometric organization of T cell ligands on 3D surfaces. Here, we developed an artificial antigen presentation platform based on protein-scaffold directed assembly that allows fine control over the spatial and stoichiometric organization of T cell ligands on a 3D yeast-cell surface. Using this system, we observed that the T cell activation threshold on a 3D surface is independent of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) valency, but instead determined by the overall pMHC surface density. When intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was co-assembled with pMHC, it enhanced antigen recognition sensitivity by 6-fold. Further, T cells responded with different magnitudes to varying ratios of pMHC and ICAM-1 and exhibited a maximum response at a ratio of 15% pMHC and 85% ICAM-1, introducing an additional parameter for tuning T cell activation. This protein-scaffold directed assembly technology is readily transferrable to acellular surfaces for translational research as well as large-scale T-cell manufacturing.

  9. Design and evaluation of a software for the objective and easy-to-read presentation of new drug properties to physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordatii, Maia; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

    2015-05-30

    When new pharmaceutical products appear on the market, physicians need to know whether they are likely to be useful in their practices. Physicians currently obtain most of their information about the market release and properties of new drugs from pharmaceutical industry representatives. However, the official information contained in the summary of product characteristics (SPCs) and evaluation reports from health agencies, provide a more complete view of the potential value of new drugs, although they can be long and difficult to read. The main objective of this work was to design a prototype computer program to facilitate the objective appraisal of the potential value of a new pharmaceutical product by physicians. This prototype is based on the modeling of pharmaceutical innovations described in a previous paper. The interface was designed to allow physicians to develop a rapid understanding of the value of a new drug for their practices. We selected five new pharmaceutical products, to illustrate the function of this prototype. We considered only the texts supplied by national or international drug agencies at the time of market release. The perceived usability of the prototype was evaluated qualitatively, except for the System Usability Scale (SUS) score evaluation, by 10 physicians differing in age and medical background. The display is based on the various axes of the conceptual model of pharmaceutical innovations. The user can select three levels of detail when consulting this information (highly synthetic, synthetic and detailed). Tables provide a comparison of the properties of the new pharmaceutical product with those of existing drugs, if available for the same indication, in terms of efficacy, safety and ease of use. The interface was highly appreciated by evaluators, who found it easy to understand and suggested no other additions of important, internationally valid information. The mean System Usability Scale score for the 10 physicians was 82

  10. Reading: Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:

  11. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  12. SCAN- a maintenance-free flowrate meter with direct digital read-out for computerised control applications in radiochemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, B V; Siddiqui, I A; Theyyunni, T K [Process Engineering and Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    In radiochemical plants, the choice of flowrate sensor is subject to stringent requirements of fail-safe design and freedom from maintenance. The SCAN remote digital direct indicating flowrate meter described in this paper was developed to meet the requirements of flowrate and transmitting it to the control room, and to a computerised control system. SCAN is designed on the principle that flowrate through an orifice is a function of the head of liquid acting upon it. SCAN consists of a small chamber which receives the flow, and discharges it through an orifice located in bottom. The level of liquid in the pot represents the flowrate of the input stream. SCAN has been developed into an accurate, rugged and practical device by refinements in the design of internals, and by introducing a special end-section which makes the calibration insensitive to location. An important feature of SCAN is that it is passive, maintenance free, fail-safe device and contains no moving parts. There is no liquid hold up in the SCAN when idle, which is a desirable feature for the radiochemical plant environment. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effect of the PREPARE Website vs an Easy-to-Read Advance Directive on Advance Care Planning Documentation and Engagement Among Veterans: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Boscardin, John; Feuz, Mariko A; McMahan, Ryan D; Katen, Mary T; Barnes, Deborah E

    2017-08-01

    Documentation rates of patients' medical wishes are often low. It is unknown whether easy-to-use, patient-facing advance care planning (ACP) interventions can overcome barriers to planning in busy primary care settings. To compare the efficacy of an interactive, patient-centered ACP website (PREPARE) with an easy-to-read advance directive (AD) to increase planning documentation. This was a comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trial from April 2013 to July 2016 conducted at multiple primary care clinics at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. Inclusion criteria were age of a least 60 years; at least 2 chronic and/or serious conditions; and 2 or more primary care visits; and 2 or more additional clinic, hospital, or emergency room visits in the last year. Participants were randomized to review PREPARE plus an easy-to-read AD or the AD alone. There were no clinician and/or system-level interventions or education. Research staff were blinded for all follow-up measurements. The primary outcome was new ACP documentation (ie, legal forms and/or discussions) at 9 months. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported ACP engagement at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months using validated surveys of behavior change process measures (ie, 5-point knowledge, self-efficacy, readiness scales) and action measures (eg, surrogate designation, using a 0-25 scale). We used intention-to-treat, mixed-effects logistic and linear regression, controlling for time, health literacy, race/ethnicity, baseline ACP, and clustering by physician. The mean (SD) age of 414 participants was 71 (8) years, 38 (9%) were women, 83 (20%) had limited literacy, and 179 (43%) were nonwhite. No participant characteristic differed significantly among study arms at baseline. Retention at 6 months was 90%. Advance care planning documentation 6 months after enrollment was higher in the PREPARE arm vs the AD-alone arm (adjusted 35% vs 25%; odds ratio, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.03-2.51]; P = .04). PREPARE also resulted

  14. Despite disorganized synapse structure, Th2 cells maintain directional delivery of CD40L to antigen-presenting B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Jennifer L; Parker, David C

    2017-01-01

    Upon recognition of peptide displayed on MHC molecules, Th1 and Th2 cells form distinct immunological synapse structures. Th1 cells have a bull's eye synapse structure with TCR/ MHC-peptide interactions occurring central to a ring of adhesion molecules, while Th2 cells have a multifocal synapse with small clusters of TCR/MHC interactions throughout the area of T cell/antigen-presenting cell interaction. In this study, we investigated whether this structural difference in the immunological synapse affects delivery of T cell help. The immunological synapse is thought to ensure antigen-specific delivery of cytolytic granules and killing of target cells by NK cells and cytolytic T cells. In helper T cells, it has been proposed that the immunological synapse may direct delivery of other effector molecules including cytokines. CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a membrane-bound cytokine essential for antigen-specific T cell help for B cells in the antibody response. We incubated Th1 and Th2 cells overnight with a mixture of antigen-presenting and bystander B cells, and the delivery of CD40L to B cells and subsequent B cell responses were compared. Despite distinct immunological synapse structures, Th1 and Th2 cell do not differ in their ability to deliver CD40L and T cell help in an antigen-specific fashion, or in their susceptibility to inhibition of help by a blocking anti-CD40L antibody.

  15. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  16. INCIDENCE OF VARIABLES NON DIRECTLY CONTROLLABLE BY THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN STUDENTS’ READING LITERACY IN PISA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY SPAIN-FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Vázquez Cano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This comparative research between Spain and Finland examines the incidence of eight variables of PISA (2012 typologically grouped in three areas: family, internet use for reading activities, and availability of books at home in students’ results in reading literacy. Through a descriptive and quantitative methodology, we analyze the incidence of these eight variables in Finnish and Spanish students’ reading literacy. The results show that parents’ academic and professional level along with the type of book that is available at home are non-significant variables in the development of a high reading literacy; by contrast, the variable that measures Internet use at home for reading news has been highly significant. Finnish students duplicate the Spanish in this variable which increases in 30 points reading literacy results.

  17. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH IINTERACTIVE READ-ALOUD TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santoso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study, entitled Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Interactive Read-Aloud, attempts to unlock problems found in teaching and reading comprehension through interactive read-aloud in a Senior High School of Sport (SMAN Olah Raga Lampung, in Metro. The findings revealed that students’ reading comprehension improved through interactive read-aloud. The improvement can be seen from the increase of test results, meaning construction, and motivation. The process of reading activities showed that the teacher’s gesture and body language, 20 questions, explain and guess activities were proven to help the students construct meaning from the given texts. In addition, interactive read-aloud is effective to boost students’ motivation to comprehend the texts.   Key words: Reading comprehension, interactive read-aloud.

  18. Advance directives for future dementia can be modified by a brief video presentation on dementia care: An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Volhard

    Full Text Available To investigate whether life-sustaining measures in medical emergency situations are less accepted for an anticipated own future of living with dementia, and to test whether a resource-oriented, in contrast to a deficit-oriented video about the same demented person, would increase the acceptance of such life-saving measures.Experimental study conducted between September 2012 and February 2013.Community dwelling female volunteers living in the region of Bonn, Germany.278 women aged 19 to 89 (mean age 53.4 years.Presentation of a video on dementia care focusing either on the deficits of a demented woman (negative framing, or focusing on the remaining resources (positive framing of the same patient.Approval of life-sustaining treatments in five critical medical scenarios under the assumption of having comorbid dementia, before and after the presentation of the brief videos on care.At baseline, the acceptance of life-sustaining measures in critical medical situations was significantly lower in subjects anticipating their own future life with dementia. Participants watching the resource-oriented film on living with dementia had significantly higher post-film acceptance rates compared to those watching the deficit-oriented negatively framed film. This effect particularly emerges if brief and efficient life-saving interventions with a high likelihood of physical recovery are available (eg, antibiotic treatment for pneumonia.Anticipated decisions regarding life-sustaining measures are negatively influenced by the subjective imagination of living with dementia, which might be shaped by common, unquestioned stereotypes. This bias can be reduced by providing audio-visual information on living with dementia which is not only centred around cognitive and functional losses but also focuses on remaining resources and the apparent quality of life. This is particularly true if the medical threat can be treated efficiently. These findings have implications for the

  19. Outcomes of catheter-directed treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis of patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Gaurav; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Moses, Vinu; Chiramel, George K; Ahmed, Munawwar; Mammen, Suraj; Aggarwal, Sunil; Stephen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common illness with an annual incidence of 1 per 1000 adults. The major long-term complication of DVT is post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) which occurs in up to 60% of patients within 2 years of an episode of DVT. We aim to evaluate the outcomes of catheter-directed treatment (CDT) for symptomatic acute or subacute lower extremity DVT. A retrospective 12-year study was conducted on the outcomes of CDT on 54 consecutive patients who presented with acute or subacute lower extremity DVT to our hospital. Descriptive summary statistics and the Chi-square test were used to measure the outcomes of CDT. Grade 3 thrombolysis was achieved in 25 (46.3%) patients, grade 2 thrombolysis in 25 (46.3%) patients, and grade 1 thrombolysis in 4 (7.4%) patients. Significant recanalization (grade 2 or 3 thrombolysis) was possible in 50 (92.6%) patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of significant recanalization that could be achieved between patients who underwent CDT before and after 10 days. There was no significant difference between the thrombolysis achieved between urokinase and r-tPA. PTS was seen in 33% of the patients. Major complications were seen in 5.5% of the patients. CDT is a safe and effective therapeutic technique in patients with acute and subacute lower extremity DVT, if appropriate patient selection is made.

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulation of picture naming and word reading: A meta-analysis of single session tDCS applied to healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Samuel J; Romani, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Recent reviews quantifying the effects of single sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (or tDCS) in healthy volunteers find only minor effects on cognition despite the popularity of this technique. Here, we wanted to quantify the effects of tDCS on language production tasks that measure word reading and picture naming. We reviewed 14 papers measuring tDCS effects across a total of 96 conditions to a) quantify effects of conventional stimulation on language regions (i.e., left hemisphere anodal tDCS administered to temporal/frontal areas) under normal conditions or under conditions of cognitive (semantic) interference; b) identify parameters which may moderate the size of the tDCS effect within conventional stimulation protocols (e.g., online vs offline, high vs. low current densities, and short vs. long durations), as well as within types of stimulation not typically explored by previous reviews (i.e., right hemisphere anodal tDCS or left/right hemisphere cathodal tDCS). In all analyses there was no significant effect of tDCS, but we did find a small but significant effect of time and duration of stimulation with stronger effects for offline stimulation and for shorter durations (tDCS and its poor efficacy in healthy participants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Multicultural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  2. Direct Comparison of the Enzymatic Characteristics and Superoxide Production of the Four Aldehyde Oxidase Enzymes Present in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kücükgöze, Gökhan; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Leimkühler, Silke

    2017-08-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are molybdoflavoenzymes with an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of heterocyclic compounds and aliphatic as well as aromatic aldehydes. The enzymes use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and produce reduced oxygen species during turnover. Four different enzymes, mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX4, and mAOX2, which are the products of distinct genes, are present in the mouse. A direct and simultaneous comparison of the enzymatic properties and characteristics of the four enzymes has never been performed. In this report, the four catalytically active mAOX enzymes were purified after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli The kinetic parameters of the four mouse AOX enzymes were determined and compared with the use of six predicted substrates of physiologic and toxicological interest, i.e., retinaldehyde, N 1 -methylnicotinamide, pyridoxal, vanillin, 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde ( p- DMAC), and salicylaldehyde. While retinaldehyde, vanillin, p- DMAC, and salycilaldehyde are efficient substrates for the four mouse AOX enzymes, N 1 -methylnicotinamide is not a substrate of mAOX1 or mAOX4, and pyridoxal is not metabolized by any of the purified enzymes. Overall, mAOX1, mAOX2, mAOX3, and mAOX4 are characterized by significantly different K M and k cat values for the active substrates. The four mouse AOXs are also characterized by quantitative differences in their ability to produce superoxide radicals. With respect to this last point, mAOX2 is the enzyme generating the largest rate of superoxide radicals of around 40% in relation to moles of substrate converted, and mAOX1, the homolog to the human enzyme, produces a rate of approximately 30% of superoxide radicals with the same substrate. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholastic Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

  4. Comparison of a direct-reading device to gravimetric methods for evaluating organic dust aerosols in an enclosed swine production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C D; Reynolds, S J

    2001-01-01

    The production of livestock in enclosed facilities has become an accepted practice, driven by the need for increased efficiency. Exposure to organic dusts, containing various bioactive components, has been identified an important risk factor for the high rate of lung disease found among workers in these environments. Assessment of organic dust exposure requires technical skills and instrumentation not readily available to most agricultural enterprises. Development of a simple, cost-effective method for measuring organic dust levels would be useful in evaluating and controlling exposures in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the direct reading MIE PDM-3 Miniram for estimating organic dust concentrations in enclosed swine production facilities. Responses from the MIE PDM-3 Miniram were compared to gravimetric methods for total and inhalable dust. Total dust determinations were conducted in accordance with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 0500. Inhalable particulate mass (IPM) sampling was conducted using SKC brand IOM (Institute of Occupational Medicine) sampling cassettes, which meet the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH criteria for inhalable dust sampling. This study design also allowed for the comparison of traditional total dust method to the IPM method, in collecting organic dusts in an agricultural setting. Fifteen sets of side-by-side samples (Miniram, total dust, and IPM) were collected over a period of six months in a swine confinement building. There were statistically significant differences in the results provided by the three sampling methods. Measurements for inhalable dust exceeded those for total dust in eleven of fifteen samples. The Miniram time-weighted average (TWA) response to the organic dust was always the lower of the three methods. A high degree of correlation was found among all three methods. The Miniram performed well under

  5. Reciprocal Effects between Intrinsic Reading Motivation and Reading Competence? A Cross-Lagged Panel Model for Academic Track and Nonacademic Track Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Philipp, Maik; Schiefele, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated positive relations between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence. However, the causal direction of these relations and the moderating role of relevant background variables (e.g., students' achievement level) are not well understood. In the present study, a cross-lagged panel model was applied to…

  6. Readability, Reading Ability, and Readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Richard P.; And Others

    This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…

  7. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...

  8. Reading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

  9. Direct Enzymatic Branch-End Extension of Glycocluster-Presented Glycans: An Effective Strategy for Programming Glycan Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayón, Carlos; He, Ning; Deir-Kaspar, Mario; Blasco, Pilar; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Rumbero, Ángel; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter; Hernáiz, María J

    2017-01-31

    The sequence of a glycan and its topology of presentation team up to determine the specificity and selectivity of recognition by saccharide receptors (lectins). Structure-activity analysis would be furthered if the glycan part of a glycocluster could be efficiently elaborated in situ while keeping all other parameters constant. By using a bacterial α2,6-sialyltransferase and a small library of bi- to tetravalent glycoclusters, we illustrate the complete conversion of scaffold-presented lactoside units into two different sialylated ligands based on N-acetyl/glycolyl-neuraminic acid incorporation. We assess the ensuing effect on their bioactivity for a plant toxin, and present an analysis of the noncovalent substrate binding contacts that the added sialic acid moiety makes to the lectin. Enzymatic diversification of a scaffold-presented glycan can thus be brought to completion in situ, offering a versatile perspective for rational glycocluster engineering. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Chlorotrimethylsilane, a reagent for the direct quantitative analysis of fats and oils present in vegetable and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eras, Jordi; Ferran, Javier; Perpiña, Belén; Canela, Ramon

    2004-08-20

    Acylglycerides present in oil seeds and meat can be transformed into volatile fatty esters using chlorotrimethylsilane (CTMS) and 1-pentanol as reagents. The volatile esters can then be analysed by GC. The method is quantitative and involves only minor sample manipulation. It often permits major recoveries of the total saponifiable lipids present in solid samples. A 40 min reaction time is enough to ensure the total conversion of saponifiable lipids to the corresponding FAPEs.

  11. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  12. Miraculous Readings: Using Fantasy Novels about Reading to Reflect on Reading the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…

  13. Direct quantitation of fatty acids present in bacteria and fungi: stability of the cyclopropane ring to chlorotrimethylsilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eras, Jordi; Oró, Robert; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2008-07-09

    The stability of the cyclopropane ring and the fatty acid composition of microbial cells were determined using chlorotrimethylsilane as reagent with three different conditions 80 degrees C for 1 h, 60 degrees C for 1 h, and 60 degrees C for 2 h. Chlorotrimethylsilane permits a simultaneous extraction and derivatization of fatty acids. A basic method was used as reference. The bacteria, Escherichia coli, Burkholderia cepacia, and Lactobacillus brevis, and fungi Aspergillus niger and Gibberella fujikuroi were used. The stability of the cyclopropane ring on acidic conditions was tested using the cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and a commercial mixture of bacteria fatty acid methyl esters (BAME). Fisher's least significant difference test showed significant differences among the methods. The method using chlorotrimethylsilane and 1-pentanol for 1 h at 80 degrees C gave the best results in cyclopropane, hydroxyl, and total fatty acid recoveries. This procedure allows the fast and easy one-step direct extraction derivatization.

