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Sample records for direct quadrature method

  1. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  2. Large eddy simulations of coal jet flame ignition using the direct quadrature method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedel, Julien

    The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) was implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tool ARCHES to model coal particles. LES coupled with DQMOM was first applied to nonreacting particle-laden turbulent jets. Simulation results were compared to experimental data and accurately modeled a wide range of particle behaviors, such as particle jet waviness, spreading, break up, particle clustering and segregation, in different configurations. Simulations also accurately predicted the mean axial velocity along the centerline for both the gas phase and the solid phase, thus demonstrating the validity of the approach to model particles in turbulent flows. LES was then applied to the prediction of pulverized coal flame ignition. The stability of an oxy-coal flame as a function of changing primary gas composition (CO2 and O2) was first investigated. Flame stability was measured using optical measurements of the flame standoff distance in a 40 kW pilot facility. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the facility provided valuable insight into the experimentally observed data and the importance of factors such as heterogeneous reactions, radiation or wall temperature. The effects of three parameters on the flame stand-off distance were studied and simulation predictions were compared to experimental data using the data collaboration method. An additional validation study of the ARCHES LES tool was then performed on an air-fired pulverized coal jet flame ignited by a preheated gas flow. The simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experimental observations for different inlet stoichiometric ratios. LES simulations were able to capture the various combustion regimes observed during flame ignition and to accurately model the flame stand-off distance sensitivity to the stoichiometric ratio. Gas temperature and coal burnout predictions were also examined and showed good agreement with experimental data. Overall, this research shows that high

  3. Numerical simulation of spray coalescence in an Eulerian framework: Direct quadrature method of moments and multi-fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.O.; Laurent, F.; Massot, M.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of the present study is Eulerian modeling and simulation of polydisperse liquid sprays undergoing droplet coalescence and evaporation. The fundamental mathematical description is the Williams spray equation governing the joint number density function f(v,u;x,t) of droplet volume and velocity. Eulerian multi-fluid models have already been rigorously derived from this equation in Laurent et al. [F. Laurent, M. Massot, P. Villedieu, Eulerian multi-fluid modeling for the numerical simulation of coalescence in polydisperse dense liquid sprays, J. Comput. Phys. 194 (2004) 505-543]. The first key feature of the paper is the application of direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) introduced by Marchisio and Fox [D.L. Marchisio, R.O. Fox, Solution of population balance equations using the direct quadrature method of moments, J. Aerosol Sci. 36 (2005) 43-73] to the Williams spray equation. Both the multi-fluid method and DQMOM yield systems of Eulerian conservation equations with complicated interaction terms representing coalescence. In order to focus on the difficulties associated with treating size-dependent coalescence and to avoid numerical uncertainty issues associated with two-way coupling, only one-way coupling between the droplets and a given gas velocity field is considered. In order to validate and compare these approaches, the chosen configuration is a self-similar 2D axisymmetrical decelerating nozzle with sprays having various size distributions, ranging from smooth ones up to Dirac delta functions. The second key feature of the paper is a thorough comparison of the two approaches for various test-cases to a reference solution obtained through a classical stochastic Lagrangian solver. Both Eulerian models prove to describe adequately spray coalescence and yield a very interesting alternative to the Lagrangian solver. The third key point of the study is a detailed description of the limitations associated with each method, thus giving criteria for

  4. Comparison of two Galerkin quadrature methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J. E.; Warsa, J. S.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    We compare two methods for generating Galerkin quadrature for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering. In Method 1, the standard Sn method is used to generate the moment-to-discrete matrix and the discrete-to-moment is generated by inverting the moment-to-discrete matrix. In Method 2, which we introduce here, the standard Sn method is used to generate the discrete-to-moment matrix and the moment-to-discrete matrix is generated by inverting the discrete-to-moment matrix. Method 1 has the advantage that it preserves both N eigenvalues and N eigenvectors (in a pointwise sense) of the scattering operator with an N-point quadrature. Method 2 has the advantage that it generates consistent angular moment equations from the corresponding S N equations while preserving N eigenvalues of the scattering operator with an N-point quadrature. Our computational results indicate that these two methods are quite comparable for the test problem considered. (authors)

  5. Static and Vibrational Analysis of Partially Composite Beams Using the Weak-Form Quadrature Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation of partially composite beams under distributed loading and free vibrations of partially composite beams under various boundary conditions are examined in this paper. The weak-form quadrature element method, which is characterized by direct evaluation of the integrals involved in the variational description of a problem, is used. One quadrature element is normally sufficient for a partially composite beam regardless of the magnitude of the shear connection stiffness. The number of integration points in a quadrature element is adjustable in accordance with convergence requirement. Results are compared with those of various finite element formulations. It is shown that the weak form quadrature element solution for partially composite beams is free of slip locking, and high computational accuracy is achieved with smaller number of degrees of freedom. Besides, it is found that longitudinal inertia of motion cannot be simply neglected in assessment of dynamic behavior of partially composite beams.

  6. Large deformation and mechanics of flexible isotropic membrane ballooning in three dimensions by differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, M.; Atai, A. A.; Mostafa, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate new methodology in the differential quadrature analysis of structural mechanics for flexible membranes ballooning in three dimensions under a negative air pressure differential. The differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial direction as well as for the solution procedure. The weighting coefficients employed are not exclusive, and any accurate and efficient method such as the generalized differential quadrature method may be used to produce the methods weighting coefficients. A second-order paraboloid of revolution is assumed to describe the ballooning shape. This study asserts the accuracy, convergency, and efficiency of the methodology by solving some typical stability, straining analysis membrane problems, and comparing the results with those of the exact solutions and/or those of physical tests

  7. Large deformation and mechanics of flexible isotropic membrane ballooning in three dimensions by differential quadrature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M.; Atai, A. A.; Mostafa, N. [Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate new methodology in the differential quadrature analysis of structural mechanics for flexible membranes ballooning in three dimensions under a negative air pressure differential. The differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial direction as well as for the solution procedure. The weighting coefficients employed are not exclusive, and any accurate and efficient method such as the generalized differential quadrature method may be used to produce the methods weighting coefficients. A second-order paraboloid of revolution is assumed to describe the ballooning shape. This study asserts the accuracy, convergency, and efficiency of the methodology by solving some typical stability, straining analysis membrane problems, and comparing the results with those of the exact solutions and/or those of physical tests

  8. A multivariate quadrature based moment method for LES based modeling of supersonic combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donde, Pratik; Koo, Heeseok; Raman, Venkat

    2012-07-01

    The transported probability density function (PDF) approach is a powerful technique for large eddy simulation (LES) based modeling of scramjet combustors. In this approach, a high-dimensional transport equation for the joint composition-enthalpy PDF needs to be solved. Quadrature based approaches provide deterministic Eulerian methods for solving the joint-PDF transport equation. In this work, it is first demonstrated that the numerical errors associated with LES require special care in the development of PDF solution algorithms. The direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is one quadrature-based approach developed for supersonic combustion modeling. This approach is shown to generate inconsistent evolution of the scalar moments. Further, gradient-based source terms that appear in the DQMOM transport equations are severely underpredicted in LES leading to artificial mixing of fuel and oxidizer. To overcome these numerical issues, a semi-discrete quadrature method of moments (SeQMOM) is formulated. The performance of the new technique is compared with the DQMOM approach in canonical flow configurations as well as a three-dimensional supersonic cavity stabilized flame configuration. The SeQMOM approach is shown to predict subfilter statistics accurately compared to the DQMOM approach.

  9. Passive directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometry by the two-wavelength quadrature homodyne technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen

    2003-07-01

    We report a method for passive optical directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometers. For this purpose frequency-shift elements such as acousto-optic modulators, which are bulky and difficult to align during assembly, have traditionally been employed. We propose to use a quadrature homodyne technique to achieve directional discrimination of the fluid flow without any frequency-shift elements. It is based on the employment of two laser wavelengths, which generate two interference fringe systems with a phase shift of a quarter of the common fringe spacing. Measurement signal pairs with a direction-dependent phase shift of +/- pi/2 are generated. As a robust signal-processing technique, the cross-correlation technique is used. The principles of quadrature homodyne laser-Doppler anemometry are investigated. A setup that provides a constant phase shift of pi/2 throughout the entire measurement volume was achieved with both single-mode and multimode radiation. The directional discrimination was successfully verified with wind tunnel measurements. The complete passive technique offers the potential of building miniaturized measurement heads that can be integrated, e.g., into wind tunnel models.

  10. Differential quadrature method of nonlinear bending of functionally graded beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnian, Xu; Liansheng, Ma; Wang, Youzhi; Quan, Yuan; Weijie, You

    2018-02-01

    Using the third-order shear deflection beam theory (TBT), nonlinear bending of functionally graded (FG) beams composed with various amounts of ceramic and metal is analyzed utilizing the differential quadrature method (DQM). The properties of beam material are supposed to accord with the power law index along to thickness. First, according to the principle of stationary potential energy, the partial differential control formulae of the FG beams subjected to a distributed lateral force are derived. To obtain numerical results of the nonlinear bending, non-dimensional boundary conditions and control formulae are dispersed by applying the DQM. To verify the present solution, several examples are analyzed for nonlinear bending of homogeneous beams with various edges. A minute parametric research is in progress about the effect of the law index, transverse shear deformation, distributed lateral force and boundary conditions.

  11. A Gaussian quadrature method for total energy analysis in electronic state calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika

    This article reports studies by Fukushima and coworkers since 1980 concerning their highly accurate numerical integral method using Gaussian quadratures to evaluate the total energy in electronic state calculations. Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Laguerre quadratures were used for integrals in the finite and infinite regions, respectively. Our previous article showed that, for diatomic molecules such as CO and FeO, elliptic coordinates efficiently achieved high numerical integral accuracy even with a numerical basis set including transition metal atomic orbitals. This article will generalize straightforward details for multiatomic systems with direct integrals in each decomposed elliptic coordinate determined from the nuclear positions of picked-up atom pairs. Sample calculations were performed for the molecules O3 and H2O. This article will also try to present, in another coordinate, a numerical integral by partially using the Becke's decomposition published in 1988, but without the Becke's fuzzy cell generated by the polynomials of internuclear distance between the pair atoms. Instead, simple nuclear weights comprising exponential functions around nuclei are used. The one-center integral is performed with a Gaussian quadrature pack in a spherical coordinate, included in the author's original program in around 1980. As for this decomposition into one-center integrals, sample calculations are carried out for Li2.

  12. Angular quadrature sets for the streaming ray method in x-y geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, R.; Filippone, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Steaming ray (SR) computations normally employ a set of specially selected ray directions. For x-y geometry, these directions are not uniformly spaced in the azimuthal angle, nor do they conform to any of the standard quadrature sets in current use. For simplicity in all previous SR computations, uniform angular weights were used. This note investigates two methods--a bisection scheme and a Fourier scheme--for selecting more appropriate azimuthal angular weights. In the bisection scheme, the azimuthal weight assigned to an SR direction is half the angular spread (in the x-y plane) between its two adjacent ray directions. In the Fourier method, the weights are chosen such that the number of terms in a Fourier series exactly integrable on the interval (0, 2π) is maximized. Several sample calculations have been performed. While both the Fourier and bisection weights showed significant advantage over the uniform weights used previously, the Fourier scheme appears to be the best method. Lists of bisection and Fourier weights are given for quadrature sets containing 4, 8, 12, ..., 60 azimuthal SR directions

  13. Application of the Generalized Differential Quadrature Method in Solving Burgers' Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, R.; Toodar, A. Samadi; Chegini, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to obtain numerical solutions of the one-dimensional, two-dimensional and coupled Burgers' equations through the generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM). The polynomial-based differential quadrature (PDQ) method is employed and the obtained system of ordinary differential equations is solved via the total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta (TVD-RK) method. The numerical solutions are satisfactorily coincident with the exact solutions. The method can compete against the methods applied in the literature. (general)

  14. Optimization and Experimentation of Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope Quadrature Error Correction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Li, Hongsheng; Kou, Zhiwei; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Ma, Zongmin; Shen, Chong; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-07

    This paper focuses on an optimal quadrature error correction method for the dual-mass MEMS gyroscope, in order to reduce the long term bias drift. It is known that the coupling stiffness and demodulation error are important elements causing bias drift. The coupling stiffness in dual-mass structures is analyzed. The experiment proves that the left and right masses' quadrature errors are different, and the quadrature correction system should be arranged independently. The process leading to quadrature error is proposed, and the Charge Injecting Correction (CIC), Quadrature Force Correction (QFC) and Coupling Stiffness Correction (CSC) methods are introduced. The correction objects of these three methods are the quadrature error signal, force and the coupling stiffness, respectively. The three methods are investigated through control theory analysis, model simulation and circuit experiments, and the results support the theoretical analysis. The bias stability results based on CIC, QFC and CSC are 48 °/h, 9.9 °/h and 3.7 °/h, respectively, and this value is 38 °/h before quadrature error correction. The CSC method is proved to be the better method for quadrature correction, and it improves the Angle Random Walking (ARW) value, increasing it from 0.66 °/√h to 0.21 °/√h. The CSC system general test results show that it works well across the full temperature range, and the bias stabilities of the six groups' output data are 3.8 °/h, 3.6 °/h, 3.4 °/h, 3.1 °/h, 3.0 °/h and 4.2 °/h, respectively, which proves the system has excellent repeatability.

  15. Optimization and Experimentation of Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope Quadrature Error Correction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an optimal quadrature error correction method for the dual-mass MEMS gyroscope, in order to reduce the long term bias drift. It is known that the coupling stiffness and demodulation error are important elements causing bias drift. The coupling stiffness in dual-mass structures is analyzed. The experiment proves that the left and right masses’ quadrature errors are different, and the quadrature correction system should be arranged independently. The process leading to quadrature error is proposed, and the Charge Injecting Correction (CIC, Quadrature Force Correction (QFC and Coupling Stiffness Correction (CSC methods are introduced. The correction objects of these three methods are the quadrature error signal, force and the coupling stiffness, respectively. The three methods are investigated through control theory analysis, model simulation and circuit experiments, and the results support the theoretical analysis. The bias stability results based on CIC, QFC and CSC are 48 °/h, 9.9 °/h and 3.7 °/h, respectively, and this value is 38 °/h before quadrature error correction. The CSC method is proved to be the better method for quadrature correction, and it improves the Angle Random Walking (ARW value, increasing it from 0.66 °/√h to 0.21 °/√h. The CSC system general test results show that it works well across the full temperature range, and the bias stabilities of the six groups’ output data are 3.8 °/h, 3.6 °/h, 3.4 °/h, 3.1 °/h, 3.0 °/h and 4.2 °/h, respectively, which proves the system has excellent repeatability.

  16. Optimization and Experimentation of Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope Quadrature Error Correction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Li, Hongsheng; Kou, Zhiwei; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Ma, Zongmin; Shen, Chong; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on an optimal quadrature error correction method for the dual-mass MEMS gyroscope, in order to reduce the long term bias drift. It is known that the coupling stiffness and demodulation error are important elements causing bias drift. The coupling stiffness in dual-mass structures is analyzed. The experiment proves that the left and right masses’ quadrature errors are different, and the quadrature correction system should be arranged independently. The process leading to quadrature error is proposed, and the Charge Injecting Correction (CIC), Quadrature Force Correction (QFC) and Coupling Stiffness Correction (CSC) methods are introduced. The correction objects of these three methods are the quadrature error signal, force and the coupling stiffness, respectively. The three methods are investigated through control theory analysis, model simulation and circuit experiments, and the results support the theoretical analysis. The bias stability results based on CIC, QFC and CSC are 48 °/h, 9.9 °/h and 3.7 °/h, respectively, and this value is 38 °/h before quadrature error correction. The CSC method is proved to be the better method for quadrature correction, and it improves the Angle Random Walking (ARW) value, increasing it from 0.66 °/√h to 0.21 °/√h. The CSC system general test results show that it works well across the full temperature range, and the bias stabilities of the six groups’ output data are 3.8 °/h, 3.6 °/h, 3.4 °/h, 3.1 °/h, 3.0 °/h and 4.2 °/h, respectively, which proves the system has excellent repeatability. PMID:26751455

  17. Direct and quadrature inductances measurement of the permanent magnetic linear synchronous machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Liyi [Electrical Engineering Dept./Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Hong Junjie, E-mail: wizard0663@126.co [School of Engineering/Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Hongxing; Kou Baoquan; Liu Rizhong [Electrical Engineering Dept./Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The d- and q-axis inductances are derived theoretically. {yields} The new measurement principle of the d- and q-axis inductances is analyzed. {yields} A corresponding measuring circuit is developed. {yields} Measurement results match those of the FEM well. -- Abstract: Permanent magnetic linear synchronous machines (PMLSMs) are playing a more important role either in transportation systems or magnetic launch systems, for the excellent advantages. It is indispensable to high performance controllers that some machine parameters are known such as the direct axis (d-axis) and quadrature axis (q-axis) inductances. In this paper, self and mutual inductances of the three-phase winding are deduced by basic electric machinery theory, and the measured inductances are analyzed since the mutual inductances and the corresponding terminals among three-phase windings are changing as different phase winding is concerned. The d- and q-axis inductances are measured with the designed circuit, and the experimental measurement method is validated by the comparison between the experimental and finite element method (FEM) results.

  18. Direct and quadrature inductances measurement of the permanent magnetic linear synchronous machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liyi; Hong Junjie; Wu Hongxing; Kou Baoquan; Liu Rizhong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The d- and q-axis inductances are derived theoretically. → The new measurement principle of the d- and q-axis inductances is analyzed. → A corresponding measuring circuit is developed. → Measurement results match those of the FEM well. -- Abstract: Permanent magnetic linear synchronous machines (PMLSMs) are playing a more important role either in transportation systems or magnetic launch systems, for the excellent advantages. It is indispensable to high performance controllers that some machine parameters are known such as the direct axis (d-axis) and quadrature axis (q-axis) inductances. In this paper, self and mutual inductances of the three-phase winding are deduced by basic electric machinery theory, and the measured inductances are analyzed since the mutual inductances and the corresponding terminals among three-phase windings are changing as different phase winding is concerned. The d- and q-axis inductances are measured with the designed circuit, and the experimental measurement method is validated by the comparison between the experimental and finite element method (FEM) results.

  19. LC Quadrature Generation in Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais

    2001-01-01

    Today quadrature signals for IQ demodulation are provided through RC polyphase networks, quadrature oscillators or double frequency VCOs. This paper presents a new method for generating quadrature signals in integrated circuits using only inductors and capacitors. This LC quadrature generation...

  20. Free Vibration Analysis of Fiber Metal Laminate Annular Plate by State-Space Based Differential Quadrature Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional elasticity theory by means of a state-space based differential quadrature method is presented for free vibration analysis of fiber metal laminate annular plate. The kinds of composite material and metal layers are considered to be S2-glass and aluminum, respectively. A semianalytical approach which uses state-space in the thickness and differential quadrature in the radial direction is implemented for evaluating the nondimensional natural frequencies of the annular plates. The influences of changes in boundary condition, plate thickness, and lay-up direction on the natural frequencies are studied. A comparison is also made with the numerical results reported by ABAQUS software which shows an excellent agreement.

  1. Method of mechanical quadratures for solving singular integral equations of various types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, A. V.; Amirjanyan, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The method of mechanical quadratures is proposed as a common approach intended for solving the integral equations defined on finite intervals and containing Cauchy-type singular integrals. This method can be used to solve singular integral equations of the first and second kind, equations with generalized kernel, weakly singular equations, and integro-differential equations. The quadrature rules for several different integrals represented through the same coefficients are presented. This allows one to reduce the integral equations containing integrals of different types to a system of linear algebraic equations.

  2. Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kind with Quadrature Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafari Emamzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical method for solving the nonlinear Fredholm integral equation is presented. We intend to approximate the solution of this equation by quadrature methods and by doing so, we solve the nonlinear Fredholm integral equation more accurately. Several examples are given at the end of this paper

  3. Three-dimensional thermo-elastic analysis of a functionally graded cylindrical shell with piezoelectric layers by differential quadrature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alashti, R. Akbari, E-mail: raalashti@nit.ac.ir [Mechanical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Shariati Avenue, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorsand, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Shariati Avenue, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Three-dimensional thermo-elastic analysis of a functionally graded cylindrical shell with piezoelectric layers under the effect of asymmetric thermo-electro-mechanical loads is carried out. Numerical results of displacement, stress and thermal fields are obtained using two versions of the differential quadrature methods, namely polynomial and Fourier quadrature methods. Material properties of the shell are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a power law but the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be constant. Shells are considered to be under the effect of the pressure loading in the form of cosine and ring pressure loads, electric potentials and temperature fields. Numerical results for various boundary conditions are obtained and the effects of the thickness of piezoelectric layers, grading index of material properties and the ratio of the thickness to the radius of the shell on these results is presented. - Highlights: > A numerical study of an FGM cylindrical shell with piezoelectric layers is made. > Governing equations are solved by two versions of differential quadrature methods. > The effect of layers thickness, grading index and geometrical ratios is presented.

  4. Three-dimensional thermo-elastic analysis of a functionally graded cylindrical shell with piezoelectric layers by differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alashti, R. Akbari; Khorsand, M.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional thermo-elastic analysis of a functionally graded cylindrical shell with piezoelectric layers under the effect of asymmetric thermo-electro-mechanical loads is carried out. Numerical results of displacement, stress and thermal fields are obtained using two versions of the differential quadrature methods, namely polynomial and Fourier quadrature methods. Material properties of the shell are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a power law but the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be constant. Shells are considered to be under the effect of the pressure loading in the form of cosine and ring pressure loads, electric potentials and temperature fields. Numerical results for various boundary conditions are obtained and the effects of the thickness of piezoelectric layers, grading index of material properties and the ratio of the thickness to the radius of the shell on these results is presented. - Highlights: → A numerical study of an FGM cylindrical shell with piezoelectric layers is made. → Governing equations are solved by two versions of differential quadrature methods. → The effect of layers thickness, grading index and geometrical ratios is presented.

  5. Diamond difference method with hybrid angular quadrature applied to neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes

    2005-01-01

    In this work we presents the results for the calculations of the disadvantage factor in thermal nuclear reactor physics. We use the one-group discrete ordinates (S N ) equations to mathematically model the flux distributions in slab lattices. We apply the diamond difference method with source iteration iterative scheme to numerically solve the discretized systems equations. We used special interface conditions to describe the method with hybrid angular quadrature. We show numerical results to illustrate the accuracy of the hybrid method. (author)

  6. Numerical Simulation of Coupled Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations Using the Generalized Differential Quadrature Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, R.; Toodar, A. Samadi; Chegini, N. G.

    2011-01-01

    We the extend application of the generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) to solve some coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The cosine-based GDQM is employed and the obtained system of ordinary differential equations is solved via the fourth order Runge—Kutta method. The numerical solutions coincide with the exact solutions in desired machine precision and invariant quantities are conserved sensibly. Some comparisons with the methods applied in the literature are carried out. (general)

  7. Planar quadrature RF transceiver design using common-mode differential-mode (CMDM transmission line method for 7T MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    Full Text Available The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR in magnetic resonance (MR imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM and the differential mode (DM of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays.

  8. Solution of stochastic media transport problems using a numerical quadrature-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.; Olson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new conceptual framework for analyzing transport problems in random media. We decompose such problems into stratified subproblems according to the number of material pseudo-interfaces within realizations. For a given subproblem we assign pseudo-interface locations in each realization according to product quadrature rules, which allows us to deterministically generate a fixed number of realizations. Quadrature integration of the solutions of these realizations thus approximately solves each subproblem; the weighted superposition of solutions of the subproblems approximately solves the general stochastic media transport problem. We revisit some benchmark problems to determine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach in comparison to randomly generated realizations. We find that this method is very accurate and fast when the number of pseudo-interfaces in a problem is generally low, but that these advantages quickly degrade as the number of pseudo-interfaces increases. (authors)

  9. Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires based on Timoshenko beam theory using differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Janghorban

    Full Text Available Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires with rectangular cross section based on Timoshenko beam theory is studied in this research. Differential quadrature method (DQM is employed to solve the governing equations. From the knowledge of author, it is the first time that free vibration of nano wires is investigated. It is also the first time that differential quadrature method is used for bending analysis of nano wires.

  10. Design of quadrature mirror filter bank using Lagrange multiplier method based on fractional derivative constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuldeep

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus has recently been identified as a very important mathematical tool in the field of signal processing. Digital filters designed by fractional derivatives give more accurate frequency response in the prescribed frequency region. Digital filters are most important part of multi-rate filter bank systems. In this paper, an improved method based on fractional derivative constraints is presented for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank. The design problem is formulated as minimization of L2 error of filter bank transfer function in passband, stopband interval and at quadrature frequency, and then Lagrange multiplier method with fractional derivative constraints is applied to solve it. The proposed method is then successfully applied for the design of two-channel QMF bank with higher order filter taps. Performance of the QMF bank design is then examined through study of various parameters such as passband error, stopband error, transition band error, peak reconstruction error (PRE, stopband attenuation (As. It is found that, the good design can be obtained with the change of number and value of fractional derivative constraint coefficients.

  11. Optimization of convective-radiative fins by using differential quadrature element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, P.; Rahideh, H.; Karami, G.

    2006-01-01

    A first endeavor to exploit the differential quadrature element method (DQEM) as a simple, accurate and computationally efficient numerical tool for the shape optimization of convective-radiating extended surfaces or fins is made. The formulations are general so that the spatial and spatial-temperature dependent geometrical and thermal parameters can easily be implemented. The thermal conductivity of the fin is assumed to vary as a linear function of the temperature. The effects of a convective-radiative condition at the fin tip and effective convective condition at the fin base are considered. The optimization of fins with uniform and step cross-sections is investigated. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated by comparing its results with those generated by Adomian's decomposition technique, Taylor transformation technique and finite difference method. It is shown that, using few grid points, highly accurate results are obtained. Less computational effort of the method with respect to the finite difference method is shown

  12. Contributions to multidimensional quadrature formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, C.

    1976-11-01

    The general objective of this paper is to construct multidimensional quadrature formulas similar to the Gaussian Quadrature Formulas in one dimension. The correspondence between these formulas and orthogonal and nonnegative polynomials is established. One part of the paper considers the construction of multidimensional quadrature formulas using only methods of algebraic geometry, on the other part it is tried to obtain results on quadrature formulas with real nodes and, if possible, with positive weights. The results include the existence of quadrature formulas, information on the number resp. on the maximum possible number of points in the formulas for given polynomial degree N and the construction of formulas. (orig.) [de

  13. Numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion systems by modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, R.C.; Rohila, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have applied modified cubic B-spline based differential quadrature method to get numerical solutions of one dimensional reaction-diffusion systems such as linear reaction-diffusion system, Brusselator system, Isothermal system and Gray-Scott system. The models represented by these systems have important applications in different areas of science and engineering. The most striking and interesting part of the work is the solution patterns obtained for Gray Scott model, reminiscent of which are often seen in nature. We have used cubic B-spline functions for space discretization to get a system of ordinary differential equations. This system of ODE’s is solved by highly stable SSP-RK43 method to get solution at the knots. The computed results are very accurate and shown to be better than those available in the literature. Method is easy and simple to apply and gives solutions with less computational efforts.

  14. Increasing reliability of Gauss-Kronrod quadrature by Eratosthenes' sieve method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gh.; Adam, S.

    2001-04-01

    The reliability of the local error estimates returned by the Gauss-Kronrod quadrature rules can be raised up to the theoretical 100% rate of success, under error estimate sharpening, provided a number of natural validating conditions are required. The self-validating scheme of the local error estimates, which is easy to implement and adds little supplementary computing effort, strengthens considerably the correctness of the decisions within the automatic adaptive quadrature.

  15. DOQDP ADOQ, Discrete Ordinate Quadrature Generator for Programs DOT and ANISN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: DOQDP is used to generate direction sets (quadratures used as input to ANISN, DOT, and other related codes). If a fully symmetric quadrature is desired, DOQDP can generate the direction cosines to be used. If other than a fully quadrature is to be generated, the user must supply the appropriate direction cosines. Once the direction cosines are specified, the code will generate the quadrature weights. 2 - Method of solution: To determine point weights, DOQDP solves a set of simultaneous linear equations by Gaussian elimination with error improvement iterations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  16. Comparison of soft-input-soft-output detection methods for dual-polarized quadrature duobinary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun; Huang, Benxiong; Xu, Zhengguang; Li, Bin; Zhao, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Three soft-input-soft-output (SISO) detection methods for dual-polarized quadrature duobinary (DP-QDB), including maximum-logarithmic-maximum-a-posteriori-probability-algorithm (Max-log-MAP)-based detection, soft-output-Viterbi-algorithm (SOVA)-based detection, and a proposed SISO detection, which can all be combined with SISO decoding, are presented. The three detection methods are investigated at 128 Gb/s in five-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing uncoded and low-density-parity-check (LDPC) coded DP-QDB systems by simulations. Max-log-MAP-based detection needs the returning-to-initial-states (RTIS) process despite having the best performance. When the LDPC code with a code rate of 0.83 is used, the detecting-and-decoding scheme with the SISO detection does not need RTIS and has better bit error rate (BER) performance than the scheme with SOVA-based detection. The former can reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) requirement (at BER=10-5) by 2.56 dB relative to the latter. The application of the SISO iterative detection in LDPC-coded DP-QDB systems makes a good trade-off between requirements on transmission efficiency, OSNR requirement, and transmission distance, compared with the other two SISO methods.

  17. Beam shape coefficients calculation for an elliptical Gaussian beam with 1-dimensional quadrature and localized approximation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Jianqi

    2018-06-01

    The use of a shaped beam for applications relying on light scattering depends much on the ability to evaluate the beam shape coefficients (BSC) effectively. Numerical techniques for evaluating the BSCs of a shaped beam, such as the quadrature, the localized approximation (LA), the integral localized approximation (ILA) methods, have been developed within the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). The quadrature methods usually employ the 2-/3-dimensional integrations. In this work, the expressions of the BSCs for an elliptical Gaussian beam (EGB) are simplified into the 1-dimensional integral so as to speed up the numerical computation. Numerical results of BSCs are used to reconstruct the beam field and the fidelity of the reconstructed field to the given beam field is estimated. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is much faster than the 2-dimensional integrations and it can acquire more accurate results than the LA method. Limitations of the quadrature method and also the LA method in the numerical calculation are analyzed in detail.

  18. Chebfun and numerical quadrature

    KAUST Repository

    Hale, Nicholas; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2012-01-01

    Chebfun is a Matlab-based software system that overloads Matlab's discrete operations for vectors and matrices to analogous continuous operations for functions and operators. We begin by describing Chebfun's fast capabilities for Clenshaw-Curtis and also Gauss-Legendre, -Jacobi, -Hermite, and -Laguerre quadrature, based on algorithms of Waldvogel and Glaser, Liu and Rokhlin. Then we consider how such methods can be applied to quadrature problems including 2D integrals over rectangles, fractional derivatives and integrals, functions defined on unbounded intervals, and the fast computation of weights for barycentric interpolation. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Chebfun and numerical quadrature

    KAUST Repository

    Hale, Nicholas

    2012-07-24

    Chebfun is a Matlab-based software system that overloads Matlab\\'s discrete operations for vectors and matrices to analogous continuous operations for functions and operators. We begin by describing Chebfun\\'s fast capabilities for Clenshaw-Curtis and also Gauss-Legendre, -Jacobi, -Hermite, and -Laguerre quadrature, based on algorithms of Waldvogel and Glaser, Liu and Rokhlin. Then we consider how such methods can be applied to quadrature problems including 2D integrals over rectangles, fractional derivatives and integrals, functions defined on unbounded intervals, and the fast computation of weights for barycentric interpolation. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. On optimal quadrature formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanzara Flavia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to construct quadrature formulae which are exact for solutions of linear differential equations and are optimal in the sense of Sard is discussed. We give necessary and sufficient conditions under which such formulae do exist. Several formulae obtained by applying this method are considered and compared with well known formulae.

  1. Comparison of the method of classes and the quadrature of moment for the modelling of neodymium oxalate precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, J.P.; Lalleman, S.; Bertrand, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Process Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Plasari, E. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques, Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, Universite de Lorraine - CNRS,1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001, Nancy Cedex (France)

    2016-07-01

    Oxalic precipitation is generally used in the nuclear industry to deal with radioactive waste and recover the actinides from a multicomponent solution. To facilitate the development of experimental methods and data acquisitions, actinides are often simulated using lanthanides, gaining experience more easily. The purpose of this article is to compare the results achieved by two methods for solving the population balance during neodymium oxalate precipitation in a continuous MSMPR (Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal). The method of classes, also called discretized population balance, used in this study is based on the method of Litster. Whereas, the Quadrature Method of Moment (QMOM) is written in terms of the transport equations of the moments of the number density function. All the integrals are solved through a quadrature approximation thanks to the product-difference algorithm or the Chebyshev algorithm. Primary nucleation, crystal growth and agglomeration are taken into account. Agglomeration phenomena have been found to be represented by a loose agglomerates model. Thermodynamic effects are modeled by activity coefficients which are calculated using the Bromley model. The sizes of particles predicted by the two methods are in good agreement with experimental measurements. (authors)

  2. A Quadrature Method of Moments for Polydisperse Flow in Bubble Columns Including Poly-Celerity, Breakup and Coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Acher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model for 3D polydisperse bubble column flows in an Eulerian/Eulerian framework is presented. A computationally efficient and numerically stable algorithm is created by making use of quadrature method of moments (QMOM functionalities, in conjunction with appropriate breakup and coalescence models. To account for size dependent bubble motion, the constituent moments of the bubble size distribution function are transported with individual velocities. Validation of the simulation results against experimental and numerical data of Hansen [1] show the capability of the present model to accurately predict complex gas-liquid flows.

  3. SQDFT: Spectral Quadrature method for large-scale parallel O(N) Kohn-Sham calculations at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pratapa, Phanisri P.; Sharma, Abhiraj; Pask, John E.

    2018-03-01

    We present SQDFT: a large-scale parallel implementation of the Spectral Quadrature (SQ) method for O(N) Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at high temperature. Specifically, we develop an efficient and scalable finite-difference implementation of the infinite-cell Clenshaw-Curtis SQ approach, in which results for the infinite crystal are obtained by expressing quantities of interest as bilinear forms or sums of bilinear forms, that are then approximated by spatially localized Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rules. We demonstrate the accuracy of SQDFT by showing systematic convergence of energies and atomic forces with respect to SQ parameters to reference diagonalization results, and convergence with discretization to established planewave results, for both metallic and insulating systems. We further demonstrate that SQDFT achieves excellent strong and weak parallel scaling on computer systems consisting of tens of thousands of processors, with near perfect O(N) scaling with system size and wall times as low as a few seconds per self-consistent field iteration. Finally, we verify the accuracy of SQDFT in large-scale quantum molecular dynamics simulations of aluminum at high temperature.

  4. Performance Analysis of Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access Communications with Asymmetric Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keying Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-W.; Stark, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers a quaternary direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication system with asymmetric quadrature phase-shift-keying (AQPSK) modulation for unequal error protection (UEP) capability. Both time synchronous and asynchronous cases are investigated. An expression for the probability distribution of the multiple-access interference is derived. The exact bit-error performance and the approximate performance using a Gaussian approximation and random signature sequences are evaluated by extending the techniques used for uniform quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) DS-CDMA systems. Finally, a general system model with unequal user power and the near-far problem is considered and analyzed. The results show that, for a system with UEP capability, the less protected data bits are more sensitive to the near-far effect that occurs in a multiple-access environment than are the more protected bits.

  5. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

    2017-02-01

    For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

  6. Advanced quadrature sets and acceleration and preconditioning techniques for the discrete ordinates method in parallel computing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Gianluca

    In the nuclear science and engineering field, radiation transport calculations play a key-role in the design and optimization of nuclear devices. The linear Boltzmann equation describes the angular, energy and spatial variations of the particle or radiation distribution. The discrete ordinates method (S N) is the most widely used technique for solving the linear Boltzmann equation. However, for realistic problems, the memory and computing time require the use of supercomputers. This research is devoted to the development of new formulations for the SN method, especially for highly angular dependent problems, in parallel environments. The present research work addresses two main issues affecting the accuracy and performance of SN transport theory methods: quadrature sets and acceleration techniques. New advanced quadrature techniques which allow for large numbers of angles with a capability for local angular refinement have been developed. These techniques have been integrated into the 3-D SN PENTRAN (Parallel Environment Neutral-particle TRANsport) code and applied to highly angular dependent problems, such as CT-Scan devices, that are widely used to obtain detailed 3-D images for industrial/medical applications. In addition, the accurate simulation of core physics and shielding problems with strong heterogeneities and transport effects requires the numerical solution of the transport equation. In general, the convergence rate of the solution methods for the transport equation is reduced for large problems with optically thick regions and scattering ratios approaching unity. To remedy this situation, new acceleration algorithms based on the Even-Parity Simplified SN (EP-SSN) method have been developed. A new stand-alone code system, PENSSn (Parallel Environment Neutral-particle Simplified SN), has been developed based on the EP-SSN method. The code is designed for parallel computing environments with spatial, angular and hybrid (spatial/angular) domain

  7. A fast quadrature-based numerical method for the continuous spectrum biphasic poroviscoelastic model of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebner, Michael; Haider, Mansoor A

    2010-06-18

    A new and efficient method for numerical solution of the continuous spectrum biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) model of articular cartilage is presented. Development of the method is based on a composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature approximation of the continuous spectrum relaxation function that leads to an exponential series representation. The separability property of the exponential terms in the series is exploited to develop a numerical scheme that can be reduced to an update rule requiring retention of the strain history at only the previous time step. The cost of the resulting temporal discretization scheme is O(N) for N time steps. Application and calibration of the method is illustrated in the context of a finite difference solution of the one-dimensional confined compression BPVE stress-relaxation problem. Accuracy of the numerical method is demonstrated by comparison to a theoretical Laplace transform solution for a range of viscoelastic relaxation times that are representative of articular cartilage. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vibration analysis of Euler-Bernoulli beam with open cracks on elastic foundations using differential transformation method and generalized differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Jae; Hwang, Ki Sup; Yun, Jong Hak

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to apply Differential Transformation Method(DTM) and Generalized Differential Quadrature Method(GDQM) to vibration analysis of Euler-Bernoulli beam with open cracks on elastic foundation. In this paper the concepts of DTM and GDQM were briefly introduced. The governing equation of motion of the beam with open cracks on elastic foundation is derived. The cracks are modeled by massless substitute spring. The effects of the crack location, size and the foundation constants, on the natural frequencies of the beam, are investigated. Numerical calculations are carried out and compared with previous published results

  9. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydrodynamic-vegetation model using the effectively subsampled quadratures method (ESQM v5.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Seshadri, Pranay; Ganju, Neil K.; Beudin, Alexis

    2017-12-01

    Coastal hydrodynamics can be greatly affected by the presence of submerged aquatic vegetation. The effect of vegetation has been incorporated into the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The vegetation implementation includes the plant-induced three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the presence of vegetation. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of the flow and wave dynamics to vegetation parameters using Sobol' indices and a least squares polynomial approach referred to as the Effective Quadratures method. This method reduces the number of simulations needed for evaluating Sobol' indices and provides a robust, practical, and efficient approach for the parameter sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of Sobol' indices shows that kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and water level changes are affected by plant stem density, height, and, to a lesser degree, diameter. Wave dissipation is mostly dependent on the variation in plant stem density. Performing sensitivity analyses for the vegetation module in COAWST provides guidance to optimize efforts and reduce exploration of parameter space for future observational and modeling work.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydrodynamic-vegetation model using the effectively subsampled quadratures method (ESQM v5.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Kalra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hydrodynamics can be greatly affected by the presence of submerged aquatic vegetation. The effect of vegetation has been incorporated into the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system. The vegetation implementation includes the plant-induced three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the presence of vegetation. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of the flow and wave dynamics to vegetation parameters using Sobol' indices and a least squares polynomial approach referred to as the Effective Quadratures method. This method reduces the number of simulations needed for evaluating Sobol' indices and provides a robust, practical, and efficient approach for the parameter sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of Sobol' indices shows that kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and water level changes are affected by plant stem density, height, and, to a lesser degree, diameter. Wave dissipation is mostly dependent on the variation in plant stem density. Performing sensitivity analyses for the vegetation module in COAWST provides guidance to optimize efforts and reduce exploration of parameter space for future observational and modeling work.

  11. CFD modelling and validation of upward bubbly flow in an adiabatic vertical pipe using the quadrature method of moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña-Monferrer, C.; Passalacqua, A.; Chiva, S.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A population balance equation solved with QMOM approximation is implemented in OpenFOAM. • Available models for interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence are analyzed. • A vertical pipe flow is simulated for different bubbly flow conditions. • Two-phase flow characteristics in vertical pipes are properly predicted. - Abstract: An Eulerian–Eulerian approach was investigated to model adiabatic bubbly flow with CFD techniques. In the framework of the OpenFOAM"® software, a two-fluid model solver was modified to include a population balance equation, solved with the quadrature method of moments approximation to predict upward bubbly flow in vertical pipes considering the polydisperse nature of two-phase flow. Some progress have been made recently solving population balance equations in OpenFOAM"® and this research aims to extend its application to the case of vertical pipes under different conditions of liquid and gas velocities. In order to test the solver for nuclear applications, interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence models were included to provide to this solver the capability to correctly predict the behavior of the continuous and disperse phases. Two-phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and liquid are used to validate the model and its implementation. Radial profiles of void fraction, gas and liquid velocities, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity are compared to the computational results. These results are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, showing the capability of the solver to predict two-phase flow characteristics.

  12. Long-time stability effects of quadrature and artificial viscosity on nodal discontinuous Galerkin methods for gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Bradford; Hackl, Jason; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan

    2017-11-01

    Nodal discontinuous Galerkin schemes present an attractive approach to robust high-order solution of the equations of fluid mechanics, but remain accompanied by subtle challenges in their consistent stabilization. The effect of quadrature choices (full mass matrix vs spectral elements), over-integration to manage aliasing errors, and explicit artificial viscosity on the numerical solution of a steady homentropic vortex are assessed over a wide range of resolutions and polynomial orders using quadrilateral elements. In both stagnant and advected vortices in periodic and non-periodic domains the need arises for explicit stabilization beyond the numerical surface fluxes of discontinuous Galerkin spectral elements. Artificial viscosity via the entropy viscosity method is assessed as a stabilizing mechanism. It is shown that the regularity of the artificial viscosity field is essential to its use for long-time stabilization of small-scale features in nodal discontinuous Galerkin solutions of the Euler equations of gas dynamics. Supported by the Department of Energy Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program Contract DE-NA0002378.

  13. On the Effect of Thermoelastic Damping in Nonlinear Micro Electro Mechanical Resonators using Differential Quadrature Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karami Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper, a nonlinear model of clamped-clamped microbeam actuated by electrostatic load with stretching and thermoelastic effects is presented. Free vibration frequency is calculated by discretization based on DQ method. Frequency is a complex value due to the thermoelastic effect that dissipates the energy. By separating the real and imaginary parts of frequency, quality factor of thermoelastic damping is calculated. Both stretching and thermoelastic effects are validated against the results of the reference papers. The variations of thermoelastic damping versus elasticity modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion and geometrical parameters such as thickness, gap distance, and length are investigated and these results are compared in the linear and nonlinear models for high values of voltage. Also, this paper shows that since for high values of electrostatic voltage the linear model reveals a large error for calculating the thermoelastic damping, the nonlinear model should be used for this purpose.

  14. CFD modelling and validation of upward bubbly flow in an adiabatic vertical pipe using the quadrature method of moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Monferrer, C., E-mail: cmonfer@upv.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); Passalacqua, A., E-mail: albertop@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chiva, S., E-mail: schiva@emc.uji.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, 12080 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Muñoz-Cobo, J.L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A population balance equation solved with QMOM approximation is implemented in OpenFOAM. • Available models for interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence are analyzed. • A vertical pipe flow is simulated for different bubbly flow conditions. • Two-phase flow characteristics in vertical pipes are properly predicted. - Abstract: An Eulerian–Eulerian approach was investigated to model adiabatic bubbly flow with CFD techniques. In the framework of the OpenFOAM{sup ®} software, a two-fluid model solver was modified to include a population balance equation, solved with the quadrature method of moments approximation to predict upward bubbly flow in vertical pipes considering the polydisperse nature of two-phase flow. Some progress have been made recently solving population balance equations in OpenFOAM{sup ®} and this research aims to extend its application to the case of vertical pipes under different conditions of liquid and gas velocities. In order to test the solver for nuclear applications, interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence models were included to provide to this solver the capability to correctly predict the behavior of the continuous and disperse phases. Two-phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and liquid are used to validate the model and its implementation. Radial profiles of void fraction, gas and liquid velocities, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity are compared to the computational results. These results are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, showing the capability of the solver to predict two-phase flow characteristics.

  15. A new perspective for quintic B-spline based Crank-Nicolson-differential quadrature method algorithm for numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başhan, Ali; Uçar, Yusuf; Murat Yağmurlu, N.; Esen, Alaattin

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, a Crank-Nicolson-differential quadrature method (CN-DQM) based on utilizing quintic B-splines as a tool has been carried out to obtain the numerical solutions for the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. For this purpose, first of all, the Schrödinger equation has been converted into coupled real value differential equations and then they have been discretized using both the forward difference formula and the Crank-Nicolson method. After that, Rubin and Graves linearization techniques have been utilized and the differential quadrature method has been applied to obtain an algebraic equation system. Next, in order to be able to test the efficiency of the newly applied method, the error norms, L2 and L_{∞}, as well as the two lowest invariants, I1 and I2, have been computed. Besides those, the relative changes in those invariants have been presented. Finally, the newly obtained numerical results have been compared with some of those available in the literature for similar parameters. This comparison clearly indicates that the currently utilized method, namely CN-DQM, is an effective and efficient numerical scheme and allows us to propose to solve a wide range of nonlinear equations.

