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Sample records for direct observations interpretation

  1. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Daele, L

    1992-12-01

    The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a

  2. Combination and interpretation of observables in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virey Jean-Marc

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard cosmological model has deep theoretical foundations but need the introduction of two major unknown components, dark matter and dark energy, to be in agreement with various observations. Dark matter describes a non-relativistic collisionless fluid of (non baryonic matter which amount to 25% of the total density of the universe. Dark energy is a new kind of fluid not of matter type, representing 70% of the total density which should explain the recent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Alternatively, one can reject this idea of adding one or two new components but argue that the equations used to make the interpretation should be modified consmological scales. Instead of dark matter one can invoke a failure of Newton's laws. Instead of dark energy, two approaches are proposed : general relativity (in term of the Einstein equation should be modified, or the cosmological principle which fixes the metric used for cosmology should be abandonned. One of the main objective of the community is to find the path of the relevant interpretations thanks to the next generation of experiments which should provide large statistics of observationnal data. Unfortunately, cosmological in formations are difficult to pin down directly fromt he measurements, and it is mandatory to combine the various observables to get the cosmological parameters. This is not problematic from the statistical point of view, but assumptions and approximations made for the analysis may bias our interprettion of the data. Consequently, a strong attention should be paied to the statistical methods used to make parameters estimation and for model testing. After a review of the basics of cosmology where the cosmological parameters are introduced, we discuss the various cosmological probes and their associated observables used to extract cosmological informations. We present the results obtained from several statistical analyses combining data of diferent nature but

  3. A Comparison of Paradoxical and Nonparadoxical Interpretations and Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Daniel A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored the effects of consistent and inconsistent combinations of paradoxical and nonparadoxical interpretations and directives in brief counseling with moderately depressed college students. Paradoxical interpretations were associated with more symptom remission than were nonparadoxical interpretations. The nature of the directives students…

  4. Graphical interpretation of observability in terms of feedback circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2005-11-01

    It is known that the observability of a system depends crucially on the choice of the observable. Locally, such a feature results directly from the couplings between the dynamical variables (globally, it will also depend on symmetry). Using a feedback circuit description, it is shown how the location of the nonlinearity can affect the observability of a system. A graphical interpretation is introduced to determine—without any computation—whether a variable provides full observability of the system or not. Up to a certain degree of accuracy, this graphical interpretation allows us to rank the variables from the best to the worst. In addition to that, it is shown that provided that the system is observable, it can be rewritten under the form of a jerk system. The Rössler system and nine simple Sprott systems, having two fixed points, are investigated here.

  5. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the interrelations between the use of direct vs. indirect speech by primary participants and by dialogue interpreters by focusing on pronoun shifts and their interactional functions. The data consist of four simulated interpreter-mediated medical interviews based on the same...... by personalizing the indefinite pronoun 'one' when relaying from doctor to patient. All other pronoun shifts occurred in connection with interactional problems caused almost exclusively by the interpreters' lack of knowledge about medical terminology - even though the terms used were in fact non-specialized ones...... override the quasi-directness of communication between primary participants, which is connected with interpreting in the first person....

  6. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the interrelations between the use of direct vs. indirect speech by primary participants and by dialogue interpreters by focusing on pronoun shifts and their interactional functions. The data consist of four simulated interpreter-mediated medical interviews based on the same...... by personalizing the indefinite pronoun 'one' when relaying from doctor to patient. All other pronoun shifts occurred in connection with interactional problems caused almost exclusively by the interpreters' lack of knowledge about medical terminology - even though the terms used were in fact non-specialized ones...... override the quasi-directness of communication between primary participants, which is connected with interpreting in the first person....

  7. On the Language Direction in Chinese/ English Simultaneous Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 石新民

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze specifically the impact of language direction on professional Chinese/English interpreters' performance and strategy use through their experience of simultaneous interpreting in different language directions. Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a kind of translation that constituted by orally translating the message heard in one language into another language immediately and continuously, and at the meanwhile the message will not stop being produced. The unique characteristics of simultaneous interpretation and the various factors that will have great impact on the procession and performance of Chinese/English SI were taken into discussion. It should be noted that unlike in daily communication situations, comprehension and production are often overlapping in simultaneous interpreting. Concurrent comprehension of the source language and production of the target language is perhaps the most unique characteristic of the SI task. Drawn from the effort model proposed by Gile, simultaneous interpreting is accomplished by the sharing of four major efforts: listening and analyzing, production, memory, and coordination. In other words, while a comprehension problem will have a negative effect on production, a production problem also has consequences for comprehension. In this study I illustrate arguments for interpreting of LI to L2 and L2 to LI language respectively, described the studies about interpreters'strategy use and the relationship between language direction and SI strategy use. Interpreters'performance of simultaneous interpreting in different directions was determined by a few factors, including the context, personal factors, and interpreting norms. Studies showed that professional interpreters who must interpret regularly and simultaneously in both directions may develop strategic approaches to meet the dif- ferent demands of A - to - B and B - to - A interpreting. Strategy use can be defined in this study as any

  8. Radiative transfer of HCN: interpreting observations of hyperfine anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, A. M.; Loughnane, R. M.; Redman, M. P.; Wiles, B.; Guegan, N.; Barrett, J.; Keto, E. R.

    2016-07-01

    Molecules with hyperfine splitting of their rotational line spectra are useful probes of optical depth, via the relative line strengths of their hyperfine components. The hyperfine splitting is particularly advantageous in interpreting the physical conditions of the emitting gas because with a second rotational transition, both gas density and temperature can be derived. For HCN however, the relative strengths of the hyperfine lines are anomalous. They appear in ratios which can vary significantly from source to source, and are inconsistent with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). This is the HCN hyperfine anomaly, and it prevents the use of simple LTE models of HCN emission to derive reliable optical depths. In this paper, we demonstrate how to model HCN hyperfine line emission, and derive accurate line ratios, spectral line shapes and optical depths. We show that by carrying out radiative transfer calculations over each hyperfine level individually, as opposed to summing them over each rotational level, the anomalous hyperfine emission emerges naturally. To do this requires not only accurate radiative rates between hyperfine states, but also accurate collisional rates. We investigate the effects of different sets of hyperfine collisional rates, derived via the proportional method and through direct recoupling calculations. Through an extensive parameter sweep over typical low-mass star-forming conditions, we show the HCN line ratios to be highly variable to optical depth. We also reproduce an observed effect whereby the red-blue asymmetry of the hyperfine lines (an infall signature) switches sense within a single rotational transition.

  9. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  10. New Cosmological Model and Its Implications on Observational Data Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahovic Branislav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of ΛCDM cosmology works impressively well and with the concept of inflation it explains the universe after the time of decoupling. However there are still a few concerns; after much effort there is no detection of dark matter and there are significant problems in the theoretical description of dark energy. We will consider a variant of the cosmological spherical shell model, within FRW formalism and will compare it with the standard ΛCDM model. We will show that our new topological model satisfies cosmological principles and is consistent with all observable data, but that it may require new interpretation for some data. Considered will be constraints imposed on the model, as for instance the range for the size and allowed thickness of the shell, by the supernovae luminosity distance and CMB data. In this model propagation of the light is confined along the shell, which has as a consequence that observed CMB originated from one point or a limited space region. It allows to interpret the uniformity of the CMB without inflation scenario. In addition this removes any constraints on the uniformity of the universe at the early stage and opens a possibility that the universe was not uniform and that creation of galaxies and large structures is due to the inhomogeneities that originated in the Big Bang.

  11. The Galactic Center: possible interpretations of observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    There are not too many astrophysical cases where one really has an opportunity to check predictions of general relativity in the strong gravitational field limit. For these aims the black hole at the Galactic Center is one of the most interesting cases since it is the closest supermassive black hole. Gravitational lensing is a natural phenomenon based on the effect of light deflection in a gravitational field (isotropic geodesics are not straight lines in gravitational field and in a weak gravitational field one has small corrections for light deflection while the perturbative approach is not suitable for a strong gravitational field). Now there are two basic observational techniques to investigate a gravitational potential at the Galactic Center, namely, a) monitoring the orbits of bright stars near the Galactic Center to reconstruct a gravitational potential; b) measuring a size and a shape of shadows around black hole giving an alternative possibility to evaluate black hole parameters in mm-band with VLBI-technique. At the moment one can use a small relativistic correction approach for stellar orbit analysis (however, in the future the approximation will not be not precise enough due to enormous progress of observational facilities) while now for smallest structure analysis in VLBI observations one really needs a strong gravitational field approximation. We discuss results of observations, their conventional interpretations, tensions between observations and models and possible hints for a new physics from the observational data and tensions between observations and interpretations.References1. A.F. Zakharov, F. De Paolis, G. Ingrosso, and A. A. Nucita, New Astronomy Reviews, 56, 64 (2012).2. D. Borka, P. Jovanovic, V. Borka Jovanovic and A.F. Zakharov, Physical Reviews D, 85, 124004 (2012).3. D. Borka, P. Jovanovic, V. Borka Jovanovic and A.F. Zakharov, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 11, 050 (2013).4. A.F. Zakharov, Physical Reviews D 90

  12. Observations and Interpretation of Magnetofluid Turbulence at Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Sahraoui, Fouad

    2011-01-01

    High time resolution magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecraft have revealed new features of the properties of magnetofluid turbulence at small spatial scales; perhaps even revealing the approach to the dissipation regime at scales close to the electron inertial length. Various analysis techniques and theoretical ideas have been put forward to account for the properties of those measurements. The talk will describe the current state of observations and theory, and will point out on-going and planned research that will further our understanding of how magnetofluid turbulence dissipates. The observations and theories are directly germane to studies being planned as part of NASA's forthcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission.

  13. Interpreting satellite column observations of formaldehyde over tropical South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Paul I; Barkley, Michael P; Kurosu, Thomas P; Lewis, Alastair C; Saxton, Julie E; Chance, Kelly; Gatti, Luciana V

    2007-07-15

    Space-borne column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), a high-yield oxidation product of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), represent important constraints for quantifying net regional fluxes of VOCs. Here, we interpret observed distributions of HCHO columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) over tropical South America during 1997-2001. We present the first comparison of year-long in situ isoprene concentrations and fire-free GOME HCHO columns over a tropical ecosystem. GOME HCHO columns and in situ isoprene concentrations are elevated in the wet and dry seasons, with the highest values in the dry season. Previous analysis of the in situ data highlighted the possible role of drought in determining the elevated concentrations during the dry season, inferring the potential of HCHO columns to provide regional-scale constraints for estimating the role of drought on isoprene emissions. The agreement between the observed annual cycles of GOME HCHO columns and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer firecount data over the Amazon basin (correlations typically greater than 0.75 for a particular year) illustrates the potential of HCHO column to provide quantitative information about biomass burning emissions.

  14. Direct Observation of "Pac-Man" Coarsening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X X; Gulec, A; Yoon, A; Zuo, J M; Voorhees, P W; Marks, L D

    2017-08-09

    We report direct observation of a "Pac-Man" like coarsening mechanism of a self-supporting thin film of nickel oxide. The ultrathin film has an intrinsic morphological instability due to surface stress leading to the development of local thicker regions at step edges. Density functional theory calculations and continuum modeling of the elastic instability support the model for the process.

  15. Interpreting observations of edge-on gravitationally unstable accretion flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational collapse of molecular cloud or cloud core/clump may lead to the formation of geometrically flattened, rotating accretion flow surrounding the new born star or star cluster. Gravitational instability may occur in such accretion flow when the gas to stellar mass ratio is high (e.g. over $\\sim$10\\%). This paper takes the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4 as an example. We introduce the enclosed gas mass around its central ultra compact (UC) H\\textsc{ii} region, addresses the gravitational stability of the accreting gas, and outline the observed potential signatures of gravitational instability. The position-velocity (PV) diagrams of various molecular gas tracers on G10.6-0.4 consistently show asymmetry in the spatial and the velocity domain. We deduce the morphology of the dense gas accretion flow by modeling velocity distribution of the azimuthally asymmetric gas structures, and by directly de-projecting the PV diagrams. We found that within the 0.3 pc radius, an infall velocity of 1-2 km\\,s$^{-...

  16. Observation and interpretation of type IIb supernova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garoffolo, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) explosions represent the final demise of massive stars. Among the various types, there is a group of relatively infrequent CC-SNe termed type IIb, which appear to be hybrids between normal type II SNe (those characterised by H emission) and type Ib (those that lack H features in their spectra but exhibit prominent HeI lines). The nature of the stellar progenitors leading to type IIb SNe is currently unknown, although two channels are contemplated: single massive stars that have lost part of their outer envelope as a consequence of stellar winds, and massive stars that shed mass by Roche-Lobe overflow to a companion. The latter is in fact the favoured scenario for most of the objects observed up to now. In the majority of cases, when there are no direct progenitor detections, some hints about type IIb SN progenitors (e.g., initial mass) can be derived indirectly from the objects' light curves (LCs) and spectra. Motivated by the relatively few well-sampled observational datasets that exist up to date for type IIb SNe and the unknowns on their progenitors, we carried out extensive observations (mainly in the optical domain) for the young type IIb SNe 2011fu and 2013df. Both these SNe are particularly interesting because they show a first LC peak caused by shock breakout, followed by a secondary 56Ni-decay-powered maximum. The analysis of the data for SNe 2011fu and 2013df points to precursors that seem to have been stars with large radii (of the order of 100 RSun), with low mass hydrogen envelopes (tenths of MSun), and relatively low initial masses (12-18 MSun), which could have formed part of interacting binary systems. The nature of a third SN IIb candidate, OGLE-2013-SN-100, proved to be enigmatic. OGLE-2013-SN-100, shows a first peak in the LC, and other characteristics somewhat similar to those of type IIb SNe. However, after a deeper analysis, we conclude OGLE-2013-SN-100 is likely not a SN of type IIb. We provide an alternative

  17. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  18. Theoretical interpretation of experimental data from direct dark matter detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Chung-Lin

    2007-10-15

    I derive expressions that allow to reconstruct the normalized one-dimensional velocity distribution function of halo WIMPs and to determine its moments from the recoil energy spectrum as well as from experimental data directly. The reconstruction of the velocity distribution function is further extended to take into account the annual modulation of the event rate. All these expressions are independent of the as yet unknown WIMP density near the Earth as well as of the WIMP-nucleus cross section. The only information about the nature of halo WIMPs which one needs is the WIMP mass. I also present a method for the determination of the WIMP mass by combining two (or more) experiments with different detector materials. This method is not only independent of the model of Galactic halo but also of that of WIMPs. (orig.)

  19. Radiative Transfer of HCN: Interpreting observations of hyperfine anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Mullins, A M; Redman, M P; Wiles, B; Guegan, N; Barrett, J; Keto, E R

    2016-01-01

    Molecules with hyperfine splitting of their rotational line spectra are useful probes of optical depth, via the relative line strengths of their hyperfine components.The hyperfine splitting is particularly advantageous in interpreting the physical conditions of the emitting gas because with a second rotational transition, both gas density and temperature can be derived. For HCN however, the relative strengths of the hyperfine lines are anomalous. They appear in ratios which can vary significantly from source to source, and are inconsistent with local thermodynamic equilibrium. This is the HCN hyperfine anomaly, and it prevents the use of simple LTE models of HCN emission to derive reliable optical depths. In this paper we demonstrate how to model HCN hyperfine line emission, and derive accurate line ratios, spectral line shapes and optical depths. We show that by carrying out radiative transfer calculations over each hyperfine level individually, as opposed to summing them over each rotational level, the anom...

  20. First direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Ilic, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Nowak, J A; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Petyt, D A; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Shanahan, P; Sousa, A; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

    2011-01-01

    This letter reports the first direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance. The MINOS experiment has taken data with an accelerator beam optimized for muon antineutrino production, accumulating an exposure of $1.71\\times 10^{20}$ protons on target. In the Far Detector, 97 charged current muon antineutrino events are observed. The no-oscillation hypothesis predicts 156 events and is excluded at $6.3\\sigma$. The best fit to oscillation yields $\\Delta \\bar{m}^{2}=(3.36^{+0.46}_{-0.40}\\trm{(stat.)}\\pm0.06\\trm{(syst.)})\\times 10^{-3}\\,\\eV^{2}$, $\\sin^{2}(2\\bar{\\theta})=0.86^{+0.11}_{-0.12}\\trm{(stat.)}\\pm0.01\\trm{(syst.)}$. The probability that the underlying muon neutrino and muon antineutrino parameters are identical is 2.0%.

  1. Direct observation of laser guided corona discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haihe; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-01-01

    Laser based lightning control holds a promising way to solve the problem of the long standing disaster of lightning strikes. But it is a challenging project due to insufficient understanding of the interaction between laser plasma channel and high voltage electric filed. In this work, a direct observation of laser guided corona discharge is reported. The high voltage corona discharge can be guided along laser plasma filament, and enhanced through the interaction with laser filaments. The fluorescence lifetime of laser filament guided corona discharge was measured to be several microseconds, which is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the fluorescence lifetime of laser filaments. This could be advantageous towards laser assisted leader development in the atmosphere.

  2. Global interpretation of direct Dark Matter searches after CDMS-II results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Schwetz, Thomas; Zupan, Jure

    2009-12-01

    We perform a global fit to data from Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiments, including the recent CDMS-II results. We discuss possible interpretations of the DAMA annual modulation signal in terms of spin-independent and spin-dependent DM-nucleus interactions, both for elastic and inelastic scattering. We find that for the spin-dependent inelastic scattering off protons a good fit to all data is obtained. We present a simple toy model realizing such a scenario. In all the remaining cases the DAMA allowed regions are disfavored by other experiments or suffer from severe fine tuning of DM parameters with respect to the galactic escape velocity. Finally, we also entertain the possibility that the two events observed in CDMS-II are an actual signal of elastic DM scattering, and we compare the resulting CDMS-II allowed regions to the exclusion limits from other experiments.

  3. An interpretation of staggering effects by correlation observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiocco G.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The reactions 32S+58,64Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for odd-even effects in isotopic observables of the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique, showing that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  4. An interpretation of staggering effects by correlation observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad. R.

    2012-07-01

    The reactions 32S+58,64Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for odd-even effects in isotopic observables of the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique, showing that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  5. New interpretations of extraterrestrial Lyman-alpha observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, P. W.; Fahr, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The solar Lyman-alpha radiation pressure affects the orbits and the velocities of the interstellar particles entering the solar system. This leads to enhanced particle losses in the heliosphere, since particles spend a longer time crossing it. This causes a stronger decrease of the density with decreasing distances from the sun than had been calculated without accounting for the radiation pressure. Furthermore, the emission pattern of the solar Lyman-alpha radiation is anisotropic and rotates with the sun in a 27-day period. This causes a temporal change in the location of the intensity extrema. At the same time it produces hydrogen density anisotropies with extrema deviating in their directions from those which had been calculated without consideration of the radiation pressure.

  6. Direct observation of a fractional charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Picciotto, R.; Reznikov, M.; Heiblum, M.; Umansky, V.; Bunin, G.; Mahalu, D.

    1997-09-01

    Since Millikan's famous oil-drop experiments, it has been well known that electrical charge is quantized in units of the charge of an electron, e. For this reason, the theoretical prediction, by Laughlin of the existence of fractionally charged `quasiparticles'-proposed as an explanation for the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect-is very counterintuitive. The FQH effect is a phenomenon observed in the conduction properties of a two-dimensional electron gas subjected to a strong perpendicular magnetic field. This effect results from the strong interaction between electrons, brought about by the magnetic field, giving rise to the aforementioned fractionally charged quasiparticles which carry the current. Here we report the direct observation of these counterintuitive entities by using measurements of quantum shot noise. Quantum shot noise results from the discreteness of the current-carrying charges and so is proportional to both the charge of the quasiparticles and the average current. Our measurements of quantum shot noise show unambiguously that current in a two-dimensional electron gas in the FQH regime is carried by fractional charges-e/3 in the present case-in agreement with Laughlin's prediction.

  7. Interpretation of the {\\Lambda}(1405) shift observed in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Siebenson, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate different possible explanations for the observed low mass {\\Lambda}(1405) signal associated to the production of the {\\Lambda}(1405) in p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV beam kinetic energy measured by the HADES collaboration. We study the influence of interference effects between the {\\Lambda}(1405) resonance and the non-resonant background. Furthermore, we present a phenomenological method to use the HADES data for determining the relative contribution of the two {\\Lambda}(1405) poles and discuss to which extent the data can constrain the position of these poles in the complex energy plane.

  8. Direct Observations of PMC Local Time Variations by Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite obtains unique measurements for polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) analysis. Its wide cross-track viewing swath and high along-track spatial resolution makes it possible to directly evaluate PMC occurrence frequency and brightness variations between 6S" and 8S' latitude as a function of local time over a 12-14 h continuous period. OMI PMC local time variations are closely coupled to concurrent variations in measurement scattering angle, so that ice phase function effects must be considered when interpreting the observations. Two different phase functions corresponding to bright and faint clouds are examined in this analysis. OMI observations show maximum frequency and albedo values at 8-10 h local time in the Northern Hemisphere, with decreasing amplitude at higher latitudes. Southern Hemisphere values reach a minimum at 18-20 h LT. Larger variations are seen in Northern Hemisphere data. No statistically significant longitudinal dependence was seen.

  9. Direct Observations of PMC Local Time Variations by Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite obtains unique measurements for polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) analysis. Its wide cross-track viewing swath and high along-track spatial resolution makes it possible to directly evaluate PMC occurrence frequency and brightness variations between 6S" and 8S' latitude as a function of local time over a 12-14 h continuous period. OMI PMC local time variations are closely coupled to concurrent variations in measurement scattering angle, so that ice phase function effects must be considered when interpreting the observations. Two different phase functions corresponding to bright and faint clouds are examined in this analysis. OMI observations show maximum frequency and albedo values at 8-10 h local time in the Northern Hemisphere, with decreasing amplitude at higher latitudes. Southern Hemisphere values reach a minimum at 18-20 h LT. Larger variations are seen in Northern Hemisphere data. No statistically significant longitudinal dependence was seen.

  10. Interpretation of the Haestholmen in situ state of stress based on core damage observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [Gridpoint Finland Oy, (Finland)

    2000-01-01

    At the Haestholmen investigation site, direct in situ stress measurements, overcoring and hydraulic fracturing have been unsuccessful because of ring disking and horizontal hydraulic fracturing. Prior to this study, a detailed study on both core disking and ring disking was made, and based on those results an in situ state of stress interpretation method was developed. In this work this method is applied to the Haestholmen site. The interpretation is based on disk fracture type, spacing and shape. Also, the Hoek-Brown strength envelope and Poisson's ratio of intact rock are needed. The interpretation result is most reliable if both core disking and ring disking information at the same depth levels is available. A detailed core logging showed that ring disking is systematic below the -365 m level in the vertical overcoring stress measurement hole, HH-KR6. On the other hand, no representative core disking exists except for two points in two differently oriented subvertical boreholes HH-KR2 and HHKR7. Because the interpretation has to be based on ring disking only, upper and lower estimates for the vertical stress were set. These were gravitational and 67% of gravitational. Furthermore, the in situ stress state was assumed to be in horizontal and vertical planes, because the disking in vertical borehole HH-KR6 was not inclined. The interpretation resulted in a good estimate for the major horizontal stress but none of the horizontal stress rations ( 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ) or vertical stress assumptions studied are clearly more probable the others. At the 500 m level the resulting maximum horizontal stress is 41 MPa. If a linear fit through the zero depth and zero stress point is applied, the maximum horizontal stress gradient is 0.0818 z MPa/m with a standard deviation between 5 and 12 per cent. The orientation of the major horizontal stress is 108 with standard deviation of 21 degrees. The interpreted major horizontal stress state also indicated that

  11. Magnetotelluric distortions directly observed with lightning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Lachlan; Macnae, James

    2017-08-01

    Galvanic distortions complicate magnetotelluric (MT) soundings. In this research, we use lightning network data to identify specific sferics in MT measurements and analyse these events on the basis of the lightning source location. Without source information, identification and removal of galvanic distortion is a fundamentally ill-posed problem, unless data are statistically decomposed into determinable and indeterminable parts. We use realistic assumptions of the earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation velocity to accurately predict the time of arrival, azimuth and amplitude for every significant sferic in our time-series data. For each sferic with large amplitude, we calculate the rotation of the electric field from the measured to the predicted arrival azimuth. This rotation of the electric field is a primary parameter of distortion. Our results demonstrate that a rudimentary model for near-surface galvanic distortion consistently fits observed electric field rotations. When local features rotate regional electric fields, then counter-rotating data to predicted arrival azimuths should correct the directional dependence of static shift. Although we used amplitude thresholds to simplify statistical processing, future developments should incorporate both signal-to-noise improvements and multisite decompositions. Lower amplitude signal may also be useful after the appropriate signal processing for noise reduction. We anticipate our approach will be useful for further work on MT distortion.

  12. From contemporary art to core clinical skills: observation, interpretation, and meaning-making in a complex environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Pamela B; Isken, Suzanne; Tager, Robert M

    2011-10-01

    Many medical schools have incorporated experiences with representational or figurative art into the curriculum in an effort to improve learners' powers of observation, visual diagnostic skills, and pattern recognition skills or to enhance communication skills, foster teamwork, and/or improve empathy. The Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California has partnered with Los Angeles' Museum of Contemporary Art to design an educational experience with the goal of honing students' abilities to observe, describe, and interpret complex information. The authors discovered that through a constructivist approach to viewing and discussing nonrepresentational, contemporary art, students were able not only to apply their observational and interpretive skills in a safe, nonclinical setting but also to accept the facts that ambiguity is inherent to art, life, and clinical experience and that there can be more than one answer to many questions. This intervention, entailing extensive guided inquiry, collaborative thinking, and process work, has allowed students and faculty to reflect on the parallel processes at work in clinical practice and art interpretation. In patient encounters, physicians (and physicians-in-training) begin with attention and observation, continue with multiple interpretations of that which they observe, move to sorting through often ambiguous evidence, proceed to collaboration within a community of observers, and finally move to consensus and direction for action. In the worlds of both art and medicine, individuals imagine experiences beyond their own and test hypotheses by integrating their own prior knowledge and intuition and by comparing their evidence with that of others.

  13. Direct Observation of Academic Learning Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rich

    1987-01-01

    Classroom variables associated with academic learning time (ALT)--instructional time, on-task behavior, and student success rate--are positively related to student achievement. Guidelines and forms are provided for teachers and supervisors to gather objective and usable information on these ALT components through direct classroom observation…

  14. Directional filter aided sub-basalt interpretation: A case study from the Faroe-Shetland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Pouyan; Jaiswal, Priyank

    2017-02-01

    In complex geological settings, post-stack image processing aids geological interpretation. This case study shows how directional filtering, which is a spatial convolution that focuses energy along a pre-determined direction, can be used for post-stack processing. Application of coherency filtering can improve the mappability of both horizon and fault when applied in the following manner. One or more Region of Interest (ROI) are identified in the stack image and isolated for processing. Within a ROI, the directional filter is applied along the dominant horizon dip. For each ROI the coherency attribute, which provides an image of the discontinuities (e.g. faults), is also generated. The directional filtering is applied to the coherency image along the dominant dip of the faults/fractures. Finally, for each ROI, the filtered coherency image and the filtered stack are co-rendered. The co-rendered image can be merged with the unprocessed stack for a more complete interpretation of the geology. This simple yet intuitive workflow can greatly aid geological interpretation. Here, direction filtering is demonstrated on sub-basalt stratigraphy using a 2D profile from the Faroe-Shetland Basin but the methodology is applicable to any setting.

  15. Direct observation of nanowire growth and decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Shandakov, Sergey D; Jiang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    knowledge, so far this has been only postulated, but never observed at the atomic level. By means of in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy we monitored and examined the atomic layer transformation at the conditions of the crystal growth and its decomposition using CuO nanowires selected...... as a model object. The atomic layer growth/decomposition was studied by varying an O2 partial pressure. Three distinct regimes of the atomic layer evolution were experimentally observed: growth, transition and decomposition. The transition regime, at which atomic layer growth/decomposition switch takes place...

  16. The world smiles at me: self-referential positivity bias when interpreting direction of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Perrett, David I

    2011-02-01

    Recent research suggests that eye-gaze direction modulates perceived emotional expression. Here we explore the extent to which emotion affects interpretation of attention direction. We captured three-dimensional face models of 8 actors expressing happy, fearful, angry and neutral emotions. From these 3D models 9 views were extracted (0°, 2°, 4°, 6°, 8° to the left and right). These stimuli were randomly presented for 150 ms. Using a forced-choice paradigm 28 participants judged for each face whether or not it was attending to them. Two conditions were tested: either the whole face was visible, or the eyes were covered. In both conditions happy faces elicited most "attending-to-me" answers. Thus, emotional expression has a more general effect than an influence on gaze direction: emotion affects interpretation of attention direction. We interpret these results as a self-referential positivity bias, suggesting a general preference to associate a happy face with the self. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  17. 46 CFR 148.03-3 - Direction and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direction and observation. 148.03-3 Section 148.03-3... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.03-3 Direction and observation... be conducted only under the direction and observation of a person assigned or employed for such duty...

  18. The effect of breed selection on interpreting human directed cues in the domestic dog

    OpenAIRE

    Winnerhall, Louise

    2014-01-01

    During the course of time, artificial selection has given rise to a great diversity among today's dogs. Humans and dogs have evolved side by side and dogs have come to understand human body language relatively well. This study investigates whether selection pressure and domestication could reveal differences in dogs’ skill to interpret human directional cues, such as distal pointing. In this study, 46 pet dogs were tested from 27 breeds and 6 crossbreeds for performance in the two-way object ...

  19. Mediation misgivings: ambiguous clinical and public health interpretations of natural direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Kaufman, Jay S; MacLehose, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    Recent methodological innovation is giving rise to an increasing number of applied papers in medical and epidemiological journals in which natural direct and indirect effects are estimated. However, there is a longstanding debate on whether such effects are relevant targets of inference in population health. In light of the repeated calls for a more pragmatic and consequential epidemiology, we review three issues often raised in this debate: (i) the use of composite cross-world counterfactuals and the need for cross-world independence assumptions; (ii) interventional vs non-interventional identifiability; and (iii) the interpretational ambiguity of natural direct and indirect effect estimates. We use potential outcomes notation and directed acyclic graphs to explain 'cross-world' assumptions, illustrate implications of this assumption via regression models and discuss ensuing issues of interpretation. We argue that the debate on the relevance of natural direct and indirect effects rests on whether one takes as a target of inference the mathematical object per se, or the change in the world that the mathematical object represents. We further note that public health questions may be better served by estimating controlled direct effects.

  20. Comparison of observer variability and accuracy of different criteria for lung scan interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Petronella J; Hartmann, Ieneke J C; Hoekstra, Otto S; Stokkel, Marcel P M; Postmus, Pieter E; Prins, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    Different criteria have been advocated for the interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scans in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Besides these predefined criteria, many physicians use an integration of the different sets of criteria and their own experience-the so-called Gestalt interpretation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interobserver variability and accuracy of 3 sets of criteria: the Hull and PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) criteria and the Gestalt interpretation. Two experienced observers interpreted V/Q scans of all 328 patients according to the 3 different schemes. The diagnostic classification obtained for the different sets of criteria was analyzed against the presence or absence of PE. The interobserver variabilities as assessed by the kappa statistics of the PIOPED and Hull criteria and for the Gestalt interpretation were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.76), 0.79 (95% CI, 0.73-0.85), and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72), respectively. The differences in kappa values between the Hull and PIOPED criteria and between the Hull criteria and Gestalt interpretation were statistically significant (P PIOPED criteria was low probability. For 21 patients (12 with PE), the scans were intermediate probability according to the PIOPED criteria, whereas the result with the Hull criteria was high probability. Analysis of receiver-operating-characteristic curves yielded a comparable area under the curve for all sets of criteria (0.87-0.90). The Hull, PIOPED, and Gestalt interpretation of V/Q lung scans all have a good accuracy and interobserver variability. However, the reproducibility of the Hull criteria is superior in comparison with that of the other sets of criteria.

  1. Interpretations of Directed Information in Portfolio Theory, Data Compression, and Hypothesis Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Permuter, Haim H; Weissman, Tsachy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the role of Massey's directed information in portfolio theory, data compression, and statistics with causality constraints. In particular, we show that directed information is an upper bound on the increment in growth rates of optimal portfolios in a stock market due to {causal} side information. This upper bound is tight for gambling in a horse race, which is an extreme case of stock markets. Directed information also characterizes the value of {causal} side information in instantaneous compression and quantifies the benefit of {causal} inference in joint compression of two stochastic processes. In hypothesis testing, directed information evaluates the best error exponent for testing whether a random process $Y$ {causally} influences another process $X$ or not. These results give a natural interpretation of directed information $I(Y^n \\to X^n)$ as the amount of information that a random sequence $Y^n = (Y_1,Y_2,..., Y_n)$ {causally} provides about another random sequence $X^n = (X_1,X_2,...,X_...

  2. [Judgment of gaze direction related to social anxiety: facial expressions and interpretation biases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kenta; Okamura, Yoko; Okubo, Matia

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of social anxiety on judgments about gaze direction. The participants (N = 123) were divided into two groups on the basis of social anxiety scores (social anxiety and control group). Participants who scored high on a social anxiety scale judged the direction of slightly averted gaze to be straight more often for angry faces than for neutral faces. This pattern was reversed for participants in control group. An angry face looking straight at a person may be seen as an overt threat. People suffering from social anxiety tend to interpret ambiguous situations as negative or threatening. This negativity bias may contribute to the increased judgments of straight-gaze responses for angry faces with slightly averted gazes.

  3. Direct observation of rectified motion of vortices by Lorentz microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yoshihiko Togawa; Ken Harada; Tetsuya Akashi; Hiroto Kasai; Tsuyoshi Matsuda; Atsutaka maeda; Akira Tonomura

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the vortex dynamics for the `ratchet' operation in a niobium superconductor via a direct imaging of Lorentz microscopy. We directly observe one-directional selective motion of field-gradient-driven vortices along fabricated channels. This results from the rectification of vortices in a spatially asymmetric potential under the oscillating magnetic field in a temporally symmetric manner. Based on the observation of the individual motion of vortices, we clarify the elementary process involved in this rectification.

  4. Staging a performance: learners' perceptions about direct observation during residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDonna, Kori A; Hatala, Rose; Lingard, Lorelei; Voyer, Stephane; Watling, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    Evidence strongly supports that direct observation is a valid and reliable assessment tool; support for its impact on learning is less compelling, and we know that some learners are ambivalent about being observed. However, learners' perceptions about the impact of direct observation on their learning and professional development remain underexplored. To promote learning, we need to understand what makes direct observation valuable for learners. Informed by constructivist grounded theory, we interviewed 22 learners about their observation experiences. Data collection and analysis occurred iteratively; themes were identified using constant comparative analysis. Direct observation was widely endorsed as an important educational strategy, albeit one that created significant anxiety. Opaque expectations exacerbated participants' discomfort, and participants described that being observed felt like being assessed. Consequently, participants exchanged their 'usual' practice for a 'textbook' approach; alterations to performance generated uncertainty about their role, and raised questions about whether observers saw an authentic portrayal of their knowledge and skill. An 'observer effect' may partly explain learners' ambivalence about direct observation; being observed seemed to magnify learners' role ambiguity, intensify their tensions around professional development and raise questions about the credibility of feedback. In turn, an observer effect may impact learners' receptivity to feedback and may explain, in part, learners' perceptions that useful feedback is scant. For direct observation to be valuable, educators must be explicit about expectations, and they must be aware that how learners perform in the presence of an observer may not reflect what they do as independent practitioners. To nurture learners' professional development, educators must create a culture of observation-based coaching that is divorced from assessment and is tailored to developing learners

  5. A note on possible interpretations for the D SJ+(2632) observed by SELEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kuang-Ta

    2004-10-01

    We suggest some possible interpretations for the DSJ+ (2632) observed by SELEX. The DSJ+ (2632) could be the first radial excitation of the 1- ground state Ds* (2112), and its unusual decay patten might be hopefully explained by the node structure of the wave functions. In addition, the DSJ+ (2632) could also be a csbar g hybrid state or a (cs)3*-(sbarsbar)3 (diquark-antidiquark) bound state.

  6. A note on possible interpretations for the DSJ+(2632) observed by SELEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.-T. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and China Center of Advanced Science and Technology (World Laboratory), Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: ktchao@th.phy.pku.edu.cn

    2004-10-07

    We suggest some possible interpretations for the DSJ+(2632) observed by SELEX. The DSJ+(2632) could be the first radial excitation of the 1- ground state Ds*(2112), and its unusual decay patten might be hopefully explained by the node structure of the wave functions. In addition, the DSJ+(2632) could also be a cs-bar g hybrid state or a (cs)3*-(s-bar s-bar )3 (diquark-antidiquark) bound state.

  7. An interpretation of ion composition diurnal variation deduced from EISCAT observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, A.V. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Troitsk (RU). Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma, Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln (IZMIRAN); Kofman, W. [Lab. de Planetologie de Grenoble, Grenoble (France)

    2001-03-01

    Physical interpretation is made of the O{sup +}/Ne diurnal variations in summer, revealed by Litvine et al. (1998) from the EISCAT observations. It is shown that the observed anti-correlation between the Z{sub 50} parameter, corresponding to the transition region between 50% of molecular and atomic ions, and the width D{sub z} of the transition, defined as the altitude width between 10% and 90% of the O{sup +}/Ne ratio, can be reproduced in model calculations and the result of different recombination laws (quadratic in the lower and linear in the upper ionosphere) as well as diurnal variations in the photoionization rates. (orig.)

  8. Direct Behavior Rating: an evaluation of time-series interpretations as consequential validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Theodore J; Nelson, Peter M; Van Norman, Ethan R; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Riley-Tillman, T Chris

    2014-06-01

    Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a repeatable and efficient method of behavior assessment that is used to document teacher perceptions of student behavior in the classroom. Time-series data can be graphically plotted and visually analyzed to evaluate patterns of behavior or intervention effects. This study evaluated the decision accuracy of novice raters who were presented with single-phase graphical plots of DBR data. Three behaviors (i.e., academically engaged, disruptive, and respectful) and three graphical trends (i.e., positive, no trend, and negative) were analyzed by 27 graduate and five undergraduate participants who had minimal visual analysis experience. All graphs were unique, with data points arranged to form one of three "true" trends. Raters correctly classified graphs with positive, no, and negative trends an average of 76, 98, and 67% of instances. The generalized linear mixed model was used to handle significance tests for the categorical data. Results indicate that accuracy was influenced by the trend direction, with the most accurate ratings in the no trend condition. Despite the significant effect for trend direction, the current study provides empirical evidence for accuracy of DBR trends and interpretations. Novice raters and visual analysts yielded accurate decisions regarding the trend of plotted data for student behavior.

  9. Interpreting the time variable RM observed in the core region of the TeV blazar Mrk 421

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, R.; Gómez, J. L.; Asada, K.; Fuentes, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we interpret and discuss the time variable rotation measure (RM) found, for the first time over a 1-yr period, in the core region of a blazar. These results are based on a 1-yr, multifrequency (15, 24 and 43 GHz) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) monitoring of the TeV blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421). We investigate the Faraday screen properties and its location with respect to the jet emitting region. Given that the 43-GHz radio core flux density and the RM time evolution suggest a similar trend, we explore the possible connection between the RM and the accretion rate. Among the various scenarios that we explore, the jet sheath is the most promising candidate for being the main source of Faraday rotation. During the 1-yr observing period, the RM trend shows two sign reversals, which may be qualitatively interpreted within the context of the magnetic tower models. We invoke the presence of two nested helical magnetic fields in the relativistic jet with opposite helicities, whose relative contribution produce the observed RM values. The inner helical field has the poloidal component (Bp) oriented in the observer's direction and produces a positive RM, while the outer helical field, with Bp in the opposite direction, produces a negative RM. We assume that the external helical field dominates the contribution to the observed RM, while the internal helical field dominates when a jet perturbation arises during the second observing epoch. Being the intrinsic polarization angle parallel to the jet axis, a pitch angle of the helical magnetic field ϕ ≳ 70° is required. Additional scenarios are also considered to explain the observed RM sign reversals.

  10. Observations of directional thermal soaring preference in vultures

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observations are made by the author of this report on the horizontal direction of rotation by two groups of vultures after they have achieved a circling glide path...

  11. Direct observation and focused feedback for clinical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tejinder; Kundra, Shaveta; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-09-01

    Direct observation of the medical trainee by an expert assessor and providing authentic feedback is considered an important tool for development of clinical and procedural skills. Mini-clinical evaluation exercise and Direct Observation of Procedural Skills are two important tools to observe the trainee during a clinical encounter or during a procedure, make an expert standardized (though subjective) observation, and use it to provide developmental feedback. Both can be easily integrated into routine work of clinical departments, and both provide a reliable assessment if 6-8 such encounters are used.

  12. Knowledge engineering tools for reasoning with scientific observations and interpretations: a neural connectivity use case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota Mihail

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We address the goal of curating observations from published experiments in a generalizable form; reasoning over these observations to generate interpretations and then querying this interpreted knowledge to supply the supporting evidence. We present web-application software as part of the 'BioScholar' project (R01-GM083871 that fully instantiates this process for a well-defined domain: using tract-tracing experiments to study the neural connectivity of the rat brain. Results The main contribution of this work is to provide the first instantiation of a knowledge representation for experimental observations called 'Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design' (KEfED based on experimental variables and their interdependencies. The software has three parts: (a the KEfED model editor - a design editor for creating KEfED models by drawing a flow diagram of an experimental protocol; (b the KEfED data interface - a spreadsheet-like tool that permits users to enter experimental data pertaining to a specific model; (c a 'neural connection matrix' interface that presents neural connectivity as a table of ordinal connection strengths representing the interpretations of tract-tracing data. This tool also allows the user to view experimental evidence pertaining to a specific connection. BioScholar is built in Flex 3.5. It uses Persevere (a noSQL database as a flexible data store and PowerLoom® (a mature First Order Logic reasoning system to execute queries using spatial reasoning over the BAMS neuroanatomical ontology. Conclusions We first introduce the KEfED approach as a general approach and describe its possible role as a way of introducing structured reasoning into models of argumentation within new models of scientific publication. We then describe the design and implementation of our example application: the BioScholar software. This is presented as a possible biocuration interface and supplementary reasoning toolkit for a larger

  13. Applying direct observation to model workflow and assess adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unertl, Kim M; Weinger, Matthew B; Johnson, Kevin B

    2006-01-01

    Lack of understanding about workflow can impair health IT system adoption. Observational techniques can provide valuable information about clinical workflow. A pilot study using direct observation was conducted in an outpatient chronic disease clinic. The goals of the study were to assess workflow and information flow and to develop a general model of workflow and information behavior. Over 55 hours of direct observation showed that the pilot site utilized many of the features of the informatics systems available to them, but also employed multiple non-electronic artifacts and workarounds. Gaps existed between clinic workflow and informatics tool workflow, as well as between institutional expectations of informatics tool use and actual use. Concurrent use of both paper-based and electronic systems resulted in duplication of effort and inefficiencies. A relatively short period of direct observation revealed important information about workflow and informatics tool adoption.

  14. A Re-interpretation of the STEREO/STE Observations and it's Consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, K C; Giacalone, J; Jokipii, J R; Kota, J; Larson, D E; Lin, R P; Luhmann, J G; Wang, L

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternate interpretation of recent STEREO/STE observations that were originally attributed to energetic neutral atoms (ENA) from the heliosheath. The signal attributed to the diffuse ENA source instead shows the characteristics of a point source. We point out that the peak intensity seen by STEREO/STE is centered at the ecliptic longitude of the bright X-ray source Sco X-1. The observed energy spectrum and intensity are also consistent with the X-rays from Sco X-1. The problem of energy dissipation at the solar wind termination shock remains unsolved while current understanding of the interaction between the solar wind and interstellar wind awaits future observations.

  15. Variation in T-SPOT.TB spot interpretation between independent observers from different laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Willeke P J; Thijsen, Steven; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bouwman, John J M; el Bannoudi, Hanane; Kik, Sandra V; van Dissel, Jaap T; Arend, Sandra M

    2009-10-01

    T-SPOT.TB is a specific assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The assay needs to be performed with freshly isolated cells, and interpretation requires training. T-SPOT.TB has been used in various clinical-epidemiological settings, but so far no studies have evaluated the effect of interobserver variation in test reading. Our aim was to evaluate variation between different observers in reading T-SPOT.TB results. The study was nested within an ongoing cohort study, in which part of the T-SPOT.TB had been performed with frozen material. Culture plates were read visually by four different observers from two laboratories and by two automated readers. Of 313 T-SPOT.TB assays, 235 were performed with fresh cells and 78 were performed with frozen cells. No significant difference was found between results obtained with fresh cells and those obtained with frozen cells. The percentage of positive results varied between readers by maximally 15%; five/six raters were within a 6% difference in positive results. Analysis of the observed interrater differences showed that some individuals systematically counted more spots than others did. Because test interpretation includes subtraction of background values, this systematic variance had little influence on interindividual differences. The test result as positive or negative varied between independent raters, mainly due to samples with values around the cutoff. This warrants further study regarding determinants affecting the reading of T-SPOT.TB.

  16. Comparisons of some parametrizations of wind direction variability with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Belinda M.; Thomson, David J.

    An understanding of wind direction variability is important in predicting the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Parametrizations of wind direction variability over different time scales are compared with turbulence observations made at the Meteorological Research Unit (MRU) at Cardington. Observations of the variability averaged over one hour in stable conditions are compared with the parametrizations proposed by Hanna and by Joffre and Laurila for light winds and show broad agreement with these parametrizations. The formula proposed by Hanna, suitably matched to a similarity approach at strong winds, can be recommended for general use. The direction variability over longer time periods (up to 12 h) has also been investigated. Results show only a weak dependence on averaging time with the wind direction variability roughly proportional to averaging time to the power 1/4.