  14. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  15. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization Using Remote Sensing On A Global Scale, Past Present And Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. The urban heat island (UHI) results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature differences between the urban and surrounding countryside can be 2-8 o C. The UHI was one of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization which was reported as early as 1833 for London (Howard, 1833) and 1862 for Paris. Research studies from many cities have documented that these effects range from decreases in air quality, increased energy consumption, and alteration of regional climate to direct effects on human health. To understand why the UHI phenomena exists, it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo are major components of the surface energy budget. Knowledge of it is important in any attempt to describe the radiative and mass fluxes that occur at the surface. Use of energy terms in modeling surface energy budgets allows the direct comparison of various land surfaces encountered in an urban landscape, from vegetated (forest and herbaceous) to non-vegetated (bare soil, roads, and buildings). These terms are also easily measured using remote sensing from aircraft or satellite platforms allowing one to examine the spatial variability of the urban surface. Planned NASA space borne missions include an ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) a five channel, 37x 50m resolution thermal instrument on space station and a Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI), a 30m resolution hyperspectral and 60m resolution multispectral

  16. Visual presentations of efficacy data in direct-to-consumer prescription drug print and television advertisements: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Aikin, Kathryn J; Chowdhury, Dhuly; Moultrie, Rebecca R; Rupert, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether visual aids help people recall quantitative efficacy information in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements, and if so, which types of visual aids are most helpful. Individuals diagnosed with high cholesterol (n=2504) were randomized to view a fictional DTC print or television advertisement with no visual aid or one of four visual aids (pie chart, bar chart, table, or pictograph) depicting drug efficacy. We measured drug efficacy and risk recall, drug perceptions and attitudes, and behavioral intentions. For print advertisements, a bar chart or table, compared with no visual aid, elicited more accurate drug efficacy recall. The bar chart was better at this than the pictograph and the table was better than the pie chart. For television advertisements, any visual aid, compared with no visual aid, elicited more accurate drug efficacy recall. The bar chart was better at this than the pictograph or the table. Visual aids depicting quantitative efficacy information in DTC print and television advertisements increased drug efficacy recall, which may help people make informed decisions about prescription drugs. Adding visual aids to DTC advertising may increase the public's knowledge of how well prescription drugs work. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. The Development of Gender Achievement Gaps in Mathematics and Reading during Elementary and Middle School: Examining Direct Cognitive Assessments and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joseph Paul; Lubienski, Sarah Theule

    2011-01-01

    Using K-8 national longitudinal data, the authors investigate males' and females' achievement in math and reading, including when gender gaps first appear, whether the appearance of gaps depends on the metric used, and where on the achievement distribution gaps are most prevalent. Additionally, teachers' assessments of males and females are…

  18. Enhancing the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Children with Reading Disabilities in an Orthographically Transparent Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellings, Patrick; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.; Blok, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Breznitz (2006) demonstrated that Hebrew-speaking adults with reading disabilities benefited from a training in which reading rate was experimentally manipulated. In the present study, the authors examine whether silent reading training enhances the sentence reading rate and comprehension of children with reading disabilities and whether results…

  19. Politica bancaria e sviluppo economico: rileggendo l'era menichelliana e quella attuale (Banking policy and economic development: re-reading the menichellian era and the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Il basso tasso di crescita dell’Italia, anche nel contesto internazionale ed europeo, ha spinto a confrontare gli anni ’50 con gli ultimi dieci o quindici. Dall’analisi emerge che, se si esclude l’iniziale liberalizzazione del commercio internazionale, il periodo che vide la più vigorosa crescita dell’Italia fu caratterizzato dall’economia mista, da monopoli pubblici e posizioni private dominanti, da una politica monetaria e bancaria basata su controlli diretti ed esercizi di persuasione morale individuale, tutte condizioni oggi ritenute sfavorevoli alla crescita. Al contrario, nella fase attuale l’enfasi è stata sul modello di economia liberale, con liberalizzazioni, privatizzazioni di imprese produttive e di banche, politiche incentrate sugli incentivi e sul mercato. Purtroppo, la scienza economica non ha ancora trovato il paradigma generale che spiega la ricchezza delle nazioni a prescindere dal contesto e dagli uomini che lo animano.  The low growth rate of Italy, also in international and European context, has led to compare the 50s with the last ten or fifteen. The analysis shows that, apart from the initial liberalization of international trade, the period that saw the most vigorous growth in Italy was characterized from a mixed economy, with public monopolies and dominant positions private, from a monetary and banking policy based of direct controls and exercises of individual moral suasion, all conditions previously deemed unfavorable to growth. On the contrary, at this stage the emphasis was on the model of liberal economy, with liberalization, privatization of productive enterprises and banks, policies based on incentives and market. Unfortunately, the economic science has not yet found a general paradigm that explains the wealth of nations regardless of the context and the men who animate it. JEL Codes: B31, E65, N14, O10Keywords: tasso di crescita, commercio internazionale, politica monetaria, politica bancaria

  20. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  1. Estimation of the dose to the nursing infant due to direct irradiation from activity present in maternal organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J. G.; Nosske, D.; Dos Santos, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclides deposited internally in the mother will give rise to a radiation dose in the infant in two ways. The radionuclides may be transferred through milk and give rise to an internal dose in the infant, or the radionuclides may emit photons that are absorbed by the infant, giving rise to an external dose. In this paper, the external dose to the newborn infant caused by direct irradiation was estimated for monoenergetic photons. Voxel models (also called voxel phantoms) of the mother and infant were made in three geometries. These models, consisting of volume elements, or voxels, were designed so that the infant model was placed in the lap, at the breast and on the shoulder of the mother model. The Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code was used to transport the photons through the voxel models. Source regions for the emitted photons, such as the whole body, the thyroid, the lung, the liver and the skeleton, were chosen. For the validation of the calculation procedure, VMC results were favourably compared with the results obtained by using other Monte Carlo programs and also with the previously published results for specific absorbed fractions. This paper provides estimates of the external dose per photon to the infant for photon energies between 0.05 and 2.5 MeV. The external dose per photon estimates were made for the three geometries and for the sources listed above. The results show that, for the geometry of the nursing infant model at the breast, the highest dose to the infant per photon comes from radionuclides deposited in the mother's liver. For the nursing infant model at the shoulder, the highest dose to the infant per photon comes from radionuclides deposited in the mother's thyroid, and for the nursing infant model in the lap, the highest dose to the infant per photon comes from radionuclides deposited uniformly in the whole body. The dose per photon results were then used to estimate the dose an infant might receive over the lactation period (6 months

  2. Reading Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 34 children's books that are excellent for reading aloud: some of them for inviting interaction, for laughing out loud, for prompting discussion, for living vicariously, for lingering over language, and for making curricular connections. (SR)

  3. Engagement of National Board of Examinations in strengthening public health education in India: present landscape, opportunities and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Batra, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.

  4. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  5. Biosynthesis of Oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus: Past, Present and Future Directions in the Development of Tetracycline Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Petković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural tetracycline (TC antibiotics were the first major class of therapeutics to earn the distinction of ‘broad-spectrum antibiotics’ and they have been used since the 1940s against a wide range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, mycoplasmas, intracellular chlamydiae, rickett siae and protozoan parasites. The second generation of semisynthetic tetracyclines, such as minocycline and doxycycline, with improved antimicrobial potency, were introduced during the 1960s. Despite emerging resistance to TCs erupting during the 1980s, it was not until 2006, more than four decades later, that a third-generation TC, named tigecycline, was launched. In addition, two TC analogues, omadacycline and eravacycline, developed via (semisynthetic and fully synthetic routes, respectively, are at present under clinical evaluation. Interestingly, despite very productive early work on the isolation of a Streptomyces aureofaciens mutant strain that produced 6-demethyl-7-chlortetracycline, the key intermediate in the production of second- and third-generation TCs, biosynthetic approaches in TC development have not been productive for more than 50 years. Relatively slow and tedious molecular biology approaches for the genetic manipulation of TC-producing actinobacteria, as well as an insufficient understanding of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in TC biosynthesis have significantly contributed to the low success of such biosynthetic engineering efforts. However, new opportunities in TC drug development have arisen thanks to a signifi cant progress in the development of affordable and versatile biosynthetic engineering and synthetic biology approaches, and, importantly, to a much deeper understanding of TC biosynthesis, mostly gained over the last two decades.

  6. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  7. Pasado y presente. Una lectura sobre El encargo del cazador (Joaquin Jordá, 1990 / Past and Present. A Reading about El encargo del cazador (Joaquín Jordá, 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Caravaca Mompeán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe la vinculación que Joaquín Jordá mantuvo con su pasado a través de la película El encargo del cazador; un pasado marcado por su participación en la Escuela de Barcelona, su paso por la Escuela Oficial de Cine (EOC y su militancia política. Para ello, se abordan sus trabajos como realizador, desde los años 60 hasta la filmación de El encargo del cazador, con el objetivo de trazar su evolución como director y el proceso que desarrolló hasta crear un estilo propio que luchará a contracorriente con sus trabajos previos. En segundo lugar, y a través de la figura de Jacinto Esteva, protagonista de El encargo del cazador, se ha descrito la unión especial que existió entre Jordá, la Escuela de Barcelona y la gauche divine. Ambos mantuvieron una amistad durante los años 60 y, tras el fallecimiento de Esteva, Jordá recuperó la memoria de su compañero y la del grupo al que había pertenecido filmando El encargo del cazador. Gracias a este reencuentro con su pasado, Jordá pudo reconstruir la imagen de este grupo y separarse de él, desmitificando aquella Escuela de Barcelona y reedificando, al mismo tiempo, la imagen de Jacinto Esteva a través de la última etapa de su vida. Por último, se han buscado las causas de este cambio atendiendo al contexto cinematográfico en el que apareció la película para evidenciar una transformación en la tendencia documental que se vivía en España, transformación de la que formó parte El encargo del cazador, y que buscó el cambio en la reflexión acerca del cine, su historia y sus procesos.Palabras clave: cine español, documental, Joaquín Jordá, Jacinto Esteva, El encargo del cazador, Escuela de Barcelona. AbstractThis paper explores the links that Joaquín Jordá sustained with his past through the film El encargo del cazador; a past marked by his participation in La Escuela de Barcelona, his time at the city’s Escuela Oficial de Cine (EOC and his political

  8. Reading the Tourist Guidebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    of information sought, amount of information read and level of involvement displayed, indicating a three-pronged typology of guidebook readers. The guidebook reader typology thus constructed may be regarded as a first step in understanding the effect of guidebooks on tourists’ behaviour and their experience......This article investigates tourists’ ways of reading their guidebooks on the basis of qualitative interviews with tourists visiting Copenhagen, Denmark. Tourist guidebooks have only been dealt with sporadically by tourism scholars. The relatively few studies that focus on guidebooks either present...... a historical perspective on the guidebook or centre on content analyses of place representation, whereas virtually no research exists on the way in which tourists read and use their guidebooks. This study reveals that tourists read the same guidebooks in a number of different ways regarding types...

  9. Does a single session of reading literary fiction prime enhanced mentalising performance? Four replication experiments of Kidd and Castano (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Dalya; Tops, Mattie; Koole, Sander L

    2018-02-01

    Prior experiments indicated that reading literary fiction improves mentalising performance relative to reading popular fiction, non-fiction, or not reading. However, the experiments had relatively small sample sizes and hence low statistical power. To address this limitation, the present authors conducted four high-powered replication experiments (combined N = 1006) testing the causal impact of reading literary fiction on mentalising. Relative to the original research, the present experiments used the same literary texts in the reading manipulation; the same mentalising task; and the same kind of participant samples. Moreover, one experiment was pre-registered as a direct replication. In none of the experiments did reading literary fiction have any effect on mentalising relative to control conditions. The results replicate earlier findings that familiarity with fiction is positively correlated with mentalising. Taken together, the present findings call into question whether a single session of reading fiction leads to immediate improvements in mentalising.

  10. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  11. Direct measurement of the field from a magnetic recording head using an InAs Hall sensor on a contact write/read tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokemeijer, N.J.; Clinton, T.W.; Crawford, T.M.; Johnson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    At 1 Tbit/in 2 areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300 nm track width longitudinal recording head, the magnetic field of the head was mapped. Measurements include the down track field gradient and cross-track field profile and the current-field transfer curve. These results suggest this technique offers a viable write field metrology

  12. An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongshe Lu; Meihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL) reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a) Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS) had important subcomponents, (b) more than half of the stu...

  13. Practices of reading and writing in five diferent programs of the Sergio Arboleda university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into the practices of reading and writing present in five courses of different programs assigned at the Sergio Arboleda University (Bogotá. The research derives from the following questions: What is the role of reading and writing process in the course of some programs at the University? How is assign, directed and accompanied the task of reading and writing? and how are assessed the progress and results in the process of reading and writing? The information was obtained from written tests, surveys, classroom observations and interviews with teachers of these programs. After the analysis process, were set up five units of information, which in the case of reading were reading assignment, intervention guidance, intervention to clarify, evaluation and assessments of teachers, and for the case of writing: defining text types, intervention process, intervention in the correction process, evaluation and assessments of teachers.

  14. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...

  15. Reading Rembrandt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

  16. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  17. An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongshe Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS had important subcomponents, (b more than half of the students generally did not feel anxious when reading English, and were confident in and satisfied with their English reading proficiency. Meanwhile, (c more than half of them moderately used different types of reading strategies such as planning, checking and confirming, predicting and assessing, when reading English, (d compared with their female peers, male students felt significantly more anxious when facing reading activities, less satisfied with their English reading proficiency, and used specific analyzing and planning strategies significantly less often during a reading activity, (e FLRAS was significantly inversely related to FLRSUS, and both were significantly correlated with the students’ FL reading comprehension performance, and (f FLRAS (overall FL reading anxiety, FLRAS1 (general anxiety about FL reading, and FLRSUS2 (predicting strategies were good predictors of FL reading comprehension performance. Based on the findings, some implications are discussed.

  18. Examining the Effectiveness of Pre-Reading Strategies on Saudi EFL College Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, Hana S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a key issue in learning English as a foreign language, and it is critical that teachers utilize pre-reading strategies in reading classes in order to help students enhance their comprehension. The present study investigates the effectiveness of two pre-reading strategies on EFL students' performance in reading…

  19. Direct perception vs inferential processes in reading an opponent's mind: The case of a goalkeeper facing a soccer penalty kick. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2018-03-01

    In engineering cybernetics, observability is a measure of how well internal states of a system can be inferred from knowledge of its external outputs. Moreover, observability and controllability of a system are mathematically inter-related properties in the sense that it does not matter to have access to hidden states if this knowledge is not exploited for achieving a goal. While such issues can be well posed in the engineering field, in cognitive neuroscience it is quite difficult to restrict the analysis in such a way to isolate direct perception from other cognitive processes, named as "inferences" by the authors [1], without losing a great part of the action (unless one trivializes the meaning of "direct" by stating that "all perception is direct": Gallagher and Zahavi [6]). In other words, in spite of the elegance and scientific rigor of the proposed experimental strategy, in our opinion it misses the fact that in real human-human interactions "direct perception" and "inference" are two faces of the same coin and mental states in a social context are, in a general sense, accessible on the basis of directly perceived sensory signals (here and now) tuned by expectations. In the following, we elaborate this opinion with reference to a competitive interaction paradigm, namely the attempt of a goalkeeper to save a soccer penalty kick by "reading the mind" of his opponent.

  20. The direct way may not be the best way: Children with ADHD and their understanding of self-presentation in social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Kain, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge and use of self-presentational tactics is an important social skill. We examined understanding of the function of three different self-presentational tactics (self-promotion, ingratiation and blasting) in 11 8–12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 11 matched comparison children. Children were given six different self-presentation stories, two for each one of the three different tactics. After each story, they were asked to evaluate the effects of the self-presentational tactic used. Children with ADHD rated self-promotion and blasting as more positive and more effective—and ingratiation as less positive and less effective—than children in the control group. This implicates that children with ADHD prefer simple and direct self-presentational strategies (like self-promotion), and, therefore, may not as easily understand more subtle strategies (like ingratiation). They also seem to be more inclined to use negatively connoted strategies (like blasting). We suggest that this limited understanding of self-presentational strategies in children with ADHD may explain some of their problems in social interactions. Therefore, social skill interventions in children with ADHD should incorporate elements focusing on use and understanding of different self-presentational strategies. PMID:27081391

  1. Reading Authentic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... word predictability indexed by the conditional probability of each word....

  2. Reading, Perception and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Drake D., Ed.; Rawson, Margaret B., Ed.

    The nine papers in this book discuss aspects of language processing that contribute to reading difficulty. After a summary of the 1974 World Congress on Dyslexia, at which these papers were presented, the following subjects are examined: historical background and educational treatment of dyslexia; the structure of language; neuroanatomy underlying…

  3. Summertime...and Reading Beckons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Otto

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of quotes by famous people about reading for enjoyment and personal development. The collection was assembled from a lifetime of fond association with books and reading by the rare-book librarian at the State Library in Berlin, who after Hitler's rise, relocated to the United States and founded the Bettmann Archive in New…

  4. [Binocular coordination during reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  5. The dual reading of general conditionals: The influence of abstract versus concrete contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Moyun; Yao, Xinyun

    2018-04-01

    A current main issue on conditionals is whether the meaning of general conditionals (e.g., If a card is red, then it is round) is deterministic (exceptionless) or probabilistic (exception-tolerating). In order to resolve the issue, two experiments examined the influence of conditional contexts (with vs. without frequency information of truth table cases) on the reading of general conditionals. Experiment 1 examined the direct reading of general conditionals in the possibility judgment task. Experiment 2 examined the indirect reading of general conditionals in the truth judgment task. It was found that both the direct and indirect reading of general conditionals exhibited the duality: the predominant deterministic semantic reading of conditionals without frequency information, and the predominant probabilistic pragmatic reading of conditionals with frequency information. The context of general conditionals determined the predominant reading of general conditionals. There were obvious individual differences in reading general conditionals with frequency information. The meaning of general conditionals is relative, depending on conditional contexts. The reading of general conditionals is flexible and complex so that no simple deterministic and probabilistic accounts are able to explain it. The present findings are beyond the extant deterministic and probabilistic accounts of conditionals.

  6. Reading comprehension of pupils with hearing impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkasová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    Presented diploma thesis is focused on reading problems of people with hearing impairment. The theoretical part deals a hearing impairment, process of acquisition of reading skills of healthy people and deaf people as well. The practical part efforts to clarify preparations, process and results of the research. I am presenting my own reading comprehension test, which was compiled on purpose due to the research. The goal of my diploma thesis is to determine when the level of reading acquiremen...

  7. Heat shock protein 90-mediated peptide-selective presentation of cytosolic tumor antigen for direct recognition of tumors by CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takemasa; Matsuzaki, Junko; Caballero, Otavia L; Jungbluth, Achim A; Ritter, Gerd; Odunsi, Kunle; Old, Lloyd J; Gnjatic, Sacha

    2012-04-15

    Tumor Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells play important functions in tumor immunosurveillance, and in certain cases they can directly recognize HLA class II-expressing tumor cells. However, the underlying mechanism of intracellular Ag presentation to CD4(+) T cells by tumor cells has not yet been well characterized. We analyzed two naturally occurring human CD4(+) T cell lines specific for different peptides from cytosolic tumor Ag NY-ESO-1. Whereas both lines had the same HLA restriction and a similar ability to recognize exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein, only one CD4(+) T cell line recognized NY-ESO-1(+) HLA class II-expressing melanoma cells. Modulation of Ag processing in melanoma cells using specific molecular inhibitors and small interfering RNA revealed a previously undescribed peptide-selective Ag-presentation pathway by HLA class II(+) melanoma cells. The presentation required both proteasome and endosomal protease-dependent processing mechanisms, as well as cytosolic heat shock protein 90-mediated chaperoning. Such tumor-specific pathway of endogenous HLA class II Ag presentation is expected to play an important role in immunosurveillance or immunosuppression mediated by various subsets of CD4(+) T cells at the tumor local site. Furthermore, targeted activation of tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells by vaccination or adoptive transfer could be a suitable strategy for enhancing the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy.

  8. Teaching Reading and Writing: Reading a Balanced Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Presents elementary school teachers with 13 ideas on how to achieve a balanced "diet" in their primary and intermediate reading and writing programs using 5 different genres--artistic, personal, narrative, expository, and procedural. (BB)

  9. Bidirectional relations between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper primary school grades: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and

  10. The use of a miniature direct-reading solid state radiation dosimeter to measure the radiation dose from technetium-99m to the bladder wall of the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.N.; Frappier, G.; Thomson, I.; Shortt, K.