  16. Stochastic sampling of quadrature grids for the evaluation of vibrational expectation values

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ríos, Pablo; Monserrat, Bartomeu; Needs, Richard J.

    2018-02-01

    The thermal lines method for the evaluation of vibrational expectation values of electronic observables [B. Monserrat, Phys. Rev. B 93, 014302 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.014302] was recently proposed as a physically motivated approximation offering balance between the accuracy of direct Monte Carlo integration and the low computational cost of using local quadratic approximations. In this paper we reformulate thermal lines as a stochastic implementation of quadrature-grid integration, analyze the analytical form of its bias, and extend the method to multiple-point quadrature grids applicable to any factorizable harmonic or anharmonic nuclear wave function. The bias incurred by thermal lines is found to depend on the local form of the expectation value, and we demonstrate that the use of finer quadrature grids along selected modes can eliminate this bias, while still offering an ˜30 % lower computational cost than direct Monte Carlo integration in our tests.

  17. Past and Future SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven; Poletto, G.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of SOHO, it again became possible to carry out quadrature observations. In comparison with earlier observations, the new capabilities of coronal spectroscopy with UVCS and in situ ionization state and composition with Ulysses/SWICS enabled new types of studies. Results from two studies serve as examples: (i) The acceleration profile of wind from small coronal holes. (ii) A high-coronal reconnecting current sheet as the source of high ionization state Fe in a CME at Ulysses. Generally quadrature observations last only for a few days, when Ulysses is within ca. 5 degrees of the limb. This means luck is required for the phenomenon of interest to lie along the radial direction to Ulysses. However, when Ulysses is at high southern latitude in winter 2007 and high northern latitude in winter 2008, there will be unusually favorable configurations for quadrature observations with SOHO and corresponding bracketing limb observations from STEREO A/B. Specifically, Ulysses will be within 5 degrees of the limb from December 2006 to May 2007 and within 10 degrees of the limb from December 2007 to May 2008. These long-lasting quadratures and bracketing STEREO A/B observations overcome the limitations inherent in the short observation intervals of typical quadratures. Furthermore, ionization and charge state measurements like those on Ulysses will also be made on STEREO and these will be essential for identification of CME ejecta - one of the prime objectives for STEREO.

  18. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis of doubly curved isotropic shells resting on elastic foundation by a combination of harmonic differential quadrature-finite difference methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civalek, Oemer

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic response of doubly curved shallow shells resting on Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation has been studied for step and sinusoidal loadings. Dynamic analogues of Von Karman-Donnel type shell equations are used. Clamped immovable and simply supported immovable boundary conditions are considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of the shell are discretized in space and time domains using the harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) and finite differences (FD) methods, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed HDQ-FD coupled methodology is demonstrated by numerical examples. The shear parameter G of the Pasternak foundation and the stiffness parameter K of the Winkler foundation have been found to have a significant influence on the dynamic response of the shell. It is concluded from the present study that the HDQ-FD methodolgy is a simple, efficient, and accurate method for the nonlinear analysis of doubly curved shallow shells resting on two-parameter elastic foundation

  19. Gaussian Quadrature is an efficient method for the back-transformation in estimating the usual intake distribution when assessing dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, A L M; Slob, W

    2012-10-01

    In dietary exposure assessment, statistical methods exist for estimating the usual intake distribution from daily intake data. These methods transform the dietary intake data to normal observations, eliminate the within-person variance, and then back-transform the data to the original scale. We propose Gaussian Quadrature (GQ), a numerical integration method, as an efficient way of back-transformation. We compare GQ with six published methods. One method uses a log-transformation, while the other methods, including GQ, use a Box-Cox transformation. This study shows that, for various parameter choices, the methods with a Box-Cox transformation estimate the theoretical usual intake distributions quite well, although one method, a Taylor approximation, is less accurate. Two applications--on folate intake and fruit consumption--confirmed these results. In one extreme case, some methods, including GQ, could not be applied for low percentiles. We solved this problem by modifying GQ. One method is based on the assumption that the daily intakes are log-normally distributed. Even if this condition is not fulfilled, the log-transformation performs well as long as the within-individual variance is small compared to the mean. We conclude that the modified GQ is an efficient, fast and accurate method for estimating the usual intake distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Digital quadrature phase detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  1. Multilevel quadrature of elliptic PDEs with log-normal diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Harbrecht, Helmut

    2015-01-07

    We apply multilevel quadrature methods for the moment computation of the solution of elliptic PDEs with lognormally distributed diffusion coefficients. The computation of the moments is a difficult task since they appear as high dimensional Bochner integrals over an unbounded domain. Each function evaluation corresponds to a deterministic elliptic boundary value problem which can be solved by finite elements on an appropriate level of refinement. The complexity is thus given by the number of quadrature points times the complexity for a single elliptic PDE solve. The multilevel idea is to reduce this complexity by combining quadrature methods with different accuracies with several spatial discretization levels in a sparse grid like fashion.

  2. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-01-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node

  3. Robust structural optimization using Gauss-type quadrature formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seog; Chen, Shikui; Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    In robust design, the mean and variance of design performance are frequently used to measure the design performance and its robustness under uncertainties. In this paper, we present the Gauss-type quadrature formula as a rigorous method for mean and variance estimation involving arbitrary input distributions and further extend its use to robust design optimization. One dimensional Gauss-type quadrature formula are constructed from the input probability distributions and utilized in the construction of multidimensional quadrature formula such as the Tensor Product Quadrature (TPQ) formula and the Univariate Dimension Reduction (UDR) method. To improve the efficiency of using it for robust design optimization, a semi-analytic design sensitivity analysis with respect to the statistical moments is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a simple bench mark problems and robust topology optimization of structures considering various types of uncertainty.

  4. Robust structural optimization using Gauss-type quadrature formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seog [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Shikui; Chen, Wei [Northwestern University, Illinois (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In robust design, the mean and variance of design performance are frequently used to measure the design performance and its robustness under uncertainties. In this paper, we present the Gauss-type quadrature formula as a rigorous method for mean and variance estimation involving arbitrary input distributions and further extend its use to robust design optimization. One dimensional Gauss-type quadrature formula are constructed from the input probability distributions and utilized in the construction of multidimensional quadrature formula such as the Tensor Product Quadrature (TPQ) formula and the Univariate Dimension Reduction (UDR) method. To improve the efficiency of using it for robust design optimization, a semi-analytic design sensitivity analysis with respect to the statistical moments is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a simple bench mark problems and robust topology optimization of structures considering various types of uncertainty.

  5. Robust Structural Optimization Using Gauss-type Quadrature Formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seog; Chen, Shikui; Chen, Wei [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    In robust design, the mean and variance of design performance are frequently used to measure the design performance and its robustness under uncertainties. In this paper, we present the Gauss-type quadrature formula as a rigorous method for mean and variance estimation involving arbitrary input distributions and further extend its use to robust design optimization. One dimensional Gauss-type quadrature formula are constructed from the input probability distributions and utilized in the construction of multidimensional quadrature formula such as the tensor product quadrature (TPQ) formula and the univariate dimension reduction (UDR) method. To improve the efficiency of using it for robust design optimization, a semi-analytic design sensitivity analysis with respect to the statistical moments is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a simple bench mark problems and robust topology optimization of structures considering various types of uncertainty.

  6. Robust Structural Optimization Using Gauss-type Quadrature Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seog; Chen, Shikui; Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    In robust design, the mean and variance of design performance are frequently used to measure the design performance and its robustness under uncertainties. In this paper, we present the Gauss-type quadrature formula as a rigorous method for mean and variance estimation involving arbitrary input distributions and further extend its use to robust design optimization. One dimensional Gauss-type quadrature formula are constructed from the input probability distributions and utilized in the construction of multidimensional quadrature formula such as the tensor product quadrature (TPQ) formula and the univariate dimension reduction (UDR) method. To improve the efficiency of using it for robust design optimization, a semi-analytic design sensitivity analysis with respect to the statistical moments is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a simple bench mark problems and robust topology optimization of structures considering various types of uncertainty

  7. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  8. A direct hybrid SN method for slab-geometry lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Davi J.M.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Zani, Jose H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we describe a hybrid direct method for calculating the thermal disadvantage factor and the neutron flux distribution in fuel-moderator lattices. For the mathematical model, we use the one-speed slab-geometry discrete ordinates (S N ) transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering. The basic idea is to use higher order angular quadrature set in the highly absorbing fuel region (S NF ) and lower order angular quadrature set in the diffusive moderator region (S NM ) , i.e., N F > N M . We apply special continuity conditions based on the equivalence of the S N and P N-1 equations, which characterize the hybrid model. Numerical results to a typical model problem are given to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the offered hybrid method. (author)

  9. A direct hybrid S{sub N} method for slab-geometry lattice calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Davi J.M.; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Modelagem Computacional; Zani, Jose H. [Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Ciencia da Computacao

    2011-07-01

    In this work we describe a hybrid direct method for calculating the thermal disadvantage factor and the neutron flux distribution in fuel-moderator lattices. For the mathematical model, we use the one-speed slab-geometry discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering. The basic idea is to use higher order angular quadrature set in the highly absorbing fuel region (S{sub NF}) and lower order angular quadrature set in the diffusive moderator region (S{sub NM}) , i.e., N{sub F} > N{sub M}. We apply special continuity conditions based on the equivalence of the S{sub N} and P{sub N-1} equations, which characterize the hybrid model. Numerical results to a typical model problem are given to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the offered hybrid method. (author)

  10. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 2001 Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  11. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  12. Quadrature interferometry for plasma density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warthen, B.J.; Shlachter, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A quadrature interferometer has been used routinely in several pulsed power experiments to measure the line-averaged electron density. The optical source is a 30 mW, continuous wave Nd-YAG laser operating at 1,300 nm. The light is coupled directly to an optical fiber and split into reference and scene beams with a fiber splitter. The scene beam is transported to and from the plasma using single mode optical fibers up to 100 m in length. To simplify alignment through the plasma, the authors have used GRIN lenses on both the launch and receive sides of the single pass transmission diagnostic where this is possible. The return beam passes through a half-wave plate which is used to compensate for polarization rotation associated with slow (hour) time scale drift in the single mode fibers. The reference beam is sent through a quarter-wave plate to produce circular polarization; mixing of the reference and scene beams is accomplished using a non-polarizing beam splitter, and the interference signals are focused into additional fibers which relay the light to fast photodiodes. The quadrature optics allow for an unambiguous determination of the slope of the density changes at inflection points. All of the beam processing optics are located on a stable optical table which is remote and protected from the experiment. Final setup of the interferometer is facilitated by looking at the Lissajous figure generated from the two quadrature components. The authors have used this interferometer to diagnose the background density in the Pegasus-II power flow channel, to study the plasma plume generated in foil implosion experiments, to measure the plasma blowoff during implosions, and to understand the plasma formation mechanism in a fusion target plasma system

  13. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximum entropy estimation via Gauss-LP quadratures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thély, Maxime; Sutter, Tobias; Mohajerin Esfahani, P.; Lygeros, John; Dochain, Denis; Henrion, Didier; Peaucelle, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    We present an approximation method to a class of parametric integration problems that naturally appear when solving the dual of the maximum entropy estimation problem. Our method builds up on a recent generalization of Gauss quadratures via an infinite-dimensional linear program, and utilizes a

  15. New harmonic materials: index engineering. Thin-thick quadrature frequency conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-01-01

    The quadrature conversion scheme is a method of generating the second harmonic. The scheme, which uses two crystals in series, has several advantages over single-crystal or other two crystal schemes. The most important is that it is capable of high conversion efficiency over a large dynamic range of drive intensity and detuning angle. Consider a pair of KDP crystals cut for type-II phase matching. In the quadrature scheme, the optic axes of the crystals are arranged so that the plans containing the direction of the laser beam and their optic axes (the kz planes) are mutually perpendicular. This arrangement has two important properties. First, in type-II phase matching, the incident wave is polarized at 45 deg to the kz plane of the crystal. This, in the quadrature scheme, if the incident wave is correctly polarized for efficient conversion in the first crystal, it is also correctly polarized for efficient conversion in the second crystal. Both crystals can therefore convert efficiently

  16. Analysis of Differential Quadrature Method on Wind Turbine Tower Free Vibration%风电机组塔架自由振动的微分求积法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清波; 陈婷

    2013-01-01

    塔架结构的振动,不仅会引起塔架的附加应力,影响其结构强度,而且还会影响风轮的变形和振动,从而影响其性能。因此,在风电机组的设计中,必须分析计算风力引起的塔架结构动力学问题。本文介绍了微分求积法原理,使用该方法求解了风电机组锥筒型塔架的固有频率,并与其它数值方法求解的结果进行了对比,结果表明,微分求积法原理简单,计算量小,精度较高,且易于在计算机上实现。%Te vibration of wind turbine tower structure can not only cause the additional stress of the tower, afect the structural strength, but also afect the deformation and vibration of the wind turbine rotor, which afects its performance. Terefore, the analysis and calculation of the wind turbine tower structure dynamics caused by the wind shall be taken into account in the design of the wind turbine. Te principle of the diferential quadrature method has been introduced in this paper. Te natural frequency of the taper cylinder tower has been computed by this method. Numerical results from this approach are compared with other numerical methods. It is shown that the principle of differential quadrature method is simple, and its computation efficiency is higher, accuracy, and easy to implement on computer.

  17. Power flow control using quadrature boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanandan, Sandeep N.

    A power system that can be controlled within security constraints would be an advantage to power planners and real-time operators. Controlling flows can lessen reliability issues such as thermal limit violations, power stability problems, and/or voltage stability conditions. Control of flows can also mitigate market issues by reducing congestion on some lines and rerouting power to less loaded lines or onto preferable paths. In the traditional control of power flows, phase shifters are often used. More advanced methods include using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers. Some examples include Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, Synchronous Series Static Compensators, and Unified Power Flow Controllers. Quadrature Boosters (QBs) have similar structures to phase-shifters, but allow for higher voltage magnitude during real power flow control. In comparison with other FACTS controllers QBs are not as complex and not as expensive. The present study proposes to use QBs to control power flows on a power system. With the inclusion of QBs, real power flows can be controlled to desired scheduled values. In this thesis, the linearized power flow equations used for power flow analysis were modified for the control problem. This included modifying the Jacobian matrix, the power error vector, and calculating the voltage injected by the quadrature booster for the scheduled real power flow. Two scenarios were examined using the proposed power flow control method. First, the power flow in a line in a 5-bus system was modified with a QB using the method developed in this thesis. Simulation was carried out using Matlab. Second, the method was applied to a 30-bus system and then to a 118-bus system using several QBs. In all the cases, the calculated values of the QB voltages led to desired power flows in the designated line.

  18. Nonclassical Orthogonal Polynomials and Corresponding Quadratures

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, H; Alt, E O; Matveenko, A V

    2004-01-01

    We construct nonclassical orthogonal polynomials and calculate abscissas and weights of Gaussian quadrature for arbitrary weight and interval. The program is written by Mathematica and it works if moment integrals are given analytically. The result is a FORTRAN subroutine ready to utilize the quadrature.

  19. Direct integration multiple collision integral transport analysis method for high energy fusion neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new analysis method specially suited for the inherent difficulties of fusion neutronics was developed to provide detailed studies of the fusion neutron transport physics. These studies should provide a better understanding of the limitations and accuracies of typical fusion neutronics calculations. The new analysis method is based on the direct integration of the integral form of the neutron transport equation and employs a continuous energy formulation with the exact treatment of the energy angle kinematics of the scattering process. In addition, the overall solution is analyzed in terms of uncollided, once-collided, and multi-collided solution components based on a multiple collision treatment. Furthermore, the numerical evaluations of integrals use quadrature schemes that are based on the actual dependencies exhibited in the integrands. The new DITRAN computer code was developed on the Cyber 205 vector supercomputer to implement this direct integration multiple-collision fusion neutronics analysis. Three representative fusion reactor models were devised and the solutions to these problems were studied to provide suitable choices for the numerical quadrature orders as well as the discretized solution grid and to understand the limitations of the new analysis method. As further verification and as a first step in assessing the accuracy of existing fusion-neutronics calculations, solutions obtained using the new analysis method were compared to typical multigroup discrete ordinates calculations

  20. Direct methods in protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, J

    1989-11-01

    It is pointed out that the 'direct methods' of phase determination for small-structure crystallography do not have immediate applicability to macromolecular structures. The term 'direct methods in macromolecular crystallography' is suggested to categorize a spectrum of approaches to macromolecular structure determination in which the analyses are characterized by the use of two-phase and higher-order-phase invariants. The evaluation of the invariants is generally obtained by the use of heavy-atom techniques. The results of a number of the more recent algebraic and probabilistic studies involving isomorphous replacement and anomalous dispersion thus become valid subjects for discussion here. These studies are described and suggestions are also presented concerning future applicability. Additional discussion concerns the special techniques of filtering, the use of non-crystallographic symmetry, some features of maximum entropy and attempts to apply phase-determining formulas to the refinement of macromolecular structure. It is noted that, in addition to the continuing remarkable progress in macromolecular crystallography based on the traditional applications of isomorphous replacement and anomalous dispersion, recent valuable advances have been made in the application of non-crystallographic symmetry, in particular, to virus structures and in applications of filtering. Good progress has also been reported in the application of exact linear algebra to multiple-wavelength anomalous-dispersion investigations of structures containing anomalous scatterers of only moderate scattering power.

  1. High-Order Quadratures for the Solution of Scattering Problems in Two Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Ran; Rokhlin, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    .... The scheme is based on the combination of high-order quadrature formulae, fast application of integral operators in Lippmann-Schwinger equations, and the stabilized biconjugate gradient method (BI-CGSTAB...

  2. Development and implementation of a set of numerical quadratures SQN and EQN type in the transport code AZTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepe P, M.; Xolocostli M, J. V.; Gomez T, A. M.; Del Valle G, E.

    2015-09-01

    The deterministic transport codes for analysis of nuclear reactors have been used for several years already, these codes have evolved in terms of the methodology used and the degree of accuracy, because at the present time has more computer power. In this paper, the transport code used considers the classical technique of multi-group for discretization energy, for space discretization uses the nodal methods, while for the angular discretization the discrete ordinates method is used; so that presents the development and implementation of a set of numerical quadratures of SQ N type symmetrical with the same weight for each angular direction and these are compared with the quadratures of EQ N type. The two sets of numerical quadratures were implemented in the program AZTRAN to a problem with isotropic medium in XYZ geometry, in steady state using the nodal method RTN-0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec). The analyzed results correspond to the effective multiplication factor k eff and neutron angular flux with approximations from S 4 to S 16 . (Author)

  3. LTSN solution of the adjoint neutron transport equation with arbitrary source for high order of quadrature in a homogeneous slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Glenio A.; Orengo, Gilberto; Vilhena, Marco Tullio M.B. de; Graca, Claudio O.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we present the LTS N solution of the adjoint transport equation for an arbitrary source, testing the aptness of this analytical solution for high order of quadrature in transport problems and comparing some preliminary results with the ANISN computations in a homogeneneous slab geometry. In order to do that we apply the new formulation for the LTS N method based on the invariance projection property, becoming possible to handle problems with arbitrary sources and demanding high order of quadrature or deep penetration. This new approach for the LTS N method is important both for direct and adjoint transport calculations and its development was inspired by the necessity of using generalized adjoint sources for important calculations. Although the mathematical convergence has been proved for an arbitrary source, when the quadrature order or deep penetration is required the LTS N method presents computational overflow even for simple sources (sin, cos, exp, polynomial). With the new formulation we eliminate this drawback and in this work we report the numerical simulations testing the new approach

  4. Quadrature theory the theory of numerical integration on a compact interval

    CERN Document Server

    Brass, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Every book on numerical analysis covers methods for the approximate calculation of definite integrals. The authors of this book provide a complementary treatment of the topic by presenting a coherent theory of quadrature methods that encompasses many deep and elegant results as well as a large number of interesting (solved and open) problems. The inclusion of the word "theory" in the title highlights the authors' emphasis on analytical questions, such as the existence and structure of quadrature methods and selection criteria based on strict error bounds for quadrature rules. Systematic analyses of this kind rely on certain properties of the integrand, called "co-observations," which form the central organizing principle for the authors' theory, and distinguish their book from other texts on numerical integration. A wide variety of co-observations are examined, as a detailed understanding of these is useful for solving problems in practical contexts. While quadrature theory is often viewed as a branch of nume...

  5. Fast and Accurate Computation of Gauss--Legendre and Gauss--Jacobi Quadrature Nodes and Weights

    KAUST Repository

    Hale, Nicholas

    2013-03-06

    An efficient algorithm for the accurate computation of Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Jacobi quadrature nodes and weights is presented. The algorithm is based on Newton\\'s root-finding method with initial guesses and function evaluations computed via asymptotic formulae. The n-point quadrature rule is computed in O(n) operations to an accuracy of essentially double precision for any n ≥ 100. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Fast and Accurate Computation of Gauss--Legendre and Gauss--Jacobi Quadrature Nodes and Weights

    KAUST Repository

    Hale, Nicholas; Townsend, Alex

    2013-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for the accurate computation of Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Jacobi quadrature nodes and weights is presented. The algorithm is based on Newton's root-finding method with initial guesses and function evaluations computed via asymptotic formulae. The n-point quadrature rule is computed in O(n) operations to an accuracy of essentially double precision for any n ≥ 100. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. Application of Gauss quadratures to the calculation of resolved resonance contribution in multigroup cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A program (RESQ) based on quadratures that evaluates, from ENDF/B data, the resolved resonance contribution in group-averaged cross sections (capture, fission and scattering) was developed. Single and Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters are accepted. Constant weighting function and zero Kelvin were considered. To assure convergence, different quadrature orders may be analysed. Results are compared with other codes' reconstruction and integration methods. (author) [pt

  8. Quadrature demodulation based circuit implementation of pulse stream for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoupeng, Song; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Converting ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream is the key step of finite rate of innovation (FRI) sparse sampling. At present, ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming techniques are mainly based on digital algorithms. No hardware circuit that can achieve it has been reported. This paper proposes a new quadrature demodulation (QD) based circuit implementation method for forming an ultrasonic pulse stream. Elaborating on FRI sparse sampling theory, the process of ultrasonic signal is explained, followed by a discussion and analysis of ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming methods. In contrast to ultrasonic signal envelope extracting techniques, a quadrature demodulation method (QDM) is proposed. Simulation experiments were performed to determine its performance at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The circuit was then designed, with mixing module, oscillator, low pass filter (LPF), and root of square sum module. Finally, application experiments were carried out on pipeline sample ultrasonic flaw testing. The experimental results indicate that the QDM can accurately convert ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream, and reverse the original signal information, such as pulse width, amplitude, and time of arrival. This technique lays the foundation for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling directly with hardware circuitry. (paper)

  9. Two integrator loop quadrature oscillators: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the two integrator loop oscillator circuits providing two quadrature sinusoidal output voltages is given. All the circuits considered employ the minimum number of capacitors namely two except one circuit which uses three capacitors. The circuits considered are classified to four different classes. The first class includes floating capacitors and floating resistors and the active building blocks realizing these circuits are the Op Amp or the OTRA. The second class employs grounded capacitors and includes floating resistors and the active building blocks realizing these circuits are the DCVC or the unity gain cells or the CFOA. The third class employs grounded capacitors and grounded resistors and the active building blocks realizing these circuits are the CCII. The fourth class employs grounded capacitors and no resistors and the active building blocks realizing these circuits are the TA. Transformation methods showing the generation of different classes from each other is given in details and this is one of the main objectives of this paper.

  10. Quarter-Sweep Iteration Concept on Conjugate Gradient Normal Residual Method via Second Order Quadrature - Finite Difference Schemes for Solving Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruchunan, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined the effectiveness of the quarter-sweep iteration concept on conjugate gradient normal residual (CGNR) iterative method by using composite Simpson's (CS) and finite difference (FD) discretization schemes in solving Fredholm integro-differential equations. For comparison purposes, Gauss- Seidel (GS) and the standard or full- and half-sweep CGNR methods namely FSCGNR and HSCGNR are also presented. To validate the efficacy of the proposed method, several analyses were carried out such as computational complexity and percentage reduction on the proposed and existing methods. (author)

  11. A three-dimensional layerwise-differential quadrature free vibration analysis of laminated cylindrical shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Boushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics in Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.ir; Farid, M. [Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics in Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedinejad, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    A mixed layerwise theory and differential quadrature (DQ) method (LW-DQ) for three-dimensional free vibration analysis of arbitrary laminated circular cylindrical shells is introduced. Using the layerwise theory in conjunction with the three-dimensional form of Hamilton's principle, the transversely discretized equations of motion and the related boundary conditions are obtained. Then, the DQ method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial directions. The fast convergence behavior of the method is demonstrated and its accuracy is verified by comparing the results with those of other shell theories obtained using conventional methods and also with those of ANSYS software. In the case of arbitrary laminated shells with simply supported ends, the exact solution is developed for comparison purposes. It is shown that using few DQ grid points, converged accurate solutions are obtained. Less computational efforts of the proposed approach with respect to ANSYS software is shown.

  12. On the computational efficiency of isogeometric methods for smooth elliptic problems using direct solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: We compare the computational efficiency of isogeometric Galerkin and collocation methods for partial differential equations in the asymptotic regime. We define a metric to identify when numerical experiments have reached this regime. We then apply these ideas to analyze the performance of different isogeometric discretizations, which encompass C0 finite element spaces and higher-continuous spaces. We derive convergence and cost estimates in terms of the total number of degrees of freedom and then perform an asymptotic numerical comparison of the efficiency of these methods applied to an elliptic problem. These estimates are derived assuming that the underlying solution is smooth, the full Gauss quadrature is used in each non-zero knot span and the numerical solution of the discrete system is found using a direct multi-frontal solver. We conclude that under the assumptions detailed in this paper, higher-continuous basis functions provide marginal benefits.

  13. On the computational efficiency of isogeometric methods for smooth elliptic problems using direct solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2014-09-17

    SUMMARY: We compare the computational efficiency of isogeometric Galerkin and collocation methods for partial differential equations in the asymptotic regime. We define a metric to identify when numerical experiments have reached this regime. We then apply these ideas to analyze the performance of different isogeometric discretizations, which encompass C0 finite element spaces and higher-continuous spaces. We derive convergence and cost estimates in terms of the total number of degrees of freedom and then perform an asymptotic numerical comparison of the efficiency of these methods applied to an elliptic problem. These estimates are derived assuming that the underlying solution is smooth, the full Gauss quadrature is used in each non-zero knot span and the numerical solution of the discrete system is found using a direct multi-frontal solver. We conclude that under the assumptions detailed in this paper, higher-continuous basis functions provide marginal benefits.

  14. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. Quadrature representation of finite element variational forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the conventional run-time quadrature approach for the numerical integration of local element tensors associated with finite element variational forms, and in particular automated optimizations that can be performed to reduce the number of floating point operations...

  16. Prostate multimodality image registration based on B-splines and quadrature local energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-05-01

    Needle biopsy of the prostate is guided by Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) imaging. The TRUS images do not provide proper spatial localization of malignant tissues due to the poor sensitivity of TRUS to visualize early malignancy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive for the detection of early stage malignancy, and therefore, a novel 2D deformable registration method that overlays pre-biopsy MRI onto TRUS images has been proposed. The registration method involves B-spline deformations with Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) as the similarity measure computed from the texture images obtained from the amplitude responses of the directional quadrature filter pairs. Registration accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by computing the Dice Similarity coefficient (DSC) and 95% Hausdorff Distance (HD) values for 20 patients prostate mid-gland slices and Target Registration Error (TRE) for 18 patients only where homologous structures are visible in both the TRUS and transformed MR images. The proposed method and B-splines using NMI computed from intensities provide average TRE values of 2.64 ± 1.37 and 4.43 ± 2.77 mm respectively. Our method shows statistically significant improvement in TRE when compared with B-spline using NMI computed from intensities with Student's t test p = 0.02. The proposed method shows 1.18 times improvement over thin-plate splines registration with average TRE of 3.11 ± 2.18 mm. The mean DSC and the mean 95% HD values obtained with the proposed method of B-spline with NMI computed from texture are 0.943 ± 0.039 and 4.75 ± 2.40 mm respectively. The texture energy computed from the quadrature filter pairs provides better registration accuracy for multimodal images than raw intensities. Low TRE values of the proposed registration method add to the feasibility of it being used during TRUS-guided biopsy.

  17. A Differential Quadrature Procedure with Regularization of the Dirac-delta Function for Numerical Solution of Moving Load Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Eftekhari

    Full Text Available AbstractThe differential quadrature method (DQM is one of the most elegant and efficient methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations arising in engineering and applied sciences. It is simple to use and also straightforward to implement. However, the DQM is well-known to have some difficulty when applied to partial differential equations involving singular functions like the Dirac-delta function. This is caused by the fact that the Dirac-delta function cannot be directly discretized by the DQM. To overcome this difficulty, this paper presents a simple differential quadrature procedure in which the Dirac-delta function is replaced by regularized smooth functions. By regularizing the Dirac-delta function, such singular function is treated as non-singular functions and can be easily and directly discretized using the DQM. To demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it is applied here to solve some moving load problems of beams and rectangular plates, where the location of the moving load is described by a time-dependent Dirac-delta function. The results generated by the proposed method are compared with analytical and numerical results available in the literature. Numerical results reveal that the proposed method can be used as an efficient tool for dynamic analysis of beam- and plate-type structures traversed by moving dynamic loads.

  18. Uniform Gauss-Weight Quadratures for Discrete Ordinate Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, John F.; Hu, Kai; Zamonsky, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    Recently, a uniform equal-weight quadrature set, UE n , and a uniform Gauss-weight quadrature set, UG n , have been derived. These quadratures have the advantage over the standard level-symmetric LQ n quadrature sets in that the weights are positive for all orders,and the transport solution may be systematically converged by increasing the order of the quadrature set. As the order of the quadrature is increased,the points approach a uniform continuous distribution on the unit sphere,and the quadrature is invariant with respect to spatial rotations. The numerical integrals converge for continuous functions as the order of the quadrature is increased.The numerical characteristics of the UE n quadrature set have been investigated previously. In this paper, numerical calculations are performed to evaluate the application of the UG n quadrature set in typical transport analyses. A series of DORT transport calculations of the >1-MeV neutron flux have been performed for a set of pressure-vessel fluence benchmark problems. These calculations employed the UG n (n = 8, 12, 16, 24, and 32) quadratures and indicate that the UG n solutions have converged to within ∼0.25%. The converged UG n solutions are found to be comparable to the UE n results and are more accurate than the level-symmetric S 16 predictions

  19. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  20. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Peter J., E-mail: peter.spence@awe.co.uk

    2015-09-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  1. Novel Random Mutagenesis Method for Directed Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful strategy for gene mutagenesis, and has been used for protein engineering both in scientific research and in the biotechnology industry. The routine method for directed evolution was developed by Stemmer in 1994 (Stemmer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 10747-10751, 1994; Stemmer, Nature 370, 389-391, 1994). Since then, various methods have been introduced, each of which has advantages and limitations depending upon the targeted genes and procedure. In this chapter, a novel alternative directed evolution method which combines mutagenesis PCR with dITP and fragmentation by endonuclease V is described. The kanamycin resistance gene is used as a reporter gene to verify the novel method for directed evolution. This method for directed evolution has been demonstrated to be efficient, reproducible, and easy to manipulate in practice.

  2. Disentangling Complexity in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gheorghe; Adam, Sanda

    2018-02-01

    The paper describes a Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature (BAAQ) solution for numerical integration which is simultaneously robust, reliable, and efficient. Detailed discussion is provided of three main factors which contribute to the enhancement of these features: (1) refinement of the m-panel automatic adaptive scheme through the use of integration-domain-length-scale-adapted quadrature sums; (2) fast early problem complexity assessment - enables the non-transitive choice among three execution paths: (i) immediate termination (exceptional cases); (ii) pessimistic - involves time and resource consuming Bayesian inference resulting in radical reformulation of the problem to be solved; (iii) optimistic - asks exclusively for subrange subdivision by bisection; (3) use of the weaker accuracy target from the two possible ones (the input accuracy specifications and the intrinsic integrand properties respectively) - results in maximum possible solution accuracy under minimum possible computing time.

  3. Multisite EPR oximetry from multiple quadrature harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R; Som, S; Johnson, D H; Zweier, J L; Kuppusamy, P; Potter, L C

    2012-01-01

    Multisite continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry using multiple quadrature field modulation harmonics is presented. First, a recently developed digital receiver is used to extract multiple harmonics of field modulated projection data. Second, a forward model is presented that relates the projection data to unknown parameters, including linewidth at each site. Third, a maximum likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is reported using an iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing multiple quadrature harmonics. The data modeling and processing are applicable for parametric lineshapes under nonsaturating conditions. Joint processing of multiple harmonics leads to 2-3-fold acceleration of EPR data acquisition. For demonstration in two spatial dimensions, both simulations and phantom studies on an L-band system are reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The circumscribed quadrature of professional ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Nello, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The circumscribed quadrature of professional ethics aimsto show the necessary shift from deontology to professional ethics, from deontological codes to ethical codes. While deontology and the deontological codes that materialise from it set their sights on professionals’ responsibilities, professional ethics and the ethical codes that should derive from it would set their sights on the professional act, on its successful performance. In this way, the stress comes to be placed not only on the ...

  5. Technique for comparing automatic quadrature routines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J N; Kaganove, J J

    1976-02-01

    The present unconstrained proliferation of automatic quadrature routines is a phenomenon which is wasteful in human time and computing resources. At the root of the problem is an absence of generally acceptable standards or benchmarks for comparing or evaluating such routines. In this paper a general technique, based on the nature of the performance profile, is described which can be used for evaluation of routines.

  6. On Sensitivity of Gauss-Christoffel Quadrature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    O'Leary, D.P.; Strakoš, Zdeněk; Tichý, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2007), s. 147-174 ISSN 0029-599X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Grant - others:NSF(US) CCR -0204084; NSF(US) CCF-0514213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Gauss-Christoffel quadrature * sensitivity * moments Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.376, year: 2007

  7. Single quadrature duplication and transparent taps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ajung

    2004-01-01

    The concept of single quadrature duplication, which is the process of producing two outputs with the same homodyne detecting statistics as an input, is addressed. This device has important potential application to optical communications as a transparent optical tap in a local area network environment. The characteristics of the device are examined, and a realization scheme employing a coupler and phase-sensitive amplifiers is proposed

  8. Low-Latitude Solar Wind During the Fall 1998 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Biesecker, D. A.; Esser, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Ko, Y.-K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOH0)-Ulysses quadratures occur when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses-included angle is 90 deg. These offer the opportunity to directly compare properties of plasma parcels, observed by SOHO [Dorningo et al.] in the low corona, with properties of the same parcels measured, in due time, in situ, by Ulysses [ Wenzel et al]. We refer the reader to Suess et al. for an extended discussion of SOHO-Ulysses quadrature geometry. Here it suffices to recall that there are two quadratures per year, as SOHO makes its one-year revolution around the Sun. This, because SOHO is at the L1 Lagrangian point, in essentially the same place as the Earth, while Ulysses is in a near-polar -5-year solar orbit with a perihelion of 1.34 AU and aphelion of 5.4 AU.

  9. Enhancing Scalability of Sparse Direct Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoye S.; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Gu, Ming; Xia, Jianlin; Jardin, Steve; Sovinec, Carl; Lee, Lie-Quan

    2007-01-01

    TOPS is providing high-performance, scalable sparse direct solvers, which have had significant impacts on the SciDAC applications, including fusion simulation (CEMM), accelerator modeling (COMPASS), as well as many other mission-critical applications in DOE and elsewhere. Our recent developments have been focusing on new techniques to overcome scalability bottleneck of direct methods, in both time and memory. These include parallelizing symbolic analysis phase and developing linear-complexity sparse factorization methods. The new techniques will make sparse direct methods more widely usable in large 3D simulations on highly-parallel petascale computers

  10. Directional dual-tree rational-dilation complex wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbes, Gorkem; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2014-01-01

    Dyadic discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been used successfully in processing signals having non-oscillatory transient behaviour. However, due to the low Q-factor property of their wavelet atoms, the dyadic DWT is less effective in processing oscillatory signals such as embolic signals (ESs). ESs are extracted from quadrature Doppler signals, which are the output of Doppler ultrasound systems. In order to process ESs, firstly, a pre-processing operation known as phase filtering for obtaining directional signals from quadrature Doppler signals must be employed. Only then, wavelet based methods can be applied to these directional signals for further analysis. In this study, a directional dual-tree rational-dilation complex wavelet transform, which can be applied directly to quadrature signals and has the ability of extracting directional information during analysis, is introduced.

  11. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  12. Integrated source of broadband quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Nielsen, Bo Melholt; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    An integrated silicon nitride resonator is proposed as an ultracompact source of bright single-mode quadrature squeezed light at 850 nm. Optical properties of the device are investigated and tailored through numerical simulations, with particular attention paid to loss associated with interfacing...... the device. An asymmetric double layer stack waveguide geometry with inverse vertical tapers is proposed for efficient and robust fibre-chip coupling, yielding a simulated total loss of -0.75 dB/facet. We assess the feasibility of the device through a full quantum noise analysis and derive the output...

  13. Direct Discrete Method for Neutronic Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Akbar Salehi, Ali; Shahriari, Majid

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a new direct method for neutronic calculations. This method which is named Direct Discrete Method, is simpler than the neutron Transport equation and also more compatible with physical meaning of problems. This method is based on physic of problem and with meshing of the desired geometry, writing the balance equation for each mesh intervals and with notice to the conjunction between these mesh intervals, produce the final discrete equations series without production of neutron transport differential equation and mandatory passing from differential equation bridge. We have produced neutron discrete equations for a cylindrical shape with two boundary conditions in one group energy. The correction of the results from this method are tested with MCNP-4B code execution. (authors)

  14. 17th century arguments for the impossibility of the indefinite and the definite circle quadrature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The classical problem of the quadrature (or equivalently the rectification) of the circle enjoyed a renaissance in the second half of the 17th century. The new analytic methods provided the means for the discovery of infinite expressions of and for the first attempts to prove impossibility statem...

  15. Sets of Fourier coefficients using numerical quadrature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyness, J. N.

    2001-01-01

    One approach to the calculation of Fourier trigonometric coefficients f(r) of a given function f(x) is to apply the trapezoidal quadrature rule to the integral representation f(r)=(line i ntegral)(sub 0)(sup 1) f(x)e(sup -2(pi)irx)dx. Some of the difficulties in this approach are discussed. A possible way of overcoming many of these is by means of a subtraction function. Thus, one sets f(x)= h(sub p-1)(x)+ g(sub p)(x), where h(sub -1)(x) is an algebraic polynomial of degree p-1, specified in such a way that the Fourier series of g(sub p)(x) converges more rapidly than that of f(x). To obtain the Fourier coefficients of f(x), one uses an analytic expression for those of h(sub p-1)(x) and numerical quadrature to approximately those of g(sub p)(x)

  16. A Direct Method of Hamiltonian Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Chen Dengyuan; Su Shuhua

    2011-01-01

    A direct method of constructing the Hamiltonian structure of the soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources is proposed through computing the functional derivative under some constraints. The Hamiltonian functional is related with the conservation densities of the corresponding hierarchy. Three examples and their two reductions are given. (general)

  17. Nonlinear analysis of a cross-coupled quadrature harmonic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic equations governing the cross-coupled quadrature harmonic oscillator are derived assuming quasi-sinusoidal operation. This allows for an investigation of the previously reported tradeoff between close-to-carrier phase noise and quadrature precision. The results explain how nonlinearity...

  18. Single-quadrature continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    Most continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes are based on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states followed by continuous quadrature detection using homodyne detectors. In all previous schemes, the Gaussian modulation has been carried out in conjugate quadratures thus requiring two...... commercialization of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, provided that the low noise requirement can be achieved....

  19. Direct methods for determining internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.

    1985-01-01

    The direct methods of investigation on body content of radionuclides emitting gamma rays with energies higher than 100 KeV are described. After a short review of the earlier methods, the main technical charateristics of the present used whole body counters and counting geometries are described together with the calibration methods. Qualitative and quantitative data interpretation are also briefly discussed. The minimum detectable activity and the Derived Investigation Levels at different times from the intake both by ingestion or by inhalation as aerosol are finally compared for some radionuclides of great importance in the health physic survey

  20. Correlated quadratures of resonance fluorescence and the generalized uncertainty relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldus, Henk F.; George, Thomas F.; Gross, Rolf W. F.

    1994-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence from a two-state atom has been predicted to exhibit quadrature squeezing below the Heisenberg uncertainty limit, provided that the optical parameters (Rabi frequency, detuning, laser linewidth, etc.) are chosen carefully. When the correlation between two quadratures of the radiation field does not vanish, however, the Heisenberg limit for quantum fluctuations might be an unrealistic lower bound. A generalized uncertainty relation, due to Schroedinger, takes into account the possible correlation between the quadrature components of the radiation, and it suggests a modified definition of squeezing. We show that the coherence between the two levels of a laser-driven atom is responsible for the correlation between the quadrature components of the emitted fluorescence, and that the Schrodinger uncertainty limit increases monotonically with the coherence. On the other hand, the fluctuations in the quadrature field diminish with an increasing coherence, and can disappear completely when the coherence reaches 1/2, provided that certain phase relations hold.

  1. Arbitrary quadratures determination of the monoenergetic neutron density in an homogeneous finite sphere with isotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez G, J.

    2015-09-01

    The solution of the so-called Canonical problems of neutron transport theory has been given by Case, who developed a method akin to the classical eigenfunction expansion procedure, extended to admit singular eigenfunctions. The solution is given as a set consisting of a Fredholm integral equation coupled with a transcendental equation, which has to be solved for the expansion coefficients by iteration. CASE's method make extensive use of the results of the theory of functions of a complex variable and many successful approaches to solve in an approximate form the above mentioned set have been reported in the literature. We present here an entirely different approach which deals with the canonical problems in a more direct and elementary manner. As far as we know, the original idea for the latter method is due to Carlvik who devised the escape probability approximation to the solution of the neutron transport equation in its integral form. In essence, the procedure consists in assuming a sectionally constant form of the neutron density that in turn yields a set of linear algebraic equations obeyed by the assumed constant values of the density. Very well established techniques of numerical analysis for the solution of integral equations consist in independent approaches that generalize the sectionally constant approach by assuming a sectionally low degree polynomial for the unknown function. This procedure also known as the arbitrary quadratures method is especially suited to deal with cases where the kernel of the integral equation is singular. The author wishes to present the results obtained with the arbitrary quadratures method for the numerical calculation of the monoenergetic neutron density in a critical, homogeneous sphere of finite radius with isotropic scattering. The singular integral equation obeyed by the neutron density in the critical sphere is introduced, an outline of the method's main features is given, and tables and graphs of the density

  2. Arbitrary quadratures determination of the monoenergetic neutron density in an homogeneous finite sphere with isotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, J., E-mail: julian.sanchez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The solution of the so-called Canonical problems of neutron transport theory has been given by Case, who developed a method akin to the classical eigenfunction expansion procedure, extended to admit singular eigenfunctions. The solution is given as a set consisting of a Fredholm integral equation coupled with a transcendental equation, which has to be solved for the expansion coefficients by iteration. CASE's method make extensive use of the results of the theory of functions of a complex variable and many successful approaches to solve in an approximate form the above mentioned set have been reported in the literature. We present here an entirely different approach which deals with the canonical problems in a more direct and elementary manner. As far as we know, the original idea for the latter method is due to Carlvik who devised the escape probability approximation to the solution of the neutron transport equation in its integral form. In essence, the procedure consists in assuming a sectionally constant form of the neutron density that in turn yields a set of linear algebraic equations obeyed by the assumed constant values of the density. Very well established techniques of numerical analysis for the solution of integral equations consist in independent approaches that generalize the sectionally constant approach by assuming a sectionally low degree polynomial for the unknown function. This procedure also known as the arbitrary quadratures method is especially suited to deal with cases where the kernel of the integral equation is singular. The author wishes to present the results obtained with the arbitrary quadratures method for the numerical calculation of the monoenergetic neutron density in a critical, homogeneous sphere of finite radius with isotropic scattering. The singular integral equation obeyed by the neutron density in the critical sphere is introduced, an outline of the method's main features is given, and tables and graphs of the density

  3. Quadrature measurements of a bright squeezed state via sideband swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.; Glockl, O.; Leuchs, G.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of an arbitrary quadrature of a bright quantum state of light is a commonly requested action in many quantum information protocols, but it is experimentally challenging with previously proposed schemes. We suggest that the quadrature be measured at a specific sideband frequency...... of a bright quantum state by transferring the sideband modes under interrogation to a vacuum state and subsequently measuring the quadrature via homodyne detection. The scheme is implemented experimentally, and it is successfully tested with a bright squeezed state of light....

  4. EDM 1.0: electron direct methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaas, R; Marks, L D; Own, C S

    2005-02-01

    A computer program designed to provide a number of quantitative analysis tools for high-resolution imaging and electron diffraction data is described. The program includes basic image manipulation, both real space and reciprocal space image processing, Wiener-filtering, symmetry averaging, methods for quantification of electron diffraction patterns and two-dimensional direct methods. The program consists of a number of sub-programs written in a combination of C++, C and Fortran. It can be downloaded either as GNU source code or as binaries and has been compiled and verified on a wide range of platforms, both Unix based and PC's. Elements of the design philosophy as well as future possible extensions are described.