  17. Retinex Image Processing: Improved Fidelity To Direct Visual Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1996-01-01

    Recorded color images differ from direct human viewing by the lack of dynamic range compression and color constancy. Research is summarized which develops the center/surround retinex concept originated by Edwin Land through a single scale design to a multi-scale design with color restoration (MSRCR). The MSRCR synthesizes dynamic range compression, color constancy, and color rendition and, thereby, approaches fidelity to direct observation.

  18. An interpretation of ion composition diurnal variation deduced from EISCAT observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    Full Text Available Physical interpretation is made of the O+/Ne diurnal variations in summer, revealed by Litvine et al. (1998 from the EISCAT observations. It is shown that the observed anti-correlation between the Z50 parameter, corresponding to the transition region between 50% of molecular and atomic ions, and the width Dz of the transition, defined as the altitude width between 10% and 90% of the O+/Ne ratio, can be reproduced in model calculations and the result of different recombination laws (quadratic in the lower and linear in the upper ionosphere as well as diurnal variations in the photo-ionization rates.

    Key words.Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; modeling and forecasting

  19. A new interpretation and practical aspects of the direct-methods modulus sum function. VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Jordi; Torrelles, Xavier; Miravitlles, Carles; Amigó, J M; Reventós, M M

    2002-01-01

    Since the first publication of the direct-methods modulus sum function [Rius (1993). Acta Cryst. A49, 406-409], the application of this function to a variety of situations has been shown in a series of seven subsequent papers. In this way, much experience about this function and its practical use has been gained. It is thought by the authors that it is now the right moment to publish a more complete study of this function which also considers most of this practical knowledge. The first part of the study relates, thanks to a new interpretation, this function to other existing phase-refinement functions, while the second shows, with the help of test calculations on a selection of crystal structures, the behaviour of the function for two different control parameters. In this study, the principal interest is focused on the function itself and not on the optimization procedure which is based on a conventional sequential tangent formula refinement. The results obtained are quite satisfactory and seem to indicate that, when combined with more sophisticated optimization algorithms, the application field of this function could be extended to larger structures than those used for the test calculations.

  20. Influence of observer experience and training on proficiency in coronary CT angiography interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Christopher [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Radiologie München, Burgstraße 7, 80331 Munich (Germany); Kerl, J. Matthias [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); De Rosa, Salvatore [Department of Cardiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Tekin, Tuna [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Boehme, Eike [Department of Cardiology, Bayerwaldklinik, Cham, Klinikstraße 22, 93413 Cham (Germany); Liem, Sven [Kardiologie am Rotkreuzplatz, Volkartstr. 5, 80634 Munich (Germany); Scheuchenzuber, Miriam [Radiologie München, Burgstraße 7, 80331 Munich (Germany); Kim, He-Ri [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bauer, Ralf W. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Silverman, Justin R. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the influence of experience and training on the proficiency in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) interpretation of practitioners with different levels of experience. Methods and materials: Nine radiologist and cardiologist observers with varying prior CCTA experience ranging from novice to expert independently analyzed two case series of 50 catheter-correlated CCTA studies for coronary artery stenosis (0%, ≤49%, 50–74%, 75–99%, or 100%). Results of the first case series were unblinded and presented along with catheter angiography results to each reader before proceeding to the second series. Diagnostic accuracy on a per-segment basis was compared for all readers and both case series, respectively. Results: Correlation coefficients between CCTA and catheter angiography initially ranged between good (r = 0.87) and poor (r = 0.26), depending on reader experience, and significantly (p < 0.05) improved in the second case series (range: r = 0.42 to r = 0.91). Diagnostic accuracy was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for more experienced readers (range: 96.5–97.8%) as compared to less experienced observers (range: 90.7–93.6%). After completion of the second case series for less experienced readers sensitivity and PPV significantly (p < 0.05) improved (range: 62.7–67.8%/51.4–84.1%), but still remained significantly (p < 0.05) lower as compared to more experienced observers (range: 89.8–93.3%/80.6–93.3%). Conclusion: The level of experience appears to be a strong determinant of proficiency in CCTA interpretation. Limited one-time training improves proficiency in novice readers, but not to clinically satisfactory levels.

  1. A New Approach for Direct Observation of Superconducting Electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ ASino-Japanese research team has succeeded in observing the superconducting electron directly by the photoemission spectroscopy with the highest yet resolution (360 μeV).Based on this, the researchers say,they will be able to solve problems regarding the exotic superconducting mechanism.

  2. Directly-Observed Treatment Strategy implementation practices in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-09

    Sep 9, 2014 ... The Directly-Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS) programme is intended to ensure both treatment .... implementation practices of nurses at a selected hospital and .... participants had not done so and indicated that their learning had taken the form of unofficial peer teaching, mentoring and modular ...

  3. A naturalistic study of the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions during high-stakes table tennis matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions experienced by table tennis players during competitive matches by adopting a naturalistic qualitative video-assisted approach. Thirty self-confrontation interviews were conducted with 11 national table tennis players (2 or 3 matches per participants). Nine discrete emotions were identified through the inductive analyses of the participants' transcriptions: anger, anxiety, discouragement, disappointment, disgust, joy, serenity, relief, and hope. Inductive analyses revealed the emergence of 4 categories and 13 themes among the 9 discrete emotions: positive direction (increased concentration, increased motivation, increased confidence, positive sensations, and adaptive behaviors), negative direction (decreased concentration, decreased motivation, too confident, decreased confidence, negative sensations, and maladaptive behaviors), neutral direction (take more risk and take less risk), and no perceived influence on own performance. Results are discussed in terms of current research on directional interpretation and emotions in sport.

  4. Global Observer-Based Attitude Controller Using Direct Inertial Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâdi Bouhired

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we address the problem of global attitude control using direct inertial measurements. When using direct inertial measurement to observe the rigid body attitude, it is shown that due to a geometrical obstruction, it is impossible to achieve global asymptotic stability. In fact, for a particular initial condition the tracking error quaternion converges to a pure imaginary quaternion formed by an eigenvector of a characteristic matrix related to the inertial constant and known vectors. Our proposition consists of adding a dynamic signal to force the rigid body to escape from such a situation. The proposed observer-based controller is synthesized based on a single Lyapunov function and a stability analysis shows that the controller stabilizes globally and asymptotically the rigid body attitude at the desired one. The effectiveness of the proposed observer-based controller is confirmed by simulation results.

  5. Directly observed iron supplementation for control of iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Bairwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is major public health problem affecting 1.6 billion people worldwide. The poor compliance of iron supplementation remains main contributor for high prevalence of anemia. The current paper reviewed the effectiveness of direct observation of oral iron supplementation on anemia. A systematic search was performed through electronic databases and local libraries. Search strategies used subject headings and key words “directly observed” and “iron supplementation.” Searches were sought through April 2014. A total of 14 articles were included in the study. Findings were presented in three categories. First, all of those reported an improvement in compliance of iron supplementation. Second, reduction in the prevalence of anemia was reported by all and third, all except one reported increased blood hemoglobin level. Directly observed an iron supplementation is an effective approach for prevention and management of anemia in vulnerable groups. However, larger trials are needed before concluding that scaling up directly observed iron supplementation through community health volunteers would be beneficial.

  6. The Learning Curve in Prostate MRI Interpretation: Self-Directed Learning Versus Continual Reader Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ayoola, Abimbola; Hoffman, David; Khasgiwala, Anunita; Prabhu, Vinay; Smereka, Paul; Somberg, Molly; Taneja, Samir S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the roles of self-directed learning and continual feedback in the learning curve for tumor detection by novice readers of prostate MRI. A total of 124 prostate MRI examinations classified as positive (n = 52; single Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] category 3 or higher lesion showing Gleason score ≥ 7 tumor at MRI-targeted biopsy) or negative (n = 72; PI-RADS category 2 or lower and negative biopsy) for detectable tumor were included. These were divided into four equal-sized batches, each with matching numbers of positive and negative examinations. Six second-year radiology residents reviewed examinations to localize tumors. Three of the six readers received feedback after each examination showing the preceding case's solution. The learning curve, plotting accuracy over time, was assessed by the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Logistic regression and mixed-model ANOVA were performed. For readers with and without feedback, the learning curve exhibited an initial rapid improvement that slowed after 40 examinations (change in AIC > 0.2%). Accuracy improved from 58.1% (batch 1) to 71.0-75.3% (batches 2-4) without feedback and from 58.1% to 72.0-77.4% with feedback (p = 0.027-0.046), without a difference in the extent of improvement (p = 0.800). Specificity improved from 53.7% to 68.5-81.5% without feedback and from 55.6% to 74.1-81.5% with feedback (p = 0.006-0.010), without a difference in the extent of improvement (p = 0.891). Sensitivity improved from 59.0-61.5% (batches 1-2) to 71.8-76.9% (batches 3-4) with feedback (p = 0.052), though did not improve without feedback (p = 0.602). Sensitivity for transition zone tumors exhibited larger changes (p = 0.024) with feedback than without feedback. Sensitivity for peripheral zone tumors did not improve in either group (p > 0.3). Reader confidence increased only with feedback (p learning curve in prostate tumor detection largely reflected self-directed

  7. Interpreting the observed UV continuum slopes of high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, Stephen M; Coulton, William; Croft, Rupert; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Khandai, Nishikanta; Feng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The observed UV continuum slope of star forming galaxies is strongly affected by the presence of dust. Its observation is then a potentially valuable diagnostic of dust attenuation, particularly at high-redshift where other diagnostics are currently inaccesible. Interpreting the observed UV continuum slope in the context of dust attenuation is often achieved assuming the empirically calibrated Meurer et al. (1999) relation. Implicit in this relation is the assumption of an intrinsic UV continuum slope ($\\beta=-2.23$). However, results from numerical simulations suggest that the intrinsic UV continuum slopes of high-redshift star forming galaxies are bluer than this, and moreover vary with redshift. Using values of the intrinsic slope predicted by numerical models of galaxy formation combined with a Calzetti et al. (2000) reddening law we infer UV attenuations ($A_{1500}$) $0.35-0.5\\,{\\rm mag}$ ($A_{V}$: $0.14-0.2\\,{\\rm mag}$ assuming Calzetti et al. 2000) greater than simply assuming the Meurer relation. This...

  8. Evolution of spatial and temporal correlations in the solar wind - Observations and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L. W.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of solar wind magnetic field spectra from 1-22 AU indicate a distinctive structure in frequency which evolves with increasing heliocentric distance. At 1 AU extremely low frequency correlations are associated with temporal variations at the solar period and its first few harmonics. For periods of l2-96 hours, a l/f distribution is observed, which we interpret as an aggregate of uncorrelated coronal structures which have not dynamically interacted by 1 AU. At higher frequencies the familiar Kolmogorov-like power law is seen. Farther from the sun the frequency break point between the shallow l/f and the steeper Kolmogorov spectrum evolves systematically towards lower frequencies. We suggest that the Kolmogorov-like spectra emerge due to in situ turbulence that generates spatial correlations associated with the turbulent cascade and that the background l/f noise is a largely temporal phenomenon, not associated with in situ dynamical processes. In this paper we discuss these ideas from the standpoint of observations from several interplanetary spacecraft.

  9. A Retrieval Architecture for JWST Observations of Directly Imaged Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alex

    2017-06-01

    I present a new modeling and retrieval code for atmospheres of directly imaged exoplanets designed for use on JWST observations, extending my previous work on transiting planets. I perform example retrievals of temperature-pressure profiles, common molecular abundances, and basic cloud properties on existing lower-resolution spectra and on simulated JWST data using forward model emission spectra for planned NIRISS and NIRCam targets. From these results, I estimate the expected return on prospective JWST observations in information-theoretic terms using the mutual information metric.

  10. Direct Observation of Ferromagnetic Spin Polarization in Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Y; Miura, T; Suzuki, M.; Kawamura, N.; Miyagawa, H; T. Nakamura; Kobayashi, K; Teranishi, T.; Hori, H.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first direct observation of ferromagnetic spin polarization of Au nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 1.9 nm using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Owing to the element selectivity of XMCD, only the gold magnetization is explored. Magnetization of gold atoms as estimated by XMCD shows a good agreement with results obtained by conventional magnetometry. This evidences intrinsic spin polarization in nanosized gold.

  11. Transient Cosmic-ray Events beyond the Heliopause: Interpreting Voyager-1 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kóta, J.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2017-04-01

    In 2013 March and 2014 May, Voyager-1 (V1) experienced small but significant increases in the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the hundred MeV/n range. Additionally, V1 also saw episodic depletion of GCR flux around perpendicular pitch angles. We discuss the pitch-angle distribution and the time profiles of these events. In a previous paper, we interpreted the 2013 “bump” as the GCRs remotely sensing a shock that reached the magnetic field line passing through V1: particles gained energy as they were reflected on the approaching region of the stronger magnetic field of the disturbance. Here, we point out that energy gain is not restricted to reflected particles—GCRs passing through the disturbance also gain energy. The effect should be present in a broad range of pitch angles with the maximum increase of GCR intensity predicted to occur at the critical reflection angle. In this paper, the shock is not step-like, but a gradual increase of the magnetic field strength, B, taking a few days, in agreement with V1 measurements. This smoothens the profile of the predicted bump in the GCR flux. We also address the linear episodic decreases seen around perpendicular pitch angles. These events are interpreted in terms of adiabatic cooling behind the shock due to the slow weakening of B. We present simple numerical model calculations and find that a gradual shock followed by a slow decrease of B, as observed, may account for both the episodic increases and the anisotropic depletion of GCR fluxes.

  12. Interpretation of the Cosmo-SkyMed observations of the 2009 Tanaro river flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvirenti, L.; Pierdicca, N.; Chini, M.; Guerriero, L.

    2010-09-01

    The potentiality of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for flood mapping was demonstrated by several past investigations. The synoptic view and the capability to operate in almost all-weather conditions and during both day and night are the key features that make the SAR images useful for monitoring inundation events. In addition, their high spatial resolution allows a fairly accurate delineation of the flood extent. The Cosmo-SkyMed (COnstellation of small Satellites for Mediterranean basin Observation) mission offers a unique opportunity to obtain radar images characterized by short revisit time, so that an operational use of Cosmo-SkyMed data in flood management systems can be envisaged. However, the interpretation of SAR images of flooded areas might be complex, because of the dependence of the radar response from flooded pixels on land cover, system parameters and environmental conditions. An example of radar data whose interpretation is not straightforward is represented by the Cosmo-SkyMed observations of the overflowing of the Tanaro river, close to the city of Alessandria (Northern Italy), occurred on April, 27-28 2009. Within the framework of a study, funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), aiming at evaluating the usefulness of Earth Observation techniques into operational flood prediction and assessment chains (named OPERA, civil protection from floods), ASI provided a number of Cosmo-SkyMed images of the Tanaro basin. In this study, we use three images that were acquired during three days in succession: from April, 29 to May, 1 2009, as well as other two acquisitions performed two weeks later (May, 16 and May, 17 2009), when the effects of the flood were disappeared. In this work, we firstly extract information on the spatial extension of homogeneous objects present in the scene through a segmentation procedure. In this way we cope with the speckle noise characteristic of SAR images and produce, from the multi-temporal series of five imagery

  13. Direct observation of the strange b baryon Xi_b^{-}

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merekov, Y P; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Panov, G; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pompo, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rozhdestvenski, A; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Vertogradova, Y; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-01

    We report the first direct observation of the strange b baryon Xi_b^{-}. We reconstruct the decay Xi_b^{-} to J/psi Xi^{-}, with J/psi to dimuons and Xi^{-} to Lambda pion, in ppbar collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV. Using 1.3 fb^{-1} of data collected by the D0 detector, we observe 15.2 +/- 4.4(stat.)+ 1.9/-0.4(syst.) Xi_b^{-} candidates at a mass of 5.774 +/- 0.011(stat.) +/- 0.015 (syst.) GeV. The significance of the observed signal is 5.5 sigmas, equivalent to a probability of 3.3 X 10^{-8} of it arising from a background fluctuation. Normalizing to the decay Lambda_b to J/psi Lambda, we measure the relative rate to be 0.28 +/- 0.09(stat.)+ 0.09/-0.08 (syst.).

  14. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. F.; Shih, A. Y.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Labrador, A. W.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Cummings, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event. The observations were made during the December 5, 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on the STEREO A and B spacecraft. Within 1-2 hours of the flare onset, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV protons arriving hours before the onset of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth. More than 70% of these particles arrived from a longitude within +-10 degrees of the Sun. The derived emission profile at the Sun lasted for more than an hour and had a profile remarkably similar to the GOES soft X-ray profile. The observed arrival directions and energy spectrum argue strongly that the particle events atoms that were stripped of their electrons upon entering the LET sensor. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of ENA emission from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection. We discuss possible origins for the production of ENAs in solar events, including charge-transfer reactions involving both flare and shock-accelerated protons. Assuming isotropic emission, we find that 2 x 10E28 ENAs escaped from the Sun in the upper hemisphere. Based on the 2.2 MeV gamma-ray emission observed by RHESSI in this event, and using measured and theoretical cross sections, we estimate that 3 x 10E31 ENAs with 1.8 - 5 MeV could be produced by protons accelerated in the flare. CME-driven shock acceleration is also a possible ENA source, but unfortunately there were no CME observations available from this event. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs were most likely produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances 1.6 solar radii.

  15. Direct Observation of Teacher and Student Behavior in School Settings: Trends, Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Scott, Terrance M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Wills, Howard P.

    2014-01-01

    Across the modern history of the field of special education and emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), direct observation of student and educator behavior has been an essential component of the diagnostic process, student progress monitoring, and establishing functional and statistical relationships within research. This article provides an…

  16. Direct state reconstruction with coupling-deformed pointer observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuanmin; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Wu, Shengjun

    2016-06-01

    Direct state tomography (DST) using weak measurements has received wide attention. Based on the concept of coupling-deformed pointer observables presented by Zhang et al. [Y.-X. Zhang, S. Wu, and Z.-B. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032128 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032128], a modified direct state tomography (MDST) is proposed, examined, and compared with other typical state tomography schemes. MDST has exact validity for measurements of any strength. We identify the strength needed to attain the highest efficiency level of MDST by using statistical theory. MDST is much more efficient than DST in the sense that far fewer samples are needed to reach DST's level of reconstruction accuracy. Moreover, MDST has no inherent bias when compared to DST.

  17. Complete control, direct observation and study of molecular super rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery

    2013-01-01

    Extremely fast rotating molecules carrying significantly more energy in their rotation than in any other degree of freedom are known as "super rotors". It has been speculated that super rotors may exhibit a number of unique and intriguing properties. Theoretical studies showed that ultrafast molecular rotation may change the character of molecular scattering from solid surfaces, alter molecular trajectories in external fields, make super rotors surprisingly stable against collisions, and lead to the formation of gas vortices. New ways of molecular cooling and selective chemical bond breaking by ultrafast spinning have been proposed. Owing to the fundamental laws of nature, bringing a large number of molecules to fast, directional and synchronous rotation is rather challenging. As a result, only indirect evidence of super rotors has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first controlled creation, direct observation and study of molecular super rotors. Using intense laser pulses tailored to produce an ...

  18. Direct observation of stepwise movement of a synthetic molecular transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Shelley F. J.; Endo, Masayuki; Katsuda, Yousuke; Hidaka, Kumi; Bath, Jonathan; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Turberfield, Andrew J.

    2011-03-01

    Controlled motion at the nanoscale can be achieved by using Watson-Crick base-pairing to direct the assembly and operation of a molecular transport system consisting of a track, a motor and fuel, all made from DNA. Here, we assemble a 100-nm-long DNA track on a two-dimensional scaffold, and show that a DNA motor loaded at one end of the track moves autonomously and at a constant average speed along the full length of the track, a journey comprising 16 consecutive steps for the motor. Real-time atomic force microscopy allows direct observation of individual steps of a single motor, revealing mechanistic details of its operation. This precisely controlled, long-range transport could lead to the development of systems that could be programmed and routed by instructions encoded in the nucleotide sequences of the track and motor. Such systems might be used to create molecular assembly lines modelled on the ribosome.

  19. Direct observation of lubricant additives using tomography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yunyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Sanchez, Carlos [Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Parkinson, Dilworth Y. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liang, Hong, E-mail: hliang@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    Lubricants play important roles in daily activities such as driving, walking, and cooking. The current understanding of mechanisms of lubrication, particularly in mechanical systems, has been limited by the lack of capability in direct observation. Here, we report an in situ approach to directly observe the motion of additive particles in grease under the influence of shear. Using the K-edge tomography technique, it is possible to detect particular additives in a grease and observe their distribution through 3D visualization. A commercial grease as a reference was studied with and without an inorganic additive of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles. The results showed that it was possible to identify these particles and track their movement. Under a shear stress, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were found to adhere to the edge of calcium complex thickeners commonly used in grease. Due to sliding, the grease formed a film with increased density. This approach enables in-line monitoring of a lubricant and future investigation in mechanisms of lubrication.

  20. GEODETIC OBSERVATION AND INTERPRETATION OF ICE FLOW VELOCITIES IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF SUBGLACIAL LAKE VOSTOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of geodetic in-situ observations of ice-flow velocities in the southern part of subglacialLakeVostokare combined with data sets of the ice surface topography, ice thickness, surface accumulation, basal accretion and firn/ice density for interpretations regarding the glaciological setting of theLakeVostoksystem. Based on the ice-flow velocities and the ice thickness, mean surface accumulation rates are derived applying the flux gate method. These are representative for surface segments extending from the southern part ofLakeVostokto the Ridge B ice divide. They are consistent with the present-day accumulation rate at Vostok station and its variation upstream and thus suggest that the area has been close to steady state. In addition, ice-flow dynamics are investigated along a flow line segment extending from26 kmupstream to12 kmdownstream from Vostok station. The analysis suggests deficiencies in current modelling approaches within the transition zone from floating to grounded ice.

  1. AIRSAR observations of the Gulf Stream with interpretation from sea truth and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, G. R.; Chubb, S. R.; Marmorino, G. O.; Trump, C. L.; Lee, J. S.; Cooper, A. L.; Askari, F.; Keller, W. C.; Kaiser, J. A. C.; Mied, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    On 20 Jul., JPL/DC-8 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) participated in the 17-21 Jul. 1990 NRL Gulf Stream (GS) experiment in preparation for SIR-C missions in 1993, 1994, and 1996 for calibration purposes and to check modes and techniques for operation at our experimental site off the east coast of the US. During this experiment, coordinated and near simultaneous measurements were performed from ship (R/V Cape Henlopen) and other aircraft (NADC/P-3 and NRL/P-3) to address scientific questions relating to the origin of 'slick-like' features observed by Scully-Power, the refraction and modulation of waves by variable currents, the effect of current and thermal fronts on radar imagery signatures and the modification of Kelvin ship wakes by fronts. The JPL/DC-8 and NADC/P-3 SAR's are fully polarimetric systems. Their composite frequency range varies between P- and X-band. We describe in detail the Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) participation in the Jul. 1990 GS experiment and present preliminary results of the ongoing analysis and interpretation of the radar imagery in the context of ground truth, other remote measurements, and modeling efforts.

  2. New observations concerning the interpretation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato (Japan); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Yamamoto, Youhei; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    This study was aimed to clarify some ambiguities in the interpretation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of meningiomas. The cases of 31 meningioma patients (27 benign and 4 nonbenign meningiomas) that underwent single-voxel 1H-MRS (PRESS sequence, TR/TE = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms) were retrospectively analyzed. To verify the findings of in-vivo study, phantoms were measured, and pathological sections of 11 patients were reviewed. All meningiomas demonstrated increased choline and decreased creatine, except for a lipomatous meningioma that only displayed a prominent lipid (Lip) peak. Alanine (Ala) and lactate (Lac) coexisted in eight cases, indicating an alternative pathway of energy metabolism in meningiomas. They partially overlapped with each other and demonstrated a triplet-like spectral pattern, which was consistent with phantom study. Glutamine/glutamate (Glx) was helpful for the recognition of meningioma when Ala was absent. N-acetyl compounds(NACs) were observed in nine cases whose voxels were completely limited within the tumors, indicating that meningiomas might have endogenous NACs. Lac was indicative of an aggressive meningioma, although not always a nonbenign one. Lip not only represented micronecrosis in nonbenign meningiomas, but also reflected microcystic changes or fatty degeneration in benign meningiomas. 1H-MRS reflects some distinctive biochemical and pathological changes of meningiomas that might be misinterpreted. (orig.)

  3. On Weibull's Spectrum of Non-relativistic Energetic Particles at IP Shocks: Observations and Theoretical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallocchia, G.; Laurenza, M.; Consolini, G.

    2017-03-01

    Some interplanetary shocks are associated with short-term and sharp particle flux enhancements near the shock front. Such intensity enhancements, known as shock-spike events (SSEs), represent a class of relatively energetic phenomena as they may extend to energies of some tens of MeV or even beyond. Here we present an SSE case study in order to shed light on the nature of the particle acceleration involved in this kind of event. Our observations refer to an SSE registered on 2011 October 3 at 22:23 UT, by STEREO B instrumentation when, at a heliocentric distance of 1.08 au, the spacecraft was swept by a perpendicular shock moving away from the Sun. The main finding from the data analysis is that a Weibull distribution represents a good fitting function to the measured particle spectrum over the energy range from 0.1 to 30 MeV. To interpret such an observational result, we provide a theoretical derivation of the Weibull spectrum in the framework of the acceleration by “killed” stochastic processes exhibiting power-law growth in time of the velocity expectation, such as the classical Fermi process. We find an overall coherence between the experimental values of the Weibull spectrum parameters and their physical meaning within the above scenario. Hence, our approach based on the Weibull distribution proves to be useful for understanding SSEs. With regard to the present event, we also provide an alternative explanation of the Weibull spectrum in terms of shock-surfing acceleration.

  4. Frank Ross's Early Direct Photographs of Venus and His Interpretation of Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2006-09-01

    Frank Ross was an outstandingly creative astronomical "jack of many trades" (Monet) or "cat with nine astronomical lives". After joining the Yerkes Observatory faculty in 1924, at age 50, he took a long series of almost nightly direct photographs of Venus in 1927 with the Mount Wilson 60-inch and 100-inch reflectors as a guest observer. He published many of these images in the ApJ in 1928, with his conclusions on the nature of Venus. Ross discovered markings, seen only in the ultraviolet images, parallel "belts" indicating rotation. They changed rapidly. From these photographs he developed a tentative picture of a deep opaque atmosphere, with high pressure at the surface of the planet. The changes were due to "violent events" (winds or storms) in its atmosphere. From spectroscopic results of Slipher, Adams, StJohn, and Nicholson he took the rotation period to be long. But bolometric observations of Pettit, Nicholson, Coblentz, and Lampland, indicated little temperature change between the illuminated and dark parts of the disk, so it could not be too slow. Ross settled on a "compromise" rotation period of about 30 days based on the data he had. The spectroscopic measurements showed there was very little, if any, H2O or O2 in the atmosphere. Ross is best known today for his Ross wide-angle camera design, his Ross high-proper-motion stars, his Ross photometer, and his Ross correctors for large reflecting telescopes, but his foray into planetary astronomy, long before the era of radar or close-up imaging and spectroscopy from space vehicles, was an important first step toward understanding Venus. His years of experience in laboratory studies of the properties of photographic plates, developers, and mensuration were highly important for this work. Equally so were his cheerful, peppery personality and his close relations with many Mount Wilson and Lowell Observatory staff members.

  5. Direct Observation of Correlated Interdomain Motion in Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Ralf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Monkenbusch, Michael; Falus, Peter; Préost, Sylvain; Merkel, Rudolf; Richter, Dieter

    2008-09-01

    Interdomain motions in proteins are essential to enable or promote biochemical function. Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy is used to directly observe the domain dynamics of the protein alcohol dehydrogenase. The collective motion of domains as revealed by their coherent form factor relates to the cleft opening dynamics between the binding and the catalytic domains enabling binding and release of the functional important cofactor. The cleft opening mode hardens as a result of an overall stiffening of the domain complex due to the binding of the cofactor.

  6. THE DIRECTIVE 85/374/EEC ON DEFECTIVE PRODUCTS: ITS INTERPRETATION BY THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada HERBOSA MARTÍNEZ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the interpretation of the European Court of Justice concerning substantive aspects of the Directive 85/374/ECC of July25, 1985, on liability for defective products. Therefore, this work will deal with the interpretation of some aspects regarding the essence of products liability: The concept of defect and the extent of damage covered by this liability. In addition, a number of issues needing of interpretation are analysed, such as: The meaning of putting a product into circulation, the right to information of the consumer in order to prove the causation of damage, and finally the problems that arise in cases where the producer is exempt from liability.

  7. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event reported by Mewaldt et al. (2009). The observations were made during the 5 December 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV particles arriving from the Sun. The derived solar emission profile, arrival directions, and energy spectrum all show that the atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. CME-driven shock acceleration is also considered. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances .2 solar radii.

  8. Direct Chargino-Neutralino Production at the LHC: Interpreting the Exclusion Limits in the Complex MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha, A; von der Pahlen, F

    2013-01-01

    We re-assess the exclusion limits on the parameters describing the supersymmetric (SUSY) electroweak sector of the MSSM obtained from the search for direct chargino-neutralino production at the LHC. We start from published limits obtained in simplified models, where for the case of heavy sleptons the relevant branching ratio, BR(neu2->neu1 Z), is set to one. We show how the decay mode neu2->neu1 h, which cannot be neglected in any realistic model once kinematically allowed, substantially reduces the excluded parameter region. We analyze the dependence of the excluded regions on the phase of the gaugino soft SUSY-breaking mass parameter, M_1, on the mass of the light scalar tau, on tb as well as on the squark and slepton mass scales. Large reductions in the ranges of parameters excluded can be observed in all scenarios. The branching ratios of charginos and neutralinos are evaluated using a full NLO calculation for the complex MSSM. The size of the effects of the NLO calculation on the exclusion bounds is inve...

  9. Direct observation of the temporal and spatial dynamics during crumpling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, Hillel; Sharon, Eran

    2010-12-01

    Crumpling occurs when a thin deformable sheet is crushed under an external load or grows within a confining geometry. Crumpled sheets have large resistance to compression and their elastic energy is focused into a complex network of localized structures. Different aspects of crumpling have been studied theoretically, experimentally and numerically. However, very little is known about the dynamic evolution of three-dimensional spatial configurations of crumpling sheets. Here we present direct measurements of the configurations of a fully elastic sheet evolving during the dynamic process of crumpling under isotropic confinement. We observe the formation of a network of ridges and vertices into which the energy is localized. The network is dynamic. Its evolution involves movements of ridges and vertices. Although the characteristics of ridges agree with theoretical predictions, the measured accumulation of elastic energy within the entire sheet is considerably slower than predicted. This could be a result of the observed network rearrangement during crumpling.

  10. Direct observational evidence for the merging of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V. L.; Gurubaran, S.; Shiokawa, K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we present direct ground-based observational evidence for the merging of individual equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) obtained through the imaging of OI 630.0 nm airglow. Three potential mechanisms have been identified: (1) One of the EPBs tilts and reaches location of the adjacent growing EPB finally merging with it. (2) Some of the branches of an EPB arising from secondary instabilities reach out to adjacent EPB and merge with it. (3) The eastward zonal drift of the EPB on the eastern side slows down while the adjacent EPB on the western side drifts relatively faster and catches up. In one of the cases, a branch of an EPB was observed to get interchanged with another EPB as a result of merging and consequent pinching off from the parent EPB.

  11. Direct observation of dynamic shear jamming in dense suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ivo R.; Majumdar, Sayantan; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2016-04-01

    Liquid-like at rest, dense suspensions of hard particles can undergo striking transformations in behaviour when agitated or sheared. These phenomena include solidification during rapid impact, as well as strong shear thickening characterized by discontinuous, orders-of-magnitude increases in suspension viscosity. Much of this highly non-Newtonian behaviour has recently been interpreted within the framework of a jamming transition. However, although jamming indeed induces solid-like rigidity, even a strongly shear-thickened state still flows and thus cannot be fully jammed. Furthermore, although suspensions are incompressible, the onset of rigidity in the standard jamming scenario requires an increase in particle density. Finally, whereas shear thickening occurs in the steady state, impact-induced solidification is transient. As a result, it has remained unclear how these dense suspension phenomena are related and how they are connected to jamming. Here we resolve this by systematically exploring both the steady-state and transient regimes with the same experimental system. We demonstrate that a fully jammed, solid-like state can be reached without compression and instead purely with shear, as recently proposed for dry granular systems. This state is created by transient shear-jamming fronts, which we track directly. We also show that shear stress, rather than shear rate, is the key control parameter. From these findings we map out a state diagram with particle density and shear stress as variables. We identify discontinuous shear thickening with a marginally jammed regime just below the onset of full, solid-like jamming. This state diagram provides a unifying framework, compatible with prior experimental and simulation results on dense suspensions, that connects steady-state and transient behaviour in terms of a dynamic shear-jamming process.

  12. Direct observation of photoinduced bent nitrosyl excited-state complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Karma R.; Steele, Ryan P.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Cahoon, James F.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Harris, Charles B.

    2008-06-28

    Ground state structures with side-on nitrosyl ({eta}{sup 2}-NO) and isonitrosyl (ON) ligands have been observed in a variety of transition-metal complexes. In contrast, excited state structures with bent-NO ligands have been proposed for years but never directly observed. Here we use picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) modeling to study the photochemistry of Co(CO){sub 3}(NO), a model transition-metal-NO compound. Surprisingly, we have observed no evidence for ON and {eta}{sup 2}-NO structural isomers, but have observed two bent-NO complexes. DFT modeling of the ground and excited state potentials indicates that the bent-NO complexes correspond to triplet excited states. Photolysis of Co(CO){sub 3}(NO) with a 400-nm pump pulse leads to population of a manifold of excited states which decay to form an excited state triplet bent-NO complex within 1 ps. This structure relaxes to the ground triplet state in ca. 350 ps to form a second bent-NO structure.

  13. Direct Observation of Molecular Oxygen Production from Carbon Dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Larimian, Seyedreza; Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia; Baltuška, Andrius; Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen ($O_2$) is one of the most important elements required to sustain life. The concentration of $O_2$ on Earth has been accumulated over millions of years and has a direct connection with that of $CO_2$. Further, $CO_2$ plays an important role in many other planetary atmospheres. Therefore, molecular reactions involving $CO_2$ are critical for studying the atmospheres of such planets. Existing studies on the dissociation of $CO_2$ are exclusively focused on the C--O bond breakage. Here we report first experiments on the direct observation of molecular Oxygen formation from $CO_2$ in strong laser fields with a reaction microscope. Our accompanying simulations suggest that $CO_2$ molecules may undergo bending motion during and after strong-field ionization which supports the molecular Oxygen formation process. The observation of the molecular Oxygen formation from $CO_2$ may trigger further experimental and theoretical studies on such processes with laser pulses, and provide hints in studies of the $O_2$ an...

  14. Direct sequencing and RipSeq interpretation as a tool for identification of polymicrobial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Tine Yding; Eickhardt, Steffen; Björnsdottir, Maria K

    2013-01-01

    In this study, RipSeq Mixed, a software resolving uninterpretable mixed DNA sequencing chromatograms, revealed the bacterial content of 15 polymicrobial samples. Direct sequencing combined with RipSeq Mixed constitutes a valuable supplement to cultivation, particularly when cultivation is negative...... and direct sequencing is inconclusive despite continued clinical indications of infection....

  15. The value of core lab stress echocardiography interpretations: observations from the ISCHEMIA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Akihisa; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Senior, Roxy; Gosselin, Gilbert; Phaneuf, Denis; Guzman, Gabriela; Perna, Gian; Lara, Alfonso; Kedev, Sasko; Mortara, Andrea; El-Hajjar, Mohammad; Shaw, Leslee J; Reynolds, Harmony R; Picard, Michael H

    2015-12-18

    Stress echocardiography (SE) is dependent on subjective interpretations. As a prelude to the International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) Trial, potential sites were required to submit two SE, one with moderate or severe left ventricular (LV) myocardial ischemia and one with mild ischemia. We evaluated the concordance of site and core lab interpretations. Eighty-one SE were submitted from 41 international sites. Ischemia was classified by the number of new or worsening segmental LV wall motion abnormalities (WMA): none, mild (1 or 2) or moderate or severe (3 or more) by the sites and the core lab. Core lab classified 6 SE as no ischemia, 35 mild and 40 moderate or greater. There was agreement between the site and core in 66 of 81 total cases (81%, weighted kappa coefficient [K] =0.635). Agreement was similar for SE type - 24 of 30 exercise (80%, K = 0.571) vs. 41 of 49 pharmacologic (84%, K = 0.685). The agreement between poor or fair image quality (27 of 36 cases, 75%, K = 0.492) was not as good as for the good or excellent image quality cases (39 of 45 cases, 87%, K = 0.755). Differences in concordance were noted for degree of ischemia with the majority of discordant interpretations (87%) occurring in patients with no or mild LV myocardial ischemia. While site SE interpretations are largely concordant with core lab interpretations, this appears dependent on image quality and the extent of WMA. Thus core lab interpretations remain important in clinical trials where consistency of interpretation across a range of cases is critical. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01471522.

  16. TAKING THE STRICT ACCOUNT OF TECHNE SERIOUSLY: AN INTERPRETIVE DIRECTION IN PLATO’S REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knies, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I argue that the strict account of techne agreed to by Socrates and Thrasymachus in Republic I provides a useful framework for addressing a central question of the dialogue as a whole: how philosophy might belong to the polis. This view depends upon three positions: 1 that Plato invites us to interpret the relationship between techne and polis outside the terms of the city-soul analogy, 2 that the strict account contributes to a compelling description of vocational work, and 3 that this description determines what Socrates means by a true polis, and thus frames the problem of philosophy’s political inclusion.

  17. Direct observations of field-induced assemblies in magnetite ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, N. S. Susan; Khapli, Sachin D.; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-03-01

    Evolution of microstructures in magnetite-based ferrofluids with weak dipolar moments (particle size ≤ 10 nm) is studied with an emphasis on examining the effects of particle concentration (ϕ) and magnetic field strength (H) on the structures. Nanoparticles are dispersed in water at three different concentrations, ϕ = 0.15%, 0.48%, and 0.59% (w/v) [g/ml%] and exposed to uniform magnetic fields in the range of H = 0.05-0.42 T. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is employed to provide in-situ observations of the field-induced assemblies in such systems. As the magnetic field increases, the Brownian colloids are observed to form randomly distributed chains aligned in the field direction, followed by head-to-tail chain aggregation and then lateral aggregation of chains termed as zippering. By increasing the field in low concentration samples, the number of chains increases, though their length does not change dramatically. Increasing concentration increases the length of the linear particle assemblies in the presence of a fixed external magnetic field. Thickening of the chains due to zippering is observed at relatively high fields. Through a systematic variation of concentration and magnetic field strength, this study shows that both magnetic field strength and change in concentration can strongly influence formation of microstructures even in weak dipolar systems. Additionally, the results of two commonly used support films on electron microscopy grids, continuous carbon and holey carbon films, are compared. Holey carbon film allows us to create local regions of high concentrations that further assist the development of field-induced assemblies. The experimental observations provide a validation of the zippering effect and can be utilized in the development of models for thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity.

  18. Direct observations of field-induced assemblies in magnetite ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, N. S. Susan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York University, 6 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States); Khapli, Sachin D. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Saadiyat Island, PO Box 129 188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kumar, Sunil [Mechanical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York University, 6 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States); New York University Abu Dhabi, Saadiyat Island, PO Box 129 188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-03-14

    Evolution of microstructures in magnetite-based ferrofluids with weak dipolar moments (particle size ≤ 10 nm) is studied with an emphasis on examining the effects of particle concentration (ϕ) and magnetic field strength (H) on the structures. Nanoparticles are dispersed in water at three different concentrations, ϕ = 0.15%, 0.48%, and 0.59% (w/v) [g/ml%] and exposed to uniform magnetic fields in the range of H = 0.05–0.42 T. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is employed to provide in-situ observations of the field-induced assemblies in such systems. As the magnetic field increases, the Brownian colloids are observed to form randomly distributed chains aligned in the field direction, followed by head-to-tail chain aggregation and then lateral aggregation of chains termed as zippering. By increasing the field in low concentration samples, the number of chains increases, though their length does not change dramatically. Increasing concentration increases the length of the linear particle assemblies in the presence of a fixed external magnetic field. Thickening of the chains due to zippering is observed at relatively high fields. Through a systematic variation of concentration and magnetic field strength, this study shows that both magnetic field strength and change in concentration can strongly influence formation of microstructures even in weak dipolar systems. Additionally, the results of two commonly used support films on electron microscopy grids, continuous carbon and holey carbon films, are compared. Holey carbon film allows us to create local regions of high concentrations that further assist the development of field-induced assemblies. The experimental observations provide a validation of the zippering effect and can be utilized in the development of models for thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity.

  19. Summertime winds and direct cyclonic circulation: observations from Lake Geneva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lemmin

    Full Text Available Records of wind, air temperature and air pressure from nine stations, situated along the shoreline of Lake Geneva, Switzerland, were analyzed for the summer period May to September. At all stations the consistent appearance of significant spectral peaks and changes in wind direction at the diurnal frequency indicates the importance of lake-land breezes. It is shown that the surrounding topography has a strong modifying effect (temporal and spatial on the lake-land breeze. Superimposed on this cyclic wind pattern, short episodes of strong winds with long fetch over parts of Lake Geneva are regularly observed. Both of these winds exert a spatially variable wind stress over the lake surface on the same time scale. Typical examples of the expected lake's response are presented, among them the seasonally persistent gyre in the central part of the lake. Evidence is provided that this dominant circulation is part of a direct cyclonic circulation, generated by the curl of the diurnal wind field. It is concluded that the mean circulation is caused by these winds and affected by the topography of the surrounding land.

  20. Dental injury after conventional direct laryngoscopy: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, J; Neto, J; Luís, C; Moreno, C; Barbosa, J; Carvalho, J; Tavares, J

    2013-10-01

    This observational study assessed the frequency and risk factors of dental damage after classic direct laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation in 536 adult patients. The patients' sex, age, height, weight, dental condition, dental mobility, Mallampati class, interincisor gap, thyromental distance, neck circumference, and head and neck extension were recorded. From anaesthesia records, the difficulty of intubation, the number of attempts, type of neuromuscular blocking agent used and duration of anaesthesia were recorded. After anaesthesia, examination revealed that 134 patients (25.0%) had dental damage affecting 162 teeth (147 maxillary; 15 mandibular). Enamel fracture was the commonest injury. In tooth number 21, the interincisor gap (OR 2.5 (95% CI 1.0-5.9)) and in tooth number 22, the number of intubation attempts (OR 5.3 (95% CI 1.3-22.0)) were considered a risk factor for dental injury. Conventional direct laryngoscopy is associated with a strikingly high incidence of dental damage, although specific risk factors remain unclear. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Implications of a variable IMF for the interpretation of observations of galaxy populations

    CERN Document Server

    Clauwens, Bart; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a metallicity-dependent stellar initial mass function (IMF), as deduced observationally by Mart\\'in-Navarro et al. (2015c), on the inferred stellar masses and star formation rates of a representative sample of 186,886 SDSS galaxies. Compared to a universal Chabrier IMF, this variable IMF implies a large increase in the star formation rates inferred from the observed UV and IR luminosities. This extends the star formation main sequence to higher masses and increases the total low-redshift SFR density by an order of magnitude. Depending on the metallicity, the inferred galaxy masses increase either because of the addition of stellar remnants or dwarf stars relative to a Chabrier IMF, for which the implied mass is minimal. This causes a shift of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) to higher masses by 0.5 dex and a factor 2.3 increase in the stellar mass density above 109 Msun. However, the results depend strongly on the assumed IMF parametrisation, which is not directly constrain...

  2. Implications of a variable IMF for the interpretation of observations of galaxy populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop; Franx, Marijn

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of a metallicity-dependent stellar initial mass function (IMF), as deduced observationally by Martín-Navarro et al., on the inferred stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of a representative sample of 186 886 SDSS galaxies. Relative to a Chabrier IMF, for which we show the implied masses to be close to minimal, the inferred masses increase in both the low- and high-metallicity regimes due to the addition of stellar remnants and dwarf stars, respectively. The resulting galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) shifts towards higher masses by 0.5 dex, without affecting the high-mass slope (and thus the need for effective quenching). The implied low-redshift SFR density increases by an order of magnitude. However, these results depend strongly on the assumed IMF parametrization, which is not directly constrained by the observations. Varying the low-end IMF slope instead of the high-end IMF slope, while maintaining the same dwarf-to-giant ratio, results in a much more modest GSMF shift of 0.2 dex and a 10 per cent increase in the SFR density relative to the Chabrier IMF. A bottom-heavy IMF during the late, metal-rich evolutionary stage of a galaxy would help explain the rapid quenching and the bimodality in the galaxy population by on the one hand making galaxies less quenched (due to the continued formation of dwarf stars) and on the other hand reducing the gas consumption time-scale. We conclude that the implications of the observational evidence for a variable IMF could vary from absolutely dramatic to mild but significant.