    1992-01-01

    Each year about one million Canadians receive Tc-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes. Many of these radioactive agents or their metabolites are excreted in the urine. Consequently, the bladder wall can receive a relatively high radiation dose and is often considered one of the organs at risk. The bladder contents could also contribute a significant dose to a developing fetus. The risk associated with the use of any radiopharmaceutical is determined by the sum of radiation doses to selected organs weighted with an appropriate factor for each organ's radiosensitivity. To ensure that a risk estimate is realistic, it is essential to compare the estimate of radiation dose generated by a mathematical model to results obtained by direct physical measurement. In this project, real-time measurements of dose and dose rate to the bladder wall from intravenous technetium-99m were obtained by direct physical measurement using a miniature solid state radiation dosimeter implanted onto the bladder wall of a laboratory pig. The measured value is compared to the calculated dose estimate. Two methods of data logging are described. tab., 2 refs., 4 figs

  11. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  12. A Habermasian Approach to Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheu-jey

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the connection between critical reading and Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative action. It proposes that Habermas's criteria used for evaluating validity claims in communicative action can be applied in reading texts critically. Analyses of different types of texts are presented to show how critical reading is done in a…

  13. Collaborative Strategic Reading with University EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Masoud; Mustapha, Ramlee; Maasum, Tg. Nor Rizan Mohd.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to probe into the feasibility and effectiveness of a reading instructional approach called MCSR--Modified Collaborative Strategic Reading. Based on a pretest-posttest design, MCSR was implemented with 42 university-level EFL freshmen. They met once a week and received EFL reading instruction according to MCSR for…

  14. Direct-write fabrication of 4D active shape-changing behavior based on a shape memory polymer and its nanocomposite (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongqiu; Zhang, Qiwei; Yao, Yongtao; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs), a typical class of smart materials, have been witnessed significant advances in the past decades. Based on the unique performance to recover the initial shape after going through a shape deformation, the applications of SMPs have aroused growing interests. However, most of the researches are hindered by traditional processing technologies which limit the design space of SMPs-based structures. Three-dimension (3D) printing as an emerging technology endows design freedom to manufacture materials with complex structures. In present article, we show that by employing direct-write printing method; one can realize the printing of SMPs to achieve 4D active shape-changing structures. We first fabricated a kind of 3D printable polylactide (PLA)-based SMPs and characterized the overall properties of such materials. Results demonstrated the prepared PLA-based SMPs presenting excellent shape memory effect. In what follows, the rheological properties of such PLA-based SMP ink during printing process were discussed in detail. Finally, we designed and printed several 3D configurations for investigation. By combining 3D printing with shape memory behavior, these printed structures achieve 4D active shape-changing performance under heat stimuli. This research presents a high flexible method to realize the fabrication of SMP-based 4D active shape-changing structures, which opens the way for further developments and improvements of high-tech fields like 4D printing, soft robotics, micro-systems and biomedical devices.

  15. Focusing on EFL reading theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2014-01-01

    Reading, a complex and multi-faceted skill, is essential for life and academic success. While its mysteries still baffle first-language research, the nature of reading in a foreign language presents an even greater puzzle. However, given reading's importance for EFL students who study their specializations in English, and whose future employment may depend on their competence in it, researchers must continue to investigate foreign language reading and devise ways of improving students' capaci...

  16. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  17. Mix It Up! Six Ways To Rethink Tired Summer Reading Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, Barbara; Markey, Penny

    1997-01-01

    Presents six ideas to improve public libraries' summer reading programs. Highlights include creating Web sites; marketing directly to parents rather than to schools through direct mail and collaborative promotion; statewide cooperative programs; the use of teen volunteers; scratch-off game cards; and off-site programs. (LRW)

  18. Using Moos To Help Learn English; Video Jigsaw; Practicing Speaking with Follow-Up Interviews and Student-Read Dictations; "Ask the Expert": Oral Presentations that Work; The Medium Is the Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; Reynolds, Judith; Noble, P. C.; Altschuler, Lee; Schauber, Holli

    2001-01-01

    Four short articles provide teaching tips for the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom, including the use of Moos, a video jigsaw, practicing oral language skills with interviews and student-read dictations, an ask the expert activity which builds learner confidence in speaking in front of groups of people. (Author/VWL)

  19. Direct reading of charge multipliers with a self-triggering CMOS analog chip with 105k pixels at 50 micron pitch

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, R; Minuti, M; Baldini, L; Brez, A; Cavalca, F; Latronico, L; Omodei, N; Massai, M M; Sgro, C; Costa, E; Krummenacher, P S F; De Oliveira, R

    2006-01-01

    We report on a large active area (15x15mm2), high channel density (470 pixels/mm2), self-triggering CMOS analog chip that we have developed as pixelized charge collecting electrode of a Micropattern Gas Detector. This device, which represents a big step forward both in terms of size and performance, is the last version of three generations of custom ASICs of increasing complexity. The CMOS pixel array has the top metal layer patterned in a matrix of 105600 hexagonal pixels at 50 micron pitch. Each pixel is directly connected to the underneath full electronics chain which has been realized in the remaining five metal and two poly-silicon layers of a 0.18 micron VLSI technology. The chip has customizable self-triggering capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way it is possible to reduce significantly the readout time and the data volume by limiting the signal output only to those pixels belonging to the region of interest. The ve...

  20. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 with improved proof-reading enhances homology-directed repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Inui, Tomoko; Takahashi, Gou; Hsu, Szuyin; Miyaoka, Yuichiro

    2018-05-18

    Genome editing using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) predominantly induces non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which generates random insertions or deletions, whereas homology-directed repair (HDR), which generates precise recombination products, is useful for wider applications. However, the factors that determine the ratio of HDR to NHEJ products after CRISPR/Cas9 editing remain unclear, and methods by which the proportion of HDR products can be increased have not yet been fully established. We systematically analyzed the HDR and NHEJ products after genome editing using various modified guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 variants with an enhanced conformational checkpoint to improve the fidelity at endogenous gene loci in HEK293T cells and HeLa cells. We found that these modified gRNAs and Cas9 variants were able to enhance HDR in both single-nucleotide substitutions and a multi-kb DNA fragment insertion. Our results suggest that the original CRISPR/Cas9 system from the bacterial immune system is not necessarily the best option for the induction of HDR in genome editing and indicate that the modulation of the kinetics of conformational checkpoints of Cas9 can optimize the HDR/NHEJ ratio.

  1. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Gowthaman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line.

  2. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthaman, Sivakumar; Nakashima, Kazunori; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2018-04-04

    Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS) and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS) are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line.

  3. A Framework for Analysis of Case Studies of Reading Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Kelcey, Ben; Rosaen, Cheryl; Phelps, Geoffrey; Vereb, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and study of a framework to provide direction and guidance for practicing teachers in using a web-based case studies program for professional development in early reading; the program is called Case Studies Reading Lessons (CSRL). The framework directs and guides teachers' analysis of reading instruction by…

  4. Emotional Landscapes of Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Samutina

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on fan fiction as a literary experience and especially on fan fiction readers’ receptive strategies. Methodologically, its approach is at the intersection of literary theory, theory of popular culture, and qualitative research into practices of communication within online communities. It presents a general characterization of fan fiction as a type of contemporary reading and writing, drawing upon the influential works by H. Jenkins, A. Dericho, K. Tosenberger, and others. T...

  5. Recognizing Psychiatric Comorbidity With Reading Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Hendren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading disorder (RD, a specific learning disorder (SLD of reading that includes impairment in word reading, reading fluency, and/or reading comprehension, is common in the general population but often is not comprehensively understood or assessed in mental health settings. In education settings, comorbid mental and associated disorders may be inadequately integrated into intervention plans. Assessment and intervention for RD may be delayed or absent in children with frequently co-occurring mental disorders not fully responding to treatment in both school and mental health settings. To address this oversight, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding RDs and common comorbid or co-occurring disorders that are important for mental health and school settings. We chose to highlight RD because it is the most common SLD, and connections to other often comorbid disorders have been more thoroughly described in the literature. Much of the literature we describe is on decoding-based RD (or developmental dyslexia as it is the most common form of RD. In addition to risk for academic struggle and social, emotional, and behavioral problems, those with RD often show early evidence of combined or intertwined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition childhood disorders. These include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression, disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and other SLDs. The present review highlights issues and areas of controversy within these comorbidities, as well as directions for future research. An interdisciplinary, integrated approach between mental health professionals and educators can lead to comprehensive and targeted treatments encompassing both academic and mental health interventions. Such targeted treatments may contribute to improved educational and health-related outcomes in vulnerable youth. While there is a growing research literature

  6. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  7. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The current study explores the feasibility of an extensive reading programme in the context of a low-income country (Mozambique), as well as the influence of extensive reading on academic reading. The programme took over 4 months and was conducted among 30 students majoring in Journalism at the Eduardo ...

  8. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  9. Reading literacy and reading self-concept of year 6 primary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Cegnar, Katja

    2017-01-01

    In the present Master thesis, we research the relation between the reading literacy and its components and the reading self-concept in grade 6 elementary school students. Sixth grade students were chosen because they are partially taught by class teachers and because we assume that they are already familiar with the reading comprehension technique and have a more-or-less stable reading self-concept. In the theoretical part, we present the importance of functional literacy and of other types o...

  10. Effects of Listening While Reading (LWR on Swahili Reading Fluency and Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipo Lubua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have examined the contribution of technology in teaching such languages as English, French, and Spanish, among many others. Contrarily, most LCTL’s, have received very little attention. This study investigates if listening while reading (LWR may expedite Swahili reading fluency and comprehension. The study employed the iBook Author tool to create weekly mediated and interactive reading texts, with comprehension exercises, which were eventually used to collect descriptive and qualitative data from four Elementary Swahili students. Participants participated in a seven week reading program, which provided them with some kind of directed self-learning, and met with the instructor for at least 30 minutes every week for observation and more reading activities. The teacher recorded their reading scores, and a number of themes on how LWR influenced reading fluency and comprehension are discussed here. It shows that participants have a positive attitude towards LWR and they suggest it for all the reading classes.

  11. Nonhybrid, finished microbial genome assemblies from long-read SMRT sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chen-Shan; Alexander, David H; Marks, Patrick; Klammer, Aaron A; Drake, James; Heiner, Cheryl; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Huddleston, John; Eichler, Evan E; Turner, Stephen W; Korlach, Jonas

    2013-06-01

    We present a hierarchical genome-assembly process (HGAP) for high-quality de novo microbial genome assemblies using only a single, long-insert shotgun DNA library in conjunction with Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing. Our method uses the longest reads as seeds to recruit all other reads for construction of highly accurate preassembled reads through a directed acyclic graph-based consensus procedure, which we follow with assembly using off-the-shelf long-read assemblers. In contrast to hybrid approaches, HGAP does not require highly accurate raw reads for error correction. We demonstrate efficient genome assembly for several microorganisms using as few as three SMRT Cell zero-mode waveguide arrays of sequencing and for BACs using just one SMRT Cell. Long repeat regions can be successfully resolved with this workflow. We also describe a consensus algorithm that incorporates SMRT sequencing primary quality values to produce de novo genome sequence exceeding 99.999% accuracy.

  12. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  13. Climatic responses to the shortwave and longwave direct radiative effects of sea salt aerosol in present day and the last glacial maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Climate Change Research Center (CCRC), Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Beijing (China); Harvard University, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA (United States); Liao, Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    We examine the climatic responses to the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) direct radiative effects (RE) of sea salt aerosol in present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM) using a general circulation model with online simulation of sea salt cycle. The 30-year control simulation predicts a present-day annual emission of sea salt of 4,253 Tg and a global burden of 8.1 Tg for the particles with dry radii smaller than 10 {mu}m. Predicted annual and global mean SW and LW REs of sea salt are, respectively, -1.06 and +0.14 W m{sup -2} at the top of atmosphere (TOA), and -1.10 and +0.54 W m{sup -2} at the surface. The LW warming of sea salt is found to decrease with altitude, which leads to a stronger net sea salt cooling in the upper troposphere. The changes in global mean air temperature by the present-day sea salt are simulated to be -0.55, -0.63, -0.86, and -0.91 K at the surface, 850, 500a, and 200 hPa, respectively. The emission of sea salt at the LGM is estimated to be 4,075 Tg year{sup -1}. Relative to present day, the LGM sea salt emission is higher by about 18% over the tropical and subtropical oceans, and is lower by about 35% in the mid- and high-latitudes in both hemispheres because of the expansion of sea ice. As a result of the weakened LGM water cycle, the LGM annual and global mean burden of sea salt is predicted to be higher by 4% as compared to the present-day value. Compared with the climatic effect of sea salt in present day, the sea-salt-induced reductions in surface air temperature at the LGM have similar magnitude in the tropics but are weakened by about 0.18 and 0.14 K in the high latitudes of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, respectively. We also perform a sensitivity study to explore the upper limit of the climatic effect of the LGM sea salt. We assume an across-the-board 30% increase in the glacial wind speed and consider sea salt emissions over sea ice, so that the model can reproduce the ratio of sea salt deposition between the LGM and

  14. PROMOTING AUTONOMOUS LEARNING IN READING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sholeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To have good acquisition and awareness in reading, the learners need a long and continuous process, and therefore, they are required to have autonomy in learning reading. This study aims to promote learner autonomy in reading class by combining learner-centered reading teaching and extensive reading teaching. Learner-centered reading teaching was carried out through group discussion, presentation, and language awareness activities. Meanwhile, extensive reading teaching was done to review the learners‘ materials in presentation and reinforce their acquisition. Those two different approaches were applied due to differences on learner's characteristics and needs. The result showed some success in the practice of autonomy, indicated by changes on learners' attitude. However, many learners showed that they focused more on obtaining score than on developing their language acquisition. By implementing the approach, the teacher can assist learners to be aware of their ability to learn independently and equip them with the skill needed for long-life learning.

  15. Development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Frank G.; Machura, Shirley

    The development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program (ADRP) was based on a current psycholinguistic theory that describes reading as a process in which the reader uses background information to communicate with the author. To ensure its usefulness and effectiveness, the developers of the ADRP sought the advice and direct involvement of many…

  16. How to teach children reading and spelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.M.T.; Schraven, J.L.M.; Segers, E.; Broek, P. van den

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Dutch reading and spelling didactic 'How to teach children reading and spelling' (HTCRS), developed by Schraven (1994/2013) was empirically tested in children attending special education. HTCRS is based on the principles of direct and classroom instruction, and the task

  17. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  18. Factoring AAVE into Reading Assessment and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Rebecca; Cartwright, Kelly B.; Swords, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In our increasingly diverse schools, students bring diverse ways of speaking to the classroom. In turn, as features from students' home language varieties transfer into their readings of texts, teachers' assessment and intervention plans may be directly affected. If teachers conflate dialect influence with reading error in Standard English, they…

  19. Psychometric Research in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frederick B.

    This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

  20. Congenital Unilateral Deafness Affects Cerebral Organization of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that early sensory deprivation modifies brain functional structure and connectivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-functional organization of reading in a patient with profound congenital unilateral deafness. Using event-related potentials (ERPs, we compared cortical networks supporting the processing of written words in patient RA (completely deaf in the right ear since birth and in a group of control volunteers. We found that congenital unilateral hearing deprivation modifies neural mechanisms of word reading. Indeed, while written word processing was left-lateralized in controls, we found a strong right lateralization of the fusiform and inferior occipital gyri activation in RA. This finding goes in the same direction of recent proposals that the ventral occipito-temporal activity in word reading seem to lateralize to the same hemisphere as the one involved in spoken language processing.

  1. The NASA POWER SSE: Deriving the Direct Normal Counterpart from the CERES SYN1deg Hourly Global Horizontal Irradiance during Early 2000 to Near Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Westberg, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) provides solar direct normal irradiance (DNI) data as well as a variety of other solar parameters. The currently available DNIs are monthly means on a quasi-equal-area grid system with grid boxes roughly equivalent to 1 degree longitude by 1 degree latitude around the equator from July 1983 to June 2005, and the data were derived from the GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) monthly mean global horizontal irradiance (GHI, Release 3) and regression analysis of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) data. To improve the quality of the DNI data and push the temporal coverage of the data to near present, we have applied a modified version of the DIRINDEX global-to-beam model to the GEWEX SRB (Release 3) all-sky and clear-sky 3-hourly GHI data and derived their DNI counterparts for the period from July 1983 to December 2007. The results have been validated against the BSRN data. To further expand the data in time to near present, we are now applying the DIRINDEX model to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The CERES SYN1deg (Edition 4A) offers hourly all-sky and clear-sky GHIs on a 1 degree longitude by 1 degree latitude grid system from March 2000 to October 2016 as of this writing. Comparisons of the GHIs with their BSRN counterparts show remarkable agreements. Besides the GHIs, the inputs will also include the atmospheric water vapor and surface pressure from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the aerosol optical depth from the Max-Planck Institute Climatology (MAC-v1). Based on the performance of the DIRINDEX model with the GEWEX SRB GHI data, we expect at least equally good or even better results. In this paper, we will show the derived hourly, daily, and monthly mean DNIs from the CERES SYN1deg hourly GHIs from March 2000 to October 2016 and how they compare with the BSRN data.

  2. Direct-reading type microwave interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kiyokata; Fujita, Junji; Ogata, Atsushi; Haba, Kiichiro.

    1977-10-01

    A new microwave interferometer has been developed and applied to the electron density measurement on JIPP T-II plasma device. The interferometer generates an output voltage proportional to the number of fringe shifts and also output pulses which indicate the change of electron density for the convenience of data processing, where the resolution is a quarter of fringe shift. The principle is based on the digitization of fringe shifts utilizing the phase detection of microwave signals with two-level modulation of source frequency. With this system and 70 GHz microwave source, a change of electron density as rapid as about 2 x 10 13 cm -3 in 1 ms has been measured at the tokamak operation of JIPP T-II. (auth.)

  3. The Link between Text Difficulty, Reading Speed and Exploration of Printed Text during Shared Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Charland, Annie; Perron, Melanie; Turgeon, Krystle-Lee; Hoffman, Nichola; Chamberland, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study the reading speed of the narration and the difficulty of the text was manipulated and links were explored with children's attention to the printed text in shared book reading. Thirty-nine children (24 grade 1 and 15 grade 2) were presented easy and difficult books at slow (syllable by syllable) or fast (adult reading speed)…

  4. The Keefe Inventory of Silent Reading: A Window into the Reading Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Contains part of the Keefe Inventory of Silent Reading, a silent informal reading inventory. Presents a case study of a student to whom it was administered, including analysis of this individual's reading ability and description of the specific strategies used with this individual on the basis of the results of the inventory. (RS)

  5. Best Practices for Achieving High, Rapid Reading Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…

  6. Reviewing a Reading Program: Professional Development Module. Facilitator's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanovich, Marcia; Jordan, Georgia; Arndt, Elissa; VanSciver, Mary; Wahl, Michelle; Rissman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This "Facilitator's Guide" has been prepared for presenters of the Reviewing a Reading Program professional development training. It is one of three pieces comprising a suite of materials on reviewing reading programs: this "Guide", the "Reviewing a Reading Program Participant's Guide" and the "Reviewing a Reading Program" Professional Development…

  7. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  8. Effects of sequential and discrete rapid naming on reading in Japanese children with reading difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamiya, Eiji; Okumura, Tomohito; Nakanishi, Makoto; Takeshita, Takashi; Mizuta, Mekumi; Kurimoto, Naoko; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    To clarify whether rapid naming ability itself is a main underpinning factor of rapid automatized naming tests (RAN) and how deep an influence the discrete decoding process has on reading, we performed discrete naming tasks and discrete hiragana reading tasks as well as sequential naming tasks and sequential hiragana reading tasks with 38 Japanese schoolchildren with reading difficulty. There were high correlations between both discrete and sequential hiragana reading and sentence reading, suggesting that some mechanism which automatizes hiragana reading makes sentence reading fluent. In object and color tasks, there were moderate correlations between sentence reading and sequential naming, and between sequential naming and discrete naming. But no correlation was found between reading tasks and discrete naming tasks. The influence of rapid naming ability of objects and colors upon reading seemed relatively small, and multi-item processing may work in relation to these. In contrast, in the digit naming task there was moderate correlation between sentence reading and discrete naming, while no correlation was seen between sequential naming and discrete naming. There was moderate correlation between reading tasks and sequential digit naming tasks. Digit rapid naming ability has more direct effect on reading while its effect on RAN is relatively limited. The ratio of how rapid naming ability influences RAN and reading seems to vary according to kind of the stimuli used. An assumption about components in RAN which influence reading is discussed in the context of both sequential processing and discrete naming speed. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-lagged relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension among Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahua Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension using a two-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 male and 69 female. We measured children’s morphological awareness, word reading, and reading comprehension from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, morphological awareness stably predicted subsequent reading comprehension, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that word reading partially mediated the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.

  10. Reading Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners While Reading Academic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Yousefian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to explore the nature and frequency of the reading strategies used by the EFL learners while reading academic texts. Normally, students tend to read all the information provided in reading materials. This study explores whether learners use reading strategies to assist them in reading comprehension. There was a sample of 45 English language (EFL learners from Islamic Azad University, Falavarjan Branch. The instrument utilized in this study was a survey questionnaire with 30 items including 13 global reading strategies, 8 problem solving strategies and 9 support reading strategies. The survey was going to signify how much EFL learners use each of these strategies while reading academic texts. The findings indicated that the participants used global reading strategies more (44.5% than problem solving strategies (29.0% and support reading strategies (26.5%. The results of the present study will let the instructors improve the reading strategies which are not used by EFL learners frequently. It also helps learners to promote the ability of using reading strategies and utilize the strategies in an appropriate and effective way.