  5. Modulator-free quadrature amplitude modulation signal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixin; Kakande, Joseph; Kelly, Brian; O'Carroll, John; Phelan, Richard; Richardson, David J.; Slavík, Radan

    2014-12-01

    The ability to generate high-speed on-off-keyed telecommunication signals by directly modulating a semiconductor laser’s drive current was one of the most exciting prospective applications of the nascent field of laser technology throughout the 1960s. Three decades of progress led to the commercialization of 2.5 Gbit s-1-per-channel submarine fibre optic systems that drove the growth of the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp associated with direct modulation forced industry to use external electro-optic modulators to deliver the next generation of on-off-keyed 10 Gbit s-1 systems and is absolutely prohibitive for today’s (>)100 Gbit s-1 coherent systems, which use complex modulation formats (for example, quadrature amplitude modulation). Here we use optical injection locking of directly modulated semiconductor lasers to generate complex modulation format signals showing distinct advantages over current and other currently researched solutions.

  6. Herriott Cell Augmentation of a Quadrature Heterodyne Interferometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A quadrature heterodyne interferometer is augmented with a Herriott Cell multi-pass reflector to increase instrument resolution and enable a separation of the phase shift due to neutral density from room vibrations...

  7. Load Insensitive, Low Voltage Quadrature Oscillator Using Single Active Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a load insensitive quadrature oscillator using single differential voltage dual-X second generation current conveyor operated at low voltage is proposed. The proposed circuit employs single active element, three grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed oscillator offers two load insensitive quadrature current outputs and three quadrature voltage outputs simultaneously. Effects of non-idealities along with the effects of parasitic are further studied. The proposed circuit enjoys the feature of low active and passive sensitivities. Additionally, a resistorless realization of the proposed quadrature oscillator is also explored. Simulation results using PSPICE program on cadence tool using 90 nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process parameters confirm the validity and practical utility of the proposed circuit.

  8. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V.; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We consider first type-II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators, but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave mixing cavity in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of ...

  9. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We first consider Type II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave-mixing cavity, in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity, complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of the parameter values.

  10. Quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Propagating quadrature squeezed light through a multiple scattering random medium is found to induce pronounced spatial quantum correlations that have no classical analogue. The correlations are revealed in the number of photons transported through the sample that can be measured from the intensity...... fluctuations of the total transmission or reflection. In contrast, no pronounced spatial quantum correlations appear in the quadrature amplitudes where excess noise above the shot noise level is found....

  11. Harmonic Differential Quadrature Analysis of Soft-Core Sandwich Panels under Locally Distributed Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structures are widely used in practice and thus various engineering theories adopting simplifying assumptions are available. However, most engineering theories of beams, plates and shells cannot recover all stresses accurately through their constitutive equations. Therefore, the soft-core is directly modeled by two-dimensional (2D elasticity theory without any pre-assumption on the displacement field. The top and bottom faces act like the elastic supports on the top and bottom edges of the core. The differential equations of the 2D core are then solved by the harmonic differential quadrature method (HDQM. To circumvent the difficulties in dealing with the locally distributed load by point discrete methods such as the HDQM, a general and rigorous way is proposed to treat the locally distributed load. Detailed formulations are provided. The static behavior of sandwich panels under different locally distributed loads is investigated. For verification, results are compared with data obtained by ABAQUS with very fine meshes. A high degree of accuracy on both displacement and stress has been observed.

  12. direct method of analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate direct

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This work evaluates the static analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate with various the static analysis ... method according to Ritz is used to obtain the total potential energy of the plate by employing the used to ..... for rectangular plates analysis, as the behavior of the ... results obtained by previous research work that used.

  13. Accurate and efficient quadrature for volterra integral equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knirk, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Four quadrature schemes were tested and compared in considerable detail to determine their usefulness in the noniterative integral equation method for single-channel quantum-mechanical calculations. They are two forms of linear approximation (trapezoidal rule) and two forms of quadratic approximation (Simpson's rule). Their implementation in this method is shown, a formal discussion of error propagation is given, and tests are performed to determine actual operating characteristics on various bound and scattering problems in different potentials. The quadratic schemes are generally superior to the linear ones in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The previous implementation of Simpson's rule is shown to possess an inherent instability which requires testing on each problem for which it is used to assure its reliability. The alternative quadratic approximation does not suffer this deficiency, but still enjoys the advantages of higher order. In addition, the new scheme obeys very well an h 4 Richardson extrapolation, whereas the old one does so rather poorly. 6 figures, 11 tables

  14. Effective potentials in nonlinear polycrystals and quadrature formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Claude; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a family of estimates for effective potentials in nonlinear polycrystals. Noting that these potentials are given as averages, several quadrature formulae are investigated to express these integrals of nonlinear functions of local fields in terms of the moments of these fields. Two of these quadrature formulae reduce to known schemes, including a recent proposition (Ponte Castañeda 2015 Proc. R. Soc. A 471, 20150665 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2015.0665)) obtained by completely different means. Other formulae are also reviewed that make use of statistical information on the fields beyond their first and second moments. These quadrature formulae are applied to the estimation of effective potentials in polycrystals governed by two potentials, by means of a reduced-order model proposed by the authors (non-uniform transformation field analysis). It is shown how the quadrature formulae improve on the tangent second-order approximation in porous crystals at high stress triaxiality. It is found that, in order to retrieve a satisfactory accuracy for highly nonlinear porous crystals under high stress triaxiality, a quadrature formula of higher order is required.

  15. Direct measurement of tritium in urine by liquid scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caihong; Wen Qinghua; Chen Kefei; Li Huaixin

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces the method for direct measurement of tritium concentration in urine using liquid scintillation. Effects of sampling containers, store patterns and storage time are studied. Meanwhile, results of two methods are compared with direct measurement method and oxidation distillation method. The results shows that direct measurement method is a economic and simple method, which can meet the need of determination of urine tritium for NPP workers. There is no significant difference compared with the data obtained by oxidation distillation method

  16. Stability by Liapunov's direct methods with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salle, Joseph La

    1961-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  17. A new Gauss quadrature for multicentre integrals over STOs in the Gaussian integral transform approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouferguene, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    When computing multicentre integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs) by means of the Shavitt and Karplus Gaussian integral transforms (Shavitt and Karplus 1962 J. Chem. Phys. 36 550), one usually ends up with a multiple integral of the form ∫ 0 1 du ∫ 0 1 dv ...∫ 0 ∞ dz F(u, v, ..., z) (Shavitt and Karplus 1965 J. Chem. Phys. 43 398) in which all the integrals are inter-related. The most widely used approach for computing such an integral is to apply a product of Gauss-Legendre quadratures for the integrals over [0, 1] while the semi-infinite term is evaluated by a special procedure. Although numerous approaches have been developed to accurately perform the integration over [0, ∞) efficiently, it is the aim of this work to add a new tool that could be of some benefit in carrying out the hard task of multicentre integrals over STOs. The new approach relies on a special Gauss quadrature referred to as Gauss-Bessel to accurately evaluate the semi-infinite integral of interest. In this work, emphasis is put on accuracy rather than efficiency since its aim is essentially to bring a proof of concept showing that Gauss-Bessel quadrature can successfully be applied in the context of multicentre integrals over STOs. The obtained accuracy is comparable to that obtained with other methods available in the literature

  18. All-Pass Filter Based Linear Voltage Controlled Quadrature Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushick Mathur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear voltage controlled quadrature oscillator implemented from a first-order electronically tunable all-pass filter (ETAF is presented. The active element is commercially available current feedback amplifier (AD844 in conjunction with the relatively new Multiplication Mode Current Conveyor (MMCC device. Electronic tunability is obtained by the control node voltage (V of the MMCC. Effects of the device nonidealities, namely, the parasitic capacitors and the roll-off poles of the port-transfer ratios of the device, are shown to be negligible, even though the usable high-frequency ranges are constrained by these imperfections. Subsequently the filter is looped with an electronically tunable integrator (ETI to implement the quadrature oscillator (QO. Experimental responses on the voltage tunable phase of the filter and the linear-tuning law of the quadrature oscillator up to 9.9 MHz at low THD are verified by simulation and hardware tests.

  19. Self-calibrating quadrature mixing front-end for SDR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available by modeling the effect of the two lowpass filters (LPFs) of the quadrature modulator. Let HI,M (f) and HQ,M (f) denote the frequency-domain representa- tions of the I and Q channels’ LPFs, respectively. If the in- phase and quadrature components of a... to be frequency independent to a first-order approximation, for a certain LO frequency [4], [6]. We may thus write the complex oscillator signal of the modulator xM (t), with a gain imbalance of α and a phase error of φ radians, as xM (t) = α cos(2pifct + φ/2...

  20. Direct current power delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  1. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention

  2. Future directions in shielding methods and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.

    1987-01-01

    Over the nearly half century history of shielding against reactor radiation, there has been a see-saw battle between theory and measurement. During that period the capability and accuracy of calculational methods have been enormously improved. The microscopic cross sections needed as input to the theoretical computations are now also known to adequate accuracy (with certain exceptions). Nonetheless, there remain substantial classes of shielding problems not yet accessible to satisfactory computational methods, particularly where three-dimensional geometries are involved. This paper discusses promising avenues to approach such problems, especially in the light of recent and expected advances in supercomputers. In particular, it seems that Monte Carlo methods should be much more advantageous in the new computer environment than they have been in the past

  3. Direct methods for seismic profiling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleistein, N.; Cohen, J.K.; Hagin, F.G.

    1979-12-12

    A coordinated research program in inverse problems was concluded. The program evolved from formulation to analytical solution to implemented computer algorithms. There were two main lines of research in this program: a velocity inversion method, with application to seismic exploration, and a physical optics inverse scattering method for reflector mapping, with application to nondestructive evaluation. In each case, computer algorithms based on the theoretical results were tested on real or testbed data from the area of the cited application. Research goals of both a theoretical and practical nature were achieved. 34 figures.

  4. New uncertainties in QCD–QED rescaling factors using quadrature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mf ). This is true for heavier quarks ... mass scale down to the physical quark mass scale is parametrised by the QCD–. QED rescaling factors ηf ... It will be an important numerical exercise to estimate the uncertainties in ηf using the quadrature ...

  5. Generalization of the linear algebraic method to three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.L.; Schneider, B.I.

    1991-01-01

    We present a numerical method for the solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for electron-molecule collisions. By performing a three-dimensional numerical quadrature, this approach avoids both a basis-set representation of the wave function and a partial-wave expansion of the scattering potential. The resulting linear equations, analogous in form to the one-dimensional linear algebraic method, are solved with the direct iteration-variation method. Several numerical examples are presented. The prospect for using this numerical quadrature scheme for electron-polyatomic molecules is discussed

  6. Four New Applications of Second-Order Generalized Integrator Quadrature Signal Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Zhao, Rende; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    The Second-Order Generalized Integrator (SOGI) was used as a building block for the SOGI-Quadrature-Signal Generator (SOGI-QSG) which has been widely used for grid synchronization, frequency estimation, and harmonic extraction over the past decade. This paper further investigates its integration...... and differentiation characteristics, with four new integrators and differentiators proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed SOGI-QSG based integration and differentiation methods can effectively overcome the drawbacks of the pure integrator and differentiator. The proposed four new methods...

  7. Exponential characteristics spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates radiation transport in slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, K.; Sjoden, G.; Minor, B.

    1994-01-01

    The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport in slab geometry is derived and compared with current methods. It is similar to the linear characteristic (or, in slab geometry, the linear nodal) quadrature but differs by assuming an exponential distribution of the scattering source within each cell, S(x) = a exp(bx), whose parameters are root-solved to match the known (from the previous iteration) average and first moment of the source over the cell. Like the linear adaptive method, the exponential characteristic method is positive and nonlinear but more accurate and more readily extended to other cell shapes. The nonlinearity has not interfered with convergence. The authors introduce the ''exponential moment functions,'' a generalization of the functions used by Walters in the linear nodal method, and use them to avoid numerical ill-conditioning. The method exhibits O(Δx 4 ) truncation error on fine enough meshes; the error is insensitive to mesh size for coarse meshes. In a shielding problem, it is accurate to 10% using 16-mfp-thick cells; conventional methods err by 8 to 15 orders of magnitude. The exponential characteristic method is computationally more costly per cell than current methods but can be accurate with very thick cells, leading to increased computational efficiency on appropriate problems

  8. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Radial Alignment of 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During quadrature, plasma seen on the limb of the Sun, along the radi al direction to Ulysses, by SOHO or STEREO can be sampled in situ as lt later passes Ulysses. A figure shows a coronagraph image, the rad ial towards Ulysses at 58 deg. S. and the SOHO/UVCS slit positions d uring one set of observations. A CME subsequently occurred and passed Ulysses (at 3/4 AU) 15 days later.

  9. A New Second-Order Generalized Integrator Based Quadrature Signal Generator With Enhanced Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Qin, Zian; Lu, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Due to the simplicity and flexibility of the structure of the Second-Order Generalized Integrator based Quadrature Signal Generator (SOGI-QSG), it has been widely used over the past decade for many applications such as frequency estimation, grid synchronization, and harmonic extraction. However......, the SOGI-QSG will produce errors when its input signal contains a dc component or harmonic components with unknown frequencies. The accuracy of the signal detection methods using it may hence be compromised. To overcome the drawback, the First-Order System (FOS) concept is first used to illustrate...

  10. Direct methods for radionuclides measurement in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyaev, A.; Gaponov, I.; Kazennov, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the direct method of anthropogenic radionuclide measurement in the water environment. Opportunities of application of submersible gamma-spectrometers for in situ underwater measurements of gamma-radiating nuclides and also the direct method for 90 Sr detection are considered

  11. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method.

  12. Electronically Tunable Current-Mode Quadrature Oscillator Using Single MCDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified current differencing transconductance amlpifier (MCDTA and the MCDTA based quadrature oscillator. The oscillator is current-mode and provides current output from high output impedance terminals. The circuit uses only one MCDTA and two grounded capacitors, and is easy to be integrated. Its oscillation frequency can be tuned electronically by tuning bias currents of MCDTA. Finally, frequency error is analyzed. The results of circuit simulations are in agreement with theory.

  13. Free vibration analysis of multi directional functionally graded circular and annular plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermani, Iman Davoodi; Ghayour, Mostafa; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    This paper addresses the free vibration of multi directional functionally graded circular and annular plates using a semianalytical/numerical method, called state space based differential quadrature method. Three-dimensional elasticity equations are derived for multi directional functionally graded plates and a solution is given by the semi-analytical/numerical method. This method gives an analytical solution along the thickness direction, using a state space method and a numerical solution using differential quadrature method. Some numerical examples are presented to show the accuracy and convergence of the method. The most of simulations of the present study have been validated by the existing literature. The non dimensional frequencies and corresponding displacements mode shapes are obtained. Then the influences of thickness ratio and graded indexes are demonstrated on the non dimensional natural frequencies.

  14. Thin-plate spline quadrature of geodetic integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangysen, Herman

    1989-01-01

    Thin-plate spline functions (known for their flexibility and fidelity in representing experimental data) are especially well-suited for the numerical integration of geodetic integrals in the area where the integration is most sensitive to the data, i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the evaluation point. Spline quadrature rules are derived for the contribution of a circular innermost zone to Stoke's formula, to the formulae of Vening Meinesz, and to the recursively evaluated operator L(n) in the analytical continuation solution of Molodensky's problem. These rules are exact for interpolating thin-plate splines. In cases where the integration data are distributed irregularly, a system of linear equations needs to be solved for the quadrature coefficients. Formulae are given for the terms appearing in these equations. In case the data are regularly distributed, the coefficients may be determined once-and-for-all. Examples are given of some fixed-point rules. With such rules successive evaluation, within a circular disk, of the terms in Molodensky's series becomes relatively easy. The spline quadrature technique presented complements other techniques such as ring integration for intermediate integration zones.

  15. Quasi-quadrature interferometer for plasma density radial profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Hoffman, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A cw Mach Zehnder multichannel interferometer has been developed to measure time-dependent fractional fringe shifts with an accuracy of one-fortieth fringe. The design is quasi-quadrature in that known phase shifts, introduced in the reference beam, are time multiplexed with the normal reference beam. This technique requires only one detector per interferometer channel as compared to two detectors for most quadrature designs. The quadrature information makes the sense of density changes unambiguous, it automatically calibrates the instrument during the plasma event, and it makes fringe shift measurements virtually independent of fringe contrast fluctuations caused by plasma refractive and/or absorptive effects. The interferometer optical design is novel in that the electro-optic crystal used to introduce the 90 0 phase shifts is located in the common 2-mm-diam HeNe entrance beam to the interferometer, by exploiting polarization techniques, rather than in the expanded 1--2-cm reference beam itself. This arrangement greatly reduces the size, cost, and high-voltage requirements for the phase modulating crystal

  16. Development and implementation of a set of numerical quadratures SQ{sub N} and EQ{sub N} type in the transport code AZTRAN; Desarrollo e implementacion de un conjunto de cuadraturas numericas de tipo SQ{sub N} y EQ{sub N} en el codigo de transporte AZTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepe P, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Xolocostli M, J. V.; Gomez T, A. M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: liaison.web@gmail.com [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The deterministic transport codes for analysis of nuclear reactors have been used for several years already, these codes have evolved in terms of the methodology used and the degree of accuracy, because at the present time has more computer power. In this paper, the transport code used considers the classical technique of multi-group for discretization energy, for space discretization uses the nodal methods, while for the angular discretization the discrete ordinates method is used; so that presents the development and implementation of a set of numerical quadratures of SQ{sub N} type symmetrical with the same weight for each angular direction and these are compared with the quadratures of EQ{sub N} type. The two sets of numerical quadratures were implemented in the program AZTRAN to a problem with isotropic medium in XYZ geometry, in steady state using the nodal method RTN-0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec). The analyzed results correspond to the effective multiplication factor k{sub eff} and neutron angular flux with approximations from S{sub 4} to S{sub 16}. (Author)

  17. An efficient direct method for image registration of flat objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Dmitry; Tihonkih, Dmitrii; Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Image alignment of rigid surfaces is a rapidly developing area of research and has many practical applications. Alignment methods can be roughly divided into two types: feature-based methods and direct methods. Known SURF and SIFT algorithms are examples of the feature-based methods. Direct methods refer to those that exploit the pixel intensities without resorting to image features and image-based deformations are general direct method to align images of deformable objects in 3D space. Nevertheless, it is not good for the registration of images of 3D rigid objects since the underlying structure cannot be directly evaluated. In the article, we propose a model that is suitable for image alignment of rigid flat objects under various illumination models. The brightness consistency assumptions used for reconstruction of optimal geometrical transformation. Computer simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for computing of an accordance between pixels of two images.

  18. Computing complex Airy functions by numerical quadrature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIntegral representations are considered of solutions of the Airydifferential equation w''-z, w=0 for computing Airy functions for complex values of z.In a first method contour integral representations of the Airyfunctions are written as non-oscillating

  19. Multi-frequency direct sampling method in inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwoo; Lambert, Marc; Park, Won-Kwang

    2017-10-01

    We consider the direct sampling method (DSM) for the two-dimensional inverse scattering problem. Although DSM is fast, stable, and effective, some phenomena remain unexplained by the existing results. We show that the imaging function of the direct sampling method can be expressed by a Bessel function of order zero. We also clarify the previously unexplained imaging phenomena and suggest multi-frequency DSM to overcome traditional DSM. Our method is evaluated in simulation studies using both single and multiple frequencies.

  20. DOT-IV two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code with space-dependent mesh and quadrature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, W.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Childs, R.L.; Engle, W.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    DOT IV is designed to allow very large problems to be solved on a wide range of computers and memory arrangements. New flexibility in both space-mesh and directional-quadrature specification is allowed. For example, the radial mesh in an R-Z problem can vary with axial position. The directional quadrature can vary with both space and energy group. Several features improve performance on both deep penetration and criticality problems. The program has been checked and used extensively on several types of computers. All of the features have been insured operable except the following two, which must not be used: criticality searches and P/sub L/ variable by group or material. Diffusion theory problems must not use internal or external boundary sources, variable mesh, or variable quadrature. A diffusion iteration cannot produce internal boundary source output or ''angular flux tape.'' The P 1 module is very limited. The special geometries, INGEOM greater than or equal to 10, have not been completely checked and are not guaranteed. 7 figures, 1 table

  1. Advanced quadratures and periodic boundary conditions in parallel 3D Sn transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manalo, K.; Yi, C.; Huang, M.; Sjoden, G.

    2013-01-01

    Significant updates in numerical quadratures have warranted investigation with 3D Sn discrete ordinates transport. We show new applications of quadrature departing from level symmetric ( 2 o) and Pn-Tn (>S 2 o). investigating 3 recently developed quadratures: Even-Odd (EO), Linear-Discontinuous Finite Element - Surface Area (LDFE-SA), and the non-symmetric Icosahedral Quadrature (IC). We discuss implementation changes to 3D Sn codes (applied to Hybrid MOC-Sn TITAN and 3D parallel PENTRAN) that can be performed to accommodate Icosahedral Quadrature, as this quadrature is not 90-degree rotation invariant. In particular, as demonstrated using PENTRAN, the properties of Icosahedral Quadrature are suitable for trivial application using periodic BCs versus that of reflective BCs. In addition to implementing periodic BCs for 3D Sn PENTRAN, we implemented a technique termed 'angular re-sweep' which properly conditions periodic BCs for outer eigenvalue iterative loop convergence. As demonstrated by two simple transport problems (3-group fixed source and 3-group reflected/periodic eigenvalue pin cell), we remark that all of the quadratures we investigated are generally superior to level symmetric quadrature, with Icosahedral Quadrature performing the most efficiently for problems tested. (authors)

  2. A Modified Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.

    2002-01-01

    The alternating direction method is an attractive method for solving large-scale variational inequality problems whenever the subproblems can be solved efficiently. However, the subproblems are still variational inequality problems, which are as structurally difficult to solve as the original one. To overcome this disadvantage, in this paper we propose a new alternating direction method for solving a class of nonlinear monotone variational inequality problems. In each iteration the method just makes an orthogonal projection to a simple set and some function evaluations. We report some preliminary computational results to illustrate the efficiency of the method

  3. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman; Yokota, Rio; Ahmadia, Aron

    2012-01-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach

  4. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in directed graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Malene

    Directed graphical models present data possessing a complex dependence structure, and MCMC methods are computer-intensive simulation techniques to approximate high-dimensional intractable integrals, which emerge in such models with incomplete data. MCMC computations in directed graphical models h...

  5. Comparison of the direct enzyme assay method with the membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the direct enzyme assay method with the membrane filtration technique in the quantification and monitoring of microbial indicator organisms – seasonal variations in the activities of coliforms and E. coli, temperature and pH.

  6. A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi; Jin, Bangti; Zou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when

  7. A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi; Jin, Bangti; Zou, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based

  8. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  9. A procedure to correct the effects of a relative delay between the quadrature components of radar signals at base band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grydeland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The real and imaginary parts of baseband signals are obtained from a real narrow-band signal by quadrature mixing, i.e. by mixing with cosine and sine signals at the narrow band's selected center frequency. We address the consequences of a delay between the outputs of the quadrature mixer, which arise when digital samples of the quadrature baseband signals are not synchronised, i.e. when the real and imaginary components have been shifted by one or more samples with respect to each other. Through analytical considerations and simulations of such an error on different synthetic signals, we show how this error can be expected to afflict different measurements. In addition, we show the effect of the error on actual incoherent scatter radar data obtained by two different digital receiver systems used in parallel at the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. The analytical considerations indicate a procedure to correct the error, albeit with some limitations due to a small singular region. We demonstrate the correction procedure on actually afflicted data and compare the results to simultaneously acquired unafflicted data. We also discuss the possible data analysis strategies, including some that avoid dealing directly with the singular region mentioned above.

  10. Gauss-Galerkin quadrature rules for quadratic and cubic spline spaces and their application to isogeometric analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2016-07-21

    We introduce Gaussian quadrature rules for spline spaces that are frequently used in Galerkin discretizations to build mass and stiffness matrices. By definition, these spaces are of even degrees. The optimal quadrature rules we recently derived (Bartoň and Calo, 2016) act on spaces of the smallest odd degrees and, therefore, are still slightly sub-optimal. In this work, we derive optimal rules directly for even-degree spaces and therefore further improve our recent result. We use optimal quadrature rules for spaces over two elements as elementary building blocks and use recursively the homotopy continuation concept described in Bartoň and Calo (2016) to derive optimal rules for arbitrary admissible numbers of elements.We demonstrate the proposed methodology on relevant examples, where we derive optimal rules for various even-degree spline spaces. We also discuss convergence of our rules to their asymptotic counterparts, these are the analogues of the midpoint rule of Hughes et al. (2010), that are exact and optimal for infinite domains.

  11. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  12. Finite Element Quadrature of Regularized Discontinuous and Singular Level Set Functions in 3D Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ponara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Regularized Heaviside and Dirac delta function are used in several fields of computational physics and mechanics. Hence the issue of the quadrature of integrals of discontinuous and singular functions arises. In order to avoid ad-hoc quadrature procedures, regularization of the discontinuous and the singular fields is often carried out. In particular, weight functions of the signed distance with respect to the discontinuity interface are exploited. Tornberg and Engquist (Journal of Scientific Computing, 2003, 19: 527–552 proved that the use of compact support weight function is not suitable because it leads to errors that do not vanish for decreasing mesh size. They proposed the adoption of non-compact support weight functions. In the present contribution, the relationship between the Fourier transform of the weight functions and the accuracy of the regularization procedure is exploited. The proposed regularized approach was implemented in the eXtended Finite Element Method. As a three-dimensional example, we study a slender solid characterized by an inclined interface across which the displacement is discontinuous. The accuracy is evaluated for varying position of the discontinuity interfaces with respect to the underlying mesh. A procedure for the choice of the regularization parameters is proposed.

  13. A Detection Algorithm for the BOC Signal Based on Quadrature Channel Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of detecting a BOC signal, which uses a long-period pseudo random sequence, an algorithm is presented based on quadrature channel correlation. The quadrature channel correlation method eliminates the autocorrelation component of the carrier wave, allowing for the extraction of the absolute autocorrelation peaks of the BOC sequence. If the same lag difference and height difference exist for the adjacent peaks, the BOC signal can be detected effectively using a statistical analysis of the multiple autocorrelation peaks. The simulation results show that the interference of the carrier wave component is eliminated and the autocorrelation peaks of the BOC sequence are obtained effectively without demodulation. The BOC signal can be detected effectively when the SNR is greater than −12 dB. The detection ability can be improved further by increasing the number of sampling points. The higher the ratio of the square wave subcarrier speed to the pseudo random sequence speed is, the greater the detection ability is with a lower SNR. The algorithm presented in this paper is superior to the algorithm based on the spectral correlation.

  14. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-06-19

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention of any numerical solver and the rule is optimal, that is, it requires minimal number of nodes. Numerical experiments validating the theoretical results and the error estimates of the quadrature rules are also presented.

  15. Exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates radiation transport with rectangular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, B.; Mathews, K.

    1995-01-01

    The exponential characteristic (EC) spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport previously introduced in slab geometry is extended here to x-y geometry with rectangular cells. The method is derived and compared with current methods. It is similar to the linear characteristic (LC) quadrature (a linear-linear moments method) but differs by assuming an exponential distribution of the scattering source within each cell, S(x) = a exp(bx + cy), whose parameters are rootsolved to match the known (from the previous iteration) spatial average and first moments of the source over the cell. Similarly, EC assumes exponential distributions of flux along cell edges through which particles enter the cell, with parameters chosen to match the average and first moments of flux, as passed from the adjacent, upstream cells (or as determined by boundary conditions). Like the linear adaptive (LA) method, EC is positive and nonlinear. It is more accurate than LA and does not require subdivision of cells. The nonlinearity has not interfered with convergence. The exponential moment functions, which were introduced with the slab geometry method, are extended to arbitrary dimensions (numbers of arguments) and used to avoid numerical ill conditioning. As in slab geometry, the method approaches O(Δx 4 ) global truncation error on fine-enough meshes, while the error is insensitive to mesh size for coarse meshes. Performance of the method is compared with that of the step characteristic, LC, linear nodal, step adaptive, and LA schemes. The EC method is a strong performer with scattering ratios ranging from 0 to 0.9 (the range tested), particularly so for lower scattering ratios. As in slab geometry, EC is computationally more costly per cell than current methods but can be accurate with very thick cells, leading to increased computational efficiency on appropriate problems

  16. Effective quadrature formula in solving linear integro-differential equations of order two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkuvatov, Z. K.; Kammuji, M.; Long, N. M. A. Nik; Yunus, Arif A. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this note, we solve general form of Fredholm-Volterra integro-differential equations (IDEs) of order 2 with boundary condition approximately and show that proposed method is effective and reliable. Initially, IDEs is reduced into integral equation of the third kind by using standard integration techniques and identity between multiple and single integrals then truncated Legendre series are used to estimate the unknown function. For the kernel integrals, we have applied Gauss-Legendre quadrature formula and collocation points are chosen as the roots of the Legendre polynomials. Finally, reduce the integral equations of the third kind into the system of algebraic equations and Gaussian elimination method is applied to get approximate solutions. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods reveal that the proposed method is very effective and dominated others in many cases. General theory of existence of the solution is also discussed.

  17. Gaussian quadrature rules for C 1 quintic splines with uniform knot vectors

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Calo, Victor Manuel

    2017-01-01

    We provide explicit quadrature rules for spaces of C1C1 quintic splines with uniform knot sequences over finite domains. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids numerical solvers. Each rule is optimal, that is, requires the minimal number of nodes, for a given function space. For each of nn subintervals, generically, only two nodes are required which reduces the evaluation cost by 2/32/3 when compared to the classical Gaussian quadrature for polynomials over each knot span. Numerical experiments show fast convergence, as nn grows, to the “two-third” quadrature rule of Hughes et al. (2010) for infinite domains.

  18. Gaussian quadrature rules for C 1 quintic splines with uniform knot vectors

    KAUST Repository

    Bartoň, Michael

    2017-03-21

    We provide explicit quadrature rules for spaces of C1C1 quintic splines with uniform knot sequences over finite domains. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids numerical solvers. Each rule is optimal, that is, requires the minimal number of nodes, for a given function space. For each of nn subintervals, generically, only two nodes are required which reduces the evaluation cost by 2/32/3 when compared to the classical Gaussian quadrature for polynomials over each knot span. Numerical experiments show fast convergence, as nn grows, to the “two-third” quadrature rule of Hughes et al. (2010) for infinite domains.

  19. In-phase and quadrature imbalance modeling, estimation, and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yabo

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a unified IQ imbalance model and systematically reviews the existing estimation and compensation schemes. It covers the different assumptions and approaches that lead to many models of IQ imbalance. In wireless communication systems, the In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator and demodulator are usually used as transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), respectively. For Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) limited systems, such as multi-giga-hertz bandwidth millimeter-wave systems, using analog modulator and demodulator is still a low power and l

  20. Realization of Quadrature Signal Generator Using Accurate Magnitude Integrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Yoon, Changwoo; Zhao, Rende

    2016-01-01

    Second-Order Generalized Integrator based Quadrature Signal Generator (SOGI-QSG) has been widely used in single- or three-phase power converter systems due to its simplicity and flexibility. Howeever, its dynamic response is not onyl decided by its damping gain but also influences by the input...... of the AMI-QSG can thus be as simple as the typical FOS. Besides, the structure of the AMI-QSG is further configurated to be able to extract the dc component and harmonic components. The effectiveness of the proposed structures and the correctness of the theoretical analysis are evaluated by experimental...

  1. Orthogonal functions, discrete variable representation, and generalized gauss quadratures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    in the original representation. This has been exploited in bound-state, scattering, and time-dependent problems using the so-called, discrete variable representation (DVR). At the core of this approach is the mathematical three-term recursion relationship satisfied by the classical orthogonal functions...... functions, this is not the case. However, they may be computed in a stable numerical fashion, via the recursion. In essence, this is an application of the well-known Lanczos recursion approach. Once the recursion coefficients are known, it is possible to compute the points and weights of quadratures on...

  2. A direct simulation method for flows with suspended paramagnetic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, T.G.; Hulsen, M.A.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation method based on the Maxwell stress tensor and a fictitious domain method has been developed to solve flows with suspended paramagnetic particles. The numerical scheme enables us to take into account both hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between particles in a

  3. Comparison of direct and precipitation methods for the estimation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is increase in use of direct assays for analysis of high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol by clinical laboratories despite differences in performance characteristics with conventional precipitation methods. Calculation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in precipitation methods is based on total ...

  4. Unmanned aerial vehicle trajectory planning with direct methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Brian

    A real-time method for trajectory optimization to maximize surveillance time of a fixed or moving ground target by one or more unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented. The method accounts for performance limits of the aircraft, intrinsic properties of the camera, and external disturbances such as wind. Direct collocation with nonlinear programming is used to implement the method in simulation and onboard the Penn State/Applied Research Lab's testbed UAV. Flight test results compare well with simulation. Both stationary targets and moving targets, such as a low flying UAV, were successfully tracked in flight test. In addition, a new method using a neural network approximation is presented that removes the need for collocation and numerical derivative calculation. Neural networks are used to approximate the objective and dynamics functions in the optimization problem which allows for reduced computation requirements. The approximation reduces the size of the resulting nonlinear programming problem compared to direct collocation or pseudospectral methods. This method is shown to be faster than direct collocation and psuedospectral methods using numerical or automatic derivative techniques. The neural network approximation is also shown to be faster than analytical derivatives but by a lesser factor. Comparative results are presented showing similar accuracy for all methods. The method is modular and enables application to problems of the same class without network retraining.

  5. Design and implementation of quadrature bandpass sigma-delta modulator used in low-IF RF receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Binjie; Li, Yan; Yu, Hang; Feng, Xiaoxing

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of quadrature bandpass sigma-delta modulator. A pole movement method for transforming real sigma-delta modulator to a quadrature one is proposed by detailed study of the relationship of noise-shaping center frequency and integrator pole position in sigma-delta modulator. The proposed modulator uses sampling capacitor sharing switched capacitor integrator, and achieves a very small feedback coefficient by a series capacitor network, and those two techniques can dramatically reduce capacitor area. Quantizer output-dependent dummy capacitor load for reference voltage buffer can compensate signal-dependent noise that is caused by load variation. This paper designs a quadrature bandpass Sigma-Delta modulator for 2.4 GHz low IF receivers that achieve 69 dB SNDR at 1 MHz BW and -1 MHz IF with 48 MHz clock. The chip is fabricated with SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS technology, it achieves a total power current of 2.1 mA, and the chip area is 0.48 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61471245, U1201256), the Guangdong Province Foundation (No. 2014B090901031), and the Shenzhen Foundation (Nos. JCYJ20160308095019383, JSGG20150529160945187).

  6. CDBA-Based Universal Biquad Filter and Quadrature Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapong Tangsrirat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter and sinusoidal quadrature oscillator based on the use of current differencing buffered amplifiers (CDBAs as active components have been proposed in this paper. All the proposed configurations employ only two CDBAs and six passive components. The first proposed CDBA-based biquad configuration can realize all the standard types of the biquadratic functions, that is, lowpass, bandpass, highpass, bandstop, and allpass, from the same topology, and can also provide orthogonal tuning of the natural angular frequency (ωo and the bandwidth (BW through separate virtually grounded passive components. By slight modification of the first proposed configuration, the new CDBA-based sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is easily obtained. The oscillation condition and the oscillation frequency are independently adjustable by different virtually grounded resistors. The sensitivity analysis of all proposed circuit configurations is shown to be low. PSPICE simulations and experimental results based upon commercially available AD844-type CFAs are included, which confirm the workability of the proposed circuits.

  7. Stem cell monitoring with a direct or indirect labeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The molecular imaging techniques allow monitoring of the transplanted cells in the same individuals over time, from early localization to the survival, migration, and differentiation. Generally, there are two methods of stem cell labeling: direct and indirect labeling methods. The direct labeling method introduces a labeling agent into the cell, which is stably incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. Direct labeling of cells with radionuclides is a simple method with relatively fewer adverse events related to genetic responses. However, it can only allow short-term distribution of transplanted cells because of the decreasing imaging signal with radiodecay, according to the physical half-lives, or the signal becomes more diffuse with cell division and dispersion. The indirect labeling method is based on the expression of a reporter gene transduced into the cell before transplantation, which is then visualized upon the injection of an appropriate probe or substrate. In this review, various imaging strategies to monitor the survival and behavior change of transplanted stem cells are covered. Taking these new approaches together, the direct and indirect labeling methods may provide new insights on the roles of in vivo stem cell monitoring, from bench to bedside.

  8. A fast algorithm for forward-modeling of gravitational fields in spherical coordinates with 3D Gauss-Legendre quadrature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Liu, J.; Chen, B.; Guo, R.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Forward modeling of gravitational fields at large-scale requires to consider the curvature of the Earth and to evaluate the Newton's volume integral in spherical coordinates. To acquire fast and accurate gravitational effects for subsurface structures, subsurface mass distribution is usually discretized into small spherical prisms (called tesseroids). The gravity fields of tesseroids are generally calculated numerically. One of the commonly used numerical methods is the 3D Gauss-Legendre quadrature (GLQ). However, the traditional GLQ integration suffers from low computational efficiency and relatively poor accuracy when the observation surface is close to the source region. We developed a fast and high accuracy 3D GLQ integration based on the equivalence of kernel matrix, adaptive discretization and parallelization using OpenMP. The equivalence of kernel matrix strategy increases efficiency and reduces memory consumption by calculating and storing the same matrix elements in each kernel matrix just one time. In this method, the adaptive discretization strategy is used to improve the accuracy. The numerical investigations show that the executing time of the proposed method is reduced by two orders of magnitude compared with the traditional method that without these optimized strategies. High accuracy results can also be guaranteed no matter how close the computation points to the source region. In addition, the algorithm dramatically reduces the memory requirement by N times compared with the traditional method, where N is the number of discretization of the source region in the longitudinal direction. It makes the large-scale gravity forward modeling and inversion with a fine discretization possible.

  9. A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi

    2012-01-10

    In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when the measured data are only available for one or two incident directions. A mathematical derivation is provided for its validation. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented, which show that the method is accurate even with a few sets of scattered field data, computationally efficient, and very robust with respect to noises in the data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Direct sampling methods for inverse elastic scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xia; Liu, Xiaodong; Xi, Yingxia

    2018-03-01

    We consider the inverse elastic scattering of incident plane compressional and shear waves from the knowledge of the far field patterns. Specifically, three direct sampling methods for location and shape reconstruction are proposed using the different component of the far field patterns. Only inner products are involved in the computation, thus the novel sampling methods are very simple and fast to be implemented. With the help of the factorization of the far field operator, we give a lower bound of the proposed indicator functionals for sampling points inside the scatterers. While for the sampling points outside the scatterers, we show that the indicator functionals decay like the Bessel functions as the sampling point goes away from the boundary of the scatterers. We also show that the proposed indicator functionals continuously dependent on the far field patterns, which further implies that the novel sampling methods are extremely stable with respect to data error. For the case when the observation directions are restricted into the limited aperture, we firstly introduce some data retrieval techniques to obtain those data that can not be measured directly and then use the proposed direct sampling methods for location and shape reconstructions. Finally, some numerical simulations in two dimensions are conducted with noisy data, and the results further verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed sampling methods, even for multiple multiscale cases and limited-aperture problems.

  11. Sleep can eliminate list-method directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests a link between sleep and memory consolidation, indicating that sleep in comparison to wakefulness stabilizes memories. However, relatively little is known about how sleep affects forgetting. Here we examined whether sleep influences directed forgetting, the finding that people can intentionally forget obsolete memories when cued to do so. We applied the list-method directed forgetting task and assessed memory performance after 3 delay intervals. Directed forgetting was present after a short 20-min delay and after a 12-hr delay filled with diurnal wakefulness; in contrast, the forgetting was absent after a 12-hr delay that included regular nocturnal sleep. Successful directed forgetting after a delay thus can depend on whether sleep or wakefulness follows upon encoding: When wakefulness follows upon encoding, the forgetting can be successful; when sleep follows upon encoding, no forgetting may arise. Connections of the results to recent studies on the interplay between forgetting and sleep are discussed.

  12. Directed forgetting of complex pictures in an item method paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswald, Anne; Kissler, Johanna

    2008-11-01

    An item-cued directed forgetting paradigm was used to investigate the ability to control episodic memory and selectively encode complex coloured pictures. A series of photographs was presented to 21 participants who were instructed to either remember or forget each picture after it was presented. Memory performance was later tested with a recognition task where all presented items had to be retrieved, regardless of the initial instructions. A directed forgetting effect--that is, better recognition of "to-be-remembered" than of "to-be-forgotten" pictures--was observed, although its size was smaller than previously reported for words or line drawings. The magnitude of the directed forgetting effect correlated negatively with participants' depression and dissociation scores. The results indicate that, at least in an item method, directed forgetting occurs for complex pictures as well as words and simple line drawings. Furthermore, people with higher levels of dissociative or depressive symptoms exhibit altered memory encoding patterns.

  13. General n-dimensional quadrature transform and its application to interferogram demodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Manuel; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Marroquin, Jose Luis

    2003-05-01

    Quadrature operators are useful for obtaining the modulating phase phi in interferometry and temporal signals in electrical communications. In carrier-frequency interferometry and electrical communications, one uses the Hilbert transform to obtain the quadrature of the signal. In these cases the Hilbert transform gives the desired quadrature because the modulating phase is monotonically increasing. We propose an n-dimensional quadrature operator that transforms cos(phi) into -sin(phi) regardless of the frequency spectrum of the signal. With the quadrature of the phase-modulated signal, one can easily calculate the value of phi over all the domain of interest. Our quadrature operator is composed of two n-dimensional vector fields: One is related to the gradient of the image normalized with respect to local frequency magnitude, and the other is related to the sign of the local frequency of the signal. The inner product of these two vector fields gives us the desired quadrature signal. This quadrature operator is derived in the image space by use of differential vector calculus and in the frequency domain by use of a n-dimensional generalization of the Hilbert transform. A robust numerical algorithm is given to find the modulating phase of two-dimensional single-image closed-fringe interferograms by use of the ideas put forward.

  14. Novel IQ imbalance and offset compensation techniques for quadrature mixing radio transceivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advantages that quadrature mixing offers to radio front-ends, its practical use has been limited due to its sensitivity towards gain and phase mismatches between its in-phase and quadrature channels. DC offsets are also a problem when a...

  15. An Improved Second-Order Generalized Integrator Based Quadrature Signal Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei; Qin, Zian

    2016-01-01

    The second-order generalized integrator based quadrature signal generator (SOGI-QSG) is able to produce in-quadrature signals for many applications, such as frequency estimation, grid synchronization, and harmonic extraction. However, the SOGI-QSG is sensitive to input dc and harmonic components...

  16. Design of a quadrature surface coil for hyperpolarized 13C MRS cardiac metabolism studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Frijia, F.; Hartwig, V.

    2013-01-01

    , the performance of the quadrature coil was compared with the single TX/RX circular and TX/RX butterfly coil, in order to verify the advantage of the proposed configuration over the single coils throughout the volume of interest for cardiac imaging in pig. Finally, the quadrature surface coil was tested...

  17. A Sequential Quadratically Constrained Quadratic Programming Method of Feasible Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Jinbao; Hu Qingjie; Tang Chunming; Zheng Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a sequential quadratically constrained quadratic programming method of feasible directions is proposed for the optimization problems with nonlinear inequality constraints. At each iteration of the proposed algorithm, a feasible direction of descent is obtained by solving only one subproblem which consist of a convex quadratic objective function and simple quadratic inequality constraints without the second derivatives of the functions of the discussed problems, and such a subproblem can be formulated as a second-order cone programming which can be solved by interior point methods. To overcome the Maratos effect, an efficient higher-order correction direction is obtained by only one explicit computation formula. The algorithm is proved to be globally convergent and superlinearly convergent under some mild conditions without the strict complementarity. Finally, some preliminary numerical results are reported

  18. One directional polarized neutron reflectometry with optimized reference layer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad; Jahromi, Saeed S.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, several neutron reflectometry methods for determining the modulus and phase of the complex reflection coefficient of an unknown multilayer thin film have been worked out among which the method of variation of surroundings and reference layers are of highest interest. These methods were later modified for measurement of the polarization of the reflected beam instead of the measurement of the intensities. In their new architecture, these methods not only suffered from the necessity of change of experimental setup but also another difficulty was added to their experimental implementations. This deficiency was related to the limitations of the technology of the neutron reflectometers that could only measure the polarization of the reflected neutrons in the same direction as the polarization of the incident beam. As the instruments are limited, the theory has to be optimized so that the experiment could be performed. In a recent work, we developed the method of variation of surroundings for one directional polarization analysis. In this new work, the method of reference layer with polarization analysis has been optimized to determine the phase and modulus of the unknown film with measurement of the polarization of the reflected neutrons in the same direction as the polarization of the incident beam.

  19. Direct methods for surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, D. K.; Harder, R.; Shneerson, V. L.; Vogler, H.; Moritz, W.

    2000-01-01

    We develop of a direct method for surface X-ray diffraction that exploits the holographic feature of a known reference wave from the substrate. A Bayesian analysis of the optimal inference to be made from an incomplete data set suggests a maximum entropy algorithm that balances agreement with the data and other statistical considerations

  20. The linogram algorithm and direct fourier method with linograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edholm, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This text is an attempt to describe the linogram algorithm based on a somewhat simplified mathematical description of the algorithm which is also more similar to the actual digital implementation. Another algorithm with linograms, which may be called a direct fourier method is also presented. (K.A.E.)