  3. Direct observation of the spin-dependent Peltier effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, J; Bakker, F L; Slachter, A; Dejene, F K; van Wees, B J

    2012-02-05

    The Peltier coefficient describes the amount of heat that is carried by an electrical current when it passes through a material. When two materials with different Peltier coefficients are placed in contact with one another, the Peltier effect causes a net flow of heat either towards or away from the interface between them. Spintronics describes the transport of electric charge and spin angular momentum by separate spin-up and spin-down channels in a device. The observation that spin-up and spin-down charge transport channels are able to transport heat independently of each other has raised the possibility that spin currents could be used to heat or cool the interface between materials with different spin-dependent Peltier coefficients. Here, we report the direct observation of the heating and cooling of such an interface by a spin current. We demonstrate this spin-dependent Peltier effect in a spin-valve pillar structure that consists of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-ferromagnetic metal. Using a three-dimensional finite-element model, we extract spin-dependent Peltier coefficients in the range -0.9 to -1.3 mV for permalloy. The magnetic control of heat flow could prove useful for the cooling of nanoscale electronic components or devices.

  4. Direct observation of episodic growth in an abyssal xenophyophore (Protista)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, A. J.; Bett, B. J.; Pratt, D. N.

    1993-11-01

    Three specimens of the xenophyophore Reticulammina labyrinthica were photographed on the Madeira Abyssal Plain (31°6.1'N, 21°10.9'W; 4944 m) using the Bathysnap time-lapse camera system. During the 8 month observation period, the specimens underwent an estimated 3-10 fold increase in volume. Growth occurred episodically in several distinct phases, each lasting 2-3 days, during which sediment was collected and incorporated into the test. These phases were separated by fairly regular periods of about 2 months when the organisms showed little obvious activity. The growth phases were approximately synchronous between specimens. However, it is not clear whether the periodicity and apparent synchronization of these events resulted from an external (environmental) cue or whether growth is internally controlled and the synchronization arose by chance. These unique observations, which represent the first direct measurement of growth in any abyssal organism living outside a hydrothermal vent field, suggest that xenophyophores combine test growth with deposit feeding. The tests appear to grow more quickly, and to be more active, dynamic structures, than previously believed.

  5. Direct observation of the spin-dependent Peltier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, J.; Bakker, F. L.; Slachter, A.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.

    2012-03-01

    The Peltier coefficient describes the amount of heat that is carried by an electrical current when it passes through a material. When two materials with different Peltier coefficients are placed in contact with one another, the Peltier effect causes a net flow of heat either towards or away from the interface between them. Spintronics describes the transport of electric charge and spin angular momentum by separate spin-up and spin-down channels in a device. The observation that spin-up and spin-down charge transport channels are able to transport heat independently of each other has raised the possibility that spin currents could be used to heat or cool the interface between materials with different spin-dependent Peltier coefficients. Here, we report the direct observation of the heating and cooling of such an interface by a spin current. We demonstrate this spin-dependent Peltier effect in a spin-valve pillar structure that consists of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-ferromagnetic metal. Using a three-dimensional finite-element model, we extract spin-dependent Peltier coefficients in the range -0.9 to -1.3 mV for permalloy. The magnetic control of heat flow could prove useful for the cooling of nanoscale electronic components or devices.

  6. Geographic Variability of the Lithospheric Magnetic Power Spectra on Earth and Mars: Theory, Observation, Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Beggan, C.; Saarimaki, J.; Whaler, K. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Plattner, A.

    2012-12-01

    We elucidate "myths and truths concerning the estimation of power spectra", to paraphrase a paper written by G. Efstathiou. A complete theory and software are available to construct and interpret localized power spectral densities from noisy and incomplete data observed on a spherical surface, but such knowledge has not made it into mainstream geophysical practice. Key are the doubly-orthogonal spherical Slepian functions, and their Cartesian and vectorial relatives. There is confusion in the community on whether to use the Slepian functions as a basis for data approximation, as windows for regularization of power spectral estimates, or hybridly. Each of these choices is legitimate but carries consequences to be characterized statistically. We review the options and present them tutorially, to motivate the scientific analysis of the terrestrial magnetic power spectrum, and that of Mars, which follows. The power spectral density of the lithospheric magnetic field on Earth is broken down in to portions that are geographically limited to the oceans, the continents, and various portions thereof. The different overall power levels and varying character of the power spectra contain much diagnostic information about the generation and preservation of magnetic signatures in the Earth's crust. On Mars, we conducted a parameterized inversion for magnetization strength and decorrelation depth, and compared this to independent, gravity-based estimates for crustal thickness. Both the terrestrial and martian examples are different manifestations of how Slepian functions can be used for power-spectral localization, and in both cases, the uncertainty of the spectral estimates, both on the horizontal axis (degree resolution) and the vertical axis (estimation variance), is easily computed via exact and also approximate relationships. The analytical expressions that are involved may look off-puttingly complex, but the result of the theoretical analysis is a set of simple routines

  7. Assimilation of wind speed and direction observations: results from real observation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The assimilation of wind observations in the form of speed and direction (asm_sd by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Data Assimilation System (WRFDA was performed using real data and employing a series of cycling assimilation experiments for a 2-week period, as a follow-up for an idealised post hoc assimilation experiment. The satellite-derived Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV and surface dataset in Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS were assimilated. This new method takes into account the observation errors of both wind speed (spd and direction (dir, and WRFDA background quality control (BKG-QC influences the choice of wind observations, due to data conversions between (u,v and (spd, dir. The impacts of BKG-QC, as well as the new method, on the wind analysis were analysed separately. Because the dir observational errors produced by different platforms are not known or tuned well in WRFDA, a practical method, which uses similar assimilation weights in comparative trials, was employed to estimate the spd and dir observation errors. The asm_sd produces positive impacts on analyses and short-range forecasts of spd and dir with smaller root-mean-square errors than the u,v-based system. The bias of spd analysis decreases by 54.8%. These improvements result partly from BKG-QC screening of spd and dir observations in a direct way, but mainly from the independent impact of spd (dir data assimilation on spd (dir analysis, which is the primary distinction from the standard WRFDA method. The potential impacts of asm_sd on precipitation forecasts were evaluated. Results demonstrate that the asm_sd is able to indirectly improve the precipitation forecasts by improving the prediction accuracies of key wind-related factors leading to precipitation (e.g. warm moist advection and frontogenesis.

  8. Some Observations on the Identification and Interpretation of the 3PL IRT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Caio Lucidius Naberezny

    2009-01-01

    The paper by Maris, G., & Bechger, T. (2009) entitled, "On the Interpreting the Model Parameters for the Three Parameter Logistic Model," addressed two important questions concerning the three parameter logistic (3PL) item response theory (IRT) model (and in a broader sense, concerning all IRT models). The first one is related to the model…

  9. Widening Possibilities of Interpretation When Observing Learning and Teaching through the Use of a Dynamic Visual Notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Clare; Sweet, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows how peer observation of learning and teaching (POLT) discussions can be augmented through the use of a dynamic visual notation that makes visible for interpretation, elements of teacher-learner and learner-earner nonverbal interactions. Making visible the nonverbal, physical, spatial and kinesics (eye-based) elements of…

  10. Up-Scaling Field Observations to Ground Truth Seismic Interpretations and Test Dynamic Models of Deep Water Rifted Margins: What are the Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatschal, G.; Nirrengarten, M.; Epin, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances on the study of rifted margins resulted from the development of new, high-resolution seismic imaging methods and dynamic modelling that enable to image the crustal scale structure of rifted margins and experiment under what conditions they formed. However, both the used parameter space as well as the seismic interpretations and model results need to be ground truth by direct observations and data. In the case of deep-water rifted margins, the problem is that drill hole data is expensive, rare and only available from a handful of examples worldwide. In contrast, remnants preserving kilometre-scale outcrops of former deep-water rifted margins have been described from the Alps and the Pyrenees in Western Europe. These large-scale outcrops provide a direct access to mantle and crustal rocks and the associated sedimentary sequences and magmatic additions. The combination of world-class outcrops, classical, field-based mapping and analytical methods can provide the missing data that is necessary to calibrate and test dynamic models as well as to ground truth seismic interpretations. In my presentation I will use observations and data from key outcrops from the most distal fossil Alpine Tethys margins exposed in SE Switzerland with the aim to describe the deformation processes and conditions during final rifting and to test rift modes (semi-ductile flow vs. brittle poly-phase faulting). I will in particular focus on the way strain is distributed and the bulk rheology evolves during hyper-extension and mantle exhumation and compare the observations with model results and seismic interpretations. Up-and down scaling observations/data and bridging multiple spatial and temporal scales is a key to understand the large-scale extensional processes that are at the origin of the formation of hyper-extend and exhumed mantle domains. The major challenge is to understand how the learnings obtained from the well-documented examples in the Alps and Pyrenees can be used

  11. Using Two Different Self-Directed Search (SDS) Interpretive Materials: Implications for Career Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, V. Casey; Sampson, James P.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    John Holland's Self-Directed Search (SDS) is a career assessment that consists of several booklets designed to be self-scored and self-administered. It simulates what a practitioner and an individual might do together in a career counseling session (e.g., review preferred activities and occupations; review competencies, abilities and possible…

  12. Direct Observation of Spatial Quantum Correlations in the Macroscopic Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashok; Marino, A M

    2016-01-01

    Spatial quantum correlations in the transverse degree of freedom promise to enhance optical resolution, image detection, and quantum communications through parallel quantum information encoding. In particular, the ability to observe these spatial quantum correlations in a single shot will enable such enhancements in applications that require real time imaging, such as particle tracking and in-situ imaging of atomic systems. Here, we report on the direct measurement of spatial quantum correlations in the macroscopic regime in single images using an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera. A four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium atoms is used to generate narrowband-bright-entangled pulsed twin-beams of light with $\\sim10^8$ photons in each beam. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin-beams are momentum correlated, which leads to spatial quantum correlations in far field. We show around 2 dB of spatial quantum noise reduction with respect to the shot noise limit. The spatial squeez...

  13. VLA Observations of Solar Decimetric Spike Bursts: Direct Signature of Accelerated Electrons in Reconnection Outflow Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Bastian, T.; Gary, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Solar decimetric spike bursts, which appear in a radio dynamic spectrum as a cluster of short-lived and narrowband brightenings, have been suggested as a possible signature of many, "elementary" particle accelerations at or near a magnetic reconnection site. Their dynamic spectral feature can be potentially used to diagnose important parameters of the reconnection site such as plasma density and spatial size of the fragmentation. Yet direct observational evidence supporting this scenario has been elusive mainly due to the lack of imaging observations. The upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) provides the first opportunity of performing simultaneous radio imaging and dynamic spectroscopy, which allows radio sources to be imaged at every spatio-temporal pixel in the dynamic spectrum. Here we report Jansky VLA observations of decimetric spike bursts recorded during an eruptive solar limb flare. Combined with EUV and X-ray data from SDO and RHESSI, we show that the spike bursts coincide spatially with a loop-top hard X-ray source, which are located in a region where supra-arcade downflows meet the underlying hot, EUV/X-ray loops. We interpret the observed spike bursts as a direct signature of non-thermal electrons accelerated by turbulences and/or shocks in the reconnection outflow region.

  14. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  15. Improving visual observation skills through the arts to aid radiographic interpretation in veterinary practice: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cathy; Gaunt, Heather; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2017-09-01

    Radiographic interpretation is a perceptual and cognitive skill. Recently core veterinary radiology textbooks have focused on the cognitive (i.e., the clinical aspects of radiographic interpretation) rather than the features of visual observation that improve identification of abnormalities. As a result, the skill of visual observation is underemphasized and thus often underdeveloped by trainees. The study of the arts in medical education has been used to train and improve visual observation and empathy. The use of the arts to improve visual observation skills in Veterinary Science has not been previously described. Objectives of this pilot study were to adapt the existing Visual Arts in Health Education Program for medical and dental students at the University of Melbourne, Australia to third year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students and evaluate their perceptions regarding the program's effects on visual observation skills and confidence with respect to radiographic interpretation. This adaptation took the form of a single seminar given to third year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students. Following the seminar, students reported an improved approach to radiographic interpretation and felt they had gained skills which would assist them throughout their career. In the year following the seminar, written reports of the students who attended the seminar were compared with reports from a matched cohort of students who did not attend the seminar. This demonstrated increased identification of abnormalities and greater description of the abnormalities identified. Findings indicated that explicit training in visual observation may be a valuable adjunct to the radiology training of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Techniques for teaching electrocardiogram interpretation: self-directed learning is less effective than a workshop or lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Simon A; Wolcott, Christopher J; Swoboda, Thomas K; Wang, Hao; Arnold, Thomas C

    2011-04-01

    Teaching 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation to students and residents is a challenge for medical educators. To date, few studies have compared the effectiveness of different techniques used for ECG teaching. This study aimed to determine if common teaching techniques, such as those involving workshops, lectures and self-directed learning (SDL), increase medical students' ability to correctly interpret ECGs. It also aimed to compare the effectiveness of these formats.   This was a prospective randomised study conducted over a 28-month period. Year 4 medical students were randomised to receive teaching in ECG interpretation using one of three teaching formats: workshop, lecture or SDL. All three formats covered the same content. Students were administered three tests: a pre-test (before teaching); a post-test (immediately after teaching), and a retention test (1 week after teaching). Each tested the same content using 25 questions worth 1 point each. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance (anova) with least squares post hoc analysis was conducted to determine if differences in test scores between the formats were statistically significant. Of the 223 students for whom data were analysed, 79 were randomised to a workshop, 82 to a lecture-based format and 62 to SDL. All three teaching formats resulted in a statistically significant improvement in individual test scores (p < 0.001). Comparison of the lecture- and workshop-based formats demonstrated no difference in test scores (marginal mean [MM] for both formats = 12.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 11.7-13.2]; p = 0.99). Test scores of students using SDL (MM = 10.7, 95% CI 9.8-11.5) were lower than those of students in the workshop (p = 0.003) and lecture (p = 0.002) groups. Compared with those taught using workshop- and lecture-based formats, medical students learning ECG interpretation by SDL had lower test scores. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  17. DNA Origami: Folded DNA-Nanodevices That Can Direct and Interpret Cell Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Cathal J; Lucas, Christopher R; O'Brien, Fergal J; Castro, Carlos E

    2016-07-01

    DNA origami is a DNA-based nanotechnology that utilizes programmed combinations of short complementary oligonucleotides to fold a large single strand of DNA into precise 2D and 3D shapes. The exquisite nanoscale shape control of this inherently biocompatible material is combined with the potential to spatially address the origami structures with diverse cargoes including drugs, antibodies, nucleic acid sequences, small molecules, and inorganic particles. This programmable flexibility enables the fabrication of precise nanoscale devices that have already shown great potential for biomedical applications such as: drug delivery, biosensing, and synthetic nanopore formation. Here, the advances in the DNA-origami field since its inception several years ago are reviewed with a focus on how these DNA-nanodevices can be designed to interact with cells to direct or probe their behavior.

  18. Interpreting observations of edge-on gravitationally unstable accretion flows. The case of G10.6-0.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2017-01-01

    Context. Gravitational collapse of molecular cloud or cloud core/clump may lead to the formation of geometrically flattened, rotating accretion flow surrounding the new born star or star cluster. Gravitational instability may occur in such accretion flow when the gas to stellar mass ratio is high (e.g., over 10%). Aims: This paper takes the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4 as an example. We introduce the enclosed gas mass around its central ultra compact (UC) Hii region, address the gravitational stability of the accreting gas, and outline the observed potential signatures of gravitational instability. Methods: The dense gas accretion flow around the central UC Hii region in G10.6-0.4 is geometrically flattened, and is in an approximately edge-on projection. The position-velocity (PV) diagrams of various molecular gas tracers on G10.6-0.4 consistently show asymmetry in the spatial- and the velocity domain. We deduce the morphology of the dense gas accretion flow by modeling velocity distribution of the azimuthally asymmetric gas structures, and by directly de-projecting the PV diagrams. Results: We find that within the 0.3 pc radius, an infall velocity of 1-2 km s-1 may be required to explain the observed PV diagrams. In addition, the velocity distribution traced in the PV diagrams can be interpreted by spiral arm-like structures, which may be connected with exterior infalling gas filaments. We propose that the morphology of dense gas structures appears very similar to the spatially resolved gas structures around the OB cluster-forming region G33.92+0.11 with similar gas mass and size, which is likely, however, to be in an approximately face-on projection. Conclusions: The dense gas accretion flow around G10.6-0.4 appears to be Toomre-unstable, which is consistent with the existence of large-scale spiral arm-like structures, and the formation of localized gas condensations. The proposed approaches for data analyses may be applied to the observations of Class 0/I

  19. Problem of Mistakes in Databases, Processing and Interpretation of Observations of the Sun. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozitska, N. I.

    In databases of observations unnoticed mistakes and misprints could occur at any stage of observation, preparation and processing of databases. The current detection of errors is complicated by the fact that the works of observer, databases compiler and researcher were divided. Data acquisition from a spacecraft requires the greater amount of researchers than for ground-based observations. As a result, the probability of errors is increasing. Keeping track of the errors on each stage is very difficult, so we use of cross-comparison of data from different sources. We revealed some misprints in the typographic and digital results of sunspot group area measurements.

  20. High spatial resolution infrared imaging of L1551-IRS 5 - Direct observations of its circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneti, Andrea; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    Images of L1551-IRS 5 were obtained at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.8 microns using the University of Rochester's Infrared Array Camera. It is found that IRS 5 is spatially resolved, and that it is elongated: the observed FWHM size of IRS 5 is 4.1 x 2.8 arcsec-squared at 2.2 microns. These observations are interpreted in terms of a flattened circumstellar envelope that is viewed from about 18 deg above its equatorial plane, a configuration that has been treated theoretically by Lefevre et al. In this model the central star is not seen directly, but only light scattered toward the observer from the visible polar region, where the envelope is thinnest, is observed. It is deduced that the envelope has a diameter of 1000 AU, a molecular hydrogen density of greater than or approximately equal to 4 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm, and a mass of greater than or approximately equal to 0.02 M solar mass, which results in an extinction of Av greater than about 33 mag to the central source.

  1. High spatial resolution infrared imaging of L1551-IRS 5 - Direct observations of its circumstellar envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneti, Andrea; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    Images of L1551-IRS 5 were obtained at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.8 microns using the University of Rochester's Infrared Array Camera. It is found that IRS 5 is spatially resolved, and that it is elongated: the observed FWHM size of IRS 5 is 4.1 x 2.8 arcsec-squared at 2.2 microns. These observations are interpreted in terms of a flattened circumstellar envelope that is viewed from about 18 deg above its equatorial plane, a configuration that has been treated theoretically by Lefevre et al. In this model the central star is not seen directly, but only light scattered toward the observer from the visible polar region, where the envelope is thinnest, is observed. It is deduced that the envelope has a diameter of 1000 AU, a molecular hydrogen density of greater than or approximately equal to 4 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm, and a mass of greater than or approximately equal to 0.02 M solar mass, which results in an extinction of Av greater than about 33 mag to the central source.

  2. Evaluation of PM-3 Chemistry Data and Possible Interpretations of 3H Observations, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Robert [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Marutzky, Sam J. [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the analyses of the groundwater results from sampling of PM-3-1 (deep) and PM-3-2 (shallow), with a particular focus of evaluating the groundwater geochemistry data in comparison to the geochemistry observed in other wells in the Thirsty Canyon area as well as to evaluate the potential source of 3H observed in these piezometers from previous sampling activities, which employed depth-discrete bailers or a Bennett submersible piston pump.

  3. Evidence for habitual and goal-directed behavior following devaluation of cocaine: a multifaceted interpretation of relapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is characterized as a chronically relapsing disorder. It is believed that cues present during self-administration become learned and increase the probability that relapse will occur when they are confronted during abstinence. However, the way in which relapse-inducing cues are interpreted by the user has remained elusive. Recent theories of addiction posit that relapse-inducing cues cause relapse habitually or automatically, bypassing processing information related to the consequences of relapse. Alternatively, other theories hypothesize that relapse-inducing cues produce an expectation of the drug's consequences, designated as goal-directed relapse. Discrete discriminative stimuli signaling the availability of cocaine produce robust cue-induced responding after thirty days of abstinence. However, it is not known whether cue-induced responding is a goal-directed action or habit. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether cue-induced responding is a goal-directed action or habit by explicitly pairing or unpairing cocaine with LiCl-induced sickness (n = 7/group, thereby decreasing or not altering the value of cocaine, respectively. Following thirty days of abstinence, no difference in responding between groups was found when animals were reintroduced to the self-administration environment alone, indicating habitual behavior. However, upon discriminative stimulus presentations, cocaine-sickness paired animals exhibited decreased cue-induced responding relative to unpaired controls, indicating goal-directed behavior. In spite of the difference between groups revealed during abstinent testing, no differences were found between groups when animals were under the influence of cocaine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Unexpectedly, both habitual and goal-directed responding occurred during abstinent testing. Furthermore, habitual or goal-directed responding may have been induced by cues that differed in their correlation

  4. A New Method to Directly Observe Tuberculosis Treatment: Skype Observed Therapy, a Patient-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Tavora; Cabello, Celina

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion is in part determined by patient's adherence to long-term drug regimens. To best ensure compliance, directly observed therapy (DOT) is considered the standard of practice. Nassau County Department of Health TB Control is responsible for providing DOT to patients with TB. Tuberculosis Control sought to use and evaluate Skype Observed Therapy (SOT) as an alternative to DOT for eligible patients. The evaluation included analysis of patient's acceptance and adherence to drug regimen using SOT. Tuberculosis Control assessed staff efficiency and cost savings for this program. Percentages of SOT of patients and successful SOT visits, mileage, and travel time savings. Twenty percent of the caseload used SOT and 100% of patients who were eligible opted in. Average SOT success was 79%. Total mileage savings and time saved were $9,929.07 and 614 hours. Because SOT saves cost and time and is a suitable alternative to DOT for patients, it should be considered as part of new policies and practices in TB control programs.

  5. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Galactic Sources: Empirical Interpretation of Extragalactic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, E. A.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Gerin, M.; Gusdorf, A.; Lis, D. C.; Schilke, P.

    2017-02-01

    The relative populations in rotational transitions of CO can be useful for inferring gas conditions and excitation mechanisms at work in the interstellar medium. We present CO emission lines from rotational transitions observed with Herschel/HIFI in the star-forming cores Orion S, Orion KL, Sgr B2(M), and W49N. Integrated line fluxes from these observations are combined with those from Herschel/PACS observations of the same sources to construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) from 5 ≤ J u ≤ 48. These CO SLEDs are compared to those reported in other galaxies, with the intention of empirically determining which mechanisms dominate excitation in such systems. We find that CO SLEDs in Galactic star-forming cores cannot be used to reproduce those observed in other galaxies, although the discrepancies arise primarily as a result of beam filling factors. The much larger regions sampled by the Herschel beams at distances of several megaparsecs contain significant amounts of cooler gas, which dominate the extragalactic CO SLEDs, in contrast to observations of Galactic star-forming regions, which are focused specifically on cores containing primarily hot molecular gas. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  6. Observations and Interpretations of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. f.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. c.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss recently reported observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from an X9 solar flare/coronal mass ejection event on 5 December 2006, located at E79. The observations were made by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV energetic neutral hydrogen atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. Taking into account ENA losses, we find that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances > or equal to 2 solar radii. Although there are no CME images from this event, it is shown that CME-shock-accelerated protons can, in principle, produce a time-history consistent with the observations.

  7. Direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, M; Tschetschetkin, A; Hankiewicz, E M; Sinova, Jairo; Hock, V; Daumer, V; Schäfer, M; Becker, C R; Buhmann, H; Molenkamp, L W

    2006-02-24

    Ring structures fabricated from HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells have been used to study Aharonov-Bohm type conductance oscillations as a function of Rashba spin-orbit splitting strength. We observe nonmonotonic phase changes indicating that an additional phase factor modifies the electron wave function. We associate these observations with the Aharonov-Casher effect. This is confirmed by comparison with numerical calculations of the magnetoconductance for a multichannel ring structure within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism.

  8. Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase synchronization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haihong Li; Weiqing Liu; Qiongling Dai; Jinghua Xiao

    2006-09-01

    The dynamics of two uncoupled distinct Chua circuits driven by a common direct current voltage is explored experimentally. It was found that, with increasing current intensity, the dominant frequencies of these two Chua circuits will first vary at different speeds, approach an identical value for a certain current intensity and then separate. Techniques such as synchronization index and phase difference distribution were employed to analyze the phase coherence between these two Chua circuits.

  9. INTERPRETATION OF THE DISTURBANCE IN GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS OBSERVED ON VOYAGER 1 BEYOND THE HELIOPAUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Kóta, J. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 8572 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We present a possible explanation for the transient increase in the galactic cosmic ray flux observed by Voyager 1 (V1) beyond the heliopause, in 2013 March. We suggest that this disturbance may be caused by a propagating disturbance in the interstellar magnetic field, of heliospheric origin. A model in which a magnetic disturbance, propagating outward from the heliosphere into the very-local interstellar plasma, affects the galactic cosmic rays is presented. We also discuss the possibility that this event is related to the plasma-wave event observed some 25 days later by the PWS experiment on V1.

  10. Observation and interpretation of fast sub-visual light pulses from the night sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzek, R. J.; Winckler, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Fast large-aperture photometers directed at the zenith on clear nights near Minneapolis have recorded many light pulses in the msec time range, but aside from man-made events these were almost entirely due to Rayleigh-scattered distant lightning, with a residual very low rate (less than 0.1/hr) of unidentified pulses. It is argued that 1-msec light pulses seen in several previous experiments may also be mostly Rayleigh-scattered lightning, rather than fluorescent light due to electron precipitation from lightning-induced whistlers as previously proposed.

  11. FLOWS AT THE EDGE OF AN ACTIVE REGION: OBSERVATION AND INTERPRETATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutry, C.; Buchlin, E.; Vial, J.-C. [Universite Paris Sud, Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Regnier, S., E-mail: eric.buchlin@ias.u-psud.fr [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-10

    Upflows observed at the edges of active regions have been proposed as the source of the slow solar wind. In the particular case of Active Region (AR) 10942, where such an upflow has been already observed, we want to evaluate the part of this upflow that actually remains confined in the magnetic loops that connect AR 10942 to AR 10943. Both active regions were visible simultaneously on the solar disk and were observed by STEREO/SECCHI EUVI. Using Hinode/EIS spectra, we determine the Doppler shifts and densities in AR 10943 and AR 10942 in order to evaluate the mass flows. We also perform magnetic field extrapolations to assess the connectivity between AR 10942 and AR 10943. AR 10943 displays a persistent downflow in Fe XII. Magnetic extrapolations including both ARs show that this downflow can be connected to the upflow in AR 10942. We estimate that the mass flow received by AR 10943 areas connected to AR 10942 represents about 18% of the mass flow from AR 10942. We conclude that the upflows observed on the edge of active regions represent either large-scale loops with mass flowing along them (accounting for about one-fifth of the total mass flow in this example) or open magnetic field structures where the slow solar wind originates.

  12. Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Markel, V.A.; Coello, V.;

    1998-01-01

    spatially localized (within 150-250 nm) intensity enhancement by one to two orders of magnitude. These bright light spots are found to be sensitive to the light wavelength, polarization, and angle of incidence. We relate the observed phenomenon to the localization of resonant dipolar excitations in random......Using a photon scanning tunneling microscope (operating alternatively at the wavelengths of 594 and 633 nm) with shear-force feedback we image the topography of silver colloid fractals simultaneously with a near-field intensity distribution. We observe that near-field optical images exhibit...

  13. Clear Direction. The Montessori Observer. Volume 32, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature…

  14. Direct observation of bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Erdal, E; Chepel, V; Rappaport, M L; Vartsky, D; Breskin, A

    2015-01-01

    Bubble formation in liquid xenon underneath a Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon was observed with a CCD camera. With voltage across the THGEM, the appearance of bubbles was correlated with that of electroluminescence signals induced by ionization electrons from alpha-particle tracks. This confirms recent indirect evidence that the observed photons are due to electroluminescence within a xenon vapor layer trapped under the electrode. The bubbles seem to emerge spontaneously due to heat flow from 300K into the liquid, or in a controlled manner, by locally boiling the liquid with resistive wires. Controlled bubble formation resulted in energy resolution of {\\sigma}/E~7.5% for ~6,000 ionization electrons. The phenomenon could pave ways towards the conception of large-volume 'local dual-phase' noble-liquid TPCs.

  15. Direct observation of hydrides formation in cavity-grade niobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Niobium is an important technological superconductor used to make radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators. Using laser confocal microscopy we have directly investigated hydride precipitates formation in cavity-grade niobium at 77 and 140 K. We have found that large hydrides were usually formed after chemical or mechanical treatments, which are known to lead to a strong degradation of the quality factor known as Q disease. From our experiments we can conclude that hydrides causing Q disease are islands with a characteristic thickness of ≳100  nm and in-plane dimensions 1–10  μm. Our results show that mechanical polishing uploads a lot of hydrogen into bulk niobium while electropolishing leads to a mild contamination. Vacuum treatments at 600–800°C are demonstrated to preclude large hydride formation in line with the absence of Q disease in similarly treated cavities.

  16. Direct observation of coherent energy transfer in nonlinear micromechanical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Zanette, Damián H.; Czaplewski, David A.; Shaw, Steven; López, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Energy dissipation is an unavoidable phenomenon of physical systems that are directly coupled to an external environmental bath. In an oscillatory system, it leads to the decay of the oscillation amplitude. In situations where stable oscillations are required, the energy dissipated by the vibrations is usually compensated by replenishment from external energy sources. Consequently, if the external energy supply is removed, the amplitude of oscillations start to decay immediately, since there is no means to restitute the energy dissipated. Here, we demonstrate a novel dissipation engineering strategy that can support stable oscillations without supplying external energy to compensate losses. The fundamental intrinsic mechanism of resonant mode coupling is used to redistribute and store mechanical energy among vibrational modes and coherently transfer it back to the principal mode when the external excitation is off. To experimentally demonstrate this phenomenon, we exploit the nonlinear dynamic response of microelectromechanical oscillators to couple two different vibrational modes through an internal resonance.

  17. Direct observation of coherent energy transfer in nonlinear micromechanical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Zanette, Damián H; Czaplewski, David A; Shaw, Steven; López, Daniel

    2017-05-26

    Energy dissipation is an unavoidable phenomenon of physical systems that are directly coupled to an external environmental bath. In an oscillatory system, it leads to the decay of the oscillation amplitude. In situations where stable oscillations are required, the energy dissipated by the vibrations is usually compensated by replenishment from external energy sources. Consequently, if the external energy supply is removed, the amplitude of oscillations start to decay immediately, since there is no means to restitute the energy dissipated. Here, we demonstrate a novel dissipation engineering strategy that can support stable oscillations without supplying external energy to compensate losses. The fundamental intrinsic mechanism of resonant mode coupling is used to redistribute and store mechanical energy among vibrational modes and coherently transfer it back to the principal mode when the external excitation is off. To experimentally demonstrate this phenomenon, we exploit the nonlinear dynamic response of microelectromechanical oscillators to couple two different vibrational modes through an internal resonance.

  18. Energetic protons at Mars: interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kallio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface. On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8 RM. In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3-D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1 a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2 the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3 the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4 how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars–solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment.

  19. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 2—Microscopic Observations and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Experimental uniaxial compression loading tests were conducted on molded gypsum and Carrara marble prismatic specimens to study the cracking and coalescence processes between pre-existing artificial flaws. The study showed that material had an influence on the cracking and coalescence processes (see the companion paper in this issue). As reported in the companion paper, one of the pronounced features as observed in the high-speed video recordings was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the development of observable cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. This paper (part 2) deals with the microscopic aspects of the study. Specifically, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) imaging techniques were used to study the microscopic development of white patches and their evolution into macroscopic tensile cracks and shear cracks in marble, and the microscopic initiation of hair-line tensile cracks and their evolution into macroscopic tensile cracks in gypsum. The microscopic imaging study in marble showed that the white patches were associated with extensive microcracking zones (process zones), while the extent of process zone development in gypsum was limited. The comparison of the macroscopic and microscopic results indicates that the different extent of microcracking zone development, related to the material textural properties, is a key factor leading to different macroscopic cracking behavior in gypsum and marble.

  20. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 1. Macroscopic Observations and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Cracking and coalescence behavior has been studied experimentally with prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens containing two parallel pre-existing open flaws. This was done at both the macroscopic and the microscopic scales, and the results are presented in two separate papers. This paper (the first of two) summarizes the macroscopic experimental results and investigates the influence of the different flaw geometries and material, on the cracking processes. In the companion paper (also in this issue), most of the macroscopic deformation and cracking processes shown in this present paper will be related to the underlying microscopic changes. In the present study, a high speed video system was used, which allowed us to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms. Nine crack coalescence categories with different crack types and trajectories were identified. The flaw inclination angle ( β), the ligament length ( L), that is, intact rock length between the flaws, and the bridging angle ( α), that is, the inclination of a line linking up the inner flaw tips, between two flaws, had different effects on the coalescence patterns. One of the pronounced differences observed between marble and gypsum during the compression loading test was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the initiation of macroscopic cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. Comparing the cracking and coalescence behaviors in the two tested materials, tensile cracking generally occurred more often in marble than in gypsum for the same flaw pair geometries.

  1. Solar wind structure at large heliocentric distances - An interpretation of Pioneer 10 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, A. J.; Gosling, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Examination of hourly values of the solar wind speed observed by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft beyond a heliocentric distance of 4 AU reveals (1) a prevalent 'sawtoothlike' speed-time profile, most speed fluctuations displaying a rapid rise and a much slower decline, and (2) the nearly universal appearance of abrupt (on the 1-hour time resolution of these data) changes in the speed on the rising portions of the speed fluctuations. These previously unreported characteristics, as well as the rate of decay of stream amplitudes derived earlier by Collard and Wolfe, are in general agreement with the predictions of stream propagation models that neglect any conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy outside of shock fronts. Thus the Pioneer 10 observations give the first confirmation of the general concept of solar wind stream evolution employed in these models, i.e., that solar wind speed inhomogeneities appear to steepen to form shock waves and that the 'wave amplitudes' decay slowly as the shock waves propagate outward from the sun.

  2. Symptoms and signs in pulmonary medicine: old observations and new interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, O P

    1995-09-01

    Andre Gide wrote, "Everything has been said before, but since nobody listens we have to keep going back and beginning all over again." To a certain extent, that statement applies to the importance of accurate and systematic history taking and physical examination in clinical practice. Although we are trained in habits of comprehension and accuracy in history taking and examination of patients, periodic reminders are required to develop a diagnostic framework based on observation (inspection), palpation, percussion, and auscultation. This monograph reemphasizes the method to be pursued in the treatment of a patient with pulmonary symptoms. It consists of three parts: (1) questioning the patient about his or her medical history; (2) performing the physical examination of the respiratory system; and (3) examining the extrapulmonary signs and symptoms. Once a strong clinical framework has been constructed, its further development and refinement depend on the clinician's experience, power of observation, and systematic reading of the medical literature. Good physicians must continue to learn throughout their careers; this is the most essential element of a physician's development. Be patient, however; as Cowper said, "Knowledge, to become wisdom, needs experience."

  3. Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.; Moore, J.; Phillips, C.B.; Radebaugh, J.; Simonelli, D.; Chuang, F.; Schuster, P.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez Del Castillo, E.M.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Muller, Birgit; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Bender, K.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, D.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, B.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Breneman, H.H.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Prockter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Granahan, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    During three close flybys in late 1999 and early 2000 the Galileo spacecraft ac-quired new observations of the mountains that tower above Io's surface. These images have revealed surprising variety in the mountains' morphologies. They range from jagged peaks several kilometers high to lower, rounded structures. Some are very smooth, others are covered by numerous parallel ridges. Many mountains have margins that are collapsing outward in large landslides or series of slump blocks, but a few have steep, scalloped scarps. From these observations we can gain insight into the structure and material properties of Io's crust as well as into the erosional processes acting on Io. We have also investigated formation mechanisms proposed for these structures using finite-element analysis. Mountain formation might be initiated by global compression due to the high rate of global subsidence associated with Io's high resurfacing rate; however, our models demonstrate that this hypothesis lacks a mechanism for isolating the mountains. The large fraction (???40%) of mountains that are associated with paterae suggests that in some cases these features are tectonically related. Therefore we have also simulated the stresses induced in Io's crust by a combination of a thermal upwelling in the mantle with global lithospheric compression and have shown that this can focus compressional stresses. If this mechanism is responsible for some of Io's mountains, it could also explain the common association of mountains with paterae. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Observations of total peroxy nitrates and aldehydes: measurement interpretation and inference of OH radical concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Cleary

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe measurements of total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs, NO2, O3 and several aldehydes at Granite Bay, California, during the Chemistry and Transport of the Sacramento Urban Plume-2001 (CATSUP 2001 campaign, from 19 July–16 September 2001. We observed a strong photochemically driven variation of ΣPNs during the day with the median of 1.2 ppb at noon. Acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal and methacrolein had median abundances in the daytime of 1.2 ppb, 0.093 ppb, 0.14 ppb, and 0.27 ppb, respectively. We compare steady state and time dependent calculations of the dependence of ΣPNs on aldehydes, OH, NO and NO2 showing that the steady state calculations are accurate to ±30% between 10:00 and 18:00 h. We use the steady state calculation to investigate the composition of ΣPNs and the concentration of OH at Granite Bay. We find that PN molecules that have never been observed before make up an unreasonably large fraction of the ΣPNs unless we assume that there exists a PAN source that is much larger than the acetaldehyde source. We calculate that OH at the site varied between 2 and 7×106 molecule cm−3 at noon during the 8 weeks of the experiment.

  5. Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Michèle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental exposure to organophosphorus pesticides has been characterized in various populations, but interpretation of these data from a health risk perspective remains an issue. The current paper proposes biological reference values to help interpret biomonitoring data related to an exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in children for which measurements of alkylphosphate metabolites are available. Methods Published models describing the kinetics of malathion and chlorpyrifos in humans were used to determine no-observed effect level – biomarker equivalents for methylphosphates and ethylphosphates, respectively. These were expressed in the form of cumulative urinary amounts of alkylphosphates over specified time periods corresponding to an absorbed no-observed effect level dose (derived from a published human exposure dose and assuming various plausible exposure scenarios. Cumulative amounts of methylphosphate and ethylphosphate metabolites measured in the urine of a group of Quebec children were then compared to the proposed biological reference values. Results From a published no-observed effect level dose for malathion and chlorpyrifos, the model predicts corresponding oral biological reference values for methylphosphate and ethylphosphate derivatives of 106 and 52 nmol/kg of body weight, respectively, in 12-h nighttime urine collections, and dermal biological reference values of 40 and 32 nmol/kg of body weight. Out of the 442 available urine samples, only one presented a methylphosphate excretion exceeding the biological reference value established on the basis of a dermal exposure scenario and none of the methylphosphate and ethylphosphate excretion values were above the obtained oral biological reference values, which reflect the main exposure route in children. Conclusion This study is a first step towards the development of biological guidelines for organophophorus pesticides using a toxicokinetic modeling

  6. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26... for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures for... specimen under direct observation, the collector shall obtain the agreement of the FFD program manager or...

  7. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative VTH shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H2O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  8. A subsiding regional forest fire aerosol layer at Whistler, BC: implications for interpretation of mountaintop chemistry observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Mc Kendry

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available On 30 August 2009, intense forest fires in interior BC, together with synoptic scale meteorological subsidence and easterly winds resulted in transport of a broad forest fire plume across southwestern BC. The physico-chemical and optical characteristics of the plume as observed from Saturna island (AERONET, CORALNet-UBC and the Whistler Mountain air chemistry facility were consistent with forest fire plumes that have been observed elsewhere in continental North America. However, the importance of smoke plume subsidence in relation to the interpretation of mountaintop chemistry observations is highlighted on the basis of deployment both a CL31 ceilometer and a single particle mass spectrometer (SPMS in a mountainous setting. The SPMS was used to identify the biomass plume based on levoglucosan and potassium markers. Data from the SPMS are also used to show that the biomass plume was correlated with nitrate, but not correlated with sulphate or sodium. This study not only provides baseline measurements of biomass burning plume physico-chemical characteristics in western Canada, but also highlights the importance of lidar remote sensing methods in the interpretation of mountaintop chemistry measurements.

  9. An interpretation of the interannual mass trend change over the Indochina Peninsula observed by GRACE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakaegawa, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Taniguchi, M.

    2010-12-01

    In Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, a project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments” to assess impacts of human activities on urban subsurface environment in several Asian developing cities is now in progress. Although one of the main purposes of the project is to investigate local groundwater systems on and around the urban cities, the project also aims to understand large-scale landwater movements including the areas, and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity data is used for the purpose. In the previous study (Yamamoto et al., 2010), we recovered the regional-scale interannual landwater mass variation over the Indochina Peninsula, which includes one of the test cities in the project, i.e. Bangkok, Thailand, by using GRACE data. The recovered mass variation showed the change of the interannual trend at around the beginning of 2005: it decreased up to the beginning of 2005, and after that, increased up to 2009. The compared results with observed/modeled hydrological and meteorological data sets showed that the observed trend change did not caused by regional human activities, e.g. excessive groundwater pumping, but caused by global-scale meteorological phenomena. In fact, the interannual mass variation showed high correlation with the climate index represents the intensity of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena. In this study, we investigated the correlation mechanism between the interannual mass change in the Indochina Peninsula and the IOD phenomena, which is the spatial anomaly pattern of sea surface temperature. We firstly made the moisture flux data sets in the GRACE mission duration by using atmospheric objective reanalysis data. The obtained flux pattern was discussed by comparing with the typical flux pattern during the pure IOD years estimated by Ummenhofer et al., 2009. Further, the moisture flux over the Indochina Peninsula was assessed whether the value is quantitatively agreeable by comparing with

  10. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Aladjev

    Full Text Available Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionosphere developed in the Polar Geophysical Institute have been applied for interpretation of the observed tomographic images.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ion chemistry and composition; plasma convection

  11. HAWC Observations Strongly Favor Pulsar Interpretations of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Cholis, Ilias [Johns Hopkins U.; Linden, Tim [Ohio State U., CCAPP; Fang, Ke [Maryland U.

    2017-02-27

    Recent measurements of the Geminga and B0656+14 pulsars by the gamma-ray telescope HAWC (along with earlier measurements by Milagro) indicate that these objects generate significant fluxes of very high-energy electrons. In this paper, we use the very high-energy gamma-ray intensity and spectrum of these pulsars to calculate and constrain their expected contributions to the local cosmic-ray positron spectrum. Among models that are capable of reproducing the observed characteristics of the gamma-ray emission, we find that pulsars invariably produce a flux of high-energy positrons that is similar in spectrum and magnitude to the positron fraction measured by PAMELA and AMS-02. In light of this result, we conclude that it is very likely that pulsars provide the dominant contribution to the long perplexing cosmic-ray positron excess.

  12. Direct Observation of Critical Point Wetting in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to observe the interface shape in single and multicomponent systems at the onset of critical wetting in microgravity using the MSFC drop tower and KC-135 aircraft. Test cells for the drop facility were built and tested up to critical point of CCl. Low temperature drops were conducted for two-component systems near the critical consolute point. Contact angle seems to approach 90 deg near the critical consolute temperature contrary to expectations. It is suspected that since the interfacial energy becomes vanishingly small at the critical consolute temperature, the interface shape has not reached equilibrium in the available low-gravity time.

  13. Direct observation of the spin-dependent Peltier effect

    OpenAIRE

    Flipse J.; Bakker F.L.; Slachter A.; Dejene F.K.; Van Wees B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Peltier coefficient describes the amount of heat that is carried by an electrical current when it passes through a material(1). When two materials with different Peltier coefficients are placed in contact with one another, the Peltier effect causes a net flow of heat either towards or away from the interface between them. Spintronics(2) describes the transport of electric charge and spin angular momentum by separate spin-up and spin-down channels in a device. The observation that spin-up ...

  14. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  15. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  16. Directly observing continuum emission from self-gravitating spiral waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cassandra; Rice, Ken; Harries, Tim J; Klaassen, Pamela D; Biller, Beth

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple, self-consistent, self-gravitating semi-analytic disc model to conduct an examination of the parameter space in which self-gravitating discs may exist. We then use Monte-Carlo radiative transfer to generate synthetic ALMA images of these self-gravitating discs to determine the subset of this parameter space in which they generate non-axisymmetric structure that is potentially detectable by ALMA. Recently, several transition discs have been observed to have non-axisymmetric structure that extends out to large radii. It has been suggested that one possible origin of these asymmetries could be spiral density waves induced by disc self-gravity. We use our simple model to see if these discs exist in the region of parameter space where self-gravity could feasibly explain these spiral features. We find that for self-gravity to play a role in these systems typically requires a disc mass around an order of magnitude higher than the observed disc masses for the systems. The spiral amplitudes produced by...

  17. Inter-observer variation in the interpretation of chest radiographs for pneumonia in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopstaken, R.M. E-mail: rogier.hopstaken@hag.unimaas.nl; Witbraad, T.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van; Dinant, G.J

    2004-08-01

    AIM: To assess inter-observer variation in the interpretation of chest radiographs of individuals with pneumonia versus those without pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest radiographs of out-patients with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) were assessed for the presence of infiltrates by radiologists from three local hospitals and were reassessed by one university hospital radiologist. Various measures of inter-observer agreement were calculated. RESULTS: The observed proportional agreement was 218 in 243 patients (89.7%). Kappa was 0.53 (moderate agreement) with a 95% confidence interval of 0.37 to 0.69. The observed positive agreement (59%) was much lower than for negative agreement (94%). Kappa was considerably lower, if chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was present ({kappa}=0.20) or Streptococcus pneumoniae ({kappa}=-0.29) was the infective agent. CONCLUSION: The overall inter-observer agreement adjusted for chance was moderate. Inter-observer agreement in cases with pneumonia was much worse than the agreement in negative (i.e. non-pneumonia) cases. A general practitioner's selection of patients with a higher chance of having pneumonia for chest radiography would thus not improve the observer agreement.