  11. Unveiling the dynamics of reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, M.; Abdullaev, Y.

    1996-01-01

    What happens in our brain when we read isolated words? Are some particular areas of cortex stimulated when these words make sense? Does the reading practice induce others areas? And what about the new senses research? Some studies carried out for a century show that two regions of the left cerebral hemisphere: the Broca and the Wernicke areas are involved. By visualizing in vivo an elementary thought as what is for instance the function of a hammer, the functional cerebral imagery (positron computed tomography, NMR imaging, electro-encephalography) allows to deepen and to explain the analysis. It reveals an areas network called semantic, in the right hemisphere too. Their activation would take place according to a very fast sequence in order to direct the eye movements during the reading. (O.M.)

  12. Reading Disabilities and PASS Reading Enhancement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…

  13. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  14. University Students' Reading of Their First-Year Mathematics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the observed behaviors and difficulties that 11 precalculus and calculus students exhibited in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. To gauge the "effectiveness" of these students' reading, we asked them to attempt straightforward mathematical tasks, based directly on what they had just read. The…

  15. Internal and External Readings of Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Same is an anaphoric element that performs a comparison, which can either be external or internal to a sentence. Hardt and Mikkelsen (2015) show that same, unlike other anaphoric expressions, imposes a parallelism constraint, and they present three types of examples showing that same...... is infelicitous in the absence of parallelism. Hardt and Mikkelsen propose an account that applies uniformly to internal and external readings; however, the evidence they present largely targets external readings – they don’t offer empirical evidence that clearly supports the uniform approach. Furthermore, Barker...... (2007) argues that internal readings must be treated differently than external readings. In this paper, I show that the parallelism effects observed by Hardt and Mikkelsen in fact apply to internal readings as well. This provides support for a uniform treatment of internal and external readings of same...

  16. Turkey Reading Culture Map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Akkılık

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived from the project with the same name, the work was published into a book by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Directorate General of Libraries and Publications, the project coordinator. Goal of the project is defined as follows: "specifying the solutions to problems faced directly or indirectly in accessing information, making suggestions to related corporations and persons, determining the perception of libraries in the society, raising the quality of services provided at public libraries and children's libraries affiliated with the Ministry, diversifying these libraries and designating the road map for the future." Carried out with the "method of face-to-face surveys" with 6.212 people in 26 cities, the research revealed the society's habits of reading and library usage.

  17. Universal brain systems for recognizing word shapes and handwriting gestures during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kimihiro; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Pegado, Felipe; Cohen, Laurent; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2012-12-11

    Do the neural circuits for reading vary across culture? Reading of visually complex writing systems such as Chinese has been proposed to rely on areas outside the classical left-hemisphere network for alphabetic reading. Here, however, we show that, once potential confounds in cross-cultural comparisons are controlled for by presenting handwritten stimuli to both Chinese and French readers, the underlying network for visual word recognition may be more universal than previously suspected. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a semantic task with words written in cursive font, we demonstrate that two universal circuits, a shape recognition system (reading by eye) and a gesture recognition system (reading by hand), are similarly activated and show identical patterns of activation and repetition priming in the two language groups. These activations cover most of the brain regions previously associated with culture-specific tuning. Our results point to an extended reading network that invariably comprises the occipitotemporal visual word-form system, which is sensitive to well-formed static letter strings, and a distinct left premotor region, Exner's area, which is sensitive to the forward or backward direction with which cursive letters are dynamically presented. These findings suggest that cultural effects in reading merely modulate a fixed set of invariant macroscopic brain circuits, depending on surface features of orthographies.

  18. Understanding reading comprehension amongst Maltese speaking children.

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Louisa.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigated reading comprehension levels amongst Maltese bilingual students. A total of 428 participants, aged between 8 and 13, from state schools across Malta, were tested and the results of five studies presented. The primary purpose underlying the research was to inform the development of assessment procedures that can be used in the identification of children who have specific difficulties in reading within the Maltese context. Initially, the suitability of reading comprehen...

  19. Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies in Foreign Language Learning Context at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhelmina Vaičiūnienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – this research is aimed to identify the metacognitive online reading strategies employed by MRU students and assess the interrelation between online reading strategies and metacognitive awareness.Design/methodology/approach – the authors present and evaluate the findings obtained by using Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS, the survey, which helped to identify MRU students’ metacognitive online reading strategies in a foreign language learning context. The methods applied in the research were the following ones: literature review and descriptive analysis of the obtained quantitative data. The quantitative research and descriptive analysis of the data received from the survey was applied. The target group of the study conducted at MRU consisted of 89 full-time students having different online reading experience. The sample was composed of students from five Bachelor study programmes studying in the academic year of 2012-2013. The instrument of the research (OSORS was composed of 38 items.Findings – the findings obtained through the survey revealed that readers work directly with the text to solve problems while reading online. However, a low score on any of the subscales of the inventory (i.e. Support strategies use indicates that there may be strategies in these parts that students might want to learn about and consider using them when reading online. By focusing students’ attention on the metacognitive reading strategies identified in the OSORS language, teachers could help students improve their online reading ability. Teachers should include strategy awareness as training component in their students’ online learning tasks.Research limitations/implications – the research sample is rather limited (89 participants.Practical implications – seeking to develop students’ online reading capacity, it is valuable for teachers to discover students’ preferences for online reading strategies and identify encountered

  20. Giro form reading machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

    1995-08-01

    Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

  1. A teaching-learning sequence about weather map reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2017-07-01

    In this paper a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) introducing pre-service elementary teachers (PET) to weather map reading, with emphasis on wind assignment, is presented. The TLS includes activities about recognition of wind symbols, assignment of wind direction and wind speed on a weather map and identification of wind characteristics in a weather forecast. Sixty PET capabilities and difficulties in understanding weather maps were investigated, using inquiry-based learning activities. The results show that most PET became more capable of reading weather maps and assigning wind direction and speed on them. Our results also show that PET could be guided to understand meteorology concepts useful in everyday life and in teaching their future students.

  2. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  3. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  4. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  5. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  6. Reading: United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rose-Marie

    1983-01-01

    An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…

  7. Teaching Reading with Puppets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth

    The use of traditional stories in American Indian language programs connects students' reading to their lives and familiarizes learners with the rhythms of the oral language. Puppet performances are one way of connecting reading programs to the Native oral tradition. A high school reading lesson in a first-year Hupa language class uses many…

  8. Linking crowding, visual span, and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Legge, Gordon E

    2017-09-01

    The visual span is hypothesized to be a sensory bottleneck on reading speed with crowding thought to be the major sensory factor limiting the size of the visual span. This proposed linkage between crowding, visual span, and reading speed is challenged by the finding that training to read crowded letters reduced crowding but did not improve reading speed (Chung, 2007). Here, we examined two properties of letter-recognition training that may influence the transfer to improved reading: the spatial arrangement of training stimuli and the presence of flankers. Three groups of nine young adults were trained with different configurations of letter stimuli at 10° in the lower visual field: a flanked-local group (flanked letters localized at one position), a flanked-distributed group (flanked letters distributed across different horizontal locations), and an isolated-distributed group (isolated and distributed letters). We found that distributed training, but not the presence of flankers, appears to be necessary for the training benefit to transfer to increased reading speed. Localized training may have biased attention to one specific, small area in the visual field, thereby failing to improve reading. We conclude that the visual span represents a sensory bottleneck on reading, but there may also be an attentional bottleneck. Reducing the impact of crowding can enlarge the visual span and can potentially facilitate reading, but not when adverse attentional bias is present. Our results clarify the association between crowding, visual span, and reading.

  9. A comparison of direct technique with the liquid stylet technique of radial artery cannulation in patients presenting for coronary artery bypass grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, U.; Ahmed, I.

    2012-01-01

    To compare direct technique with the liquid stylet technique of radial artery cannulation in patients undergoing coronary artery byroms grouping. We hypothesized that liquid stylet technique would lead to fewer attempts and save vital time. Study Design: Randomized controlled Trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, [AFIC-NIHD] Rawalpindi, between 1 July 2007 to 31 Dec 2007. Patients and Methods: One hundred patients of either sex scheduled for CABG were included and were randomized to 2 groups using random number table. Fifty patients in the direct technique group and 50 in the liquid stylet group. Results: These two groups comparable with respect to age, gender and weight were studied. The number of attempts in group 1 were 1.7+-0.5 vs 3.6+-1.6 in groups 2, (p=0.021). The time consumed in group was 3.3 +- 2.2 minutes while in groups 2 it was 8.0 +- 3.6 (p=0.022). Conclusion: We concluded that the liquid stylet technique is safe, quick and is associated with lesser number of attempts at cannulation. Secondly it can be done without fancy guide wires and other technology especially in a developing country like Pakistan. (author)

  10. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  11. [Direct osteosynthesis of instable Gehweiler Type III atlas fractures. Presentation of a dorsoventral osteosynthesis of instable atlas fractures while maintaining function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, H; Kayser, R; El Saghir, H; Heyde, C-E

    2006-09-01

    This retrospective study evaluates eight patients with unstable fractures of the atlas vertebra, treated operatively in the Central Clinic Bad Berka between January 1995 and December 2001. In all cases, we were confronted with unstable and dislocated type III fractures according to Gehweiler, caused by an injured transverse ligament. Mean age was 34 years (range 20-49) in two women and six men. We introduce a new technique of direct reconstruction of the atlas vertebra. This technique leads to a stable ring construct that allows compression osteosynthesis of the fracture. Spinal fusion can be avoided, as can postoperative immobilization, since sufficient stability for functional postoperative treatment is achievable. The follow-up control 38 months (range 6-75) after surgery showed solid bony fusion in all cases, in one case after revision surgery. All patients showed good functional results, there was no need for analgesics and all patients could be reintegrated into their former occupation.

  12. Observing documentary reading by verbal protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Mariangela Spotti Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Verifies the applicability to research on indexers' reading strategies of the process observing technique known as Verbal Protocol or Thinking Aloud. This interpretative-qualitative data collecting technique allows the observation of different kinds of process during the progress of different kinds of tasks. Presents a theoretical investigation into "reading" and into formal methodological procedures to observe reading processes. Describes details of the methodological procedures adopted in five case studies with analysis of samples of data. The project adopted three kinds of parameters for data analysis: theoretical, normative, empirical (derived from observations made in the first case study. The results are compared, and important conclusions regarding documentary reading are drawn.

  13. Various Models for Reading Comprehension Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Babashamsi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years reading can be viewed as a process, as a form of thinking, as a true experience, and as a tool subject. As a process, reading includes visual discrimination, independent recognition of word, rhythmic progression along a line of print, precision in the return sweep of the eyes, and adjustment of rate. In the same line, the present paper aims at considering the various models of reading process. Moreover, the paper will take a look at various factors such as schema and vocabulary knowledge which affect reading comprehension process.

  14. Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Ulker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic success of the university students greatly depends on the mastery of an academic reading skill. However, students as well as teachers, take the learning of this skill for granted, as they tend to presuppose that reading skill is acquired as a part of their secondary education. As a result, most first-year students employ non university strategies to read academic texts, which leads to a surface approach to reading and prevents students from a better understanding of the material. This paper will discuss the strategies that involve students in taking a deep approach to reading academic texts.

  15. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  16. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  17. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  18. Distractions, distractions: does instant messaging affect college students' performance on a concurrent reading comprehension task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Annie Beth; Rosen, Jonathan; Crawford, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has become one of the most popular forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and is especially prevalent on college campuses. Previous research suggests that IM users often multitask while conversing online. To date, no one has yet examined the cognitive effect of concurrent IM use. Participants in the present study (N = 69) completed a reading comprehension task uninterrupted or while concurrently holding an IM conversation. Participants who IMed while performing the reading task took significantly longer to complete the task, indicating that concurrent IM use negatively affects efficiency. Concurrent IM use did not affect reading comprehension scores. Additional analyses revealed that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their reading comprehension scores. Finally, we found that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their self-reported GPA. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  19. A unique nuclear receptor direct repeat 17 (DR17) is present within the upstream region of Schistosoma mansoni female-specific p14 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado; Furtado, Daniel Rodrigues; Rumjanek, Franklin David; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2008-01-01

    The eggs produced by sexually mature female Schistosma mansoni are responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease. The eggshell precursor gene p14 is expressed only in the vitelline cells of sexually mature female worms in response to a yet unidentified male stimulus. Herein, we report the identification of a novel nuclear receptor response element in the upstream region of the p14 gene. This element contains the canonical hexameric DNA core motif, 5'-PuGGTCA, composed of an atypically spaced direct repeat (DR17). Schistosome nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1 specifically bound to the p14-DR17 element as a heterodimer. SmRXR1, but not SmNR1, bound to the motif as a monomer. Introduction of mutations in the TCA core sequence completely abolished the binding by SmRXR1/SmNR1 heterodimer. This finding supports our hypothesis that the expression of Schistosoma mansonip14 gene is regulated through the nuclear receptor signaling pathway

  20. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  1. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  2. Reading and Dyslexia in Different Orthographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Nicola, Ed.; McDougall, Sine, Ed.; de Mornay Davies, Paul, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a unique and accessible account of current research on reading and dyslexia in different orthographies. While most research has been conducted in English, this text presents cross-language comparisons to provide insights into universal aspects of reading development and developmental dyslexia in alphabetic and non-alphabetic…

  3. Philosophy 323, Readings in Asian Thought. Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdle, Burton G., Jr.

    A survey course syllabus of Asian philosophy is presented. For each period of dates in the semester course, a reading assignment was made, discussion topics and questions proposed, and supplementary readings and sources suggested. The course focused on Indian philosophy, Buddhism and Hinduism, and Chinese philosophy, specifically Confucian…

  4. Knowledge of teachers about teaching reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, H. T. G.; Houtveen, A. A. M.; van de Grift, W. J. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    A test is developed for teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the field of reading. Items on phonological awareness, alphabetic principle and fluency were presented to a panel of 30 reading experts. This procedure resulted in a test consisting of 45 items that was completed by 215 elementary

  5. Gender affects body language reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny A Sokolov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric impairments in visual social cognition.

  6. Literary, Memory, Reading and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraciaba Micheletti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of literature even when focused on reading is often overlooked in the face of other classroom needs. The teaching of reading, without well-defined object, is emphasized by performing as a concern of all areas and not only in mother-tongue classes. However, a closer look reveals that this is exactly the reading of literary texts that provides answers to questions from other spheres (LAJOLO, 1982; 1993; COSSON, 2006. In this article, taking as a basis, the intertextuality, one of the constituent elements of literary texts (MAINGUENEAU, 2004, we propose some reflections on the role of literary literacy by presenting suggestions for activities, based on the concept of teacher as mediator of the dialogues constituted in the literary text and other derivatives of these dialogues in the classroom.

  7. Fast and simple protein-alignment-guided assembly of orthologous gene families from microbiome sequencing reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huson, Daniel H; Tappu, Rewati; Bazinet, Adam L; Xie, Chao; Cummings, Michael P; Nieselt, Kay; Williams, Rohan

    2017-01-25

    Microbiome sequencing projects typically collect tens of millions of short reads per sample. Depending on the goals of the project, the short reads can either be subjected to direct sequence analysis or be assembled into longer contigs. The assembly of whole genomes from metagenomic sequencing reads is a very difficult problem. However, for some questions, only specific genes of interest need to be assembled. This is then a gene-centric assembly where the goal is to assemble reads into contigs for a family of orthologous genes. We present a new method for performing gene-centric assembly, called protein-alignment-guided assembly, and provide an implementation in our metagenome analysis tool MEGAN. Genes are assembled on the fly, based on the alignment of all reads against a protein reference database such as NCBI-nr. Specifically, the user selects a gene family based on a classification such as KEGG and all reads binned to that gene family are assembled. Using published synthetic community metagenome sequencing reads and a set of 41 gene families, we show that the performance of this approach compares favorably with that of full-featured assemblers and that of a recently published HMM-based gene-centric assembler, both in terms of the number of reference genes detected and of the percentage of reference sequence covered. Protein-alignment-guided assembly of orthologous gene families complements whole-metagenome assembly in a new and very useful way.

  8. How logical reasoning mediates the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    The present study aimed to examine the role of logical reasoning in the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in 146 fourth grade Dutch children. We assessed their standardized reading comprehension measure, along with their decoding efficiency and vocabulary as measures of lexical quality, syllogistic reasoning as measure of (verbal) logical reasoning, and nonverbal reasoning as a control measure. Syllogistic reasoning was divided into a measure tapping basic, coherence inferencing skill using logical syllogisms, and a measure tapping elaborative inferencing skill using indeterminate syllogisms. Results showed that both types of syllogisms partly mediated the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension, but also had a unique additional effect on reading comprehension. The indirect effect of lexical quality on reading comprehension via syllogisms was driven by vocabulary knowledge. It is concluded that measures of syllogistic reasoning account for higher-order thinking processes that are needed to make inferences in reading comprehension. The role of lexical quality appears to be pivotal in explaining the variation in reading comprehension both directly and indirectly via syllogistic reasoning.

  9. Responding to Reading Instruction in a Primary-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Porter, Leah; Edwards, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a snapshot of how one kindergarten and Reading Recovery teacher organized instruction in her classroom, enabling her to provide constructively responsive reading assessment and instruction for her developing and struggling readers. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Low Tolerance for Frustration: Target Group for Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlow, Maria

    1974-01-01

    Presents findings which can aid in the prevention and remediation of reading disabilities in children who have a low tolerance for frustration, many of whom often become acute reading disability cases. (TO)

  11. Comparison of non-directive counselling and cognitive behaviour therapy for patients presenting in general practice with an ICD-10 depressive episode: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M; Marston, L; Bower, P

    2014-07-01

    Most evidence in the UK on the effectiveness of brief therapy for depression concerns cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). In a trial published in 2000, we showed that non-directive counselling and CBT were equally effective in general practice for patients with depression and mixed anxiety and depression. Our results were criticized for including patients not meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder. In this reanalysis we aimed to compare the effectiveness of the two therapies for patients with an ICD-10 depressive episode. Patients with an ICD-10 depressive episode or mixed anxiety and depression were randomized to counselling, CBT or usual general practitioner (GP) care. Counsellors provided nondirective, interpersonal counselling following a manual that we developed based on the work of Carl Rogers. Cognitive behaviour therapists provided CBT also guided by a manual. Modelling was carried out using generalized estimating equations with the multiply imputed datasets. Outcomes were mean scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Social Adjustment Scale at 4 and 12 months. A total of 134 participants were randomized to CBT, 126 to counselling and 67 to usual GP care. We undertook (1) an interaction analysis using all 316 patients who were assigned a diagnosis and (2) a head-to-head comparison using only those 130 (41%) participants who had an ICD-10 depressive episode at baseline. CBT and counselling were both superior to GP care at 4 months but not at 12 months. There was no difference in the effectiveness of the two psychological therapies. We recommend that national clinical guidelines take our findings into consideration in recommending effective alternatives to CBT.