  1. Calibration method for direct conversion receiver front-ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology induced process tolerances in analog circuits cause device characteristics different from specification. For direct conversion receiver front-ends a system level calibration method is presented. The malfunctions of the devices are compensated by tuning dominant circuit parameters. Thereto optimization techniques are applied which use measurement values and special evaluation functions.

  2. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-12-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5kHz and the scan frequency was 40kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2mM trityl OX63 in water, 15 N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5G partially-resolved proton

  3. A continuous exchange factor method for radiative exchange in enclosures with participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.H.N.; Chung, B.T.F.; Litkouhi, B.

    1987-01-01

    A continuous exchange factor method for analysis of radiative exchange in enclosures is developed. In this method two types of exchange functions are defined, direct exchange function and total exchange function. Certain integral equations relating total exchange functions to direct exchange functions are developed. These integral equations are solved using Gaussian quadrature integration method. The results obtained based on the present approach are found to be more accurate than those of the zonal method

  4. Gauss-Galerkin quadrature rules for quadratic and cubic spline spaces and their application to isogeometric analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Gaussian quadrature rules for spline spaces that are frequently used in Galerkin discretizations to build mass and stiffness matrices. By definition, these spaces are of even degrees. The optimal quadrature rules we recently derived

  5. Comparing Methods for Estimating Direct Costs of Adverse Drug Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Hakkarainen, Katja M; Svensson, Staffan; Hägg, Staffan; Rehnberg, Clas

    2017-12-01

    To estimate how direct health care costs resulting from adverse drug events (ADEs) and cost distribution are affected by methodological decisions regarding identification of ADEs, assigning relevant resource use to ADEs, and estimating costs for the assigned resources. ADEs were identified from medical records and diagnostic codes for a random sample of 4970 Swedish adults during a 3-month study period in 2008 and were assessed for causality. Results were compared for five cost evaluation methods, including different methods for identifying ADEs, assigning resource use to ADEs, and for estimating costs for the assigned resources (resource use method, proportion of registered cost method, unit cost method, diagnostic code method, and main diagnosis method). Different levels of causality for ADEs and ADEs' contribution to health care resource use were considered. Using the five methods, the maximum estimated overall direct health care costs resulting from ADEs ranged from Sk10,000 (Sk = Swedish krona; ~€1,500 in 2016 values) using the diagnostic code method to more than Sk3,000,000 (~€414,000) using the unit cost method in our study population. The most conservative definitions for ADEs' contribution to health care resource use and the causality of ADEs resulted in average costs per patient ranging from Sk0 using the diagnostic code method to Sk4066 (~€500) using the unit cost method. The estimated costs resulting from ADEs varied considerably depending on the methodological choices. The results indicate that costs for ADEs need to be identified through medical record review and by using detailed unit cost data. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman

    2012-06-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach to graph layout that treats the vertices V as repelling charged particles with the edges E connecting them acting as springs. Traditionally, the amount of work required in applying the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is O(|V|2 + |E|) using direct calculations and O(|V| log |V| + |E|) using truncation, filtering, and/or multi-level techniques. Correct application of the Fast Multipole Method allows us to maintain a lower complexity of O(|V| + |E|) while regaining most of the precision lost in other techniques. Solving layout problems for truly large graphs with millions of vertices still requires a scalable algorithm and implementation. We have been able to leverage the scalability and architectural adaptability of the ExaFMM library to create a Force-Directed Graph Layout implementation that runs efficiently on distributed multicore and multi-GPU architectures. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. The Direct Lighting Computation in Global Illumination Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyaw Allen

    1994-01-01

    Creating realistic images is a computationally expensive process, but it is very important for applications such as interior design, product design, education, virtual reality, and movie special effects. To generate realistic images, state-of-art rendering techniques are employed to simulate global illumination, which accounts for the interreflection of light among objects. In this document, we formalize the global illumination problem into a eight -dimensional integral and discuss various methods that can accelerate the process of approximating this integral. We focus on the direct lighting computation, which accounts for the light reaching the viewer from the emitting sources after exactly one reflection, Monte Carlo sampling methods, and light source simplification. Results include a new sample generation method, a framework for the prediction of the total number of samples used in a solution, and a generalized Monte Carlo approach for computing the direct lighting from an environment which for the first time makes ray tracing feasible for highly complex environments.

  8. A direction of developing a mining method and mining complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabov, V.V.; Efimov, I.A. [St. Petersburg State Mining Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Vorkuta Branch

    1996-12-31

    The analyses of a mining method as a main factor determining the development stages of mining units is presented. The paper suggests a perspective mining method which differs from the known ones by following peculiarities: the direction selectivity of cuts with regard to coal seams structure; the cutting speed, thickness and succession of dusts. This method may be done by modulate complexes (a shield carrying a cutting head for coal mining), their mining devices being supplied with hydraulic drive. An experimental model of the module complex has been developed. 2 refs.

  9. Quadrature entanglement and photon-number correlations accompanied by phase-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, H. H.; Manvelyan, S. B.; Adamyan, N. H.; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate quantum properties of phase-locked light beams generated in a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (NOPO) with an intracavity waveplate. This investigation continues our previous analysis presented in Phys. Rev. A 69, 053814 (2004), and involves problems of continuous-variable quadrature entanglement in the spectral domain, photon-number correlations as well as the signatures of phase-locking in the Wigner function. We study the role of phase-localizing processes on the quantum correlation effects. The peculiarities of phase-locked NOPO in the self-pulsing instability operational regime are also cleared up. The results are obtained in the P-representation as a quantum-mechanical calculation in the framework of stochastic equations of motion, as well as by numerical simulation based on the method of quantum state diffusion

  10. Quadrature Slotted Surface Coil Pair for Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 4 Tesla: Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solis S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A coil array was composed of two slotted surface coils forming a structure with two plates at 900, each one having 6 circular slots and is introduced in this paper. Numerical simulations of the magnetic field of this coil array were performed at 170 MHz using the finite element method to study its behaviour. This coil array was developed for brain magnetic resonance imaging to be operated at the resonant frequency of 170 MHz in the transceiver mode and quadrature driven. Numerical simulations demonstrated that electromagnetic interaction between the coil elements is negligible, and that the magnetic field showed a good uniformity. Phantom images were acquired with our coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. In vitro images showed the feasibility of this coil array for standard pulses and high field magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Orthogonal functions, discrete variable representation, and generalized gauss quadratures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    in the original representation. This has been exploited in bound-state, scattering, and time-dependent problems using the so-called, discrete variable representation (DVR). At the core of this approach is the mathematical three-term recursion relationship satisfied by the classical orthogonal functions......, the distinction between spectral and grid approaches becomes blurred. In fact, the two approaches can be related by a similarity transformation. By the exploitation of this idea, calculations can be considerably simplified by removing the need to compute difficult matrix elements of the Hamiltonian...... functions, this is not the case. However, they may be computed in a stable numerical fashion, via the recursion. In essence, this is an application of the well-known Lanczos recursion approach. Once the recursion coefficients are known, it is possible to compute the points and weights of quadratures on...

  12. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, John [Shoreham, NY; Whittle, Edward J [Greenport, NY

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  13. Method for observing phase objects without halos and directional shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshimasa; Kajitani, Kazuo; Ohde, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    A new microscopy method for observing phase objects without halos and directional shadows is proposed. The key optical element is an annular aperture at the front focal plane of a condenser with a larger diameter than those used in standard phase contrast microscopy. The light flux passing through the annular aperture is changed by the specimen's surface profile and then passes through an objective and contributes to image formation. This paper presents essential conditions for realizing the method. In this paper, images of colonies formed by induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using this method are compared with the conventional phase contrast method and the bright-field method when the NA of the illumination is small to identify differences among these techniques. The outlines of the iPS cells are clearly visible with this method, whereas they are not clearly visible due to halos when using the phase contrast method or due to weak contrast when using the bright-field method. Other images using this method are also presented to demonstrate a capacity of this method: a mouse ovum and superimposition of several different images of mouse iPS cells.

  14. Right to privacy and some methods of direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion constitutes part of the marketing mix which consists of advertising, sales support, public relations, personal sale and direct marketing. It may be stated that the law delimits boundaries to all these elements of the communication mix. In the following contribution I will only focus on some methods of direct marketing and I intend to investigate the “purposeful appeal to purchase and consumer behaviour of clients” as viewed by the present Czech law. These communications often disturb the privacy of individuals, harass in an inappropriate time, marketing companies often illegally collect and share customers’ personal information. My target is to list legal limits instituted in the sphere of direct marketing for the individual marketing practices by the Czech law.

  15. A gradient activation method for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guicheng; Yang, Zhaoyi; Halim, Martin; Li, Xinyang; Wang, Manxiang; Kim, Ji Young; Mei, Qiwen; Wang, Xindong; Lee, Joong Kee

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A gradient activation method was reported firstly for direct methanol fuel cells. • The activity recovery of Pt-based catalyst was introduced into the novel activation process. • The new activation method led to prominent enhancement of DMFC performance. • DMFC performance was improved with the novel activation step by step within 7.5 h. - Abstract: To realize gradient activation effect and recover catalytic activity of catalyst in a short time, a gradient activation method has firstly been proposed for enhancing discharge performance and perfecting activation mechanism of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). This method includes four steps, i.e. proton activation, activity recovery activation, H_2-O_2 mode activation and forced discharging activation. The results prove that the proposed method has gradually realized replenishment of water and protons, recovery of catalytic activity of catalyst, establishment of transfer channels for electrons, protons, and oxygen, and optimization of anode catalyst layer for methanol transfer in turn. Along with the novel activation process going on, the DMFC discharge performance has been improved, step by step, to more than 1.9 times higher than that of the original one within 7.5 h. This method provides a practicable activation way for the real application of single DMFCs and stacks.

  16. Application of Patterson-function direct methods to materials characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is a general description of the so-called Patterson-function direct methods (PFDM), from their origin to their present state. It covers a 20-year period of methodological contributions to crystal structure solution, most of them published in Acta Crystallographica Section A. The common feature of these variants of direct methods is the introduction of the experimental intensities in the form of the Fourier coefficients of origin-free Patterson-type functions, which allows the active use of both strong and weak reflections. The different optimization algorithms are discussed and their performances compared. This review focuses not only on those PFDM applications related to powder diffraction data but also on some recent results obtained with electron diffraction tomography data.

  17. Application of Patterson-function direct methods to materials characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rius

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a general description of the so-called Patterson-function direct methods (PFDM, from their origin to their present state. It covers a 20-year period of methodological contributions to crystal structure solution, most of them published in Acta Crystallographica Section A. The common feature of these variants of direct methods is the introduction of the experimental intensities in the form of the Fourier coefficients of origin-free Patterson-type functions, which allows the active use of both strong and weak reflections. The different optimization algorithms are discussed and their performances compared. This review focuses not only on those PFDM applications related to powder diffraction data but also on some recent results obtained with electron diffraction tomography data.

  18. Direct methods for limit states in structures and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Weichert, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the safety factor for limit states such as plastic collapse, low cycle fatigue or ratcheting is always a major design consideration for civil and mechanical engineering structures that are subjected to loads. Direct methods of limit or shakedown analysis that proceed to directly find the limit states offer a better alternative than exact time-stepping calculations as, on one hand, an exact loading history is scarcely known, and on the other they are much less time-consuming. This book presents the state of the art on various topics concerning these methods, such as theoretical advances in limit and shakedown analysis, the development of relevant algorithms and computational procedures, sophisticated modeling of inelastic material behavior like hardening, non-associated flow rules, material damage and fatigue, contact and friction, homogenization and composites.

  19. The present state and future directions of PDF methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.

  20. Gaussian quadrature for splines via homotopy continuation: Rules for C2 cubic splines

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-10-24

    We introduce a new concept for generating optimal quadrature rules for splines. To generate an optimal quadrature rule in a given (target) spline space, we build an associated source space with known optimal quadrature and transfer the rule from the source space to the target one, while preserving the number of quadrature points and therefore optimality. The quadrature nodes and weights are, considered as a higher-dimensional point, a zero of a particular system of polynomial equations. As the space is continuously deformed by changing the source knot vector, the quadrature rule gets updated using polynomial homotopy continuation. For example, starting with C1C1 cubic splines with uniform knot sequences, we demonstrate the methodology by deriving the optimal rules for uniform C2C2 cubic spline spaces where the rule was only conjectured to date. We validate our algorithm by showing that the resulting quadrature rule is independent of the path chosen between the target and the source knot vectors as well as the source rule chosen.

  1. Gaussian quadrature for splines via homotopy continuation: Rules for C2 cubic splines

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new concept for generating optimal quadrature rules for splines. To generate an optimal quadrature rule in a given (target) spline space, we build an associated source space with known optimal quadrature and transfer the rule from the source space to the target one, while preserving the number of quadrature points and therefore optimality. The quadrature nodes and weights are, considered as a higher-dimensional point, a zero of a particular system of polynomial equations. As the space is continuously deformed by changing the source knot vector, the quadrature rule gets updated using polynomial homotopy continuation. For example, starting with C1C1 cubic splines with uniform knot sequences, we demonstrate the methodology by deriving the optimal rules for uniform C2C2 cubic spline spaces where the rule was only conjectured to date. We validate our algorithm by showing that the resulting quadrature rule is independent of the path chosen between the target and the source knot vectors as well as the source rule chosen.

  2. Synthesise of Zn O nano wires by direct oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbod, M.; Ahangarpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Zn O is a semiconductor which has a direct and wide energy band which is about 3.37 eV at room temperature. It has various applications from UV lasers, sensitive sensors, solar cells to photo catalysis applications. Zn O has different nano structures such as nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes and nano belts. The one dimensional Zn O nano structures such as nano wires are very important because of their applications in nano electronics and nano photonics so different methods have been proposed to synthesize them. In this work large scale of Zn O nano wires are produced by direct oxidation a Zn substrate (which was cleaned by chemical methods) in air or oxygen atmosphere at 400 d eg C . Nano wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray measurements. Their diameter is about 30-150 nanometer and their length is about several micrometer. This method which acts without any catalyst is a convenient method to synthesis semiconductor nano wires.

  3. The method of modular characteristic direction probabilities in MPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning west road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Kochunas, B.; Collins, B.; Downar, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wu, H. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning west road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The method of characteristic direction probabilities (CDP) is based on a modular ray tracing technique which combines the benefits of the collision probability method (CPM) and the method of characteristics (MOC). This past year CDP was implemented in the transport code MPACT for 2-D and 3-D transport calculations. By only coupling the fine mesh regions passed by the characteristic rays in the particular direction, the scale of the probabilities matrix is much smaller compared to the CPM. At the same time, the CDP has the same capacity of dealing with the complicated geometries with the MOC, because the same modular ray tracing techniques are used. Results from the C5G7 benchmark problems are given for different cases to show the accuracy and efficiency of the CDP compared to MOC. For the cases examined, the CDP and MOC methods were seen to differ in k{sub eff} by about 1-20 pcm, and the computational efficiency of the CDP appears to be better than the MOC for some problems. However, in other problems, particularly when the CDP matrices have to be recomputed from changing cross sections, the CDP does not perform as well. This indicates an area of future work. (authors)

  4. Alternating direction transport sweeps for linear discontinuous SN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Aykanat, C.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of Alternating Direction Transport Sweep (ADTS) method is investigated for spatially differenced Linear Discontinuous S N (LD-S N ) problems on a MIMD multicomputer, Intel IPSC/2. The method consists of dividing a transport problem spatially into sub-problems, assigning each sub-problem to a separate processor. Then, the problem is solved by performing transport sweeps iterating on the scattering source and interface fluxes between the sub-problems. In each processor, the order of transport sweeps is scheduled such that a processor completing its computation in a quadrant of a transport sweep is able to use the most recent information (exiting fluxes of neighboring processor) as its incoming fluxes to start the next quadrant calculation. Implementation of this method on the Intel IPSC/2 multicomputer displays significant speedups over the one-processor method. Also, the performance of the method is compared with those reported previously for the Diamond Differenced S N (DD-S N ) method. Our experimental experience illustrates that the parallel performance of both the ADTS LD- and DD-S N methods is the same. (orig.)

  5. Fuel coolant interaction experiment by direct electrical heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo; Hirano, Kenmei

    1979-01-01

    In the PCM (Power Cooling Mismatch) experiments, the FCI (Fuel Coolant Interaction) test is one of necessary tests in order to predict various phenomena that occur during PCM in the core. A direct electrical heating method is used for the FCI tests for fuel pellet temperature of over 1000 0 C. Therefore, preheating is required before initiating the direct electrical heating. The fuel pin used in the FCI tests is typical LWR fuel element, which is surrounded by coolant water. It is undersirable to heat up the coolant water during preheating of the fuel pin. Therefore, a zirconia (ZrO 2 ) pellet which is similar to a UO 2 pellet in physical and chemical properties is used. Electric property (electric conductivity) of ZrO 2 is particularly suitable for direct electrical heating as in the case of UO 2 . In this experiment, ZrO 2 pellet (melting point 2500 0 C) melting was achieved by use of both preheating and direct electrical heating. Temperature changes of coolant and fuel surface, as well as the pressure change of coolant water, were measured. The molten fuel interacted with the coolant and generated shock waves. A portion of this molten fuel fragmented into small particles during this interaction. The peak pressure of the observed shock wave was about 35 bars. The damaged fuel pin was photographed after disassembly. This report shows the measured coolant pressure changes and the coolant temperature changes, as well as photographs of damaged fuel pin and fuel fragments. (author)

  6. Comparison of Rice Direct Seeding Methods (Mechanical and Manual with Transplanting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eyvani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main method of rice planting in Iran is transplanting. Due to poor mechanization of rice production, this method is laborious and costly. The other method is direct seeding in wet lands which is performed in the one third of rice cultivation area of the world. The most important problem in this method is high labor requirement of weed control. In order to compare the different rice planting methods (direct drilling, transplanting, and seed broadcasting a manually operated rice direct seeder (drum seeder was designed and fabricated. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three treatments and three replications. Required draft force, field efficiency, effective field capacity, yield, and yield components were measured and the treatments were compared economically. Results showed that there were significant differences among the treatments from the view point of rice yield at the confidence level of 95% i.e. the transplanting method had the maximum yield. A higher rice yield was obtained from the direct seeder compared to the manual broadcasting method but, the difference between these two methods for crop yield was not significant even at the confidence level of the 95%. The coefficient of variation of seed distribution with direct seeding was more than 20%. The labor and time requirements per hectare reduced to 7 and 20 times, respectively when comparing the newly designed direct seeder with the transplanting method. The direct seeding method had the highest benefit to cost ratio in spite of its lower yield. Therefore, this method could be recommended in the rice growing regions.

  7. NEW COMPLETENESS METHODS FOR ESTIMATING EXOPLANET DISCOVERIES BY DIRECT DETECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Robert A.; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We report on new methods for evaluating realistic observing programs that search stars for planets by direct imaging, where observations are selected from an optimized star list and stars can be observed multiple times. We show how these methods bring critical insight into the design of the mission and its instruments. These methods provide an estimate of the outcome of the observing program: the probability distribution of discoveries (detection and/or characterization) and an estimate of the occurrence rate of planets (η). We show that these parameters can be accurately estimated from a single mission simulation, without the need for a complete Monte Carlo mission simulation, and we prove the accuracy of this new approach. Our methods provide tools to define a mission for a particular science goal; for example, a mission can be defined by the expected number of discoveries and its confidence level. We detail how an optimized star list can be built and how successive observations can be selected. Our approach also provides other critical mission attributes, such as the number of stars expected to be searched and the probability of zero discoveries. Because these attributes depend strongly on the mission scale (telescope diameter, observing capabilities and constraints, mission lifetime, etc.), our methods are directly applicable to the design of such future missions and provide guidance to the mission and instrument design based on scientific performance. We illustrate our new methods with practical calculations and exploratory design reference missions for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) operating with a distant starshade to reduce scattered and diffracted starlight on the focal plane. We estimate that five habitable Earth-mass planets would be discovered and characterized with spectroscopy, with a probability of zero discoveries of 0.004, assuming a small fraction of JWST observing time (7%), η = 0.3, and 70 observing visits, limited by starshade fuel.

  8. A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based on an analysis of electromagnetic scattering and the behavior of the fundamental solution. It is applicable to a few incident fields and needs only to compute inner products of the measured scattered field with the fundamental solutions located at sampling points. Hence, it is strictly direct, computationally very efficient and highly robust to the presence of data noise. Two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments indicate that it can provide reliable support estimates for multiple scatterers in the case of both exact and highly noisy data. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  10. Alternating direction methods for classical and ptychographic phase retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zaiwen; Yang, Chao; Liu, Xin; Marchesini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the augmented Lagrangian alternating direction method (ADM) can be used to solve both the classical and ptychographic phase retrieval problems. We point out the connection between ADM and projection algorithms such as the hybrid input–output algorithm, and compare its performance against standard algorithms for phase retrieval on a number of test images. Our computational experiments show that ADM appears to be less sensitive to the choice of relaxation parameters, and it usually outperforms the existing techniques for both the classical and ptychographic phase retrieval problems. (paper)

  11. Direct numerical methods of mathematical modeling in mechanical structural design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahili, Jihad; Verchery, Georges; Ghaddar, Ahmad; Zoaeter, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Full text.Structural design and numerical methods are generally interactive; requiring optimization procedures as the structure is analyzed. This analysis leads to define some mathematical terms, as the stiffness matrix, which are resulting from the modeling and then used in numerical techniques during the dimensioning procedure. These techniques and many others involve the calculation of the generalized inverse of the stiffness matrix, called also the 'compliance matrix'. The aim of this paper is to introduce first, some different existing mathematical procedures, used to calculate the compliance matrix from the stiffness matrix, then apply direct numerical methods to solve the obtained system with the lowest computational time, and to compare the obtained results. The results show a big difference of the computational time between the different procedures

  12. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1999-01-01

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions. and the geometric properties of the contact medium.

  13. Direct osmosis method of purification and desalination of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Drinking water quality is one of the general factors influencing people's health. The human activity in industry and agriculture has led to pollution of the environment: soil, air, both surface and ground waters that are polluted with chemical substances. It has a disastrous effect on the health of the population, especially of children. At present, the known equipment, based on ion exchange, electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, require great expense, energy expenditures, and highly qualified personnel that are inaccessible to the population especially living in remote regions. Methods, which are usually used in water supplying plants, cannot remove spore forms of bacteria and many types of chemical substances. The purpose of this Project is to create an absolutely new method for purification of drinking water from chemical and biological agents. The method is based on using direct osmosis process that removes all contaminants except one and removing last contaminant. This method will be used for making new low energy-consuming and cheap mini-systems for individual and collective use for desalination of drinking water and purification from bacteria, radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants. Preliminary experiments and calculations conducted in Uzbekistan show that the energy consumption is 0.8 MW per 1 m 3 of water. Advantage of the method is low energy consumption, potentially purifying water without pretreatment and removing different types of bacteria including spore forms, radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contaminants. Devices can be powered by solar units in remote locations. The purpose of this work is further elaboration of this technology creation of new method and its accommodation to conditions of different countries. Test models will be made and tested in laboratories of interested countries

  14. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct......-converted radio signals. As shown in an experiment presented in the article, when the proposed method is used, it is possible to relax the requirements for the quadrature down-converter filters. A random sampling device and an additional digital signal processing module is the price to pay for these relaxed...

  15. [Laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes--direct immunofluorescence method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected

  16. Resistivity measurements using a direct current induction method (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaplace, J.; Hillairet, J.

    1964-01-01

    The conventional methods for measuring electrical resistivities necessitate the fixing of electrical contacts on the sample either mechanically or by soldering. Furthermore it is also necessary to carry,out the measurements on low cross-section samples which are not always easy to obtain. Our direct-current induction method on the other hand requires no contacts and can easily be applied to samples of large cross-section. The sample is placed in a uniform magnetic field; at the moment when the current is cut, eddy currents appear in the sample which tend to oppose the disappearance of the field. The way in which the magnetic flux decreases in the sample makes it possible to determine the resistivity of the material. This method has been applied to samples having diameters of between 1 and 30 mm in the case of metals which are good conductors. It gives a value for the local resistivity and makes it possible to detect any variation along a sample. The measurements can be carried out at all temperature from a few degrees absolute to 500 deg. C. We have used the induction method to follow the purification of beryllium by zone-melting; it is in effect possible to estimate the purity of a material by resistivity measurements. We have measured the resistivity along each bar treated by the zone-melting technique and have thus, localised the purest section. High temperature measurements have been carried out on uranium carbide and on iron-aluminium alloys. This method constitutes an interesting means of investigation the resistivity of solid materials. Its accuracy and rapidity make it particularly adapted both to fundamental research and to production control. (authors) [fr

  17. A copula method for modeling directional dependence of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Changyi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes interact with each other as basic building blocks of life, forming a complicated network. The relationship between groups of genes with different functions can be represented as gene networks. With the deposition of huge microarray data sets in public domains, study on gene networking is now possible. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the reconstruction of gene networks from gene expression data. Recent work includes linear models, Boolean network models, and Bayesian networks. Among them, Bayesian networks seem to be the most effective in constructing gene networks. A major problem with the Bayesian network approach is the excessive computational time. This problem is due to the interactive feature of the method that requires large search space. Since fitting a model by using the copulas does not require iterations, elicitation of the priors, and complicated calculations of posterior distributions, the need for reference to extensive search spaces can be eliminated leading to manageable computational affords. Bayesian network approach produces a discretely expression of conditional probabilities. Discreteness of the characteristics is not required in the copula approach which involves use of uniform representation of the continuous random variables. Our method is able to overcome the limitation of Bayesian network method for gene-gene interaction, i.e. information loss due to binary transformation. Results We analyzed the gene interactions for two gene data sets (one group is eight histone genes and the other group is 19 genes which include DNA polymerases, DNA helicase, type B cyclin genes, DNA primases, radiation sensitive genes, repaire related genes, replication protein A encoding gene, DNA replication initiation factor, securin gene, nucleosome assembly factor, and a subunit of the cohesin complex by adopting a measure of directional dependence based on a copula function. We have compared

  18. Limit State of Materials and Structures Direct Methods 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oueslati, Abdelbacet; Charkaluk, Eric; Tritsch, Jean-Bernard

    2013-01-01

    To determine the carrying capacity of a structure or a structural element susceptible to operate beyond the elastic limit is an important task in many situations of both mechanical and civil engineering. The so-called “direct methods” play an increasing role due to the fact that they allow rapid access to the request information in mathematically constructive manners. They embrace Limit Analysis, the most developed approach now widely used, and Shakedown Analysis, a powerful extension to the variable repeated loads potentially more economical than step-by-step inelastic analysis. This book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Sciences and Technology of Lille. The individual contributions stem from the areas of new numerical developments rendering these methods more attractive for industrial design, extension of the general methodology to new horizons, probabilistic approaches and concrete technological applications.

  19. DQM: Decentralized Quadratically Approximated Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Shi, Wei; Ling, Qing; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers decentralized consensus optimization problems where nodes of a network have access to different summands of a global objective function. Nodes cooperate to minimize the global objective by exchanging information with neighbors only. A decentralized version of the alternating directions method of multipliers (DADMM) is a common method for solving this category of problems. DADMM exhibits linear convergence rate to the optimal objective but its implementation requires solving a convex optimization problem at each iteration. This can be computationally costly and may result in large overall convergence times. The decentralized quadratically approximated ADMM algorithm (DQM), which minimizes a quadratic approximation of the objective function that DADMM minimizes at each iteration, is proposed here. The consequent reduction in computational time is shown to have minimal effect on convergence properties. Convergence still proceeds at a linear rate with a guaranteed constant that is asymptotically equivalent to the DADMM linear convergence rate constant. Numerical results demonstrate advantages of DQM relative to DADMM and other alternatives in a logistic regression problem.

  20. Linogram and other direct Fourier methods for tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an outstanding break-through in technology as well as in medical diagnostics. The aim in CT is to produce an image with good image quality as fast as possible. The two most well-known methods for CT-reconstruction are the Direct Fourier Method (DFM) and the Filtered Backprojection Method (FBM). This thesis is divided in four parts. In part 1 we give an introduction to the principles of CT as well as a basic treatise of the DFM and the FBM. We also present a short CT history as well as brief descriptions of techniques related to X-ray CT such as SPECT, PET and MRI. Part 2 is devoted to the Linogram Method (LM). The method is presented both intuitively and rigorously and a complete algorithm is given for the discrete case. The implementation has been done using the SNARK subroutine package with various parameters and phantom images. For comparison, the FBM has been applied to the same input projection data. The experiments show that the LM gives almost the same image quality, pixel for pixel, as the FBM. In part 3 we show that the LM is a close relative to the common DFM. We give a new extended explanation of artifacts in DFMs. The source of the problem is twofold: interpolation errors and circular convolution. By identifying the second effect as distinct from the first one, we are able to suggest and verify remedies for the DFM which brings the image quality on par with FBM. One of these remedies is the LM. A slight difficulty with both LM and ordinary DFM techniques is that they require a special projection geometry, whereas most commercial CT-scanners provides fan beam projection data. However, the wanted linogram projection data can be interpolated from fan beam projection data. In part 4, we show that it is possible to obtain good image quality with both LM and DFM techniques using fan beam projection indata. The thesis concludes that the computation cost can be essentially decreased by using LM or other DFMs instead of FBM

  1. Advanced Methods for Direct Ink Write Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compel, W. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lewicki, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is one of the world’s premier labs for research and development of additive manufacturing processes. Out of these many processes, direct ink write (DIW) is arguably one of the most relevant for the manufacture of architected polymeric materials, components and hardware. However, a bottleneck in this pipeline that has largely been ignored to date is the lack of advanced software implementation with respect to toolpath execution. There remains to be a convenient, automated method to design and produce complex parts that is user-friendly and enabling for the realization of next generation designs and structures. For a material to be suitable as a DIW ink it must possess the appropriate rheological properties for this process. Most importantly, the material must exhibit shear-thinning in order to extrude through a print head and have a rapid recovery of its static shear modulus. This makes it possible for the extrudate to be self-supporting upon exiting the print head. While this and other prerequisites narrow the scope of ‘offthe- shelf’ printable materials directly amenable to DIW, the process still tolerates a wide range of potential feedstock materials. These include metallic alloys, inorganic solvent borne dispersions, polymeric melts, filler stabilized monomer compositions, pre-elastomeric feedstocks and thermoset resins each of which requires custom print conditions tailored to the individual ink. As such, an ink perfectly suited for DIW may be prematurely determined to be undesirable for the process if printed under the wrong conditions. Defining appropriate print conditions such as extrusion rate, layer height, and maximum bridge length is a vital first step in validating an ink’s DIW capability.

  2. Real-space quadrature: A convenient, efficient representation for multipole expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Multipoles are central to the theory and modeling of polarizable and nonpolarizable molecular electrostatics. This has made a representation in terms of point charges a highly sought after goal, since rotation of multipoles is a bottleneck in molecular dynamics implementations. All known point charge representations are orders of magnitude less efficient than spherical harmonics due to either using too many fixed charge locations or due to nonlinear fitting of fewer charge locations. We present the first complete solution to this problem—completely replacing spherical harmonic basis functions by a dramatically simpler set of weights associated to fixed, discrete points on a sphere. This representation is shown to be space optimal. It reduces the spherical harmonic decomposition of Poisson’s operator to pairwise summations over the point set. As a corollary, we also shows exact quadrature-based formulas for contraction over trace-free supersymmetric 3D tensors. Moreover, multiplication of spherical harmonic basis functions translates to a direct product in this representation

  3. A SiGe Quadrature Pulse Modulator for Superconducting Qubit State Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwende, Randy; Bardin, Joseph

    Manipulation of the quantum states of microwave superconducting qubits typically requires the generation of coherent modulated microwave pulses. While many off-the-shelf instruments are capable of generating such pulses, a more integrated approach is likely required if fault-tolerant quantum computing architectures are to be implemented. In this work, we present progress towards a pulse generator specifically designed to drive superconducing qubits. The device is implemented in a commercial silicon process and has been designed with energy-efficiency and scalability in mind. Pulse generation is carried out using a unique approach in which modulation is applied directly to the in-phase and quadrature components of a carrier signal in the 1-10 GHz frequency range through a unique digital-analog conversion process designed specifically for this application. The prototype pulse generator can be digitally programmed and supports sequencing of pulses with independent amplitude and phase waveforms. These amplitude and phase waveforms can be digitally programmed through a serial programming interface. Detailed performance of the pulse generator at room temperature and 4 K will be presented.

  4. Design method for marine direct drive volume control ahead actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Haiyang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to reduce the size, weight and auxiliary system configuration of marine ahead actuators, this paper proposes a kind of direct drive volume control electro-hydraulic servo ahead actuator. [Methods] The protruding and indenting control of the servo oil cylinder are realized through the forward and reverse of the bidirectional working gear pump, and the flow matching valve implements the self-locking of the ahead actuator in the target position. The mathematical model of the ahead actuator is established, and an integral separation fuzzy PID controller designed. On this basis, using AMESim software to build a simulation model of the ahead actuator, and combined with testing, this paper completes an analysis of the control strategy research and dynamic and static performance of the ahead actuator. [Results] The experimental results agree well with the simulation results and verify the feasibility of the ahead actuator's design. [Conclusions] The research results of this paper can provide valuable references for the integration and miniaturization design of marine ahead actuators.

  5. Frontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) abolishes list-method directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas, Jonathan; Brandt, Karen R

    2016-03-11

    It is a point of controversy as to whether directed forgetting effects are a result of active inhibition or a change of context initiated by the instruction to forget. In this study we test the causal role of active inhibition in directed forgetting. By applying cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right prefrontal cortex we suppressed cortical activity commonly associated with inhibitory control. Participants who underwent real brain stimulation before completing the directed forgetting paradigm showed no directed forgetting effects. Conversely, those who underwent sham brain stimulation demonstrated classical directed forgetting effects. We argue that these findings suggest that inhibition is the primary mechanism that results in directed forgetting costs and benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulsed Traveling-wave Quadrature Squeezing Using Quasi-phase Matched Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    Interests in generating higher quantum noise squeezing in order to develop methods to enhance optical measurement below the shot-noise limit in various applications has grown in recent years. The noise suppression from squeezing can improve the SNR in coherent optical systems when the returning signal power is weak, such as optical coherence tomography, LADAR, confocal microscopy and low-light coherent imaging. Unlike the generation of squeezing with a continuous wave, which is currently developed mainly for gravitational wave detection in LIGO project, the study of pulsed-traveling waves is focused on industrial, medical and other commercial interests. This dissertation presents the experimental results of pulsed traveling wave squeezing. The intention of the study is to explore the possibility of using quasi-phase matched crystals to generate the highest possible degree of quadrature squeezing. In order to achieve this goal, efforts to test the various effects from spatial Gaussian modes and relative beam waist placement for the second-harmonic pump were carried out in order to further the understanding of limiting factors to pulsed traveling wave squeezing. 20mm and 30mm-long periodically poled lithium noibate (PPLN) crystals were used in the experiment to generate a squeezed vacuum state. A maximum of 4.2+/-0.2dB quadrature squeezing has been observed, and the measured anti-squeezing exceeds 20dB.The phase sensitive amplification (PSA) gain and de-gain performance were also measured to compare the results of measured squeezing. The PPLN crystals can produce high conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) without a cavity. When a long PPLN crystal is used in a squeezer, the beam propagation in the nonlinear medium does not follow the characteristics in thin crystals. Instead, it is operated under the long-crystal criteria, which the crystal length is multiple times longer than the Rayleigh range of the injected beam i n the crystals. Quasi

  7. Implementation of a Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank on an SRC Reconfigurable Computer for Real-Time Signal Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoffell, Kevin M

    2006-01-01

    .... Performance and device utilization results between the Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank implemented in VHDL, design elements implemented in the C programming language, and calculations made using high...

  8. Safety, dose optimisation and security: the quadrature of the circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Vermeersch, Fernand [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The growing concern for potential terrorist acts has lead to a number of new ideas about storing radiological and nuclear materials that are not always compatible with existing practices or infrastructures. This is valid in routine circumstances, but especially poses problems in case of accidents. As such, the management of nuclear safety, radiological protection and security within an evolving world such as a nuclear research centre sometimes looks like implementing the quadrature of the circle. International guidance exists, but is not always easily converted into an adequate policy comprehensible to all levels in a plant, from management to the work floor. Some examples. 1. infrastructure related problems: from a security point of view, fuels are better stored in the heart of a protected zone, while in case of criticality, fire... a more peripheral location is appropriate. 2. Safety related problems: Protection infrastructure may lead to difficulties of evacuation in case of emergencies; access limitations may be a burden in the management of safety interventions, maintenance... 3. Administrative contradictions: inventories of fuel storages and high active sealed sources are a cornerstone of inspections and verifications; yet, this information is a treasure for terrorists aiming at actions to obtain special materials. 4. Dose management: measures taken to secure sources may lead to a dose increase (e.g. labelling of old sources). However, the main difficulty is related to the 'cultural' aspect. There are synergies between safety culture, 'ALARA' culture and security culture. An individual aspect of desirable behaviour (e.g. questioning attitude), complemented with an organisational dimension (e.g. training, raising awareness) are obviously common. The objective is also in line: to avoid reduction of well-being of people, to protect the environment, to prevent damage to facilities. The main difficulties arise however because of the fundamental

  9. Safety, dose optimisation and security: the quadrature of the circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, Frank; Vermeersch, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    The growing concern for potential terrorist acts has lead to a number of new ideas about storing radiological and nuclear materials that are not always compatible with existing practices or infrastructures. This is valid in routine circumstances, but especially poses problems in case of accidents. As such, the management of nuclear safety, radiological protection and security within an evolving world such as a nuclear research centre sometimes looks like implementing the quadrature of the circle. International guidance exists, but is not always easily converted into an adequate policy comprehensible to all levels in a plant, from management to the work floor. Some examples. 1. infrastructure related problems: from a security point of view, fuels are better stored in the heart of a protected zone, while in case of criticality, fire... a more peripheral location is appropriate. 2. Safety related problems: Protection infrastructure may lead to difficulties of evacuation in case of emergencies; access limitations may be a burden in the management of safety interventions, maintenance... 3. Administrative contradictions: inventories of fuel storages and high active sealed sources are a cornerstone of inspections and verifications; yet, this information is a treasure for terrorists aiming at actions to obtain special materials. 4. Dose management: measures taken to secure sources may lead to a dose increase (e.g. labelling of old sources). However, the main difficulty is related to the 'cultural' aspect. There are synergies between safety culture, 'ALARA' culture and security culture. An individual aspect of desirable behaviour (e.g. questioning attitude), complemented with an organisational dimension (e.g. training, raising awareness) are obviously common. The objective is also in line: to avoid reduction of well-being of people, to protect the environment, to prevent damage to facilities. The main difficulties arise however because of the fundamental differences being

  10. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief [Departement of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4−}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 °C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 °C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 – 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  11. Direct Survival Analysis: a new stock assessment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrandis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new stock assessment method, Direct Survival Analysis, is proposed and described. The parameter estimation of the Weibull survival model proposed by Ferrandis (2007 is obtained using trawl survey data. This estimation is used to establish a baseline survival function, which is in turn used to estimate the specific survival functions in the different cohorts considered through an adaptation of the separable model of the fishing mortality rates introduced by Pope and Shepherd (1982. It is thus possible to test hypotheses on the evolution of survival during the period studied and to identify trends in recruitment. A link is established between the preceding analysis of trawl survey data and the commercial catch-at-age data that are generally obtained to evaluate the population using analytical models. The estimated baseline survival, with the proposed versions of the stock and catch equations and the adaptation of the Separable Model, may be applied to commercial catch-at-age data. This makes it possible to estimate the survival corresponding to the landing data, the initial size of the cohort and finally, an effective age of first capture, in order to complete the parameter model estimation and consequently the estimation of the whole survival and mortality, along with the reference parameters that are useful for management purposes. Alternatively, this estimation of an effective age of first capture may be obtained by adapting the demographic structure of trawl survey data to that of the commercial fleet through suitable selectivity models of the commercial gears. The complete model provides the evaluation of the stock at any age. The coherence (and hence the mutual “calibration” between the two kinds of information may be analysed and compared with results obtained by other methods, such as virtual population analysis (VPA, in order to improve the diagnosis of the state of exploitation of the population. The model may be

  12. Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification reaction of palm oil using direct method and multistep method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. F.; Mirus, M. F.; Ismail, M.

    2017-09-01

    Crude glycerol which produced from transesterification reaction has limited usage if it does not undergo purification process. It also contains excess methanol, catalyst and soap. Conventionally, purification method of the crude glycerol involves high cost and complex processes. This study aimed to determine the effects of using different purification methods which are direct method (comprises of ion exchange and methanol removal steps) and multistep method (comprises of neutralization, filtration, ion exchange and methanol removal steps). Two crude glycerol samples were investigated; the self-produced sample through the transesterification process of palm oil and the sample obtained from biodiesel plant. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results of this study for both samples after purification have showed that the pure glycerol was successfully produced and fatty acid salts were eliminated. Also, the results indicated the absence of methanol in both samples after purification process. In short, the combination of 4 purification steps has contributed to a higher quality of glycerol. Multistep purification method gave a better result compared to the direct method as neutralization and filtration steps helped in removing most excess salt, fatty acid and catalyst.

  13. Arbitrary quadrature: its application in the solution of one-dimensional, planar neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.

    2010-10-01

    A standard numerical procedure for the solution of singular integral equations is applied to the one-dimensional transport equation for monoenergetic neutrons. As is usual in quadrature methods, the procedure yields an Eigen system whose solution provide, for the critical slab, both the eigenvalue which is proportional to the number of secondary neutrons per collision, and the density as a function of position. The results obtained with two versions of the procedure, differing only in the extent of the basic region to which they are applied, are compared with analytically derived results available for benchmarking. The procedures considered yield consistent results for the calculated neutron densities and eigenvalues. Since the one-dimensional transport kernel and its spatial moments are integrable and their integrals can be put in terms of exponential integral functions, the resulting approximations to the neutron density yield somewhat lengthy but closed, forms. These approximate expressions of the neutron density can be used to render, after they are operated on, closed-form formulas for build-up factors, extrapolation distances or angular densities or employed for other purposes that require an analytical expression of the neutron density. As an example of this latter capability, the results of the calculation of the angular density at the surface of the slab are provided. (Author)

  14. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

  15. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

  16. Development of rupture process analysis method for great earthquakes using Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, M.; Yamanaka, Y.; Takeuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional rupture process analysis methods using teleseismic body waves were based on ray theory. Therefore, these methods have the following problems in applying to great earthquakes such as 2004 Sumatra earthquake: (1) difficulty in computing all later phases such as the PP reflection phase, (2) impossibility of computing called “W phase”, the long period phase arriving before S wave, (3) implausibility of hypothesis that the distance is far enough from the observation points to the hypocenter compared to the fault length. To solve above mentioned problems, we have developed a new method which uses the synthetic seismograms computed by the Direct Solution Method (DSM, e.g. Kawai et al. 2006) as Green’s functions. We used the DSM software (http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/takeuchi/software/) for computing the Green’s functions up to 1 Hz for the IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) model, and determined the final slip distributions using the waveform inversion method (Kikuchi et al. 2003). First we confirmed whether the Green’s functions computed by DSM were accurate in higher frequencies up to 1 Hz. Next we performed the rupture process analysis of this new method for Mw8.0 (GCMT) large Solomon Islands earthquake on April 1, 2007. We found that this earthquake consisted of two asperities and the rupture propagated across the subducting Sinbo ridge. The obtained slip distribution better correlates to the aftershock distributions than existing method. Furthermore, this new method keep same accuracy of existing method (which has the advantage of calculating) with respect to direct P-wave and reflection phases near the source, and also accurately calculate the later phases such a PP-wave.

  17. Structural reliability calculation method based on the dual neural network and direct integration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; He, Yun; Nie, Xiaobo

    2018-01-01

    Structural reliability analysis under uncertainty is paid wide attention by engineers and scholars due to reflecting the structural characteristics and the bearing actual situation. The direct integration method, started from the definition of reliability theory, is easy to be understood, but there are still mathematics difficulties in the calculation of multiple integrals. Therefore, a dual neural network method is proposed for calculating multiple integrals in this paper. Dual neural network consists of two neural networks. The neural network A is used to learn the integrand function, and the neural network B is used to simulate the original function. According to the derivative relationships between the network output and the network input, the neural network B is derived from the neural network A. On this basis, the performance function of normalization is employed in the proposed method to overcome the difficulty of multiple integrations and to improve the accuracy for reliability calculations. The comparisons between the proposed method and Monte Carlo simulation method, Hasofer-Lind method, the mean value first-order second moment method have demonstrated that the proposed method is an efficient and accurate reliability method for structural reliability problems.