  18. Combining microseismic and geomechanical observations to interpret storage integrity at the In Salah CCS site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Kühn, Daniela; Oye, Volker; Bohloli, Bahman; Aker, Eyvind

    2014-07-01

    We present results from microseismic monitoring and geomechanical analysis obtained at the industrial-scale CO2 sequestration site at the In Salah gas development project in Algeria. More than 5000 microseismic events have been detected at a pilot monitoring well using a master event cross-correlation method. The microseismic activity occurs in four distinct clusters and thereof three clearly correlate with injection rates and wellhead pressures. These event clusters are consistent with a location within the reservoir interval. However, due to insufficient network geometry there are large uncertainties on event location. We estimate a fracture pressure of 155 bar (at the wellhead) from the comparison of injection pressure and injection rate and conclude that reservoir fracture pressure of the injection horizon has most likely been exceeded occasionally, accompanied by increased microseismic activity. Our analysis of 3-D ray tracing for direct and converted phases suggests that one of the event clusters is located at a shallower depth than the reservoir injection interval. However, this event cluster is most likely unrelated to changes in the injection activity at a single well, as the event times do not correlate with the wellhead pressures. Furthermore, this event cluster shows b-values close to one, indicating re-activated natural or tectonic seismicity on pre-existing weakness zones rather than injection induced seismicity. Analysis of event azimuths and significant shear wave splitting of up to 5 per cent provide further valuable insight into fluid migration and fracture orientation at the reservoir level. Although only one geophone was available during the critical injection period, the microseismic monitoring of CO2 injection at In Salah is capable of addressing some of the most relevant questions about fluid migration and reservoir integrity. An improved monitoring array with larger aperture and higher sensitivity is highly recommended, as it could greatly

  19. Direct satellite observation of lightning-produced NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning is an important source of NOx in the free troposphere, especially in the tropics, with high impact on ozone production. However, estimates of lightning NOx (LNOx production efficiency (LNOx per flash are still quite uncertain. In this study we present a systematic analysis of NO2 column densities from SCIAMACHY measurements over active thunderstorms, as detected by the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, where the WWLLN detection efficiency was estimated using the flash climatology of the satellite lightning sensors LIS/OTD. Only events with high lightning activity are considered, where corrected WWLLN flash rate densities inside the satellite pixel within the last hour are above 1 /km2/h. For typical SCIAMACHY ground pixels of 30×60 km2, this threshold corresponds to 1800 flashes over the last hour, which, for literature estimates of lightning NOx production, should result in clearly enhanced NO2 column densities. From 2004–2008, we find 287 coincidences of SCIAMACHY measurements and high WWLLN flash rate densities. For some of these events, a clear enhancement of column densities of NO2 could be observed, indeed. But overall, the measured column densities are below the expected values by more than one order of magnitude, and in most of the cases, no enhanced NO2 could be found at all. Our results are in contradiction to the currently accepted range of LNOx production per flash of 15 (2–40×1025 molec/flash. This probably partly results from the specific conditions for the events under investigation, i.e. events of high lightning activity in the morning (local time and mostly (for 162 out of 287 events over ocean. Within the detected coincidences, the highest NO2 column densities were observed around the US Eastcoast. This might be partly due to interference with ground sources of NOx being uplifted by the convective systems. However, it could also indicate that flashes in this region are particularly productive. We

  20. The oscillatory behaviour of the aftershocks rate of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, India: observation and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Unnikrishnan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A damaging earthquake of Mw 7.7, which struck the Bhuj region of India on January 26, 2001, was followed by a large number of aftershocks. The aftershock data available at Gauribidanur Seismic Array Station (GBA, India, till 869 h following the main shock were compiled. The plot of the aftershocks rate with time was found to be oscillatory decay. There was a sharp decrease of the aftershocks rate in the initial 144 h from the main shock and this paper presents the analysis of the temporal characteristics of aftershock activity during this period. Astatistical best fit for the rate of aftershocks is performed using the generalised Omori?s law and the exponential decay law. The statistical errors for the exponential fit are found to be lower than that of the generalised Omori's fit. The superimposed oscillations present in the aftershock activity are extracted by differencing the observed aftershock activity from the statistical fits. The frequencies of these oscillations are found to be 0.062 h?1, 0.078 h-1, 0.102 h-1, 0.118 h-1, 0.141 h-1, 0.164 h-1, 0.233 h-1 and 0.476 h-1. Some of the plausible causes for this kind of oscillations present in the aftershock activity are also discussed in this paper.

  1. Slow Rise and Partial Eruption of a Double-Decker Filament. I Observations and Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Rui; TÖrÖk, Tibor; Liu, Chang; Titov, Viacheslav S; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A; Wang, Haimin

    2012-01-01

    We study an active-region dextral filament which was composed of two branches separated in height by about 13 Mm. This "double-decker" configuration sustained for days before the upper branch erupted with a GOES-class M1.0 flare on 2010 August 7. Analyzing this evolution, we obtain the following main results. 1) During hours before the eruption, filament threads within the lower branch were observed to intermittently brighten up, lift upward, and then merge with the upper branch. The merging process contributed magnetic flux and current to the upper branch, resulting in its quasi-static ascent. 2) This transfer might serve as the key mechanism for the upper branch to lose equilibrium by reaching the limiting flux that can be stably held down by the overlying field or by reaching the threshold of the torus instability. 3) The erupting branch first straightened from a reverse S shape that followed the polarity inversion line and then writhed into a forward S shape. This shows a transfer of left-handed helicity ...

  2. Lake-level variations of Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego: observations, modelling and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano MENDOZA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The lake-level variations of Lago Fagnano, the largest lake in Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America, on time scales from a few minutes to three years are investigated using a geodetic approach and applying the tools of time series analysis. Based on pressure tide gauge records at three locations in the lake precise lake-level time series are derived. The analysis of the observed variations in space, time and frequency domain leads to the separation of the principal force-response mechanisms. We show that the lake-level variations in Lago Fagnano can be described essentially as a combination of lake-level shift and tilt and of surface seiches. Regarding the lake-level response to air-pressure forcing, a significant departure from the inverse barometer model is found. Surface seiches dynamics are particularly intensive in Lago Fagnano pointing towards exceptionally low dissipative friction. An undisturbed series of seiches lasting eleven days is presented; and at least eleven longitudinal modes are identified. Based on the characterisation of the main contributions in space and time as well as their relation to the driving forces, a model for the transfer of the lake-level variations at a reference point to an arbitrary location in the lake with an accuracy of 1 cm is developed.

  3. Observations and Interpretation of Descent and Mixing in the Northern Hemisphere Brewer Dobson Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, J. C.; Karol, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Yudin, V.; Nardi, B.

    2012-12-01

    In 1929 Brewer proposed that the motions now known as the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation were responsible for the observed high values of ozone at high latitudes, far from their low-latitude region of formation. Here data from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument, with 1 km vertical resolution and 100 km along track spacing, are used examine how this circulation creates that distribution and its seasonal variation through the interactions between the overturning motions of the BD circulation and isentropic mixing in the lower and lowermost stratosphere (350-450K). Isopleths of ozone in equivalent latitude-potential temperature coordinates illustrate the high-latitude descent, controlled by diabatic cooling, from September to the lowest altitudes in January and February. This descent creates large gradients along isentropic surfaces, where mixing above ~ 360K is weak at this time. The strength of mixing is taken to be the effective diffusivity Deff as formulated by Nakamura [1996]. By late winter into spring the BD circulation weakens, as does the transport barrier near 35° associated with the sub-tropical jet. These processes allow strong equator-ward mixing, leading to progressively smaller latitudinal ozone gradients on the isentropes, and the rising and flattening of the ozone isopleths. By the end of the summer the isopleths show only small slopes, preparatory for the next cycle. These results for the ozone dynamics are similar, but not identical, to those obtained with NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) Version 4.

  4. The Young and the Dustless: Interpreting Radio Observations of UltraViolet Luminous Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Basu-Zych, Antara R; Johnson, Benjamin D; Hoopes, Charles; Overzier, Roderik; Treyer, Marie A; Heckman, Timothy M; Barlow, Tom A; Bianchi, Luciana; Conrow, Tim; Donas, Jose; Forster, Karl G; Friedman, Peter G; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Martin, D Christopher; Milliard, Bruno; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Rich, R Michael; Salim, Samir; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd A; Szalay, Alexander S; Wyder, Ted K; Yi, Suk Young

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs) have been identified as intensely star-forming, nearby galaxies. A subset of these, the supercompact UVLGs, are believed to be local analogs of high redshift Lyman Break Galaxies. Here we investigate the radio continuum properties of this important population for the first time. We have observed 42 supercompact UVLGs with the VLA, all of which have extensive coverage in the UV/optical by GALEX and SDSS. Our analysis includes comparison samples of multiwavelength data from the Spitzer First Look Survey and from the SDSS-Galex matched catalogs. In addition we have Spitzer MIPS data for 24 of our galaxies and find that they fall on the radio-FIR correlation of normal star-forming galaxies. We find that our galaxies have lower radio-to-UV ratios and lower Balmer decrements than other local galaxies with similar (high) star formation rates. Optical spectra show they have lower Dn(4000) and HdeltaA indices, higher Hbeta emission-line equivalents widths, and higher [OIII]5007/Hb...

  5. Black holes formed by direct collapse: observational evidences

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F

    2016-01-01

    Binary black holes as the recently detected sources of gravitational waves can be formed from massive stellar binaries in the field or by dynamical interactions in clusters of high stellar density, if the black holes are the remnants of massive stars that collapsed without natal kicks that would disrupt the binary system or eject the black holes from the cluster before binary black hole formation. Here are summarized and discussed the kinematics in three dimensions of space of five Galactic black hole X-ray binaries. For Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105 it is found that the black holes of ~15 and ~10 solar masses in these sources were formed in situ, without energetic kicks. These observations suggest that binary black holes with components of ~10 solar masses may have been prolifically produced in the universe.

  6. Direct observation of beam bunching in BWO experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morimoto, I; Maebara, S; Kishiro, J; Takayama, K; Horioka, K; Ishizuka, H; Kawasaki, S; Shiho, M

    2001-01-01

    Backward Wave Oscillation (BWO) experiments using a Large current Accelerator-1 (Lax-1) Induction Linac as a seed power source for an mm-wave FEL are under way. The Lax-1 is typically operated with a 1 MeV electron beam, a few kA of beam current, and a pulse length of 100 ns. In the BWO experiments, annular and solid beams are injected into a corrugated wave guide with guiding axial magnetic field of 1 T. In the BWO with annular beam an output power of 210 MW at 9.8 GHz was obtained. With a solid beam the output power was 130 MW, and an electron beam bunching with the frequency of 9.6-10.2 GHz was observed by a streak camera.

  7. Direct observation of atomic diffusion in warm rubidium ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Parniak, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for measuring the diffusion coefficients of warm atoms in buffer gases. Using optical pumping, we manipulate the atomic spin in a thin cylinder inside the cell. Then we observe the spatial spread of optically pumped atoms in time using a camera, which allows us to determine the diffusion coefficient. As an example, we demonstrate measurements of diffusion coefficients of rubidium in neon, krypton and xenon acting as buffer gases. We have determined the normalized (273 K, 760 Torr) diffusion coefficients to be 0.18\\pm0.03 cm^2/s for neon, 0.07\\pm0.01 cm^2/s for krypton, and 0.052\\pm0.006 cm^2/s for xenon.

  8. Cold-water coral distributions in the Drake Passage area from towed camera observations - Initial interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rhian G.; Catanach, Kathryn Scanlon; Robinson, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    Seamounts are unique deep-sea features that create habitats thought to have high levels of endemic fauna, productive fisheries and benthic communities vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Many seamounts are isolated features, occurring in the high seas, where access is limited and thus biological data scarce. There are numerous seamounts within the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean), yet high winds, frequent storms and strong currents make seafloor sampling particularly difficult. As a result, few attempts to collect biological data have been made, leading to a paucity of information on benthic habitats or fauna in this area, particularly those on primarily hard-bottom seamounts and ridges. During a research cruise in 2008 six locations were examined (two on the Antarctic margin, one on the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and three on seamounts within the Drake Passage), using a towed camera with onboard instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity. Dominant fauna and bottom type were categorized from 200 randomized photos from each location. Cold-water corals were present in high numbers in habitats both on the Antarctic margin and on the current swept seamounts of the Drake Passage, though the diversity of orders varied. Though the Scleractinia (hard corals) were abundant on the sedimented margin, they were poorly represented in the primarily hard-bottom areas of the central Drake Passage. The two seamount sites and the Shackleton Fracture Zone showed high numbers of stylasterid (lace) and alcyonacean (soft) corals, as well as large numbers of sponges. Though data are preliminary, the geological and environmental variability (particularly in temperature) between sample sites may be influencing cold-water coral biogeography in this region. Each area observed also showed little similarity in faunal diversity with other sites examined for this study within all phyla counted. This manuscript highlights how little is understood of these isolated

  9. Direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in poly-l-lactic acid nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric polymers are capable of interconverting mechanical and electrical energy, and are therefore candidate materials for biomedical applications such as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. In particular, nanowires of these materials are attractive as they can be unclamped, flexible and sensitive to small vibrations. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA nanowires have been investigated for their use in biological applications, but their piezoelectric properties have never been fully characterised, even though macroscopic films and fibres have been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity. This piezoelectric mode is particularly interesting for in vivo applications where shear forces are especially relevant, and is similar to what has been observed in natural materials such as bone and DNA. Here, using piezo-response force microscopy (PFM, we report the first direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in highly crystalline and oriented PLLA nanowires grown by a novel template-wetting method. Our results are validated using finite-element simulations and numerical analysis, which importantly and more generally allow for accurate interpretation of PFM signals in soft nanostructured materials. Our work opens up the possibility for the development of biocompatible and sustainable piezoelectric nanogenerators and sensors based on polymer nanowires.

  10. Direct observation of dendritic domain growth in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy CoFe/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Haoliang [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); He Wei, E-mail: hewei@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Du Haifeng; Wu Qiong; Fang Yapeng [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhu Yun [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cai Jianwang [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Cheng Zhaohua, E-mail: zhcheng@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present the experimental results on thermally activated magnetization reversal for [Co{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}(5.0 A)/Pt(20 A)]{sub 4} multilayer. Direct domain observations show that magnetization reversal is initiated with rare nucleation and followed by dendritic growth of domain walls. Based on macroscopic magnetic parameters from experimental data, the dendritic domain growth mode is qualitatively interpreted by Monte Carlo simulations in terms of a simple uniaxial magnetic anisotropy model. Moreover, both time evolution of domain growth observation and magnetic relaxation measurements reveal that CoFe/Pt multilayer has a relatively large activation volume compared with Co/Pt multilayers. - Highlights: > We investigate magnetization reversal of [Co{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}(5.0 A)/Pt(20 A)]{sub 4} multilayer. > Magnetization reversal is governed by thermally activated mechanism. > Magnetic domains evolve in dendritic domain growth mode. > Relatively large activation volume is obtained for the multilayer. > Monte Carlo simulation reproduces the domain growth mode well.

  11. Direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in poly-l-lactic acid nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Calahorra, Yonatan; Jing, Qingshen; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric polymers are capable of interconverting mechanical and electrical energy, and are therefore candidate materials for biomedical applications such as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. In particular, nanowires of these materials are attractive as they can be unclamped, flexible and sensitive to small vibrations. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) nanowires have been investigated for their use in biological applications, but their piezoelectric properties have never been fully characterised, even though macroscopic films and fibres have been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity. This piezoelectric mode is particularly interesting for in vivo applications where shear forces are especially relevant, and is similar to what has been observed in natural materials such as bone and DNA. Here, using piezo-response force microscopy (PFM), we report the first direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in highly crystalline and oriented PLLA nanowires grown by a novel template-wetting method. Our results are validated using finite-element simulations and numerical analysis, which importantly and more generally allow for accurate interpretation of PFM signals in soft nanostructured materials. Our work opens up the possibility for the development of biocompatible and sustainable piezoelectric nanogenerators and sensors based on polymer nanowires.

  12. High-Precise Gravity Observations at Archaeological Sites: How We Can Improve the Interpretation Effectiveness and Reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity investigations are comparatively rarely used for searching of hidden ancient targets (e.g., Eppelbaum, 2013). It is caused mainly by small geometric size of the desired archaeological objects and various types of noise complicating the observed useful signal. At the same time, development of modern generation of field gravimetric equipment allows to register microGal (10-8 m/s2) anomalies that offer a new challenge in this direction. Correspondingly, an accuracy of gravity variometers (gradientometers) is also sharply increased. How we can improve the interpretation effectiveness and reliability? Undoubtedly, it must be a multi-stage process. I believe that we must begin since nonconventional methodologies for reducing topographic effect and terrain correction computation. Topographic effect reducing The possibilities of reducing topographic effects by grouping the points of additional gravimetric observations around the central point located on the survey network were demonstrated in (Khesin et al., 1996). A group of 4 to 8 additional points is located above and below along the relief approximately symmetrically and equidistant from the central point. The topographic effect is reduced to the obtained difference between the gravity field in the center of the group and its mean value for the whole group. Application of this methodology in the gold-pyrite deposit Gyzyl-Bulakh (Lesser Caucasus, western Azerbaijan) indicated its effectiveness. Computation of terrain correction Some geophysicists compare the new ideas in the field of terrain correction (TC) in gravimetry with the 'perpetuum mobile' invention. However, when we speak about very detailed gravity observations, the problem of most optimal computation of surrounding relief influence is of a great importance. Let us will consider two approaches applied earlier in ore geophysics. First approach A first method was applied in the Gyzyl-Bulakh gold-pyrite deposit situated in the Mekhmana ore region of

  13. Direct observation of long-lived isomers in $^{212}$Bi

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, L; Geissel, H; Litvinov, Yu A; Beckert, K; Beller, P; Bosch, F; Boutin, D; Caceres, L; Carroll, J J; Cullen, D M; Cullen, I J; Franzke, B; Gerl, J; Górska, M; Jones, G A; Kishada, A; Knöbel, R; Kozhuharov, C; Kurcewicz, J; Litvinov, S A; Liu, Z; Mandal, S; Montes, F; Münzenberg, G; Nolden, F; Ohtsubo, T; Patyk, Z; Plaß, W R; Podolyák, Zs; Rigby, S; Saito, N; Saito, T; Scheidenberger, C; Simpson, E C; Shindo, M; Steck, M; Sun, B; Williams, S J; Weick, H; Winkler, M; Wollersheim, H -J; Yamaguchi, T

    2013-01-01

    Long-lived isomers in 212Bi have been studied following 238U projectile fragmentation at 670 MeV per nucleon. The fragmentation products were injected as highly charged ions into the GSI storage ring, giving access to masses and half-lives. While the excitation energy of the first isomer of 212Bi was confirmed, the second isomer was observed at 1478(30) keV, in contrast to the previously accepted value of >1910 keV. It was also found to have an extended Lorentz-corrected in-ring halflife >30 min, compared to 7.0(3) min for the neutral atom. Both the energy and half-life differences can be understood as being due a substantial, though previously unrecognised, internal decay branch for neutral atoms. Earlier shell-model calculations are now found to give good agreement with the isomer excitation energy. Furthermore, these and new calculations predict the existence of states at slightly higher energy that could facilitate isomer de-excitation studies.

  14. Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of secondary acids and ammonium on individual mineral dust particles during ACE-Asia has been measured with an online single-particle mass spectrometer, the ATOFMS. Changes in the amounts of sulphate, nitrate, and chloride mixed with dust particles correlate with air masses from different source regions. The uptake of secondary acids depended on the individual dust particle mineralogy; high amounts of nitrate accumulated on calcium-rich dust while high amounts of sulphate accumulated on aluminosilicate-rich dust. Oxidation of S(IV to S(VI by iron in the aluminosilicate dust is a possible explanation for this enrichment of sulphate, which has important consequences for the fertilization of remote oceans by soluble iron. This study shows the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride in individual aged dust particles for the first time. A transport and aging timeline provides an explanation for the observed segregation. Our data suggests that sulphate became mixed with the dust first. This implies that the transport pathway is more important than the reaction kinetics in determining which species accumulate on mineral dust. Early in the study, dust particles in volcanically influenced air masses were mixed predominately with sulphate. Dust mixed with chloride then dominated over sulphate and nitrate when a major dust front reached the R. V. Ronald Brown. We hypothesize that the rapid increase in chloride on dust was due to mixing with HCl(g released from acidified sea salt particles induced by heterogeneous reaction with volcanic SO2(g, prior to the arrival of the dust front. The amount of ammonium mixed with dust correlated strongly with the total amount of secondary acid reaction products in the dust. Submicron dust and ammonium sulphate were internally mixed, contrary to frequent reports that they exist as external mixtures. The size distribution of the mixing state of dust with these secondary species validates previous

  15. Perceived Direction of Self-Motion from Orthogonally Directed Visual and Vestibular Stimulation in Passive and Active Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Sakurai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving the direction of self-motion is typically a multisensory process. The most effective cue to detect the observer's heading direction is the visual optic-flow pattern. In the initial period of body movement, however, the vestibular sense is another effective cue to detect the direction in which one's body started to move. Here I report our recent research on the perception of self-motion, 1 when observers are passively experiencing their real somatic motion in different body posture, and 2 when observers are actively moving their bodies forward and backward. Previously, we reported that when upright observers passively experience real linear oscillatory somatic motion (leftward/rightward or forward/backward while viewing orthogonal visual optic flow patterns (translating or expanding/contracting, their perceived body motion direction is intermediate to those specified by visual and vestibular information individually (Sakurai et al., 2002, ACV; 2003, ECVP; Sakurai et al., 2010, VSS; Kubodera et al., 2010, APCV. We then generalized those findings exploring other visual/vestibular combinations, investigating when the vertical axis of body coordinates is orthogonal to the gravity axis. Observers lay supinely and reported their perceived direction of self-motion, experiencing real upward/downward or leftward/rightward motion in body coordinates, while viewing orthogonal optic-flow patterns that were phase-locked to the swing motion. The results are very similar to our previous reports, but for combinations of body motion with visual expanding/contracting optic-flow, some observers' judgments were vision-only or vestibular-only, suggesting that multimodal integration in this context is an either-or process for these observers. Compared to our previous reports, one possible reason for this weighted combination failure is the discrepancy between body coordinates and gravity coordinates (Sakurai et al., 2011, ECVP. We recently extended those

  16. Measuring agreement between ratings interpretations and binary clinical interpretations of images: a simulation study of methods for quantifying the clinical relevance of an observer performance paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dev P.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, that are often used to evaluate medical imaging systems, differ from “live” clinical interpretations in several respects which could compromise their clinical relevance. The aim was to develop methodology for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory ROC study. A simulator was developed to generate ROC ratings data and binary clinical interpretations classified as correct or incorrect for a common set of images interpreted under clinical and laboratory conditions. The area under the trapezoidal ROC curve was used as the laboratory figure-of-merit and the fraction of correct clinical decisions as the clinical figure-of-merit. Conventional agreement measures (Pearson, Spearman, Kendall and kappa) between the bootstrap-induced fluctuations of the two figures-of-merit were estimated. A jackknife pseudovalue transformation applied to the figures-of-merit was also investigated as a way to capture agreement existing at the individual image level that could be lost at the figure-of-merit level. It is shown that the pseudovalues define a relevance ROC curve the area under which (rAUC) measures the ability of the laboratory figure-of-merit based pseudovalues to correctly classify incorrect vs. correct clinical interpretations, and is a measure of the clinical relevance of an ROC study. The conventional measures and rAUC were compared under varying simulator conditions. It was found that design details of the ROC study, namely the number of bins, the difficulty level of the images, the ratio of disease-present to disease-absent images, and the unavoidable difference between laboratory and clinical performance levels, can seriously underestimate the agreement as indicated by conventional agreement measures, even for perfectly correlated data, while rAUC showed high agreement and was relatively immune to these details. At the same time rAUC was sensitive to factors such as intrinsic correlation between the

  17. Measuring agreement between rating interpretations and binary clinical interpretations of images: a simulation study of methods for quantifying the clinical relevance of an observer performance paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dev P.

    2012-05-01

    Laboratory receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, that are often used to evaluate medical imaging systems, differ from ‘live’ clinical interpretations in several respects which could compromise their clinical relevance. The aim was to develop methodology for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory ROC study. A simulator was developed to generate ROC ratings data and binary clinical interpretations classified as correct or incorrect for a common set of images interpreted under clinical and laboratory conditions. The area under the trapezoidal ROC curve (AUC) was used as the laboratory figure-of-merit and the fraction of correct clinical decisions as the clinical figure-of-merit. Conventional agreement measures (Pearson, Spearman, Kendall and kappa) between the bootstrap-induced fluctuations of the two figures of merit were estimated. A jackknife pseudovalue transformation applied to the figures of merit was also investigated as a way to capture agreement existing at the individual image level that could be lost at the figure-of-merit level. It is shown that the pseudovalues define a relevance-ROC curve. The area under this curve (rAUC) measures the ability of the laboratory figure-of-merit-based pseudovalues to correctly classify incorrect versus correct clinical interpretations. Therefore, rAUC is a measure of the clinical relevance of an ROC study. The conventional measures and rAUC were compared under varying simulator conditions. It was found that design details of the ROC study, namely the number of bins, the difficulty level of the images, the ratio of disease-present to disease-absent images and the unavoidable difference between laboratory and clinical performance levels, can lead to serious underestimation of the agreement as indicated by conventional agreement measures, even for perfectly correlated data, while rAUC showed high agreement and was relatively immune to these details. At the same time rAUC was sensitive to factors such

  18. Interpretation of NO(x)/NO(y) observations from AASE-2 using a model of chemistry along trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Fahey, D. W.; Wilson, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Jonsson, H.; Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    In situ measurements of NO and NO(y) are used to derive the ratio NO(x)/NO(y) along the flight track of the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Data are presented for two flights at midlatitudes in October 1991 during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition-2 (AASE-2). Aerosol particle surface area was concurrently measured. The observations are compared with a photochemical model integrated along back trajectories from the aircraft flight track. Comparison of observations with the model run along trajectories and at a fixed position clearly and quantitatively demonstrates the importance of an air parcel's dynamic history in interpretation of local chemical observations. Comparison of the data with model runs under different assumptions regarding heterogeneous chemistry further reinforces the case for occurrence of the reaction of N2O5 + H2O on sulfate aerosol surfaces in the atmosphere. Finally, comparisons for which relative changes in the model and the data are not consistent caution that our ability to resolve all the observations is not yet complete.

  19. Observation of direct-photon collective flow in Au + Au collisions at √s(NN)] = 200 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2012-09-21

    The second Fourier component v(2) of the azimuthal anisotropy with respect to the reaction plane is measured for direct photons at midrapidity and transverse momentum (p(T)) of 1-12 GeV/c in Au + Au collisions at √s(NN)] = 200 GeV. Previous measurements of this quantity for hadrons with p(T) 6 GeV/c a reduced anisotropy is interpreted in terms of a path-length dependence for parton energy loss. In this measurement with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider we find that for p(T) > 4 GeV/c the anisotropy for direct photons is consistent with zero, which is as expected if the dominant source of direct photons is initial hard scattering. However, in the p(T) hadrons, whereas model calculations for thermal photons in this kinematic region underpredict the observed v(2).

  20. Constraining nova observables: direct measurements of resonance strengths in 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl

    CERN Document Server

    Fallis, J; Bertone, P F; Bishop, S; Buchmann, L; Chen, A A; Christian, G; Clark, J A; D'Auria, J M; Davids, B; Deibel, C M; Fulton, B R; Greife, U; Guo, B; Hager, U; Herlitzius, C; Hutcheon, D A; José, J; Laird, A M; Li, E T; Li, Z H; Lian, G; Liu, W P; Martin, L; Nelson, K; Ottewell, D; Parker, P D; Reeve, S; Rojas, A; Ruiz, C; Setoodehnia, K; Sjue, S; Vockenhuber, C; Wang, Y B; Wrede, C

    2013-01-01

    The 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl reaction is important for constraining predictions of certain isotopic abundances in oxygen-neon novae. Models currently predict as much as 150 times the solar abundance of 33S in oxygen-neon nova ejecta. This overproduction factor may, however, vary by orders of magnitude due to uncertainties in the 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl reaction rate at nova peak temperatures. Depending on this rate, 33S could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool for classifying certain types of presolar grains. Better knowledge of the 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl rate would also aid in interpreting nova observations over the S-Ca mass region and contribute to the firm establishment of the maximum endpoint of nova nucleosynthesis. Additionally, the total S elemental abundance which is affected by this reaction has been proposed as a thermometer to study the peak temperatures of novae. Previously, the 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl reaction rate had only been studied directly down to resonance energies of 432 keV. However, for nova peak temper...

  1. A re-interpretation of the exotic event observed in the cosmic ray at Yunnan Cosmic Ray Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庆承瑞; 何祚庥; 高崇寿; 阮图南

    1995-01-01

    The exotic event observed in 1972 at Yunan Cosmic Ray Station (YCRS) has been re-interpreted as a collision between a high energy heavy particle with a nucleon. with three charged particles identified as the final products. If no other missing neutral particles were produced in this collision, then one of the three particles C- could be assigned with mass Mcd>45 GeV. and life-time . If C- is unstable it can decay via weak interaction to C0 and a pair of lepions. the mass difference between C- and C is estimated as less than 0.270GeV The relevance of this event to the dark matter problem in the Universe is also discussed.

  2. Comparison of a unidirectional panoramic 3D endoluminal interpretation technique to traditional 2D and bidirectional 3D interpretation techniques at CT colonography: preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, D.K.; Babb, J.; Bonavita, J.; Kim, D. [Department of Radiology, NYU Medical Center, 560 First Avenue, Suite HW-202, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Bini, E.J. [Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Medical Center, 560 First Avenue, Suite HW-202, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Megibow, A.J. [Department of Radiology, NYU Medical Center, 560 First Avenue, Suite HW-202, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Macari, M., E-mail: michael.macari@med.nyu.ed [Department of Radiology, NYU Medical Center, 560 First Avenue, Suite HW-202, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: To compare the evaluation times and accuracy of unidirectional panoramic three-dimensional (3D) endoluminal interpretation to traditional two-dimensional (2D) and bidirectional 3D endoluminal techniques. materials and methods: Sixty-nine patients underwent computed tomography colonography (CTC) after bowel cleansing. Forty-five had no polyps and 24 had at least one polyp >=6 mm. Patients underwent same-day colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. Three experienced abdominal radiologists evaluated the data using one of three primary interpretation techniques: (1) 2D; (2) bidirectional 3D; (3) panoramic 3D. Mixed model analysis of variance and logistic regression for correlated data were used to compare techniques with respect to time and sensitivity and specificity. Results: Mean evaluation times were 8.6, 14.6, and 12.1 min, for 2D, 3D, and panoramic, respectively. 2D was faster than either 3D technique (p < 0.0001), and the panoramic technique was faster than bidirectional 3D (p = 0.0139). The overall sensitivity of each technique per polyp and per patient was 68.4 and 76.7% for 2D, 78.9 and 93.3% for 3D; and 78.9 and 86.7% for panoramic 3D. Conclusion: 2D interpretation was the fastest overall, the panoramic technique was significantly faster than the bidirectional with similar sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity for a single reader was significantly lower using the 2D technique. Each reader should select the technique with which they are most successful.

  3. Linguistic complex networks: Rationale, application, interpretation, and directions. Reply to comments on "Approaching human language with complex networks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jin; Liu, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Amid the enthusiasm for real-world networks of the new millennium, the enquiry into linguistic networks is flourishing not only as a productive branch of the new networks science but also as a promising approach to linguistic research. Although the complex network approach constitutes a potential opportunity to make linguistics a science, the world of linguistics seems unprepared to embrace it. For one thing, linguistics has been largely unaffected by quantitative methods. Those who are accustomed to qualitative linguistic methods may find it hard to appreciate the application of quantitative properties of language such as frequency and length, not to mention quantitative properties of language modeled as networks. With this in mind, in our review [1] we restrict ourselves to the basics of complex networks and the new insights into human language with the application of complex networks. For another, while breaking new grounds and posing new challenges for linguistics, the complex network approach to human language as a new tradition of linguistic research is faced with challenges and unsolved issues of its own. It is no surprise that the comments on our review, especially their skepticism and suggestions, focus on various different aspects of the complex network approach to human language. We are grateful to all the insightful and penetrating comments, which, together with our review, mark a significant impetus to linguistic research from the complex network approach. In this reply, we would like to address four major issues of the complex network approach to human language, namely, a) its theoretical rationale, b) its application in linguistic research, c) interpretation of the results, and d) directions of future research.

  4. An Observing Method for Flux and Speed with Direct Torque Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝龙记; 王汝琳

    2004-01-01

    An observing method for stator flux and rotor flux is presented. Based on the proposed flux observing method, a novel speed estimator has been designed. At last, the speed estimator combined with the flux observing is applied in the direct torque control system without speed sensor. The simulation results show that these methods can improve the accuracy of speed observing and the low speed performance of direct torque control system, and strengthen the robustness of system.

  5. The meteorology of Gale Crater as determined from Rover Environmental Monitoring Station observations and numerical modeling. Part II: Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Pla-Garcia, Jorge; Kahre, Melinda; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Marín, Mercedes; Navarro, Sara; Torres, Josefina; Vasavada, Ashwin

    2016-12-01

    Numerical modeling results from the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System are used to interpret the landed meteorological data from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In order to characterize seasonal changes throughout the Martian year, simulations are conducted at Ls 0, 90, 180 and 270. Two additional simulations at Ls 225 and 315 are explored to better understand the unique meteorological setting centered on Ls 270. The synergistic combination of model and observations reveals a complex meteorological environment within the crater. Seasonal planetary circulations, the thermal tide, slope flows along the topographic dichotomy, mesoscale waves, slope flows along the crater slopes and Mt. Sharp, and turbulent motions all interact in nonlinear ways to produce the observed weather. Ls 270 is shown to be an anomalous season when air within and outside the crater is well mixed by strong, flushing northerly flow and large amplitude, breaking mountain waves. At other seasons, the air in the crater is more isolated from the surrounding environment. The potential impact of the partially isolated crater air mass on the dust, water, noncondensable and methane cycles is also considered. In contrast to previous studies, the large amplitude diurnal pressure signal is attributed primarily to necessary hydrostatic adjustments associated with topography of different elevations, with contributions of less than 25% to the diurnal amplitude from the crater circulation itself. The crater circulation is shown to induce a suppressed boundary layer.

  6. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  7. An Alienation-Based Framework for Student Experience in Higher Education: New Interpretations of Past Observations in Student Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Bradford; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article orients a recently proposed alienation-based framework for student learning theory (SLT) to the empirical basis of the approaches to learning perspective. The proposed framework makes new macro-level interpretations of an established micro-level theory, across three levels of interpretation: (1) a context-free psychological state…

  8. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  9. Quantum interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goernitz, T.; Weizsaecker, C.F.V.

    1987-10-01

    Four interpretations of quantum theory are compared: the Copenhagen interpretation (C.I.) with the additional assumption that the quantum description also applies to the mental states of the observer, and three recent ones, by Kochen, Deutsch, and Cramer. Since they interpret the same mathematical structure with the same empirical predictions, it is assumed that they formulate only different linguistic expressions of one identical theory. C.I. as a theory on human knowledge rests on a phenomenological description of time. It can be reconstructed from simple assumptions on predictions. Kochen shows that mathematically every composite system can be split into an object and an observer. Deutsch, with the same decomposition, describes futuric possibilities under the Everett term worlds. Cramer, using four-dimensional action at a distance (Wheeler-Feynman), describes all future events like past facts. All three can be described in the C.I. frame. The role of abstract nonlocality is discussed.

  10. Direct observation of lipid domains in free standing bilayers: from simple to complex lipid mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis A

    2003-01-01

    The direct observation of temperature-dependent lipid phase equilibria, using two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of different lipid mixtures, provides novel information about the physical characteristics of lipid domain coexistence. Physica...

  11. Observer design for position and velocity bias estimation from a single direction output

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bras, Florent; Hamel, Tarek; Mahony, Robert; Samson, Claude

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position of an object moving in R n from direction and velocity measurements. After addressing observability issues associated with this problem, a nonlinear observer is designed so as to encompass the case where the measured velocity is corrupted by a constant bias. Global exponential convergence of the estimation error is proved under a condition of persistent excitation upon the direction measurements. Simulation re...

  12. Capturing the complexity of first opinion small animal consultations using direct observation

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, N. J.; Brennan, Marnie L.; Cobb, M.; Dean, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Various different methods are currently being used to capture data from small animal consultations. The aim of this study was to develop a tool to record detailed data from consultations by direct observation. A second aim was to investigate the complexity of the consultation by examining the number of problems discussed per patient. A data collection tool was developed and used during direct observation of small animal consultations in eight practices. Data were recorded on consultation type...

  13. The Galactic 511 keV line: analysis and interpretation of Integral observations; L'annihilation des positrons galactiques: analyse et interpretation des donnees INTEGRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonjou, V

    2005-09-15

    Ever since the discovery of the 511 keV annihilation line emission from the galactic center region in the late seventies, the origin of galactic positrons has been the topic of a vivid scientific debate. It is also one of the prime scientific objectives of the imaging spectrometer SPI on board ESA's INTEGRAL observatory. In this thesis first a description of the most important SPI sub-system is given - the detector plane. Procedures for detector energy calibration and detector degradation analysis are developed. The determination of instrumental background models, a crucial aspect of data analysis, is elaborated. These background models are then applied to deriving sky maps and spectra of unprecedented quality of the Galactic positron annihilation radiation. The emission is centered on the galactic center with a spatial resolution of 8 degrees (FWHM), a second spatial component appears clearly: the galactic disc. The ray energy has been measured with unprecedented accuracy: 511.0 {+-} 0.03 keV for a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.07 {+-} 0.1 keV. The total galactic flux ranges from 1.09 to 2.43 10{sup -3} ph.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} including uncertainties on spatial distribution. Finally, the implications of these observations for the production of positrons by various Galactic populations are discussed.

  14. Observation of Direct-Photon Collective Flow in Au+Au Collisions at sNN=200GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.

    2012-09-01

    The second Fourier component v2 of the azimuthal anisotropy with respect to the reaction plane is measured for direct photons at midrapidity and transverse momentum (pT) of 1-12GeV/c in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200GeV. Previous measurements of this quantity for hadrons with pT6GeV/c a reduced anisotropy is interpreted in terms of a path-length dependence for parton energy loss. In this measurement with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider we find that for pT>4GeV/c the anisotropy for direct photons is consistent with zero, which is as expected if the dominant source of direct photons is initial hard scattering. However, in the pT<4GeV/c region dominated by thermal photons, we find a substantial direct-photon v2 comparable to that of hadrons, whereas model calculations for thermal photons in this kinematic region underpredict the observed v2.

  15. The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

    2008-12-01

    volumes are more likely to show stabilized bacterial counts, however, this sort of pumping event is not common during daily household water use or when a sample is being collected for a bacterial test by the homeowner. The stabilization of bacterial counts was delayed compared to the field parameters. Bacterial counts were influenced on the short-term by changes in pumping rate, however, similar long-term stability of the counts was observed. The trends of tests conducted in multi-level piezometers (sand pack between the screen and the wellbore wall) were similar to tests conducted in open boreholes. The results imply that bacterial counts and the subsequent water quality interpretations are influenced by the pumping rate and when the sample was taken during the pumping event. Early time results are more likely to reflect the bacterial response to the perturbations caused by the pump itself, while later samples reflect the adjustment of the bacterial colonies, in and adjacent to the well, to the new conditions. Further consideration needs to be given to these parameters when designing a bacterial sampling protocol in groundwater and when assessing the quality of drinking water using bacteria as indicators.

  16. The escape of heavy atoms from the ionosphere of HD209458b. II. Interpretation of the observations

    CERN Document Server

    Koskinen, T T; Harris, M J; Lavvas, P

    2012-01-01

    Transits in the H I 1216 A (Lyman alpha), O I 1334 A, C II 1335 A, and Si III 1206.5 A lines constrain the properties of the upper atmosphere of HD209458b. In addition to probing the temperature and density profiles in the thermosphere, they have implications for the properties of the lower atmosphere. Fits to the observations with a simple empirical model and a direct comparison with a more complex hydrodynamic model constrain the mean temperature and ionization state of the atmosphere, and imply that the optical depth of the extended thermosphere of the planet in the atomic resonance lines is significant. In particular, it is sufficient to explain the observed transit depths in the H I 1216 A line. The detection of O at high altitudes implies that the minimum mass loss rate from the planet is approximately 6e6 kg/s. The mass loss rate based on our hydrodynamic model is higher than this and implies that diffusive separation is prevented for neutral species with a mass lower than about 130 amu by the escape o...

  17. Direct observation of Lomer-Cottrell locks during strain hardening in nanocrystalline nickel by in situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Hwan; Holland, Troy B; Mukherjee, Amiya K; Zhang, Xinghang; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Strain hardening capability is critical for metallic materials to achieve high ductility during plastic deformation. A majority of nanocrystalline metals, however, have inherently low work hardening capability with few exceptions. Interpretations on work hardening mechanisms in nanocrystalline metals are still controversial due to the lack of in situ experimental evidence. Here we report, by using an in situ transmission electron microscope nanoindentation tool, the direct observation of dynamic work hardening event in nanocrystalline nickel. During strain hardening stage, abundant Lomer-Cottrell (L-C) locks formed both within nanograins and against twin boundaries. Two major mechanisms were identified during interactions between L-C locks and twin boundaries. Quantitative nanoindentation experiments recorded show an increase of yield strength from 1.64 to 2.29 GPa during multiple loading-unloading cycles. This study provides both the evidence to explain the roots of work hardening at small length scales and the insight for future design of ductile nanocrystalline metals.

  18. A multimethod investigation including direct observation of 3751 patient visits to 120 dental offices

    OpenAIRE

    Wotman, Stephen; Demko, Catherine A.; Victoroff, Kristin; Sudano, Joseph J; Lalumandier, James A

    2010-01-01

    This report defines verbal interactions between practitioners and patients as core activities of dental practice. Trained teams spent four days in 120 Ohio dental practices observing 3751 patient encounters with dentists and hygienists. Direct observation of practice characteristics, procedures performed, and how procedure and nonprocedure time was utilized during patient visits was recorded using a modified Davis Observation Code that classified patient contact time into 24 behavioral catego...

  19. Comparison of video and direct observation methods for measuring oral behaviour in veal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring behaviour, especially oral behaviour, has always been a debated issue: therefore the aim of this paper is to closely examine the study of oral behaviour in calves and the approaching methodology. Behavioural observations were conducted by two media (direct observations by check sheets and indirect observations by videotapes recorded by cam- eras connected to a digital field switcher and a time-lapse video recorder in order to compare data and assess the reli- ability and validity of the two methods in identifying some oral behavioural patterns in calves. The study was carried out on 54 Polish Friesian calves housed in group pens and in individual crates. The behaviour of the calves was investigated during the fattening period on the 2nd, 7th, 13th, 18th and 23rd week, one hour before and one hour after each of the two meals. Two experienced observers checked the behaviour of the calves, including oral behaviours on structures and buckets and oral stereotypies, by direct observations using a scan sampling every 2 min- utes. The calves' behaviour was also video recorded on the same days in which the direct observations were carried out and analysed by the same two observers. Percentages of time spent on each type of behaviour were calculated and anal- ysed by Chi-square test. Regardless of the housing system, the comparison between direct and indirect observations revealed significant differences in almost every behavioural category. Licking, biting and nibbling structures, nibbling and sucking the bucket, playing with the bucket and the teat, chewing and oral stereotypies were significantly higher in direct observations compared to indirect (P < 0.001, while inactivity was higher in video recorded observations (P < 0.001. In conclusion, regardless of the type of housing, our results revealed an objective difficulty in analysing videotapes with very detailed behavioural categories, like oral behaviours. Although video recording can

  20. Direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers data collected in hair samples - multivariate data analysis and likelihood ratio interpretation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Alladio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration values of direct and indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption were detected in blood (indirect or hair (direct samples from a pool of 125 individuals classified as either chronic (i.e. positive and non-chronic (i.e. negative alcohol drinkers. These experimental values formed the dataset under examination (Table 1. Indirect biomarkers included: aspartate transferase (AST, alanine transferase (ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes (MCV, carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT. The following direct biomarkers were also detected in hair: ethyl myristate (E14:0, ethyl palmitate (E16:0, ethyl stearate (E18:1, ethyl oleate (E18:0, the sum of their four concentrations (FAEEs, i.e. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters and ethyl glucuronide (EtG; pg/mg. Body mass index (BMI was also collected as a potential influencing factor. Likelihood ratio (LR approaches have been used to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers, as described in “Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes” (E. Alladio, A. Martyna, A. Salomone, V. Pirro, M. Vincenti, G. Zadora, 2017 [1].

  1. Interpretation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric mean winds observed by MF radar at about 30°N with the 2D-SOCRATES model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C. Y.; Hu, X.; Zhang, X. X.; Zhang, D. Y.; Wu, X. C.; Gong, X. Y.; Igarashi, K.

    Data obtained by Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E) MF radar and Yamagawa (31.2°N, 130.6°E) MF radar have been used to study the mean winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) at about 30°N. The observed mean zonal and mean meridional winds show obviously seasonal variations. Westerly wind prevails in winter, and decreases with the increasing height above 76 km, even reverses above 96 km sometimes. The summer mean zonal wind is westward in the mesosphere and eastward in the lower thermosphere, with the reversal height of about 80 km. From 70 to 95 km, the mean meridional wind blows northward in winter and southward in summer. Northerly wind prevails between 95 and 98 km throughout seasons. These wind features have similar patterns to those of the empirical HWM93 wind model. 2D-SOCRATES model is used to try to give physical interpretations of the observed wind fields, with which dynamic contributions to the MLT wind structures are analyzed. Simulations show that the planetary waves play an unimportant role in the MLT region since they have relatively small magnitudes during winter and even cannot propagate upward into the upper atmosphere during summer. The gravity waves play a crucial role in determining the wind structures in the MLT region, providing forcing of about 40 m/s/day and diffusion coefficients of about 50 m 2/s at 30°N. The atmospheric tidal waves have significant influences in the wind structures with forcing of about 10 m/s/day and diffusion coefficients of about several m 2/s in the MLT at 30°N. Breakings of these atmospheric waves tend to close off the westerly jet in winter and easterly jet in summer, to produce strong wind shear in the mesopause, and to drive the meridional wind directed from the summer hemisphere to the winter hemisphere.