  12. GENDER GENEALOGY OF READING AS CULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kryvda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the cultural aspect of texts using in European culture. The paper found out methodological basis of correctly interpreting the term "practice" in the philosophical and sociological discourses. In the first case the concept reveals human nature; appealing to the field of ethics and intersubjective interactions. In sociological approach the term practice is contrasted to institutional life. It seems to be an organic; vital relevance of actions for contrast to the mechanically regulated community life. Methodology. The paper considered the typology of human intellectual conditions according to Kant’s divided into pure and practical reason. The last one directs action-willed individual efforts so as to meet the universal relevance and ethical coherence. Gottlieb Fichte interpreted practice reason as the way to combine intellectual intentions and material conditions of human being. G. W. F. Hegel enriched the concept with terms of "objectification" and "alienation” of labour. Karl Marx formulated the main features of activity approach to the human nature exploring. In sociological discourse the term practice is opposed to mechanically done actions (according to institutional normativity. Given the philosophical and sociological methodological contexts the reading is studied as activity that aimed emotional and volitional contact with sense. Originality. The paper analysed the genealogy of reading practices. There were selected two types of text perception – rapid "masculine" and prudent "women's" reading. Women salon environment of the XVIII-th century capitalistic Europe was the main condition for the forming of literary-aware public. The authors analysed the process of reading of the text-as-satisfaction and text-as-pleasure (R. Barthes. The work presents the overview of classical studies of sociocultural field: Thorstein Veblen; Vladimir Toporov; Rolan Barthes and contemporary researchers such as T. Markova

  13. Students with Learning Disabilities Perspective on Reading Comprehension Instruction: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dale Rennard

    2017-01-01

    The three article dissertation was a presentation of students' with learning disabilities perspectives on reading comprehension instruction. Article 1 set out to provide an historical perspective of reading and reading comprehension instruction. Topics covered in this research review included: reading comprehension, reading and learning…

  14. Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links With Reading Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Jan C; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A; Lovett, Maureen W; Mahone, E Mark; Willcutt, Erik G; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from 8 to 15 years were conducted for reading outcomes, cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading, and attributions for success and failure in reading situations. Quantile regressions were formulated to estimate these relations across the full skill span of each outcome. Reading-related attributions predicted contextual word recognition, sight word and decoding fluency, and comprehension skills. Attributions to ability in success situations were positively related to each outcome across the full span. On three reading outcomes, this relation strengthened at higher skill levels. Attributions to effort in success situations were consistently and negatively related to all reading outcomes. The results provide evidence that the strength of the relation between reading and attributions varies according to reading skill levels, with the strongest evidence for ability-based attributions in situations of reading success.

  15. Why Do Boys and Girls Perform Differently on PISA Reading in Finland? The Effects of Reading Fluency, Achievement Behaviour, Leisure Reading and Homework Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; Sulkunen, Sari; Niemi, Pekka; Ahonen, Timo

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined gender gap in Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) Reading and mediators of the gender gap in a Finnish sample (n = 1,309). We examined whether the gender gap in PISA Reading performance can be understood via the effects of reading fluency, achievement behaviour (mastery orientation and task-avoidant…

  16. Towards unravelling reading-related modulations of tDCS-induced neuroplasticity in the human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eAntal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation using weak electrical direct currents has shown to be capable of inducing polarity dependent diminutions or elevations in motor and visual cortical excitability. The aim of the present study was to test if reading during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is able to modify stimulation-induced plasticity in the visual cortex. Phosphene thresholds (PT in 12 healthy subjects were recorded before and after 10 minutes of anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS in combination with reading. Reading alone decreased PTs significantly, compared to the sham tDCS condition without reading. Interestingly, after both anodal and cathodal stimulation there was a tendency toward smaller PTs. Our results support the observation that tDCS-induced plasticity is highly dependent on the cognitive state of the subject during stimulation, not only in the case of motor cortex but also in the case of visual cortex stimulation.

  17. Caution and Warning Alarm Design and Evaluation for NASA CEV Auditory Displays: SHFE Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRPP) report 12.07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Godfroy, Martine; Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2008-01-01

    The design of caution-warning signals for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and other future spacecraft will be based on both best practices based on current research and evaluation of current alarms. A design approach is presented based upon cross-disciplinary examination of psychoacoustic research, human factors experience, aerospace practices, and acoustical engineering requirements. A listening test with thirteen participants was performed involving ranking and grading of current and newly developed caution-warning stimuli under three conditions: (1) alarm levels adjusted for compliance with ISO 7731, "Danger signals for work places - Auditory Danger Signals", (2) alarm levels adjusted to an overall 15 dBA s/n ratio and (3) simulated codec low-pass filtering. Questionnaire data yielded useful insights regarding cognitive associations with the sounds.

  18. Implications of a Cognitive Science Model Integrating Literacy in Science on Achievement in Science and Reading: Direct Effects in Grades 3-5 with Transfer to Grades 6-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romance, Nancy; Vitale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reported are the results of a multiyear study in which reading comprehension and writing were integrated within an in-depth science instructional model (Science IDEAS) in daily 1.5 to 2 h daily lessons on a schoolwide basis in grades 3-4-5. Multilevel (HLM7) achievement findings showed the experimental intervention resulted in significant and…

  19. Spontaneous CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses directed against cancer testis antigens are present in the peripheral blood of testicular cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Hayden; Hutton, Paul; Chaudhri, Shalini; Porfiri, Emilio; Patel, Prashant; Viney, Richard; Moss, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Cancer/testis antigen (CTAg) expression is restricted to spermatogenic cells in an immune-privileged site within the testis. However, these proteins are expressed aberrantly by malignant cells and T-cell responses against CTAgs develop in many cancer patients. We investigated the prevalence, magnitude and phenotype of CTAg-specific T cells in the blood of patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). CD8 + and CD4 + T-cell responses against MAGE-A family antigens were present in 44% (20/45) of patients' samples assayed by ex vivo IFN-γ ELISPOT. The presence of MAGE-specific CD8 + T cells was further determined following short-term in vitro expansion through the use of pMHC-I multimers containing known immunogenic peptides. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the frequency of MAGE-specific T cells decreased by 89% following orchidectomy suggesting that persistence of tumor antigen is required to sustain CTAg-specific T-cell immunity. Notably, this decrease correlated with a decline in the global effector/memory T-cell pool following treatment. Spontaneous T-cell immunity against CTAg proteins therefore develops in many patients with testicular cancer and may play an important role in the excellent clinical outcome of patients with this tumor subtype. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Spontaneous CD4+ and CD8+ T‐cell responses directed against cancer testis antigens are present in the peripheral blood of testicular cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Hayden; Hutton, Paul; Chaudhri, Shalini; Porfiri, Emilio; Patel, Prashant; Viney, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Cancer/testis antigen (CTAg) expression is restricted to spermatogenic cells in an immune‐privileged site within the testis. However, these proteins are expressed aberrantly by malignant cells and T‐cell responses against CTAgs develop in many cancer patients. We investigated the prevalence, magnitude and phenotype of CTAg‐specific T cells in the blood of patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). CD8+ and CD4+ T‐cell responses against MAGE‐A family antigens were present in 44% (20/45) of patients’ samples assayed by ex vivo IFN‐γ ELISPOT. The presence of MAGE‐specific CD8+ T cells was further determined following short‐term in vitro expansion through the use of pMHC‐I multimers containing known immunogenic peptides. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the frequency of MAGE‐specific T cells decreased by 89% following orchidectomy suggesting that persistence of tumor antigen is required to sustain CTAg‐specific T‐cell immunity. Notably, this decrease correlated with a decline in the global effector/memory T‐cell pool following treatment. Spontaneous T‐cell immunity against CTAg proteins therefore develops in many patients with testicular cancer and may play an important role in the excellent clinical outcome of patients with this tumor subtype. PMID:28555838

  1. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  2. INTEREST AND READING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamdu Alhamdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

  3. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  4. Using the Networked Peer Support Strategy to Enhance Reading Comprehension for Students with Various Thinking Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien I.; Chang, Chih C.

    2017-01-01

    How to enhance students' reading comprehension as well as reading interest is a currently serious problem for elementary school students. Students can learn various knowledge through reading, as a result of this reason, the advantage and disadvantage of reading ability could directly affect the learning efficiency. This study proposes networked…

  5. Method of teaching reading of map of orientation-sportsmen's on the stage of initial preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Yu.N.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Directions of development and perfection of major skill are rotined in the system of technical preparation of sportsman - to reading of map. Basic exercises are resulted on teaching of beginnings sportsmen. Exercises are directed on development of memory, attention, operative thought of young sportsmen. Tasks are presented on locality and in a class. Basic tasks are selected creatively going of trainer near the work. Experience trainers and system of the individual going is grounded near teaching of sportsman.

  6. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  7. Attention Process Training-3 to improve reading comprehension in mild aphasia: A single-case experimental design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaime B; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Harn, Beth; Horner, Robert; Cherney, Leora R

    2018-06-04

    People with aphasia frequently present with nonlinguistic deficits, in addition to their compromised language abilities, which may contribute to their problems with reading comprehension. Treatment of attention, working memory and executive control may improve reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia, particularly those with mild reading problems. This single-case experimental design study evaluated the efficacy of Attention Process Training-3, an intervention combining direct attention training and metacognitive facilitation, for improving reading comprehension in individuals with mild aphasia. A multiple baseline design across six participants was used to evaluate treatment effects. The primary outcome measure was a maze reading task. Cognitive measures were administered pre- and post-treatment. Visual inspection of graphed maze reading performance data indicated a basic effect between APT-3 and improved maze reading for three of the six participants. Quantitative analyses, using Tau-U, corroborated findings identified through visual analysis. The overall effect size was significant (Tau = .48, p = .01). Results suggest that APT-3 has the potential to improve reading in individuals with aphasia, but that it may be more efficacious under certain conditions. Treatment and participant variables, including intensity of treatment and metacognitive strategy usage, are discussed as potential influences on participants' responsiveness to APT-3.

  8. SchemaOnRead: A Package for Schema-on-Read in R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J.

    2016-08-01

    Schema-on-read is an agile approach to data storage and retrieval that defers investments in data organization until production queries need to be run by working with data directly in native form. Schema-on-read functions have been implemented in a wide range of analytical systems, most notably Hadoop. SchemaOnRead is a CRAN package that uses R’s flexible data representations to provide transparent and convenient support for the schema-on-read paradigm in R. The schema-on- read tools within the package include a single function call that recursively reads folders with text, comma separated value, raster image, R data, HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet, Weka, Epi Info, Pajek network, R network, HTML, SPSS, Systat, and Stata files. The provided tools can be used as-is or easily adapted to implement customized schema-on-read tool chains in R. This paper’s contribution is that it introduces and describes SchemaOnRead, the first R package specifically focused on providing explicit schema-on-read support in R.

  9. Follow-up study on reading comprehension in Down's syndrome: the role of reading skills and listening comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    According to the 'Simple View of Reading', reading comprehension requires some abilities such as reading skill and listening comprehension. Individuals with Down's syndrome show relative strengths in reading skills, mainly in word recognition, where they attain a reading age of about 7-8 years. Compared with word recognition, their reading comprehension is usually delayed by at least 6 months. Poor reading comprehension is paralleled by weak listening comprehension. It is claimed that poor listening comprehension might constrain the development of reading comprehension and, therefore, be a cause for the asynchrony between reading skills and reading comprehension. A follow-up study was carried out in order to analyse the improvements in reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension, and to support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between listening and reading comprehension. Ten children and adolescents with Down's syndrome, aged between 11 years 3 months and 19 years 10 months, were assessed twice over a one-year period as to their reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension. Three main findings emerged: (1) reading skills, on the one hand, and comprehension (both listening and reading), on the other hand, are independent; (2) reading comprehension development is determined mainly by listening comprehension, which in the present study proved to be very poor; and (3) an improvement after a one-year period, even though limited, occurred for all examined abilities except for listening comprehension. The results are discussed in the light of the theoretical framework of the 'Simple View of Reading' and of their relevance for practical and educational issues. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  10. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  11. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Editorial Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Avrichir

    2017-01-01

    commercial perspective "is that with the establishment of export quotas, the two countries incurred in trade losses. In "The use of competitive intelligence in the selection of export markets - a comparative analysis of four methods", Moema Pereira Nunes and Laura de Souza Lequain address one of the biggest challenges facing companies that want to export their products: How to choose an import market . Through rigorous analysis of the characteristics of four methods commonly used to perform this choice, they come to the conclusion that all of them are difficult to apply for  small and medium enterprises. While that result may be frustrating  for readers that would like to find in the paper an answer to the problem of export market selection by SMEs, the article has the great merit of drawing attention to the necessity to work in this direction. Not to mention that it serves as an advanced introduction to the knowledge of methods of analysis of import markets. In "Influences of international experience and business diversification on the degree of internationalization of Brazilian multinationals" Ivano Ribeiro, Fernando Antonio Ribeiro Serra, and Geysler Rogis Flor Bertolini analyze the impacts of two dimensions - the time of international experience and the diversification of business - on the degree of internationalization of Brazilian multinationals. Through regression analysis, they find indications that the company's business diversification is positively related to the degree of internationalization. Contrary, however, to what one would expect from established theories of internationalization of business, they find that prior international experience of Brazilian firms does not seem to predict the degree of internationalization. The authors suggest that this result may be related to the fact that the internationalization process of Brazilian multinationals is still a relatively recent phenomena. Paulo Kazuhiro Izumi, Cyro Augusto Pachicoski Couto and Mário Henrique

  13. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  14. The Effect of Background Music While Silent Reading on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sakineh sahebdel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effect of background music while silent reading on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The participants were 57 Iranian EFL learners between the ages of 14 and 16 in two 3rd grade high schoolclasses at pre-intermediate proficiency level. Before treatment,both experimental and control groups took a reading comprehension pretest. In the experimental group, the researchers played Mozart sonatas as background music and asked them to read the passage silently and then answer the reading comprehension questions. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but no music was played while silent reading by the students. After ten sessions, the students of both groups were asked to answer another independent but parallel form of reading section of PET as their post-test. The independent samples t-testresultsindicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in reading comprehension posttest, and listening to background music while silent reading had a significantly positive effect on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The results of the present study have implications for EFL students, teachers, and teacher educators as well as syllabus designers and materials developers.

  15. It Takes Two to Read: Interactive Reading with Young Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Evelien; Wauters, Loes

    2018-04-04

    Interactive storybook reading is an important activity to enhance the emergent literacy skills of young deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Parents have a crucial role to play in promoting their children's literacy development. However, parents often do not read in an interactive way; therefore guidance is recommended in applying these interactive reading strategies. In the present study we examined how parent reading behavior was affected by implementing an interactive reading training program for parents of young DHH children. Parents of 18 DHH toddlers in the Netherlands participated in a series of group training sessions and their interactive reading behavior was compared to that of 10 parents who did not participate. The results showed that parents' interactive reading behavior tended to increase after they participated in the interactive reading program. After the program, they applied the interactive reading strategies more often than parents who had not participated in the program. The findings suggest that interactive reading programs should be incorporated into early intervention programs for DHH children.

  16. Quantum reading of unitary optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of quantum reading of optical memories, namely the retrieving of classical information stored in the optical properties of a media with minimum energy. We present optimal strategies for ambiguous and unambiguous quantum reading of unitary optical memories, namely when one's task is to minimize the probability of errors in the retrieved information and when perfect retrieving of information is achieved probabilistically, respectively. A comparison of the optimal strategy with coherent probes and homodyne detection shows that the former saves orders of magnitude of energy when achieving the same performances. Experimental proposals for quantum reading which are feasible with present quantum optical technology are reported

  17. Learning to Read: Should We Keep Things Simple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Research Quarterly, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading describes reading comprehension as the product of decoding and listening comprehension and the relative contribution of each to reading comprehension across development. We present a cross-sectional analysis of first, second, and third graders (N = 123-125 in each grade) to assess the adequacy of the basic model.…

  18. Executive Function and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, D. Jake

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analytic review of the relation between executive function and reading comprehension. Results (N = 6,673) supported a moderate positive association between executive function and reading comprehension (r = 0.36). Moderator analyses suggested that correlations between executive function and reading comprehension did not…

  19. Matching Interventions to Reading Needs: A Case for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jill S.; Conradi, Kristin; Amendum, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of providing reading interventions that are differentiated and aligned with an individual student's most foundational reading skill need. The authors present profiles of different readers and suggest three principal areas for support: decoding words, reading at an appropriate rate, and…

  20. How professionals read online documents to formulate recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.; van der Geest, Thea

    2003-01-01

    Professionals often read with the purpose of formulating a judgment based on what they have read. Increasingly, the documents to be used are available electronically. This adds to the complexity of the task. In the presented study, seven participants read two sets of articles that were used to

  1. Reading Motivation: 10 Elements for Success. Motivational Strategies That Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Kori M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational processes are the foundation for coordinating cognitive goals and strategies in reading. Becoming an excellent, active reader involves attunement of motivational processes with cognitive and language processes in reading. This article presents K-12 strategies for motivating reading success. It describes 10 instructional elements that…

  2. A Framework for Assessing Reading Comprehension of Geometric Construction Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin; Li, Jian-Lin

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates one issue related to reading mathematical texts by presenting a two-dimensional framework for assessing reading comprehension of geometric construction texts. The two dimensions of the framework were formulated by modifying categories of reading literacy and drawing on key elements of geometric construction texts. Three…

  3. Eye Movement during Silent and Oral Reading: How Can we Compensate the Loss of Multisensory Process during Silent Reading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Takahashi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While reading texts orally, we process the multisensory language information. Accordingly, in the context of reading aloud, we process the visually presented text and produce the auditory information of the text through articulatory movement. These multisensory processing activities are assumed to facilitate the memory and comprehension of textual information. Conversely, while reading silently, we process only the visual information of the text. Although we cannot use the multisensory language information while reading silently, several researchers have found that there is little difference between the degree of comprehension based on silent and oral reading for adult readers. The purpose of this study is to explain how we compensate the loss of multisensory process during silent reading by comparing the visual processing process during silent and oral reading. By conducting two experiments, we measured and compared the eye movement during silent and oral reading. The results showed that silent reading took shorter time for comprehension than oral reading, and readers had more visual fixation points and read back frequently during reading silently than orally. These reading strategies during silent reading seemed to compensate the loss of multisensory process and support the text comprehension.

  4. CSAF Reading List 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Undaunted Zero Dark Thirty 101109-F-RH756-737 Raptor's Reveille Featured Books Featured Films Featured Art House To House House To House by David Bellavia and John Bruning One of the great heroes of the Iraq War /McMillan/Switzler Read More... Fearless Book: Fearless by Eric Blehm Read More... Zero Dark Thirty Zero

  5. Reading Patterns Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are

  6. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  7. Reading and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the concept of working memory, with particular reference to a hypothetical subcomponent, the articulatory loop. Discusses the role of the loop in fluent adult reading, then examines the reading performance of adults with deficits in auditory verbal memory, showing that a capacity to articulate is not necessary for the effective…

  8. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  9. Multitasking simulation: Present application and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Traci Nicole; Rho, Jason C

    2017-02-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education lists multi-tasking as a core competency in several medical specialties due to increasing demands on providers to manage the care of multiple patients simultaneously. Trainees often learn multitasking on the job without any formal curriculum, leading to high error rates. Multitasking simulation training has demonstrated success in reducing error rates among trainees. Studies of multitasking simulation demonstrate that this type of simulation is feasible, does not hinder the acquisition of procedural skill, and leads to better performance during subsequent periods of multitasking. Although some healthcare agencies have discouraged multitasking due to higher error rates among multitasking providers, it cannot be eliminated entirely in settings such as the emergency department in which providers care for more than one patient simultaneously. Simulation can help trainees to identify situations in which multitasking is inappropriate, while preparing them for situations in which multitasking is inevitable.

  10. The third dimension of reading the sugar code by lectins: design of glycoclusters with cyclic scaffolds as tools with the aim to define correlations between spatial presentation and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Paul V; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2013-04-04

    Coding of biological information is not confined to nucleic acids and proteins. Endowed with the highest level of structural versatility among biomolecules, the glycan chains of cellular glycoconjugates are well-suited to generate molecular messages/signals in a minimum of space. The sequence and shape of oligosaccharides as well as spatial aspects of multivalent presentation are assumed to underlie the natural specificity/selectivity that cellular glycans have for endogenous lectins. In order to eventually unravel structure-activity profiles cyclic scaffolds have been used as platforms to produce glycoclusters and afford valuable tools. Using adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins and the pan-galectin ligand lactose as a model, emerging insights into the potential of cyclodextrins, cyclic peptides, calixarenes and glycophanes for this purpose are presented herein. The systematic testing of lectin panels with spatially defined ligand presentations can be considered as a biomimetic means to help clarify the mechanisms, which lead to the exquisite accuracy at which endogenous lectins select their physiological counterreceptors from the complexity of the cellular glycome.

  11. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  12. Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies Applied by EFL Students

    OpenAIRE

    İnceçay, Görsev

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe purpose of the present study is twofold. It investigated both what metacognitive online reading strategies the Turkish EFL students report using for academic purposes; and how they use the reported strategies in actual reading tasks. Data came from Online Survey of Reading Strategies (Anderson, 2003), think-aloud protocols and post-reading interview. Results of this study revealed that the students who participated in this study reported a wide range of metacognitive strategies wh...