  18. Baryon interactions in lattice QCD: the direct method vs. the HAL QCD potential method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, T.; HAL QCD Collaboration

    We make a detailed comparison between the direct method and the HAL QCD potential method for the baryon-baryon interactions, taking the $\\Xi\\Xi$ system at $m_\\pi= 0.51$ GeV in 2+1 flavor QCD and using both smeared and wall quark sources. The energy shift $\\Delta E_\\mathrm{eff}(t)$ in the direct method shows the strong dependence on the choice of quark source operators, which means that the results with either (or both) source are false. The time-dependent HAL QCD method, on the other hand, gives the quark source independent $\\Xi\\Xi$ potential, thanks to the derivative expansion of the potential, which absorbs the source dependence to the next leading order correction. The HAL QCD potential predicts the absence of the bound state in the $\\Xi\\Xi$($^1$S$_0$) channel at $m_\\pi= 0.51$ GeV, which is also confirmed by the volume dependence of finite volume energy from the potential. We also demonstrate that the origin of the fake plateau in the effective energy shift $\\Delta E_\\mathrm{eff}(t)$ at $t \\sim 1$ fm can be clarified by a few low-lying eigenfunctions and eigenvalues on the finite volume derived from the HAL QCD potential, which implies that the ground state saturation of $\\Xi\\Xi$($^1$S$_0$) requires $t \\sim 10$ fm in the direct method for the smeared source on $(4.3 \\ \\mathrm{fm})^3$ lattice, while the HAL QCD method does not suffer from such a problem.

  19. Directed forgetting of complex pictures in an item method paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Hauswald, Anne; Kissler, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    An item-cued directed forgetting paradigm was used to investigate the ability to control episodic memory and selectively encode complex coloured pictures. A series of photographs was presented to 21 participants who were instructed to either remember or forget each picture after it was presented. Memory performance was later tested with a recognition task where all presented items had to be retrieved, regardless of the initial instructions. A directed forgetting effect that is, better recogni...

  20. Quadrature Decomposition by Phase Conjugation and Projection in a Polarizing Beam Splitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Niels-Kristian; Galili, Michael; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    We propose simultaneous decomposition of the two quadratures of an optical data signal to different outputs of a PBS by degenerate four-wave mixing with orthogonal pumps. The scheme is demonstrated by QPSK to 2×BPSK modulation format conversion with BER<10−9.......We propose simultaneous decomposition of the two quadratures of an optical data signal to different outputs of a PBS by degenerate four-wave mixing with orthogonal pumps. The scheme is demonstrated by QPSK to 2×BPSK modulation format conversion with BER−9....

  1. Series-parallel method of direct solar array regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 40 watt experimental solar array was directly regulated by shorting out appropriate combinations of series and parallel segments of a solar array. Regulation switches were employed to control the array at various set-point voltages between 25 and 40 volts. Regulation to within + or - 0.5 volt was obtained over a range of solar array temperatures and illumination levels as an active load was varied from open circuit to maximum available power. A fourfold reduction in regulation switch power dissipation was achieved with series-parallel regulation as compared to the usual series-only switching for direct solar array regulation.

  2. Wide and Narrow CMEs and Their Source Explosions Observed at the Spring 2003 SOHO-Sun-Ulysses Quadrature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven; Corti, G.; Poletto, G.; Sterling, A.; Moore, R.

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the spring 2003 Ulysses-SOHO-Sun quadrature, Ulysses was off the East limb of the Sun at 14.5 degrees north latitude and 4.91 AU. LASCO/C2 images show small transient events that originated from near the limb on May 25, 26 and 27 in the north-east quadrant, along with a large Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) that originated from an active region near disk center on May 26. Ulysses data bear clear signatures of the large CME, specifically including an enhanced abundance of highly ionized Fe. SOHO/UVCS spectra at 1.75 solar radii, near the radial direction to Ulysses, give no evidence of emission from high temperature lines, even for the large CME: instead, for the small events, occasional transient high emission in cool lines was observed, such as the CIII 977 Angstrom line usually absent at coronal levels. Each of these events lasted ca. 1 hour or less and never affected lines from ions forming above ca. 106K. Compact eruptions in Helium 304 Angstrom EIT images, related to the small UVCS transients, were observed at the limb of the Sun over the same period. At least one of these surge events produced a narrow CME observed in LASCO/C2. Most probably all these events are compact magnetic explosions (surges/jets, from around a small island of included polarity) which ejected cool material from lower levels. Ulysses data have been analyzed to find evidence of the cool, narrow CME events, but none or little was found. This puzzling scenario, where events seen by UVCS have no in situ counterparts and vice versa, can be partially explained once the region where the large CME originated is recognized as being at the center of the solar disk so that the CME material was actually much further from the Sun than the 1.7 Rsun height of the UVCS slit off the limb. Conversely, the narrow events may simply have missed Ulysses or been too brief for reliable signatures in composition and ionization state. A basic feature demonstrated by these observations is that large

  3. An I/Q mixer with an integrated differential quadrature all-pass filter for on-chip quadrature LO signal generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Najam Muhammad; Wang Zhigong; Li Zhiqun

    2015-01-01

    A down-conversion in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) mixer employing a folded-type topology, integrated with a passive differential quadrature all-pass filter (D-QAF), in order to realize the final down-conversion stage of a 60 GHz receiver architecture is presented in this work. Instead of employing conventional quadrature generation techniques such as a polyphase filter or a frequency divider for the local oscillator (LO) of the mixer, a passive D-QAF structure is employed. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process, the mixer exhibits a voltage gain of 7–8 dB in an intermediate frequency (IF) band ranging from 10 MHz–1.75 GHz. A fixed LO frequency of 12 GHz is used to down-convert a radio frequency (RF) band of 10.25–13.75 GHz. The mixer displays a third order input referred intercept point (IIP 3 ) ranging from −8.75 to −7.37 dBm for a fixed IF frequency of 10 MHz and a minimum single-sideband noise figure (SSB-NF) of 11.3 dB. The mixer draws a current of 6 mA from a 1.2 V supply voltage dissipating a power of 7.2 mW. (paper)

  4. Sleep Can Eliminate List-Method Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests a link between sleep and memory consolidation, indicating that sleep in comparison to wakefulness stabilizes memories. However, relatively little is known about how sleep affects forgetting. Here we examined whether sleep influences directed forgetting, the finding that people can intentionally forget obsolete memories when…

  5. Numerical Methods Application for Reinforced Concrete Elements-Theoretical Approach for Direct Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ciprian Catinas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed theoretical and practical investigation of the reinforced concrete elements is due to recent techniques and method that are implemented in the construction market. More over a theoretical study is a demand for a better and faster approach nowadays due to rapid development of the calculus technique. The paper above will present a study for implementing in a static calculus the direct stiffness matrix method in order capable to address phenomena related to different stages of loading, rapid change of cross section area and physical properties. The method is a demand due to the fact that in our days the FEM (Finite Element Method is the only alternative to such a calculus and FEM are considered as expensive methods from the time and calculus resources point of view. The main goal in such a method is to create the moment-curvature diagram in the cross section that is analyzed. The paper above will express some of the most important techniques and new ideas as well in order to create the moment curvature graphic in the cross sections considered.

  6. 29 CFR 4211.13 - Modifications to the direct attribution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modifications to the direct attribution method. 4211.13... Changes Not Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.13 Modifications to the direct attribution method. (a) Error in direct attribution method. The unfunded vested benefits allocated to a withdrawing employer under...

  7. Development and Validation of a Bioanalytical Method for Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a user-friendly spiked plasma method for the extraction of diclofenac potassium that reduces the number of treatments with plasma sample, in order to minimize human error. Method: Instead of solvent evaporation technique, the spiked plasma sample was modified with H2SO4 and NaCl, ...

  8. Method of operating a direct dme fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of operating a fuel cell system comprising one or more fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane, wherein the membrane is composed of a polymeric material comprising acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI). The method comprises adjusting the operating...

  9. Blind compressed sensing image reconstruction based on alternating direction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinan; Guo, Shuxu

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem of how to reconstruct the original image under the condition of unknown sparse basis, this paper proposes an image reconstruction method based on blind compressed sensing model. In this model, the image signal is regarded as the product of a sparse coefficient matrix and a dictionary matrix. Based on the existing blind compressed sensing theory, the optimal solution is solved by the alternative minimization method. The proposed method solves the problem that the sparse basis in compressed sensing is difficult to represent, which restrains the noise and improves the quality of reconstructed image. This method ensures that the blind compressed sensing theory has a unique solution and can recover the reconstructed original image signal from a complex environment with a stronger self-adaptability. The experimental results show that the image reconstruction algorithm based on blind compressed sensing proposed in this paper can recover high quality image signals under the condition of under-sampling.

  10. 47.8 GHz InPHBT quadrature VCO with 22% tuning range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2007-01-01

    A 38-47.8 GHz quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (QVCO) in InP HBT technology is presented. The measured output power is - 15 dBm. The simulated phase noise ranges from -84 to -86 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. It is believed that this is the first millimetre-wavc QVCO implemented in InP HBT...

  11. A Quantized Analog Delay for an ir-UWB Quadrature Downconversion Autocorrelation Receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagga, S.; Zhang, L.; Serdijn, W.A.; Long, J.R.; Busking, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quantized analog delay is designed as a requirement for the autocorrelation function in the quadrature downconversion autocorrelation receiver (QDAR). The quantized analog delay is comprised of a quantizer, multiple binary delay lines and an adder circuit. Being the foremost element, the quantizer

  12. Linear and quadrature models for data from treshold measurements of the transient visual system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinker, den A.C.

    1986-01-01

    III this paper two models are considered for the transient visual system at threshold. One is a linear model and the other a model contain ing a quadrature element. Both models are commonly used on evidence from different experimental sources. It is shown that both models act in a similar fashion

  13. New angular quadrature sets: effect on the conditioning number of the LTSN two dimensional transport matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Romero, Debora Angrizano

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to utilize a new angular quadrature sets based on Legendre and Chebyshev polynomials, and to analyse their effects on the number of LTS N matrix conditioning for the problem of discrete coordinates of neutron transport with two dimension cartesian geometry with isotropic scattering, and an energy group, in non multiplicative homogenous domains

  14. AM to PM noise conversion in a cross-coupled quadrature harmonic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens

    2006-01-01

    We derive the dynamic equations governing the cross-coupled quadrature oscillator, perturbed by noise, leading to an expression for the close-in phase noise. The theory shows that a nonlinear coupling transconductance results in AM-PM noise conversion close to the carrier, which increases...

  15. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C

    2014-12-23

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

  16. Ducted combustion chamber for direct injection engines and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles

    2015-03-03

    An internal combustion engine includes an engine block having a cylinder bore and a cylinder head having a flame deck surface disposed at one end of the cylinder bore. A piston connected to a rotatable crankshaft and configured to reciprocate within the cylinder bore has a piston crown portion facing the flame deck surface such that a combustion chamber is defined within the cylinder bore and between the piston crown and the flame deck surface. A fuel injector having a nozzle tip disposed in fluid communication with the combustion chamber has at least one nozzle opening configured to inject a fuel jet into the combustion chamber along a fuel jet centerline. At least one duct defined in the combustion chamber between the piston crown and the flame deck surface has a generally rectangular cross section and extends in a radial direction relative to the cylinder bore substantially along the fuel jet centerline.

  17. "Whole" Ballet Education: Exploring Direct and Indirect Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Euichang; Kim, Na-ye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore teaching methods for whole ballet in Korean ballet education. This study built upon a first phase of research that identified the educational content of "whole" ballet. Four dimensions were identified as the educational content: "physical," "cognitive," "emotional"…

  18. Divergence of Scientific Heuristic Method and Direct Algebraic Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calucag, Lina S.

    2016-01-01

    This is an experimental study, made used of the non-randomized experimental and control groups, pretest-posttest designs. The experimental and control groups were two separate intact classes in Algebra. For a period of twelve sessions, the experimental group was subjected to the scientific heuristic method, but the control group instead was given…

  19. Job Search as Goal-Directed Behavior: Objectives and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Saks, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between job search objectives (finding a new job/turnover, staying aware of job alternatives, developing a professional network, and obtaining leverage against an employer) and job search methods (looking at job ads, visiting job sites, networking, contacting employment agencies, contacting employers, and…

  20. Direct dating of fossils by the helium-uranium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, O.A.

    1967-01-01

    The He-U method has been found to be applicable to the dating of fossil carbonates. This method furnishes a new dating technique particularly applicable to the Pleistocene and the Tertiary periods, especially the Late Tertiary, for which other methods of age dating either fail or are difficult to correlate with the fossil record. The method has been checked for possible losses of helium and uranium from or to the surroundings. It has been found that, while a calcite lattice does not appear to retain helium, if the lattice is aragonite there is good evidence that helium leakage is not a problem. This is true at least for times up to 20 m. y. For corals where the uranium is apparently uniformly distributed within the lattice as a trace element, the uranium does not exchange or undergo concentration changes. As a result aragonite corals yield reliable He-U ages. On the other hand, the uranium in mollusc fossils is apparently mainly in the grain boundaries and is not always a tight system as far as uranium exchange or concentration changes are concerned. To obtain a reliable age for a mollusc one needs additional evidence to ensure lack of changes in uranium concentration. If the measurement of U and He is combined with 238 U, 234 U and 230 Th determinations, it appears that many mollusc shells will also be datable by the method. The resulting evidence for secular equilibrium in the 238 U chain is good evidence for a closed system as far as U concentration changes are concerned. (author)

  1. 29 CFR 4211.35 - Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.35 Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. The allocation method under this section is the... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial...

  2. Extension of moment projection method to the fragmentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shaohua; Yapp, Edward K.Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian; Xu, Rong; Yang, Wenming; Kraft, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The method of moments is a simple but efficient method of solving the population balance equation which describes particle dynamics. Recently, the moment projection method (MPM) was proposed and validated for particle inception, coagulation, growth and, more importantly, shrinkage; here the method is extended to include the fragmentation process. The performance of MPM is tested for 13 different test cases for different fragmentation kernels, fragment distribution functions and initial conditions. Comparisons are made with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), hybrid method of moments (HMOM) and a high-precision stochastic solution calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA) and advantages of MPM are drawn.

  3. Extension of moment projection method to the fragmentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaohua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Yapp, Edward K.Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Xu, Rong [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore); Yang, Wenming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Kraft, Markus, E-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2017-04-15

    The method of moments is a simple but efficient method of solving the population balance equation which describes particle dynamics. Recently, the moment projection method (MPM) was proposed and validated for particle inception, coagulation, growth and, more importantly, shrinkage; here the method is extended to include the fragmentation process. The performance of MPM is tested for 13 different test cases for different fragmentation kernels, fragment distribution functions and initial conditions. Comparisons are made with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), hybrid method of moments (HMOM) and a high-precision stochastic solution calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA) and advantages of MPM are drawn.

  4. Direct methods for measuring radionuclides in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Occupational exposure leading to intakes of internally incorporated radionuclides can occur as a result of various activities. This includes work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve exposure to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. In 1987 the IAEA published a Safety Guide on basic principles for occupational radiation monitoring which set forth principles and objectives of a strategy for monitoring exposures of workers. Since drafting of the present Safety Practice commenced, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have been issued. On the basis of the principles laid down in the BSS, the 1987 Safety Guide is also being revised, and recommendations on the assessment of the occupational intake of radioactive materials are to be added. The present Safety Practice, which deals with direct measurement of radionuclides in the human body, is the first to be published in this area. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. 29 CFR 4206.7 - Amount of credit in plans using the direct attribution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TO A PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL § 4206.7 Amount of credit in plans using the direct attribution method. In a plan that uses the direct attribution allocation method described in section 4211(c)(4) of ERISA, the... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of credit in plans using the direct attribution...

  6. The adaptive collision source method for discrete ordinates radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, William J.; Haghighat, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new adaptive quadrature method to solve the discrete ordinates transport equation. • The adaptive collision source (ACS) method splits the flux into n’th collided components. • Uncollided flux requires high quadrature; this is lowered with number of collisions. • ACS automatically applies appropriate quadrature order each collided component. • The adaptive quadrature is 1.5–4 times more efficient than uniform quadrature. - Abstract: A novel collision source method has been developed to solve the Linear Boltzmann Equation (LBE) more efficiently by adaptation of the angular quadrature order. The angular adaptation method is unique in that the flux from each scattering source iteration is obtained, with potentially a different quadrature order used for each. Traditionally, the flux from every iteration is combined, with the same quadrature applied to the combined flux. Since the scattering process tends to distribute the radiation more evenly over angles (i.e., make it more isotropic), the quadrature requirements generally decrease with each iteration. This method allows for an optimal use of processing power, by using a high order quadrature for the first iterations that need it, before shifting to lower order quadratures for the remaining iterations. This is essentially an extension of the first collision source method, and is referred to as the adaptive collision source (ACS) method. The ACS methodology has been implemented in the 3-D, parallel, multigroup discrete ordinates code TITAN. This code was tested on a several simple and complex fixed-source problems. The ACS implementation in TITAN has shown a reduction in computation time by a factor of 1.5–4 on the fixed-source test problems, for the same desired level of accuracy, as compared to the standard TITAN code.

  7. Directions in implementation research methods for behavioral and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Molly; Supplee, Lauren H

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing interest, by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, in evidence-based policy and practice. As a result, more dollars are being invested in program evaluation in order to establish "what works," and in some cases, funding is specifically tied to those programs found to be effective. However, reproducing positive effects found in research requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. Implementation research can provide guidance on which components of an intervention matter most for program impacts and how implementation components can best be implemented. However, while the body of rigorous research on effective practices continues to grow, research on implementation lags behind. To address these issues, the Administration for Children and Families and federal partners convened a roundtable meeting entitled, Improving Implementation Research Methods for Behavioral and Social Science, in the fall of 2010. This special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research includes papers from the roundtable and highlights the role implementation science can play in shedding light on the difficult task of taking evidence-based practices to scale.

  8. On method of solving third-order ordinary differential equations directly using Bernstein polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataybeh, S. N.; Hashim, I.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose for the first time a method based on Bernstein polynomials for solving directly a class of third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). This method gives a numerical solution by converting the equation into a system of algebraic equations which is solved directly. Some numerical examples are given to show the applicability of the method.

  9. Truncated Painleve expansion: Tanh-traveling wave solutions and reduction of sine-Poisson equation to a quadrature for stationary and nonstationary three-dimensional collisionless cold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R. S.; El-Kalaawy, O. H.

    2006-01-01

    The relativistic nonlinear self-consistent equations for a collisionless cold plasma with stationary ions [R. S. Ibrahim, IMA J. Appl. Math. 68, 523 (2003)] are extended to 3 and 3+1 dimensions. The resulting system of equations is reduced to the sine-Poisson equation. The truncated Painleve expansion and reduction of the partial differential equation to a quadrature problem (RQ method) are described and applied to obtain the traveling wave solutions of the sine-Poisson equation for stationary and nonstationary equations in 3 and 3+1 dimensions describing the charge-density equilibrium configuration model

  10. Harmonic-suppressed quadrature-input frequency divider for OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Haipeng; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2011-01-01

    A fully balanced harmonic-suppressed quadrature-input frequency divider is proposed. The frequency divider improves the quadrature phase accuracy at the output by using both input I/Q signals. Compared with conventional dividers, the circuit achieves an output I/Q phase sequence that is independent of the input I/Q phase sequence. Moreover, the third harmonic is effectively suppressed by employing a double degeneration technique. The design is fabricated in TSMC 0.13-μm CMOS and operated at 1.2 V. While locked at 8.5 GHz, the proposed divider measures a maximum third harmonic rejection of 45 dB and a phase noise of −124 dBc/Hz at a 10 MHz offset. The circuit achieves a locking range of 15% while consuming a total current of 4.5 mA. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Gaussian quadrature and lattice discretization of the Fermi-Dirac distribution for graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettinger, D; Mendoza, M; Herrmann, H J

    2013-07-01

    We construct a lattice kinetic scheme to study electronic flow in graphene. For this purpose, we first derive a basis of orthogonal polynomials, using as the weight function the ultrarelativistic Fermi-Dirac distribution at rest. Later, we use these polynomials to expand the respective distribution in a moving frame, for both cases, undoped and doped graphene. In order to discretize the Boltzmann equation and make feasible the numerical implementation, we reduce the number of discrete points in momentum space to 18 by applying a Gaussian quadrature, finding that the family of representative wave (2+1)-vectors, which satisfies the quadrature, reconstructs a honeycomb lattice. The procedure and discrete model are validated by solving the Riemann problem, finding excellent agreement with other numerical models. In addition, we have extended the Riemann problem to the case of different dopings, finding that by increasing the chemical potential the electronic fluid behaves as if it increases its effective viscosity.

  12. Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature for -1φ,φ> and rational Pade-type approximation for Markov-type functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnerman, L A

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature for the calculation of the quantity -1 φ,φ> is studied, where A is a bounded operator in a Hilbert space and φ is a non-trivial vector in this space. A necessary and a sufficient conditions are found for the efficiency of the quadrature in the case of a normal operator. An example of a non-normal operator for which this quadrature is inefficient is presented. It is shown that Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature is related in certain cases to rational Pade-type approximation (with the poles at Ritz numbers) for functions of Markov type and, in particular, can be used for the localization of the poles of a rational perturbation. Error estimates are found, which can also be used when classical Pade approximation does not work or it may not be efficient. Theoretical results and conjectures are illustrated by numerical experiments. Bibliography: 44 titles

  13. Noncritical quadrature squeezing in two-transverse-mode optical parametric oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Roldan, Eugenio; Valcarcel, German J. de; Romanelli, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the quantum properties of a degenerate optical parametric oscillator when it is tuned to the first family of transverse modes at the down-converted frequency. Recently we found [C. Navarrete-Benlloch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203601 (2008)] that above threshold a TEM 10 mode following a random rotation in the transverse plane emerges in this system (we denote it as the bright mode), breaking thus its rotational invariance. Then, owing to the mode orientation being undetermined, we showed that the phase quadrature of the transverse mode orthogonal to this one (denoted as the dark mode) is perfectly squeezed at any pump level and without an increase in the fluctuations on its amplitude quadrature (which seems to contradict the uncertainty principle). In this article we go further in the study of this system and analyze some important features not considered previously. First we show that the apparent violation of the uncertainty principle is just that -'apparent' - as the conjugate pair of the squeezed quadrature is not another quadrature but the orientation of the bright mode (which is completely undetermined in the long term). We also study a homodyne scheme in which the local oscillator is not perfectly matched to the dark mode, as this could be impossible in real experiments due to the random rotation of the mode, showing that even in this case large levels of noise reduction can be obtained (also including the experimentally unavoidable phase fluctuations). Finally, we show that neither the adiabatic elimination of the pump variables nor the linearization of the quantum equations are responsible for the remarkable properties of the dark mode (which we prove analytically and through numerical simulations, respectively), which were simplifying assumptions used in Navarrete-Benlloch et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203601 (2008)]. These studies show that the production of noncritically squeezed light through spontaneous rotational

  14. An alternative method for the measurement of the mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, GR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for the measurement of the total mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast due to an explosive charge is presented. The method differs from apparatus that employ a vertically displaced mass (similar in principle...

  15. Direct comparison of enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to localize an enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2002-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of enzymes is compared directly with localization of enzyme activity with (catalytic) enzyme histochemical methods. The two approaches demonstrate principally different aspects of an enzyme. The immunohistochemical method localizes the enzyme protein whether it is

  16. An anti-image interference quadrature IF architecture for satellite receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Weidong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals span a wide range of frequency, wireless signals coming from other communication systems may be aliased and appear as image interference. In quadrature intermediate frequency (IF receivers, image aliasing due to in-phase and quadrature (I/Q channel mismatches is always a big problem. I/Q mismatches occur because of gain and phase imbalances between quadrature mixers and capacitor mismatches in analog-to-digital converters (ADC. As a result, the dynamic range and performance of a receiver are severely degraded. In this paper, several popular receiver architectures are summarized and the image aliasing problem is investigated in detail. Based on this analysis, a low-IF architecture is proposed for a single-chip solution and a novel and feasible anti-image algorithm is investigated. With this anti-image digital processing, the image reject ratio (IRR can reach approximately above 50 dB, which relaxes image rejection specific in front-end circuit designs and allows cheap and highly flexible analog front-end solutions. Simulation and experimental data show that the anti-image algorithm can work effectively, robustly, and steadily.

  17. Output field-quadrature measurements and squeezing in ultrastrong cavity-QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassi, Roberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Garziano, Luigi; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Nori, Franco

    2016-12-01

    We study the squeezing of output quadratures of an electro-magnetic field escaping from a resonator coupled to a general quantum system with arbitrary interaction strengths. The generalized theoretical analysis of output squeezing proposed here is valid for all the interaction regimes of cavity-quantum electrodynamics: from the weak to the strong, ultrastrong, and deep coupling regimes. For coupling rates comparable or larger then the cavity resonance frequency, the standard input-output theory for optical cavities fails to calculate the variance of output field-quadratures and predicts a non-negligible amount of output squeezing, even if the system is in its ground state. Here we show that, for arbitrary interaction strength and for general cavity-embedded quantum systems, no squeezing can be found in the output-field quadratures if the system is in its ground state. We also apply the proposed theoretical approach to study the output squeezing produced by: (i) an artificial two-level atom embedded in a coherently-excited cavity; and (ii) a cascade-type three-level system interacting with a cavity field mode. In the latter case the output squeezing arises from the virtual photons of the atom-cavity dressed states. This work extends the possibility of predicting and analyzing the results of continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography when optical resonators interact very strongly with other quantum systems.

  18. Comparison of a 28 Channel-Receive Array Coil and Quadrature Volume Coil for Morphologic Imaging and T2 Mapping of Knee Cartilage at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gregory; Wiggins, Graham C.; Xia, Ding; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Madelin, Guillaume; Raya, Jose G.; Finnerty, Matthew; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Recht, Michael P.; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare a new birdcage-transmit, 28 channel-receive array (28 Ch) coil and a quadrature volume coil for 7 Tesla morphologic MRI and T2 mapping of knee cartilage. Methods The right knees of ten healthy subjects were imaged on a 7 Tesla whole body MR scanner using both coils. 3-dimensional fast low-angle shot (3D-FLASH) and multi-echo spin-echo (MESE) sequences were implemented. Cartilage signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), thickness, and T2 values were assessed. Results SNR/CNR was 17–400% greater for the 28 Ch compared to the quadrature coil (p≤0.005). Bland-Altman plots show mean differences between measurements of tibial/femoral cartilage thickness and T2 values obtained with each coil to be small (−0.002±0.009 cm/0.003±0.011 cm) and large (−6.8±6.7 ms/−8.2±9.7 ms), respectively. For the 28 Ch coil, when parallel imaging with acceleration factors (AF) 2, 3, and 4 was performed, SNR retained was: 62–69%, 51–55%, and 39–45%. Conclusion A 28 Ch knee coil provides increased SNR/CNR for 7T cartilage morphologic imaging and T2 mapping. Coils should be switched with caution during clinical studies because T2 values may differ. The greater SNR of the 28 Ch coil could be used to perform parallel imaging with AF2 and obtain similar SNR as the quadrature coil. PMID:22095723

  19. A complexity analysis of the Gauss-Bessel quadrature as applied to the evaluation of multi-centre integrals over STFs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouferguene, Ahmed; Safouhi, Hassan

    2006-01-01

    In a previous work (Bouferguene 2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 3923), we have shown that in the framework of the Gaussian integral transform, multi-centre integrals over Slater type functions can be evaluated to an acceptable accuracy using a tailored Gauss quadrature in which the weight function has the form W(σ, τ; z) = z ν exp(-σz - τ/z). To be considered a solution worth implementing within a software for routine use in ab initio molecular simulations, the method must also prove to be at least as efficient as those methods previously published in the literature. Two major results are provided in this paper. Firstly, an improvement of the procedure used to generate the roots and weights of the Gauss-Bessel quadrature is proposed. Secondly, a computational cost analysis of the present method and the SD-bar (Safouhi 2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 2801) based approach are compared, hence proving the equivalence of the two from a complexity point of view

  20. Hybrid Polling Method for Direct Link Communication for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct link communication between STAtions (STAs is one of the techniques to improve the MAC performance of IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. For the efficient direct link communication, in the literature, the simultaneous polling method was proposed to allow the multiple direct data communication to be performed simultaneously. However, the efficiency of the simultaneous polling method is affected by the interference condition. To alleviate the problem of the lower polling efficiency with the larger interference range, the hybrid polling method is proposed for the direct link communication between STAs in IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. By the proposed polling method, we can integrate the sequential and simultaneous polling methods properly according to the interference condition. Numerical examples are also presented to show the medium access control (MAC performance improvement by the proposed polling method.

  1. Fabrication And Determination Of Coefficient Absorption Of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon By Direct Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Agus; Darsono; Sujitno, Tjipto; Suprapto

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by direct evaporation method have been done. The experiment was carried out at pressure conditions of 2 x 10-5 torr, RF frequency of 13.56 MHz, hydrogen gas flow of 0,8 1/minute, electrode distance of 2.48 cm. voltage electrode of 700 volt and evaporation time 1.45 minute. Using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, it is found that at wavelength of 359 nm, the absorbance degree of material that was by direct hydrogenated method was 0,886. This means that more hydrogen are absorbed by direct method While, if the hydrogenation is carried out by means of indirect method, the degree of absorbance at the wavelength of 359 nm is 0,103. From this result, it can be concluded that the direct methods is better than indirect method

  2. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  3. Direct determination of scattering time delays using the R-matrix propagation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.B.; Hayes, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    A direct method for determining time delays for scattering processes is developed using the R-matrix propagation method. The procedure involves the simultaneous generation of the global R matrix and its energy derivative. The necessary expressions to obtain the energy derivative of the S matrix are relatively simple and involve many of the same matrix elements required for the R-matrix propagation method. This method is applied to a simple model for a chemical reaction that displays sharp resonance features. The test results of the direct method are shown to be in excellent agreement with the traditional numerical differentiation method for scattering energies near the resonance energy. However, for sharp resonances the numerical differentiation method requires calculation of the S-matrix elements at many closely spaced energies. Since the direct method presented here involves calculations at only a single energy, one is able to generate accurate energy derivatives and time delays much more efficiently and reliably

  4. An improved principal component analysis based region matching method for fringe direction estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Quan, C.

    2018-04-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA) and region matching combined method is effective for fringe direction estimation. However, its mask construction algorithm for region matching fails in some circumstances, and the algorithm for conversion of orientation to direction in mask areas is computationally-heavy and non-optimized. We propose an improved PCA based region matching method for the fringe direction estimation, which includes an improved and robust mask construction scheme, and a fast and optimized orientation-direction conversion algorithm for the mask areas. Along with the estimated fringe direction map, filtered fringe pattern by automatic selective reconstruction modification and enhanced fast empirical mode decomposition (ASRm-EFEMD) is used for Hilbert spiral transform (HST) to demodulate the phase. Subsequently, windowed Fourier ridge (WFR) method is used for the refinement of the phase. The robustness and effectiveness of proposed method are demonstrated by both simulated and experimental fringe patterns.

  5. Direct runoff assessment using modified SME method in catchments in the Upper Vistula River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęga, A.; Rutkowska, A.; Grzebinoga, M.

    2017-04-01

    Correct determination of direct runoff is crucial for proper and safe dimensioning of hydroengineering structures. It is commonly assessed using SCS-CN method developed in the United States. However, due to deficiencies of this method, many improvements and modifications have been proposed. In this paper, a modified Sahu-Mishra-Eldo (SME) method was introduced and tested for three catchments located in the upper Vistula basin. Modification of SME method involved a determination of maximum potential retention S based on CN parameter derived from SCS-CN method. The modified SME method yielded direct runoff values very similar to those observed in the investigated catchments. Moreover, it generated significantly smaller errors in the direct runoff estimation as compared with SCS-CN and SME methods in the analyzed catchments. This approach may be used for estimating the runoff in uncontrolled catchments.

  6. Application of the Method of Direct Solidification for Obtaining New Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grankin, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the method of direct solidification on the formation of the material structure has been considered. The main methods of single crystal growth have been described. A considerable influence of the crystal growth parameters (temperature gradient at the front of solidification and the speed of moving of the front of solidification) on the type of the structure and morphology of single crystals has been shown. The examples of application of the method of direct solidification in experimental and industrial production are showed: production of directly crystallized blades for turbines of nuclear power plants and gas-turbine engines

  7. Estimation of velocity vector angles using the directional cross-correlation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    and then select the angle with the highest normalized correlation between directional signals. The approach is investigated using Field II simulations and data from the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and a circulating flow rig with a parabolic flow having a peak velocity of 0.3 m/s. A 7 MHz linear array......A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in any direction is suggested. The method uses focusing along the velocity direction and cross-correlation for finding the correct velocity magnitude. The angle is found from beamforming directional signals in a number of directions...... transducer is used with a normal transmission of a focused ultrasound field. In the simulations the relative standard deviation of the velocity magnitude is between 0.7% and 7.7% for flow angles between 45 deg and 90 deg. The study showed that angle estimation by directional beamforming can be estimated...

  8. A Fifth Order Hybrid Linear Multistep method For the Direct Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A linear multistep hybrid method (LMHM)with continuous coefficients isconsidered and directly applied to solve third order initial and boundary value problems (IBVPs). The continuous method is used to obtain Multiple Finite Difference Methods (MFDMs) (each of order 5) which are combined as simultaneous numerical ...

  9. Transfer by anisotropic scattering between subsets of the unit sphere of directions in linear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetti, T.

    1990-01-01

    The exact kernel method is presented for linear transport problems with azimuth-dependent angular fluxes. It is based on the evaluation of average scattering densities (ASD's) that fully describe the neutron (or particle) transfer between subsets of the unit sphere of directions by anisotropic scattering. Reciprocity and other ASD functional properties are proved and combined with the symmetry properties of suitable SN quadrature sets. This greatly reduces the number of independent ASD's to be computed and stored. An approach for performing ASD computations with reciprocity checks is presented. ASD expressions of the scattering source for typical 2D geometries are explicitly given. (author)

  10. Applying Case-Based Method in Designing Self-Directed Online Instruction: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Heng; Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Arnone, Marilyn P.; Choi, Ikseon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the case-based method (CBM) instructional-design theory and its application in designing self-directed online instruction. The purpose of this study was to validate and refine the theory for a self-directed online instruction context. Guided by formative research methodology, this study first developed an online tutorial…

  11. A method for crack profiles identification in eddy current testing by the multi-directional scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Fumio; Ikeda, Takuya; Nguyen, Doung

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a method for identification of crack shape in conducting materials. Multi-directional scanning strategies using Eddy Current Testing is performed for sizing complex natural crackings. Two dimensional measurements by means of multi-directional scan are used in a output least square identifications. (author)

  12. Biasing transition rate method based on direct MC simulation for probabilistic safety assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lei Pan; Jia-Qun Wang; Run Yuan; Fang Wang; Han-Qing Lin; Li-Qin Hu; Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is a powerful probabilistic safety assessment method for accounting dynamics of the system.But it is not efficient at simulating rare events.A biasing transition rate method based on direct MC simulation is proposed to solve the problem in this paper.This method biases transition rates of the components by adding virtual components to them in series to increase the occurrence probability of the rare event,hence the decrease in the variance of MC estimator.Several cases are used to benchmark this method.The results show that the method is effective at modeling system failure and is more efficient at collecting evidence of rare events than the direct MC simulation.The performance is greatly improved by the biasing transition rate method.

  13. Two-baryon systems from HAL QCD method and the mirage in the temporal correlation of the direct method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, Takumi

    2018-03-01

    Both direct and HAL QCD methods are currently used to study the hadron interactions in lattice QCD. In the direct method, the eigen-energy of two-particle is measured from the temporal correlation. Due to the contamination of excited states, however, the direct method suffers from the fake eigen-energy problem, which we call the "mirage problem," while the HAL QCD method can extract information from all elastic states by using the spatial correlation. In this work, we further investigate systematic uncertainties of the HAL QCD method such as the quark source operator dependence, the convergence of the derivative expansion of the non-local interaction kernel, and the single baryon saturation, which are found to be well controlled. We also confirm the consistency between the HAL QCD method and the Lüscher's finite volume formula. Based on the HAL QCD potential, we quantitatively confirm that the mirage plateau in the direct method is indeed caused by the contamination of excited states.

  14. A direct method of natural frequency analysis on pipeline conveying fluid with both ends supported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yimin; Ge Seng; Wu Wei; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct method which derived from Ferrari's method was used to solve quartic equations. ► Frequency equations of pipeline conveying fluid with both ends supported was studied. ► Each order natural frequencies can be obtained by using the direct method. ► The first five critical flow velocities were obtained by using numerical method. - Abstract: The natural frequency equations of fluid–structure interaction in pipeline conveying fluid with both ends supported is investigated by a direct method, and the direct method is derived from Ferrari's method which is used to solve quartic equations. The dynamic equation of pipeline conveying fluid with two variables is obtained by Hamilton's variation principle based on Euler–Bernoulli Beam theory. By using the separation of variables method and the derived method from Ferrari's method, the natural frequency equations and the critical flow velocity equations of pipeline conveying fluid with both ends supported are obtained in mathematical decoupling. Each order natural frequencies and critical flow velocities can be obtained by using numerical method. The first five order dimensionless critical flow velocities are obtained, and the results indicate that clamped–simply supported is less stable than clamped–clamped supported and more stable than simply–simply supported. All the conclusions can be applied to nuclear installations and other engineering fields of improving the vibration.

  15. Directional spectrum of ocean waves from array measurements using phase/time/path difference methods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Menon, H.B.

    Wave direction has for the first time been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated from array measurements using the phase/time/path difference (PTPD) methods of Esteva in case of polygonal arrays and Borgman in case of linear arrays...

  16. Estimating the direction of innovative change based on theory an mixed methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2001-01-01

    In predicting the direction of innovative changethe question arises of the valid measurement ofyet unknown variables. We developed and applied aresearch method that combines qualitativeand quantitative elements in one interview formatand an analysis tool suitable for these data. Animportant

  17. One-Step Direct Return Method For Mohr-Coulomb Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Andersen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    A new return method for the Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria is presented. The idea is to transform the problem into the principal direction and thereby achieve very simple formulas for calculating the elastic return stresses.......A new return method for the Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria is presented. The idea is to transform the problem into the principal direction and thereby achieve very simple formulas for calculating the elastic return stresses....

  18. A comparison of photographic, replication and direct clinical examination methods for detecting developmental defects of enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakshir Hamid-Reza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different methods have been used for detecting developmental defects of enamel (DDE. This study aimed to compare photographic and replication methods with the direct clinical examination method for detecting DDE in children's permanent incisors. Methods 110 8-10-year-old schoolchildren were randomly selected from an examined sample of 335 primary Shiraz school children. Modified DDE index was used in all three methods. Direct examinations were conducted by two calibrated examiners using flat oral mirrors and tongue blades. Photographs were taken using a digital SLR camera (Nikon D-80, macro lens, macro flashes, and matt flash filters. Impressions were taken using additional-curing silicon material and casts made in orthodontic stone. Impressions and models were both assessed using dental loupes (magnification=x3.5. Each photograph/impression/cast was assessed by two calibrated examiners. Reliability of methods was assessed using kappa agreement tests. Kappa agreement, McNemar's and two-sample proportion tests were used to compare results obtained by the photographic and replication methods with those obtained by the direct examination method. Results Of the 110 invited children, 90 were photographed and 73 had impressions taken. The photographic method had higher reliability levels than the other two methods, and compared to the direct clinical examination detected significantly more subjects with DDE (P = 0.002, 3.1 times more DDE (P Conclusion The photographic method was much more sensitive than direct clinical examination in detecting DDE and was the best of the three methods for epidemiological studies. The replication method provided less information about DDE compared to photography. Results of this study have implications for both epidemiological and detailed clinical studies on DDE.

  19. Quadrature Errors and DC Offsets Calibration of Analog Complex Cross-Correlator for Interferometric Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of the cross-correlator are crucial issues for interferometric imaging systems. In this paper, an analog complex cross-correlator with output DC offsets and amplitudes calibration capability is proposed for interferometric passive millimeter-wave security sensing applications. By employing digital potentiometers in the low frequency amplification circuits of the correlator, the outputs characteristics of the correlator could be digitally controlled. A measurement system and a corresponding calibration scheme were developed in order to eliminate the output DC offsets and the quadrature amplitude error between the in-phase and the quadrature correlating subunits of the complex correlator. By using vector modulators to provide phase controllable correlated noise signals, the measurement system was capable of obtaining the output correlation circle of the correlator. When injected with −18 dBm correlated noise signals, the calibrated quadrature amplitude error was 0.041 dB and the calibrated DC offsets were under 26 mV, which was only 7.1% of the uncalibrated value. Furthermore, we also described a quadrature errors calibration algorithm in order to estimate the quadrature phase error and in order to improve the output phase accuracy of the correlator. After applying this calibration, we were able to reduce the output phase error of the correlator to 0.3°.

  20. Determination of velocity vector angles using the directional cross-correlation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    and then select the angle with the highest normalized correlation between directional signals. The approach is investigated using Field II simulations and data from the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and with a parabolic flow having a peak velocity of 0.3 m/s. A 7 MHz linear array transducer is used......A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in any direction is suggested. The method uses focusing along the velocity direction and cross-correlation for finding the correct velocity magnitude. The angle is found from beamforming directional signals in a number of directions......-time ) between signals to correlate, and a proper choice varies with flow angle and flow velocity. One performance example is given with a fixed value of k tprf for all flow angles. The angle estimation on measured data for flow at 60 ◦ to 90 ◦ , yields a probability of valid estimates between 68% and 98...

  1. Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method

  2. Evaluation of direct saponification method for determination of cholesterol in meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M L; Sullivan, D M; Smith, R L; Richter, E F

    1986-01-01

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for determination of cholesterol in meats. The method involves ethanolic KOH saponification of the sample material, homogeneous-phase toluene extraction of the unsaponifiables, derivatization of cholesterol to its trimethylsilylether, and quantitation by GC-flame ionization detection using 5-alpha-cholestane as internal standard. This direct saponification method is compared with the current AOAC official method for determination of cholesterol in 20 different meat products. The direct saponification method eliminates the need for initial lipid extraction, thus offering a 30% savings in labor, and requires fewer solvents than the AOAC method. It produced comparable or slightly higher cholesterol results than the AOAC method in all meat samples examined. Precision, determined by assaying a turkey meat sample 16 times over 4 days, was excellent (CV = 1.74%). Average recovery of cholesterol added to meat samples was 99.8%.

  3. A Quadrature-Based Tunable Radio-Frequency Sensor for the Detection and Analysis of Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; He, Yuxi; Wang, Pingshan

    2014-07-01

    A highly tunable and sensitive radio-frequency (RF) sensor is presented for the measurement of aqueous-solution dielectric properties. Two quadrature hybrids are utilized to achieve destructive interference that eliminates the probing signals at both measurement ports. As a result, weak signals of material-under-test (MUT) are elevated for high sensitivity detections at different frequencies. The sensor is demonstrated through measuring 2-propanol-water solution permittivity at 0.01 mole fraction concentration level from ~4 GHz to ~12 GHz. De-ionized water and methanol-water solution are used to calibrate the sensor for quantitative MUT analysis through our proposed model. Micro-meter coplanar waveguides (CPW) are fabricated as RF sensing electrodes. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel is employed to introduce 250 nL liquid, of which ~1 nL is effectively the MUT. The permittivity and the relaxation time of 2-propanol-water solution are obtained. Compared with our power divider based sensors, the differential reflection coefficients in this work provide additional information that complements the transmission coefficient methods.

  4. Elastic-plastic fracture assessment using a J-R curve by direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asta, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    In the elastic-plastic evaluation methods, based on J integral and tearing modulus procedures, an essential input is the material fracture resistance (J-R) curve. In order to simplify J-R determination direct, a method from load-load point displacement records of the single specimen tests may be employed. This procedure has advantages such as avoiding accuracy problems of the crack growth measuring devices and reducing testing time. This paper presents a structural integrity assessment approach, for ductile fracture, using the J-R obtained by a direct method from small single specimen fracture tests. The J-R direct method was carried out by means of a developed computational program based on theoretical elastic-plastic expressions. A comparative evaluation between the direct method J resistance curves and those obtained by the standard testing methodology on typical pressure vessel steels has been made. The J-R curves estimated from the direct method give an acceptable agreement with the approach proposed in this study which is reliable to use for engineering determinations. (orig.)

  5. Direct fourier method reconstruction based on unequally spaced fast fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhao Ming; Liu Li

    2003-01-01

    First, We give an Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT) method, which is more exact and theoretically more comprehensible than its former counterpart. Then, with an interesting interpolation scheme, we discusse how to apply USFFT to Direct Fourier Method (DFM) reconstruction of parallel projection data. At last, an emulation experiment result is given. (authors)

  6. A Modified Limited-Memory BNS Method for Unconstrained Minimization Based on the Conjugate Directions Idea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Jan; Lukšan, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2015), s. 616-633 ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : unconstrained minimization * variable metric methods * limited-memory methods * the BFGS update * conjugate directions * numerical results Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.841, year: 2015

  7. A Three Step Explicit Method for Direct Solution of Third Order ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study produces a three step discrete Linear Multistep Method for Direct solution of third order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations of the form y'''= f(x,y,y',y''). Taylor series expansion technique was adopted in the development of the method. The differential system from the basis polynomial function to ...

  8. A direct algebraic method applied to obtain complex solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using some exact solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct the exact complex solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is implemented for the NLS equation, a new Hamiltonian amplitude equation, the coupled Schrodinger-KdV equations and the Hirota-Maccari equations. New exact complex solutions are obtained.

  9. Multiple Site-Directed and Saturation Mutagenesis by the Patch Cloning Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Naohiro; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Constructing protein-coding genes with desired mutations is a basic step for protein engineering. Herein, we describe a multiple site-directed and saturation mutagenesis method, termed MUPAC. This method has been used to introduce multiple site-directed mutations in the green fluorescent protein gene and in the moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase gene. Moreover, this method was also successfully used to introduce randomized codons at five desired positions in the green fluorescent protein gene, and for simple DNA assembly for cloning.