  2. You are so kind – and I am kind and smart: Actor – Observer Differences in the Interpretation of On-going Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele Andrea E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : The dual perspective model of agency and communion predicts that observers tend to interpret a target’s behavior more in terms of communion than agency, whereas actors interpret their behavior more in terms of agency. The present research for the first time tests this model in real interactions. Previously unacquainted participants had a short conversation and afterwards rated their own behavior (actor perspective and their interaction partner’s behavior (observer perspective in terms of agency(self-confident, assertive and communion(trustworthy, empathic. Supporting the dual perspective model, observers rated the actor’s behavior higher on communion than on agency, and higher on communion than actors themselves did. Findings for actors were more complex: Actors rated their own behavior as more agentic than observers did. However, they also rated their behavior high on communion. We discuss implications for the dual perspective model as well as for (misunderstandings in social interactions.

  3. Physical Interpretion of Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl invariant Standard Model coupled to General Relativity (SM+GR), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and o...

  4. Directional illumination enhancing of remote sensing images and the fault interpretation%遥感影像定向光照增强及构造解译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文渊; 沈晓华; 邹乐君; 苏楠; 孔凡立; 董有浦

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral false color composite (FCC) images are widely used in interpretation of linear structures, which are directional because of the restriction of tectonic stress field. However, when the satellite image illumination cannot match the directions of linear structures, the structural features are less visible and their interpretations cannot be clearly recognized. Therefore, the paper brings out a new technique based on directional illumination simulating from digital elevation models (DEMs) to enhance multispectral images, which can enhance the structure lineaments by exchanging the traditional illumination model to the optimum illumination perpendicular to the targets, and allow the interpretation of the directional structure lineaments by using certain direction illumination. The paper interprets the fault-related lineaments by remote sensing image in southern segment of Longmen Mountains thrust belt, and the accurate identification of faults is the key to understanding tectonic structure for future work in oil and gas exploration.%多光谱假彩色合成遥感影像已经广泛应用于线性构造解译,受构造应力场制约,区域构造均具有显著的定向性,当卫星影像拍摄时光照方向与区域线性构造方向不能匹配时,构造特征常常不能很好显示,从而影响解译效果.文章提出一种利用数字高程模型模拟特定方向光照模型增强多光谱影像的新方法,用垂直于解译目标的最佳光照模型替代原光照模型以增强区域构造线性特征,同一地区对不同方向的构造解译采用了不同方向的光照模型,有效提高了线性构造信息的可解译程度.以四川盆地西侧的龙门山以南地区为例,进行了断裂构造的遥感解译,对该区地震研究和油气勘探工作具有参考意义.

  5. Direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umlauff, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Kalt, H.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures. A narrow energy distribution of free 1s excitons is created in ZnSe-based quantum wells by emission of one LO phonon after optical excitation of the continuum stales with picosecond laser pulses. The subs......We report on a direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures. A narrow energy distribution of free 1s excitons is created in ZnSe-based quantum wells by emission of one LO phonon after optical excitation of the continuum stales with picosecond laser pulses...

  6. Observer-based consensus of networked thrust-propelled vehicles with directed graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Weiye; Li, Zhongkui; Wang, Hanlei

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate the consensus problem for networked underactuated thrust-propelled vehicles (TPVs) interacting on directed graphs. We propose distributed observer-based consensus protocols, which avoid the reliance on the measurements of translational velocities and accelerations. Using the input-output analysis, we present necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure that the observer-based protocols can achieve consensus for both the cases without and with constant communication delays, provided that the communication graph contains a directed spanning tree. Simulation examples are finally provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control schemes. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating nonlinear mixing effects for arid vegetation scenes with MISR channels and observation directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, P.V.; Gerstl, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Asner, G.P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-12-01

    A Monte-Carlo ray-trace model has been applied to simulated sparse vegetation desert canopies in an effort to quantify the spectral mixing (both linear and nonlinear) occurring as a result of radiative interactions between vegetation and soil. This work is of interest as NASA is preparing to launch new instruments such as MISR and MODIS. MISR will observe each ground pixel from nine different directions in three visible channels and one near-infrared channel. It is desired to study angular variations in spectral mixing by quantifying the amount of nonlinear spectral mixing occurring in the MISR observing directions.

  8. Using direct clinical observation to assess the quality of cesarean delivery in Afghanistan: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cherrie Lynn; Kim, Young Mi; Yari, Khalid; Ansari, Nasratullah; Tappis, Hannah

    2014-05-27

    As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special study was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical observation as an assessment method in low-resource settings. This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct observation of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of observations with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the observation period at each facility. For both observed cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. All time intervals with the exception of "decision to skin incision" were longer in the record reviews than in observed cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups observed survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in observed births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Direct observation of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of observations with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether observed practices were typical of providers and facilities and detect

  9. Direct observation of ultrafast long-range charge separation at polymer-fullerene heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Françoise; Bérubé, Nicolas; Parker, Anthony W.; Greetham, Gregory M.; Towrie, Michael; Hellmann, Christoph; Côté, Michel; Stingelin, Natalie; Silva, Carlos; Hayes, Sophia C.

    2014-07-01

    In polymeric semiconductors, charge carriers are polarons, which means that the excess charge deforms the molecular structure of the polymer chain that hosts it. This results in distinctive signatures in the vibrational modes of the polymer. Here, we probe polaron photogeneration dynamics at polymer:fullerene heterojunctions by monitoring its time-resolved resonance-Raman spectrum following ultrafast photoexcitation. We conclude that polarons emerge within 300 fs. Surprisingly, further structural evolution on ≲50-ps timescales is modest, indicating that the polymer conformation hosting nascent polarons is not significantly different from that near equilibrium. We interpret this as suggestive that charges are free from their mutual Coulomb potential because we would expect rich vibrational dynamics associated with charge-pair relaxation. We address current debates on the photocarrier generation mechanism at molecular heterojunctions, and our work is, to our knowledge, the first direct probe of molecular conformation dynamics during this fundamentally important process in these materials.

  10. Direct observation of Feshbach enhanced $\\it{s}$-wave scattering of fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Genkina, Dina; Stuhl, Benjamin K; Lu, Hsin-I; Spielman, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We directly measured the normalized $\\it{s}$-wave scattering cross-section of ultracold $^{40}\\rm{K}$ atoms across a magnetic-field Feshbach resonance by colliding pairs of degenerate Fermi gases (DFGs) and imaging the scattered atoms. We extracted the scattered fraction for a range of bias magnetic fields, and measured the resonance location to be $B_0 = 20.206(15)$ mT with width $\\Delta = 1.0(5)$ mT. To optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of atom number in scattering images, we developed techniques to interpret absorption images in a regime where recoil induced detuning corrections are significant. These imaging techniques are generally applicable to experiments with lighter alkalis that would benefit from maximizing signal-to-noise ratio on atom number counting at the expense of spatial imaging resolution.

  11. Observation of trichomonads infection in a child with periodontitis by direct microscopy at the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Mathieu; Bonner, Mark; Vaysse, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    The pathogenicity of Trichomonas species is well documented. Although their exact involvement in gum disease is not fully understood, recent studies suggest a correlation between these protozoa and periodontitis. This case report details the first chair-side observation in Europe of an oral trichomonad infection in a child with periodontitis, by direct microscopy. The dramatic recovery of the patient, observed following administration of an anti-parasitic treatment, confirms the necessity of further investigation in this field.

  12. Control and Interpretation of Finite-Size Effects and Initial Morphology in Directional Solidification of a Rod-Type Eutectic Transparent Metal-Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. E.; Şerefoğlu, Melis

    2012-01-01

    Transparent metal-analog materials offer a great opportunity for in situ investigation of the morphological dynamics that govern the formation of microstructure in metallic alloys. There are, however, several experimental factors that must be controlled or considered for proper and reproducible interpretation. We examine some of these issues here, summarizing our recent findings related to the case of rod-type eutectic solidification, for which we examine the importance of ampoule geometry and initial conditions. Employing directional solidification experiments with thin-slab specimens, we look specifically at finite-size effects on growth morphology and the influence of initial structure on the mechanisms of eutectic onset.

  13. Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; Saunier, Ghislain; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; De Oliveira, Laura A. S.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Vargas, Claudia D.

    2016-01-01

    The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system. PMID:27625602

  14. Observing grasping actions directed to emotion-laden objects: effects upon corticospinal excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaelli A Nogueira-Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE. Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1 maximum grip aperture, and (2 object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system.

  15. Direct observation of asperity deformation of specimens with random rough surfaces in upsetting and indentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2006-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system...

  16. Direct Observation of Asperity Deformation of Specimen with Random Rough Surface in Upsetting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2004-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system....

  17. Direct Observation of Magnetic Anisotropy in an Individual Fe4 Single-Molecule Magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burzuri, E.; Zyazin, A.S.; Cornia, A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    We study three-terminal charge transport through individual Fe4 single-molecule magnets. Magnetic anisotropy of the single molecule is directly observed by introducing a spectroscopic technique based on measuring the position of the degeneracy point as a function of gate voltage and applied magnetic

  18. Directly Observed Interaction within Adolescent Romantic Relationships: What Have We Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Deborah P.; Shulman, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    Review and conceptual analysis of the papers in this special issue calls attention to several important methodological and conceptual issues surrounding the direct observation of adolescent romantic couples. It also provides an important new foundation of knowledge about the nature of adolescents' romantic relationships. Connections with previous…

  19. Direct Observation of Asperity Deformation of Specimen with Random Rough Surface in Upsetting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2004-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system...

  20. Direct Observation of Magnetic Anisotropy in an Individual Fe4 Single-Molecule Magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burzuri, E.; Zyazin, A.S.; Cornia, A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    We study three-terminal charge transport through individual Fe4 single-molecule magnets. Magnetic anisotropy of the single molecule is directly observed by introducing a spectroscopic technique based on measuring the position of the degeneracy point as a function of gate voltage and applied magnetic

  1. Direct observation of surface reconstruction and termination on a complex metal oxide catalyst by electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Yihan

    2012-03-19

    On the surface: The surface reconstruction of an MoVTeO complex metal oxide catalyst was observed directly by various electron microscopic techniques and the results explain the puzzling catalytic behavior. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. How does directly observed therapy work? The mechanisms and impact of a comprehensive directly observed therapy intervention of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sonya; Muñoz, Maribel; Zeladita, Jhon; Slavin, Sam; Caldas, Adolfo; Sanchez, Eduardo; Callacna, Miriam; Rojas, Christian; Arevalo, Jorge; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Bayona, Jaime

    2011-05-01

    From December 2005 through August 2008, we provided community-based accompaniment with supervised antiretroviral therapy (CASA) to impoverished individuals starting highly active antiretroviral therapy. Adherence support was provided for 18 months by a community-based team comprised of several nurses and two types of community health workers: field supervisors and directly observed therapy (DOT) volunteers. To complement our quantitative data collection in 2008 using purposive sampling, we conducted two gender-mixed focus group discussions with 13 CASA patient participants and 13 DOT volunteers from Lima, Peru to identify the mediating mechanisms by which CASA improved well-being, and to understand the benefits of the intervention, as perceived by these individuals. Using standard qualitative methods for the review and analysis of transcripts and interview notes, we identified central themes and developed a coding scheme for categorising participants' statements. Two individuals blinded to each other's coding, coded interview transcripts for theme and content from which a third reviewer compared their coding to arbitrate discrepancies. Additional domains were added if necessary and all domains were integrated into a theoretical scheme. Among the forms of support delivered by the CASA team, DOT volunteers reported emotional support, instrumental support, directly observed therapy, building trust, education, advocacy, exercise of moral authority and preparation for transition off CASA support. CASA participants described outcomes of improved adherence, ability to resume social roles, increased self-efficacy, hopefulness, changes in non-HIV-related behaviour, reduced internalised and externalised stigma, as well as ability to disclose. Both sets of focus group participants highlighted remaining challenges after completion of CASA support: stigma in the community, difficulties achieving economic recovery and persistent barriers to health services. Based on our prior

  3. Rupture directivity of fluid-induced microseismic events: Observations from an enhanced geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folesky, Jonas; Kummerow, Jörn; Shapiro, Serge A.; Häring, Markus; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    The rupture process of fluid-induced microseismic events is still poorly understood, mainly due to usually small magnitudes and sparse monitoring geometries. The high-quality recordings of the earthquake sequence 2006-2007 at the enhanced geothermal system at Basel, Switzerland, constitute a rare exception, allowing a systematic directivity study of 195 events using the empirical Green's function method. We observe clear directivity signatures for about half the events which demonstrates that rupture directivity persists down to small magnitudes (ML˜1). The predominant rupture behavior is unilateral. We further find evidence that directivity is magnitude dependent and varies systematically with distance from the injection source. Whereas pore pressure seems to play the dominant role close to the injection source and no preferred rupture direction is observable, directivity aligns parallel to the event distribution with increasing distance (≳100 m) and is preferably oriented away from the injection point. The largest analyzed events (ML˜2) show a distinct behavior: They rupture toward the injection source, suggesting that they nucleate in the vicinity of the pressure front and propagate backward into the perturbed volume. This finding is of particular relevance for seismic hazard assessment of georeservoirs, since it implies that maximum event size is related to dimension of the fluid-perturbed volume. Our study also resolves rupture complexities for a small group of events. This shows that small fault heterogeneities exist down to a scale of a few tens of meters. The observation of directivity and complexity in induced microseismic events suggest that future source studies account for these phenomena.

  4. A Review of Direct Observation Research within the Past Decade in the Field of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Reesha M.; Wachsmuth, Sean T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reviewed prominent journals within the field of emotional and behavioral disorders to identify direct observation approaches, reported reliability statistics, and key features of direct observation. Selected journals were systematically reviewed for the past 10 years identifying and quantifying specific direct observation systems and…

  5. Illusory Centrifugal Motion Direction Observed in Brief Stimuli: Psychophysics and Energy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyuan Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available All stationary stimuli of fixed duration have motion energy and the amount of motion energy increases with decreasing duration. Consequently, perception of motion direction could be biased if the readout mechanisms are unbalanced. Previous physiological study showed prefered direction of MT neurons in peripheral tend to be oriented away from fovea(Albright, 1989. Given the broadening of motion energy in brief stimuli, such effect should increase as the stimulus duration decreases. Here, we tested this hypothesis by presenting vertical gratings (0.5c/deg, raised cosine spatial envelope, radius = 5deg, 98% contrast with different speeds(2,4,8 16deg/sec and direction(moving towards fovea or moving away from fovea. And Stimuli were presented in a temporal Gaussian envelope with durations ranging between 5 and 500ms. Observers' task was to identify perceived motion direction (guessing when unsure. Results showed that as predicted, the observers were biased to perceive these stimuli as moving away from fovea. In summary, briefly presented stationary stimuli are perceived as moving in centrifugal direction when presented in visual periphery. One possible explanation for this illusion is that these stimuli, by virtue of their broad temporal frequency spectrum, stimulate centrifugally biased motion mechanisms in area MT.

  6. USING REALISTIC MHD SIMULATIONS FOR THE MODELING AND INTERPRETATION OF QUIET-SUN OBSERVATIONS WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY HELIOSEISMIC AND MAGNETIC IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitiashvili, I. N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Couvidat, S. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lagg, A. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Göttingen, D-37077 (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    The solar atmosphere is extremely dynamic, and many important phenomena develop on small scales that are unresolved in observations with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. For correct calibration and interpretation of the observations, it is very important to investigate the effects of small-scale structures and dynamics on the HMI observables, such as Doppler shift, continuum intensity, spectral line depth, and width. We use 3D radiative hydrodynamics simulations of the upper turbulent convective layer and the atmosphere of the Sun, and a spectro-polarimetric radiative transfer code to study observational characteristics of the Fe i 6173 Å line observed by HMI in quiet-Sun regions. We use the modeling results to investigate the sensitivity of the line Doppler shift to plasma velocity, and also sensitivities of the line parameters to plasma temperature and density, and determine effective line formation heights for observations of solar regions located at different distances from the disk center. These estimates are important for the interpretation of helioseismology measurements. In addition, we consider various center-to-limb effects, such as convective blueshift, variations of helioseismic travel-times, and the “concave” Sun effect, and show that the simulations can qualitatively reproduce the observed phenomena, indicating that these effects are related to a complex interaction of the solar dynamics and radiative transfer.

  7. Observation of Direct CP Violation in B0 -> K+pi- Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Band, H R; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We present an updated search for direct CP violation in the decay B0 -> K+pi-. Using 227 million Y(4S) -> BBbar decays collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider at SLAC, we observe a total signal yield of n(K+pi-) + n(K-pi+) = 1606 +- 51 decays and measure the asymmetry [n(K+pi-)-n(K-pi+)]/[n(K+pi-)+n(K-pi+)] = -0.133+-0.030 (stat) +- 0.009 (syst). This measurement establishes direct CP violation in the B0 meson system at the level of 4.2 standard deviations.

  8. Direct laboratory observation of fluid distribution and its influence on acoustic properties of patchy saturated rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, M.; Clennell, B.; Pervukhina, M.; Shulakova, V.; Mueller, T.; Gurevich, B.

    2009-04-01

    samples (38 mm in diameter, approximately 60 mm long) were dried in oven under reduced pressure. In dynamic saturation experiments, samples were jacketed in the experimental cell, made from transparent for X-radiation material (PMMA). Distillate water was injected into the sample from the one side. Fluid distribution in such "dynamic" experiment: both spatial and time dependant was measured using X-ray Computer Tomograph (CT) with resolution 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm3. Velocities (Vp, and Vs) at ultrasonic frequency of 1 MHz, were measured in the direction perpendicular to initial direction of the fluid flow injection. Sample saturation was estimated from the CT results. In "quasi static" experiments samples were saturated during long period of time (over 2 weeks) to achieve uniform distribution of liquid inside the sample. Saturation was determined by measurement of the weight of water fraction. All experiments were performed at laboratory environments at temperature 25 C. Ultrasonic velocities and fluid saturations were measured simultaneously during water injection into sandstone core samples. The experimental results obtained on low-permeability samples show that at low saturation values the velocity-saturation dependence can be described by the Gassmann-Wood relationship. However, with increasing saturation a sharp increase of P-wave velocity is observed, eventually approaching the Gassmann-Hill relationship. We connect the characteristics of the transition behavior of the velocity-saturation relationships to the increasing size of the patches inside the rock sample. In particular, we show that for relatively large fluid injection rate this transition occurs at smaller degrees of saturation as compared with high injection rate. We model the experimental data using the so-called White model (Toms 2007) that assumes fluid patch distribution as a periodic assemblage of concentric spheres. We can observe reasonable agreement between experimental results and theoretical

  9. A multimethod investigation including direct observation of 3751 patient visits to 120 dental offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wotman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Wotman1, Catherine A Demko1, Kristin Victoroff1, Joseph J Sudano2, James A Lalumandier11Department of Community Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University, School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Center of Health Care Research and Policy, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: This report defines verbal interactions between practitioners and patients as core activities of dental practice. Trained teams spent four days in 120 Ohio dental practices observing 3751 patient encounters with dentists and hygienists. Direct observation of practice characteristics, procedures performed, and how procedure and nonprocedure time was utilized during patient visits was recorded using a modified Davis Observation Code that classified patient contact time into 24 behavioral categories. Dentist, hygienist, and patient characteristics were gathered by questionnaire. The most common nonprocedure behaviors observed for dentists were chatting, evaluation feedback, history taking, and answering patient questions. Hygienists added preventive counseling. We distinguish between preventive procedures and counseling in actual dental offices that are members of a practice-based research network. Almost a third of the dentist’s and half of the hygienist’s patient contact time is utilized for nonprocedure behaviors during patient encounters. These interactions may be linked to patient and practitioner satisfaction and effectiveness of self-care instruction.Keywords: dental practice, dental practice core activities, direct observation of dental practice, Dental Davis Observation Code, dentist, hygienist patient behaviors

  10. Quantification of Patient and Equipment Handling for Nurses through Direct Observation and Subjective Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Poole Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Musculoskeletal disorders have continued to plague nurses in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Low back and shoulder injuries are the most prevalent, frequently linked to patient handling activities. Exposure to patient handling has been predominantly quantified by subjective responses of nurses. Objective. To directly observe handling of patients and other medical equipment for nurses during a 12-hour work shift. Methods. Twenty nurses working in three different intensive care units at a Midwest teaching hospital were directly observed during 12-hour day shifts. Direct observation included documenting frequency and type of handling performed and whether lift assist devices were utilized. Two additional surveys were completed by nurses to assess current pain levels and perceptions of lifting being performed. The observed lifting was compared to the perceived lifting with simple inference statistics. Results. Nurses have a high prevalence of manually lifting patients and medical devices but limited use of lifting assist devices. Nurses handled patients 69 times per shift and medical equipment 6 times per shift, but less than 3% utilized a lift assist device. Nurses suffered from high levels of pain at the end of the shift, with the highest prevalence in the lower back, lower legs, and feet/ankles (all above 60%.

  11. Megaripples, multiple cap carbonates, and apparently conformable sections: observations that normalize some interpretations of Snowball Earth stratigraphy while complicating others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, T.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Myrow, P.; Perron, T.; Kunzmann, M.; Liu, C.; Prave, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth is intellectually alluring in part because its remarkable sedimentary and geochemical record challenges uniformitarian description and demands multiple working hypotheses. Apparently exceptional features in that record may represent the end-products of truly nonuniformitarian processes acting on a fundamentally different Earth than the modern world: an Earth which is oxygen-poor, lacking terrestrial macrobiota, and of uncertain (or arguably bizarre) geomagnetic and geodynamic character. But many features in this remarkable rock record might be explained by perfectly ordinary processes acting on anomalous materials, or in systems bounded by conditions that are rare, but not mysterious, on modern Earth. I will present emerging examples of both interpretive modes. Exceptional bedforms known as cap carbonate megaripples can be explained under normal wave climates by aggradation of unusually large carbonate grains anomalously widespread in a shallow shelfal setting. Bedform topography may be inherited or else migrate laterally through discrete, episodic depositional events if cementation is fast. Trace metal isotopes excurse most prominently at the very base of conformable cap carbonate sections, and in the terminal stages of deglaciation, at times when the seawater saturation state is most dynamic. In the end, basic field geology without genetic presumption, and the interpretive context it lends specific geochemical analyses, remains most likely to successfully evaluate the likelihoods of both existing and new Snowball Earth scenarios. The most fundamental unanswered question remains one of stratigraphic architecture: what is the climatic phase, the timing, and the duration for both diamictite and cap carbonate deposition? End-member solutions remain viable: diamictite and cap carbonate may both be of prolonged duration and globally diachronous, with diamictite representing syn-glacial and interstadial cycles and cap carbonate spanning

  12. Comparison between AGC and a Tuning-less LFC Approach Based on Direct Observation of DERs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    Automatic Generation Control (AGC) used in secondary frequency control requires manual tuning to maintain a balance between reaction speed and stability. This task becomes increasingly difficult due to the rising number of inverter-coupled devices and High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) links......, and the resulting reduction of available inertia. In this paper, we propose a tuning-less Load-Frequency Control (LFC) approach able to cope with the changing dynamics of electric power grids. Harnessing the possibilities of modern monitoring and communication means, the so-called Direct Load-Frequency Control...... (DLFC) employs two concurrently operating processes: a power matching stage responsible for secondary power adjustment using directly observed area imbalances; and a frequency control stage that adjusts primary reserves’ frequency setpoints in a systematic manner. As opposed to the AGC, the DLFC does...

  13. Direct observation of spatio-temporal dynamics of short electron bunches in storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Evain, C; Parquier, M Le; Szwaj, C; Tordeux, M -A; Manceron, L; Brubach, J -B; Roy, P; Bielawski, S

    2016-01-01

    In recent synchrotron radiation facilities, the use of short (picosecond) electron bunches is a powerful method for producing giant pulses of Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (THz CSR). Here we report on the first direct observation of these pulse shapes with a few picoseconds resolution, and of their dynamics over a long time. We thus confirm in a very direct way the theories predicting an interplay between two physical processes. Below a critical bunch charge, we observe a train of identical THz pulses (a broadband Terahertz comb) stemming from the shortness of the electron bunches. Above this threshold, a large part of the emission is dominated by drifting structures, which appear through spontaneous self-organization. These challenging single-shot THz recordings are made possible by using a recently developed photonic time stretch detector with a high sensitivity. The experiment has been realized at the SOLEIL storage ring.

  14. Direct observation of electric field induced pattern formation and particle aggregation in ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnak, Michal; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01033 (Ukraine); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ivankov, Olexandr I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01033 (Ukraine); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskiy per. 9, Dolgoprudniy 141700 (Russian Federation); Feoktystov, Artem [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-08-17

    Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.

  15. Microbunching instability in relativistic electron bunches: direct observations of the microstructures using ultrafast YBCO detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, E; Evain, C; Szwaj, C; Bielawski, S; Raasch, J; Thoma, P; Scheuring, A; Hofherr, M; Ilin, K; Wünsch, S; Siegel, M; Hosaka, M; Yamamoto, N; Takashima, Y; Zen, H; Konomi, T; Adachi, M; Kimura, S; Katoh, M

    2014-08-29

    Relativistic electron bunches circulating in accelerators are subjected to a dynamical instability leading to microstructures at millimeter to centimeter scale. Although this is a well-known fact, direct experimental observations of the structures, or the field that they emit, remained up to now an open problem. Here, we report the direct, shot-by-shot, time-resolved recording of the shapes (including envelope and carrier) of the pulses of coherent synchrotron radiation that are emitted, and that are a "signature" of the electron bunch microstructure. The experiments are performed on the UVSOR-III storage ring, using electrical field sensitive YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin-film ultrafast detectors. The observed patterns are subjected to permanent drifts, that can be explained from a reasoning in phase space, using macroparticle simulations.

  16. Direct observation of Rogue Waves in optical turbulence using Time Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Suret, Pierre; Tikan, Alexey; Evain, Clement; Randoux, Stephane; Szwaj, Christophe; Bielawski, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The formation of coherent structures in noise driven phenomena and in Turbulence is a complex and fundamental question. A particulary important structure is the so-called Rogue Wave (RW) that arises as the sudden appearance of a localized and giant peak. First studied in Oceanography, RWs have been extensively investigated in Optics since 2007, in particular in optical fibers experiments on supercontinua and optical turbulence. However the typical time scales underlying the random dynamics in those experiments prevented --up to now-- the direct observation of isolated RWs. Here we report on the direct observation of RWs, using an ultrafast acquisition system equivalent to microscope in the time domain. The RWs are generated by nonlinear propagation of random waves inside an optical fiber, and recorded with $\\sim 250$~fs resolution. Our experiments demonstrate the central role played by "breathers-like" solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (1D-NLSE) in the formation of RWs

  17. Using Realistic MHD Simulations for Modeling and Interpretation of Quiet-Sun Observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Kitiashvili, Irina N; Lagg, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The solar atmosphere is extremely dynamic, and many important phenomena develop on small scales that are unresolved in observations with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). For correct calibration and interpretation, it is very important to investigate the effects of small-scale structures and dynamics on the HMI observables, such as Doppler shift, continuum intensity, spectral line depth, and width. We use 3D radiative hydrodynamics simulations of the upper turbulent convective layer and the atmosphere of the Sun, and a spectro-polarimetric radiative transfer code to study observational characteristics of the Fe I 6173A line observed by HMI in quiet-Sun regions. We use the modeling results to investigate the sensitivity of the line Doppler shift to plasma velocity, and also sensitivities of the line parameters to plasma temperature and density, and determine effective line formation heights for observations of solar regions located at different dista...

  18. Direct observation of depth-dependent atomic displacements associated with dislocations in gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, J G; Yang, H; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; D'Alfonso, A J; Yasuhara, A; Okunishi, E; Zhang, S; Humphreys, C J; Allen, L J; Galindo, P L; Hirsch, P B; Nellist, P D

    2014-09-26

    We demonstrate that the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope has a sufficiently small depth of field to observe depth-dependent atomic displacements in a crystal. The depth-dependent displacements associated with the Eshelby twist of dislocations in GaN normal to the foil with a screw component of the Burgers vector are directly imaged. We show that these displacements are observed as a rotation of the lattice between images taken in a focal series. From the sense of the rotation, the sign of the screw component can be determined.

  19. Direct optical observation of magnetic domains in Ni-Mn-Ga martensite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Heczko, O.; Söderberg, O.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2006-08-01

    This letter reports the direct optical observation, i.e., without polarization, of the magnetic domain structure explained by a large surface relief in Ni-Mn-Ga martensite. The authors suggest that the relief is due to the different straining of the surface and the bulk caused by the internal stresses associated with the magnetic shape memory effect. As a result of the relief the projection of the (011) twin traces upon the (010) plane creates the observed zigzag pattern. The surface tilt angle calculated from the zigzag pattern is ˜3°.

  20. Controllability and observability analysis for vertex domination centrality in directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbo; Gao, Lin; Gao, Yong; Deng, Yue; Wang, Yu

    2014-06-23

    Topological centrality is a significant measure for characterising the relative importance of a node in a complex network. For directed networks that model dynamic processes, however, it is of more practical importance to quantify a vertex's ability to dominate (control or observe) the state of other vertices. In this paper, based on the determination of controllable and observable subspaces under the global minimum-cost condition, we introduce a novel direction-specific index, domination centrality, to assess the intervention capabilities of vertices in a directed network. Statistical studies demonstrate that the domination centrality is, to a great extent, encoded by the underlying network's degree distribution and that most network positions through which one can intervene in a system are vertices with high domination centrality rather than network hubs. To analyse the interaction and functional dependence between vertices when they are used to dominate a network, we define the domination similarity and detect significant functional modules in glossary and metabolic networks through clustering analysis. The experimental results provide strong evidence that our indices are effective and practical in accurately depicting the structure of directed networks.

  1. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1 and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than 5σ. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model a extra-Galactic component derived from the astrophysical muonic neutrinos reconstructed in the Northern hemisphere. A good agreement between the expected astrophysical neutrino flux and the IceCube data is found for the full sky as well as for the Galactic plane region.

  2. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Antonio; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than 5σ. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model) a extra-Galactic component derived from the astrophysical muonic neutrinos reconstructed in the Northern hemisphere. A good agreement between the expected astrophysical neutrino flux and the IceCube data is found for the full sky as well as for the Galactic plane region.

  3. Dynamical Evolution of the Inner Heliosphere Approaching Solar Activity Maximum: Interpreting Ulysses Observations Using a Global MHD Model. Appendix 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we describe a series of MHD simulations covering the time period from 12 January 1999 to 19 September 2001 (Carrington Rotation 1945 to 1980). This interval coincided with: (1) the Sun s approach toward solar maximum; and (2) Ulysses second descent to the southern polar regions, rapid latitude scan, and arrival into the northern polar regions. We focus on the evolution of several key parameters during this time, including the photospheric magnetic field, the computed coronal hole boundaries, the computed velocity profile near the Sun, and the plasma and magnetic field parameters at the location of Ulysses. The model results provide a global context for interpreting the often complex in situ measurements. We also present a heuristic explanation of stream dynamics to describe the morphology of interaction regions at solar maximum and contrast it with the picture that resulted from Ulysses first orbit, which occurred during more quiescent solar conditions. The simulation results described here are available at: http://sun.saic.com.

  4. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. I. Synthetic coronal spectra and implications for interpretation of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.; Mackovjak, Š.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Coronal heating is currently thought to proceed via the mechanism of nanoflares, small-scale and possibly recurring heating events that release magnetic energy. Aims: We investigate the effects of a periodic high-energy electron beam on the synthetic spectra of coronal Fe ions. Methods: Initially, the coronal plasma is assumed to be Maxwellian with a temperature of 1 MK. The high-energy beam, described by a κ-distribution, is then switched on every period P for the duration of P/ 2. The periods are on the order of several tens of seconds, similar to exposure times or cadences of space-borne spectrometers. Ionization, recombination, and excitation rates for the respective distributions are used to calculate the resulting non-equilibrium ionization state of Fe and the instantaneous and period-averaged synthetic spectra. Results: Under the presence of the periodic electron beam, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times. The resulting spectra averaged over one period are almost always multithermal if interpreted in terms of ionization equilibrium for either a Maxwellian or a κ-distribution. Exceptions occur, however; the EM-loci curves appear to have a nearly isothermal crossing-point for some values of κs. The instantaneous spectra show fast changes in intensities of some lines, especially those formed outside of the peak of the respective EM(T) distributions if the ionization equilibrium is assumed. Movies 1-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, Antonio; Grasso, Dario; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than $5\\sigma$. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model) a extra-Galactic component derived from the as...

  6. Interpretation of the deep cracking phenomenon of tungsten monoblock targets observed in high-heat-flux fatigue tests at 20 MW/m{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Muyuan; You, Jeong-Ha, E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A theoretical interpretation is presented for deep crack of W monoblocks at 20 MW/m{sup 2}. • A consecutive process of crack initiation and growth was modeled in two stages. • The lifetime to crack initiation and the driving force of fracture are assessed. • Numerical predictions in this study agree well with the experimental findings. - Abstract: The HHF qualification tests conducted on the ITER divertor target prototypes showed that the tungsten monoblock armor suffered from deep cracking due to fatigue, when the applied high-heat-flux load approaches 20 MW/m{sup 2}. In spite of the critical implication of the deep cracking of armor on the structural integrity of a whole target component, no rigorous interpretation has been given to date. In this paper, a theoretical interpretation of the observed deep cracking feature is presented. A two-stage modeling approach is employed where deep cracking is thought to be a consecutive process of crack initiation and crack growth, which is assumed to be caused by plastic fatigue and brittle facture, respectively. The fatigue lifetime to crack initiation on the armor surface and the crack tip load of brittle fracture are assessed as a function of crack length and heat flux loads. The potential mechanisms of deep cracking are discussed for a typical slow transient high-heat-flux load cycle. It is shown that the quantitative predictions delivered in this study agree well with the observed findings offering insight into the nature of tungsten armor failure.

  7. Participant observation of time allocation, direct patient contact and simultaneous activities in hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupanc Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital physicians' time is a critical resource in medical care. Two aspects are of interest. First, the time spent in direct patient contact – a key principle of effective medical care. Second, simultaneous task performance ('multitasking' which may contribute to medical error, impaired safety behaviour, and stress. There is a call for instruments to assess these aspects. A preliminary study to gain insight into activity patterns, time allocation and simultaneous activities of hospital physicians was carried out. Therefore an observation instrument for time-motion-studies in hospital settings was developed and tested. Methods 35 participant observations of internists and surgeons of a German municipal 300-bed hospital were conducted. Complete day shifts of hospital physicians on wards, emergency ward, intensive care unit, and operating room were continuously observed. Assessed variables of interest were time allocation, share of direct patient contact, and simultaneous activities. Inter-rater agreement of Kappa = .71 points to good reliability of the instrument. Results Hospital physicians spent 25.5% of their time at work in direct contact with patients. Most time was allocated to documentation and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff. Physicians performed parallel simultaneous activities for 17–20% of their work time. Communication with patients, documentation, and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff were the most frequently observed simultaneous activities. Applying logit-linear analyses, specific primary activities increase the probability of particular simultaneous activities. Conclusion Patient-related working time in hospitals is limited. The potential detrimental effects of frequently observed simultaneous activities on performance outcomes need further consideration.

  8. Biased Showers - a common conceptual Framework for the Interpretation of High P_T Observables in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    After the start of the LHC, a plethora of novel observables for jet tomography in heavy-ion collisions has appeared. Many of these studies have yielded counter-intuitive null results of apparently unmodified jets, which have sparked (sometimes exotic) theoretical efforts to explain these findings. However, it has to be realized that almost all current high P_T observables measure conditional probabilities of events, not probabilities. Thus, the correct starting point for their theoretical understanding is Bayes' formula, and the biases introduced by the conditioning are crucial to understanding the outcome. Once this is introduced properly into the modelling process, the counter-intuitive results are seen to find a natural explanation in terms of various biases and the puzzles largely disappear. In this work, a conceptual framework to classify the various observables according to the types of bias they are sensitive to is presented and illustrated with a large number of case studies ranging from simple jet fi...

  9. On interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled “On interpretation” is an attempt to formulate a viewpoint on the issue of textual interpretation. It presents different ideas related to interpretation, including especially those that are concerned with a text’s meaning and with the way in which it is interpreted by the reader. The author proposes another interpretation method which he calls transactional. The primary concern is how to possibly justify the fundamental character of interpretation and interpretative activity while at the same time preserving and respecting the relative autonomy of an interpreted text.

  10. Direct observation of imprinted antiferromagnetic vortex state in CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Carlton, D.; Park, J. S.; Meng, Y.; Arenholz, E.; Doran, A.; Young, A.T.; Scholl, A.; Hwang, C.; Zhao, H. W.; Bokor, J.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2010-12-21

    In magnetic thin films, a magnetic vortex is a state in which the magnetization vector curls around the center of a confined structure. A vortex state in a thin film disk, for example, is a topological object characterized by the vortex polarity and the winding number. In ferromagnetic (FM) disks, these parameters govern many fundamental properties of the vortex such as its gyroscopic rotation, polarity reversal, core motion, and vortex pair excitation. However, in antiferromagnetic (AFM) disks, though there has been indirect evidence of the vortex state through observations of the induced FM-ordered spins in the AFM disk, they have never been observed directly in experiment. By fabricating single crystalline NiO/Fe/Ag(001) and CoO/Fe/Ag(001) disks and using X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD), we show direct observation of the vortex state in an AFM disk of AFM/FM bilayer system. We observe that there are two types of AFM vortices, one of which has no analog in FM structures. Finally, we show that a frozen AFM vortex can bias a FM vortex at low temperature.

  11. Feedback in formative OSCEs: comparison between direct observation and video-based formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noëlle Junod Perron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, have the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients during formative sessions in preparation for clerkships. These sessions are given in two formats: 1 direct observation of an encounter followed by verbal feedback (direct feedback and 2 subsequent review of the videotaped encounter by both student and supervisor (video-based feedback. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether content and process of feedback differed between both formats. Methods: In 2013, all second- and third-year medical students and clinical supervisors involved in formative sessions were asked to take part in the study. A sample of audiotaped feedback sessions involving supervisors who gave feedback in both formats were analyzed (content and process of the feedback using a 21-item feedback scale. Results: Forty-eight audiotaped feedback sessions involving 12 supervisors were analyzed (2 direct and 2 video-based sessions per supervisor. When adjusted for the length of feedback, there were significant differences in terms of content and process between both formats; the number of communication skills and clinical reasoning items addressed were higher in the video-based format (11.29 vs. 7.71, p=0.002 and 3.71 vs. 2.04, p=0.010, respectively. Supervisors engaged students more actively during the video-based sessions than during direct feedback sessions (self-assessment: 4.00 vs. 3.17, p=0.007; active problem-solving: 3.92 vs. 3.42, p=0.009. Students made similar observations and tended to consider that the video feedback was more useful for improving some clinical skills. Conclusion: Video-based feedback facilitates discussion of clinical reasoning, communication, and professionalism issues while at the same time actively engaging students. Different time and conceptual frameworks may explain observed differences. The choice of feedback format should depend on

  12. Feedback in formative OSCEs: comparison between direct observation and video-based formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noëlle; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfarrwaller, Eva; Sommer, Johanna; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, have the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients during formative sessions in preparation for clerkships. These sessions are given in two formats: 1) direct observation of an encounter followed by verbal feedback (direct feedback) and 2) subsequent review of the videotaped encounter by both student and supervisor (video-based feedback). The aim of the study was to evaluate whether content and process of feedback differed between both formats. Methods In 2013, all second- and third-year medical students and clinical supervisors involved in formative sessions were asked to take part in the study. A sample of audiotaped feedback sessions involving supervisors who gave feedback in both formats were analyzed (content and process of the feedback) using a 21-item feedback scale. Results Forty-eight audiotaped feedback sessions involving 12 supervisors were analyzed (2 direct and 2 video-based sessions per supervisor). When adjusted for the length of feedback, there were significant differences in terms of content and process between both formats; the number of communication skills and clinical reasoning items addressed were higher in the video-based format (11.29 vs. 7.71, p=0.002 and 3.71 vs. 2.04, p=0.010, respectively). Supervisors engaged students more actively during the video-based sessions than during direct feedback sessions (self-assessment: 4.00 vs. 3.17, p=0.007; active problem-solving: 3.92 vs. 3.42, p=0.009). Students made similar observations and tended to consider that the video feedback was more useful for improving some clinical skills. Conclusion Video-based feedback facilitates discussion of clinical reasoning, communication, and professionalism issues while at the same time actively engaging students. Different time and conceptual frameworks may explain observed differences. The choice of feedback format should depend on the educational

  13. Home videophones improve direct observation in tuberculosis treatment: a mixed methods evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Wade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: THE USE OF DIRECT OBSERVATION TO MONITOR TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT IS CONTROVERSIAL: cost, practical difficulties, and lack of patient acceptability limit effectiveness. Telehealth is a promising alternative delivery method for improving implementation. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a telehealth service delivering direct observation, compared to an in-person drive-around service. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was conducted within a community nursing service in South Australia. Telehealth patients received daily video calls at home on a desktop videophone provided by the nursing call center. A retrospective cohort study assessed the effectiveness of the telehealth and traditional forms of observation, defined by the proportion of missed observations recorded in case notes. This data was inputted to a model, estimating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of telehealth. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with current patients, community nursing and Chest Clinic staff, concerning service acceptability, usability and sustainability. The percentage of missed observations for the telehealth service was 12.1 (n = 58, compared to 31.1 for the in-person service (n = 70. Most of the difference of 18.9% (95% CI: 12.2 - 25.4 was due to fewer pre-arranged absences. The economic analysis calculated the ICER to be AUD$1.32 (95% CI: $0.51 - $2.26 per extra day of successful observation. The video service used less staff time, and became dominant if implemented on a larger scale and/or with decreased technology costs. Qualitative analysis found enabling factors of flexible timing, high patient acceptance, staff efficiency, and Chest Clinic support. Substantial technical problems were manageable, and improved liaison between the nursing service and Chest Clinic was an unexpected side-benefit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Home video observation is a patient-centered, resource

  14. Direct observation of many-body charge density oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessi, Paolo; Silkin, Vyacheslav M.; Nechaev, Ilya A.; Bathon, Thomas; El-Kareh, Lydia; Chulkov, Evgueni V.; Echenique, Pedro M.; Bode, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Quantum interference is a striking manifestation of one of the basic concepts of quantum mechanics: the particle-wave duality. A spectacular visualization of this effect is the standing wave pattern produced by elastic scattering of surface electrons around defects, which corresponds to a modulation of the electronic local density of states and can be imaged using a scanning tunnelling microscope. To date, quantum-interference measurements were mainly interpreted in terms of interfering electrons or holes of the underlying band-structure description. Here, by imaging energy-dependent standing-wave patterns at noble metal surfaces, we reveal, in addition to the conventional surface-state band, the existence of an `anomalous' energy band with a well-defined dispersion. Its origin is explained by the presence of a satellite in the structure of the many-body spectral function, which is related to the acoustic surface plasmon. Visualizing the corresponding charge oscillations provides thus direct access to many-body interactions at the atomic scale.

  15. Direct observation of ultrafast long-range charge separation at polymer–fullerene heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Provencher, Françoise

    2014-07-01

    In polymeric semiconductors, charge carriers are polarons, which means that the excess charge deforms the molecular structure of the polymer chain that hosts it. This results in distinctive signatures in the vibrational modes of the polymer. Here, we probe polaron photogeneration dynamics at polymer:fullerene heterojunctions by monitoring its time-resolved resonance-Raman spectrum following ultrafast photoexcitation. We conclude that polarons emerge within 300 fs. Surprisingly, further structural evolution on ≤50-ps timescales is modest, indicating that the polymer conformation hosting nascent polarons is not significantly different from that near equilibrium. We interpret this as suggestive that charges are free from their mutual Coulomb potential because we would expect rich vibrational dynamics associated with charge-pair relaxation. We address current debates on the photocarrier generation mechanism at molecular heterojunctions, and our work is, to our knowledge, the first direct probe of molecular conformation dynamics during this fundamentally important process in these materials. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. A Centuries-long History of Participatory Science in Optical Oceanography: from observation to interpretation of natural water colouring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernand, Marcel R.; Novoa, S.; van der Woerd, Hans J; Gieskes, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    Participatory science is not, as perhaps is believed, something of the 21st century. In this manuscript we show that over a century ago it were not only scientists who collected oceanographic data but also merchant sailors. A good example of such globally collected data are Forel-Ule observations,

  17. A Centuries-long History of Participatory Science in Optical Oceanography: from observation to interpretation of natural water colouring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernand, M.; Novoa, S.; van der Woerd, H.; Gieskes, W.