  13. Teaching Reading Skills In Iain Sultan Amai Gorontalo

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Jhems Richard

    2014-01-01

    The importance of reading in IAIN Sultan Amai Gorontalo cannot be denied. Tomake the students fit nationally and internationally, their reading skills must beof an advanced level. If reading skills are improved, learners will be able toutilize maximum resources for acquiring knowledge and information, and it willchange the whole educational scenario of the Institute. So, the present study on€˜An Evaluation of the Teaching of Reading Skills in IAIN Sultan AmaiGorontalo€™ is of great importance...

  14. TEACHING READING USING MAGAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

  15. How to Read the Tractatus Sequentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kraft

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the unconventional features of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is its use of an elaborated and detailed numbering system. Recently, Bazzocchi, Hacker und Kuusela have argued that the numbering system means that the Tractatus must be read and interpreted not as a sequentially ordered book, but as a text with a two-dimensional, tree-like structure. Apart from being able to explain how the Tractatus was composed, the tree reading allegedly solves exegetical issues both on the local (e. g. how 4.02 fits into the series of remarks surrounding it and the global level (e. g. relation between ontology and picture theory, solipsism and the eye analogy, resolute and irresolute readings. This paper defends the sequential reading against the tree reading. After presenting the challenges generated by the numbering system and the two accounts as attempts to solve them, it is argued that Wittgenstein’s own explanation of the numbering system, anaphoric references within the Tractatus and the exegetical issues mentioned above do not favour the tree reading, but a version of the sequential reading. This reading maintains that the remarks of the Tractatus form a sequential chain: The role of the numbers is to indicate how remarks on different levels are interconnected to form a concise, surveyable and unified whole.

  16. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  17. The Reading Environment; Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conference (8th, Terre Haute, Indiana, June 15-16, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, David C., Comp.; Gibbs, Vanita M., Comp.

    The papers presented in this annual reading conference report focus on various aspects of the topic, "The Reading Environment." The opening address advocates establishing reading programs that correspond to the developmental stages of individual children--programs that consider the needs of the whole child. The other papers delivered at the…

  18. Exploring Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension amongst English Second Language Readers in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Spaull, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Most analyses of oral reading fluency (ORF) are based on L1 reading, and the norms that have been developed in English are based on first language reading data. This is problematic for developing countries where many children are learning in English as a second language. The aim of the present study is to model the relationship between English…

  19. Writing to Read: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Writing and Writing Instruction on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Hebert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Reading is critical to students' success in and out of school. One potential means for improving students' reading is writing. In this meta-analysis of true and quasi-experiments, Graham and Herbert present evidence that writing about material read improves students' comprehension of it; that teaching students how to write improves their reading…

  20. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Abegg, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls. Methods Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus. Results Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades. Conclusions Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity) might be the primary causes for reading impairment. PMID:27391149

  1. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Dysli

    Full Text Available Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls.Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus.Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades.Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity might be the primary causes for reading impairment.

  2. Learning Vocabulary through E-Book Reading of Young Children with Various Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that young children learn novel word meanings by simply reading and listening to a printed book. In today's classroom, many children's e-books provide audio narration support so young readers can simply listen to the e-books. The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of e-book reading with audio narration…

  3. How Does Parental Reading Influence Children's Reading? A Study of Cognitive Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Elsje; Bishop, Dorothy; van Zuijen, Titia; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive processes underlying a behavioural outcome (like reading ability) and the impact of familial risk (e.g., for dyslexia) have been studied in isolation. We present a novel design, linking the two avenues. How do familial influences impact on children's cognitive skills, which subsequently underlie reading development? Participants from the…

  4. The relation between attitude toward reading adolescent literature and literary reading behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schooten, E; de Glopper, Kees

    The research presented in this article concludes that the widely accepted Model of Planned Behavior (MPB) is an adequate model for measuring the attitude toward reading adolescent literature [By 'adolescent literature' we mean works of fiction to be read by middle grade students. These can be works

  5. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  6. Reading to Write an Argumentation: The Role of Epistemological, Reading and Writing Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Mar; Cuevas, Isabel; Martin, Elena; Martin, Ana; Echeita, Gerardo; Luna, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of this study was to examine the relations among epistemological, reading and writing beliefs held by psychology undergraduates and the role played by these three types of belief in influencing the degree of perspectivism manifested in a written argumentation task based on reading two texts presenting conflicting perspectives on…

  7. Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links with Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Jan C.; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C.; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Mahone, E. Mark; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from…

  8. The Effect of Cooperative Teaching on the Development of Reading Skills among Students with Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaat Pisheh, Etrat Alzahra; Sadeghpour, Narges; Nejatyjahromy, Yaser; Mir Nasab, Mir Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative teaching is the result of efforts made by two educators for teaching a heterogeneous group of students, especially one including those with specific needs, due to reading disorders for instance. The present study serves as an experimental investigation focusing on the effect of cooperative teaching on the development of reading skills…

  9. D5.3 Reading reliability report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Galiotto, Carlo; Cetin, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable presents a detailed description of the main causes of reading reliability degradation. Two main groups of impairments are recognized: those at the physical layer (e.g., fading, multipath, electromagnetic interference, shadowing due to obstacles, tag orientation misalignment, tag...... bending, metallic environments, etc.) and those at the medium access control sub-layer (e.g., collisions due to tag-to-tag, reader-to-reader and multiple readers-to-tag interference). The review presented in this deliverable covers previous reliability reports and existing definitions of RFID reading...... reliability. Performance metrics and methodologies for assessing reading reliability are further discussed. This document also presents a review of state-of-the-art RFID reading reliability improvement schemes. The solutions are classified into physical- (PHY), medium access control- (MAC), upper-, and cross...

  10. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  11. Extensive reading through the Internet: is it worth the while?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pino Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading materials written in English is the prime goal of many reading programs around the world. Extensive reading (ER has for years aided new students at my institution to gradually acquire large vocabularies and other sub-skills that are needed to read fluently. To continue to do that effectively, a new scheme involving the use of internet - called w-ERP- was set in place in collaboration with the students. The main focus of this article is to describe the 3-phase, gradual process that led to the current design of the web-based ER scheme. The paper begins with a brief discussion of ER, reading on line (RO and self-directed learning as part of the rationale for the new scheme. Participants’ preliminary data on the benefits and potentials for learning to read and reading for learning other things are discussed.

  12. Reading for tracing evidence: developing scientific knowledge through science text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probosari, R. M.; Widyastuti, F.; Sajidan, S.; Suranto, S.; Prayitno, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate students’ learning progression on reading activity, science concept comprehension and how they imply it in scientific communication in the classroom. Fifty-nine biology education students participated in this study. This classroom research was developed to portray students’ reading activity, factors affecting reading comprehension, and the development of reading motivation. Qualitative analysis was used to describe the whole activities, involve the instruction, process and the product of reading activity. The result concluded that each student has their own way in interpreting the information from scientific text, but generally, they can filter and apply it in their argument as a part of reasoning and evidence. The findings can be used to direct reading activity to the goal of inquiry in order to support the nature of reading as evidence.

  13. Gender affects body language reading

    OpenAIRE

    Arseny A Sokolov; Arseny A Sokolov; Samuel eKrüger; Paul eEnck; Ingeborg eKrägeloh-Mann; Marina A Pavlova; Marina A Pavlova

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...

  14. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language r...

  15. Art of reading a journal article: Methodically and effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, RV

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reading scientific literature is mandatory for researchers and clinicians. With an overflow of medical and dental journals, it is essential to develop a method to choose and read the right articles. Objective: To outline a logical and orderly approach to reading a scientific manuscript. By breaking down the task into smaller, step-by-step components, one should be able to attain the skills to read a scientific article with ease. Methods: The reader should begin by reading the title, abstract and conclusions first. If a decision is made to read the entire article, the key elements of the article can be perused in a systematic manner effectively and efficiently. A cogent and organized method is presented to read articles published in scientific journals. Conclusion: One can read and appreciate a scientific manuscript if a systematic approach is followed in a simple and logical manner. PMID:23798833

  16. [Efficacy of decoding training for children with difficulty reading hiragana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Seki, Ayumi; Wakamiya, Eiji; Hirasawa, Noriko; Iketani, Naotake; Kato, Ken; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the efficacy of decoding training focusing on the correspondence between written symbols and their readings for children with difficulty reading hiragana (Japanese syllabary). Thirty-five children with difficulty reading hiragana were selected from among 367 first-grade elementary school students using a reading aloud test and were then divided into intervention (n=15) and control (n=20) groups. The intervention comprised 5 minutes of decoding training each day for a period of 3 weeks using an original program on a personal computer. Reading time and number of reading errors in the reading aloud test were compared between the groups. The intervention group showed a significant shortening of reading time (F(1,33)=5.40, phiragana.

  17. I read, you read, we read: the history of reading in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dular

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The aim of the article is to research reading habits in Slovenia in the period between 16th and 19th century and to find similarities with Austria and other European countries of that time.Methodology/approach: For the purpose of the analysis different resources were used – study books, catechisms, prayer books and manuals. We were focused on introductions in which readers are advised how to read, explaining to whom the work is intended and emphasizing the importance of meditation on the texts.Results: Historically the laud reading was prefered, as to continue the folk tradition. However, the 16th century texts were transmitted by women while the folk tradition was narrated by males. In the 18th century the higher level of literacy and greater book production and availability caused that the books were not a privilege of a few. At that time more texts were intended for silent, individual reading. Interestingly, the authors emphasized the importance of meditation on the texts, too. It was also advised when to read – it wasrecommedend to read in leisure time on Sundays, and on holidays. The role of books was also to breakaway with the reality and to forget everyday problems. Due to the overproduction of books in the 17th centrury it was concerned that books are misleading the crowds. The church considered the reading of books as inappropriate, and criticized fiction, novels and adventure stories mostly read by women.Research limitation: The study is based on Slovenian texts only, although the foreign literature, especially in German, was generally available, too.Originality/practical implications: The study is fullfiling the gap in the history of reading in Slovenia.

  18. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments....... Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

  19. The Effect of Modified Collaborative Strategic Reading on EFL Learners' Reading Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Abbasnezhad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of reading instructional approach called MCSR- Modified Collaborative Strategic Reading on reducing intermediate EFL learner's reading anxiety. Based on a pretest-posttest design, MCSR was implemented with 64 EFL learners at intermediate level. They received EFL reading instruction according to MCSR over two and a half months. A questionnaire called English as a Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Inventory EFLRAI was group-administered atthepretest and the posttest. Quantitative results indicated that participating students demonstrated significant gains in reducing reading anxiety. This study highlighted our understanding by considering the effectiveness of MCSR program and also it elaborated the effects of using strategies like MCSR in overcoming the big problem of reading anxiety among EFL learners as non-native students. And teachers changed the focus of attention from using traditional methods for teaching the essential skill of reading to modern programs like MCSR in order to remove their students' anxiety and stress in reading.

  20. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  1. Textbook Reading Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Charles R.; Kim, Paul Y.

    1974-01-01

    Since the reading abilities of general business students vary from one individual to the next, the author's report on the readability of three general business textbooks to guide business teachers in their selection of textbooks. (AG)

  2. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  3. Reading-Boxing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin

    1969-01-01

    The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)

  4. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  5. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  6. Reading Every Single Day: A Journey to Authentic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alida K.; Williams, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    This article details one teacher's implementation of reading workshop in her second grade classroom. She provided a framework for authentic reading using the five components of reading workshop: time, choice, response, community, and structure. She found that reading workshop is a highly effective practice for not only increasing students'…

  7. Exploring Students' Reading Profiles to Guide a Reading Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Naomi A. N. Y.

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of studies on reading interventions to improve students' reading proficiency, yet the majority of these interventions are undertaken with the assumption that students' reading challenges are obvious and generic in nature. The interventions do not take into consideration the diversity in students' reading backgrounds and…

  8. "Read the Text, as if!"The Reading Retention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoll, Kent; Browning, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Students do not always read what is expected in college courses (Berry, Cook, Hill, & Stevens, 2010; Phillips & Phillips, 2007; Sikorski et al., 2002) or they read to cram for an exam or quiz (Clump, Bauer, & Bradley, 2004). The Reading Retention Strategy (RRS) is designed to motivate students to read and assist students in…

  9. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  10. Reading an ESL Writer’s Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kei Matsuda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on reading as a central act of communication in the tutorial session. Writing center tutors without extensive experience reading writing by second language writers may have difficulty getting past the many differences in surface-level features, organization, and rhetorical moves. After exploring some of the sources of these differences in writing, the authors present strategies that writing tutors can use to work effectively with second language writers.

  11. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  12. Re-Presenting Self: Reading Some Van Kalker Studio Photographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The photographic implement, from the earliest days of its invention in Europe, in 1839, has been used to document events considered as real. However, notions of 'reality' could be ambiguous as objects or sceneries intended to be photographed are sometimes constructed to represent an imagined stereotypical reality.

  13. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  14. Self-Esteem and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.

    This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…

  15. EFFICIENCY OF READING COMPREHENSION TRAINING IN PUPILS LIVING IN POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kosak Babuder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of Slovene and foreign studies reveal the connection between literacy levels and the level of education, employment opportunities and consequent socio-economic status of individuals and families. Reading efficiency relating to reading comprehension is an important element of reading literacy performance. The findings of several authors indicate empirical evidence of the existence of deficits and poor reading comprehension in pupils living in poverty and stress the importance of offsetting deficits and developing reading comprehension. Results of both foreign and Slovene studies indicate that the program of reading comprehension should be implemented in this group of pupils. In the article, we want to present effectiveness of the reading comprehension improvement program in pupils living in poverty. According to the findings of our research, in which we structured and implemented the reading comprehension program for pupils living in poverty with the Metacognitive-intersentential model of reading comprehension, the reading comprehension of the experimental group pupils who participated in the program improved compared to the control group pupils who did not participate in the program. Experimental group pupils also significantly improved correctness of their reading, their vocabulary and skills of verbal expression. When the program ended, we tested its efficiency by applied tests. The results on the manifest variables indicated that the program was good and efficient for pupils who live in poverty and experience reading comprehension problems.

  16. On the Nonsmooth, Nonconstant Velocity of Braille Reading and Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry; McClelland, Amber; Henare, Dion

    2014-01-01

    Relative to print reading, braille-reading finger movements are held to be of more constant speed, with continuous and exhaustive contact with all words. However, the continuity of movements is intermittent in two distinct ways: (a) readers reverse direction and reread material already encountered and (b) the continual fluctuations of velocity…

  17. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  18. Language differences in the brain network for reading in naturalistic story reading and lexical decision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wang

    Full Text Available Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English and morpho-syllabic (Chinese writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension.

  19. Language differences in the brain network for reading in naturalistic story reading and lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension.

  20. libgapmis: extending short-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Berger, Simon; Flouri, Tomáš; Pissis, Solon P; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We

  1. Reading in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    2017-01-01

    The many advantages of reading digitally also bring with them implications for how we learn differently when we read differently. The author suggests that new contemporary technologies are changing the very notion of what it means to read. Even millennials acknowledge that their attention is more focused when they read print rather than online.…

  2. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  3. Navigating Comics: An Empirical and Theoretical Approach to Strategies of Reading Comic Page Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Like the sequence of words in written language, comic book page layouts direct images into a deliberate reading sequence. Conventional wisdom would expect that comic panels follow the order of text: left-to-right and down – a “Z-path” – though several layouts can violate this order, such as Gestalt groupings of panels that deny a Z-path of reading. To examine how layouts pressure readers to choose pathways deviating from the Z-path, we presented participants with comic pages empty of content, and asked them to number the panels in the order they would read them. Participants frequently used strategies departing from both the traditional Z-path and Gestalt groupings. These preferences reveal a system of constraints that organizes panels into hierarchic constituents, guiding readers through comic page layouts. PMID:23616776

  4. Navigating comics: an empirical and theoretical approach to strategies of reading comic page layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eCohn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Like the sequence of words in written language, comic book page layouts direct images into a deliberate reading sequence. Conventional wisdom would expect that comic panels follow the order of text: left-to-right and down—a Z-path—though several layouts can violate this order, such as Gestalt groupings of panels that deny a Z-path of reading. To examine how layouts pressure readers to choose pathways deviating from the Z-path, we presented participants with comic pages empty of content, and asked them to number the panels in the order they would read them. Participants frequently used strategies departing from both the traditional Z-path and Gestalt groupings. These preferences reveal a system of constraints that organizes panels into hierarchic constituents, guiding readers through comic page layouts.

  5. Navigating comics: an empirical and theoretical approach to strategies of reading comic page layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Like the sequence of words in written language, comic book page layouts direct images into a deliberate reading sequence. Conventional wisdom would expect that comic panels follow the order of text: left-to-right and down - a "Z-path" - though several layouts can violate this order, such as Gestalt groupings of panels that deny a Z-path of reading. To examine how layouts pressure readers to choose pathways deviating from the Z-path, we presented participants with comic pages empty of content, and asked them to number the panels in the order they would read them. Participants frequently used strategies departing from both the traditional Z-path and Gestalt groupings. These preferences reveal a system of constraints that organizes panels into hierarchic constituents, guiding readers through comic page layouts.

  6. The Role of Trait Anxiety and Preoccupation with Reading Disabilities of Children and Their Mothers in Predicting Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicher, Shira; Feingold, Liat; Shany, Michal

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension (RC), trait anxiety, and preoccupation with reading disability (RD) in 88 school children in Grades 3 through 5 and in their mothers. Children's trait anxiety had a significant direct negative relationship with RC and also mediated the association between preoccupation with RD…

  7. Motivating students to read the textbook before class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Rachel E.

    2016-11-01

    Many faculty in STEM courses assign textbook reading in advance of lecture, yet evidence shows few students actually read the textbook. Those students that do read often do so only after the material has been presented in class. Preparing for class by reading the textbook beforehand improves student learning and is particularly critical for classes that employ active engagement strategies. Here I present strategies I have used to successfully motivate my students to read the textbook before class in physics classes ranging from introductory algebra-based physics to advanced courses for physics majors. In the introductory course, I used pre-class reading quizzes, a common strategy that has been shown effective in previous studies, but one that is somewhat time-consuming to implement. In my more advanced courses I used reading reflections, which required considerably less time. While it was typical for less than 25% of students to read the textbook before I implemented reading quizzes or reflections, after implementing these strategies 70-90% of students reported reading the textbook before class most of the time. Students also report finding both the readings themselves and the quizzes and reflections valuable for their learning.

  8. Making your presentation fun: creative presentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KEENEN,MARTHA JANE

    2000-05-18

    What possesses someone to volunteer and go through hoops and red tape to make a presentation at a conference? For that matter, why does anyone ever present anything to anyone? Actually, presentations are a fact of life and there are many reasons for doing a presentation and doing it well. New and existing staff need training and orientation to the way things are done here. Handing all of them a manual and hoping they read it is pretty much a waste of paper. On the other hand, an effective, entertaining and upbeat presentation on the relevant topics is more likely to stick with those people. They will even have a name and face to remember and seek out when they have an issue on or with that topic. This can be a very effective beginning for networking with new peers. The presenter is seen as knowledgeable, as a source of information on company topics and possibly evaluated as a potential mentor or future manager. Project staff and/or peers benefit from clear, concise, presentations of topical knowledge. This is one way that a group working on various aspects of the same project or program can stay in touch and in step with each other. Most importantly, presentations may be the best or only door into the minds (and budgets) of management and customers. These presentations are a wonderful opportunity to address legal and compliance issues, budget, staffing, and services. Here is a chance, maybe the only one, to demonstrate and explain the wonderfulness of a program and the benefit they get by using the services offered most effectively. An interactive presentation on legal and compliance issues can be an effective tool in helping customers and/or management make good risk management decisions.