  10. Determination of the response time of pressure transducers using the direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, S.R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The available methods to determine the response time of nuclear safety related pressure transducers are discussed, with emphasis to the direct method. In order to perform the experiments, a Hydraulic Ramp Generator was built. The equipment produces ramp pressure transients simultaneously to a reference transducer and to the transducer under test. The time lag between the output of the two transducers, when they reach a predetermined setpoint, is measured as the time delay of the transducer under test. Some results using the direct method to determine the time delay of pressure transducers (1 E Class Conventional) are presented. (author). 18 refs, 35 figs, 12 tabs

  11. Sensitivity study with respect to direction of ADI method during re-flooding in AHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M.; Mukhopadhyay, D. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Raja Ramanna Fellow; Kumar, R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2015-05-15

    The Advanced Heavy water Reactor (AHWR) is a natural circulation vertical pressure tube type boiling light water cooled and heavy water moderated reactor. As the AHWR fuel bundle quenching under accident condition is designed primarily with radial jets at several axial locations, bottom re-flooding still remain open as another option. Radial direction injection of emergency core cooling leads to rewetting of AHWR fuel cluster in circumferential direction. A 3D fuel pin model has been developed by using Finite Difference Method (FDM) of transient heat conduction equation. Alternating Direction Implicit technique of Finite Difference Method (FDM) has been used for discretisation of numerical equation in different time step at different direction. Sensitivity numerical study with respect to direction of ADI method has been carried out to optimize the time step during the transient as well as steady state and is found that it is insensitivity with direction of solution. Further, to assess influence of circumferential rewetting vis-a-vis axial rewetting. Both the analyses are carried out with same fluid temperature and heat transfer coefficients as boundary conditions. It has been found from the analyses that for radial jet, the circumferential conduction is significant and overall the fuel temperature falls in the quench plane with the initiation of quenching event. The paper discusses the sensitivity study with respect to direction of ADI solution and comparison of numerical results for circumferential and axial rewetting for single pin.

  12. Evaluation of two methods for direct detection of Fusarium spp. in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Mariana G; van der Heijden, Inneke M; Perdigão, Lauro; Taira, Cleison; Costa, Silvia F; Levin, Anna S

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium is a waterborne fungus that causes severe infections especially in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Traditionally, the detection of Fusarium in water is done by culturing which is difficult and time consuming. A faster method is necessary to prevent exposure of susceptible patients to contaminated water. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular technique for direct detection of Fusarium in water. A direct DNA extraction method from water was developed and coupled to a genus-specific PCR, to detect 3 species of Fusarium (verticillioides, oxysporum and solani). The detection limits were 10 cells/L and 1 cell/L for the molecular and culture methods, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first method developed to detect Fusarium directly from water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, M; Haussmann, W; Hayman, W; Rogge, L

    1992-01-01

    This volume consists of the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics, which was held at Hanstholm, Denmark. These proceedings include the main invited talks and contributed papers given during the workshop. The aim of these lectures was to present a selection of results of the latest research in the field. In addition to covering topics in approximation by solutions of partial differential equations and quadrature formulae, this volume is also concerned with related areas, such as Gaussian quadratures, the Pompelu problem, rational approximation to the Fresnel integral, boundary correspondence of univalent harmonic mappings, the application of the Hilbert transform in two dimensional aerodynamics, finely open sets in the limit set of a finitely generated Kleinian group, scattering theory, harmonic and maximal measures for rational functions and the solution of the classical Dirichlet problem. In ...

  14. An in-building network based on community access television integration with quadrature phase-shift keying orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Yi; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Lin, Huang-Chang; Wu, Hsiao-Wen

    2012-01-01

    An in-building network based on cable television (CATV) integration with quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transport over a combination of single-mode fibers (SMF) and perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fibers (GI-POF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, a 1558.5 nm optical signal is directly transmitted along two fiber spans (20 km SMF + 25 m GI-POF). An optimum guard band is carefully established to ensure that no very substantial signal interference is induced between the CATV and QPSK OFDM bands. Error free transmission with sufficiently low bit error rate values was achieved for 1.25 Gbps/771.5 MHz QPSK OFDM signals; also, acceptable carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second-order, and composite triple-beat performances were obtained for CATV signals. This proposed network is significant because it is economical and convenient to install. (paper)

  15. Quadrature squeezing of a mechanical resonator generated by the electromechanical coupling with two coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yan [Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Zhu, Jia-pei [Department of Physics, Honghe University, Mengzi (China); Zhao, Shao-ming; Li, Gao-xiang [Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China)

    2015-01-01

    The quadrature squeezing of a mechanical resonator (MR) coupled with two quantum dots (QDs) through the electromechanical coupling, where the QDs are driven by a strong and two weak laser fields is investigated. By tuning the gate voltage, the electron can be trapped in a quantum pure state. Under certain conditions, the discrepancies between the transition frequency and that of two weak fields are compensated by the phonons induced by the electromechanical coupling of the MR with QDs. In this case, some dissipative processes occur resonantly. The phonons created and (or) annihilated in these dissipative processes are correlated thus leading to the quadrature squeezing of the MR. A squeezed vacuum reservoir for the MR is built up. By tuning the gate voltage to control the energy structure of the QDs, the present squeezing scheme has strong resistance against the dephasing processes of the QDs in low temperature limit. The role of the temperature of the phonon reservoir is to damage squeezing of the MR. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. A 9-Bit 50 MSPS Quadrature Parallel Pipeline ADC for Communication Receiver Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sounak; Banerjee, Swapna

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) for superheterodyne receiver application. Several enhancement techniques have been applied in implementing the ADC, in order to relax the target specifications of its building blocks. The concepts of time interleaving and double sampling have been used simultaneously to enhance the sampling speed and to reduce the number of amplifiers used in the ADC. Removal of a front end sample-and-hold amplifier is possible by employing dynamic comparators with switched capacitor based comparison of input signal and reference voltage. Each module of the ADC comprises two 2.5-bit stages followed by two 1.5-bit stages and a 3-bit flash stage. Four such pipeline ADC modules are time interleaved using two pairs of non-overlapping clock signals. These two pairs of clock signals are in phase quadrature with each other. Hence the term quadrature parallel pipeline ADC has been used. These configurations ensure that the entire ADC contains only eight operational-trans-conductance amplifiers. The ADC is implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS process and supply voltage of 1.8 V. The proto-type is tested at sampling frequencies of 50 and 75 MSPS producing an Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of 6.86- and 6.11-bits respectively. At peak sampling speed, the core ADC consumes only 65 mW of power.

  17. Quadrature transmit coil for breast imaging at 7 tesla using forced current excitation for improved homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Mary Preston; Cheshkov, Sergey; Rispoli, Joseph; Malloy, Craig; Dimitrov, Ivan; Wright, Steven M

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the use of forced current excitation (FCE) to create homogeneous excitation of the breast at 7 tesla, insensitive to the effects of asymmetries in the electrical environment. FCE was implemented on two breast coils: one for quadrature (1) H imaging and one for proton-decoupled (13) C spectroscopy. Both were a Helmholtz-saddle combination, with the saddle tuned to 298 MHz for imaging and 75 MHz for spectroscopy. Bench measurements were acquired to demonstrate the ability to force equal currents on elements in the presence of asymmetric loading to improve homogeneity. Modeling and temperature measurements were conducted per safety protocol. B1 mapping, imaging, and proton-decoupled (13) C spectroscopy were demonstrated in vivo. Using FCE to ensure balanced currents on elements enabled straightforward tuning and maintaining of isolation between quadrature elements of the coil. Modeling and bench measurements confirmed homogeneity of the field, which resulted in images with excellent fat suppression and in broadband proton-decoupled carbon-13 spectra. FCE is a straightforward approach to ensure equal currents on multiple coil elements and a homogeneous excitation field, insensitive to the effects of asymmetries in the electrical environment. This enabled effective breast imaging and proton-decoupled carbon-13 spectroscopy at 7T. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Electronically Tunable Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Equal Output Amplitudes during Frequency Tuning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Den Satipar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new configuration of voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator is proposed. The proposed oscillator employs two voltage differencing current conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors, and two grounded capacitors. In this design, the use of multiple/dual output terminal active building block is not required. The tuning of frequency of oscillation (FO can be done electronically by adjusting the bias current of active device without affecting condition of oscillation (CO. The electronic tuning can be done by controlling the bias current using a digital circuit. The amplitude of two sinusoidal outputs is equal when the frequency of oscillation is tuned. This makes the sinusoidal output voltages meet good total harmonic distortions (THD. Moreover, the proposed circuit can provide the sinusoidal output current with high impedance which is connected to external load or to another circuit without the use of buffer device. To confirm that the oscillator can generate the quadrature sinusoidal output signal, the experimental results using VDCC constructed from commercially available ICs are also included. The experimental results agree well with theoretical anticipation.

  19. Neutron methods for the direct determination of the magnetic induction in thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhevnikov, S.V., E-mail: kozhevn@nf.jinr.ru [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ott, F. [CEA, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); CNRS, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Radu, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We review different neutron methods which allow extracting directly the value of the magnetic induction in thick films: Larmor precession, Zeeman spatial beam-splitting and neutron spin resonance. Resulting parameters obtained by the neutron methods and standard magnetometry technique are presented and compared. The possibilities and specificities of the neutron methods are discussed. - Highlights: • We present neutron methods for investigations of the thick magnetic films. • It is the methods for the direct determination of the magnetic induction. • Magnetic induction in bulk, at single interface and in a single domain. • It is Larmor precession, Zeeman spatial beam-splitting and neutron spin resonance. • These methods are complementary to polarized neutron reflectometry.

  20. An Improved Local Gradient Method for Sea Surface Wind Direction Retrieval from SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhang Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface wind affects the fluxes of energy, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and ocean, and therefore regional and global weather and climate. With various satellite microwave sensors, sea surface wind can be measured with large spatial coverage in almost all-weather conditions, day or night. Like any other remote sensing measurements, sea surface wind measurement is also indirect. Therefore, it is important to develop appropriate wind speed and direction retrieval models for different types of microwave instruments. In this paper, a new sea surface wind direction retrieval method from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is developed. In the method, local gradients are computed in frequency domain by combining the operation of smoothing and computing local gradients in one step to simplify the process and avoid the difference approximation. This improved local gradients (ILG method is compared with the traditional two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT method and local gradients (LG method, using interpolating wind directions from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF reanalysis data and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP wind vector product. The sensitivities to the salt-and-pepper noise, the additive noise and the multiplicative noise are analyzed. The ILG method shows a better performance of retrieval wind directions than the other two methods.

  1. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J. B.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    1993-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to review the methods of soil- structure interaction system analysis, particularly the direct method, and to carry out the blind prediction analysis of the Forced Vibration Test(FVT) before backfill in the course of Hualien LSST project. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : theoretical review on soil-structure interaction analysis methods, free-field response analysis methods, modelling methods of unbounded exterior region, hualien LSST FVT blind prediction analysis before backfill. The analysis results are found to be very well compared with the field test results

  2. A Root-MUSIC-Like Direction Finding Method for Cyclostationary Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yide Wang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new root-MUSIC-like direction finding algorithm that exploits cyclostationarity in order to improve the direction-of-arrival estimation. The proposed cyclic method is signal selective, it allows to increase the resolution power and the noise robustness significantly, and it is also able to handle more sources than the number of sensors. Computer simulations are used to show the performance of the algorithm.

  3. Direct methods of solution for problems in mechanics from invariance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Direct solutions to problems in mechanics are developed from variational statements derived from the principle of invariance of the action integral under a one-parameter family of infinitesimal transformations. Exact, direct solution procedures for linear systems are developed by a careful choice of the arbitrary functions used to generate the infinitesimal transformations. It is demonstrated that the well-known methods for the solution of differential equations can be directly adapted to the required variational statements. Examples in particle and continuum mechanics are presented

  4. Inter-comparison of different direct and indirect methods to determine radon flux from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, C.; Vargas, A.; Camacho, A.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P.; Xia Yu; Conen, F.

    2011-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of radon gas make it a good tracer for use in the application of atmospheric transport models. For this purpose the radon source needs to be known on a global scale and this is difficult to achieve by only direct experimental methods. However, indirect methods can provide radon flux maps on larger scales, but their reliability has to be carefully checked. It is the aim of this work to compare radon flux values obtained by direct and indirect methods in a measurement campaign performed in the summer of 2008. Different systems to directly measure radon flux from the soil surface and to measure the related parameters terrestrial γ dose and 226 Ra activity in soil, for indirect estimation of radon flux, were tested. Four eastern Spanish sites with different geological and soil characteristics were selected: Teruel, Los Pedrones, Quintanar de la Orden and Madrid. The study shows the usefulness of both direct and indirect methods for obtaining radon flux data. Direct radon flux measurements by continuous and integrated monitors showed a coefficient of variation between 10% and 23%. At the same time, indirect methods based on correlations between 222 Rn and terrestrial γ dose rate, or 226 Ra activity in soil, provided results similar to the direct measurements, when these proxies were directly measured at the site. Larger discrepancies were found when proxy values were extracted from existing data bases. The participating members involved in the campaign study were the Institute of Energy Technology (INTE) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Huelva University (UHU), and Basel University (BASEL).

  5. Novel in situ radiotracer methods for the direct and indirect study of chromate adsorption on alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancs, L.; Nemeth, Z.; Horanyi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotracer methods, particularly the radiotracer thin foil method, provide unique possibility of in situ monitoring of chromate adsorption on powdered adsorbents. Two different versions of the thin foil method can be distinguished. In the direct method, the species to be studied is labelled and the radiation measured gives direct information on the adsorption of this species. In the indirect method, a different labelled indicator species is added to the system and the adsorption of this species is followed and the adsorption of the species to be studied is determined based on analysis of the competitive adsorption processes. Both methods were used in the present study. In the in situ methods, the radiation measured consists of two main parts, one coming from the solution background, the other originating from the adsorption layer. In the case of the thin foil method using isotopes emitting soft β - radiation or low energy X-ray the solution background is governed and minimised by self-absorption of the radiation. In the direct study we applied an experimental methodology based on the energy selective measurement of the characteristic K α,β X-radiation emitted by the 51 Cr-labelled chromate species, whereas 35 S-labelled sulphate ions were used as the indicator species in the indirect study. (P.A.)

  6. Numerical Simulation of Voltage Electric Field in Complex Geometries for Different Electrode Arrangements using Meshless Local MQ-DQ Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaal, M.; Soleimani, Soheil; Domairry, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the meshless Local Multi Quadrics-based Differential Quadrature (MQ-DQ) method is applied to obtain the electric field distribution for different applicable irregular geometries. This method is the combination of Differential Quadrature approximation of derivatives and function...

  7. A robust direct-integration method for rotorcraft maneuver and periodic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Brahmananda

    1992-01-01

    The Newmark-Beta method and the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme are combined to develop a direct-integration method for evaluating the maneuver and periodic-response expressions for rotorcraft. The method requires the generation of Jacobians and includes higher derivatives in the formulation of the geometric stiffness matrix to enhance the convergence of the system. The method leads to effective convergence with nonlinear structural dynamics and aerodynamic terms. Singularities in the matrices can be addressed with the method as they arise from a Lagrange multiplier approach for coupling equations with nonlinear constraints. The method is also shown to be general enough to handle singularities from quasisteady control-system models. The method is shown to be more general and robust than the similar 2GCHAS method for analyzing rotorcraft dynamics.

  8. Direct LSC method for determination of bio-origin by C-14 measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, Romana; Kozar Logar, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the generalized direct liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) method for bio-origin determination by measurement of C-14. Examples of diversified items with known and unknown bio-origin were measured by liquid scintillation counting and analyzed by procedures, developed for fuel samples. Bio-origin of fuels, lubricants and monomer resins were successfully determined via direct LSC method after simple sample preparation with acceptable accuracy and trueness despite their diversity in color, viscosity, density or chemical composition. (author)

  9. Direct integral linear least square regression method for kinetic evaluation of hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuke, Noriyuki

    1991-01-01

    In hepatobiliary scintigraphy, kinetic model analysis, which provides kinetic parameters like hepatic extraction or excretion rate, have been done for quantitative evaluation of liver function. In this analysis, unknown model parameters are usually determined using nonlinear least square regression method (NLS method) where iterative calculation and initial estimate for unknown parameters are required. As a simple alternative to NLS method, direct integral linear least square regression method (DILS method), which can determine model parameters by a simple calculation without initial estimate, is proposed, and tested the applicability to analysis of hepatobiliary scintigraphy. In order to see whether DILS method could determine model parameters as good as NLS method, or to determine appropriate weight for DILS method, simulated theoretical data based on prefixed parameters were fitted to 1 compartment model using both DILS method with various weightings and NLS method. The parameter values obtained were then compared with prefixed values which were used for data generation. The effect of various weights on the error of parameter estimate was examined, and inverse of time was found to be the best weight to make the error minimum. When using this weight, DILS method could give parameter values close to those obtained by NLS method and both parameter values were very close to prefixed values. With appropriate weighting, the DILS method could provide reliable parameter estimate which is relatively insensitive to the data noise. In conclusion, the DILS method could be used as a simple alternative to NLS method, providing reliable parameter estimate. (author)

  10. Estimating Steatosis Prevalence in Overweight and Obese Children: Comparison of Bayesian Small Area and Direct Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Often, there is no access to sufficient sample size to estimate the prevalence using the method of direct estimator in all areas. The aim of this study was to compare small area’s Bayesian method and direct method in estimating the prevalence of steatosis in obese and overweight children. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese children aged 2 to 15 years referred to the Children's digestive clinic of Urmia University of Medical Sciences- Iran, in 2013. After Body mass index (BMI calculation, children with overweight and obese were assessed in terms of primary tests of obesity screening. Then children with steatosis confirmed by abdominal Ultrasonography, were referred to the laboratory for doing further tests. Steatosis prevalence was estimated by direct and Bayesian method and their efficiency were evaluated using mean-square error Jackknife method. The study data was analyzed using the open BUGS3.1.2 and R2.15.2 software. Results: The findings indicated that estimation of steatosis prevalence in children using Bayesian and direct methods were between 0.3098 to 0.493, and 0.355 to 0.560 respectively, in Health Districts; 0.3098 to 0.502, and 0.355 to 0.550 in Education Districts; 0.321 to 0.582, and 0.357 to 0.615 in age groups; 0.313 to 0.429, and 0.383 to 0.536 in sex groups. In general, according to the results, mean-square error of Bayesian estimation was smaller than direct estimation (P

  11. Directional fractal signature methods for trabecular bone texture in hand radiographs: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolski, M., E-mail: marcin.wolski@curtin.edu.au; Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G. W. [Tribology Laboratory, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia 6102 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop directional fractal signature methods for the analysis of trabecular bone (TB) texture in hand radiographs. Problems associated with the small size of hand bones and the orientation of fingers were addressed. Methods: An augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) and a quadrant rotating grid (QRG) methods were developed. The methods calculate fractal signatures (FSs) in different directions. Unlike other methods they have the search region adjusted according to the size of bone region of interest (ROI) to be analyzed and they produce FSs defined with respect to any chosen reference direction, i.e., they work for arbitrary orientation of fingers. Five parameters at scales ranging from 2 to 14 pixels (depending on image size and method) were derived from rose plots of Hurst coefficients, i.e., FS in dominating roughness (FS{sub Sta}), vertical (FS{sub V}) and horizontal (FS{sub H}) directions, aspect ratio (StrS), and direction signatures (StdS), respectively. The accuracy in measuring surface roughness and isotropy/anisotropy was evaluated using 3600 isotropic and 800 anisotropic fractal surface images of sizes between 20 × 20 and 64 × 64 pixels. The isotropic surfaces had FDs ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 in steps of 0.1, and the anisotropic surfaces had two dominating directions of 30° and 120°. The methods were used to find differences in hand TB textures between 20 matched pairs of subjects with (cases: approximate Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2) and without (controls: approximate KL grade <2) radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). The OA Initiative public database was used and 20 × 20 pixel bone ROIs were selected on 5th distal and middle phalanges. The performance of the AVOT and QRG methods was compared against a variance orientation transform (VOT) method developed earlier [M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, and G. W. Stachowiak, “Directional fractal signature analysis of trabecular bone: evaluation of different methods to detect early

  12. Directional fractal signature methods for trabecular bone texture in hand radiographs: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, M.; Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop directional fractal signature methods for the analysis of trabecular bone (TB) texture in hand radiographs. Problems associated with the small size of hand bones and the orientation of fingers were addressed. Methods: An augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) and a quadrant rotating grid (QRG) methods were developed. The methods calculate fractal signatures (FSs) in different directions. Unlike other methods they have the search region adjusted according to the size of bone region of interest (ROI) to be analyzed and they produce FSs defined with respect to any chosen reference direction, i.e., they work for arbitrary orientation of fingers. Five parameters at scales ranging from 2 to 14 pixels (depending on image size and method) were derived from rose plots of Hurst coefficients, i.e., FS in dominating roughness (FS Sta ), vertical (FS V ) and horizontal (FS H ) directions, aspect ratio (StrS), and direction signatures (StdS), respectively. The accuracy in measuring surface roughness and isotropy/anisotropy was evaluated using 3600 isotropic and 800 anisotropic fractal surface images of sizes between 20 × 20 and 64 × 64 pixels. The isotropic surfaces had FDs ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 in steps of 0.1, and the anisotropic surfaces had two dominating directions of 30° and 120°. The methods were used to find differences in hand TB textures between 20 matched pairs of subjects with (cases: approximate Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2) and without (controls: approximate KL grade <2) radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). The OA Initiative public database was used and 20 × 20 pixel bone ROIs were selected on 5th distal and middle phalanges. The performance of the AVOT and QRG methods was compared against a variance orientation transform (VOT) method developed earlier [M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, and G. W. Stachowiak, “Directional fractal signature analysis of trabecular bone: evaluation of different methods to detect early osteoarthritis

  13. Direct-substitution method for studying second harmonic generation in arbitrary optical superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the direct-substitution (DS method to study the second-harmonic generation (SHG in arbitrary one-dimensional optical superlattices (OS. Applying this method to Fibonacci and generalized Fibonacci systems, we obtain the relative intensity of SHG and compare them with previous works. We confirmed the validity of the proposed DS method by comparing our results of SHG in quasiperiodic Fibonacci OS with previous works using analytical Fourier transform method. Furthermore, the three-dimension SHG spectra obtained by DS method present the properties of SHG in Fibonacci OS more distinctly. What’s more important, the DS method demands very few limits and can be used to compute directly and conveniently the intensity of SHG in arbitrary OS where the quasi-phase-matching (QPM can be achieved. It shows that the DS method is powerful for the calculation of electric field and intensity of SHG and can help experimentalists conveniently to estimate the distributions of SHG in any designed polarized systems. Keywords: Second-harmonic generation, Direct-substitution, Fibonacci

  14. Study of Fuze Structure and Reliability Design Based on the Direct Search Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhang; Ning, Wang

    2017-03-01

    Redundant design is one of the important methods to improve the reliability of the system, but mutual coupling of multiple factors is often involved in the design. In my study, Direct Search Method is introduced into the optimum redundancy configuration for design optimization, in which, the reliability, cost, structural weight and other factors can be taken into account simultaneously, and the redundant allocation and reliability design of aircraft critical system are computed. The results show that this method is convenient and workable, and applicable to the redundancy configurations and optimization of various designs upon appropriate modifications. And this method has a good practical value.

  15. Development of spectral history methods for pin-by-pin core analysis method using three-dimensional direct response matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyasu, T.; Ishii, K.; Hino, T.; Aoyama, M.

    2009-01-01

    Spectral history methods for pin-by-pin core analysis method using the three-dimensional direct response matrix have been developed. The direct response matrix is formalized by four sub-response matrices in order to respond to a core eigenvalue k and thus can be recomposed at each outer iteration in the core analysis. For core analysis, it is necessary to take into account the burn-up effect related to spectral history. One of the methods is to evaluate the nodal burn-up spectrum obtained using the out-going neutron current. The other is to correct the fuel rod neutron production rates obtained the pin-by-pin correction. These spectral history methods were tested in a heterogeneous system. The test results show that the neutron multiplication factor error can be reduced by half during burn-up, the nodal neutron production rates errors can be reduced by 30% or more. The root-mean-square differences between the relative fuel rod neutron production rate distributions can be reduced within 1.1% error. This means that these methods can accurately reflect the effects of intra- and inter-assembly heterogeneities during burn-up and can be used for core analysis. Core analysis with the DRM method was carried out for an ABWR quarter core and it was found that both thermal power and coolant-flow distributions were smoothly converged. (authors)

  16. Novel methods to optimize the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a systematic review of transcranial direct current stimulation patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavera, Alejandra; Vasquez, Alejandra; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has been extensively studied. While there have been initial positive results in some clinical trials, there is still variability in tDCS results. The aim of this article is to review and discuss patents assessing novel methods to optimize the use of tDCS. A systematic review was performed using Google patents database with tDCS as the main technique, with patents filling date between 2010 and 2015. Twenty-two patents met our inclusion criteria. These patents attempt to address current tDCS limitations. Only a few of them have been investigated in clinical trials (i.e., high-definition tDCS), and indeed most of them have not been tested before in human trials. Further clinical testing is required to assess which patents are more likely to optimize the effects of tDCS. We discuss the potential optimization of tDCS based on these patents and the current experience with standard tDCS.

  17. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid.

  18. An efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, S-G; Ouahsine, A; Smaoui, H; Favier, J; Hoarau, Y

    2015-01-01

    A novel efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows with complex boundaries is presented. In the previous work [1], the calculation is performed on the Cartesian grid regardless of the immersed object, with a fictitious force evaluated on the Lagrangian points to mimic the presence of the physical boundaries. However the explicit direct forcing method [1] fails to accurately impose the non-slip boundary condition on the immersed interface. In the present work, the calculation is based on the implicit treatment of the artificial force while in an effective way of system iteration. The accuracy is also improved by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with the rotational incremental pressure- correction projection method of Guermond and Shen [2]. Numerical simulations performed with the proposed method are in good agreement with those in the literature

  19. Direct reconstruction of pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography by the augmented Lagrangian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dianwen; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yue; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) has the potential to quantify physiological or biochemical information, known as pharmacokinetic parameters, which are important for cancer detection, drug development and delivery etc. To image those parameters, there are indirect methods, which are easier to implement but tend to provide images with low signal-to-noise ratio, and direct methods, which model all the measurement noises together and are statistically more efficient. The direct reconstruction methods in dynamic FMT have attracted a lot of attention recently. However, the coupling of tomographic image reconstruction and nonlinearity of kinetic parameter estimation due to the compartment modeling has imposed a huge computational burden to the direct reconstruction of the kinetic parameters. In this paper, we propose to take advantage of both the direct and indirect reconstruction ideas through a variable splitting strategy under the augmented Lagrangian framework. Each iteration of the direct reconstruction is split into two steps: the dynamic FMT image reconstruction and the node-wise nonlinear least squares fitting of the pharmacokinetic parameter images. Through numerical simulation studies, we have found that the proposed algorithm can achieve good reconstruction results within a small amount of time. This will be the first step for a combined dynamic PET and FMT imaging in the future.

  20. A Robust Real Time Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Method for Sequential Movement Events of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing; Zhou, Qianwei; Huang, Jingchang

    2018-03-27

    Parameters estimation of sequential movement events of vehicles is facing the challenges of noise interferences and the demands of portable implementation. In this paper, we propose a robust direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method for the sequential movement events of vehicles based on a small Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) microphone array system. Inspired by the incoherent signal-subspace method (ISM), the method that is proposed in this work employs multiple sub-bands, which are selected from the wideband signals with high magnitude-squared coherence to track moving vehicles in the presence of wind noise. The field test results demonstrate that the proposed method has a better performance in emulating the DOA of a moving vehicle even in the case of severe wind interference than the narrowband multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method, the sub-band DOA estimation method, and the classical two-sided correlation transformation (TCT) method.

  1. Describing the organization of dominance relationships by dominance-directed tree method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izar, Patrícia; Ferreira, Renata G; Sato, Takechi

    2006-02-01

    Methods to describe dominance hierarchies are a key tool in primatology studies. Most current methods are appropriate for analyzing linear and near-linear hierarchies; however, more complex structures are common in primate groups. We propose a method termed "dominance-directed tree." This method is based on graph theory and set theory to analyze dominance relationships in social groups. The method constructs a transitive matrix by imposing transitivity to the dominance matrix and produces a graphical representation of the dominance relationships, which allows an easy visualization of the hierarchical position of the individuals, or subsets of individuals. The method is also able to detect partial and complete hierarchies, and to describe situations in which hierarchical and nonhierarchical principles operate. To illustrate the method, we apply a dominance tree analysis to artificial data and empirical data from a group of Cebus apella. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Sensitivity assessment of direct method for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in comparison with Dorset Culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim badparva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that lives in the genital tract and causes trichomoniasis in women. About 200 million people all over the world are infected with T. vaginalis. There are various methods with different sensitivity and specificity for detection of this parasite, that one of them is direct smear of vaginal secretions which is simpler, rapid and cheaper than other diagnostic methods. Materials and Methods: Demographic data was gathered by a questionnaire which contained different variables. Vaginal secretions samples were taken by spicolum and two swaps that maintained in glucose solution in separate tubes from 160 women referred to health centers of Khorramabad. One of the vaginal samples was examined by direct smear in saline solution and the other was cultured in Dorse medium. Results: Of 160 women suspected of trichomoniasis, 11.8% and 18.75% were positive by direct smear and culture respectively. The sensitivity of the direct method was 63.3%. Our findings indicated that 30% of the infected women belonged to the 31 – 35 age group, which had the most relative frequency of positive cases. Most of the patients (43% were illiterate or had elementary educational level. Conclussion: The sensivity of direct method is 63% in compare to culture ( as a Gold standard , which is ralatively low . Although the efficacy of this test could be imporved by shortening the elapsed time between sampling and examination , use of skilled microscopists , and different samples , but we recommend that more sensitive methods such as culture and PCR should be used .

  3. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION WITH THE DIRECT METHOD ON STACKED SPECTRA OF SDSS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Martini, Paul, E-mail: andrews@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The relation between galaxy stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity is a sensitive diagnostic of the main processes that drive galaxy evolution, namely cosmological gas inflow, metal production in stars, and gas outflow via galactic winds. We employed the direct method to measure the metallicities of {approx}200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were stacked in bins of (1) stellar mass and (2) both stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the weak [O III] {lambda}4363 and [O II] {lambda}{lambda}7320, 7330 auroral lines required to apply the direct method. These metallicity measurements span three decades in stellar mass from log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 7.4-10.5, which allows the direct method mass-metallicity relation to simultaneously capture the high-mass turnover and extend a full decade lower in mass than previous studies that employed more uncertain strong line methods. The direct method mass-metallicity relation rises steeply at low mass (O/H {proportional_to} M{sub *} {sup 1/2}) until it turns over at log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 8.9 and asymptotes to 12 + log(O/H) = 8.8 at high mass. The direct method mass-metallicity relation has a steeper slope, a lower turnover mass, and a factor of two to three greater dependence on SFR than strong line mass-metallicity relations. Furthermore, the SFR-dependence appears monotonic with stellar mass, unlike strong line mass-metallicity relations. We also measure the N/O abundance ratio, an important tracer of star formation history, and find the clear signature of primary and secondary nitrogen enrichment. N/O correlates tightly with oxygen abundance, and even more so with stellar mass.

  4. A direct method for trajectory optimization of rigid bodies through contact

    OpenAIRE

    Posa, Michael Antonio; Cantu, Cecilia; Tedrake, Russell Louis

    2013-01-01

    Direct methods for trajectory optimization are widely used for planning locally optimal trajectories of robotic systems. Many critical tasks, such as locomotion and manipulation, often involve impacting the ground or objects in the environment. Most state-of-the-art techniques treat the discontinuous dynamics that result from impacts as discrete modes and restrict the search for a complete path to a specified sequence through these modes. Here we present a novel method for trajectory planning...

  5. Quasar Parallax: a Method for Determining Direct Geometrical Distances to Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    We describe a novel method to determine direct geometrical distances to quasars that can measure the cosmological constant, Lambda, with minimal assumptions. This method is equivalent to geometric parallax, with the `standard length' being the size of the quasar broad emission line region (BELR) as determined from the light travel time measurements of reverberation mapping. The effect of non-zero Lambda on angular diameter is large, 40% at z=2, so mapping angular diameter distances vs. redshi...

  6. Direct Linear System Identification Method for Multistory Three-dimensional Building Structure with General Eccentricity

    OpenAIRE

    Shintani, Kenichirou; Yoshitomi, Shinta; Takewaki, Izuru

    2017-01-01

    A method of physical parameter system identification (SI) is proposed here for three-dimensional (3D) building structures with in-plane rigid floors in which the stiffness and damping coefficients of each structural frame in the 3D building structure are identified from the measured floor horizontal accelerations. A batch processing least-squares estimation method for many discrete time domain measured data is proposed for the direct identification of the stiffness and damping coefficients of...

  7. Direct methods for limit and shakedown analysis of structures advanced computational algorithms and material modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, Aurora; Weichert, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Articles in this book examine various materials and how to determine directly the limit state of a structure, in the sense of limit analysis and shakedown analysis. Apart from classical applications in mechanical and civil engineering contexts, the book reports on the emerging field of material design beyond the elastic limit, which has further industrial design and technological applications. Readers will discover that “Direct Methods” and the techniques presented here can in fact be used to numerically estimate the strength of structured materials such as composites or nano-materials, which represent fruitful fields of future applications.   Leading researchers outline the latest computational tools and optimization techniques and explore the possibility of obtaining information on the limit state of a structure whose post-elastic loading path and constitutive behavior are not well defined or well known. Readers will discover how Direct Methods allow rapid and direct access to requested information in...

  8. Direct optical band gap measurement in polycrystalline semiconductors: A critical look at the Tauc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgonos, Alex; Mason, Thomas O.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The direct optical band gap of semiconductors is traditionally measured by extrapolating the linear region of the square of the absorption curve to the x-axis, and a variation of this method, developed by Tauc, has also been widely used. The application of the Tauc method to crystalline materials is rooted in misconception–and traditional linear extrapolation methods are inappropriate for use on degenerate semiconductors, where the occupation of conduction band energy states cannot be ignored. A new method is proposed for extracting a direct optical band gap from absorption spectra of degenerately-doped bulk semiconductors. This method was applied to pseudo-absorption spectra of Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO)—converted from diffuse-reflectance measurements on bulk specimens. The results of this analysis were corroborated by room-temperature photoluminescence excitation measurements, which yielded values of optical band gap and Burstein–Moss shift that are consistent with previous studies on In 2 O 3 single crystals and thin films. - Highlights: • The Tauc method of band gap measurement is re-evaluated for crystalline materials. • Graphical method proposed for extracting optical band gaps from absorption spectra. • The proposed method incorporates an energy broadening term for energy transitions. • Values for ITO were self-consistent between two different measurement methods.

  9. Initialization method for triple-layer exchanged coupled direct overwrite MO disk (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, T. K.; Genova, D. J.; Palumbo, A. C.

    1993-05-01

    Increasing efforts are directed at the development of direct overwrite (DOW) capability for achieving higher data transfer rate in MO media. DOW by light intensity modulation on a triple-layer medium has shown great promise. The three layers consist of memory, reference, and intermediate layers that are weakly coupled to each other. This scheme uses an auxiliary magnet to initialize the reference layer in one direction in addition to the bias magnet. DOW is between high and low power levels. High power aligns the magnetization of the coupled layers in one direction, and low power aligns the magnetization in the opposite direction. These high (Ph) and low (Pl) powers are generally widely separated. Since the focused writing beam has a Gaussian profile, when the center of the spot does the high power writing, the ``skirt'' is actually doing the low power writing. As a result, if the background is initialized in the direction of the high power written mark, a chain-like domain pattern is observed. This leads to high writing noise. We found that such writing noise can be eliminated by initializing the background in the direction of the low power written marks. We will discuss the spin structure in exchanged coupled triple-layer films and the DOW characteristics of the disk with the two different initialization methods.

  10. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally

  11. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  12. Direct risk standardisation: a new method for comparing casemix adjusted event rates using complex models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Jon; Jacques, Richard M; Campbell, Michael J

    2013-10-29

    Comparison of outcomes between populations or centres may be confounded by any casemix differences and standardisation is carried out to avoid this. However, when the casemix adjustment models are large and complex, direct standardisation has been described as "practically impossible", and indirect standardisation may lead to unfair comparisons. We propose a new method of directly standardising for risk rather than standardising for casemix which overcomes these problems. Using a casemix model which is the same model as would be used in indirect standardisation, the risk in individuals is estimated. Risk categories are defined, and event rates in each category for each centre to be compared are calculated. A weighted sum of the risk category specific event rates is then calculated. We have illustrated this method using data on 6 million admissions to 146 hospitals in England in 2007/8 and an existing model with over 5000 casemix combinations, and a second dataset of 18,668 adult emergency admissions to 9 centres in the UK and overseas and a published model with over 20,000 casemix combinations and a continuous covariate. Substantial differences between conventional directly casemix standardised rates and rates from direct risk standardisation (DRS) were found. Results based on DRS were very similar to Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) obtained from indirect standardisation, with similar standard errors. Direct risk standardisation using our proposed method is as straightforward as using conventional direct or indirect standardisation, always enables fair comparisons of performance to be made, can use continuous casemix covariates, and was found in our examples to have similar standard errors to the SMR. It should be preferred when there is a risk that conventional direct or indirect standardisation will lead to unfair comparisons.

  13. A study on direct alloying with molybdenum oxides by feed wire method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct alloying with molybdenum oxides has been regarded in years; the main addition methods are adding to the bottom of electric arc furnace (EAF with scrap, adding to the ladle during the converter tapping and mixing molybdenum oxide, lime and reductant to prepare pellet added to basic oxygen furnace (BOF. In this paper, a new method for direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide is proposed, adding molybdenum trioxide molten steel by feeding wire method in ladle furnace (LF refining process. The feasibility of molybdenum oxide reduction, the influence rules of bottom-blown on liquid steel fluidity and the yield of molybdenum by feeding wire method were analyzed. Results show that molybdenum oxide can be reduced by [Al], [Si], [C], and even [Fe] in molten steel. Bottom blowing position has a significant influence on the flow of molten steel when the permeable brick is located in 1/2 radius. The yields of Mo are higher than 97% for the experiments with feed wire method, the implementation of direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide by feed wire method works even better than that uses of ferromolybdenum in the traditional process.

  14. Direct strength method for web crippling—Lipped channels under EOF and IOF loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, R.A.J.; Hofmeyer, H.; Mahendran, M.; Snijder, H.H.

    2018-01-01

    To apply the Direct Strength Method (DSM) to web crippling of lipped channel sections, experiments were recently conducted under EOF and IOF loading conditions. In the research presented here, finite element models were first developed to predict the elastic buckling loads and the elasto-plastic

  15. Intentional Forgetting Reduces Color-Naming Interference: Evidence from Item-Method Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-shiow; Lee, Huang-mou; Fawcett, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    In an item-method-directed forgetting task, Chinese words were presented individually, each followed by an instruction to remember or forget. Colored probe items were presented following each memory instruction requiring a speeded color-naming response. Half of the probe items were novel and unrelated to the preceding study item, whereas the…

  16. A direct method for the synthesis of orthogonally protected furyl- and thienyl- amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alex S; Caron, Laurent; Colgin, Neil; Cobb, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of unnatural amino acids plays a key part in expanding the potential application of peptide-based drugs and in the total synthesis of peptide natural products. Herein, we report a direct method for the synthesis of orthogonally protected 5-membered heteroaromatic amino acids.

  17. THE QUESTION OF HUMANITARIAN KNOWLEDGE: THE ESSENCE, MAIN DIRECTIONS AND METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Zavrazhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author emphasizes the role and importance of humanitarian knowledge not only in education, training future professionals, but in an objective, true evaluation of the events which occur today in the modern world. Reveals the methodological foundations, purpose, main directions and methods of humanitarian knowledge. Highlighted the special role in the Humanities.

  18. An corrective method to correct of the inherent flaw of the asynchronization direct counting circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Renfei; Liu Congzhan; Jin Yongjie; Zhang Zhi; Li Yanguo

    2003-01-01

    As a inherent flaw of the Asynchronization Direct Counting Circuit, the crosstalk, which is resulted from the randomicity of the time-signal always exists between two adjacent channels. In order to reduce the counting error derived from the crosstalk, the author propose an effective method to correct the flaw after analysing the mechanism of the crosstalk

  19. EXACT SOLITARY WAVE SOLUTIONS TO A CLASS OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING DIRECT ALGEBRAIC METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using direct algebraic method,exact solitary wave solutions are performed for a class of third order nonlinear dispersive disipative partial differential equations. These solutions are obtained under certain conditions for the relationship between the coefficients of the equation. The exact solitary waves of this class are rational functions of real exponentials of kink-type solutions.

  20. Integration of the ATHENA mirror modules: development of indirect and x-ray direct AIT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernani, Dervis; Blum, Steffen; Seure, Thibault; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Schaeffer, Uwe; Lièvre, Nicolas; Nazeeruddin, Adeeb; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Collon, Maximilien J.; Cibik, Levent; Krumrey, Michael; Müller, Peter; Burwitz, Vadim

    2017-08-01

    Within the ATHENA optics technology plan, activities are on-going for demonstrating the feasibility of the mirror module Assembly Integration and Testing (AIT). Each mirror module has to be accurately attached to the mirror structure by means of three isostatic mounts ensuring minimal distortion under environmental loads. This work reports on the status of one of the two parallel activities initiated by ESA to address this demanding task. In this study awarded to the industrial consortium, the integration relies on opto-mechanical metrology and direct X-ray alignment. For the first or "indirect" method the X-ray alignment results are accurately referenced, by means of a laser tracking system, to optical fiducial targets mounted on the mirror modules and finally linked to the mirror structure coordinate system. With the second or "direct" method the alignment is monitored in the X-ray domain, providing figures of merit directly comparable to the final performance. The integration being designed and here presented, foresees combining the indirect method to the X-ray direct method. The characterization of the single mirror modules is planned at PTB's X-ray Parallel Beam Facility (XPBF 2.0) at BESSY II, and the integration and testing campaign at Panter. It is foreseen to integrate and test a demonstrator with two real mirror modules manufactured by cosine.

  1. Assessment of diagnostic technology in health care: rationale, methods, problems, and directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sox, Harold C

    1989-01-01

    ... Rationale, Methods, Problems, and Directions Harold Sox, Susan Stern, Douglas Owens, and Herbert L. Abrams Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1989 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from...

  2. Theory of direct-interband-transition line shapes based on Mori's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam Nyung Yi; Jai Yon Ryu; Ok Hee Chung; Joung Young Sug; Sang Don Choi; Yeon Choon Chung

    1987-01-01

    A theory of direct interband optical transition in the electron-phonon system is introduced on the basis of the Kubo formalism and by using Mori's method of calculation. The line shape functions are introduced in two different ways and are compared with those obtained by Choi and Chung based on Argyres and Sigel's projection technique

  3. Comparison of the deflated preconditioned conjugate gradient method and parallel direct solver for composite materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsthövel, T.B.; Van Gijzen, M.B.; MacLachlan, S.; Vuik, C.; Scarpas, A.

    2011-01-01

    The demand for large FE meshes increases as parallel computing becomes the standard in FE simulations. Direct and iterative solution methods are used to solve the resulting linear systems. Many applications concern composite materials, which are characterized by large discontinuities in the material

  4. Performance Analysis and Experimental Validation of the Direct Strain Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasios Iliopoulos; John G. Michopoulos; John C. Hermanson

    2013-01-01

    Direct Strain Imaging accomplishes full field measurement of the strain tensor on the surface of a deforming body, by utilizing arbitrarily oriented engineering strain measurements originating from digital imaging. In this paper an evaluation of the method’s performance with respect to its operating parameter space is presented along with a preliminary...

  5. Mechanical analysis of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded intelligent micro-beams using modified couple stress theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi Khaniki, Hossein; Rajasekaran, Sundaramoorthy

    2018-05-01

    This study develops a comprehensive investigation on mechanical behavior of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded beam sensors in the framework of modified couple stress theory. Material variation is modelled through both length and thickness directions using power-law, sigmoid and exponential functions. Moreover, beam is assumed with linear, exponential and parabolic cross-section variation through the length using power-law and sigmoid varying functions. Using these assumptions, a general model for microbeams is presented and formulated by employing Hamilton’s principle. Governing equations are solved using a mixed finite element method with Lagrangian interpolation technique, Gaussian quadrature method and Wilson’s Lagrangian multiplier method. It is shown that by using bi-directional functionally graded materials in nonuniform microbeams, mechanical behavior of such structures could be affected noticeably and scale parameter has a significant effect in changing the rigidity of nonuniform bi-directional functionally graded beams.

  6. The improved quasi-static method vs the direct method: a case study for CANDU reactor transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaveh, S.; Koclas, J.; Roy, R.

    1999-01-01

    Among the large number of methods for the transient analysis of nuclear reactors, the improved quasi-static procedure is one of the most widely used. In recent years, substantial increase in both computer speed and memory has motivated a rethinking of the limitations of this method. The overall goal of the present work is a systematic comparison between the improved quasi-static and the direct method (mesh-centered finite difference) for realistic CANDU transient simulations. The emphasis is on the accuracy of the solutions as opposed to the computational speed. Using the computer code NDF, a typical realistic transient of CANDU reactor has been analyzed. In this transient the response of the reactor regulating system to a substantial local perturbation (sudden extraction of the five adjuster rods) has been simulated. It is shown that when updating the detector responses is of major importance, it is better to use a well-optimized direct method rather than the improved quasi-static method. (author)

  7. Development of differential quadrature based computational scheme in cylindrical geometry and its application to simulate radionuclide leaching from radioactive waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, T.K.; Bajpai, R.K.; Datta, D.