    2014-01-01

    Participatory science is not, as perhaps is believed, something of the 21st century. In this manuscript we show that over a century ago it were not only scientists who collected oceanographic data but also merchant sailors. A good example of such globally collected data are Forel-Ule observations,fr

  18. A Centuries-long History of Participatory Science in Optical Oceanography: from observation to interpretation of natural water colouring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernand, Marcel R.; Novoa, S.; van der Woerd, Hans J; Gieskes, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    Participatory science is not, as perhaps is believed, something of the 21st century. In this manuscript we show that over a century ago it were not only scientists who collected oceanographic data but also merchant sailors. A good example of such globally collected data are Forel-Ule observations, f

  19. Gas and dust productions of comet 103P/Hartley 2 from millimetre observations: interpreting rotation-induced time variations

    CERN Document Server

    Boissier, J; Biver, N; Colom, P; Crovisier, J; Moreno, R; Zakharov, V; Groussin, O; Jorda, L; Lis, D C

    2013-01-01

    Comet 103P/Hartley 2 made a close approach to the Earth in October 2010. It was the target of an extensive observing campaign and was visited by the Deep Impact spacecraft (mission EPOXI). We present observations of HCN and CH3OH emission lines conducted with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer on 22-23, 28 October and 4, 5 November 2010 at 1.1, 1.9 and 3.4 mm wavelengths. The thermal emission from the dust coma and nucleus is detected simultaneously. Interferometric images with unprecedented spatial resolution are obtained. A sine-wave variation of the thermal continuum is observed in the 23 October data, that we associate with the nucleus thermal light curve. The nucleus contributes up to 30-55 % of the observed continuum. The large dust-to-gas ratio (in the range 2-6) can be explained by the unusual activity of the comet for its size, which allows decimeter size particles and large boulders to be entrained by the gas. The rotational temperature of CH3OH is measured. We attribute the increase from 35 to...

  20. Interpretation of Polarization Features in Ground-Based Microwave Observations as Caused by Horizontally Aligned Oblate Raindrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekala, Harald; Crewell, Susanne; Simmer, Clemens; Thiele, Ariane; Hornbostel, Achim; Schroth, Arno

    2001-11-01

    Based on a comparison of ground-based radiometer measurements with microwave radiative transfer calculations, it is shown that raindrops with an oblate shape and a preferred horizontal orientation have a significant effect on microwave polarization signals when compared with spherical particle shape. Measurements with a dual-polarized 19-GHz radiometer reveal a polarization difference of as much as 18 K in the downwelling microwave radiation at 30° elevation angle. Averaging all rain observations within 19 months leads to a signal of 6 K. Model calculations covering roughly the same range of weather conditions as that inferred from the meteorological data recorded with the radiometer measurements were carried out with spherical raindrop shape and an oblate particle shape with a fixed horizontal alignment. From the model results, positive polarization difference is expected for spherical particles. This signal was never observed in the recorded data. For oblate drops, the averaged model results lead to a polarization difference of 8 K, which is in reasonable agreement with the long-term averaged observations. Case studies that compare isolated rain events usually lead to a better match of model and observations. However, there are some major discrepancies in some cases. Possible reasons for the remaining differences are the short-term variations in the cloud microphysics for which the model does not correctly account, such as variations in the melting layer, drop oscillations, or variations in the drop size distribution or angular distribution of the drop alignment. Three-dimensional effects are also important when observing small-scale heavy precipitation. Despite remaining small uncertainties, the comparison presents strong evidence that the oblate raindrop shape, with fixed horizontal alignment, is by far the better choice for accurate radiative transfer calculations than is the spherical shape. The omission of this shape effect can cause significant errors when

  1. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:26948412

  2. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers.

  3. Direct observation and quantification of extracellular long-range electron flow in anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvankar, Nikhil; Yalcin, Sibel; Vargas, Madeline; Tuominen, Mark; Lovley, Derek

    2013-03-01

    Some anaerobic microorganisms are capable of transporting electrons outside their cell to distant electron acceptors such as metals, minerals or partner species. Previous studies have focused primarily on transport over short distances ( 10 μm) using pili filaments that show organic metal-like conductivity. Pili also enable direct exchange of electrons among syntrophic Geobacter co-cultures. In order to establish the physical principles underlying this remarkable electron transport, we have employed a novel scanning probe microscopy-based method to perform quantitative measurements of electron flow at a single cell level under physiological conditions. Using this nanoscopic approach, we have directly observed the propagation and distribution of injected electrons in individual native bacterial extracellular proteins. Our direct measurements demonstrate unambiguously for the first time that the pili of G. sulfurreducens are a novel class of electronically functional proteins that can sustain electron flow in a surprising manner that has not been observed previously in any other natural protein. Funded by Office of Naval Research, DOE Genomic Sciences and NSF-NSEC Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing grant no. CMMI-1025020.

  4. Investigating common clinical presentations in first opinion small animal consultations using direct observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. J.; Dean, R. S.; Cobb, M.; Brennan, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding more about the clinical presentations encountered in veterinary practice is vital in directing research towards areas relevant to practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe all problems discussed during a convenience sample of consultations using a direct observation method. A data collection tool was used to gather data by direct observation during small animal consultations at eight sentinel practices. Data were recorded for all presenting and non-presenting specific health problems discussed. A total of 1901 patients were presented with 3206 specific health problems discussed. Clinical presentation varied widely between species and between presenting and non-presenting problems. Skin lump, vomiting and inappetence were the most common clinical signs reported by the owner while overweight/obese, dental tartar and skin lump were the most common clinical examination findings. Skin was the most frequently affected body system overall followed by non-specific problems then the gastrointestinal system. Consultations are complex, with a diverse range of different clinical presentations seen. Considering the presenting problem only may give an inaccurate view of the veterinary caseload, as some common problems are rarely the reason for presentation. Understanding the common diagnoses made is the next step and will help to further focus questions for future research. PMID:25564472

  5. Observer Performance in the Use of Digital and Optical Microscopy for the Interpretation of Tissue-Based Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios A. Gavrielides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a validation study of digital pathology for the quantitative assessment of tissue-based biomarkers with immunohistochemistry. Objective.\tTo examine observer agreement as a function of viewing modality (digital versus optical microscopy, whole slide versus tissue microarray (TMA review, biomarker type (HER2 incorporating membranous staining and Ki-67 with nuclear staining, and data type (continuous and categorical. Methods.\tEight pathologists reviewed 50 breast cancer whole slides (25 stained with HER2 and 25 with Ki-67 and 2 TMAs (1 stained with HER2, 1 with Ki-67, each containing 97 cores, using digital and optical microscopy. Results. Results showed relatively high overall interobserver and intermodality agreement, with different patterns specific to biomarker type. For HER2, there was better interobserver agreement for optical compared to digital microscopy for whole slides as well as better interobserver and intermodality agreement for TMAs. For Ki-67, those patterns were not observed. Conclusions. The differences in agreement patterns when examining different biomarkers and different scoring methods and reviewing whole slides compared to TMA stress the need for validation studies focused on specific pathology tasks to eliminate sources of variability that might dilute findings. The statistical uncertainty observed in our analyses calls for adequate sampling for each individual task rather than pooling cases.

  6. Interpretation and mathematical modeling of temporal changes of temperature observed in borehole Yaxcopoil-1 within the Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafanda, Jan; Wilhelm, Helmut; Heidinger, Philipp; Čermák, Vladimír

    2009-06-01

    SummaryGeothermal research of the Chicxulub impact structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, included repeated temperature logs following 0.3-0.8, 15, 24, 34 and 50 months after shut-in of drilling operations at the 1.5 km deep Yaxcopoil-1 borehole. A gradual distortion of the linear temperature profile by a cold wave propagating downward from 145 m to 317 m was detected within the observational period of 49 months (March 2002-April 2006). The amplitude of the cold wave was increasing with depth and time in the range of 0.8-1.6 °C. As an explanation of this unusual phenomenon, the hypothesis of downward migration of a large volume of drilling mud, reported lost during drilling within the overlying and cooler highly porous and permeable karstic rocks, has been proposed. The thermal effects of the migrating fluid have been evaluated by solving numerically the heat conduction-convection equation in appropriate geothermal models. The best coincidence between the observed data and the simulations was yielded by the model of the drilling mud migrating as a large body. Parameters of this model are constrained by the measured temperature logs relatively tightly: (i) the vertical extent of the downward migrating fluid body is about 5-10 m, possibly increasing within the observational period of 49 months by a factor of 2; (ii) the horizontal extent of the body must be at least 15-20 m, i.e. by order(s) of magnitude larger than the diameter of the borehole; (iii) the average speed of the migration is about 5 metres per month and (iv) the fluid must migrate through a highly porous rock (80% porosity or more). This high porosity, which is necessary for the model to fit the observed data, and the observed relatively stable velocity of the migration indicate the existence of a well-developed system of interconnected cavities down to more than 300 m about 150 m more than the deepest cave system known in Yucatan yet.

  7. Interpretation of Aura satellite observations of CO and aerosol index related to the December 2006 Australia fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Livesey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Carbon Monoxide (CO in the upper troposphere (UT is shown by collocated Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS measurements near and down-wind from the known wildfire region of SE Australia from 12–19 December 2006. Enhanced UV aerosol index (AI derived from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI measurements correlate with these high CO concentrations. HYSPLIT model back trajectories trace selected air parcels to the SE Australia fire region as their initial location, where TES observes enhanced CO in the upper and lower troposphere. Simultaneously, they show a lack of vertical advection along their tracks. TES retrieved CO vertical profiles in the higher and lower southern latitudes are examined together with the averaging kernels and show that TES CO retrievals are most sensitive at approximately 300–400 hPa. The enhanced CO observed by TES at the upper (215 hPa and lower (681 hPa troposphere are, therefore, influenced by mid-tropospheric CO. GEOS-Chem model simulations with an 8-day emission inventory, as the wildfire source over Australia, are sampled to the TES/MLS observation times and locations. These simulations only show CO enhancements in the lower troposphere near and down-wind from the wildfire region of SE Australia with drastic underestimates of UT CO. Although CloudSat along-track ice-water content curtains are examined to see whether possible vertical convection events can explain the high UT CO values, sparse observations of collocated Aura CO and CloudSat along-track ice-water content measurements for the single event precludes any conclusive correlation. Vertical convection that uplift fire-induced CO (i.e. most notably referred to as pyro-cumulonimbus, pyroCb may provide an explanation for the incongruence between these simulations and the TES/MLS observations of enhanced CO in the UT. Future GEOS-Chem simulations are needed to validate this conjecture as the the PyroCb mechanism is

  8. Short-term climatic fluctuations and the interpretation of recent observations in terms of greenhouse effect; Les fluctuations a court terme du climat et l'interpretation des observations recentes en terme d'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J.C. [Centre Europeen de Recherche et de Formation Avancee en Calcul Scientifique, 31 - Toulouse (France); Royer, J.F. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, Meteo-France, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1999-02-01

    Simulations of future climate made with coupled general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean predict that the increase of the concentration of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere by man's activities will have a large influence on the climate of the next century. The identification of the climatic impact produced by the rapid increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the last decades is made difficult by strong inter-annual climate variability, and requires the application of statistical techniques combining several climatic indicators (method of climatic 'fingerprints') so as to improve the detection of a possible anthropogenic perturbation. In this paper we review the evolution through the last decades of several climate indicators showing global warming, its geographical distribution, sea level, the hydrological cycle and the response of vegetation, and we compare them to the model results predicted in climate scenarios. The coherence between model results and observed climatic trends shows that the additional greenhouse effect is starting to become detectable in recent climatic data. (authors)

  9. Photoacoustics of single laser-trapped nanodroplets for the direct observation of nanofocusing in aerosol photokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Johannes W.; Thaler, Klemens M.; Haisch, Christoph; Signorell, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    Photochemistry taking place in atmospheric aerosol droplets has a significant impact on the Earth's climate. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation inside aerosols plays a crucial role in their absorption behaviour, since the radiation flux inside the droplet strongly affects the activation rate of photochemically active species. However, size-dependent nanofocusing effects in the photokinetics of small aerosols have escaped direct observation due to the inability to measure absorption signatures from single droplets. Here we show that photoacoustic measurements on optically trapped single nanodroplets provide a direct, broadly applicable method to measure absorption with attolitre sensitivity. We demonstrate for a model aerosol that the photolysis is accelerated by an order of magnitude in the sub-micron to micron size range, compared with larger droplets. The versatility of our technique promises broad applicability to absorption studies of aerosol particles, such as atmospheric aerosols where quantitative photokinetic data are critical for climate predictions.

  10. Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz

    2002-01-01

    , Toxostoma rufum, and cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis), direct observations of the biomechanical effects of contraction largely confirm the functions of the intrinsic syringeal muscles proposed from indirect studies. Contraction of the dorsal muscles, m. syringealis dorsalis (dS) and m. tracheobronchialis...... dorsalis, constricts the syringeal lumen and thus reduces airflow by adducting connective tissue masses, the medial (ML) and lateral (LL) labia. Activity of the medial portion of the dS appears to affect the position of the ML and, consequently, plays a previously undescribed role in aperture control...... on the syrinx. Contraction of m. tracheobronchialis ventralis enlarges the syringeal lumen and thus increases airflow by abducting the LL but does not affect the ML. The largest syringeal muscle, m. syringealis ventralis, plays a minor role, if any, in direct aperture control and thus in gating airflow...

  11. Direct observation of multistep energy transfer in LHCII with fifth-order 3D electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Lambrev, Petar H.; Wells, Kym L.; Garab, Győző; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-07-01

    During photosynthesis, sunlight is efficiently captured by light-harvesting complexes, and the excitation energy is then funneled towards the reaction centre. These photosynthetic excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways are complex and proceed in a multistep fashion. Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an important tool to study EET processes in photosynthetic complexes. However, the multistep EET processes can only be indirectly inferred by correlating different cross peaks from a series of 2DES spectra. Here we directly observe multistep EET processes in LHCII using ultrafast fifth-order three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3DES). We measure cross peaks in 3DES spectra of LHCII that directly indicate energy transfer from excitons in the chlorophyll b (Chl b) manifold to the low-energy level chlorophyll a (Chl a) via mid-level Chl a energy states. This new spectroscopic technique allows scientists to move a step towards mapping the complete complex EET processes in photosynthetic systems.

  12. Direct observation of defect structure in protein crystals by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaud, G. (Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)); Furcinitti, P.S. (Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)); Fleming, J.C.; Lyon, M.K.; Douglas, K. (Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States))

    1992-09-01

    We have examined the structure of S-layers isolated from {ital Sulfolobus} {ital acidocaldarius} using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the AFM images, we were able to directly observe individual dimers of the crystal, defects in the crystal structure, and twin boundaries. We have identified two types of boundaries, one defined by a mirror plane and the other by a glide plane. This work shows that twin boundaries are highly structured regions that are directly related to the organization of units within each crystal domain. Projection maps from TEM images have shown that there are significant differences in the final average maps, depending on which side of the sample is adsorbed to the carbon support film. Comparison of AFM images to TEM projection maps has allowed us to relate high magnification views obtained by AFM to the relatively high resolution information obtained by electron microscopy and image processing.

  13. Direct observation of chiral currents and magnetic reflection in atomic flux lattices

    CERN Document Server

    An, Fangzhao Alex; Gadway, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of studying topologically nontrivial phases with the precision and control of atomic physics has driven the development of many techniques for engineering artificial magnetic fields and spin-orbit interactions in atomic gases. Recently, the idea of engineering nontrivial topology through the use of discrete internal (or external) atomic states as effective "artificial dimensions" has garnered attraction for its versatility and promise of immunity from sources of heating. Here, we directly engineer tunable artificial gauge fields through the local control of tunneling phases in an effectively two-dimensional manifold of discrete atomic momentum states. We demonstrate the ability to engineer homogeneous artificial gauge fields of arbitrary value, directly imaging the site-resolved dynamics of induced chiral currents. We furthermore engineer the first inhomogeneous artificial gauge fields for cold atoms, enabling the observation of magnetic reflection of atoms incident upon a step-like variation of ...

  14. Tracking individual membrane proteins and their biochemistry: The power of direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Adam O; Goler, Adam S; Humphreys, Sara C; Tabatabaei, Samaneh; Lochner, Martin; Ruepp, Marc-David; Jack, Thomas; Simonin, Jonathan; Thompson, Andrew J; Jones, Jeffrey P; Brozik, James A

    2015-11-01

    The advent of single molecule fluorescence microscopy has allowed experimental molecular biophysics and biochemistry to transcend traditional ensemble measurements, where the behavior of individual proteins could not be precisely sampled. The recent explosion in popularity of new super-resolution and super-localization techniques coupled with technical advances in optical designs and fast highly sensitive cameras with single photon sensitivity and millisecond time resolution have made it possible to track key motions, reactions, and interactions of individual proteins with high temporal resolution and spatial resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. Within the purview of membrane proteins and ligand gated ion channels (LGICs), these outstanding advances in single molecule microscopy allow for the direct observation of discrete biochemical states and their fluctuation dynamics. Such observations are fundamentally important for understanding molecular-level mechanisms governing these systems. Examples reviewed here include the effects of allostery on the stoichiometry of ligand binding in the presence of fluorescent ligands; the observation of subdomain partitioning of membrane proteins due to microenvironment effects; and the use of single particle tracking experiments to elucidate characteristics of membrane protein diffusion and the direct measurement of thermodynamic properties, which govern the free energy landscape of protein dimerization. The review of such characteristic topics represents a snapshot of efforts to push the boundaries of fluorescence microscopy of membrane proteins to the absolute limit. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology'.

  15. Direct atmosphere opacity observations from CALIPSO provide new constraints on cloud-radiation interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R.; Chepfer, H.; Noel, V.; Vaillant de Guélis, T.; Kay, J. E.; Raberanto, P.; Cesana, G.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    The spaceborne lidar CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) directly measures atmospheric opacity. In 8 years of CALIPSO observations, we find that 69% of vertical profiles penetrate through the complete atmosphere. The remaining 31% do not reach the surface, due to opaque clouds. The global mean altitude of full attenuation of the lidar beam (z_opaque) is 3.2 km, but there are large regional variations in this altitude. Of relevance to cloud-climate studies, the annual zonal mean longwave cloud radiative effect and annual zonal mean z_opaque weighted by opaque cloud cover are highly correlated (0.94). The annual zonal mean shortwave cloud radiative effect and annual zonal mean opaque cloud cover are also correlated (-0.95). The new diagnostics introduced here are implemented within a simulator framework to enable scale-aware and definition-aware evaluation of the LMDZ5B global climate model. The evaluation shows that the model overestimates opaque cloud cover (31% obs. versus 38% model) and z_opaque (3.2 km obs. versus 5.1 km model). In contrast, the model underestimates thin cloud cover (35% obs. versus 14% model). Further assessment shows that reasonable agreement between modeled and observed longwave cloud radiative effects results from compensating errors between insufficient warming by thin clouds and excessive warming due to overestimating both z_opaque and opaque cloud cover. This work shows the power of spaceborne lidar observations to directly constrain cloud-radiation interactions in both observations and models.

  16. Direct Observation of Halide Migration and its Effect on the Photoluminescence of Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanqi; Khoram, Parisa; Brittman, Sarah; Zhu, Zhuoying; Lai, Barry; Ong, Shyue Ping; Garnett, Erik C; Fenning, David P

    2017-09-29

    Optoelectronic devices based on hybrid perovskites have demonstrated outstanding performance within a few years of intense study. However, commercialization of these devices requires barriers to their development to be overcome, such as their chemical instability under operating conditions. To investigate this instability and its consequences, the electric field applied to single crystals of methylammonium lead bromide (CH3 NH3 PbBr3 ) is varied, and changes are mapped in both their elemental composition and photoluminescence. Synchrotron-based nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (nano-XRF) with 250 nm resolution reveals quasi-reversible field-assisted halide migration, with corresponding changes in photoluminescence. It is observed that higher local bromide concentration is correlated to superior optoelectronic performance in CH3 NH3 PbBr3 . A lower limit on the electromigration rate is calculated from these experiments and the motion is interpreted as vacancy-mediated migration based on nudged elastic band density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The XRF mapping data provide direct evidence of field-assisted ionic migration in a model hybrid-perovskite thin single crystal, while the link with photoluminescence proves that the halide stoichiometry plays a key role in the optoelectronic properties of the perovskite. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A New Interpretation of the Bipolar HII Region S106 from HCN J = 3 - 2 Mapping Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Qin; Jun-Jie Wang; Gang Zhao; Martin Miller

    2005-01-01

    The first mapping observations of the bipolar HII region S106 in HCN J = 3-2 line were made by KOSMA submillimeter telescope in April, 2004. The results show that there is a bipolar cloud core is perpendicular to the IRS4 and that the flat structure of molecular cloud core is perpendicular to the axis of the outflow. This image roughly corresponds to the optical image where a dark lane bisects the bipolar HII region. Together with the optical, infrared and radio data, we conclude that the central UC HII region, and that a neutral disk is responsible for the bipolar HII region and the outflow.

  18. Interpretation of spatial and temporal variations of hydrogen quadrupole absorptions in the Jovian atmosphere observed during the 1972 apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G. E.; Bergstralh, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for a systematic investigation of temporal and spatial variations of hydrogen quadrupole lines formed in the Jovian atmosphere, which was performed by measuring the strengths of the S(1) lines of H2 (3,0) and (4,0) quadrupole bands at several points on the Jovian disk during the 1972 apparition. The observations support the hypothesis that the strength of the (3,0) S(1) line varies significantly with time, suggest the possibility of short-term temporal variation in the strength of the (4,0) line, and indicate that the H2 line strengths vary remarkably little from limb to limb in the equatorial region. A Galatry line-shape profile is calculated, and a radiative-transfer analysis is carried out using the Henyey-Greenstein phase function for single particle scattering. It is shown that the observations are consistent with a multilayer atmospheric model having an optically thin upper cloud deck separated by a stratum of nonscattering gas from an optically thick lower cloud.

  19. Comprehensive Observations of the Bright and Energetic Type Iax SN 2012Z: Interpretation as a Chandrasekhar Mass White Dwarf Explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Stritzinger, M D; Hoeflich, P; Baron, E; Phillips, M M; Taddia, F; Foley, R J; Hsiao, E Y; Jha, S W; McCully, C; Pandya, V; Simon, J D; Benetti, S; Brown, P J; Burns, C R; Campillay, A; Contreras, C; Forster, F; Holmbo, S; Marion, G H; Morrell, N; Pignata, G

    2014-01-01

    We present UV through NIR broad-band photometry, and optical and NIR spectroscopy of Type Iax supernova 2012Z. The data set consists of both early and late-time observations, including the first late phase NIR spectrum obtained for a spectroscopically classified SN Iax. Simple model calculations of its bolometric light curve suggest SN 2012Z produced ~0.3 M_sun of (56)Ni, ejected about a Chandrasekhar mass of material, and had an explosion energy of ~10^51 erg, making it one of the brightest and most energetic SN Iax yet observed. The late phase NIR spectrum of SN 2012Z is found to broadly resemble similar epoch spectra of normal SNe Ia; however, like other SNe Iax, corresponding visual-wavelength spectra differ substantially compared to all supernova types. Constraints from the distribution of IMEs, e.g. silicon and magnesium, indicate that the outer ejecta did not experience significant mixing during or after burning, and the late phase NIR line profiles suggests most of the (56)Ni is produced during high d...

  20. Airborne hyperspectral observations of surface and cloud directional reflectivity using a commercial digital camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spectral radiance measurements by a digital single-lens reflex camera were used to derive the directional reflectivity of clouds and different surfaces in the Arctic. The camera has been calibrated radiometrically and spectrally to provide accurate radiance measurements with high angular resolution. A comparison with spectral radiance measurements with the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART-Albedometer showed an agreement within the uncertainties of both instruments (6% for both. The directional reflectivity in terms of the hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF was obtained for sea ice, ice-free ocean and clouds. The sea ice, with an albedo of ρ = 0.96 (at 530 nm wavelength, showed an almost isotropic HDRF, while sun glint was observed for the ocean HDRF (ρ = 0.12. For the cloud observations with ρ = 0.62, the cloudbow – a backscatter feature typically for scattering by liquid water droplets – was covered by the camera. For measurements above heterogeneous stratocumulus clouds, the required number of images to obtain a mean HDRF that clearly exhibits the cloudbow has been estimated at about 50 images (10 min flight time. A representation of the HDRF as a function of the scattering angle only reduces the image number to about 10 (2 min flight time.

    The measured cloud and ocean HDRF have been compared to radiative transfer simulations. The ocean HDRF simulated with the observed surface wind speed of 9 m s−1 agreed best with the measurements. For the cloud HDRF, the best agreement was obtained by a broad and weak cloudbow simulated with a cloud droplet effective radius of Reff = 4 μm. This value agrees with the particle sizes derived from in situ measurements and retrieved from the spectral radiance of the SMART-Albedometer.

  1. Hand preference observed in large healthy samples: classification, norms and interpretations of increased non-right-handedness by the right shift theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Marian

    2004-08-01

    Healthy children and undergraduates were observed for hand preference and measured for hand skill in representative samples collected over some years. Writing and throwing were observed for 2844 participants drawn from primary, secondary and higher levels of education. The 12 actions of a standard questionnaire were observed for 2388 secondary school children and undergraduates. These findings provide normative data for comparison with selected samples that may be classified in a variety of ways, including subgroups previously defined and ordered for relative hand skill. Differences between the sexes were found only for certain subgroups of right-mixed-handers. Undergraduates were less variable for hand skill asymmetry than schoolchildren. Interpretations in the light of the RS theory show why statistical effects for comparisons with selected groups are likely to be small. Increased non-right-handedness may be caused by several influences on cerebral dominance, natural and pathological.

  2. Adjustable Parameter-Based Distributed Fault Estimation Observer Design for Multiagent Systems With Directed Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel adjustable parameter (AP)-based distributed fault estimation observer (DFEO) is proposed for multiagent systems (MASs) with the directed communication topology. First, a relative output estimation error is defined based on the communication topology of MASs. Then a DFEO with AP is constructed with the purpose of improving the accuracy of fault estimation. Based on H ∞ and H 2 with pole placement, multiconstrained design is given to calculate the gain of DFEO. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed DFEO design with AP.

  3. Direct Observation of Neutron Scattering in MoNA Scintillator Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W. F.; Mosby, S.; Frank, N.; Kuchera, A. N.; Thoennessen, M.; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations provide an important tool for the interpretation of neutron scattering data in the MoNA and LISA arrays at NSCL. Neutron energy and trajectory are determined by time of flight and position of first light produced in the array. Neutrons elastically scattered from H and inelastically from C typically produce light above detector threshold, while those elastically scattered from C produce light below threshold (``dark scattering'') and are redirected in flight, thus lowering energy and trajectory resolution. In order to test the effectiveness of our Geant4/MENATE_R simulations, we conducted an experiment at the LANSCE facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory to observe scattering of individual neutrons with well defined energy and trajectory in 16 MoNA detector bars arranged in two different stack geometries. Neutrons with energies ranging from 0.5 to 800 MeV emerged from a 3 mm collimator in the 90m shed on the WNR 4FP15L flight path to enter the array at a well defined point. Several features of neutron scattering are compared with simulation predictions, including hit multiplicity, scattering angle, mean distance between scatters, and the effect of dark scatter redirection. Results to date will be presented. Work supported by NSF Grant PHY-1506402.

  4. Direct observation of two dimensional trace gas distributions with an airborne Imaging DOAS instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-P. Heue

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In many investigations of tropospheric chemistry information about the two dimensional distribution of trace gases on a small scale (e.g. tens to hundreds of metres is highly desirable. An airborne instrument based on imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy has been built to map the two dimensional distribution of a series of relevant trace gases including NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2O, O4, SO2, and BrO on a scale of 100 m.

    Here we report on the first tests of the novel aircraft instrument over the industrialised South African Highveld, where large variations in NO2 column densities in the immediate vicinity of several sources e.g. power plants or steel works, were measured. The observed patterns in the trace gas distribution are interpreted with respect to flux estimates, and it is seen that the fine resolution of the measurements allows separate sources in close proximity to one another to be distinguished.

  5. Quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs II. The asset of numerical modelling for interpreting observations

    CERN Document Server

    Busschaert, C; Michaut, C; Bonnet-Bidaud, J -M; Mouchet, M

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the accretion column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optic...

  6. The Census of Social Institutions (CSI): A Public Health Direct Observation Measure of Local Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Joseph; Randles, Anthony; Wall, Dustin; Peterson, N. Andrew; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Berkel, LaVerne; Eaton, Peter; Bowles, Doug; Haddock, C. Keith; Poston, W. S. Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development of the Census of Social Institutions (CSI), a reliable direct observation parcel-level built environment measure. The CSI was used to measure all non-residential parcels (n = 10,842) in 21 one-mile-radius neighborhoods centered around census block groups of varying income and ethnicity in a large metropolitan area. One year test-retest and inter-rater intra-class correlations showed high reliability for major use type and detail code observations. The CSI accurately captured the presence of about 9,500 uses, including 828 multiple major use and 431 mixed major use parcels that would have been missed in standard commercial databases. CSI data can be utilized to determine the health impacts of environmental settings. PMID:20386993

  7. Direct observation of vacancy in silicon using sub-Kelvin ultrasonic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Terutaka [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)]. E-mail: goto@phys.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp; Yamada-Kaneta, Hiroshi [Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Morinisato-Wakamiya, Atsugi 243-0197 (Japan); Saito, Yasuhiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Nemoto, Yuichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Sato, Koji [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kakimoto, Koichi [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Shintaro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    We carried out sub-Kelvin ultrasonic measurements for observation of vacancies in crystalline silicon. The longitudinal elastic constants of non-doped and B-doped floating zone (FZ) silicon crystals in commercial base revealed low-temperature elastic softening below 20 K. The applied magnetic fields turns the softening of the B-doped FZ silicon to a temperature-independent behavior, while the fields up to 16 T at base temperature 20 mK make no effect on the softening of the non-doped FZ silicon. This result means that the vacancy accompanying the non-magnetic charge state V{sup 0} in the non-doped silicon and the magnetic V{sup +} in the B-doped silicon is responsible for the low-temperature softening through the Jahn-Teller effect. The direct observation of the vacancy using the sub-Kelvin ultrasonic measurements advances point defects controlling in silicon wafers and semiconductor devices.

  8. Direct Insights into Observational Absorption Line Analysis Methods of the Circumgalactic Medium Using Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, Christopher W; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Klypin, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    We study the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of a z=0.54 simulated dwarf galaxy using hydroART simulations. We present our analysis methods, which emulate observations, including objective absorption line detection, apparent optical depth (AOD) measurements, Voigt profile (VP) decomposition, and ionization modelling. By comparing the inferred CGM gas properties from the absorption lines directly to the gas selected by low ionization HI and MgII, and by higher ionization CIV and OVI absorption, we examine how well observational analysis methods recover the "true" properties of CGM gas. In this dwarf galaxy, low ionization gas arises in kiloparsec "cloud" structures, but high ionization gas arises in multiple extended structures spread over 100 kpc; due to complex velocity fields, highly separated structures give rise to absorption at similar velocities. We show that AOD and VP analysis fails to accurately characterize the spatial, kinematic, and thermal conditions of high ionization gas. We find that HI absorption...

  9. Direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Becker, A.; Lemke, R. W.; Cochrane, K. R.; Savage, M. E.; Bliss, D. E.; Mattsson, T. R.; Redmer, R.

    2015-06-01

    Eighty years ago, it was proposed that solid hydrogen would become metallic at sufficiently high density. Despite numerous investigations, this transition has not yet been experimentally observed. More recently, there has been much interest in the analog of this predicted metallic transition in the dense liquid, due to its relevance to planetary science. Here, we show direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium. Experimental determination of the location of this transition provides a much-needed benchmark for theory and may constrain the region of hydrogen-helium immiscibility and the boundary-layer pressure in standard models of the internal structure of gas-giant planets.

  10. Direct observation of two protons in the decay of 54Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, P; Audirac, L; Adimi, N; Blank, B; Borcea, C; Brown, B A; Companis, I; Delalee, F; Demonchy, C E; de Oliveira Santos, F; Giovinazzo, J; Grévy, S; Grigorenko, L V; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Leblanc, S; Pedroza, J-L; Perrot, L; Pibernat, J; Serani, L; Srivastava, P C; Thomas, J-C

    2011-09-02

    The two protons emitted in the decay of 54Zn have been individually observed for the first time in a time projection chamber. The total decay energy and the half-life measured in this work agree with the results obtained in a previous experiment. Angular and energy correlations between the two protons are determined and compared to theoretical distributions of a three-body model. Within the shell model framework, the relative decay probabilities show a strong contribution of the p2 configuration for the two-proton emission. After 45Fe, the present result on 54Zn constitutes only the second case of a direct observation of the ground state two-proton decay of a long-lived isotope.

  11. Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, Dirk; Stroeve, Julienne

    2016-11-01

    Arctic sea ice is retreating rapidly, raising prospects of a future ice-free Arctic Ocean during summer. Because climate-model simulations of the sea-ice loss differ substantially, we used a robust linear relationship between monthly-mean September sea-ice area and cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to infer the future evolution of Arctic summer sea ice directly from the observational record. The observed linear relationship implies a sustained loss of 3 ± 0.3 square meters of September sea-ice area per metric ton of CO2 emission. On the basis of this sensitivity, Arctic sea ice will be lost throughout September for an additional 1000 gigatons of CO2 emissions. Most models show a lower sensitivity, which is possibly linked to an underestimation of the modeled increase in incoming longwave radiation and of the modeled transient climate response.

  12. Directional Statistics for Polarization Observations of Individual Pulses from Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    McKinnon, M M

    2010-01-01

    Radio polarimetry is a three-dimensional statistical problem. The three-dimensional aspect of the problem arises from the Stokes parameters Q, U, and V, which completely describe the polarization of electromagnetic radiation and conceptually define the orientation of a polarization vector in the Poincar'e sphere. The statistical aspect of the problem arises from the random fluctuations in the source-intrinsic polarization and the instrumental noise. A simple model for the polarization of pulsar radio emission has been used to derive the three-dimensional statistics of radio polarimetry. The model is based upon the proposition that the observed polarization is due to the incoherent superposition of two, highly polarized, orthogonal modes. The directional statistics derived from the model follow the Bingham-Mardia and Fisher family of distributions. The model assumptions are supported by the qualitative agreement between the statistics derived from it and those measured with polarization observations of the ind...

  13. Interactions between C and Cu atoms in single-layer graphene: direct observation and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Emi; Hashimoto, Ayako; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Ohno, Takahisa; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2016-01-07

    Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene.

  14. Direct observation of a long-lived single-atom catalyst chiseling atomic structures in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei Li; Santos, Elton J G; Jiang, Bin; Cubuk, Ekin Dogus; Ophus, Colin; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Ciston, Jim; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2014-02-12

    Fabricating stable functional devices at the atomic scale is an ultimate goal of nanotechnology. In biological processes, such high-precision operations are accomplished by enzymes. A counterpart molecular catalyst that binds to a solid-state substrate would be highly desirable. Here, we report the direct observation of single Si adatoms catalyzing the dissociation of carbon atoms from graphene in an aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The single Si atom provides a catalytic wedge for energetic electrons to chisel off the graphene lattice, atom by atom, while the Si atom itself is not consumed. The products of the chiseling process are atomic-scale features including graphene pores and clean edges. Our experimental observations and first-principles calculations demonstrated the dynamics, stability, and selectivity of such a single-atom chisel, which opens up the possibility of fabricating certain stable molecular devices by precise modification of materials at the atomic scale.

  15. Interpretation And Mathematical Modelling Of Temporal Changes Of Temperature Observed In Borehole Yaxcopoil-1 Within The Chicxulub Ipact Structure, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safanda, J.; Wilhelm, H.; Heidinger, P.; Cermak, V.

    2007-05-01

    The geothermal research of the Chicxulub impact structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, included repeated temperature logs of the 1.5 km deep borehole Yaxcopoil-1, which were done following 0.3-0.8, 15, 24, 34 and 50 months after shut-in of drilling operations. A gradual distortion of the linear temperature profile by a cold wave of the 0.8 -1.6°C amplitude was detected propagating downward from 145 m to 317 m within the observational period of 50 months (March 2002 - April 2006). As an explanation of this unusual phenomenon, the hypothesis of a downward migration of the drilling mud, accumulated within the overlying and cooler highly porous and permeable karstic rocks during the drilling, was proposed. Velocity of the downward propagation of the cold wave decreased appreciably between the last two logs (December 2004 - April 2006). It may indicate that the mud migrating downward through the system of interconnected caverns and conduits reached a bottom of the secondary porosity zone. We present results of simulations of thermal effects of the downward migrating drilling mud, obtained by a numerical solution of the heat transfer equation in a set of geothermal models of the borehole and its surroundings.

  16. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of red giant stars: semi-global models for the interpretation of interferometric observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chiavassa, A; Casagrande, L; Asplund, M

    2010-01-01

    Context. Theoretical predictions from models of red giant branch stars are a valuable tool for various applications in astrophysics ranging from galactic chemical evolution to studies of exoplanetary systems. Aims. We use the radiative transfer code OPTIM3D and realistic 3D radiative-hydrodynamical (RHD) surface convection simulations of red giants to explore the impact of granulation on interferometric observables. Methods. We compute intensity maps for the 3D simulation snapshots in two filters: in the optical at 5000 \\pm 300 {\\AA} and in the K band 2.14 $\\pm$ 0.26 {\\mu}m FLUOR filter, corresponding to the wavelength-range of instruments mounted on the CHARA interferometer. From the intensity maps, we construct images of the stellar disks, accounting for center-to-limb variations. We then derive interferometric visibility amplitudes and phases. We study their behavior with position angle and wavelength. Results. We provide average limb-darkening coefficients for different metallicities and wavelength-ranges...

  17. Identifying and Interpreting Stratification in Sedimentary Rocks on Mars: Insight from Rover and Orbital Observations and Terrestrial Field Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.

    Sedimentary rocks on Mars provide insight into past aqueous and atmospheric processes, climate regimes, and potential habitability. The stratigraphic architecture of sedimentary rocks on Mars is similar to that of Earth, indicating that the processes that govern deposition and erosion on Mars can be reasonably inferred through reference to analogous terrestrial systems. This dissertation aims to understand Martian surface processes through the use of (1) ground-based observations from the Mars Exploration Rovers, (2) orbital data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and (3) the use of terrestrial field analogs to understand bedforms and sediment transport on Mars. Chapters 1 and 2 trace the history of aqueous activity at Meridiani Planum, through the reconstruction of eolian bedforms at Victoria crater, and the identification of a potential mudstone facies at Santa Maria crater. Chapter 3 uses Terrestrial Laser Scanning to study cross-bedding in pyroclastic surge deposits on Earth in order to understand sediment transport in these events and to establish criteria for their identification on Mars. The final chapter analyzes stratal geometries in the Martian North Polar Layered Deposits using tools for sequence stratigraphic analysis, to better constrain past surface processes and past climate conditions on Mars.

  18. Clinical observation of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma by directly puncturing the sclerotic tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ke Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinic effects and complication of Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGVimplantation in refractory glaucoma by using the 23G syringe needle direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel.METHODS: Forty-four cases(44 eyesof refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation by useing the 23G syringe needle direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel. The intraocular pressure(IOP, visual acuity, and complication of post-operation were contrasted with those of pre-operation. RESULTS:The success rate was 84.1%, the mean preoperative IOP in research group was 52.1±10.1mmHg, and the last follow up mean IOP was 15.6±6.9mmHg. Compared with the preoperative visual acuity, 11 eyes increased, 27 eyes had no changes and 6 eyes decreased. The main post-operative complications included shallow anterior chamber(4 eyes, choroidal detachment(3 eyes, drainage tube shift(1 eye, hyphema(6 eyes, drainage tube blockage(1 eye, expulsive choroidal hemorrhage(1 eye, and fiber wrap of drainage tray(5 eyes.CONCLUSION: AGV implantation by direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel is feasible and easy. It avoids of making sclerotic petal and the xenogenic sclera transplanting, simplified the operation technique, prevent the leakage of around tube. The shallow anterior chamber rate is lower. It is an effective procedure for refractory glaucoma.

  19. Direct Radiative Forcing of Anthropogenic Aerosols over Oceans from Satellite Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; SHI Guangyu; QIN Shiguang; YANG Su; ZHANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols play an important role in the atmospheric energy balance. Anthropogenic aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its accompanying shortwave radiative forcing (RF) are usually simulated by numerical models. Recently, with the development of space-borne instruments and sophisticated retrieval algorithms, it has become possible to estimate aerosol radiative forcing based on satellite observations. In this study, we have estimated shortwave direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols over oceans in all-sky conditions by combining clouds and the Single Scanner Footprint data of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES/SSF) experiment, which provide measurements of upward shortwave fluxes at the top of atmosphere, with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol and cloud products. We found that globally averaged aerosol radiative forcing over oceans in the clear-sky conditions and all-sky conditions were -1.03±0.48 W m-2 and -0.34 ±0.16 W m-2, respectively. Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols shows large regional and seasonal variations. In some regions and in particular seasons, the magnitude of direct forcing by anthropogenic aerosols can be comparable to the forcing of greenhouse gases. However, it shows that aerosols caused the cooling effect, rather than warming effect from global scale, which is different from greenhouse gases.

  20. Direct observation of DNA knots using a solid-state nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, Calin; Verschueren, Daniel; Pud, Sergii; van der Torre, Jaco; Ruitenberg, Justus W.; Witteveen, Menno J.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Rabin, Yitzhak; Dekker, Cees

    2016-12-01

    Long DNA molecules can self-entangle into knots. Experimental techniques for observing such DNA knots (primarily gel electrophoresis) are limited to bulk methods and circular molecules below 10 kilobase pairs in length. Here, we show that solid-state nanopores can be used to directly observe individual knots in both linear and circular single DNA molecules of arbitrary length. The DNA knots are observed as short spikes in the nanopore current traces of the traversing DNA molecules and their detection is dependent on a sufficiently high measurement resolution, which can be achieved using high-concentration LiCl buffers. We study the percentage of molecules with knots for DNA molecules of up to 166 kilobase pairs in length and find that the knotting occurrence rises with the length of the DNA molecule, consistent with a constant knotting probability per unit length. Our experimental data compare favourably with previous simulation-based predictions for long polymers. From the translocation time of the knot through the nanopore, we estimate that the majority of the DNA knots are tight, with remarkably small sizes below 100 nm. In the case of linear molecules, we also observe that knots are able to slide out on application of high driving forces (voltage).

  1. Direct Time-domain Observation of Conformational Relaxation in Gas-phase Cold Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Drayna, Garrett K; Wang, Kenneth; Domingos, Sergio R; Eibengerber, Sandra; Doyle, John M; Patterson, David

    2016-01-01

    Cooling molecules in the gas phase is important for precision spectroscopy, cold molecule physics, and physical chemistry. Measurements of conformational relaxation cross sections shed important light on potential energy surfaces and energy flow within a molecule. However, gas-phase conformational cooling has not been previously observed directly. In this work, we directly observe conformational dynamics of 1,2-propanediol in cold (6K) collisions with atomic helium using microwave spectroscopy and buffer-gas cooling. Precise knowledge and control of the collisional environment in the buffer-gas allows us to measure the absolute collision cross-section for conformational relaxation. Several conformers of 1,2-propanediol are investigated and found to have relaxation cross-sections with He ranging from $\\sigma=4.7(3.0)\\times10^{-18}\\:\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ to $\\sigma>5\\times10^{-16}\\:\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$. Our method is applicable to a broad class of molecules and could be used to provide information about the potential en...

  2. Direct observation of pentacene-thiol interaction using x-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhang; Lee, Vincent; Floreano, Luca; Verdini, Alberto; Cossaro, Albano; Morgante, Alberto; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2010-03-01

    There has been an intense interest in the surface modification of the source-drain electrodes for organic field effect transistors (OFETs) to improve their performance. A number of thiol based self assembled monolayers demonstrated improvements to the contact resistance and channel performance. Morphological improvements at the contacts, a change in the effective work function, and charge transfer between the thiols and the semiconductor have all been credited with the observed performance improvements. Using in-situ semiconductor deposition together with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure, we are able to directly probe two technologically relevant OFET stacks. This work directly measures the interaction between pentacene and two thiols which have been associated to contact improvement: an electroneutral thiol (1-hexadecanethiol) and an electronegative thiol (pentafluorobenzenethiol). Based on our results we observe no chemical interaction between pentacene and the thiol. The electrical improvements to transistor performance, based on these systems, can be attributed to work function shifts of the contacts and morphological improvements of the organic semiconductor.

  3. Direct estimation of tidally induced Earth rotation variations observed by VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englich, S.; Heinkelmann, R.; BOHM, J.; Schuh, H.

    2009-09-01

    The subject of our study is the investigation of periodical variations induced by solid Earth tides and ocean tides in Earth rotation parameters (ERP: polar motion, UT1)observed by VLBI. There are two strategies to determine the amplitudes and phases of Earth rotation variations from observations of space geodetic techniques. The common way is to derive time series of Earth rotation parameters first and to estimate amplitudes and phases in a second step. Results obtained by this means were shown in previous studies for zonal tidal variations (Englich et al.; 2008a) and variations caused by ocean tides (Englich et al.; 2008b). The alternative method is to estimate the tidal parameters directly within the VLBI data analysis procedure together with other parameters such as station coordinates, tropospheric delays, clocks etc. The purpose of this work was the application of this direct method to a combined VLBI data analysis using the software packages OCCAM (Version 6.1, Gauss-Markov-Model) and DOGSCS (Gerstl et al.; 2001). The theoretical basis and the preparatory steps for the implementation of this approach are presented here.