  9. A Read-Aloud for Romantics and Realists (Read It Aloud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Judy S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents a read-aloud from Gustave Flaubert's "Madame Bovary." Discusses briefly the novel and the selection, and then describes specific activities for English and for language arts instruction. (SR)

  10. The relations between reading and spelling: an examination of subtypes of reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochva, Irit; Amiel, Meirav

    2016-07-01

    Three groups of reading-disabled children were found in studies of English, German, and French: a group with a double deficit in reading and spelling, a group with a single spelling deficit, and a more rarely reported group presenting a single reading deficit. This study set out to examine whether these groups can be found in adults, readers and spellers of Hebrew, which differs from the previously studied orthographies in many aspects. To this end, Hebrew-speaking adults with or without reading disability were administered various literacy and literacy-related tests. Results confirm the existence of the same three groups. While all shared a phonological deficit, subtle differences in phonological decoding ability and in speed of processing distinguished between the groups. The study therefore suggests that the previously reported associations and dissociations between reading and spelling are not restricted to English, German, or French and may not be only developmental in nature.

  11. Print exposure, reading habits, and reading achievement among deaf and hearing college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M; Borgna, Georgianna; Morrison, Carolyn; Remelt, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored relations of print exposure, academic achievement, and reading habits among 100 deaf and 100 hearing college students. As in earlier studies, recognition tests for book titles and magazine titles were used as measures of print exposure, college entrance test scores were used as measures of academic achievement, and students provided self-reports of reading habits. Deaf students recognized fewer magazine titles and fewer book titles appropriate for reading levels from kindergarten through Grade 12 while reporting more weekly hours of reading. As in previous studies with hearing college students, the title recognition test proved a better predictor of deaf and hearing students' English achievement than how many hours they reported reading. The finding that the recognition tests were relatively more potent predictors of achievement for deaf students than hearing students may reflect the fact that deaf students often obtain less information through incidental learning and classroom presentations.

  12. A Nordic comparison of national objectives for reading instruction and teachers' responses about actual reading practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise; Mejding, Jan

    2014-01-01

    and functional goals in Finland. It appears that the Finnish descriptions are more aligned with current empirical research on reading comprehension. Swedish and Norwegian teachers have the most varied used of both literary and informational text types during a week, whereas Finnish teachers give informational...... texts a higher priority than literary texts – and the opposite is apparent for Danish teachers. The Finnish and Norwegian teachers prioritise activities that enhance students’ oral reading fluency, which is important for reading comprehension development, to a greater extent than teachers in Denmark......This article presents a comparison of the Nordic countries’ official objectives for reading and analyses of 1005 Nordic teachers’ responses regarding their reading instruction. The specificity and transparency vary greatly in the objectives, from broad outlines in Norway to more specific...

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications pursuant to Article 6 Paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC, as amended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on Scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications pursuant to Article 6 Paragraph 11 of Directive 2000....../13/EC, as amended. This guidance applies to food ingredients or substances with known allergenic potential listed in Annex IIIa of 2003/89/EC (as amended) or products thereof, and aims to assist applicants in the preparation and presentation of well-structured applications for exemption from labelling....... It presents a common format for the organisation of the information to be provided and outlines the information and scientific data which must be included in the application, the hierarchy of different types of data and study designs, reflecting the relative strength of evidence which may be obtained from...

  14. BOOKTUBERS MOVEMENT: EMERGING PRACTICES OF READING MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Souza Teixeira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intents to investigate reading mediation practices develop by the booktubers, young people that use the YouTube in order to share information about books and to interact with other readers. We begin presenting some concepts related to reading and mediation activities, and then, talk about some aspects of cyberspace, the formation of virtual communities and the Booktubers phenomena. At last, as a result of a documental analysis of 100 videos posted by booktubers, we show the characteristics of these emerging mediation reading practices and the types of books that are more commented by them. We conclude that the conventional practices of reading mediation are the bases for the booktubers’ actuation, but they are adapted to the new kinds of elaboration, creation and organization enabled by the Internet.

  15. Talk/Reading/Voice: Re:search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Patterson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors embrace talk as space for emergence and possibilities. They flirt with the part reading plays (or might play in conversations within the academy, recognizing such readings take multiple forms: individual, shared, in response, and in reaction (to name a few. To confront oneself with the not yet known is to witness what is forming or being called forth as its shaping emerges. Using co-constructed reading responses, the authors present examples from King's (2003 The Truth about Stories as illustrations of their work together, where work, like talk, is about pushing the edges of what can be known and, more particularly, about what can(not be said. The authors maintain finding voice through reading, research, and self-study helps shape collaborative work within the academy. This reveal encourages the mapping of unmapped but taken for granted parts of academic life, an already querying of method.

  16. Responsive Guided Reading in Grades K-5: Simplifying Small-Group Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.

    2010-01-01

    Guided reading is a staple of elementary literacy instruction, yet planning and conducting reading groups can be time consuming and challenging. This hands-on book presents an innovative approach to guided reading that is manageable even for teachers who are new to small-group, differentiated reading instruction. Numerous classroom examples…

  17. Toward a Tripartite Model of L2 Reading Strategy Use, Motivations, and Learner Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Hiromori, Tomohito; Nakayama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a tripartite model of L2 reading strategy use, reading motivations, and general learner beliefs by examining the relationships among them in an L2 context. Reading strategy instruction was performed for 360 first-year university students enrolled in a reading-based course, in expectation of affecting their motivations…

  18. A POSITION PAPER ON THE TEACHING OF READING, DEVELOPMENTAL AND CORRECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HODDER, VELMA; AND OTHERS

    THE BASIC DEVELOPMENTAL READING PROGRAM IS REVIEWED AS A FOUNDATION FOR SOUND REMEDIAL OR CORRECTIVE PROGRAMS IN A GUIDE FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY READING IN NEBRASKA SCHOOLS. THE PRESENTATION IS DEVELOPED AROUND FOUR TOPICS--(1) DEVELOPMENTAL READING (CHILDREN'S GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS, INSTRUCTIONAL READING LEVEL,…

  19. Exploring Reading Comprehension Needs of Iranian EAP Students of Health Information Management (HIM): A Triangulated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atai, Mahmood Reza; Nazari, Ogholgol

    2011-01-01

    Discipline-based English for Academic Purposes (EAP) reading programs in Iran are designed to fill the gap between the students' general English reading competence and their ability to read authentic discipline-specific texts. This study attempted to assess target and present reading comprehension needs of EAP students of Health Information…

  20. Monitoring Progress toward Independent Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Lillian H.; Hildebrandt, Jeannette

    1984-01-01

    Concludes, among other things, that fluent oral reading is an important step toward reading for meaning and independent silent reading and that silent reading should be encouraged from the beginning of reading instruction. (FL)

  1. [Ophthalmologic reading charts : Part 2: Current logarithmically scaled reading charts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W

    2016-12-01

    To analyze currently available reading charts regarding print size, logarithmic print size progression, and the background of test-item standardization. For the present study, the following logarithmically scaled reading charts were investigated using a measuring microscope (iNexis VMA 2520; Nikon, Tokyo): Eschenbach, Zeiss, OCULUS, MNREAD (Minnesota Near Reading Test), Colenbrander, and RADNER. Calculations were made according to EN-ISO 8596 and the International Research Council recommendations. Modern reading charts and cards exhibit a logarithmic progression of print sizes. The RADNER reading charts comprise four different cards with standardized test items (sentence optotypes), a well-defined stop criterion, accurate letter sizes, and a high print quality. Numbers and Landolt rings are also given in the booklet. The OCULUS cards have currently been reissued according to recent standards and also exhibit a high print quality. In addition to letters, numbers, Landolt rings, and examples taken from a timetable and the telephone book, sheet music is also offered. The Colenbrander cards use short sentences of 44 characters, including spaces, and exhibit inaccuracy at smaller letter sizes, as do the MNREAD cards. The MNREAD cards use sentences of 60 characters, including spaces, and have a high print quality. Modern reading charts show that international standards can be achieved with test items similar to optotypes, by using recent technology and developing new concepts of test-item standardization. Accurate print sizes, high print quality, and a logarithmic progression should become the minimum requirements for reading charts and reading cards in ophthalmology.

  2. A Reading of Joseph Conrad's The Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Zadeh, Mohammad Reza Modarres

    2013-01-01

    The Tale is a short story by Joseph Conrad. Typical of a Conrad story it is set at sea. The sea is symbolic of the unconscious and this story may be read as a story of the unconscious. On the outside, it seems simple; a man tells a woman a tale of the commanding officer of a patrol ship who gives false directions to another ship and sends it to its doom. In between the lines of the seemingly simple plot, however, can be read another tale; one which speaks of a human sea deeper than the sea of...

  3. Toward unraveling reading-related modulations of tDCS-induced neuroplasticity in the human visual cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Antal, Andrea; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Chaieb, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation using weak electrical direct currents has shown to be capable of inducing polarity-dependent diminutions or elevations in motor and visual cortical excitability. The aim of the present study was to test if reading during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to modify stimulation-induced plasticity in the visual cortex. Phosphene thresholds (PTs) in 12 healthy subjects were recorded before and after 10 min of anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS in combination with rea...

  4. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  5. Elementary School Math Instruction: Can Reading Specialists Assist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Audrey S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)

  6. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

  7. Lecture Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Heavy-Ion Collisions in the LHC workshop held in Cracow from 18 to 18 May 2007. The main subject of the workshop was to present the newest results of research provided at CERN LHC collider. Additionally some theoretical models and methods used for presented data analysis were discussed

  8. CATCHY PRESENTATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    An important competence for designers is the ability to communicate and present ideas and proposals for customers, partners, investors and colleagues. The Pecha Kucha principle, developed by Astrid Klein and Mark Dytham, has become a widely used and easy format for the presentation of new concepts...

  9. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMcCourt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentences such as The ship was sunk to collect the insurance exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The nonfinite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit versus explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance. Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1-4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive and explicit (active or long passive control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either three days ago or just in order to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in passives.

  10. Teaching Talks: Presents for the New Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia; Raymond, Allen

    2006-01-01

    The author presents three educational products for kids: (1) "Novel Perspectives" by Shelley Harwayne; (2) "Summarization in Any Subject--50 Techniques to Improve Student Learning" by Rick Wormelt; and (3) Voices Reading, the new comprehensive reading and character development program for Grades K-2 from Zaner-Bloser. "Novel Perspectives" carries…

  11. Workshop presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, Per-Olof; Edland, Anne; Reiersen, Craig; Mullins, Peter; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik; Bouchard, Andre; Watts, Germaine; Johnstone, John; Hollnagel, Erik; Ramberg, Patric; Reiman, Teemu

    2009-01-01

    An important part of the workshop was a series of invited presentations. The presentations were intended to both provide the participants with an understanding of various organisational approaches and activities as well as to stimulate the exchange of ideas during the small group discussion sessions. The presentation subjects ranged from current organisational regulations and licensee activities to new organisational research and the benefits of viewing organisations from a different perspective. There were more than a dozen invited presentations. The initial set of presentations gave the participants an overview of the background, structure, and aims of the workshop. This included a short presentation on the results from the regulatory responses to the pre-workshop survey. Representatives from four countries (Sweden, Canada, Finland, and the United Kingdom) expanded upon their survey responses with detailed presentations on both regulatory and licensee safety-related organisational activities in their countries. There were also presentations on new research concerning how to evaluate safety critical organisations and on a resilience engineering perspective to safety critical organisations. Below is the list of the presentations, the slides of which being available in Appendix 2: 1 - Workshop Welcome (Per-Olof Sanden); 2 - CSNI Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (Craig Reiersen); 3 - Regulatory expectations on justification of suitability of licensee organisational structures, resources and competencies (Anne Edland); 4 - Justifying the suitability of licensee organisational structures, resources and competencies (Karl-Fredrik Ingemarsson); 5 - Nuclear Organisational Suitability in Canada (Andre Bouchard); 6 - Designing and Resourcing for Safety and Effectiveness (Germaine Watts); 7 - Organisational Suitability - What do you need and how do you know that you've got it? (Craig Reiersen); 8 - Suitability of Organisations - UK Regulator's View (Peter

  12. Taiwanese EFL Learners’ Perceived Use of Online Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wen Chun Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reading strategies are beneficial to learners’ reading comprehension. The strategies can be divided into different categories, such as global reading strategies, problem solving strategies and support strategies. Most previous studies investigated the importance of reading strategies in the paper-based reading. However, relatively few studies examined online reading strategies and their effects on reading comprehension. Online reading materials are important sources for EFL students since an increasing number of learners read texts and learn through the Internet. EFL learners in Taiwan, unfortunately, are reported to be overwhelmed with English online materials on the Internet. Therefore, this study intends to examine EFL learners’ perceived use of online reading strategies and whether their perceived strategy uses are different in terms of proficiency levels and gender. There are 94 Taiwanese EFL learners (43% of them are males, n=40 and 57 % of them are females, n=54, who received the Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS adapted from Anderson (2003 in the study. The result showed that EFL online readers tend to use more global strategies, such as using contextual clues and observing tables, figures, and pictures in the on-line text to increase understanding. High level learners used more global and problem solving strategies than low level learners, which corresponds to previous studies. Additionally, there is no difference of strategy use between males and females. Several pedagogical implications, such as the need to raise students’ awareness of strategy use, are addressed in the present study.

  13. CERN presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Presentation by CERN (10 minutes each) Rolf Landua - Education and Outreach Salvatore Mele - Open Access Jean-Yves Le Meur - Digital Library in Africa Francois Fluckiger - Open Source/Standards (tbc) Tim Smith - Open Data for Science Tullio Basiglia - tbc

  14. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has entered the pelvis. If the presenting part lies above the ischial spines, the station is reported ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  15. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  16. Metacognitive awareness of TOEFL reading comprehension strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungatullina Dilyana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising demand for exchange and mobility programs as well as double diploma opportunities with world leading universities highlights the importance of ESL proficiency. TOEFL iBT as a test of EAP is accepted by most of the HEI in various countries. The aim of the present study is to determine students’ metacognitive awareness of global academic reading strategies, namely the use of context clues, within the framework of preparation for TOEFL reading section. The article establishes the connection between success in reading comprehension and the degree of students’ metacognitive awareness. The authors concentrate on expository texts from TOEFL reading section as a testing material and provide detailed description of single context clues types and double context clues patterns typical for this text structure. The following study is concerned with comparison and interpretation of the results obtained in three focus groups of students, who have accomplished reading comprehension task from TOEFL iBT with and without learning to employ the context clues reading strategy.

  17. Reading skills among students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning environments, implement educational policies or funding models and specify future fields of research. However, there has been little research into the prevalence and variation of their reading skills. The present study assessed the reading stages of 1629 school-aged students with ID regardless of aetiology (age 6-21) in Bavaria, one of the largest regions in Germany within a randomly chosen and representative sample. Teachers described the reading and writing stages of their students in a questionnaire following the developmental model of Frith. Results indicate that 29.3% do not read at all, 6.8% read at a logographic stage, 31.9% at an alphabetic and 32% at an orthographic level. Writing achievements are lower on average. We analyze and discuss the determinants of literacy in this sample with regard to the sociocultural background of students with ID and draw conclusions for teaching and school policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer Simulation of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leton, Donald A.

    In recent years, coding and decoding have been claimed to be the processes for converting one language form to another. But there has been little effort to locate these processes in the human learner or to identify the nature of the internal codes. Computer simulation of reading is useful because the similarities in the human reception and…

  19. Readings in risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glickman, Theodore S; Gough, Michael

    1990-01-01

    ... from Resources for the Future are distributed worldwide by The Johns Hopkins University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Readings in risk I Theodore S. Glickman and Michael Gough, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-915707-55-1 (alk. paper) 1. Technology-Risk assessment. 2. Health risk assessment....

  20. Time for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

  1. Recipe for Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jacquelyn W.; Shaul, Nancy Pera

    The program described in this paper was based upon the premise that the activity of cooking in the classroom is an excellent way of integrating all areas of learning and a very useful reading vehicle. Through cooking activities and related field trips, children can add to both their knowledge in basic subject areas and their motor skills as well…

  2. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  3. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen…

  4. Reading in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…

  5. Reading the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Keith

    Given the strong sense of passing time which seems to be wired into human beings, it is only natural that the Year 2000, or Y2K in contemporary jargon, should lead to serious speculation about the future. Reading and literacy, old skills relatively speaking, continue rightly to figure in those predictions (along with the technologically advanced…

  6. Reading's Next Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

  7. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  8. Investigation of the Effect of Using a Novel as an Extensive Reading on Students’ Attitudes and Reading Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ghiabi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating learners’ perceptions on the use of a novel as an extensive reading in a college EFL reading course. For this purpose, fifty Iranian EFL students read and received instructions on an unabridged short novel in addition to, their text book for one semester. Three questionnaires were used to measure students’ attitudes toward novel-reading, students’ confidence in novel reading ability and students’ perceptions toward using a novel as an auxiliary material, prior to and after reading the novel. In addition, three open questions were offered to obtain benefits and obstacles of the novel reading. T-test analysis were used and findings revealed that there was a significant improvement after reading the novel in students’ attitudes, confidence, interest and their novel-reading ability. However, they suggested reading the novels according to the theme that they preferred. The result of this study are of pedagogic significance to EFL teaching in that they indicated how well a novel was received in an EFL Advanced reading class.

  9. Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy.

  10. Book Clubs: An Ethnographic Study of an Innovative Reading Practice in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Álvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The most innovative reading practices currently rely on the paradigm of dialogic reading. Book clubs, literary gatherings and study circles are emerging in different social spaces to promote reading and literary discussion amongst adults, and libraries, bookshops, cultural centres, etc. are increasingly developing strategies in this direction.…

  11. Effects of Online Reciprocal Teaching on Reading Strategies, Comprehension, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Ting; Yang, Shu Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two types of online remedial reading interventions on the reading strategy and comprehension, motivational beliefs, and self-efficacy of 36 low-achieving students (explicit teaching before reciprocal teaching [ET-RT] vs. direct instruction [DI]). We designed a 10-unit online remedial English reading program based…

  12. Book Reading Styles in Dual-Parent and Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Background: Whereas many studies have investigated quantitative aspects of book reading (frequency), few have examined qualitative aspects, especially in very young children and through direct observations of shared reading. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in book-reading styles between mothers and fathers and …

  13. Teachers’ beliefs about reading and use of reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    VASILIKA RRAKU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to place the focus on teachers’ beliefs about reading and reading strategies to the purpose of emphasizing the im portance of reading strategies in the reading process. The method of study is analytic analysis of teachers’ beliefs obtained through ques tionnaires delivered to 18 English language teachers of elementary, secondary and high level education in the region of Saranda in lbania. The results of the study pointed to a great concordance between teach ers’ bel...

  14. Comparison of observer performance reading from a video CRT vs. reading from film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, J.W. Jr.; Kline, R.C.; Resinger, W.W.; Rose, E.A.; Koral, K.F.; Rogers, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    The developing trend for all medical images to be in digital form raises an important question: should diagnostic interpretations be made directly from a CRT or from some form of hard copy recording of the CRT. This question was studied by having two observers read a series of digital images of the thyroid including both conventional scintigrams and computer-generated tomograms. The CRT images were photographed in a carefully controlled fashion. Images were read once from film and a second time directly from the CRT. No significant difference in performance could be found for either display modality based on an ROC analysis. Although based on uncomplicated images and analysis, this result suggests that the decision to read from film or from the CRT can be made on other grounds than observer performance. This important result needs confirmation with more complex images such as ultrasound or CT

  15. Voting Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During his time as a state senator in Illinois, Barack Obama voted “Present” 129 times, a deliberate act of nonvoting that subsequently became an important campaign issue during the 2008 presidential elections. In this article, I examine the use of Present votes in the Illinois state senate. I find evidence that Present votes can largely be characterized as protest votes used as a legislative tool by the minority party. Incorporating information from Present votes into a Bayesian polytomous item-response model, I find that this information increases the efficiency of ideal point estimates by approximately 35%. There is little evidence of significant moderation by Obama when Present votes are accounted for, though my results suggest that Obama’s voting record may have moderated significantly before his subsequent election to the U.S. Senate. My results also suggest that because legislative nonvoting may occur for a variety of reasons, naive inclusion of nonvoting behavior into vote choice models may lead to biased results.

  16. Lecture Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Symposium on Physics of Elementary Interactions in the LHC Era held in Warsaw from 21 to 22 April 2008. The main subject of the workshop was to present the progress in CERN LHC collider project. Additionally some satellite activities in field of education, knowledge and technology transfer in the frame of CERN - Poland cooperation were shown

  17. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  18. Mental juggling: when does multitasking impair reading comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace.