    2016-01-01

    Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) based computational scheme is developed to solve diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinate. In this scheme, time derivative is approximated using forward difference and the spatial derivatives using polynomial based DQM. This developed scheme is applied to simulate test problem on radionuclide leaching from radioactive waste form. Leach rate is calculated after simulating the leaching process. DQM based results are compared with the analytical solutions and good agreements between the two results are established. The developed tool is used as a numerical tool for computationally intensive calculations, such as regression analysis and correlation analysis etc. Multivariate regression analysis is carried out to establish a linear relationship between leach rate and model parameters e.g., diffusion coefficient, porosity and linear sorption coefficient. Study of correlation analysis carried out in this study shows that diffusion coefficient is positively more correlated with leach rate compared to porosity whereas, K_d is negatively correlated with leach rate. (author)

  8. Tanh-travelling wave solutions, truncated Painleve expansion and reduction of Bullough-Dodd equation to a quadrature in magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    The equations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria for a plasma in gravitational field are investigated. For equilibria with one ignorable spatial coordinate, the MHD equations are reduced to a single nonlinear elliptic equation for the magnetic potential u-tilde, known as the Grad-Shafranov equation. Specifying the arbitrary functions in this equation, the Bullough-Dodd equation can be obtained. The truncated Painleve expansion and reduction of the partial differential equation to a quadrature problem (RQ method) are described and applied to obtain the travelling wave solutions of the Bullough-Dodd equation for the case of isothermal magnetostatic atmosphere, in which the current density J is proportional to the exponentially of the magnetic flux and moreover falls off exponentially with distance vertical to the base, with an 'e-folding' distance equal to the gravitational scale height

  9. Optimal quadrature rules for odd-degree spline spaces and their application to tensor-product-based isogeometric analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2016-03-14

    We introduce optimal quadrature rules for spline spaces that are frequently used in Galerkin discretizations to build mass and stiffness matrices. Using the homotopy continuation concept (Bartoň and Calo, 2016) that transforms optimal quadrature rules from source spaces to target spaces, we derive optimal rules for splines defined on finite domains. Starting with the classical Gaussian quadrature for polynomials, which is an optimal rule for a discontinuous odd-degree space, we derive rules for target spaces of higher continuity. We further show how the homotopy methodology handles cases where the source and target rules require different numbers of optimal quadrature points. We demonstrate it by deriving optimal rules for various odd-degree spline spaces, particularly with non-uniform knot sequences and non-uniform multiplicities. We also discuss convergence of our rules to their asymptotic counterparts, that is, the analogues of the midpoint rule of Hughes et al. (2010), that are exact and optimal for infinite domains. For spaces of low continuities, we numerically show that the derived rules quickly converge to their asymptotic counterparts as the weights and nodes of a few boundary elements differ from the asymptotic values.

  10. A time-variant analysis of the 1/f^(2) phase noise in CMOS parallel LC-Tank quadrature oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreani, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 1/f2 phase noise in quadrature oscillators built by connecting two differential LC-tank oscillators in a parallel fashion. The analysis clearly demonstrates the necessity of adopting a time-variant theory of phase noise, where a more simplistic, time...

  11. Optimal quadrature rules for odd-degree spline spaces and their application to tensor-product-based isogeometric analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce optimal quadrature rules for spline spaces that are frequently used in Galerkin discretizations to build mass and stiffness matrices. Using the homotopy continuation concept (Bartoň and Calo, 2016) that transforms optimal quadrature rules from source spaces to target spaces, we derive optimal rules for splines defined on finite domains. Starting with the classical Gaussian quadrature for polynomials, which is an optimal rule for a discontinuous odd-degree space, we derive rules for target spaces of higher continuity. We further show how the homotopy methodology handles cases where the source and target rules require different numbers of optimal quadrature points. We demonstrate it by deriving optimal rules for various odd-degree spline spaces, particularly with non-uniform knot sequences and non-uniform multiplicities. We also discuss convergence of our rules to their asymptotic counterparts, that is, the analogues of the midpoint rule of Hughes et al. (2010), that are exact and optimal for infinite domains. For spaces of low continuities, we numerically show that the derived rules quickly converge to their asymptotic counterparts as the weights and nodes of a few boundary elements differ from the asymptotic values.

  12. Probability tables and gauss quadrature: application to neutron cross-sections in the unresolved energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Maillard, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The idea of describing neutron cross-section fluctuations by sets of discrete values, called ''probability tables'', was formulated some 15 years ago. We propose to define the probability tables from moments by equating the moments of the actual cross-section distribution in a given energy range to the moments of the table. This definition introduces PADE approximants, orthogonal polynomials and GAUSS quadrature. This mathematical basis applies very well to the total cross-section. Some difficulties appear when partial cross-sections are taken into account, linked to the ambiguity of the definition of multivariate PADE approximants. Nevertheless we propose solutions and choices which appear to be satisfactory. Comparisons are made with other definitions of probability tables and an example of the calculation of a mixture of nuclei is given. 18 refs

  13. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [Multilevel and Quadrature Amplitude Shift Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    Much has been said in the literature regarding the problem of establishing symbol synchronization in binary baseband digital communication systems. By comparison, the literature contains little information relating to the extraction of symbol sync from multilevel baseband data. With the recent interest in multilevel amplitude-shift keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems becomes paramount. This paper presents a technique for extracting symbol sync from a MASK or QASK signal which has been transmitted over an infinite-bandwidth white Gaussian noise channel. The scheme is essentially a generalization of the data transition tracking loop (DTTL) which has heretofore been used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop is analyzed in terms of its mean-squared symbol sync jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  14. Angular quadrature generator for neutron transport SN calculations in slab geometry with arbitrary arithmetic precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Dany S.; Oliveira, Francisco B.S.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2003-01-01

    We present in this paper a multiplatform computational code to calculate elements of Gauss-Legendre angular quadrature sets of arbitrary order used in slab-geometry discrete ordinates (S N ) formulation of neutron transport equation. In the code, the values can be computed with arbitrary arithmetic precision based on the approach of exact computing floating-point numbers. Calculation routines have been developed in the common language ANSI C using standard compiler gcc and the libraries of the open code GMP (GNU Multi precision Library). The code has a graphical interface in order to facilitate user interaction and numerical results analysis. The code architecture allows it to run on different platforms such as Unix, Linux and Windows. Numerical results and performance measures are also given. (author)

  15. Probability tables and gauss quadrature: application to neutron cross-sections in the unresolved energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Maillard, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The idea of describing neutron cross-section fluctuations by sets of discrete values, called probability tables, was formulated some 15 years ago. The authors propose to define the probability tables from moments by equating the moments of the actual cross-section distribution in a given energy range to the moments of the table. This definition introduces PADE approximants, orthogonal polynomials and GAUSS quadrature. This mathematical basis applies very well to the total cross-section. Some difficulties appear when partial cross-sections are taken into account, linked to the ambiguity of the definition of multivariate PADE approximants. Nevertheless the authors propose solutions and choices which appear to be satisfactory. Comparisons are made with other definition of probability tables and an example of the calculation of a mixture of nuclei is given

  16. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  17. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  18. A review of Green's function methods in computational fluid mechanics: Background, recent developments and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorning, J.

    1981-01-01

    The research and development over the past eight years on local Green's function methods for the high-accuracy, high-efficiency numerical solution of nuclear engineering problems is reviewed. The basic concepts and key ideas are presented by starting with an expository review of the original fully two-dimensional local Green's function methods developed for neutron diffusion and heat conduction, and continuing through the progressively more complicated and more efficient nodal Green's function methods for neutron diffusion, heat conduction and neutron transport to establish the background for the recent development of Green's function methods in computational fluid mechanics. Some of the impressive numerical results obtained via these classes of methods for nuclear engineering problems are briefly summarized. Finally, speculations are proffered on future directions in which the development of these types of methods in fluid mechanics and other areas might lead. (orig.) [de

  19. A direct method for estimating the alpha/beta ratio from quantitative dose-response data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuschke, M.

    1989-01-01

    A one-step optimization method based on a least squares fit of the linear quadratic model to quantitative tissue response data after fractionated irradiation is proposed. Suitable end-points that can be analysed by this method are growth delay, host survival and quantitative biochemical or clinical laboratory data. The functional dependence between the transformed dose and the measured response is approximated by a polynomial. The method allows for the estimation of the alpha/beta ratio and its confidence limits from all observed responses of the different fractionation schedules. Censored data can be included in the analysis. A method to test the appropriateness of the fit is presented. A computer simulation illustrates the method and its accuracy as examplified by the growth delay end point. A comparison with a fit of the linear quadratic model to interpolated isoeffect doses shows the advantages of the direct method. (orig./HP) [de

  20. A direct metal transfer method for cross-bar type polymer non-volatile memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Lee, Kyeongmi; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Wang, Gunuk; Kim, Dong-Yu; Jung, Gun-Young; Lee, Takhee

    2008-01-01

    Polymer non-volatile memory devices in 8 x 8 array cross-bar architecture were fabricated by a non-aqueous direct metal transfer (DMT) method using a two-step thermal treatment. Top electrodes with a linewidth of 2 μm were transferred onto the polymer layer by the DMT method. The switching behaviour of memory devices fabricated by the DMT method was very similar to that of devices fabricated by the conventional shadow mask method. The devices fabricated using the DMT method showed three orders of magnitude of on/off ratio with stable resistance switching, demonstrating that the DMT method can be a simple process to fabricate organic memory array devices

  1. One Improvement Method of Reducing Duration Directly to Solve Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-xun, Qi; Dedong, Sun

    Time and cost are two of the most important factors for project plan and schedule management, and specially, time-cost tradeoff problem is one classical problem in project scheduling, which is also a difficult problem. Methods of solving the problem mainly contain method of network flow and method of mending the minimal cost. Thereinto, for the method of mending the minimal cost is intuitionistic, convenient and lesser computation, these advantages make the method being used widely in practice. But disadvantage of the method is that the result of each step is optimal but the terminal result maybe not optimal. In this paper, firstly, method of confirming the maximal effective quantity of reducing duration is designed; secondly, on the basis of above method and the method of mending the minimal cost, the main method of reducing duration directly is designed to solve time-cost tradeoff problem, and by analyzing validity of the method, the method could obtain more optimal result for the problem.

  2. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-07

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers.

  3. Characterization of the Darwin direct implicit particle-in-cell method and resulting guidelines for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, M.R.; Hewett, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the linear dispersion and other properties of the Darwin Direct Implicit Particle-in-cell (DADIPIC) method in order to deduce guidelines for its use in the simulation of long time-scale, kinetic phenomena in plasmas. The Darwin part of this algorithm eliminates the Courant constraint for light propagation across a grid cell in a time step and divides the field solution into several elliptic equations. The direct implicit method is only applied to the electrostatic field relieving the need to resolve plasma oscillations. Linear theory and simulations verifying the theory are used to generate the desired guidelines as well as show the utility of DADIPIC for a wide range of low frequency, electromagnetic phenomena. We find that separation of the fields has made the task of predicting algorithm behavior easier and produced a robust method without restrictive constraints. 20 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  4. THE CHOICE OF METHODS OF TRAINING OF BACHELORS ON DIRECTION «CONSTRUCTION»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Averyanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: based on the analysis of active learning methods to identify how, updated know-ledge in the study of special subjects in bachelors of direction of preparation «Building».Methodology: analysis of different active learning methods in the study of special disciplines.Results: analysis data of active learning methods has shown that the obtained a ba-chelor’s of knowledge has resulted in the creation of certain conditions.Practical implications: the results of the study will be of interest teachers of special disciplines of the specialty «Construction».

  5. Proteus: a direct forcing method in the simulations of particulate flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Gang; Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2005-01-01

    A new and efficient direct numerical method for the simulation of particulate flows is introduced. The method combines desired elements of the immersed boundary method, the direct forcing method and the lattice Boltzmann method. Adding a forcing term in the momentum equation enforces the no-slip condition on the boundary of a moving particle. By applying the direct forcing scheme, Proteus eliminates the need for the determination of free parameters, such as the stiffness coefficient in the penalty scheme or the two relaxation parameters in the adaptive-forcing scheme. The method presents a significant improvement over the previously introduced immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) where the forcing term was computed using a penalty method and a user-defined parameter. The method allows the enforcement of the rigid body motion of a particle in a more efficient way. Compared to the "bounce-back" scheme used in the conventional LBM, the direct-forcing method provides a smoother computational boundary for particles and is capable of achieving results at higher Reynolds number flows. By using a set of Lagrangian points to track the boundary of a particle, Proteus eliminates any need for the determination of the boundary nodes that are prescribed by the "bounce-back" scheme at every time step. It also makes computations for particles of irregular shapes simpler and more efficient. Proteus has been developed in two- as well as three-dimensions. This new method has been validated by comparing its results with those from experimental measurements for a single sphere settling in an enclosure under gravity. As a demonstration of the efficiency and capabilities of the present method, the settling of a large number (1232) of spherical particles is simulated in a narrow box under two different boundary conditions. It is found that when the no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the front and rear sides of the box the particles motion is significantly hindered

  6. Implementation of direct LSC method for diesel samples on the fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krištof, Romana; Hirsch, Marko; Kožar Logar, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    The European Union develops common EU policy and strategy on biofuels and sustainable bio-economy through several documents. The encouragement of biofuel's consumption is therefore the obligation of each EU member state. The situation in Slovenian fuel market is presented and compared with other EU countries in the frame of prescribed values from EU directives. Diesel is the most common fuel for transportation needs in Slovenia. The study was therefore performed on diesel. The sampling net was determined in accordance with the fuel consumption statistics of the country. 75 Sampling points were located on different types of roads. The quantity of bio-component in diesel samples was determined by direct LSC method through measurement of C-14 content. The measured values were in the range from 0 up to nearly 6 mass percentage of bio-component in fuel. The method has proved to be appropriate, suitable and effective for studies on the real fuel market. - Highlights: • The direct LSC method was tested and applied on real fuel samples from the Slovenian market. • The results of the study are comparable with the findings of official of EUROSTAT's report. • Comparison to other EU member states and EU directive prescription was performed

  7. Context-dependent impairment of recollection in list-method directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Pasek, Tomasz; Zawadzka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    In list-method directed forgetting, people's ability to forget one of the sets of learned material is examined. Research shows that memory for to-be-forgotten items is impaired when assessed by a recall test and by recognition tests reliant on recollective processes. Retrieval inhibition and context-change mechanisms have been proposed to account for the directed forgetting effects and both of them account for the results obtained with recognition tests. However, the context change account makes a specific prediction that recollection is impaired by directed forgetting only if it makes use of contextual associations. In the present study, directed forgetting was examined with two types of recollection-based tasks making use of different types of associations, namely a list discrimination task utilising contextual associations and an associative recognition task utilising interitem associations. Consistent with the context change account, the costs of directed forgetting were observed in a list discrimination task and were not observed in an associative recognition task. The results indicate that impairment in recollection due to directed forgetting is not general and provide converging evidence to support the context-change account.

  8. Direct diffusion tensor estimation using a model-based method with spatial and parametric constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanjie; Peng, Xi; Wu, Yin; Wu, Ed X; Ying, Leslie; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    To develop a new model-based method with spatial and parametric constraints (MB-SPC) aimed at accelerating diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) by directly estimating the diffusion tensor from highly undersampled k-space data. The MB-SPC method effectively incorporates the prior information on the joint sparsity of different diffusion-weighted images using an L1-L2 norm and the smoothness of the diffusion tensor using a total variation seminorm. The undersampled k-space datasets were obtained from fully sampled DTI datasets of a simulated phantom and an ex-vivo experimental rat heart with acceleration factors ranging from 2 to 4. The diffusion tensor was directly reconstructed by solving a minimization problem with a nonlinear conjugate gradient descent algorithm. The reconstruction performance was quantitatively assessed using the normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) of the DTI indices. The MB-SPC method achieves acceptable DTI measures at an acceleration factor up to 4. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the diffusion tensor more accurately than most existing methods operating at higher net acceleration factors. The proposed method can significantly reduce artifact, particularly at higher acceleration factors or lower SNRs. This method can easily be adapted to MR relaxometry parameter mapping and is thus useful in the characterization of biological tissue such as nerves, muscle, and heart tissue. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. A method for removing sulfur bearing compounds from paraffinous hydrocarbons or a directly distilled benzine fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konyukhova, T.P.; Bolotskaya, I.A.; Mikhaylova, L.A.; Sadykov, A.N.; Shitovkin, N.T.; Vlasov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    In the known method for removing sulfurorganic compounds from paraffinous hydrocarbons or a directly distilled gasoline fraction through their adsorption using natural zeolite, in order to increase the degree of purification, clinoptilolite (Kp), which contains SiO2 and A12O3 in a molar ratio of 10.6 to 16.7 is used as the natural zeolite. The purification of the paraffinous hydrocarbons through clinoptilolite adsorption as compared with mordenite adsorption makes it possible to increase the degree of their purification of ethylmercaptane and dimethylsulfide. The effectiveness of clinoptilolite is also confirmed in removing mercaptanes and sulfides from directly distilled gasoline fractions.

  10. Experimental Method for Characterizing Electrical Steel Sheets in the Normal Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Belgrand

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an experimental method to characterise magnetic laminations in the direction normal to the sheet plane. The principle, which is based on a static excitation to avoid planar eddy currents, is explained and specific test benches are proposed. Measurements of the flux density are made with a sensor moving in and out of an air-gap. A simple analytical model is derived in order to determine the permeability in the normal direction. The experimental results for grain oriented steel sheets are presented and a comparison is provided with values obtained from literature.

  11. Optimal design method for magnetization directions of a permanent magnet array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seok [Center for Information Storage Device, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeonghoon, E-mail: yoojh@yonsei.ac.k [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    In many magnetic systems, the permanent magnet (PM) pattern has a great influence on their performance. This study proposes a systematic optimization method for designing discrete magnetization directions. While previous works have been mostly dependent on researchers' intuition, the developed method is systematic and can be applied to a two-dimensional PM-type eddy current brake model. The effectiveness of the method is confirmed, where the design's aim is to maximize the braking force on a moving conductor. The sensitivity analysis is accomplished by the adjoint variable method and the sequential linear programming is used as an optimizer. Several optimization results for various conditions through the proposed design method are compared to each other and the optimal magnet configuration for an eddy current brake is suggested.

  12. Peritonitis related to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy using the direct method for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osera, Shozo; Yano, Tomonori; Odagaki, Tomoyuki; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) using the direct method is generally indicated for cancer patients. However, there are little available data about peritonitis related to this method. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess peritonitis related to PEG using the direct method in patients with cancer. We assessed the prevalence of peritonitis and the relationship between peritonitis and patients' backgrounds, as well as the clinical course after peritonitis. Between December 2008 and December 2011, peritonitis was found in 9 (2.1 %) of 421 patients. Of the 9 patients with peritonitis, 4 had received PEG prior to chemoradiotherapy. Emergency surgical drainage was required in 1 patient, and the remaining 8 recovered with conservative treatment. Peritonitis occurred within 8 days of PEG for 8 of the 9 patients and occurred within 2 days of suture removal for 4 of the 9 patients. Peritonitis related to PEG using the direct method was less frequent for cancer patients. Peritonitis tended to occur within a few days after removal of securing suture and in patients with palliative stage.

  13. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  14. Preparation of a pure 99mTc-F(ab')2 radioimmunoconjugate by direct labeling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, G.L.; Jones, A.L.; Hansen, H.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Intact IgG and Fab' can be labeled directly with 99m Tc to give quantitative incorporation of radioactivity into the protein. With F(ab') 2 the reductive conditions yield a mixture of 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 and 99m Tc-Fab'. We now report a direct labeling method to produce only 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 in quantitative yield and contaminated with 99m Tc-Fab'. The properties, stability and biodistribution of the 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 have been compared to 99m Tc-Fab'. This new technology will allow us to compare technetium direct-labeled IgG, F(ab') 2 and Fab' derivatives of the same antibody for radioimmunodetection. (author)

  15. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  16. Evaluation of methods used for the direct generation of response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, R.L.; Muraki, T.; Jones, L.R.; Donikian, R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents an alternate methodology by which seismic in-structure response spectra may be generated directly from either ground or floor excitation spectra. The method is based upon stochastic concepts and utilizes the modal superposition solution. The philosophy of the method is based upon the notion that the evaluation of 'peak' response in uncertain excitation environments is only meaningful in a probabilistic sense. This interpretation of response spectra facilitates the generation of in-structure spectra for any non-exceedance probability (NEP). The method is validated by comparisons with a set of deterministic time-history analyses with three example models: an eleven-story building model, a containment structure stick model, and a floor mounted control panel, subjected to ten input spectrum compatible acceleration time-histories. A significant finding resulting from these examples is that the time-history method portrayed substantial variation in the resulting in-structure spectra, and therefore is unreliable for the generation of spectra. It is shown that the average of the time-history generated spectra can be estimated by the direct generation procedure, and reliable spectra may be generated for 85 NEP levels. The methodology presented herein is shown to be valid for both primary and secondary systems. Also included in the paper, is a review of the stochastic methods proposed by Singh and Der Kiureghian et. al., and the Fourier transform method proposed by Scanlan et al. (orig./HP)

  17. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  18. Direct Calculation of Permeability by High-Accurate Finite Difference and Numerical Integration Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2016-07-21

    Velocity of fluid flow in underground porous media is 6~12 orders of magnitudes lower than that in pipelines. If numerical errors are not carefully controlled in this kind of simulations, high distortion of the final results may occur [1-4]. To fit the high accuracy demands of fluid flow simulations in porous media, traditional finite difference methods and numerical integration methods are discussed and corresponding high-accurate methods are developed. When applied to the direct calculation of full-tensor permeability for underground flow, the high-accurate finite difference method is confirmed to have numerical error as low as 10-5% while the high-accurate numerical integration method has numerical error around 0%. Thus, the approach combining the high-accurate finite difference and numerical integration methods is a reliable way to efficiently determine the characteristics of general full-tensor permeability such as maximum and minimum permeability components, principal direction and anisotropic ratio. Copyright © Global-Science Press 2016.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect 131I Measurement Methods from the Stack to Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suhariyono

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The radioisotope production facility at PUSPIPTEK Serpong produces and processes 131I that can disperse to the settlements (community and the environment around the Serpong Nuclear Area (SNA. 131I is produced routinely for medical uses in hospitals and pharmacies, for both domestic uses and export. 131I is a beta and gamma emitting radioactive material and can cause thyroid cancer. The problem was that there was so far no research and in-depth assessment of the aerial dispersion of 131I radioactivity emitted from the radioisotope production stack to the environment at actual conditions. The research was conducted through simultaneous measurement of 131I radioactivity in the stack of the 131I radioisotope production facility, Serpong, and outdoor in house courtyards around SNA in normal condition (no accident based on the variations of the distance and wind direction. Direct measurements were carried out with a portable in-situ NaI(Tl detector at outdoor, and with a LaBr3 detector in the stack. Indirect measurements were carried out by using charcoal filter and vacuum pump in the stack and outdoor. The direct measurement method has many advantages over the indirect measurement. The direct measurement method was found to be more accurate, less expensive, easier to operate, needing just one operator in its implementation, portable, and can be operated continuously and for long durations. The overall activity concentrations of 131I on average obtained by either direct or indirect method were still below the upper limit of 131I activity concentration in the air (530 Bq/m3 stipulated by the Regulation of the Chairman of BAPETEN (Perka BAPETEN No. 7/2013. 

  20. Indirect and direct methods for measuring a dynamic throat diameter in a solid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbaugh, Lauren

    In a solid rocket motor, nozzle throat erosion is dictated by propellant composition, throat material properties, and operating conditions. Throat erosion has a significant effect on motor performance, so it must be accurately characterized to produce a good motor design. In order to correlate throat erosion rate to other parameters, it is first necessary to know what the throat diameter is throughout a motor burn. Thus, an indirect method and a direct method for determining throat diameter in a solid rocket motor are investigated in this thesis. The indirect method looks at the use of pressure and thrust data to solve for throat diameter as a function of time. The indirect method's proof of concept was shown by the good agreement between the ballistics model and the test data from a static motor firing. The ballistics model was within 10% of all measured and calculated performance parameters (e.g. average pressure, specific impulse, maximum thrust, etc.) for tests with throat erosion and within 6% of all measured and calculated performance parameters for tests without throat erosion. The direct method involves the use of x-rays to directly observe a simulated nozzle throat erode in a dynamic environment; this is achieved with a dynamic calibration standard. An image processing algorithm is developed for extracting the diameter dimensions from the x-ray intensity digital images. Static and dynamic tests were conducted. The measured diameter was compared to the known diameter in the calibration standard. All dynamic test results were within +6% / -7% of the actual diameter. Part of the edge detection method consists of dividing the entire x-ray image by an average pixel value, calculated from a set of pixels in the x-ray image. It was found that the accuracy of the edge detection method depends upon the selection of the average pixel value area and subsequently the average pixel value. An average pixel value sensitivity analysis is presented. Both the indirect

  1. New strain measurement method at axial tensile test of thin films through direct imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Eun [Department of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National Uinversity of Technolgy, 172 Gongneung-2 Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Hyub [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Tongmyong University, 535, Yongdang-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan 608-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong-Joong [School of Mechanical Eng., Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhyubpark@korea.com

    2008-09-07

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring strain during a tensile test of the specimen with micrometre size through direct imaging. A specimen was newly designed for adoption of direct imaging which was the main contribution of the proposed system. The structure of the specimen has eight indicators that make it possible to adopt direct imaging and it is fabricated using the same process of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices to guarantee the feasibility of the tensile test. We implemented a system for non-contact in situ measurement of strain with the specimen, the image-based displacement measurement system. Extension of the gauge length in the specimen could be found robustly by computing the positions of the eight rectangular-shape indicators on the image. Also, for an easy setup procedure, the region of interest was found automatically through the analysis of the edge projection profile along the horizontal direction. To gain confidence in the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the Al-3%Ti thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in MEMS devices. Tensile tests were performed and displacements were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can be effectively used in the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.

  2. Direct infusion-SIM as fast and robust method for absolute protein quantification in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Looße

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative and absolute quantification of proteins in biological and clinical samples are common approaches in proteomics. Until now, targeted protein quantification is mainly performed using a combination of HPLC-based peptide separation and selected reaction monitoring on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. Here, we show for the first time the potential of absolute quantification using a direct infusion strategy combined with single ion monitoring (SIM on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. By using complex membrane fractions of Escherichia coli, we absolutely quantified the recombinant expressed heterologous human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4 comparing direct infusion-SIM with conventional HPLC-SIM. Direct-infusion SIM revealed only 14.7% (±4.1 (s.e.m. deviation on average, compared to HPLC-SIM and a decreased processing and analysis time of 4.5 min (that could be further decreased to 30 s for a single sample in contrast to 65 min by the LC–MS method. Summarized, our simplified workflow using direct infusion-SIM provides a fast and robust method for quantification of proteins in complex protein mixtures.

  3. Ultra-high-throughput screening method for the directed evolution of glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafe, Raluca; Prodanovic, Radivoje; Nazor, Jovana; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-03-20

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is used in many industrial processes that could benefit from improved versions of the enzyme. Some improvements like higher activity under physiological conditions and thermal stability could be useful for GOx applications in biosensors and biofuel cells. Directed evolution is one of the currently available methods to engineer improved GOx variants. Here, we describe an ultra-high-throughput screening system for sorting the best enzyme variants generated by directed evolution that incorporates several methodological refinements: flow cytometry, in vitro compartmentalization, yeast surface display, fluorescent labeling of the expressed enzyme, delivery of glucose substrate to the reaction mixture through the oil phase, and covalent labeling of the cells with fluorescein-tyramide. The method enables quantitative screening of gene libraries to identify clones with improved activity and it also allows cells to be selected based not only on the overall activity but also on the specific activity of the enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct method gas-phase oxygen abundances of four Lyman break analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We measure the gas-phase oxygen abundances in four Lyman break analogs using auroral emission lines to derive direct abundances. The direct method oxygen abundances of these objects are generally consistent with the empirically derived strong-line method values, confirming that these objects are low oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation defined by star forming Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find slightly anomalous excitation conditions (Wolf-Rayet features) that could potentially bias the empirical estimates toward high values if caution is not exercised in the selection of the strong-line calibration. The high rate of star formation and low oxygen abundance of these objects is consistent with the predictions of the fundamental metallicity relation, in which the infall of relatively unenriched gas simultaneously triggers an episode of star formation and dilutes the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

  5. Development of direct observation aparatus of coal carbonization process by x-ray computerized tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakawa, Mitsuhiro; Shiraishi, Katsuhiko; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Shimomura, Yasuto

    1987-01-01

    Coke production by chamber ovens has a long history and efforts are being continued to make the manufacturing process efficient and to preserve the environment. In this production by this method, however, it is hardly possible to obtain direct information during coal carbonization. Since the elements that compose coal and coke are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc. and are similar to those of the human body, authors has developed a coke oven that permits the direct observation of the coal carbonization process using a soft X-ray computerized tomography (CT) apparatus used in medical treatment. The following phenomena can be observed as images by the coke oven for the CT method : 1) Changes in the bulk density of charge coal (including the difference in the water content), 2) Width of the plastic layer and movement of the plastic layer in the coke oven chamber, 3) Expansion and shrinkage of the charge in the coke oven chamber, 4) Initiation and growth of cracks. (author)

  6. A method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical solar building transfer functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.Y. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical room transfer functions with any derived parameters as output, such as operative temperature or thermal load. Complex conductive, convective and radiant heat transfer processes, or any derived thermal parameters in buildings can be explicitly and precisely described by a generalized thermal network. This allows the s-transfer and z-transfer functions to be directly generated, using semi-symbolic analysis techniques, Cayley's expansion of determinant and Heaviside's expansion theorem. A simple algorithm is developed for finding the roots of the denominator in the inverse transform of the s-transfer functions, which ensures that no single root is missing. The techniques have been applied to generating the transfer functions of a passive solar room with floor heating. The example calculation demonstrates the high efficiency of the computational method. (author)

  7. Numerical study of unsteady flows past oscillating airfoils using direct zonal coupling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Khalid, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct zonal coupling method was proposed for solving the flows past oscillating airfoils in this study. The entire computational domain was divided into inner and outer zones. The grid in the inner zone is moving with the oscillation of the airfoil, whereas the grid in the outer zone is artificially adjusted to the position consistent with the inner zone grid. The governing equations in the moving frame (the rotation potential energy is included) and those under the stationary frame were applied to inner and outer zones, respectively. By using this kind of treatment, the grid on the zonal interface is 1-to-1 matched. The coupling between the two zones is direct. Both the geometric and flow conservations are entirely satisfied. The NACA0012 and NLR7301 airfoils with oscillations were used as the test cases. The accuracy of the proposed method was demonstrated by the computational results compared with the experimental data.(author)

  8. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  9. New application of the Knudsen method for a direct determination of thermodynamic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltner, H.E.; Herzig, C.

    1978-01-01

    A new variation of the Knudsen effusion method is presented, which allows the direct and sensitive determination of thermodynamic activities in a binary or multi-component solid or liquid solution. Radioisotopes were used for measuring the vapor pressure ratio. In the system Ag-Au the thermodynamic activities of both components were determined using 105 Ag, sup(110m)Ag, 195 Au, and 198 Au. (author)

  10. Linearized Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers for Constrained Nonconvex Regularized Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    structure of the graph, we replace the ℓ1- norm by the nonconvex Capped -ℓ1 norm , and obtain the Generalized Capped -ℓ1 regularized logistic regression...X. M. Yuan. Linearized augmented lagrangian and alternating direction methods for nuclear norm minimization. Mathematics of Computation, 82(281):301...better approximations of ℓ0- norm theoretically and computationally beyond ℓ1- norm , for example, the compressive sensing (Xiao et al., 2011). The

  11. Adoption of a direct method for the preparation of furfural from hardwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov' eva, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    A direct method was developed to produce furfural (I) in high yield by hydrolysis of the mixture of coniferous and deciduous wood with 92% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 3-4% CaHPO/sub 4/. I was obtained in a yield of up to 500 kg when hydrolysis was carried out with steam consumption 6.5-10 ton/h under 0.8 megapascals.

  12. Application of direct discrete method (DDM) to multigroup neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Shahriari, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The Direct Discrete Method (DDM), which produced excellent results for one-group neutron transport problems, has been developed for multigroup energy. A multigroup neutron transport discrete equation has been produced for a cylindrical shape fuel element with and without associated coolant regions with two boundary conditions. The calculations are illustrated for two-group energy by graphs showing the fast and thermal fluxes. The validity of the results are tested against the results obtained by the ANISN code. (author)

  13. Some New Lie Symmetry Groups of Differential-Difference Equations Obtained from a Simple Direct Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Hongyan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, based on the symbolic computing system Maple, the direct method for Lie symmetry groups presented by Sen-Yue Lou [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 (2005) L129] is extended from the continuous differential equations to the differential-difference equations. With the extended method, we study the well-known differential-difference KP equation, KZ equation and (2+1)-dimensional ANNV system, and both the Lie point symmetry groups and the non-Lie symmetry groups are obtained.

  14. About methods to reduce emissions of turbo charged engine gasoline direct injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, D.; Ivan, F.; Niculae, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyse and explain new methods applied on gasoline direct injection to reduce gas emissions and greenhouse effect. There are analysed the composition of emission inside the engine and which are the most harmful emission for the environment. Will be analysed the methods and systems which have a contribution to decrease emissions produced by the mixture of air and fuel. The paper contains details about after treatment systems which are designed to decrease gas emissions without any other negative consequence on the environment.

  15. Method of measuring directed electron velocities in flowing plasma using the incoherent regions of laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, B.A.; York, T.M.

    1979-02-01

    With the presumption that a shifted Maxwellian velocity distribution adequately describes the electrons in a flowing plasma, the details of a method to measure their directed velocity are described. The system consists of a ruby laser source and two detectors set 180 0 from each other and both set at 90 0 with respect to the incident laser beam. The lowest velocity that can be determined by this method depends on the electron thermal velocity. The application of this diagnostic to the measurement of flow velocities in plasma being lost from the ends of theta-pinch devices is described

  16. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Lee, S. R.; Kim, J. M.; Park, K. R.; Choi, J. S.; Oh, S. B. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    In this study, direct methods for seismic analysis of soil-structure interaction system have been studied. A computer program 'KIESSI-QK' has been developed based on the finite element technique coupled with infinite element formulation. A substructuring method isolating the displacement solution of near field soil region was adopted. The computer program developed was verified using a free-field site response problem. The post-correlation analysis for the forced vibration tests after backfill of the Hualien LSST project has been carried out. The seismic analyses for the Hualien and Lotung LSST structures have been also performed utilizing the developed computer program 'KIESSI-QK'.

  17. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J B; Lee, S R; Kim, J M; Park, K R; Choi, J S; Oh, S B [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    In this study, direct methods for seismic analysis of soil-structure interaction system have been studied. A computer program 'KIESSI-QK' has been developed based on the finite element technique coupled with infinite element formulation. A substructuring method isolating the displacement solution of near field soil region was adopted. The computer program developed was verified using a free-field site response problem. The post-correlation analysis for the forced vibration tests after backfill of the Hualien LSST project has been carried out. The seismic analyses for the Hualien and Lotung LSST structures have been also performed utilizing the developed computer program 'KIESSI-QK'.

  18. Low rank alternating direction method of multipliers reconstruction for MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assländer, Jakob; Cloos, Martijn A; Knoll, Florian; Sodickson, Daniel K; Hennig, Jürgen; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    The proposed reconstruction framework addresses the reconstruction accuracy, noise propagation and computation time for magnetic resonance fingerprinting. Based on a singular value decomposition of the signal evolution, magnetic resonance fingerprinting is formulated as a low rank (LR) inverse problem in which one image is reconstructed for each singular value under consideration. This LR approximation of the signal evolution reduces the computational burden by reducing the number of Fourier transformations. Also, the LR approximation improves the conditioning of the problem, which is further improved by extending the LR inverse problem to an augmented Lagrangian that is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers. The root mean square error and the noise propagation are analyzed in simulations. For verification, in vivo examples are provided. The proposed LR alternating direction method of multipliers approach shows a reduced root mean square error compared to the original fingerprinting reconstruction, to a LR approximation alone and to an alternating direction method of multipliers approach without a LR approximation. Incorporating sensitivity encoding allows for further artifact reduction. The proposed reconstruction provides robust convergence, reduced computational burden and improved image quality compared to other magnetic resonance fingerprinting reconstruction approaches evaluated in this study. Magn Reson Med 79:83-96, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Measurement of plant and soil water isotope composition by direct equilibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, C. M.

    1995-11-01

    Water contained in plant and soil samples can be analysed for 2H and 18O content by direct equilibration while contained within the sample matrix. Methods for this are described and compared with the commonly used azeotropic distillation of samples before isotope analysis. For δ18O, direct equilibration with CO 2 gives results in good agreement with azeotropic distillation, i.e. within 0.5%o at natural abundance. Direct equilibration is a practical method for individual twig samples containing less than 0.5 ml of water, and offers significant operator time savings compared with azeotropic distillation. Batches of up to 100 samples can be prepared in less time than required for a single azeotropic distillation, and analysis by automated continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry after equilibration for 3 days again requires a minimum of operator time. Complete equilibration of plant water with H 2 for δ2H measurement occurs only after the plant material has been heated to 100°C under vacuum. The method described here is barely precise enough for natural abundance measurements ( δ 2H ± 15‰ ) but is well suited to field tracer studies with deuterium oxide.

  20. Direct measurement of gaseous activities by diffusion-in long proportional counter method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Wu, Y.; Aratani, T.; Uritani, A.; Mori, C.

    1993-01-01

    Direct measurement of gaseous activities by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method) was studied. The measuring time without end effect was estimated by observing the behavior of 37 Ar in the counter and was long enough to carry out the accurate activity measurement. The correction for wall effect was also examined on the basis of the measured and calculated correction factors. Among the tested gases of methane, P10 gas and propane, P10 gas was made clear to be a suitable counting gas for the DLPC method because of good diffusion properties and small wall effect. This method is quite effective for standardization of gaseous activities used for tracer experiments and calibration works of radioactive gas monitoring instruments. (orig.)

  1. Dynamic fracture testing of ferritic steels using direct current potential drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, I. S.; Park, Y. W.

    2000-01-01

    To apply leak-before-break (LBB) concept to nuclear pipes, the dynamic strain aging of low carbon steel materials has to be considered. For this goal, the J-R tests are needed over a range of temperatures and loading rates, including rapid dynamic loading conditions. In dynamic J-R tests, the unloading compliance method can not be applied and usually the direct current potential drop (DCPD) method has been used. But, even the DCPD method was known to have the problem in defining the crack initiation point due to a potential peak arising in early part of loading of ferromagnetic materials. In this study, potential peaks characteristics were investigated for SA106Gr.C piping steels, and the definition of crack initiation point was made by back tracking from final physical crack length, and it was proposed that this technique could be applied to DCPD method in dynamic loading J-R test

  2. Preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers for inverse problems with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Yuling; Jin, Qinian; Lu, Xiliang; Wang, Weijie

    2017-01-01

    We propose a preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve linear inverse problems in Hilbert spaces with constraints, where the feature of the sought solution under a linear transformation is captured by a possibly non-smooth convex function. During each iteration step, our method avoids solving large linear systems by choosing a suitable preconditioning operator. In case the data is given exactly, we prove the convergence of our preconditioned ADMM without assuming the existence of a Lagrange multiplier. In case the data is corrupted by noise, we propose a stopping rule using information on noise level and show that our preconditioned ADMM is a regularization method; we also propose a heuristic rule when the information on noise level is unavailable or unreliable and give its detailed analysis. Numerical examples are presented to test the performance of the proposed method. (paper)

  3. TMCC: a transient three-dimensional neutron transport code by the direct simulation method - 222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, H.; Li, Z.; Wang, K.; Yu, G.

    2010-01-01

    A direct simulation method (DSM) is applied to solve the transient three-dimensional neutron transport problems. DSM is based on the Monte Carlo method, and can be considered as an application of the Monte Carlo method in the specific type of problems. In this work, the transient neutronics problem is solved by simulating the dynamic behaviors of neutrons and precursors of delayed neutrons during the transient process. DSM gets rid of various approximations which are always necessary to other methods, so it is precise and flexible in the requirement of geometric configurations, material compositions and energy spectrum. In this paper, the theory of DSM is introduced first, and the numerical results obtained with the new transient analysis code, named TMCC (Transient Monte Carlo Code), are presented. (authors)

  4. Implementation of Electricity Business Competition Framework with Economic Dispatch Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Sabri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technically, electricity business under competition structure is more complex than that of vertically integrated one. The main prolems here are how to create an applicable competition framework and to solve electric calculations very quickly to obtain an optimal energi pricing, cost of losses, congestion and transportation costs by less than 15 minutes. This paper proposes a competition framework with the electric calculations, where a bilateral contract has been accommodated. Optimal energy price in the paper is calculated based on direct method of economic dispatch to obtain the result very quickly. The proposed method has been simulated to a 4-bus system. The simulation results show that the method works well and complies with the expectation. Therefore, electric power business under competition structure can be well realized by the proposed method.

  5. Novel Direction Of Arrival Estimation Method Based on Coherent Accumulation Matrix Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on coherent accumulation matrix reconstruction, a novel Direction Of Arrival (DOA estimation decorrelation method of coherent signals is proposed using a small sample. First, the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR is improved by performing coherent accumulation operation on an array of observed data. Then, according to the structure characteristics of the accumulated snapshot vector, the equivalent covariance matrix, whose rank is the same as the number of array elements, is constructed. The rank of this matrix is proved to be determined just by the number of incident signals, which realize the decorrelation of coherent signals. Compared with spatial smoothing method, the proposed method performs better by effectively avoiding aperture loss with high-resolution characteristics and low computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Platelet Counts in Insoluble Platelet-Rich Fibrin Clots: A Direct Method for Accurate Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kitamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF clots have been used in regenerative dentistry most often, with the assumption that growth factor levels are concentrated in proportion to the platelet concentration. Platelet counts in PRF are generally determined indirectly by platelet counting in other liquid fractions. This study shows a method for direct estimation of platelet counts in PRF. To validate this method by determination of the recovery rate, whole-blood samples were obtained with an anticoagulant from healthy donors, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP fractions were clotted with CaCl2 by centrifugation and digested with tissue-plasminogen activator. Platelet counts were estimated before clotting and after digestion using an automatic hemocytometer. The method was then tested on PRF clots. The quality of platelets was examined by scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry. In PRP-derived fibrin matrices, the recovery rate of platelets and white blood cells was 91.6 and 74.6%, respectively, after 24 h of digestion. In PRF clots associated with small and large red thrombi, platelet counts were 92.6 and 67.2% of the respective total platelet counts. These findings suggest that our direct method is sufficient for estimating the number of platelets trapped in an insoluble fibrin matrix and for determining that platelets are distributed in PRF clots and red thrombi roughly in proportion to their individual volumes. Therefore, we propose this direct digestion method for more accurate estimation of platelet counts in most types of platelet-enriched fibrin matrix.

  7. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbachev, D V; Ivanov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles

  8. Direct olive oil analysis by mass spectrometry: A comparison of different ambient ionization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Robles-Molina, José; García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Analytical methods based on ambient ionization mass spectrometry (AIMS) combine the classic outstanding performance of mass spectrometry in terms of sensitivity and selectivity along with convenient features related to the lack of sample workup required. In this work, the performance of different mass spectrometry-based methods has been assessed for the direct analyses of virgin olive oil for quality purposes. Two sets of experiments have been setup: (1) direct analysis of untreated olive oil using AIMS methods such as Low-Temperature Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LTP-MS) or paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS); or alternatively (2) the use of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) mass spectrometry by direct infusion of a diluted sample through either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electrospray (ESI) ionization sources. The second strategy involved a minimum sample work-up consisting of a simple olive oil dilution (from 1:10 to 1:1000) with appropriate solvents, which originated critical carry over effects in ESI, making unreliable its use in routine; thus, ESI required the use of a liquid-liquid extraction to shift the measurement towards a specific part of the composition of the edible oil (i.e. polyphenol rich fraction or lipid/fatty acid profile). On the other hand, LTP-MS enabled direct undiluted mass analysis of olive oil. The use of PS-MS provided additional advantages such as an extended ionization coverage/molecular weight range (compared to LTP-MS) and the possibility to increase the ionization efficiency towards nonpolar compounds such as squalene through the formation of Ag + adducts with carbon-carbon double bounds, an attractive feature to discriminate between oils with different degree of unsaturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sparse Pseudo Spectral Projection Methods with Directional Adaptation for Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Winokur, J.

    2015-12-19

    We investigate two methods to build a polynomial approximation of a model output depending on some parameters. The two approaches are based on pseudo-spectral projection (PSP) methods on adaptively constructed sparse grids, and aim at providing a finer control of the resolution along two distinct subsets of model parameters. The control of the error along different subsets of parameters may be needed for instance in the case of a model depending on uncertain parameters and deterministic design variables. We first consider a nested approach where an independent adaptive sparse grid PSP is performed along the first set of directions only, and at each point a sparse grid is constructed adaptively in the second set of directions. We then consider the application of aPSP in the space of all parameters, and introduce directional refinement criteria to provide a tighter control of the projection error along individual dimensions. Specifically, we use a Sobol decomposition of the projection surpluses to tune the sparse grid adaptation. The behavior and performance of the two approaches are compared for a simple two-dimensional test problem and for a shock-tube ignition model involving 22 uncertain parameters and 3 design parameters. The numerical experiments indicate that whereas both methods provide effective means for tuning the quality of the representation along distinct subsets of parameters, PSP in the global parameter space generally requires fewer model evaluations than the nested approach to achieve similar projection error. In addition, the global approach is better suited for generalization to more than two subsets of directions.