  4. Cost comparison of wirelessly vs. directly observed therapy for adherence confirmation in anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au-Yeung, K Y; DiCarlo, L

    2012-11-01

    A US clinic treating patients entering the continuation phase of treatment for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To compare the costs of direct confirmation of treatment using wirelessly observed therapy (WOT) vs. standard of care utilizing World Health Organization-recommended 7-day and 3-day directly observed therapy (DOT). A model was created comparing the costs between the two types of DOT and WOT, using data from public sources of treatment, personnel costs, patient spending, and interview responses. The model considered public health facility's cost-to-treat and patient's cost-to-be-treated. Cost drivers for M. tuberculosis treatment monitoring were identified, and four univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted on selected variables. The cost of WOT was estimated to be 36% of 7-day DOT, and 71% of 3-day DOT in public health facility's cost-to-treat. The patient's cost-to-be-treated with WOT was estimated to be 4% of 7-day DOT and 8% of 3-day DOT. Sensitivity analyses indicated that WOT was likely to provide immediate cost savings over a range of WOT costs, time spent on WOT monitoring, WOT-related treatment failure rates and clinician compensations. Under several potential cost scenarios, the immediate cost of M. tuberculosis treatment by WOT appears to be substantially less than DOT. Further WOT development for M. tuberculosis treatment appears warranted.

  5. Observation of uniaxial anisotropy along the [100] direction in crystalline Fe film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, Seul-Ki; Lee, Hakjoon; Lee, Sangyoep; Choi, Seonghoon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    We report an observation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the [100] crystallographic direction in crystalline Fe film grown on Ge buffers deposited on a (001) GaAs substrate. As expected, planar Hall resistance (PHR) measurements reveal the presence of four in-plane magnetic easy axes, indicating the dominance of the cubic anisotropy in the film. However, systematic mapping of the PHR hysteresis loops observed during magnetization reversal at different field orientations shows that the easy axes along the and are not equivalent. Such breaking of the cubic symmetry can only be ascribed to the presence of uniaxial anisotropy along the direction of the Fe film. Analysis of the PHR data measured as a function of orientation of the applied magnetic field allowed us to quantify the magnitude of this uniaxial anisotropy field as Oe. Although this value is only 1.5% of cubic anisotropy field, its presence significantly changes the process of magnetization reversal, revealing the important role of the uniaxial anisotropy in Fe films. Breaking of the cubic symmetry in the Fe film deposited on a Ge buffer is surprising, and we discuss possible reason for this unexpected behavior.

  6. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, M. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 34 Ohia Ku Street, Pukalani, Maui, HI 96768 (United States); Tomczyk, S., E-mail: kramar@cua.edu, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tomczyk@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments.

  7. Cold-water coral distributions in the drake passage area from towed camera observations--initial interpretations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian G Waller

    Full Text Available Seamounts are unique deep-sea features that create habitats thought to have high levels of endemic fauna, productive fisheries and benthic communities vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Many seamounts are isolated features, occurring in the high seas, where access is limited and thus biological data scarce. There are numerous seamounts within the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean, yet high winds, frequent storms and strong currents make seafloor sampling particularly difficult. As a result, few attempts to collect biological data have been made, leading to a paucity of information on benthic habitats or fauna in this area, particularly those on primarily hard-bottom seamounts and ridges. During a research cruise in 2008 six locations were examined (two on the Antarctic margin, one on the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and three on seamounts within the Drake Passage, using a towed camera with onboard instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity. Dominant fauna and bottom type were categorized from 200 randomized photos from each location. Cold-water corals were present in high numbers in habitats both on the Antarctic margin and on the current swept seamounts of the Drake Passage, though the diversity of orders varied. Though the Scleractinia (hard corals were abundant on the sedimented margin, they were poorly represented in the primarily hard-bottom areas of the central Drake Passage. The two seamount sites and the Shackleton Fracture Zone showed high numbers of stylasterid (lace and alcyonacean (soft corals, as well as large numbers of sponges. Though data are preliminary, the geological and environmental variability (particularly in temperature between sample sites may be influencing cold-water coral biogeography in this region. Each area observed also showed little similarity in faunal diversity with other sites examined for this study within all phyla counted. This manuscript highlights how little is understood of these

  8. Interpretability formalized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Joost Johannes

    2004-01-01

    The dissertation is in the first place a treatment of mathematical interpretations. Interpretations themselves will be studied, but also shall they be used to study formal theories. Interpretations, when used in comparing theories, tell us, in a natural way, something about proof-strength of form

  9. Assessing distractors and teamwork during surgery: developing an event-based method for direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelandt, Julia C; Tschan, Franziska; Keller, Sandra; Beldi, Guido; Jenni, Nadja; Kurmann, Anita; Candinas, Daniel; Semmer, Norbert K

    2014-11-01

    To develop a behavioural observation method to simultaneously assess distractors and communication/teamwork during surgical procedures through direct, on-site observations; to establish the reliability of the method for long (>3 h) procedures. Observational categories for an event-based coding system were developed based on expert interviews, observations and a literature review. Using Cohen's κ and the intraclass correlation coefficient, interobserver agreement was assessed for 29 procedures. Agreement was calculated for the entire surgery, and for the 1st hour. In addition, interobserver agreement was assessed between two tired observers and between a tired and a non-tired observer after 3 h of surgery. The observational system has five codes for distractors (door openings, noise distractors, technical distractors, side conversations and interruptions), eight codes for communication/teamwork (case-relevant communication, teaching, leadership, problem solving, case-irrelevant communication, laughter, tension and communication with external visitors) and five contextual codes (incision, last stitch, personnel changes in the sterile team, location changes around the table and incidents). Based on 5-min intervals, Cohen's κ was good to excellent for distractors (0.74-0.98) and for communication/teamwork (0.70-1). Based on frequency counts, intraclass correlation coefficient was excellent for distractors (0.86-0.99) and good to excellent for communication/teamwork (0.45-0.99). After 3 h of surgery, Cohen's κ was 0.78-0.93 for distractors, and 0.79-1 for communication/teamwork. The observational method developed allows a single observer to simultaneously assess distractors and communication/teamwork. Even for long procedures, high interobserver agreement can be achieved. Data collected with this method allow for investigating separate or combined effects of distractions and communication/teamwork on surgical performance and patient outcomes. Published by the

  10. Reflectance spectra of Titan tholin between 7000 and 10 cm-1. Interpretation of Cassini/CIRS observation of Saturn's satellite Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, J. R.; Migliorini, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Carvano, J. M.; Dotto, E.; Mennella, V.

    2010-06-01

    Context. Laboratory experiments provide a great support to astronomical studies in that they are the most suited technique to reproduce, model and interpret the observational data. Aims: We investigate the spectroscopic properties of particulate and flat slab of tholin samples in a wide MIR and FIR spectral range at cryogenic temperature to contribute to the interpretation of the observation of Saturn satellite Phoebe obtained with the Cassini CIRS instrument. Methods: Reflectance spectra of Titan tholin were obtained in the 7000-10 cm-1 spectral region by a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in vacuum. Several optical setups were used to cover this wide spectral range. Specular and diffuse reflectance spectra were obtained. A cryostat was interfaced to the spectrometer for reflectance measurements at low temperatures. It was cooled by a continuum flux of cryogenic fluid from about 300 to 72 K. Results: It is shown that powder and slab tholin have a different reflectance that depends on geometrical factors and wavelength ranges. The emissivity of Phoebe is reproduced by flat slab tholin covered by a thin layer of water ice. Conclusions: A considerable amount of compact smooth millimeter-size carbonaceous compounds are present on the Phoebe satellite covered with water ice and tholin regolith. This confirms a surface highly processed by small object impacts and a peculiar nature of Phoebe with respect to other Saturn satellites. It could be a primitive Kuiper belt object captured by Saturn that contains an high amount of HCN-like polymers active in prebiotic chemistry.

  11. Direct observations of a mini-magnetosphere in the lunar plasma wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonghui; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-04-01

    In this report, we present direct observations of a mini-magnetosphere when ARTEMIS P2 is passing through the lunar wake, where the lunar surface and crustal fields are shielded from the solar wind flows. We find the magnetic field amplification simultaneously with the dropout of plasma density and particle energy fluxes when the orbit of P2 is just over the margin of Imbrium antipode anomaly which is centered at 162o E, 33o S. The observational interval of these characteristic features is merely 95 seconds (from 1413:15 UT to 1414:50 UT on December 9th 2012) and the orbit altitude of P2 is ~226 km. The strength of magnetic field at P2 orbit altitude (~226 km) can reach ~9 nT over the anomaly region compared to the relatively small value of ~6 nT in the neighboring regions. In addition to these, we also detect the moderate ion and electron temperature increase inside the mini-magnetosphere as well as the rotation in the magnetic field direction near the boundary of mini-magnetosphere. These field and plasma parameters demonstrate that the vertical size of the mini-magnetosphere near lunar surface can at least extend to ~230 km in the near-vacuum lunar wake without the interaction with the solar wind. We also try to explain the detailed plasma dynamics performed within this mini-magnetosphere by dipole model or non-dipolar model. This study may open up a new view of studying lunar mini-magnetosphere by spacecraft observations in the lunar wake where magnetic anomaly fields are almost undisturbed.

  12. THE ROLE OF DIRECT OBSERVED TREATMENT IN TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT SUCCESSFUL AT COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The succeeded of the tuberculosis treatment depends on the obedience of the patient in taking the tuberculosis’s medication assisted by the direct observed treatment shortcourse (DOTS to refrain resistancy and dropping out of the program. The aimed of this study was to analyze the correlation between DOTS’s role with the successfullness of lung’s tuberculosis treatment program at Bajawa city. Method : A cross sectional simple random sampling design was used in this study. Population were all the Direct Observed Treatment Supervisors and patients who have had finished their treatment of tuberculosis. Sample were 43 respondents. The independent variables in this study were the role of the DOTSs, education level, family support, motivation and the DOTSs attitude. The dependent variables were the patient’s obedience in taking medication and the evaluation of the acid fast bacterias in their sputum. Data were collected by using questionnaire and observation sputum the to evaluate acid fast bacteria. Data were analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level with α<0.05.Result : The result showed that role of the DOTSs had significance correlation with the succeeding program of tuberculosis (r=0.023, education level had significance correlation (r=0.043, family support as the DOTS had significance correlation (r=0.021, motivation (r=0.032 and attitude (r=0.014. Analysis : It can be concluded that the role of the DOTS has correlation with succesing tuberculosis treatment. Discussion : The role of PMO cause the succesfully of Tb treatment for the community in Bajawa City, Ngada NTT.

  13. Not seeing or feeling is still believing: conscious and non-conscious pain modulation after direct and observational learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Natalia; Park, Joel; Orr, Scott P.; Kirsch, Irving; Gollub, Randy L.; Kong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Our experience with the world is shaped not only directly through personal exposure but also indirectly through observing others and learning from their experiences. Using a conditioning paradigm, we investigated how directly and observationally learned information can affect pain perception, both consciously and non-consciously. Differences between direct and observed cues were manifest in higher pain ratings and larger skin conductance responses to directly experienced cues. However, the pain modulation effects produced by conditioning were of comparable magnitude for direct and observational learning. These results suggest that social observation can induce positive and negative pain modulation. Importantly, the fact that cues learned by observation and activated non-consciously still produced a robust conditioning effect that withstood extinction highlights the role of indirect exposure in placebo and nocebo effects. PMID:26578164

  14. Current Directions in Adding Value to Earth Observation Products for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryker, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural resource managers and infrastructure planners face increasingly complex challenges, given competing demands for resources and changing conditions due to climate and land use change. These pressures create demand for high-quality, timely data; for both one-time decision support and long-term monitoring; and for techniques to articulate the value of resources in monetary and nonmonetary terms. To meet the need for data, the U.S. government invests several billion dollars per year in Earth observations collected from satellite, airborne, terrestrial, and ocean-based systems. Earth observation-based decision support is coming of age; user surveys show that these data are used in an increasing variety of analyses. For example, since the U.S. Department of the Interior/U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) 2008 free and open data policy for the Landsat satellites, downloads from the USGS archive have increased from 20,000 Landsat scenes per year to 10 million per year and climbing, with strong growth in both research and decision support fields. However, Earth observation-based decision support still poses users a number of challenges. Many of those Landsat downloads support a specialized community of remote sensing scientists, though new technologies promise to increase the usability of remotely sensed data for the larger GIS community supporting planning and resource management. Serving this larger community also requires supporting the development of increasingly interpretive products, and of new approaches to host and update products. For example, automating updates will add value to new essential climate variable products such as surface water extent and wildfire burned area extent. Projections of future urbanization in the southeastern U.S. are most useful when long-term land cover trends are integrated with street-level community data and planning tools. The USGS assessment of biological carbon sequestration in vegetation and shallow soils required a significant

  15. (25143) Itokawa: The Power of Radiometric Techniques for the Interpretation of Remote Thermal Observations in the Light of the Hayabusa Rendezvous Results

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T G; Usui, F

    2014-01-01

    The near-Earth asteroid (25143) Itokawa was characterised in great detail by the Japanese Hayabusa mission. We revisited the available thermal observations in the light of the true asteroid properties with the goal to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of thermal model techniques. In total, we used 25 published ground-based mid-infrared photometric observations and 5 so far unpublished measurements from the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI in combination with improved H-G values. Our thermophysical model (TPM) approach allowed us to determine correctly the sense of rotation, to estimate the thermal inertia and to derive robust effective size and albedo values by only using a simple spherical shape model. A more complex shape model, derived from light-curve inversion techniques, improved the quality of the predictions considerably and made the interpretation of thermal light-curve possible. The radiometrically derived effective diameter value agrees within 2% of the true Itokawa size valu...

  16. Inter-observer agreement in interpreting chest X-rays on children with acute lower respiratory tract infections and concurrent wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Carlos; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri; Chalco, Juan Pablo; Huicho, Luis

    2007-05-03

    Many children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) present to the emergency ward with concurrent wheezing. A chest x-ray is often requested to rule out pneumonia. We assessed inter-observer agreement in interpreting x-rays on such children. DESIGNS AND SETTING: Prospective consecutive case study at Instituto de Salud del Niño, Lima, Peru. Chest x-rays were obtained from eligible children younger than two years old with ALRI and concurrent wheezing who were seen in the emergency ward of a nationwide pediatric referral hospital. The x-rays were read independently by three different pediatric residents who were aware only that the children had a respiratory infection. All the children had received inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists before undergoing chest x-rays. Lobar and complicated pneumonia cases were excluded from the study. Two hundred x-rays were read. The overall kappa index was 0.2. The highest individual kappa values for specific x-ray findings ranged from 0.26 to 0.34 for rib horizontalization and from 0.14 to 0.31 for alveolar infiltrate. Inter-observer variation was intermediate for alveolar infiltrate (kappa 0.14 to 0.21) and for air bronchogram (kappa 0.13 to 0.23). Reinforcement of the bronchovascular network (kappa 0.10 to 0.16) and air trapping (kappa 0.05 to 0.20) had the lowest agreement. There was poor inter-observer agreement for chest x-ray interpretation on children with ALRI and concurrent wheezing seen at the emergency ward. This may preclude reliable diagnosing of pneumonia in settings where residents make management decisions regarding sick children. The effects of training on inter-observer variation need further studies.

  17. Inter-observer agreement in interpreting chest X-rays on children with acute lower respiratory tract infections and concurrent wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bada

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Many children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI present to the emergency ward with concurrent wheezing. A chest x-ray is often requested to rule out pneumonia. We assessed inter-observer agreement in interpreting x-rays on such children. DESIGNS AND SETTING: Prospective consecutive case study at Instituto de Salud del Niño, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Chest x-rays were obtained from eligible children younger than two years old with ALRI and concurrent wheezing who were seen in the emergency ward of a nationwide pediatric referral hospital. The x-rays were read independently by three different pediatric residents who were aware only that the children had a respiratory infection. All the children had received inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists before undergoing chest x-rays. Lobar and complicated pneumonia cases were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Two hundred x-rays were read. The overall kappa index was 0.2. The highest individual kappa values for specific x-ray findings ranged from 0.26 to 0.34 for rib horizontalization and from 0.14 to 0.31 for alveolar infiltrate. Inter-observer variation was intermediate for alveolar infiltrate (kappa 0.14 to 0.21 and for air bronchogram (kappa 0.13 to 0.23. Reinforcement of the bronchovascular network (kappa 0.10 to 0.16 and air trapping (kappa 0.05 to 0.20 had the lowest agreement. CONCLUSIONS: There was poor inter-observer agreement for chest x-ray interpretation on children with ALRI and concurrent wheezing seen at the emergency ward. This may preclude reliable diagnosing of pneumonia in settings where residents make management decisions regarding sick children. The effects of training on inter-observer variation need further studies.

  18. Direct observation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol from biomass-burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardoni, Stefania; Massoli, Paola; Paglione, Marco; Giulianelli, Lara; Carbone, Claudio; Rinaldi, Matteo; Decesari, Stefano; Sandrini, Silvia; Costabile, Francesca; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Chiara Pietrogrande, Maria; Visentin, Marco; Scotto, Fabiana; Fuzzi, Sandro; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are an important subject of ongoing research for both air quality and climate. Recent laboratory experiments suggest that reactions taking place in the atmospheric liquid phase represent a potentially significant source of SOA mass. Here, we report direct ambient observations of SOA mass formation from processing of biomass-burning emissions in the aqueous phase. Aqueous SOA (aqSOA) formation is observed both in fog water and in wet aerosol. The aqSOA from biomass burning contributes to the “brown” carbon (BrC) budget and exhibits light absorption wavelength dependence close to the upper bound of the values observed in laboratory experiments for fresh and processed biomass-burning emissions. We estimate that the aqSOA from residential wood combustion can account for up to 0.1-0.5 Tg of organic aerosol (OA) per y in Europe, equivalent to 4-20% of the total OA emissions. Our findings highlight the importance of aqSOA from anthropogenic emissions on air quality and climate.

  19. Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols Based on PARASOL and OMI Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Torres, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Accurate portrayal of the aerosol characteristics is crucial to determine aerosol contribution to the Earth's radiation budget. We employ novel satellite retrievals to make a new measurement-based estimate of the shortwave direct radiative effect of aerosols (DREA), both over land and ocean. Global satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and phase function from PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) are used in synergy with OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) SSA. Aerosol information is combined with land-surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function and cloud characteristics from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite products. Eventual gaps in observations are filled with the state-of-the-art global aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM2. It is found that our estimate of DREA is largely insensitive to model choice. Radiative transfer calculations show that DREA at top-of-atmosphere is -4.6 +/- 1.5 W/sq m for cloud-free and -2.1 +/- 0.7 W/sq m for all-sky conditions, during year 2006. These fluxes are consistent with, albeit generally less negative over ocean than, former assessments. Unlike previous studies, our estimate is constrained by retrievals of global coverage SSA, which may justify different DREA values. Remarkable consistency is found in comparison with DREA based on CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and MODIS observations.

  20. Chemotaxis study using optical tweezers to observe the strength and directionality of forces of Leishmania amazonensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-08-01

    The displacements of a dielectric microspheres trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences. This system can measure forces on the 50 femto Newtons to 200 pico Newtons range, of the same order of magnitude of a typical forces induced by flagellar motion. The process in which living microorganisms search for food and run away from poison chemicals is known is chemotaxy. Optical tweezers can be used to obtain a better understanding of chemotaxy by observing the force response of the microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractors and or repelling chemicals. This report shows such observations for the protozoa Leishmania amazomenzis, responsible for the leishmaniasis, a serious tropical disease. We used a quadrant detector to monitor the movement of the protozoa for different chemicals gradient. This way we have been able to observe both the force strength and its directionality. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the infection mechanics and improve the diagnosis and the treatments employed for this disease.

  1. Direct radiative effect of aerosols based on PARASOL and OMI satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Torres, Omar

    2017-02-01

    Accurate portrayal of the aerosol characteristics is crucial to determine aerosol contribution to the Earth's radiation budget. We employ novel satellite retrievals to make a new measurement-based estimate of the shortwave direct radiative effect of aerosols (DREA), both over land and ocean. Global satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and phase function from PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) are used in synergy with OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) SSA. Aerosol information is combined with land-surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function and cloud characteristics from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite products. Eventual gaps in observations are filled with the state-of-the-art global aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM2. It is found that our estimate of DREA is largely insensitive to model choice. Radiative transfer calculations show that DREA at top-of-atmosphere is -4.6 ± 1.5 W/m2 for cloud-free and -2.1 ± 0.7 W/m2 for all-sky conditions, during year 2006. These fluxes are consistent with, albeit generally less negative over ocean than, former assessments. Unlike previous studies, our estimate is constrained by retrievals of global coverage SSA, which may justify different DREA values. Remarkable consistency is found in comparison with DREA based on CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and MODIS observations.

  2. Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols Based on PARASOL and OMI Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Torres, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Accurate portrayal of the aerosol characteristics is crucial to determine aerosol contribution to the Earth's radiation budget. We employ novel satellite retrievals to make a new measurement-based estimate of the shortwave direct radiative effect of aerosols (DREA), both over land and ocean. Global satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and phase function from PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) are used in synergy with OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) SSA. Aerosol information is combined with land-surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function and cloud characteristics from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite products. Eventual gaps in observations are filled with the state-of-the-art global aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM2. It is found that our estimate of DREA is largely insensitive to model choice. Radiative transfer calculations show that DREA at top-of-atmosphere is -4.6 +/- 1.5 W/sq m for cloud-free and -2.1 +/- 0.7 W/sq m for all-sky conditions, during year 2006. These fluxes are consistent with, albeit generally less negative over ocean than, former assessments. Unlike previous studies, our estimate is constrained by retrievals of global coverage SSA, which may justify different DREA values. Remarkable consistency is found in comparison with DREA based on CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and MODIS observations.

  3. Direct space-based observations of anthropogenic CO2 emission areas from OCO-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, J.; Ialongo, I.; Tamminen, J.

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have large impacts on climate. In order to monitor the increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, accurate spaceborne observations—as available from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)—are needed. This work provides the first direct observation of anthropogenic CO2 from OCO-2 over the main pollution regions: eastern USA, central Europe, and East Asia. This is achieved by deseasonalizing and detrending OCO-2 CO2 observations to derive CO2 anomalies. Several small isolated emission areas (such as large cities) are detectable from the anomaly maps. The spatial distribution of the CO2 anomaly matches the features observed in the maps of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 tropospheric columns, used as an indicator of atmospheric pollution. The results of a cluster analysis confirm the spatial correlation between CO2 and NO2 data over areas with different amounts of pollution. We found positive correlation between CO2 anomalies and emission inventories. The results demonstrate the power of spaceborne data for monitoring anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  4. The role of interpreters in inclusive classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, S D; Kreimeyer, K H

    2001-10-01

    The roles of interpreters in an inclusive classroom were examined through a qualitative, 3-year case study of three interpreters in an inclusive school. Interviews were conducted with interpreters, classroom teachers, special education teachers, and administrators. The interview data were supplemented with observations and field notes. Results indicate that in addition to sign interpreting between American Sign Language and speech, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept the teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress. The interpreter/aides and the classroom teachers preferred this full-participant interpreter role, while the special educators and administrators preferred a translator role. Classroom teachers were more comfortable with full-time interpreters who knew the classroom routine, while the special educators and administrators feared that full-time interpreters fostered child and teacher dependence. These issues are discussed in terms of congruence with the Registry of Interpreters code of ethics and how integration of young children might be best facilitated.

  5. Direct Observation of Upper Mantle Shear Flow Since 14.9 Ma in the Central Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, G. P.

    2005-12-01

    Asthenospheric flow in the Basin and Range province of the western United States has been hypothesized in dynamic models of the region. Models have included southwest flow in response to a hotspot-like upwelling in northeast Nevada, rapid northeast flow in response to extension and Pacific-North American margin shear, and slow, top-to-the-west simple shear. Detailed P-wave tomographic imaging in southern Nevada provides a direct measure of mantle flow to >200 km since ~14.9 Ma. A nearly vertical, 1-2.5% high velocity column presently exists immediately beneath the Timber Mountain/Silent Canyon caldera complex (37.2° N, 116.2° W) that is interpreted as the root of the complex. Volcanism reached 500 km3 in eruptive volumes (comparable to Long Valley Caldera) by 14.9 Ma, and a total of over 7,000 km3 by 11.7 Ma, whereupon the system declined drastically in activity. The root is interpreted from tomographic, geochemical, and petrological considerations to correspond to a de-watering feature that conveyed a pulse of volatile rich volcanism and left a dry, depleted, and slightly cooled column behind. As a melt ascension residual of some sort, we infer that it was originally nearly vertical. With that assumption, the root structure comprises a shear flow marker for activity since it formed. The edifice is 0-15 km west of its center at 200 km depth, indicating that there has been little or no top-to-the-west shear and no channelized flow to the east or west since ~14.9 Ma. Approximately 40 km of top-to-the-south flow is observed, consistent with some geological models. Below 200 km the root appears to plunge NE at 45 degrees to the bottom of the model at 400 km. Synthetic modeling indicates that the deep delay structure is not an artifact of the root, but array aperture is too small to eliminate association with even deeper structures. Hydrous, subsolidus conditions to ~150 km are inferred on a NE linear trend southeast of the root structure. In Nevada this trend does

  6. Build a better mouse: directly-observed issues in computer use for adults with SMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Schensul, Jean J; Bowen, Anne M; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-03-01

    Integrating information technology into healthcare has the potential to bring treatment to hard-to-reach people. Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), however, may derive limited benefit from these advances in care because of lack of computer ownership and experience. To date, conclusions about the computer skills and attitudes of adults with SMI have been based primarily on self-report. In the current study, 28 psychiatric outpatients with co-occurring cocaine use were interviewed about their computer use and opinions, and 25 were then directly observed using task analysis and think aloud methods as they navigated a multi-component health informational website. Participants reported low rates of computer ownership and use, and negative attitudes towards computers. Self-reported computer skills were higher than demonstrated in the task analysis. However, some participants spontaneously expressed more positive attitudes and greater computer self-efficacy after navigating the website. Implications for increasing access to computer-based health information are discussed.

  7. Copernicus observations of interstellar matter in the direction of HR 1099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Weiler, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for high-resolution Copernicus U1 and V2 scans of the bright RS CVn spectroscopic binary HR 1099. The observations reveal strong UV emission lines at L-alpha and Mg II h and k from the stars as well as interstellar H I and D I L-alpha absorption lines and interstellar Mg II h and k absorption in the direction of the binary system. Column densities, bulk velocities, and temperatures are derived for the interstellar features. A comparison of the derived number density of interstellar H I with data for the nearby star Epsilon Eri indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar hydrogen along the line of sight. The range of values obtained for the D/H ratio is shown to be consistent with results of other studies. A depletion factor of at least 5 with respect to the solar abundance is estimated for the interstellar magnesium.

  8. Copernicus observations of neutral hydrogen and deuterium in the direction of HR 1099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Weiler, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    High-resolution Copernicus U1 scans were obtained of the bright RS CVn binary HR 1099 (d = 33 pc, galactic longitude = 185 deg, galactic latitude = -41 deg) in October 1977. Strong emission at L-alpha was detected. The interstellar L-alpha absorption features of H I and D I were also observed. Analyses of these interstellar lines are reported in this paper. The average density of neutral H in the direction of this system is found to be 0.006-0.012 per cu cm, which, because the local density is higher, requires a marked inhomogeneity along this line of sight. This result, when combined with other recent studies of the local interstellar medium, suggests the sun is located within a moderate-density H I region.

  9. Direct observation of the band structure in bulk hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henck, Hugo; Pierucci, Debora; Fugallo, Giorgia; Avila, José; Cassabois, Guillaume; Dappe, Yannick J.; Silly, Mathieu G.; Chen, Chaoyu; Gil, Bernard; Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco; Sirotti, Fausto; Asensio, Maria C.; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2017-02-01

    A promising route towards nanodevice applications relies on the association of graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides with hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN ). Due to its insulating nature, h -BN has emerged as a natural substrate and gate dielectric for graphene-based electronic devices. However, some fundamental properties of bulk h -BN remain obscure. For example, the band structure and the position of the Fermi level have not been experimentally resolved. Here, we report a direct observation of parabolic dispersions of h -BN crystals using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We find that h -BN exfoliation on epitaxial graphene enables overcoming the technical difficulties of using ARPES with insulating materials. We show trigonal warping of the intensity maps at constant energy. The valence-band maxima are located around the K points, 2.5 eV below the Fermi level, thus confirming the residual p -type character of typical h -BN .

  10. In-situ observation of porosity formation during directional solidification of Al-Si casting alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In-situ observation of porosity formation during directional solidification of two Al-Si alloys (7%Si and 13%Si was made by using of micro-focus X-ray imaging. In both alloys, small spherical pores initially form in the melt far away from the eutectic solid-liquid (S/L interface and then grow and coagulate during solidification. Some pores can float and escape from the solidifying melt front at a relatively high velocity. At the end of solidification, the remaining pores maintain spherical morphology in the near eutectic alloy but become irregular in the hypoeutectic alloy. This is attributed to different solidification modes and aluminum dendrite interactions between the two alloys. The mechanism of the porosity formation is briefly discussed in this paper.

  11. Direct observation of the M2 phase with its Mott transition in a VO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Slusar, Tetiana V.; Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Cho, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Jeong, Yoon Hee; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Kim, Jeehoon

    2016-12-01

    In VO2, the explicit origin of the insulator-to-metal transition is still disputable between Peierls and Mott insulators. Along with the controversy, its second monoclinic (M2) phase has received considerable attention due to the presence of electron correlation in undimerized vanadium ions. However, the origin of the M2 phase is still obscure. Here, we study a granular VO2 film using conductive atomic force microscopy and Raman scattering. Upon the structural transition from monoclinic to rutile, we observe directly an intermediate state showing the coexistence of monoclinic M1 and M2 phases. The conductivity near the grain boundary in this regime is six times larger than that of the grain core, producing a donut-like landscape. Our results reveal an intra-grain percolation process, indicating that VO2 with the M2 phase is a Mott insulator.

  12. Direct observation of motion of single F-actin filaments in the presence of myosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Toshio; Nakase, Michiyuki; Nishiyama, Katsumi; Oosawa, Fumio

    1984-01-01

    Actin is found in almost all kinds of non-muscle cells where it is thought to have an important role in cell motility. A proper understanding of that role will only be possible when reliable in vitro systems are available for investigating the interaction of cellular actin and myosin. A start has been made on several systems1-4, most recently by Sheetz and Spudich who demonstrated unidirectional movement of HMM-coated beads along F-actin cables on arrays of chloroplasts exposed by dissection of a Nitella cell5. As an alternative approach, we report here the direct observation by fluorescence microscopy of the movements of single F-actin filaments interacting with soluble myosin fragments energized by Mg2+-ATP.

  13. Direct observation of Kramers-Kronig self-phasing in coherently combined fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Sheng; Leger, James R; Nilsson, Johan; Sahu, Jayanta

    2013-10-15

    A highly stable coherent beam-combining system has been designed to measure self-phasing in fiber lasers due to nonlinear effects. Whereas self-phasing in previous coherent combination experiments has been principally attributed to wavelength shifting, these wavelength effects have been efficiently suppressed in our experiment by using a dual-core fiber with closely balanced optical path lengths. The self-phasing from nonlinear effects could then be measured independently and directly by common-path interferometry with a probe laser. The Kramers-Kronig effect in the fiber gain media was observed to induce a phase shift that effectively canceled the applied path length errors, resulting in efficient lasing under all phase conditions. This process was demonstrated to result in robust lasing over a large range of pump conditions.

  14. Direct observation of hierarchical nucleation of martensite and size-dependent superelasticity in shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifeng; Ding, Xiangdong; Li, Ju; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun

    2014-02-21

    Martensitic transformation usually creates hierarchical internal structures beyond mere change of the atomic crystal structure. Multi-stage nucleation is thus required, where nucleation (level-1) of the underlying atomic crystal lattice does not have to be immediately followed by the nucleation of higher-order superstructures (level-2 and above), such as polysynthetic laths. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we directly observe the nucleation of the level-2 superstructure in a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal under compression, with critical super-nuclei size L2c around 500 nm. When the sample size D decreases below L2c, the superelasticity behavior changes from a flat stress plateau to a continuously rising stress-strain curve. Such size dependence definitely would impact the application of shape memory alloys in miniaturized MEMS/NEMS devices.

  15. Observation of Intrinsic Magnus Force and Direct Detection of Chirality in Superfluid 3He-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroki; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Kono, Kimitoshi

    2015-04-01

    We report details of the observation of the intrinsic Magnus (IM) force acting on negative and positive ions trapped just below a free surface of the A phase of superfluid 3He (3He-A). From the transport measurements of the ions along the surface, we found that the IM force acts on both the negative and positive ions. We also demonstrate that the transport measurements could distinguish whether the surface is composed of a chiral monodomain or multiple chiral domains. For multiple chiral domains, the current of the ions was found to be irreproducible and unstable, which was reasonably explained by the formation of the chiral domain structure and the dynamics of the chiral domain walls. For chiral monodomains, the appearance ratio of chirality emerging upon cooling through the superfluid transition temperature was found to depend on the direction of the external magnetic field, which implies the existence of an unknown coupling between the chirality and the magnetic field.

  16. Cardiac-induced physiologic noise in tissue is a direct observation of cardiac-induced fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Pallab K; Lowe, Mark J

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in certain cases, cardiac and respiratory rate fluctuations in BOLD-weighted MRI time courses may be an artifact unique to rapid sampled acquisitions and may not be present in longer repetition-time acquisitions. The implication of this is that, in these cases, cardiac and respiratory rate fluctuations are not aliased into data that undersample these effects and do not affect the resulting time course measurements. In this study, we show that these cases are specific to regions of large cerebrospinal fluid content and are not generally true for gray matter regions of the brain. We demonstrate that in many brain regions of interest, these fluctuations are directly observed as BOLD fluctuations and thus will affect measurements that undersample these effects.

  17. HF Propagation Directions Observed by the e-POP Radio Receiver Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, H. G.; Perry, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated high-frequency (HF) propagation direction measurements by the e-POP Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the CASSIOPE spacecraft. The measurement of the direction of arrival (DOA) of electromagnetic waves propagating in the ionosphere is a desirable technique for the analysis of both spontaneous emissions and waves emitted by ground transmitters. In the case of detection of waves launched by HF radars, DOA evidence at low earth orbit close to regions of (coherent) backscatter may help to understand the details of the physics of scatter of radar waves, by the examination of waves both incident on and scattered by irregularities of density. The RRI has been used to observe direct transmissions from the ground for evaluation of a DOA detection algorithm. Signals are detected with two orthogonal 6-m distributed dipoles on RRI working at frequencies up to about 18 MHz. When ground sources emit electric-field polarisation of one of the Ordinary (O) and Extraordinary (X) cold-plasma modes, the DOA of transmissions propagating near the bore sight of the RRI crossed dipoles can be determined. In the instance of transversely polarized transmissions from a SuperDARN source, the emissions are the sum of the two cold-plasma modes and we depend on differential refraction to temporally resolve the pulsed transmissions into two modes for DOA measurement by the RRI. DOA information can help to confirm the existence of horizontal density gradients that can bend rays away from the great-circle beam paths traditionally assumed in the SuperDARN fields of view.

  18. Direct impact of El Niño on East Asian summer precipitation in the observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Na; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Yinghui

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the direct impact of El Niño in the tropical Pacific on the East Asian summer precipitation . Generalized equilibrium feedback assessment is used to isolate this direct impact from interrelated ocean forcings in the observations. Results indicate that the El Niño can directly influence the summer precipitation in East China significantly. The precipitation response presents a tri-pole pattern, with anomalous wet in the Southeast and the Northeast China and anomalous dry in the northern China. Amplitude of the precipitation response is around 20 % of the total precipitation for 1 °C El Niño forcing in most area of the East China, with maximal response up to 30 %/°C. The tri-pole precipitation response is attributed to an El Niño-induced cyclonic anomaly in the Northeast Asia and an anticyclonic anomaly in the western North Pacific (WNP). The anomalous cyclone deepens the East Asian trough southwestward, favoring an air ascending in front of the trough in the Southeast and the Northeast China, and an air descending at the rear of the trough in the northern China. The anomalous anticyclone in the WNP strengthens the WNP Subtropical High northeastward, providing adequate water vapor to the Southeast China. The anomalous cyclone and anomalous anticyclone work together to generate the tri-pole precipitation response pattern in the East China. Further investigation suggests that these two key anomalous circulations are part of a northwestward propagating Rossby wave, which is excited by the El Niño warming-induced convection over the subtropical west-central Pacific. This study can serve as a reference for the prediction of the East Asian precipitation in both the developing and decaying summer of El Niño.

  19. Direct observation of slow intersystem crossing in an aromatic ketone, fluorenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soep, Benoît; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Briant, Marc; Gaveau, Marc-André; Poisson, Lionel

    2016-08-17

    Direct measurements of Single vibronic Level InterSystem Crossing (SLISC) have been performed on the fluorenone molecule in the gas phase, by time resolved photoelectron and photoion spectroscopy. Vibronic transitions above the S1 nπ* origin were excited in the 432-420 nm region and the decay of S1 and growth of T1(3)ππ* could be observed within a 10 ns time domain. The ionization potential is measured as 8.33 ± 0.04 eV. The energy of the first excited triplet state of fluorenone, T1 has been characterized directly at 18 640 ± 250 cm(-1). The internal conversion of S1 to S0 is found to amount to ∼15% of the population decay, thus ISC is the dominant electronic relaxation process. ISC, although favored by the S1(1)nπ*-T1(3)ππ* coupling scheme, is 3 orders of magnitude less efficient than in the similar molecule benzophenone. Thus, the planarity of the fluorenone molecule disfavors the exploration of the configuration space where surface crossings would create high ISC probability, which occurs in benzophenone through surface crossings. The time evolution of S1 fluorenone is well accounted for by the statistical decay of individual levels into a quasi-continuum of T1 vibronic levels.

  20. Low frequency radio observations of bi-directional electron beams in the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Carley, Eoin P; Vilmer, Nicole; Gallagher, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    The radio signature of a shock travelling through the solar corona is known as a type II solar radio burst. In rare cases these bursts can exhibit a fine structure known as `herringbones', which are a direct indicator of particle acceleration occurring at the shock front. However, few studies have been performed on herringbones and the details of the underlying particle acceleration processes are unknown. Here, we use an image processing technique known as the Hough transform to statistically analyse the herringbone fine structure in a radio burst at $\\sim$20-90 MHz observed from the Rosse Solar-Terrestrial Observatory on 2011 September 22. We identify 188 individual bursts which are signatures of bi-directional electron beams continuously accelerated to speeds of 0.16$_{-0.10}^{+0.11} c$. This occurs at a shock acceleration site initially at a constant altitude of $\\sim$0.6 R$_{\\odot}$ in the corona, followed by a shift to $\\sim$0.5 R$_{\\odot}$. The anti-sunward beams travel a distance of 170$_{-97}^{+174}$ ...

  1. The Exozodiacal Dust Problem for Direct Observations of ExoEarths

    CERN Document Server

    Roberge, Aki; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Weinberger, Alycia J; Hinz, Philip M; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Absil, Olivier; Kuchner, Marc J; Bryden, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Debris dust in the habitable zones of stars - otherwise known as exozodiacal dust - comes from extrasolar asteroids and comets and is thus an expected part of a planetary system. Background flux from the Solar System's zodiacal dust and the exozodiacal dust in the target system is likely to be the largest source of astrophysical noise in direct observations of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars. Furthermore, dust structures like clumps, thought to be produced by dynamical interactions with exoplanets, are a possible source of confusion. In this paper, we qualitatively assess the primary impact of exozodical dust on high-contrast direct imaging at optical wavelengths, such as would be performed with a coronagraph. Then we present the sensitivity of previous, current, and near-term facilities to thermal emission from debris dust at all distances from nearby solar-type stars, as well as our current knowledge of dust levels from recent surveys. Finally, we address the other method of detec...

  2. Quantifying the Hawthorne Effect in Hand Hygiene Compliance Through Comparing Direct Observation With Automated Hand Hygiene Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Stefan; Reischke, Jana; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Winning, Johannes; Gastmeier, Petra; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Scherag, André; Pletz, Mathias W

    2015-08-01

    To quantify the Hawthorne effect of hand hygiene performance among healthcare workers using direct observation. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit, university hospital. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance over 48 audits of 2 hours each. Simultaneously, hand hygiene events (HHEs) were recorded using electronic alcohol-based handrub dispensers. Directly observed and electronically recorded HHEs during the 2 hours of direct observation were compared using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots. To quantify the Hawthorne effect, we compared the number of electronically recorded HHEs during the direct observation periods with the re-scaled electronically recorded HHEs in the 6 remaining hours of the 8-hour working shift. A total of 3,978 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the 96 hours of direct observation. Hand hygiene compliance was 51% (95% CI, 49%-53%). There was a strong positive correlation between directly observed compliance and electronically recorded HHEs (ρ=0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.81], Phand hygiene performance.

  3. Use of Video Directly Observed Therapy for Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection - Johnson County, Kansas, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzschuh, Elizabeth Lawlor; Province, Stacie; Johnson, Krystle; Walls, Caitlin; Shemwell, Cathy; Martin, Gary; Showalter, Amy; Dunlay, Jennifer; Conyers, Andrew; Griffin, Phil; Tausz, Nancy

    2017-04-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is spread from person to person through the air. TB can be spread in congregate settings, such as school environments, to varying degrees, based on factors including duration of contact and air ventilation (1); therefore, evaluating potential contacts and exposures can be challenging. In February 2015, a student at a Kansas high school received a diagnosis of active pulmonary TB disease. Screening of 385 (91%) school contacts, four (100%) household contacts, and 19 (90%) social contacts resulted in the identification of 50 persons with latent TB infection. Johnson County Department of Health and Environment (JCDHE) Public Health Emergency Preparedness personnel used their experience with points of distribution logistics to optimize testing clinic layouts and implement the incident command structure. Open communication with students, school staff members, the public, and the media about the investigation from the outset was imperative to reduce rumors and unease that can accompany a large communicable disease investigation. The large number of persons needing treatment for latent TB overwhelmed JCDHE's two TB nurses. As a result, JCDHE developed a policy and procedure to allow persons who met eligibility requirements to complete 12 weekly doses of isoniazid and rifapentine treatment using video directly observed therapy (VDOT) rather than traditional in-person directly observed therapy (DOT). This procedure facilitated treatment compliance and completion; among the eligible 15 persons who chose the 12-week VDOT option, 14 (93%) completed treatment. State and local health departments might consider use of VDOT to monitor treatment of persons with latent TB infection.

  4. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.

  5. Direct Observation of THF Hydrate Formation in Porous Microstructure Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The porous microstructure of hydrates governs the mechanical strength of the hydrate-bearing sediment. To investigate the growth law and microstructure of hydrates in porous media, the growth process of tetrahydrofuran (THF hydrate under different concentration of THF solution is directly observed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. The images show that the THF hydrate grows as different models under different concentration of THF solution (19%, 11.4% and 5.7% by weight at 1 °C. When the concentration is 19% (stoichiometric molar ratio of THF/H2O = 1:17, the THF hydrate grows as cementing model. However, with the decreasing concentration of THF, the growth model transfers from cementing model to floating model. The results show that the growth of the THF hydrate was influenced by the dissolved quantity of THF in the water. The extension of the observed behavior to methane hydrate could have implications in understanding their role in seafloor and permafrost stability.

  6. Direct observation of microcontact behaviours in pattern-generation step of reverse offset printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Kanazawa, Shusuke; Yamamoto, Noritaka; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the nip formed during roll-to-sheet-type reverse offset printing. First, we show that several modes of roof collapses (bottom contact defects) could be formed depending on the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blanket thickness and pattern size. We regulate the manifestation of the defect modes driven by the local pile-up of the incompressible PDMS, as modelled by the contact mechanics formulation, together with a complementary numerical simulation. In dynamics, we first differentiate between the static nip and dynamic nip during printing, where the width is extended by the kinetically controlled adhesion of the blanket PDMS. Further, we observe that depending on the pattern structure, there was spatial deviation of the microscopic contact and subsequent separation behaviours of the cliché from a macroscopically recognizable nip, and consequently, local detachment rates were heterogeneous in the pattern-generation process of the reverse offset printing, even with a constant machine speed. In addition, we found that the parts of a pattern where the ink transfer fails in a high-speed patterning condition corresponded to the region of the locally enhanced detachment rates found during direct observation.

  7. Incorporating a disturbance observer with direct velocity feedback for control of human-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawako, Donald; Reynolds, Paul; Hudson, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Feedback control strategies are desirable for disturbance rejection of human-induced vibrations in civil engineering structures as human walking forces cannot easily be measured. In relation to human-induced vibration control studies, most past researches have focused on floors and footbridges and the widely used linear controller implemented in the trials has been the direct velocity feedback (DVF) scheme. With appropriate compensation to enhance its robustness, it has been shown to be effective at damping out the problematic modes of vibration of the structures in which the active vibration control systems have been implemented. The work presented here introduces a disturbance observer (DOB) that is used with an outer-loop DVF controller. Results of analytical studies presented in this work based on the dynamic properties of a walkway bridge structure demonstrate the potential of this approach for enhancing the vibration mitigation performance offered by a purely DVF controller. For example, estimates of controlled frequency response functions indicate improved attenuation of vibration around the dominant frequency of the walkway bridge structure as well as at higher resonant frequencies. Controlled responses from three synthesized walking excitation forces on a walkway bridge structure model show that the inclusion of the disturbance observer with an outer loop DVF has potential to improve on the vibration mitigation performance by about 3.5% at resonance and 6-10% off-resonance. These are realised with hard constraints being imposed on the low frequency actuator displacements.

  8. Direct Microscopic And Microholographic Observations Of The Solidification Of Particles From Rapidly Stirred Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeulders, R. J.; Mischgofsky, F. H.; Frankena, H. J.