  19. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.

  20. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  1. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  2. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension Difficulties for Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Gary

    2008-01-01

    There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…

  3. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  4. Reading Fluency Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

  5. How do children read words? A focus on reading processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the

  6. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  7. Response to Intervention as a Predictor of Long-Term Reading Outcomes in Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kleij, Sanne W; Segers, Eliane; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how growth during a phonics-based intervention, as well as reading levels at baseline testing, predicted long-term reading outcomes of children with dyslexia. Eighty Dutch children with dyslexia who had completed a 50-week phonics-based intervention in grade 4 were tested in grade 5 on both word and pseudoword (following regular Dutch orthographic patterns) reading efficiency and compared to 93 typical readers. In grade 5 the children with dyslexia were still significantly slower in word and pseudoword reading than their typically developing peers. Results showed that long-term pseudoword reading in the group with dyslexia was predicted by pseudoword reading at pretest and growth in pseudoword reading during the intervention, which was itself predicted by pseudoword reading at pretest. This was not the case for word reading. We found that long-term word reading was directly predicted from pretest word reading, and indirectly via pretest pseudoword reading, via growth in pseudoword and word reading. It can be concluded that pseudoword reading is not only a good indicator of severity of reading difficulties in children with dyslexia, it is also an indicator of who will profit from intervention in the long-term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO READING DIFFICULTIES INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE BERMEJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the intervention programs and strategies to treat reading difficulties. The synthesisincludes a review of the last published articles on the issue, both in Spanish and English. It also presents the visits todifferent Language Rehabilitation Centers in the Community of Madrid including the approaches applied in thesecenters. Besides the description of the general intervention strategies applied to reading problems, some of theprograms to treat specific difficulties of words decoding and recognizing are explained, and the programs to treatreading comprehension and fluidity.

  9. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  10. Technical presentation

    CERN Document Server

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  11. Literacy education, reading engagement, and library use in multilingual classes

    OpenAIRE

    Tonne, Ingebjørg; Pihl, Joron

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this paper is literacy education and reading engagement in multilingual classes. What facilitates reading engagement in the language of instruction in multilingual classes? In this paper, we analyze reading engagement in a literature-based literacy program in Norway (2007–2011). The design was a research and development project in which teachers, researchers, and librarians collaborated within literacy education. We present pedagogical interventions within the project and analyze...

  12. Opposite cerebral dominance for reading and sign language

    OpenAIRE

    Komakula, Sirisha. T.; Burr, Robert. B.; Lee, James N.; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of right hemispheric dominance for sign language but left hemispheric dominance for reading, in a left-handed deaf patient with epilepsy and left mesial temporal sclerosis. Atypical language laterality for ASL was determined by preoperative fMRI, and congruent with ASL modified WADA testing. We conclude that reading and sign language can have crossed dominance and preoperative fMRI evaluation of deaf patients should include both reading and sign language evaluations.

  13. Encouraging Recreational Reading (The Printout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer software, including "The Electronic Bookshelf" and "Return to Reading," which provides motivation for recreational reading in various ways, including: quizzes, games based on books, and whole language activities for children's literature and young adult fiction. (MM)

  14. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  15. Action video games make dyslexic children read better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Sandro; Gori, Simone; Ruffino, Milena; Viola, Simona; Molteni, Massimo; Facoetti, Andrea

    2013-03-18

    Learning to read is extremely difficult for about 10% of children; they are affected by a neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia [1, 2]. The neurocognitive causes of dyslexia are still hotly debated [3-12]. Dyslexia remediation is far from being fully achieved [13], and the current treatments demand high levels of resources [1]. Here, we demonstrate that only 12 hr of playing action video games-not involving any direct phonological or orthographic training-drastically improve the reading abilities of children with dyslexia. We tested reading, phonological, and attentional skills in two matched groups of children with dyslexia before and after they played action or nonaction video games for nine sessions of 80 min per day. We found that only playing action video games improved children's reading speed, without any cost in accuracy, more so than 1 year of spontaneous reading development and more than or equal to highly demanding traditional reading treatments. Attentional skills also improved during action video game training. It has been demonstrated that action video games efficiently improve attention abilities [14, 15]; our results showed that this attention improvement can directly translate into better reading abilities, providing a new, fast, fun remediation of dyslexia that has theoretical relevance in unveiling the causal role of attention in reading acquisition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

  17. The latent structure of reading comprehension problems in pupils living in poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Košak Babuder, Milena; Kavkler, Marija

    2014-01-01

    The results of Slovene and international studies reveal a connection between literacy and education levels, employment opportunities and the subsequent socio-economic status of individuals and families. Home environment and living habits are also associated with literacy (reading culture) and, in particular, parental levels of education directly affect the development of child literacy. Reading efficiency relating to reading comprehension and reading to learn is an important element of readin...

  18. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  19. Initial Reading through Computer Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrion, Leo D.; Bergeron, R. Daniel

    The Computer Animated Reading Instruction System (CARIS) was developed to introduce reading to children with varied sensory, cognitive, and physical handicaps. CARIS employs an exploratory learning approach which encourages children to experiment with the reading and writing of words and sentences. Brief computer-animated cartoons provide the…

  20. MisReading LIS Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need to place a greater emphasis on the subject of reading in library and information science (LIS) education and research. Topics include literacy studies, print culture history, reader-response theory, ethnography of reading, genre fiction and cultural studies, information versus reading, and access to information versus content of…

  1. Teaching Reading in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This handbook on teaching reading in vocational education is designed to provide vocational education teachers with a resource to use in helping students to develop sound reading skills. Provided in the handbook are information sheets, self-checks, practice activities, and suggestions for further reading dealing with the following topics:…

  2. Encouraging Students to Read Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mary D.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the ability to read mathematics is an important skill--one that few of our students possess. A number of people have published some suggestions for helping students learn to read their mathematics textbooks. What these have in common is suggestions for getting students more active while reading. Using these resources as…

  3. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  4. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

  5. Getting Ready to Read: Promoting Children´s Emergent Literacy Through Shared Book Reading in a German Context

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito Castilho Wesseling, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of two methods of shared book reading on children´s emergent literacy skills, such as language skills (expressive vocabulary and semantic skills) and grapheme awareness, i.e. before the alphabetic phase of reading acquisition (Lachmann & van Leeuwen, 2014) in home and in kindergarten contexts. The two following shared book reading methods were investigated: Method I - literacy enrichment: 200 extra children's books were distributed in kindergartens a...

  6. Reading, writing, rebelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...... and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective......, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from...

  7. Reading Emotions from Body Movement: A Generalized Impairment in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Østefjells, Tiril; Nymo, Katharina; Melle, Ingrid; Ueland, Torill

    2015-01-01

    Body language reading is a social cognitive process with importance for successful maneuvering of social situations. In this study, we investigated body language reading as assessed with human point-light displays in participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 84) compared to healthy control participants (n = 84), aiming to answer three questions: (1) whether persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have poorer body language reading abilities than healthy persons; (2) whether some emotions are easier to read from body language than others, and if this is the same for individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and (3) whether there are sex differences in body language reading in participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants. A fourth research aim concerned associations of body language reading with symptoms and functioning in participants with schizophrenia. Scores on the body language reading measure was first standardized using a separate sample of healthy control participants (n = 101). Further results showed that persons with schizophrenia had impaired body language reading ability compared to healthy persons. A significant effect of emotion indicated that some emotions (happiness, neutral) were easier to recognize and this was so for both individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. There were no sex differences for either diagnostic group. Body language reading ability was not associated with symptoms or functioning. In conclusion; schizophrenia was characterized by a global impairment in body language reading that was present for all emotions and across sex.

  8. The role of phonological awareness in reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Cárnio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to characterize the performance of 4th grade-Elementary School students with and without signs of reading and writing disorders as for phonological awareness and reading comprehension, and also verify possible correlations between them. Methods: 60 children enrolled in the 4th grade of Elementary School from two public schools, whose parents signed the Informed Consent Form, participated in the present study. They were selected and organized in groups, with and without signs of reading and writing disorders. All students were individually assessed regarding their phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts through standardized tests. The data underwent statistical analysis. Results: those with signs of reading and writing disorders showed the lowest performance in the reading comprehension of sentences and texts. A correlation was found between phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts in both groups. Conclusion: students with no signs of reading and writing disorders had a higher performance in the skills assessed. The correlation found between phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts shows not only the importance of metaphonological skills for a proficient reading, but also for a comprehensive one.

  9. Reading emotions from body movement: a generalized impairment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Body language reading is a social cognitive process with importance for successful maneuvering of social situations. In this study, we investigated body language reading as assessed with human point-light displays in participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 84 compared to healthy control participants (n = 84, aiming to answer three questions: 1 whether persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have poorer body language reading abilities than healthy persons; 2 whether some emotions are easier to read from body language than others, and if this is the same for individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and 3 whether there are sex differences in body language reading in participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants. A fourth research aim concerned associations of body language reading with symptoms and functioning in participants with schizophrenia. Scores on the body language reading measure was first standardized using a separate sample of healthy control participants (n = 101. Further results showed that persons with schizophrenia had impaired body language reading ability compared to healthy persons. A significant effect of emotion indicated that some emotions (happiness, neutral were easier to recognize and this was so for both individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. There were no sex differences for either diagnostic group. Body language reading ability was not associated with symptoms or functioning. In conclusion; schizophrenia was characterized by a global impairment in body language reading that was present for all emotions and across sex.

  10. Technical presentation

    CERN Document Server

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    07 April 2009 Technical presentation by Leuze Electronics: 14.00 – 15.00, Main Building, Room 61-1-017 (Room A) Photoelectric sensors, data identification and transmission systems, image processing systems. We at Leuze Electronics are "the sensor people": we have been specialising in optoelectronic sensors and safety technology for accident prevention for over 40 years. Our dedicated staff are all highly customer oriented. Customers of Leuze Electronics can always rely on one thing – on us! •\tFounded in 1963 •\t740 employees •\t115 MEUR turnover •\t20 subsidiaries •\t3 production facilities in southern Germany Product groups: •\tPhotoelectric sensors •\tIdentification and measurements •\tSafety devices

  11. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  12. readShape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitniak, J.; Pargac, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the Slovak Environmental Agency during relative short time originated the first version of software product using of GPS technology for monitoring of negative phenomena in nature. It was denominated as readShape and its primary goal is to minister for conservator of environment geographically strictly to observe endangered territories as are, for example, fire, fish kill, impact of motor vehicle accident or dangerous objects as are illegal stock-piles, wastes and other. Process of monitoring is described

  13. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  14. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

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    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  15. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

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    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  16. Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Thomas Z; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A; Dorn, Jessy D; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 × 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 × 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  17. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  18. Leveraging FPGAs for Accelerating Short Read Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arram, James; Kaplan, Thomas; Luk, Wayne; Jiang, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    One of the key challenges facing genomics today is how to efficiently analyze the massive amounts of data produced by next-generation sequencing platforms. With general-purpose computing systems struggling to address this challenge, specialized processors such as the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are receiving growing interest. The means by which to leverage this technology for accelerating genomic data analysis is however largely unexplored. In this paper, we present a runtime reconfigurable architecture for accelerating short read alignment using FPGAs. This architecture exploits the reconfigurability of FPGAs to allow the development of fast yet flexible alignment designs. We apply this architecture to develop an alignment design which supports exact and approximate alignment with up to two mismatches. Our design is based on the FM-index, with optimizations to improve the alignment performance. In particular, the n-step FM-index, index oversampling, a seed-and-compare stage, and bi-directional backtracking are included. Our design is implemented and evaluated on a 1U Maxeler MPC-X2000 dataflow node with eight Altera Stratix-V FPGAs. Measurements show that our design is 28 times faster than Bowtie2 running with 16 threads on dual Intel Xeon E5-2640 CPUs, and nine times faster than Soap3-dp running on an NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU.

  19. Reading Fluency and Students with Reading Disabilities: How Fast Is Fast Enough to Promote Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of improving reading rate and fluency is to positively impact reading comprehension; however, it is unclear how fast students with learning disabilities (LD) need to read to reap this benefit. The purpose of this research was to identify the point of diminishing return for students who were dysfluent readers. Participants included 337…

  20. Book Clubs in Developmental Reading: Building Reading Comprehension, Fostering Reading Enjoyment, and Engaging Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

  1. The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Namhee

    2017-01-01

    Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

  2. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  3. Games as a measure of reading and writing generalization after computerized teaching of reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Sella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavior Analysis is usually accused of not being able to account for the generalization of verbal behavior that is present in linguistically competent individuals. However, several behavior analytic studies investigate this theme, and gamification has been seen as a useful way to study generalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate reading and writing generalization in games, after these behaviors were taught through the program Learning to Read in Small Steps. Participants were four children between 7 and 12 years old who had reading and writing deficits. The experimental design was a pre-posttest design that encompassed five phases. Performance in probes suggests generalization of reading and writing skills to new activities (games and responses. This study represents a small step in a systematic understanding of how games can be used to assess behavior change.

  4. Research on Eye Movement Tracking in ESL Reading

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    Wenlian ZHAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement behavior in reading can reflect on-line cognitive process. Through the on-line measure of eye movement, under relatively natural reading condition, data of the reader’ s eye movement in the text can be obtained in processing information, and thus help to reveal the internal cognitive mechanisms in reading. With the development of intelligentization, serialization and portable direction in eye tracker, there exist great number of studies on eye movement tracking, but studies on eye movement features in ESL reading are rare. In such circumstances, this paper mainly illustrates eye movement patterns, the relationship between eye movement and perceptual processing, and eye movement control in ESL reading.

  5. The reading teacher as a trainer of citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brand Barajas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present is a qualitative study by theorizing, from the approach of the problem of reading as a basic resource for the formation of citizens through education. It starts from the definition of the reading capacity, followed by the revision of the general characteristics of the reading brain proposed by Stalisnas Dehaene (2014, as well as the revolutions in the materials and devices used for the writing, besides the changes in the form of reading, from Sumerian tablets to digital technologies. The process of Education for Development and the distinctive features of digital citizenship are presented, which are: immediacy in the production, transmission and reception of messages; interactivity between receiver and producer; the multi-authoritarian, which gives birth to “the prosumers”; the accessibility of the environment; freedom of expression; the democratization of access and the appropriation of a public space. All this allows contextualizing new forms of reading and new profiles of readers, as well as the generation of virtual reading spaces where communities of dialogue and exchange are formed. The study reaches the teachers and their reading biographies, which largely define their competence to encourage reading among their students and their ability to mobilize them towards citizen responsibility through reading.

  6. The Contributions of a Hispanic Immigrant Home Reading Practices to A Child’s Bilingual Reading Development

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    Ángela María López-Velásquez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the Spanish home reading practices of a US immigrant Hispanic household are studied highlighting the many connections existing between the reading practices at home and at school. This longitudinal study explores how the home and school L1 reading instruction contributed to a first-grader’s initial steps towards reading in English or biliteracy. Details of Natalia ́s reading in Spanish at home and at school are presented and the relationships between the reading practices in both contexts are documented.The findings in this study remind us of the importance of strong native language literacy foundations and of the role that both home and school play in fostering high literacy levels among children.

  7. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  8. Student Time Usage during Fall Reading Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ken; Pschibul, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the time usage and levels of perceived stress, academic workload, and recreation time for 177 students at the University of Windsor before, during, and after Fall Reading Week (FRW). Over a three-week span (at various times of the day), students received a message to their smartphone to complete a 20-second survey…

  9. Reading & Writing Workshop. The Fantastic Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, explaining how to use it to enhance reading and writing instruction. The article presents a brief interview with J.K. Rowling, a Harry Potter time line, and ideas for working on writing and editing paragraphs, creating dynamic dialogue, and fixing grammar and punctuation. Other fantasy books are…

  10. Self and External Monitoring of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ling-po; Chen, Qishan

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches to remedy the inaccuracy of self-monitoring of reading comprehension. The first approach attempts to enhance self-monitoring by strengthening the cues utilized in monitoring. The second approach replaces self-monitoring with external regulation based on objective evaluative information.…

  11. Symbol-String Sensitivity and Children's Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammer, Kristen; Lavis, Ruth; Hansen, Peter; Cornelissen, Piers L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study of primary school children, a novel "symbol-string" task is used to assess sensitivity to the position of briefly presented non-alphabetic but letter-like symbols. The results demonstrate that sensitivity in the symbol-string task explains a unique proportion of the variability in children's contextual reading accuracy. Moreover,…

  12. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  13. Functional Neuroanatomy of Impaired Reading in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmelin, Riitta; Helenius, Paivi

    2004-01-01

    In reading tasks, an underactivation of the left inferior occipitotemporal cortex in dyslexia seems to be the most consistent finding both in neurophysiological and hemodynamic studies. This marked difference appears at about 150 msec after word presentation when the brain enters the letter-string-specific (or, more generally, object-specific)…

  14. Russian Orthography and Learning to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerek, Eugenia; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    The unique structure of Russian orthography may influence the organization and acquisition of reading skills in Russian. The present review examines phonemic-graphemic correspondences in Russian orthography and discusses its grain-size units and possible difficulties for beginning readers and writers. Russian orthography is governed by a…

  15. The Effect of Reading a Short Passage of Literary Fiction on Theory of Mind: A Replication of Kidd and Castano (2013

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    Iris van Kuijk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The results reported by Kidd and Castano (2013 indicated that reading a short passage of literary fiction improves theory of mind (ToM relative to reading popular fiction. However, when we entered Kidd and Castano’s results in a 'p'-curve analysis, it turned out that the evidential value of their findings is low. It is good practice to back up a p-curve analysis of a single paper with an adequately powered direct replication of at least one of the studies in the 'p'-curve analysis. Therefore, we conducted a direct replication of the literary fiction condition and the popular fiction condition from Kidd and Castano’s Experiment 5 to scrutinize the effect of reading literary fiction on ToM. The results of this replication were largely consistent with Kidd and Castano’s original findings. Furthermore, we conducted a small-scale meta-analysis on the findings of the present study, those of Kidd and Castano and those reported in other published direct replications. The meta-analytic effect of reading literary fiction on ToM was small and non-significant but there was considerable heterogeneity between the included studies. The results of the present study and of the small-scale meta-analysis are discussed in the light of reading-times exclusion criteria as well as reliability and validity of ToM measures.

  16. Digital reading practices of university students

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    Karen Shirley LÓPEZ GIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on digital reading. The main objective of the research was to analyze the reading on screens practices of university students and how their practices are guided by professors and institutions of higher education. The research design was mixed and the type of study was descriptive of cross-sectional. The data collection techniques were questionnaire, document analysis and discussion group. ibm spss v.22 was used for statistical treatment of data and Atlas.Ti 7.0 was used for content analysis of qualitative information. The study showed that students usually read on screens, although many of their reading practices have recreational purposes. Students have troubles to find reliable information on the Internet when they have academic pursuits and frequently consult secondary sources. When texts are on screens, students generally scan information and surf from one document to another along hyperlinks. The boundaries between academic and leisure activities are not well defined; multitasking appears frequently. Students indicate there is a little guidance received from their professors or university. These findings show that students are constantly faced with digital reading, but practices do not always allow them to achieve their academic purposes, so it is necessary to strengthen the support offered to them, mainly from the classroom language. 

  17. KEEP Reading Research: 1972-1975. Technical Report No. 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kathryn H.

    This report presents a summary of reading research conducted by the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) during 1972-75. Research was conducted in four areas: student industriousness, reading readiness, teaching of sound-symbol relationships, and language (especially dialect interference). With regard to industriousness, it was found that…

  18. Is Earlier Better? Mastery of Reading Fluency in Early Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yonghan; Chaparro, Erin A.; Preciado, Jorge; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the importance of mastering reading fluency in early schooling. Study participants were 1,322 students in 3rd grade in 42 schools in a northwestern state. These students were assessed using a battery of reading skill tests as well as comprehensive tests of more…

  19. The Path to Competence: A Lifespan Developmental Perspective on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a developmental model of reading that encompasses changes across the lifespan. The need for such a lifespan orientation toward reading within our educational institutions is great. Until we adopt this lifelong perspective, we continue to run the risk of turning out undeveloped, unmotivated, and uncritical…

  20. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…