  10. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixue Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L 1 -norm of kernel intensity and the squared L 2 -norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L 1 -norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  11. The direct Discontinuous Galerkin method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoquan; Cheng, Jian; Liu, Tiegang; Luo, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The direct discontinuous Galerkin (DDG) method based on a traditional discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is extended and implemented for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. Compared to the widely used second Bassi-Rebay (BR2) scheme for the discretization of diffusive fluxes, the DDG method has two attractive features: first, it is simple to implement as it is directly based on the weak form, and therefore there is no need for any local or global lifting operator; second, it can deliver comparable results, if not better than BR2 scheme, in a more efficient way with much less CPU time. Two approaches to perform the DDG flux for the Navier- Stokes equations are presented in this work, one is based on conservative variables, the other is based on primitive variables. In the implementation of the DDG method for arbitrary grid, the definition of mesh size plays a critical role as the formation of viscous flux explicitly depends on the geometry. A variety of test cases are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the DDG method for discretizing the viscous fluxes in the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids.

  12. Linear–Quadratic Mean-Field-Type Games: A Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone E. Duncan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a multi-person mean-field-type game is formulated and solved that is described by a linear jump-diffusion system of mean-field type and a quadratic cost functional involving the second moments, the square of the expected value of the state, and the control actions of all decision-makers. We propose a direct method to solve the game, team, and bargaining problems. This solution approach does not require solving the Bellman–Kolmogorov equations or backward–forward stochastic differential equations of Pontryagin’s type. The proposed method can be easily implemented by beginners and engineers who are new to the emerging field of mean-field-type game theory. The optimal strategies for decision-makers are shown to be in a state-and-mean-field feedback form. The optimal strategies are given explicitly as a sum of the well-known linear state-feedback strategy for the associated deterministic linear–quadratic game problem and a mean-field feedback term. The equilibrium cost of the decision-makers are explicitly derived using a simple direct method. Moreover, the equilibrium cost is a weighted sum of the initial variance and an integral of a weighted variance of the diffusion and the jump process. Finally, the method is used to compute global optimum strategies as well as saddle point strategies and Nash bargaining solution in state-and-mean-field feedback form.

  13. High-speed fan-beam reconstruction using direct two-dimensional Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Noboru; Mizutani, Toshio; Takahashi, Yoshizo; Inouye, Tamon.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first development of X-ray computer tomography (CT), various efforts have been made to obtain high quality of high-speed image. However, the development of high resolution CT and the ultra-high speed CT to be applied to hearts is still desired. The X-ray beam scanning method was already changed from the parallel beam system to the fan-beam system in order to greatly shorten the scanning time. Also, the filtered back projection (DFBP) method has been employed to directly processing fan-beam projection data as reconstruction method. Although the two-dimensional Fourier transform (TFT) method significantly faster than FBP method was proposed, it has not been sufficiently examined for fan-beam projection data. Thus, the ITFT method was investigated, which first executes rebinning algorithm to convert the fan-beam projection data to the parallel beam projection data, thereafter, uses two-dimensional Fourier transform. By this method, although high speed is expected, the reconstructed images might be degraded due to the adoption of rebinning algorithm. Therefore, the effect of the interpolation error of rebinning algorithm on the reconstructed images has been analyzed theoretically, and finally, the result of the employment of spline interpolation which allows the acquisition of high quality images with less errors has been shown by the numerical and visual evaluation based on simulation and actual data. Computation time was reduced to 1/15 for the image matrix of 512 and to 1/30 for doubled matrix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Method for exciting inductive-resistive loads with high and controllable direct current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The apparatus and method for transmitting dc power to a load circuit by applying a dc voltage from a standard waveform synthesizer to duration modulate a bipolar rectangular wave generator are described. As the amplitude of the dc voltage increases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses increase, and as the amplitude of the dc voltage decreases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses decrease. Thus, the waveform synthesizer selectively changes the durations of the rectangular wave generator bipolar output pulses so as to produce a rectangular wave ac carrier that is duration modulated in accordance with and in direct proportion to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. Thereupon, by transferring the carrier to the load circuit through an amplifier and a rectifier, the load current also corresponds directly to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. To this end, the rectified wave at less than 100 percent duty factor amounts to a doubled frequency direct voltage pulse train for applying a direct current to the load, while the current ripple is minimized by a high L/R in the load circuit. In one embodiment, a power transmitting power amplifier means having a dc power supply is matched to the load circuit through a transformer for current magnification without sacrificing load current duration capability, while negative voltage and current feedback are provided in order to insure good output fidelity. 4 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures

  15. Free thyroxin by radioimmunoassay: evaluation of a new direct method involving a radiolabeled thyroxin analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubasik, N.P.; Lundberg, P.A.; Brodows, R.G.; Hallauer, G.D.; Same, D.G.; Lindstedt, G.; Bengtsson, C.; Nystroem, E.

    1983-01-01

    The first performance evaluation of a new direct method for free thyroxin (T4) in serum by radioimmunoassay, with use of coated tubes and a radioiodinated T4 analog (Diagnostic Products Corp.) is presented. The assay is precise and robust: within-run imprecision (CV), 3.1-6.6%; between-run imprecision, 4.0-7.9%; no demonstrable variation between technologists irrespective of experience with the method. No outliers were observed when we compared the free T4 results with serum total T4. Reference values are reported for a total of 1243 euthyroid subjects; there was no significant age effect on serum free T4 in women 26 to 72 years old. The biological variation was about +/- 35% of the mean (2 SD). Free T4 results are the same for serum and plasma. The assay performs well in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and distinguishes individuals with thyroid disease from normal individuals. Free T4 values in women taking oral contraceptives are normal. Depressed results were often observed in acute nonthyroidal illness and continuing pregnancy. These results were directly comparable with those of another commercial direct radiolabeled-T4 analog kit for free T4

  16. Direct spraying method for fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; An, Hong-Jie; Lew, Wen Siang; Xu, Jing; Phan, Dinh-Tuan; Hashimoto, Michinao

    2017-01-01

    Direct spraying of hydrophobic materials is an affordable, easy-to-use and equipment-free method for fabrication of flexible microsensors, albeit not yet widely adopted. To explore its application potential, in this paper, we propose and demonstrate two novel hybrid methods to fabricate paper-based components. Firstly, through combing direct spraying with Parafilm embedding, a leak-free paper-based sample preconcentrator for fluorescence sensing was fabricated. The leak-free device worked on the principle of ion concentration polarization (ICP) effect, and achieved enhancement of fluorescent tracer by 220 folds on a paper substrate. Secondly, by using the sprayed hydrophobic patterns, paper-based microsized supercapacitors (mSCs) were fabricated. Vacuum filtration was used to deposit multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-dispersed solution on a porous substrate to form electrodes. A volumetric capacitance of 42.5 mF cm −3 at a current density of 2 mA cm −3 was obtained on the paper-based mSC. Our demonstrations have shown the versatility of direct spraying for the fabrication of integrative paper-based microfluidic devices. (paper)

  17. A direct recursive residue generation method: application to photoionization of hydrogen in static electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, H.O.; Goscinski, O.

    1994-01-01

    In studies of hydrogenic systems via the recursive residue generation method (RRGM) the major bottleneck is the matrix vector product HC, between the Hamiltonian matrix H and a Lanczos vector C. For highly excited states and/or strong perturbations the size of H grows fast leading to storage problems. By making use of direct methods, i.e. avoidance of explicit construction of large Hamiltonian matrices, such problems can be overcome. Utilizing the underlying analytical properties of the Laguerre basis e -λr L k 2l+2 (2λr) a direct RRGM (D-RRGM) for the unperturbed hydrogenic Hamiltonian is derived, changing the storage needs from scaling as N 2 to 4N where N is the number of radial functions for each factorized H o (l,m) block with the possibility of parallel processing. A further computational simplification is introduced by putting the expression for the photoionization (PI) cross section in the rational form conventionally used in the representation of density of states (DOS). This allows the construction of the PI cross section directly from the tridiagonal Lanczos matrix avoiding the explicit calculation of individual eigen values and eigenvectors. (Author)

  18. Research on direct calibration method of eye-to-hand system of robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoping; Xie, Ke; Peng, Tao

    2013-10-01

    In the position-based visual servoing control for robot, the hand-eye calibration is very important because it can affect the control precision of the system. According to the robot with eye-to-hand stereovision system, this paper proposes a direct method of hand-eye calibration. The method utilizes the triangle measuring principle to solve the coordinates in the camera coordinate system of scene point. It calculates the estimated coordinates by the hand-eye calibration equation set which indicates the transformational relation from the robot to the camera coordinate system, and then uses the error of actual and estimated coordinates to establish the objective function. Finally the method substitutes the parameters into the function repeatedly until it converged to optimize the result. The related experiment compared the measured coordinates with the actual coordinates, shows the efficiency and the precision of it.

  19. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanglei, E-mail: guangleizhang@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pu, Huangsheng; Liu, Fei; Bai, Jing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Wei [China Institute of Sport Science, Beijing 100061 (China); Luo, Jianwen, E-mail: luo-jianwen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-23

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  20. A novel and simple fabrication method of embedded SU-8 micro channels by direct UV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C; Hung, C; Huang, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we presents a novel and simple method to fabricate embedded micro channels. The method based on different light absorption properties of the SU-8 thick photoresist under different incident UV wavelengths. The channel structures are defined by the ordinary I-line, while the cover layer is patterned by the deep UV. Because the deep UV is obtained directly on the same aligner with a set of filter mirrors, the embedded channel can be easily produced without other rare facilities. Besides, the relationship between the thickness of the top layer and the exposure dose of the deep UV has been measured by an ingeniously designed experiment. The specific thickness of the top layer of the embedded micro channel can then be secured by the specific deep-UV exposure dose. Further more, many meaningful mechanical structures have been realized by this method, the material property of the top layer are also measured

  1. A Direct Aqueous Derivatization GSMS Method for Determining Benzoylecgonine Concentrations in Human Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Da Valle, Ylenia; Giusiani, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for extraction and quantification of benzoylecgonine (BZE) and cocaine (COC) in urine is presented. Propyl-chloroformate was used as derivatizing agent, and it was directly added to the urine sample: the propyl derivative and COC were then recovered by liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect the analytes in selected ion monitoring mode. The method proved to be precise for BZE and COC both in term of intraday and interday analysis, with a coefficient of variation (CV)0.999 and >0.997, respectively) within the range investigated. The method, applied to thirty authentic samples, showed to be very simple, fast, and reliable, so it can be easily applied in routine analysis for the quantification of BZE and COC in urine samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Wide-angle full-vector beam propagation method based on an alternating direction implicit preconditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Siu Lit; Lu, Ya Yan

    2004-03-01

    Wide-angle full-vector beam propagation methods (BPMs) for three-dimensional wave-guiding structures can be derived on the basis of rational approximants of a square root operator or its exponential (i.e., the one-way propagator). While the less accurate BPM based on the slowly varying envelope approximation can be efficiently solved by the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method, the wide-angle variants involve linear systems that are more difficult to handle. We present an efficient solver for these linear systems that is based on a Krylov subspace method with an ADI preconditioner. The resulting wide-angle full-vector BPM is used to simulate the propagation of wave fields in a Y branch and a taper.

  3. 2D modeling of direct laser metal deposition process using a finite particle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anedaf, T.; Abbès, B.; Abbès, F.; Li, Y. M.

    2018-05-01

    Direct laser metal deposition is one of the material additive manufacturing processes used to produce complex metallic parts. A thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena is required to obtain a high-quality parts. In this work, a mathematical model is presented to simulate the coaxial laser direct deposition process tacking into account of mass addition, heat transfer, and fluid flow with free surface and melting. The fluid flow in the melt pool together with mass and energy balances are solved using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software NOGRID-points, based on the meshless Finite Pointset Method (FPM). The basis of the computations is a point cloud, which represents the continuum fluid domain. Each finite point carries all fluid information (density, velocity, pressure and temperature). The dynamic shape of the molten zone is explicitly described by the point cloud. The proposed model is used to simulate a single layer cladding.

  4. Robustness and versatility of a nonlinear interdependence method for directional coupling detection from spike trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestio, Irene; Kreuz, Thomas; Andrzejak, Ralph G.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of directional couplings between dynamics based on measured spike trains is a crucial problem in the understanding of many different systems. In particular, in neuroscience it is important to assess the connectivity between neurons. One of the approaches that can estimate directional coupling from the analysis of point processes is the nonlinear interdependence measure L . Although its efficacy has already been demonstrated, it still needs to be tested under more challenging and realistic conditions prior to an application to real data. Thus, in this paper we use the Hindmarsh-Rose model system to test the method in the presence of noise and for different spiking regimes. We also examine the influence of different parameters and spike train distances. Our results show that the measure L is versatile and robust to various types of noise, and thus suitable for application to experimental data.

  5. System and method for seamless task-directed autonomy for robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Curtis; Bruemmer, David; Few, Douglas; Walton, Miles

    2012-09-18

    Systems, methods, and user interfaces are used for controlling a robot. An environment map and a robot designator are presented to a user. The user may place, move, and modify task designators on the environment map. The task designators indicate a position in the environment map and indicate a task for the robot to achieve. A control intermediary links task designators with robot instructions issued to the robot. The control intermediary analyzes a relative position between the task designators and the robot. The control intermediary uses the analysis to determine a task-oriented autonomy level for the robot and communicates target achievement information to the robot. The target achievement information may include instructions for directly guiding the robot if the task-oriented autonomy level indicates low robot initiative and may include instructions for directing the robot to determine a robot plan for achieving the task if the task-oriented autonomy level indicates high robot initiative.

  6. Preliminary experiment of fast neutron imaging with direct-film method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Yuyang; Tang Guoyou; Guo Zhiyu; Zhang Guohui

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary experiment is conducted with direct-film method under the condition that fast neutron is generated by the reaction of 9 Be(d, n) on the Beijing University 4.5 MV Van de Graaff, whose energy is lower than 7 MeV. Basic characteristics of direct-film neutron radiography system are investigated with the help of samples in different materials, different thickness and holes of different diameter. The fast neutron converter, which is vital for fast neutron imaging, is produced with the materials made in China. The result indicates that fast neutron converter can meet the requirement of fast neutron imaging; further research of fast neutron imaging can be conducted on the accelerator and neutron-generator in China. (authors)

  7. Method for the Direct Solve of the Many-Body Schrödinger Wave Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerke, Jonathan; Tymczak, C. J.; Poirier, Bill

    We report on theoretical and computational developments towards a computationally efficient direct solve of the many-body Schrödinger wave equation for electronic systems. This methodology relies on two recent developments pioneered by the authors: 1) the development of a Cardinal Sine basis for electronic structure calculations; and 2) the development of a highly efficient and compact representation of multidimensional functions using the Canonical tensor rank representation developed by Belykin et. al. which we have adapted to electronic structure problems. We then show several relevant examples of the utility and accuracy of this methodology, scaling with system size, and relevant convergence issues of the methodology. Method for the Direct Solve of the Many-Body Schrödinger Wave Equation.

  8. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  9. Direct fourier methods in 3D-reconstruction from cone-beam data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, C.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of 3D-reconstruction is encountered in both medical and industrial applications of X-ray tomography. A method able to utilize a complete set of projections complying with Tuys condition was proposed by Grangeat. His method is mathematically exact and consists of two distinct phases. In phase 1 cone-beam projection data are used to produce the derivative of the radon transform. In phase 2, after interpolation, the radon transform data are used to reconstruct the three-dimensional object function. To a large extent our method is an extension of the Grangeat method. Our aim is to reduce the computational complexity, i.e. to produce a faster method. The most taxing procedure during phase 1 is computation of line-integrals in the detector plane. By applying the direct Fourier method in reverse for this computation, we reduce the complexity of phase 1 from O(N 4 ) to O(N 3 logN). Phase 2 can be performed either as a straight 3D-reconstruction or as a sequence of two 2D-reconstructions in vertical and horizontal planes, respectively. Direct Fourier methods can be applied for the 2D- and for the 3D-reconstruction, which reduces the complexity of phase 2 from O(N 4 ) to O(N 3 logN) as well. In both cases, linogram techniques are applied. For 3D-reconstruction the inversion formula contains the second derivative filter instead of the well-known ramp-filter employed in the 2D-case. The derivative filter is more well-behaved than the 2D ramp-filter. This implies that less zeropadding is necessary which brings about a further reduction of the computational efforts. The method has been verified by experiments on simulated data. The image quality is satisfactory and independent of cone-beam angles. For a 512 3 volume we estimate that our method is ten times faster than Grangeats method

  10. Investigating the performance of directional boundary layer model through staged modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Won-Chan; Yang, Seung-Hune; Jang, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seong-Bo; Kim, Young-Chang; Suh, Chun-Suk; Choi, Seong-Woon; Kim, Young-Hee

    2011-04-01

    BLM since the feasibility of the BLM has been investigated in many papers[4][5][6]. Instead of fitting the parameters to the wafer critical dimensions (CD) directly, we tried to use the aerial image (AI) from the rigorous simulator with the electromagnetic field (EMF) solver. Usually that kind of method is known as the staged modeling method. To see the advantages of this method we conducted several experiments and observed the results comparing the method of fitting to the wafer CD directly. Through the tests we could observe some remarkable results and confirmed that the staged modeling had better performance in many ways.

  11. Aircraft directional stability and vertical tail design: A review of semi-empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Danilo; Della Vecchia, Pierluigi; Nicolosi, Fabrizio; De Marco, Agostino

    2017-11-01

    Aircraft directional stability and control are related to vertical tail design. The safety, performance, and flight qualities of an aircraft also depend on a correct empennage sizing. Specifically, the vertical tail is responsible for the aircraft yaw stability and control. If these characteristics are not well balanced, the entire aircraft design may fail. Stability and control are often evaluated, especially in the preliminary design phase, with semi-empirical methods, which are based on the results of experimental investigations performed in the past decades, and occasionally are merged with data provided by theoretical assumptions. This paper reviews the standard semi-empirical methods usually applied in the estimation of airplane directional stability derivatives in preliminary design, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of these approaches that were developed from wind tunnel tests performed mainly on fighter airplane configurations of the first decades of the past century, and discussing their applicability on current transport aircraft configurations. Recent investigations made by the authors have shown the limit of these methods, proving the existence of aerodynamic interference effects in sideslip conditions which are not adequately considered in classical formulations. The article continues with a concise review of the numerical methods for aerodynamics and their applicability in aircraft design, highlighting how Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers are well-suited to attain reliable results in attached flow conditions, with reasonable computational times. From the results of RANS simulations on a modular model of a representative regional turboprop airplane layout, the authors have developed a modern method to evaluate the vertical tail and fuselage contributions to aircraft directional stability. The investigation on the modular model has permitted an effective analysis of the aerodynamic interference effects by moving, changing, and

  12. Cycle-Based Cluster Variational Method for Direct and Inverse Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtlehner, Cyril; Decelle, Aurélien

    2016-08-01

    Large scale inference problems of practical interest can often be addressed with help of Markov random fields. This requires to solve in principle two related problems: the first one is to find offline the parameters of the MRF from empirical data (inverse problem); the second one (direct problem) is to set up the inference algorithm to make it as precise, robust and efficient as possible. In this work we address both the direct and inverse problem with mean-field methods of statistical physics, going beyond the Bethe approximation and associated belief propagation algorithm. We elaborate on the idea that loop corrections to belief propagation can be dealt with in a systematic way on pairwise Markov random fields, by using the elements of a cycle basis to define regions in a generalized belief propagation setting. For the direct problem, the region graph is specified in such a way as to avoid feed-back loops as much as possible by selecting a minimal cycle basis. Following this line we are led to propose a two-level algorithm, where a belief propagation algorithm is run alternatively at the level of each cycle and at the inter-region level. Next we observe that the inverse problem can be addressed region by region independently, with one small inverse problem per region to be solved. It turns out that each elementary inverse problem on the loop geometry can be solved efficiently. In particular in the random Ising context we propose two complementary methods based respectively on fixed point equations and on a one-parameter log likelihood function minimization. Numerical experiments confirm the effectiveness of this approach both for the direct and inverse MRF inference. Heterogeneous problems of size up to 10^5 are addressed in a reasonable computational time, notably with better convergence properties than ordinary belief propagation.

  13. Sparse Method for Direction of Arrival Estimation Using Denoised Fourth-Order Cumulants Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yangyu; Wang, Jianshu; Du, Rui; Lv, Guoyun

    2018-06-04

    Fourth-order cumulants (FOCs) vector-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation methods of non-Gaussian sources may suffer from poor performance for limited snapshots or difficulty in setting parameters. In this paper, a novel FOCs vector-based sparse DOA estimation method is proposed. Firstly, by utilizing the concept of a fourth-order difference co-array (FODCA), an advanced FOCs vector denoising or dimension reduction procedure is presented for arbitrary array geometries. Then, a novel single measurement vector (SMV) model is established by the denoised FOCs vector, and efficiently solved by an off-grid sparse Bayesian inference (OGSBI) method. The estimation errors of FOCs are integrated in the SMV model, and are approximately estimated in a simple way. A necessary condition regarding the number of identifiable sources of our method is presented that, in order to uniquely identify all sources, the number of sources K must fulfill K ≤ ( M 4 - 2 M 3 + 7 M 2 - 6 M ) / 8 . The proposed method suits any geometry, does not need prior knowledge of the number of sources, is insensitive to associated parameters, and has maximum identifiability O ( M 4 ) , where M is the number of sensors in the array. Numerical simulations illustrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  14. A novel method for unsteady flow field segmentation based on stochastic similarity of direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu

    2018-04-01

    Recent developments in fluid dynamics research have opened up the possibility for the detailed quantitative understanding of unsteady flow fields. However, the visualization techniques currently in use generally provide only qualitative insights. A method for dividing the flow field into physically relevant regions of interest can help researchers quantify unsteady fluid behaviors. Most methods at present compare the trajectories of virtual Lagrangian particles. The time-invariant features of an unsteady flow are also frequently of interest, but the Lagrangian specification only reveals time-variant features. To address these challenges, we propose a novel method for the time-invariant spatial segmentation of an unsteady flow field. This segmentation method does not require Lagrangian particle tracking but instead quantitatively compares the stochastic models of the direction of the flow at each observed point. The proposed method is validated with several clustering tests for 3D flows past a sphere. Results show that the proposed method reveals the time-invariant, physically relevant structures of an unsteady flow.

  15. The peculiarities of the direct method usage in teaching speaking Foreign languages in Galicia and Bukovina (1890–1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdana Labinska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The given article researches the peculiarities of the usage of the direct method in teaching foreign language speaking in Galicia and Bukovina (1890–1918. It analyses the preconditions of appearance of the direct method of teaching of foreign languages, the influence of contiguous sciences on the methodology of teaching of foreign languages. The peculiarities of realization of the direct method of teaching of foreign languages in Galicia and Bukovina is observed in the article. The methodology of teaching of foreign language speaking in the process of realization of the direct method in the west of Ukraine is described.

  16. Nonlinear Least Square Based on Control Direction by Dual Method and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqing Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A direction controlled nonlinear least square (NLS estimation algorithm using the primal-dual method is proposed. The least square model is transformed into the primal-dual model; then direction of iteration can be controlled by duality. The iterative algorithm is designed. The Hilbert morbid matrix is processed by the new model and the least square estimate and ridge estimate. The main research method is to combine qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. The deviation between estimated values and the true value and the estimated residuals fluctuation of different methods are used for qualitative analysis. The root mean square error (RMSE is used for quantitative analysis. The results of experiment show that the model has the smallest residual error and the minimum root mean square error. The new estimate model has effectiveness and high precision. The genuine data of Jining area in unwrapping experiments are used and the comparison with other classical unwrapping algorithms is made, so better results in precision aspects can be achieved through the proposed algorithm.

  17. Gap-Filling of Landsat 7 Imagery Using the Direct Sampling Method

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Gaohong

    2016-12-28

    The failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) on Landsat 7 imposed systematic data gaps on retrieved imagery and removed the capacity to provide spatially continuous fields. While a number of methods have been developed to fill these gaps, most of the proposed techniques are only applicable over relatively homogeneous areas. When they are applied to heterogeneous landscapes, retrieving image features and elements can become challenging. Here we present a gap-filling approach that is based on the adoption of the Direct Sampling multiple-point geostatistical method. The method employs a conditional stochastic resampling of known areas in a training image to simulate unknown locations. The approach is assessed across a range of both homogeneous and heterogeneous regions. Simulation results show that for homogeneous areas, satisfactory results can be obtained by simply adopting non-gap locations in the target image as baseline training data. For heterogeneous landscapes, bivariate simulations using an auxiliary variable acquired at a different date provides more accurate results than univariate simulations, especially as land cover complexity increases. Apart from recovering spatially continuous fields, one of the key advantages of the Direct Sampling is the relatively straightforward implementation process that relies on relatively few parameters.

  18. Note: A new method for directly reducing the sampling jitter noise of the digital phasemeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Rong

    2018-03-01

    The sampling jitter noise is one non-negligible noise source of the digital phasemeter used for space gravitational wave detection missions. This note provides a new method for directly reducing the sampling jitter noise of the digital phasemeter, by adding a dedicated signal of which the frequency, amplitude, and initial phase should be pre-set. In contrast to the phase correction using the pilot-tone in the work of Burnett, Gerberding et al., Liang et al., Ales et al., Gerberding et al., and Ware et al. [M.Sc. thesis, Luleå University of Technology, 2010; Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 235029 (2013); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 016106 (2015); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 084502 (2015); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 074501 (2015); and Proceedings of the Earth Science Technology Conference (NASA, USA, 2006)], the new method is intrinsically additive noise suppression. The experiment results validate that the new method directly reduces the sampling jitter noise without data post-processing and provides the same phase measurement noise level (10-6 rad/Hz1/2 at 0.1 Hz) as the pilot-tone correction.

  19. Gap-Filling of Landsat 7 Imagery Using the Direct Sampling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaohong Yin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC on Landsat 7 imposed systematic data gaps on retrieved imagery and removed the capacity to provide spatially continuous fields. While a number of methods have been developed to fill these gaps, most of the proposed techniques are only applicable over relatively homogeneous areas. When they are applied to heterogeneous landscapes, retrieving image features and elements can become challenging. Here we present a gap-filling approach that is based on the adoption of the Direct Sampling multiple-point geostatistical method. The method employs a conditional stochastic resampling of known areas in a training image to simulate unknown locations. The approach is assessed across a range of both homogeneous and heterogeneous regions. Simulation results show that for homogeneous areas, satisfactory results can be obtained by simply adopting non-gap locations in the target image as baseline training data. For heterogeneous landscapes, bivariate simulations using an auxiliary variable acquired at a different date provides more accurate results than univariate simulations, especially as land cover complexity increases. Apart from recovering spatially continuous fields, one of the key advantages of the Direct Sampling is the relatively straightforward implementation process that relies on relatively few parameters.

  20. Evaluation of directional normalization methods for Landsat TM/ETM+ over primary Amazonian lowland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van doninck, Jasper; Tuomisto, Hanna

    2017-06-01

    Biodiversity mapping in extensive tropical forest areas poses a major challenge for the interpretation of Landsat images, because floristically clearly distinct forest types may show little difference in reflectance. In such cases, the effects of the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) can be sufficiently strong to cause erroneous image interpretation and classification. Since the opening of the Landsat archive in 2008, several BRDF normalization methods for Landsat have been developed. The simplest of these consist of an empirical view angle normalization, whereas more complex approaches apply the semi-empirical Ross-Li BRDF model and the MODIS MCD43-series of products to normalize directional Landsat reflectance to standard view and solar angles. Here we quantify the effect of surface anisotropy on Landsat TM/ETM+ images over old-growth Amazonian forests, and evaluate five angular normalization approaches. Even for the narrow swath of the Landsat sensors, we observed directional effects in all spectral bands. Those normalization methods that are based on removing the surface reflectance gradient as observed in each image were adequate to normalize TM/ETM+ imagery to nadir viewing, but were less suitable for multitemporal analysis when the solar vector varied strongly among images. Approaches based on the MODIS BRDF model parameters successfully reduced directional effects in the visible bands, but removed only half of the systematic errors in the infrared bands. The best results were obtained when the semi-empirical BRDF model was calibrated using pairs of Landsat observation. This method produces a single set of BRDF parameters, which can then be used to operationally normalize Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery over Amazonian forests to nadir viewing and a standard solar configuration.

  1. Theory and analysis of accuracy for the method of characteristics direction probabilities with boundary averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhouyu; Collins, Benjamin; Kochunas, Brendan; Downar, Thomas; Xu, Yunlin; Wu, Hongchun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The CDP combines the benefits of the CPM’s efficiency and the MOC’s flexibility. • Boundary averaging reduces the computation effort with losing minor accuracy. • An analysis model is used to justify the choice of optimize averaging strategy. • Numerical results show the performance and accuracy. - Abstract: The method of characteristic direction probabilities (CDP) combines the benefits of the collision probability method (CPM) and the method of characteristics (MOC) for the solution of the integral form of the Botlzmann Transport Equation. By coupling only the fine regions traversed by the characteristic rays in a particular direction, the computational effort required to calculate the probability matrices and to solve the matrix system is considerably reduced compared to the CPM. Furthermore, boundary averaging is performed to reduce the storage and computation but the capability of dealing with complicated geometries is preserved since the same ray tracing information is used as in MOC. An analysis model for the outgoing angular flux is used to analyze a variety of outgoing angular flux averaging methods for the boundary and to justify the choice of optimize averaging strategy. The boundary average CDP method was then implemented in the Michigan PArallel Characteristic based Transport (MPACT) code to perform 2-D and 3-D transport calculations. The numerical results are given for different cases to show the effect of averaging on the outgoing angular flux, region scalar flux and the eigenvalue. Comparison of the results with the case with no averaging demonstrates that an angular dependent averaging strategy is possible for the CDP to improve its computational performance without compromising the achievable accuracy

  2. A Method for Improving Hotspot Directional Signatures in BRDF Models Used for MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ziti; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Dong, Yadong; Roman, Miguel; Hill, Michael J.; Chen, Jing M.; Wang, Zhuosen; Zhang, Hu; Saenz, Edward; Poudyal, Rajesh; hide

    2016-01-01

    The semi-empirical, kernel-driven, linear RossThick-LiSparseReciprocal (RTLSR) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model is used to generate the routine MODIS BRDFAlbedo product due to its global applicability and the underlying physics. A challenge of this model in regard to surface reflectance anisotropy effects comes from its underestimation of the directional reflectance signatures near the Sun illumination direction; also known as the hotspot effect. In this study, a method has been developed for improving the ability of the RTLSR model to simulate the magnitude and width of the hotspot effect. The method corrects the volumetric scattering component of the RTLSR model using an exponential approximation of a physical hotspot kernel, which recreates the hotspot magnitude and width using two free parameters (C(sub 1) and C(sub 2), respectively). The approach allows one to reconstruct, with reasonable accuracy, the hotspot effect by adjusting or using the prior values of these two hotspot variables. Our results demonstrate that: (1) significant improvements in capturing hotspot effect can be made to this method by using the inverted hotspot parameters; (2) the reciprocal nature allow this method to be more adaptive for simulating the hotspot height and width with high accuracy, especially in cases where hotspot signatures are available; and (3) while the new approach is consistent with the heritage RTLSR model inversion used to estimate intrinsic narrowband and broadband albedos, it presents some differences for vegetation clumping index (CI) retrievals. With the hotspot-related model parameters determined a priori, this method offers improved performance for various ecological remote sensing applications; including the estimation of canopy structure parameters.

  3. Application of direct simulation Monte Carlo method for analysis of AVLIS evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko

    1995-01-01

    The computation code of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was developed in order to analyze the atomic vapor evaporation in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). The atomic excitation temperatures of gadolinium atom were calculated for the model with five low lying states. Calculation results were compared with the experiments obtained by laser absorption spectroscopy. Two types of DSMC simulations which were different in inelastic collision procedure were carried out. It was concluded that the energy transfer was forbidden unless the total energy of the colliding atoms exceeds a threshold value. (author)

  4. Recent progress in the direct synthesis of hierarchical zeolites: synthetic strategies and characterization methods

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui

    2017-06-16

    Hierarchically structured zeolites combine the merits of microporous zeolites and mesoporous materials to offer enhanced molecular diffusion and mass transfer without compromising the inherent catalytic activities and selectivity of zeolites. This short review gives an introduction to the synthesis strategies for hierarchically structured zeolites with emphasis on the latest progress in the route of ‘direct synthesis’ using various templates. Several characterization methods that allow us to evaluate the ‘quality’ of complex porous structures are also introduced. At the end of this review, an outlook is given to discuss some critical issues and challenges regarding the development of novel hierarchically structured zeolites as well as their applications.

  5. Method of shaping of direction-characterization of sensitivity of ionizing radiation detection probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.; Jaszczuk, J.; Kruczyk, M.; Slapa, M.; Wroblewski, T.

    1986-01-01

    A method of shaping of direction-characterization of sensitivity of the ionizing radiation detection probe, especially equipped with small gamma detectors is described. Two detectors are placed coaxially in the bases of the cylindrical shield. One of them is uncovered in the highest degree and the second is not covered to a maximum. The signals from them are processed on the standarized sequences of electrical impulses (taking into account the heights and the widths of the amplitude). 2 figs., 1 tab. (A.S.)

  6. Generalized direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of stability and attraction in general time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, O V; Shestakov, A A

    2002-01-01

    A generalized direct Lyapunov method is put forward for the study of stability and attraction in general time systems of the following types: the classical dynamical system in the sense of Birkhoff, the general system in the sense of Zubov, the general system in the sense of Seibert, the general system with delay, and the general 'input-output' system. For such systems, with the help of generalized Lyapunov functions with respect to two filters, two quasifilters, or two filter bases, necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and attraction are obtained under minimal assumptions about the mathematical structure of the general system

  7. A computational method for direct integration of motion equations of structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusa, L.; Ciacci, R.; Creco, A.; Rossi, F.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of structural systems requires the solution of the matrix equations: Md 2 delta/dt(t) + Cddelta/dt(t) + Kdelta(t) = F(t). Many numerical methods are available for direct integration of this equation and their efficiency is due to the fulfillment of the following requirements: A reasonable order of accuracy must be obtained for the approximation of the response relevant to the first modes: the model contributions relevant to the eigenvalues with large real part must be essentially neglected. This paper presents a step-by-step numerical scheme for the integration of this equation which satisfies the requirements previously mentioned. (Auth.)

  8. Comprehensive Interpretation of a Three-Point Gauss Quadrature with Variable Sampling Points and Its Application to Integration for Discrete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Doo Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics of a variable three-point Gauss quadrature using a variable set of weighting factors and corresponding optimal sampling points. The major findings were as follows. The one-point, two-point, and three-point Gauss quadratures that adopt the Legendre sampling points and the well-known Simpson’s 1/3 rule were found to be special cases of the variable three-point Gauss quadrature. In addition, the three-point Gauss quadrature may have out-of-domain sampling points beyond the domain end points. By applying the quadratically extrapolated integrals and nonlinearity index, the accuracy of the integration could be increased significantly for evenly acquired data, which is popular with modern sophisticated digital data acquisition systems, without using higher-order extrapolation polynomials.

  9. A quadrature frequency converter in a feedback loop of high frequency cavities in the Proton Synchrotron at CERN.

    CERN Document Server

    Truszczynski, T

    This thesis presents the author’s work during the internship at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). The quadrature frequency converter is one of the modules that has been developed to upgrade the Proton Synchrotron RF system. Basic information about accelerators, fundamentals of IQ signal representation, mixing and phase shifting techniques are introduced. The development process of the converter is presented with the design details and measurements of the prototype board.

  10. Digital services using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) over CATV analog DWDM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, JengRong; Selker, Mark D.; Trail, J.; Piehler, David; Levi, Israel

    2000-04-01

    Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has recently gained great popularity as it provides a cost effective way to increase the transmission capacity of the existing fiber cable plant. For a long time, Dense WDM was exclusively used for baseband digital applications, predominantly in terrestrial long haul networks and in some cases in metropolitan and enterprise networks. Recently, the performance of DWDM components and frequency-stabilized lasers has substantially improved while the costs have down significantly. This makes a variety of new optical network architectures economically viable. The first commercial 8- wavelength DWDM system designed for Hybrid Fiber Coax networks was reported in 1998. This type of DWDM system utilizes Sub-Carrier Multiplexing (SCM) of Quadrature Amplitude Modulated (QAM) signals to transport IP data digital video broadcast and Video on Demand on ITU grid lightwave carriers. The ability of DWDM to provide scalable transmission capacity in the optical layer with SCM granularity is now considered by many to be the most promising technology for future transport and distribution of broadband multimedia services.

  11. Optical-wireless-optical full link for polarization multiplexing quadrature amplitude/phase modulation signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen

    2013-11-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless integration system at the Q-band, in which up to 40 Gb/s polarization multiplexing multilevel quadrature amplitude/phase modulation (PM-QAM) signal can be first transmitted over 20 km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28), then delivered over a 2 m 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link, and finally transmitted over another 20 km SMF-28. The PM-QAM modulated wireless millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal at 40 GHz is generated based on the remote heterodyning technique, and demodulated by the radio-frequency transparent photonic technique based on homodyne coherent detection and baseband digital signal processing. The classic constant modulus algorithm equalization is used at the receiver to realize polarization demultiplexing of the PM-QAM signal. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we realize the conversion of the PM-QAM modulated wireless mm-wave signal to the optical signal as well as 20 km fiber transmission of the converted optical signal.

  12. Evaluation of density, moisture content and percentage compaction of concrete using direct transmission and backscatter methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attobrah, A. T

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear method widely used in determining the density and moisture content of soil - aggregates, asphalt concretes, roller compacted concretes and Portland cement concretes, is the radiometry technique. Generally, all radiometry systems consist of a source of radiation, the sample being examined and a radiation detector. In operation, a radioactive source and a detector are placed on the same or opposite sides of a concrete sample. A portion of radiation from the source which passes through the concrete sample and reaches the detector produces a series of electrical pulses which when counted gives a measure of the dimensions or physical characteristics of the concrete sample. In this research work, concrete beams were fabricated using a 500 x 225 x 200mm wooden mould whiles a table vibrator was used to consolidate the concrete after placement in the mould. The mass of the beam was determined and the actual density calculated and inputted in the gauge. Measurements were performed on the unhardened and hardened concrete using the backscatter method and the direct transmission method at depths of 50mm, 100mm and 150mm. The measuring times of 15, 60 and 240 second were use to take the measurements. The study provided information on the variation of density with depth and this was observed to be within the range of 0 kg/m 3 to 1 kg/m 3 and 13 kg/m 3 to 23 kg/m 3 for the unhardened concrete samples in which density increased with depth and those in which density decreased with depth respectively. For the hardened concrete sample, the average change in density with depth was between 4 - 11 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density increased with depth and between 11 - 21 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density decreased with depth. The study also provided information about the degree of consolidation of Portland cement concrete which on the average was between 95% - 97% for the unhardened concrete samples and increased to between 97% - 99% for the hardened concrete

  13. A direct method for soil-structure interaction analysis based on frequency-dependent soil masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Delinic, K.; Marti, J.; Trbojevic, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    In a soil-structure interaction analysis, the soil, as a subsystem of the global vibrating system, exerts a strong influence on the response of the nuclear reactor building to the earthquake excitation. The volume of resources required for dealing with the soil have led to a number of different types of frequency-domain solutions, most of them based on the impedance function approach. These procedures require coupling the soil to the lumped-mass finite-element model of the reactor building. In most practical cases, the global vibrating system is analysed in the time domain (i.e. modal time history, linear or non-linear direct time-integration). Hence, it follows that the frequency domain solution for soil must be converted to an 'equivalent' soil model in the time domain. Over the past three decades, different approaches have been developed and used for earthquake analysis of nuclear power plants. In some cases, difficulties experienced in modelling the soil have affected the methods of global analysis, thus leading to approaches like the substructuring technique, e.g. 3-step method. In the practical applications, the limitations of each specific method must be taken into account in order to avoid unrealistic results. The aim of this paper is to present the recent development on an equivalent SDOF system for soil including frequency-dependent soil masses. The method will be compared with the classical 3-step method. (author)

  14. Wada-test, functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct electrical stimulation - brain mapping methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, K.; Tanova, R.; Busarski, A.; Penkov, M.; Penev, L.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Modern neurosurgery requires accurate preoperative and intraoperative localization of brain pathologies but also of brain functions. The presence of individual variations in healthy subjects and the shift of brain functions in brain diseases provoke the introduction of various methods for brain mapping. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most widespread methods for brain mapping: Wada-test, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES). This study included 4 patients with preoperative brain mapping using Wada-test and fMRI. Intraoperative mapping with DES during awake craniotomy was performed in one case. The histopathological diagnosis was low-grade glioma in 2 cases, cortical dysplasia (1 patient) and arteriovenous malformation (1 patient). The brain mapping permits total lesion resection in three of four patients. There was no new postoperative deficit despite surgery near or within functional brain areas. Brain plasticity provoking shift of eloquent areas from their usual locations was observed in two cases. The brain mapping methods allow surgery in eloquent brain areas recognized in the past as 'forbidden areas'. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. The precise location of brain functions and pathologies frequently requires combination of different brain mapping methods. (authors)

  15. Free vibration analysis of a rotary smart two directional functionally graded piezoelectric material in axial symmetry circular nanoplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinzare, Mohammad; Ranjbarpur, Hosein; Ghadiri, Majid

    2018-02-01

    In this article, free vibration of a rotating circular nanoplate made of two directional functionally graded piezo materials (two directional FGPM) is modeled based on the first shear deformation theory (FSDT). Based on the power-law model, electro-elastic properties of two directional FGP rotating circular nanoplates are supposed to change continuously along the thickness and radius. Employing the modified couple stress theory, the small size effect of the equations of the plate is considered. The governing equations of the first shear deformation theory (FSDT) for the studied plate are obtained based on Hamilton's principle; these equations are solved using differential quadrature method (DQM). It is shown that the vibration behavior of the plate is significantly affected by angular velocity, external electric voltage, size dependency and power-law index (thickness and radial directions).

  16. Numerical simulation of direct methanol fuel cells using lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavar, Mojtaba Aghajani; Farhadi, Mousa; Sedighi, Kurosh [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, P.O. Box 484 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    In this study Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) as an alternative of conventional computational fluid dynamics method is used to simulate Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). A two dimensional lattice Boltzmann model with 9 velocities, D2Q9, is used to solve the problem. The computational domain includes all seven parts of DMFC: anode channel, catalyst and diffusion layers, membrane and cathode channel, catalyst and diffusion layers. The model has been used to predict the flow pattern and concentration fields of different species in both clear and porous channels to investigate cell performance. The results have been compared well with results in literature for flow in porous and clear channels and cell polarization curves of the DMFC at different flow speeds and feed methanol concentrations. (author)

  17. Direct determination of 52 impurities content of phosphate rocks by spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harel, A.

    1977-01-01

    A direct method for the determination of 52 impurities content of phosphate rocks by dc-arc with the exposure of the cathode region only (0.5 and 0.8 mm below the upper electrode of the arc) instead of the entire arc is described. This method was applied to 31 elements in the 0.5 mm region and to Sc, Y, U, Th, and the rare earths in the 0.8 mm region. Great efforts were made at selecting the proper standard. The physico-chemical identity between the sample and the standard proved conditional on certain factors. Calcium meta phosphate with 20% graphite constituted a standard composition that was identical to the mineral material after suitable treatment. The identity between the standard and the sample was inferred from the temperature, electron density, evaporation rate and line intensity parameters

  18. Bat calls while preying: A method for reconstructing the signal emitted by a directional sound source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco; Hallam, John

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and modeling bat biosonar behavior should take into account what the bat actually emitted while exploring the surrounding environment. Recording of the bat calls could be performed by means of a telemetry system small enough to sit on the bat head, though filtering due to bat...... directivity affects recordings and not all bat species are able to carry such a device. Instead, remote microphone recordings of the bat calls could be processed by means of a mathematical method that estimates bat head orientation as a first step before calculating the amplitudes of each call for each...... and discussed. A further improvement of the method is necessary as its performance for call reconstruction strongly depends on correct choice of the sample at which the recorded call is thought to start in each microphone data set....

  19. A Method for Direct Fabrication of a Lingual Splint for Management of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo P. Romeo, DDS, MD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Pediatric mandibular fractures have successfully been managed in various ways. The use of a lingual splint is one such option. The typical indirect method for acrylic lingual splint fabrication involves obtaining dental impressions. Dental models are produced from those impressions so that model surgery may be performed. The splint is then made on those models using resin powder and liquid monomer in a wet laboratory and transferred to the patient. Obvious limitations to this technique exist for both patient and operator. We present a technique for direct, intraoperative, fabrication of a splint using commercially available light-cured material that avoids some of the shortcomings of the indirect method. Recommendations are made based on available material safety information.

  20. Methods of direct (non-chromatographic) quantification of body metabolites utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, J.M.L.

    1978-01-01

    For quantitative determination of known metabolites from the biological sample by direct chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS), the method of internal standard using stable isotopically labelled analogs appears to be the method of choice. In the case where stable isotope ratio determinations could not be applied, and alternative quantification can be achieved using non-labelled external or internal standards and a calibration curve (sum of peak height per a given number of scans versus concentration). The technique of computer monitoring permits display and plotting of ion current profiles (TIC and SIC) or spectra per a given number of scans or a given range of mass per charge. Examples are given in areas of clinical application and the quantitative data show very good agreement with the conventional chromatographic measurements. (Auth.)