    1983-06-01

    A microscopic set-up to observe fast moving solidifying particles during stir casting is described. The set-up consists of a Ruby laser and a frequency doubled Nd3+:YAG laser, a model device of an actual stir casting apparatus filled with a transparent organic alloy, melting at a low temperature and three different recording systems. Using a neopentyl alcohol alloy as a model substance for metal alloys, the crystallization process is studied by direct observation. Pulses from both lasers are used to provide a sufficiently short exposure time to take (simultaneously) holograms, microphotographs and videorecordings of the fast moving (flow rates up to 10 ms-1) small particles with sizes in the order of 10-103 μm. Primarily solidified particles appear to have equiaxed dendritic shapes. The longest diameter of these particles attain a maximum for low stirring rates and high cooling rates. After a period of stirring, some of the dendrite tips grow and transform the particle shapes into more spherical ones. At this stage the morphology of the solidified particles shows a good similarity with stir casted metal alloys.

  9. Enhancing management of tuberculosis treatment with video directly observed therapy in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuck, C; Robinson, E; Macaraig, M; Alexander, M; Burzynski, J

    2016-05-01

    Directly observed therapy (DOT), the standard of care for monitoring patients on treatment for tuberculosis (TB), requires substantial health department resources, and can be inconvenient and disruptive for patients. To determine whether video technology for remote observation of patients on anti-tuberculosis treatment (VDOT) is as effective as in-person DOT. Eligible TB patients in New York City were prospectively enrolled in VDOT from September 2013 to September 2014. We compared treatment outcomes and worker output for VDOT and in-person DOT. Among 390 patients on DOT for the treatment of TB, 61 (16%) were on VDOT and 329 (84%) on in-person DOT. Adherence to scheduled VDOT sessions was 95% (3292/3455) compared to 91% (32 204/35 442) with in-person DOT (>P Treatment completion with VDOT was similar to that with in-person DOT (96% vs. 97%, P = 0.63). The primary problems encountered during VDOT sessions were interruption of video and audio connectivity. Implementation of VDOT resulted in successful anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes while maximizing health department resources.

  10. Direct single-shot observation of millimeter wave superradiance in Rydberg-Rydberg transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Grimes, David D; Barnum, Timothy J; Zhou, Yan; Yelin, Susanne F; Field, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We have directly detected millimeter wave (mm-wave) free space superradiant emission from Rydberg states ($n \\sim 30$) of barium atoms in a single shot. We trigger the cooperative effects with a weak initial pulse and detect with single-shot sensitivity and 20 ps time resolution, which allows measurement and shot-by-shot analysis of the distribution of decay rates, time delays, and time-dependent frequency shifts. Cooperative line shifts and decay rates are observed that exceed values that would correspond to the Doppler width of 250 kHz by a factor of 20 and the spontaneous emission rate of 50 Hz by a factor of $10^5$. The initial superradiant output pulse is followed by evolution of the radiation-coupled many-body system toward complex long-lasting emission modes. A comparison to a mean-field theory is presented which reproduces the quantitative time-domain results, but fails to account for either the frequency-domain observations or the long-lived features.

  11. Direct observation of atomic-level nucleation and growth processes from an ultrathin metallic glass films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K. Q.; Cao, C. R.; Sun, Y. T.; Li, J.; Bai, H. Y.; Zheng, D. N., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, W. H., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Gu, L., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-07

    Till date, there have been no direct atomic-level experimental observations of the earliest stages of the nucleation and growth processes of nanocrystals formed by thermally induced crystallization in ultrathin metallic glasses (MGs). Here, we present a study of the crystallization process in atomically thin and highly stable MG films using double spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-TEM). Taking advantage of the stability of MG films with a slow crystallization process and the atomic-level high resolution of Cs-TEM, we observe the formation of the nucleus precursor of nanocrystals formed by atom aggregation followed by concomitant coalescence and stepwise evolution of the shape of the nanocrystals with a monodispersed and separated bimodal size distribution. Molecular dynamics simulation of the atomic motion in the glass film on a rigid amorphous substrate confirms the stepwise evolution processes of atom aggregation, cluster formation, cluster movement on the substrate, and cluster coalescence into larger crystalline particles. Our results might provide a better fundamental understanding of the nucleation and growth processes of nanocrystals in thin MG films.

  12. Direct observation of interfacial Au atoms on TiO₂ in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenpei; Sivaramakrishnan, Shankar; Wen, Jianguo; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2015-04-08

    Interfacial atoms, which result from interactions between the metal nanoparticles and support, have a large impact on the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles. However, they are difficult to observe; the lack of knowledge has been a major obstacle toward unraveling their role in chemical transformations. Here we report conclusive evidence of interfacial Au atoms formed on the rutile (TiO2) (110) surfaces by activation using high-temperature (∼500 °C) annealing in air. Three-dimensional imaging was performed using depth-sectioning enabled by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the interface between Au nanocrystals and TiO2 (110) surfaces consists of a single atomic layer with Au atoms embedded inside Ti-O. The number of interfacial Au atoms is estimated from ∼1-8 in an interfacial atomic column. Direct impact of interfacial Au atoms is observed on an enhanced Au-TiO2 interaction and the reduction of surface TiO2; both are critical to Au catalysis.

  13. Direct observations of evolving subglacial drainage beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lauren C; Catania, Ginny A; Hoffman, Matthew J; Gulley, Jason D; Lüthi, Martin P; Ryser, Claudia; Hawley, Robert L; Neumann, Thomas A

    2014-10-02

    Seasonal acceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet is influenced by the dynamic response of the subglacial hydrologic system to variability in meltwater delivery to the bed via crevasses and moulins (vertical conduits connecting supraglacial water to the bed of the ice sheet). As the melt season progresses, the subglacial hydrologic system drains supraglacial meltwater more efficiently, decreasing basal water pressure and moderating the ice velocity response to surface melting. However, limited direct observations of subglacial water pressure mean that the spatiotemporal evolution of the subglacial hydrologic system remains poorly understood. Here we show that ice velocity is well correlated with moulin hydraulic head but is out of phase with that of nearby (0.3-2 kilometres away) boreholes, indicating that moulins connect to an efficient, channelized component of the subglacial hydrologic system, which exerts the primary control on diurnal and multi-day changes in ice velocity. Our simultaneous measurements of moulin and borehole hydraulic head and ice velocity in the Paakitsoq region of western Greenland show that decreasing trends in ice velocity during the latter part of the melt season cannot be explained by changes in the ability of moulin-connected channels to convey supraglacial melt. Instead, these observations suggest that decreasing late-season ice velocity may be caused by changes in connectivity in unchannelized regions of the subglacial hydrologic system. Understanding this spatiotemporal variability in subglacial pressures is increasingly important because melt-season dynamics affect ice velocity beyond the conclusion of the melt season.

  14. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  15. Influence of observed diurnal cycles of aerosol optical depth on aerosol direct radiative effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF or aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE. The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally. We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather small and it was relatively small even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant effect on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on

  16. Influence of Observed Diurnal Cycles of Aerosol Optical Depth on Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, A.; Eck, T. F.; Huttunen, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Lindfors, A. V.; Myhre, G.; Smirinov, A.; Tripathi, S. N.; Yu, H.

    2013-01-01

    The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) or aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE). The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally.We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather small and it was relatively small even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast) does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant effect on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on 24 h ADRE was

  17. Direct observation of ring-opening dynamics in strong-field ionized selenophene using femtosecond inner-shell absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Florian; Chatterley, Adam S.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Closser, Kristina D.; Prendergast, David; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.; Gessner, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy is used to explore strong-field ionization induced dynamics in selenophene (C4H4Se). The dynamics are monitored in real-time from the viewpoint of the Se atom by recording the temporal evolution of element-specific spectral features near the Se 3d inner-shell absorption edge (˜58 eV). The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by first-principles time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The experiments simultaneously capture the instantaneous population of stable molecular ions, the emergence and decay of excited cation states, and the appearance of atomic fragments. The experiments reveal, in particular, insight into the strong-field induced ring-opening dynamics in the selenophene cation, which are traced by the emergence of non-cyclic molecules as well as the liberation of Se+ ions within an overall time scale of approximately 170 fs. We propose that both products may be associated with dynamics on the same electronic surfaces but with different degrees of vibrational excitation. The time-dependent inner-shell absorption features provide direct evidence for a complex relaxation mechanism that may be approximated by a two-step model, whereby the initially prepared, excited cyclic cation decays within τ1 = 80 ± 30 fs into a transient molecular species, which then gives rise to the emergence of bare Se+ and ring-open cations within an additional τ2 = 80 ± 30 fs. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest a close relationship between σ* excited cation states and the observed ring-opening reactions. The findings demonstrate that the combination of femtosecond time-resolved core-level spectroscopy with ab initio estimates of spectroscopic signatures provide new insights into complex, ultrafast photochemical reactions such as ring-opening dynamics in organic molecules in real-time and with simultaneous sensitivity for electronic and structural

  18. Direct observation and modelling of ordered hydrogen adsorption and catalyzed ortho-para conversion on ETS-10 titanosilicate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Vitillo, Jenny G; Cocina, Donato; Gribov, Evgueni N; Zecchina, Adriano

    2007-06-07

    Hydrogen physisorption on porous high surface materials is investigated for the purpose of hydrogen storage and hydrogen separation, because of its simplicity and intrinsic reversibility. For these purposes, the understanding of the binding of dihydrogen to materials, of the structure of the adsorbed phase and of the ortho-para conversion during thermal and pressure cycles are crucial for the development of new hydrogen adsorbents. We report the direct observation by IR spectroscopic methods of structured hydrogen adsorption on a porous titanosilicate (ETS-10), with resolution of the kinetics of the ortho-para transition, and an interpretation of the structure of the adsorbed phase based on classical atomistic simulations. Distinct infrared signals of o- and p-H2 in different adsorbed states are measured, and the conversion of o- to p-H2 is monitored over a timescale of hours, indicating the presence of a catalyzed reaction. Hydrogen adsorption occurs in three different regimes characterized by well separated IR manifestations: at low pressures ordered 1:1 adducts with Na and K ions exposed in the channels of the material are formed, which gradually convert into ordered 2:1 adducts. Further addition of H2 occurs only through the formation of a disordered condensed phase. The binding enthalpy of the Na+-H2 1:1 adduct is of -8.7+/-0.1 kJ mol(-1), as measured spectroscopically. Modeling of the weak interaction of H2 with the materials requires an accurate force field with a precise description of both dispersion and electrostatics. A novel three body force field for molecular hydrogen is presented, based on the fitting of an accurate PES for the H2-H2 interaction to the experimental dipole polarizability and quadrupole moment. Molecular mechanics simulations of hydrogen adsorption at different coverages confirm the three regimes of adsorption and the structure of the adsorbed phase.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow in a bead pack: Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Vogt, Sarah J.; Codd, Sarah L.; Seymour, Joseph D.; McKinley, Matthew I.

    2013-04-01

    A significant body of current research is aimed at developing methods for numerical simulation of flow and transport in porous media that explicitly resolve complex pore and solid geometries, and at utilizing such models to study the relationships between fundamental pore-scale processes and macroscopic manifestations at larger (i.e., Darcy) scales. A number of different numerical methods for pore-scale simulation have been developed, and have been extensively tested and validated for simplified geometries. However, validation of pore-scale simulations of fluid velocity for complex, three-dimensional (3D) pore geometries that are representative of natural porous media is challenging due to our limited ability to measure pore-scale velocity in such systems. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offer the opportunity to measure not only the pore geometry, but also local fluid velocities under steady-state flow conditions in 3D and with high spatial resolution. In this paper, we present a 3D velocity field measured at sub-pore resolution (tens of micrometers) over a centimeter-scale 3D domain using MRI methods. We have utilized the measured pore geometry to perform 3D simulations of Navier-Stokes flow over the same domain using direct numerical simulation techniques. We present a comparison of the numerical simulation results with the measured velocity field. It is shown that the numerical results match the observed velocity patterns well overall except for a variance and small systematic scaling which can be attributed to the known experimental uncertainty in the MRI measurements. The comparisons presented here provide strong validation of the pore-scale simulation methods and new insights for interpretation of uncertainty in MRI measurements of pore-scale velocity. This study also provides a potential benchmark for future comparison of other pore-scale simulation methods. 2012 Elsevier Science.

  20. Processing Doppler Lidar and Cloud Radar Observations for Analysis of Convective Mass Flux Parameterizations Using DYNAMO Direct Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Processing Doppler Lidar and Cloud Radar Observations...campaign the data gathered from the High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) and the 94-GHz cloud Doppler radar Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Processing Doppler Lidar and Cloud Radar Observations for Analysis of Convective Mass Flux

  1. Direct observation of a photochemical activation energy: a case study of acetone photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Markus; Heim, Pascal; Thaler, Bernhard; Kitzler, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2017-06-01

    The ability to observe and quantify the conversion of electronic potential energy to vibrational kinetic energy in a molecule after photoexcitation is essential to understand and control the outcome of photoinduced molecular fragmentation. We exploit the high selectivity of photoelectron-photoion coincidence detection to distinguish different relaxation channels and observe the fragmentation behavior of each channel. We demonstrate the concept by investigating the fragmentation of gas-phase acetone molecules initiated by three-photon excitation to high lying Rydberg states between 9.0 and 9.5 eV above the ground state. By applying variations of the photon energy, pulse duration (100-200 fs) and pulse energy, we are able to fully characterize the fragmentation process. Rydberg states between 5s and 8s are populated, which undergo ultrafast internal conversion to lower states. The corresponding non-adiabatic dynamics in the neutral molecule cause the conversion of electronic to vibrational energy, leading to fragmentation. Our scheme allows us to directly measure the activation energy for fragmentation of acetone to an acetyl ion and a methyl radical, which we determine to be (0.79 ± 0.04) eV. Longer laser pulses result in an increased fragment-to-parent ratio, representing a higher probability for relaxation because the relaxation time constants are comparable to the pulse duration. Upon excitation to Rydberg states at 9.5 eV we surprisingly observe reduced fragmentation, although ˜2 eV are coupled into vibrational energy, indicating that different relaxation pathways become active, which results in a change of the redistribution of vibrational energy within the molecule. Fragmentation due to subsequent excitation of the cation is found to play a minor role.

  2. Direct observations of active school transportation and stroller use in kindergarten children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about kindergarten students' active school transportation (AST and stroller/wagon use as sedentary travel devices. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of kindergarten children arriving to school by active and sedentary modes, including strollers, in Toronto elementary schools and compare to students in kindergarten to grade 6 (K–6. The secondary objective was to examine factors associated with AST in kindergarten and K–6 students. School travel mode was counted using direct observations at elementary schools in the City of Toronto in 2015. Two samples were observed: 1 Kindergarten sample: a random sample of schools with separate kindergarten entrances (n = 26 schools, 1069 children; 2 Kindergarten to grade 6 sample: observations were conducted at arrival locations at 50% of eligible elementary schools for students of all ages (n = 88 schools, 17,224 children. Proportions arriving by different travel modes were compared using Chi-square analysis. Negative binomial regression was conducted to examine the association between school characteristics and AST. AST was lower in the kindergarten compared to the K–6 sample (60% versus 74%, χ2 = 91.37, p < 0.001. The predominant sedentary mode for kindergarten students was by vehicle (38%, with <2% using strollers/wagons. Recent immigrant status was related to higher AST in kindergarten students; higher social disadvantage, crossing guards, school population and collision rates were related to higher AST in the K–6 sample. Factors influencing AST in young students require further investigation to influence the development of healthy active lifestyles at an early age.

  3. Twin Concept of Fine Structure Constant as the ‘Self Number-Archetype’ in Perspective of the Pauli-Jung Correspondence; Part I: Observation, Identification and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Várlaki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper – similarly to our earlier publications since 1993 – is trying to‘synchronize’ early quantum physics, the Kalmanian representation theory, Jungiananalytic psychology, and certain aesthetical categories. The number ‘137’, the so-calledinverse Fine Structure Constant (IFSC, is placed at the centre of this heuristic andepistemological experiment, along with the scientific cooperation of Pauli and Jung. A newpossibilistic twin concept of “controlling-observing equations” is proposed for thereinterpretation of the FSC and other Number Archetypes on the basis of the Hermeneuticand symbolic languages found in the W. Pauli and C. G. Jung “Correspondence”. The firstpart of the paper deals in first line with the introduction of the possibilistic twin concept ofFSC together with its interpretation according to the hermeneutical “tradition” of thePauli-Jung collaboration.

  4. 'Sometimes the work just needs to be done': socio-cultural influences on direct observation in medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher; LaDonna, Kori A; Lingard, Lorelei; Voyer, Stephane; Hatala, Rose

    2016-10-01

    Direct observation promises to strengthen both coaching and assessment, and calls for its increased use in medical training abound. Despite its apparent potential, the uptake of direct observation in medical training remains surprisingly limited outside the formal assessment setting. The limited uptake of observation raises questions about cultural barriers to its use. In this study, we explore the influence of professional culture on the use of direct observation within medical training. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we interviewed 22 residents or fellows (10 male, 12 female) about their experiences of being observed during training. Participants represented a range of specialties and training levels. Data collection and analysis were conducted iteratively. Themes were identified using constant comparative analysis. Observation was used selectively; specialties tended to observe the clinical acts that they valued most. Despite these differences, we found two cultural values that consistently challenged the ready implementation of direct observation across specialties: (i) autonomy in learning and (ii) efficiency in health care provision. Furthermore, we found that direct observation was a primarily learner-driven activity, which left learners caught in the middle, wanting observation but also wanting to appear independent and efficient. The cultural values of autonomy in learning and practice and efficiency in health care provision challenge the integration of direct observation into clinical training. Medical learners are often expected to ask for observation, but such requests are socially and culturally fraught, and likely to constrain the wider uptake of direct observation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  5. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  6. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  7. Experimental observation of oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, J.; Mota, F. L.; Chen, L.; Billia, B.; Tourret, D.; Song, Y.; Debierre, J.-M.; Guérin, R.; Karma, A.; Trivedi, R.; Bergeon, N.

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of oscillatory modes during three-dimensional cellular growth in a diffusive transport regime. We ground our analysis primarily on in situ observations of directional solidification experiments of a transparent succinonitrile 0.24 wt % camphor alloy performed in microgravity conditions onboard the International Space Station. This study completes our previous reports [Bergeon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 226102 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.226102; Tourret et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 042401 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.042401] from an experimental perspective, and results are supported by additional phase-field simulations. We analyze the influence of growth parameters, crystal orientation, and sample history on promoting oscillations, and on their spatiotemporal characteristics. Cellular patterns display a remarkably uniform oscillation period throughout the entire array, despite a high array disorder and a wide distribution of primary spacing. Oscillation inhibition may be associated to crystalline disorientation, which stems from polygonization and is manifested as pattern drifting. We determine a drifting velocity threshold above which oscillations are inhibited, thereby demonstrating that inhibition is due to cell drifting and not directly to disorientation, and also explaining the suppression of oscillations when the pulling velocity history favors drifting. Furthermore, we show that the array disorder prevents long-range coherence of oscillations, but not short-range coherence in localized ordered regions. For regions of a few cells exhibiting hexagonal (square) ordering, three (two) subarrays oscillate with a phase shift of approximately ±120∘ (180∘), with square ordering occurring preferentially near subgrain boundaries.

  8. The low-temperature inflection observed in neutron scattering measurements of proteins is due to methyl rotation: direct evidence using isotope labeling and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kathleen; Tobias, Douglas J; Kessler, Brigitte; Gabel, Frank; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Mulder, Frans A A; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Weik, Martin

    2010-04-14

    There is increasing interest in the contribution of methyl groups to the overall dynamics measured by neutron scattering experiments of proteins. In particular an inflection observed in atomic mean square displacements measured as a function of temperature on high resolution spectrometers (approximately 1 microeV) was explained by the onset of methyl group rotations. By specifically labeling a non-methyl-containing side-chain in a native protein system, the purple membrane, and performing neutron scattering measurements, we here provide direct experimental evidence that the observed inflection is indeed due to methyl group rotations. Molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental data, and their analysis suggests that the apparent transition is due to methyl group rotation entering the finite instrumental resolution of the spectrometer. Methyl group correlation times measured by solid state NMR in the purple membrane, taken from previous work, support the interpretation.

  9. Direct observation of a single proton in a Penning trap. Towards a direct measurement of the proton g-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreim, Susanne Waltraud

    2009-08-25

    This PhD thesis presents experiments performed on a single proton stored in a Penning trap. The eigenmotion of an isolated, free proton could be detected electronically via a coupling to a resonance circuit. This represents a non-destructive measurement, i.e. the particle is not lost during the measurement. The free cyclotron frequency emerging from the measured eigenfrequencies is one of the two frequencies required for the determination of the magnetic moment. This enables a direct determination of the g-factor contrary to already existing works. Design, developing, and commissioning of the experimental setup have been accomplished within the scope of this work leading to a measuring accuracy of 10{sup -7}. The technical challenges for the determination of the second frequency (the Larmor frequency) arising from the smallness of the magnetic moment were mastered. Since the spin state required for this measurement is an internal degree of freedom, it can only be accessed through a coupling of the magnetic moment to the eigenmotion. A novel, hybrid penning trap is presented in this work, which imprints the spin information onto the eigenmotion, thus, realizing a quantum jump spectrometer. Therewith, the frequency shift of the two spin states resulting from the magnetic coupling reaches for the first time an electronically detectable range. (orig.)

  10. Direct observation of ferrimagnetic/ferroelastic domain interactions in magnetite below the Verwey transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Church, Nathan S.; Feinberg, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    . This study provides a new understanding of the low-temperature magnetic properties of magnetite that will affect a broad range of rock magnetic studies, from the interpretation of magnetic remanence in terrestrial rocks and sediments to the search for biogenic magnetite in extraterrestrial materials....

  11. Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

  12. Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

  13. Does directly observed therapy improve tuberculosis treatment? More evidence is needed to guide tuberculosis policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Milliken, Amanda A; Meyer, Amanda J; Sharp, Alana R

    2016-10-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) now ranks alongside HIV as the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide and incurs a global economic burden of over $12 billion annually. Directly observed therapy (DOT) recommends that TB patients complete the course of treatment under direct observation of a treatment supporter who is trained and overseen by health services to ensure that patients take their drugs as scheduled. Though the current WHO End TB Strategy does not mention DOT, only "supportive treatment supervision by treatment partners", many TB programs still use it despite the fact that the has not been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior to self-administered treatment in ensuring treatment success or cure. DOT is designed to promote proper adherence to the full course of drug therapy in order to improve patient outcomes and prevent the development of drug resistance. Yet over 8 billion dollars is spent on TB treatment each year and thousands undergo DOT for all or part of their course of treatment, despite the absence of rigorous evidence supporting the superior effectiveness of DOT over self-administration for achieving drug susceptible TB (DS-TB) cure. Moreover, the DOT component burdens patients with financial and opportunity costs, and the potential for intensified stigma. To rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of DOT and identify the essential contributors to both successful treatment and minimized patient burden, we call for a pragmatic experimental trial conducted in real-world program settings, the gold standard for evidence-based health policy decisions. It is time to invest in the rigorous evaluation of DOT and reevaluate the DOT requirement for TB treatment worldwide. Rigorously evaluating the choice of treatment supporter, the frequency of health care worker contact and the development of new educational materials in a real-world setting would build the evidence base to inform the optimal design of TB treatment protocol. Implementing a

  14. Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Myhre

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution global aerosol model (Oslo CTM2 driven by meteorological data and allowing a comparison with a variety of aerosol observations is used to simulate radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect. The model simulates all main aerosol components, including several secondary components such as nitrate and secondary organic carbon. The model reproduces the main chemical composition and size features observed during large aerosol campaigns. Although the chemical composition compares best with ground-based measurement over land for modelled sulphate, no systematic differences are found for other compounds. The modelled aerosol optical depth (AOD is compared to remote sensed data from AERONET ground and MODIS and MISR satellite retrievals. To gain confidence in the aerosol modelling, we have tested its ability to reproduce daily variability in the aerosol content, and this is performing well in many regions; however, we also identified some locations where model improvements are needed. The annual mean regional pattern of AOD from the aerosol model is broadly similar to the AERONET and the satellite retrievals (mostly within 10–20%. We notice a significant improvement from MODIS Collection 4 to Collection 5 compared to AERONET data. Satellite derived estimates of aerosol radiative effect over ocean for clear sky conditions differs significantly on regional scales (almost up to a factor two, but also in the global mean. The Oslo CTM2 has an aerosol radiative effect close to the mean of the satellite derived estimates. We derive a radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect of −0.35 Wm−2 in our base case. Implementation of a simple approach to consider internal black carbon (BC mixture results in a total RF of −0.28 Wm−2. Our results highlight the importance of carbonaceous particles, producing stronger individual RF than considered in the recent IPCC estimate; however, net RF is less different

  15. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect using a multi-observation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Myhre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution global aerosol model (Oslo CTM2 driven by meteorological data and allowing a comparison with a variety of aerosol observations is used to simulate radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect. The model simulates all main aerosol components, including several secondary components such as nitrate and secondary organic carbon. The model reproduces the main chemical composition and size features observed during large aerosol campaigns. Although the chemical composition compares best with ground-based measurement over land for modelled sulphate, no systematic differences are found for other compounds. The modelled aerosol optical depth (AOD is compared to remote sensed data from AERONET ground and MODIS and MISR satellite retrievals. To gain confidence in the aerosol modelling, we have tested its ability to reproduce daily variability in the aerosol content, and this is performing well in many regions; however, we also identified some locations where model improvements are needed. The annual mean regional pattern of AOD from the aerosol model is broadly similar to the AERONET and the satellite retrievals (mostly within 10–20%. We notice a significant improvement from MODIS Collection 4 to Collection 5 compared to AERONET data. Satellite derived estimates of aerosol radiative effect over ocean for clear sky conditions differs significantly on regional scales (almost up to a factor two, but also in the global mean. The Oslo CTM2 has an aerosol radiative effect close to the mean of the satellite derived estimates. We derive a radiative forcing (RF of the direct aerosol effect of −0.35 Wm−2 in our base case. Implementation of a simple approach to consider internal black carbon (BC mixture results in a total RF of −0.28 Wm−2. Our results highlight the importance of carbonaceous particles, producing stronger individual RF than considered in the recent IPCC estimate; however, net RF is less different

  16. Objectively Optimized Observation Direction System Providing Situational Awareness for a Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulov, O.; Lary, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    There is great utility in having a flexible and automated objective observation direction system for the decadal survey missions and beyond. Such a system allows us to optimize the observations made by suite of sensors to address specific goals from long term monitoring to rapid response. We have developed such a prototype using a network of communicating software elements to control a heterogeneous network of sensor systems, which can have multiple modes and flexible viewing geometries. Our system makes sensor systems intelligent and situationally aware. Together they form a sensor web of multiple sensors working together and capable of automated target selection, i.e. the sensors “know” where they are, what they are able to observe, what targets and with what priorities they should observe. This system is implemented in three components. The first component is a Sensor Web simulator. The Sensor Web simulator describes the capabilities and locations of each sensor as a function of time, whether they are orbital, sub-orbital, or ground based. The simulator has been implemented using AGIs Satellite Tool Kit (STK). STK makes it easy to analyze and visualize optimal solutions for complex space scenarios, and perform complex analysis of land, sea, air, space assets, and shares results in one integrated solution. The second component is target scheduler that was implemented with STK Scheduler. STK Scheduler is powered by a scheduling engine that finds better solutions in a shorter amount of time than traditional heuristic algorithms. The global search algorithm within this engine is based on neural network technology that is capable of finding solutions to larger and more complex problems and maximizing the value of limited resources. The third component is a modeling and data assimilation system. It provides situational awareness by supplying the time evolution of uncertainty and information content metrics that are used to tell us what we need to observe and the

  17. Effects of the observation method (direct v. from video) and of the presence of an observer on behavioural results in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruste, H; Bokkers, E A M; Sergent, O; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M; van Reenen, C G; Lensink, B J

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effect of the observation method (direct or from video) and the effect of the presence of an observer on the behavioural results in veal calves kept on a commercial farm. To evaluate the effect of the observation method, 20 pens (four to five calves per pen) were observed by an observer for 60 min (two observation sessions of 30 min) and video-recorded at the same time. To evaluate the effect of the presence of the observer in front of the pen, 24 pens were video-recorded on 4 consecutive days and an observer was present in front of each pen for 60 min (two observation sessions of 30 min) on the third day. Behaviour was recorded using instantaneous scan sampling. For the study of the observer's effect, the analysis was limited to the posture, abnormal oral behaviour and manipulation of substrates. The two observation methods gave similar results for the time spent standing, but different results for all other behaviours. The presence of an observer did not affect the behaviour of calves at day level; however, their behaviour was affected when the observer was actually present in front of the pens. A higher percentage of calves were standing and were manipulating substrate in the presence of the observer, but there was no effect on abnormal oral behaviour. In conclusion, direct observations are a more suitable observation method than observations from video recordings for detailed behaviours in veal calves. The presence of an observer has a short-term effect on certain behaviours of calves that will have to be taken into consideration when monitoring these behaviours.

  18. Direct observation of the myosin Va recovery stroke that contributes to unidirectional stepping along actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Shiroguchi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Myosins are ATP-driven linear molecular motors that work as cellular force generators, transporters, and force sensors. These functions are driven by large-scale nucleotide-dependent conformational changes, termed "strokes"; the "power stroke" is the force-generating swinging of the myosin light chain-binding "neck" domain relative to the motor domain "head" while bound to actin; the "recovery stroke" is the necessary initial motion that primes, or "cocks," myosin while detached from actin. Myosin Va is a processive dimer that steps unidirectionally along actin following a "hand over hand" mechanism in which the trailing head detaches and steps forward ∼72 nm. Despite large rotational Brownian motion of the detached head about a free joint adjoining the two necks, unidirectional stepping is achieved, in part by the power stroke of the attached head that moves the joint forward. However, the power stroke alone cannot fully account for preferential forward site binding since the orientation and angle stability of the detached head, which is determined by the properties of the recovery stroke, dictate actin binding site accessibility. Here, we directly observe the recovery stroke dynamics and fluctuations of myosin Va using a novel, transient caged ATP-controlling system that maintains constant ATP levels through stepwise UV-pulse sequences of varying intensity. We immobilized the neck of monomeric myosin Va on a surface and observed real time motions of bead(s attached site-specifically to the head. ATP induces a transient swing of the neck to the post-recovery stroke conformation, where it remains for ∼40 s, until ATP hydrolysis products are released. Angle distributions indicate that the post-recovery stroke conformation is stabilized by ≥ 5 k(BT of energy. The high kinetic and energetic stability of the post-recovery stroke conformation favors preferential binding of the detached head to a forward site 72 nm away. Thus, the recovery

  19. Geno2pheno[HCV] - A Web-based Interpretation System to Support Hepatitis C Treatment Decisions in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhav Kalaghatgi

    Full Text Available The face of hepatitis C virus (HCV therapy is changing dramatically. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs specifically targeting HCV proteins have been developed and entered clinical practice in 2011. However, despite high sustained viral response (SVR rates of more than 90%, a fraction of patients do not eliminate the virus and in these cases treatment failure has been associated with the selection of drug resistance mutations (RAMs. RAMs may be prevalent prior to the start of treatment, or can be selected under therapy, and furthermore they can persist after cessation of treatment. Additionally, certain DAAs have been approved only for distinct HCV genotypes and may even have subtype specificity. Thus, sequence analysis before start of therapy is instrumental for managing DAA-based treatment strategies. We have created the interpretation system geno2pheno[HCV] (g2p[HCV] to analyse HCV sequence data with respect to viral subtype and to predict drug resistance. Extensive reviewing and weighting of literature related to HCV drug resistance was performed to create a comprehensive list of drug resistance rules for inhibitors of the HCV protease in non-structural protein 3 (NS3-protease: Boceprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Asunaprevir, Grazoprevir and Telaprevir, the NS5A replicase factor (Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Elbasvir and Ombitasvir, and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Dasabuvir and Sofosbuvir. Upon submission of up to eight sequences, g2p[HCV] aligns the input sequences, identifies the genomic region(s, predicts the HCV geno- and subtypes, and generates for each DAA a drug resistance prediction report. g2p[HCV] offers easy-to-use and fast subtype and resistance analysis of HCV sequences, is continuously updated and freely accessible under http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/index.php. The system was partially validated with respect to the NS3-protease inhibitors Boceprevir, Telaprevir and Simeprevir by using data generated with recombinant

  20. Geno2pheno[HCV] – A Web-based Interpretation System to Support Hepatitis C Treatment Decisions in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Sikorski, Anna Maria; Knops, Elena; Rupp, Daniel; Sierra, Saleta; Heger, Eva; Neumann-Fraune, Maria; Beggel, Bastian; Walker, Andreas; Timm, Jörg; Walter, Hauke; Obermeier, Martin; Kaiser, Rolf; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The face of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is changing dramatically. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) specifically targeting HCV proteins have been developed and entered clinical practice in 2011. However, despite high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90%, a fraction of patients do not eliminate the virus and in these cases treatment failure has been associated with the selection of drug resistance mutations (RAMs). RAMs may be prevalent prior to the start of treatment, or can be selected under therapy, and furthermore they can persist after cessation of treatment. Additionally, certain DAAs have been approved only for distinct HCV genotypes and may even have subtype specificity. Thus, sequence analysis before start of therapy is instrumental for managing DAA-based treatment strategies. We have created the interpretation system geno2pheno[HCV] (g2p[HCV]) to analyse HCV sequence data with respect to viral subtype and to predict drug resistance. Extensive reviewing and weighting of literature related to HCV drug resistance was performed to create a comprehensive list of drug resistance rules for inhibitors of the HCV protease in non-structural protein 3 (NS3-protease: Boceprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Asunaprevir, Grazoprevir and Telaprevir), the NS5A replicase factor (Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Elbasvir and Ombitasvir), and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Dasabuvir and Sofosbuvir). Upon submission of up to eight sequences, g2p[HCV] aligns the input sequences, identifies the genomic region(s), predicts the HCV geno- and subtypes, and generates for each DAA a drug resistance prediction report. g2p[HCV] offers easy-to-use and fast subtype and resistance analysis of HCV sequences, is continuously updated and freely accessible under http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/index.php. The system was partially validated with respect to the NS3-protease inhibitors Boceprevir, Telaprevir and Simeprevir by using data generated with recombinant, phenotypic

  1. Direct Observation of a Carbon Filament in Water-Resistant Organic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Hagyoul; Seong, Hyejeong; Lee, Dong-Il; Park, Hongkeun; Choi, Young Joo; Im, Sung-Gap; Kim, Sang Ouk; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-07-28

    The memory for the Internet of Things (IoT) requires versatile characteristics such as flexibility, wearability, and stability in outdoor environments. Resistive random access memory (RRAM) to harness a simple structure and organic material with good flexibility can be an attractive candidate for IoT memory. However, its solution-oriented process and unclear switching mechanism are critical problems. Here we demonstrate iCVD polymer-intercalated RRAM (i-RRAM). i-RRAM exhibits robust flexibility and versatile wearability on any substrate. Stable operation of i-RRAM, even in water, is demonstrated, which is the first experimental presentation of water-resistant organic memory without any waterproof protection package. Moreover, the direct observation of a carbon filament is also reported for the first time using transmission electron microscopy, which puts an end to the controversy surrounding the switching mechanism. Therefore, reproducibility is feasible through comprehensive modeling. Furthermore, a carbon filament is superior to a metal filament in terms of the design window and selection of the electrode material. These results suggest an alternative to solve the critical issues of organic RRAM and an optimized memory type suitable for the IoT era.

  2. Direct Observation of an Oxepin from a Bacterial Cytochrome P450-Catalyzed Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stok, Jeanette E; Chow, Sharon; Krenske, Elizabeth H; Farfan Soto, Clementina; Matyas, Csongor; Poirier, Raymond A; Williams, Craig M; De Voss, James J

    2016-03-18

    The cytochromes P450 are hemoproteins that catalyze a range of oxidative C-H functionalization reactions, including aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation. These transformations are important in a range of biological contexts, including biosynthesis and xenobiotic biodegradation. Much work has been carried out on the mechanism of aliphatic hydroxylation, implicating hydrogen atom abstraction, but aromatic hydroxylation is postulated to proceed differently. One mechanism invokes as the key intermediate an arene oxide (and/or its oxepin tautomer). Conclusive isolation of this intermediate has remained elusive and, currently, direct formation of phenols from a Meisenheimer intermediate is believed to be favored. We report here the identification of a P450 [P450cam (CYP101A1) and P450cin (CYP176A1)]-generated arene oxide as a product of in vitro oxidation of tert-butylbenzene. Computations (CBS-QB3) predict that the arene oxide and oxepin have similar stabilities to other arene oxides/oxepins implicated (but not detected) in P450-mediated transformations, suggesting that arene oxides can be unstable terminal products of P450-catalyzed aromatic oxidation that can explain the origin of some observed metabolites.

  3. Direct observations of ice seasonality reveal changes in climate over the past 320–570 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Magnuson, John J.; Batt, Ryan D; Winslow, Luke; Korhonen, Johanna; Yasuyuki Aono,

    2016-01-01

    Lake and river ice seasonality (dates of ice freeze and breakup) responds sensitively to climatic change and variability. We analyzed climate-related changes using direct human observations of ice freeze dates (1443–2014) for Lake Suwa, Japan, and of ice breakup dates (1693–2013) for Torne River, Finland. We found a rich array of changes in ice seasonality of two inland waters from geographically distant regions: namely a shift towards later ice formation for Suwa and earlier spring melt for Torne, increasing frequencies of years with warm extremes, changing inter-annual variability, waning of dominant inter-decadal quasi-periodic dynamics, and stronger correlations of ice seasonality with atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature after the start of the Industrial Revolution. Although local factors, including human population growth, land use change, and water management influence Suwa and Torne, the general patterns of ice seasonality are similar for both systems, suggesting that global processes including climate change and variability are driving the long-term changes in ice seasonality.

  4. A FAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL TEST OF THE DIRECTIONAL DEPENDENCE IN RADIATIVE GRAIN ALIGNMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillancourt, John E.; Andersson, B.-G., E-mail: jvaillancourt@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: bg@sofia.usra.edu [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2015-10-10

    The alignment of interstellar dust grains with magnetic fields provides a key method for measuring the strength and morphology of the fields. In turn, this provides a means to study the role of magnetic fields from diffuse gas to dense star-forming regions. The physical mechanism for aligning the grains has been a long-term subject of study and debate. The theory of radiative torques, in which an anisotropic radiation field imparts sufficient torques to align the grains while simultaneously spinning them to high rotational velocities, has passed a number of observational tests. Here we use archival polarization data in dense regions of the Orion molecular cloud (OMC-1) at 100, 350, and 850 μm to test the prediction that the alignment efficiency is dependent upon the relative orientations of the magnetic field and radiation anisotropy. We find that the expected polarization signal, with a 180-degree period, exists at all wavelengths out to radii of 1.5 arcmin centered on the Becklin–Neugebauer Kleinmann-Low (BNKL) object in OMC-1. The probabilities that these signals would occur due to random noise are low (≲1%), and are lowest toward BNKL compared to the rest of the cloud. Additionally, the relative magnetic field to radiation anisotropy directions accord with theoretical predictions in that they agree to better than 15° at 100 μm and 4° at 350 μm.

  5. Direct observation of family management: validity and reliability as a function of coder ethnicity and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the influence of coder ethnicity on the validity and reliability of direct observations of family management. Eight coders, 4 European American (EA) and 4 African American (AA), were randomly assigned to conduct behavior ratings of videotaped family interactions of European American and African American families, under two conditions: untrained and trained. Results indicated statistical differences between EA and AA coder ratings of family management practices across both untrained and trained conditions, suggesting the presence of ethnocentric perceptions of coders. Specifically, EA coders tended to rate AA families as exhibiting poorer family management skills compared with those of EA families. AA coder ratings for EA and for AA families showed no statistical differences. Although not statistically significant, posttraining coding results indicated a trend toward decreased differences among coder perceptions, especially in improving the validity and reliability of EA coder ratings of AA families. These findings are discussed with respect to recommendations for cross-cultural research as well as general theories of ethnic socialization.

  6. The effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and the Directly Observed Treatment in controlling Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Santiago Baldan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and objective: Strengthening Primary Health Care, making it the protagonist in the care of the person with tuberculosis, favors the identification of respiratory symptoms, as well as the diagnosis and early treatment, reducing the transmission of the disease and promoting adherence to treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the coverage of the Family Health Strategy- FSH and the Directly Observed Treatment Strategy – DOTS in control of non adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Methods: Exploratory study, based on secondary data. The investigated variables were: TB incidence rate (CI-TB, percentage of coverage by the FHS, treatment dropout rate and percentage of supply of DOTSin Mato Grosso do Sul. It was used the hierarchical cluster analysis method to look for patterns contained in the data set. Results: The data indicate that there are groups of municipalities in which the coverage by FHS and DOTS contributes to treatment adherence and control of the number of TB cases, while for other municipalities these measures have not been effective in reducing CI-TB and abandon to the treatment. The disease is distributed heterogeneously in the state. Conclusion: Professionals and health managers need to know the tuberculosis standards in their regions prioritizing and planning actions that contribute to an effective control of disease, transmission and greater adherence to treatment in their community.

  7. Direct observation of stick-slip movements of water nanodroplets induced by an electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaidov, Utkur M; Zheng, Haimei; Bhattacharya, Dipanjan; Casana, Yosune; Matsudaira, Paul

    2012-05-08

    Dynamics of the first few nanometers of water at the interface are encountered in a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. A simple but critical question is whether interfacial forces at these nanoscale dimensions affect an externally induced movement of a water droplet on a surface. At the bulk-scale water droplets spread on a hydrophilic surface and slip on a nonwetting, hydrophobic surface. Here we report the experimental description of the electron beam-induced dynamics of nanoscale water droplets by direct imaging the translocation of 10- to 80-nm-diameter water nanodroplets by transmission electron microscopy. These nanodroplets move on a hydrophilic surface not by a smooth flow but by a series of stick-slip steps. We observe that each step is preceded by a unique characteristic deformation of the nanodroplet into a toroidal shape induced by the electron beam. We propose that this beam-induced change in shape increases the surface free energy of the nanodroplet that drives its transition from stick to slip state.

  8. Comparison of advection and steam fogs: From direct observation over the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ki-Young; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Mahrt, Larry; Shim, Jae-Seol

    2010-11-01

    Sea fog occurs frequently over the Yellow Sea in spring and summer, which causes costly or even catastrophic events including property damage, marine accidents, public health and financial losses. Case studies of advection and steam fogs using direct observation over the sea are constructed to better understand their formation, evolution and dissipation. A southerly wind supplies moisture to initiate advection fog events (AFs). Approximately -100 to -200 W m-2 of latent heat flux and -70 W m-2 of sensible heat flux during mature AFs are characterized with stable stratification which maintains dense fog by limiting downward mixing of dryer air. Steam fogs (SFs) develop from flow of cold air over warmer water, but are normally of limited persistence. During the SFs, a northerly wind decreases the air temperature below the sea surface temperature, which increases the relative humidity through evaporation from the warmer ocean. During mature SF, 360 W m-2 of latent heat flux and 150 W m-2 of sensible heat flux are characterized with neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. The increase in wind speed and wind shear mixes dry air downward to the surface and limits the duration of the SF.

  9. Direct Observation of Spin- and Charge-Density Waves in a Luttinger Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chenglin; Marcum, Andrew; Mawardi Ismail, Arif; Fonta, Francisco; O'Hara, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    At low energy, interacting fermions in one dimension (e.g. electrons in quantum wires or fermionic atoms in 1D waveguides) should behave as Luttinger liquids. In stark contrast to Fermi liquids, the low-energy elementary excitations in Luttinger liquids are collective sound-like modes that propagate independently as spin-density and/or charge-density (i.e. particle-density) waves with generally unequal, and interaction-dependent, velocities. Here we aim to unambiguously confirm this hallmark feature of the Luttinger liquid - the phenomenon of spin-charge separation - by directly observing in real space the dynamics of spin-density and ``charge''-density waves excited in an ultracold gas of spin-1/2 fermions confined in an array of 1D optical waveguides. Starting from a two-component mixture of 6 Li atoms harmonically confined along each of the 1D waveguides, we excite low lying normal modes of the trapped system - namely the spin dipole and density dipole and quadrupole modes - and measure their frequency as a function of interaction strength. Luttinger liquid theory predicts that the spin dipole frequency is strongly dependent on interaction strength whereas the density dipole and quadrupole mode frequencies are relatively insensitive. We will also discuss extending our approach to exciting localized spin density and particle density wavepackets which should propagate at different velocities. Supported by AFOSR and NSF.

  10. Direct observation of lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur batteries using operando X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Joanna; Bouchet, Renaud; Trabesinger, Sigita; Marino, Cyril; Gubler, Lorenz; Villevieille, Claire

    2017-06-01

    In the on going quest towards lithium-battery chemistries beyond the lithium-ion technology, the lithium-sulfur system is emerging as one of the most promising candidates. The major outstanding challenge on the route to commercialization is controlling the so-called polysulfide shuttle, which is responsible for the poor cycling efficiency of the current generation of lithium-sulfur batteries. However, the mechanistic understanding of the reactions underlying the polysulfide shuttle is still incomplete. Here we report the direct observation of lithium polysulfides in a lithium-sulfur cell during operation by means of operando X-ray diffraction. We identify signatures of polysulfides adsorbed on the surface of a glass-fibre separator and monitor their evolution during cycling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the adsorption of the polysulfides onto SiO2 can be harnessed for buffering the polysulfide redox shuttle. The use of fumed silica as an electrolyte additive therefore significantly improves the specific charge and Coulombic efficiency of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  11. Surveillance or support: The experience of direct observation during tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Salazar, Irais; Garfein, Richard S; Cerecer, Paris; Rodwell, Timothy C

    2016-10-16

    Directly observed therapy (DOT) is a cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control. DOT has been criticised as paternalistic, but it has also been argued that the interaction with healthcare workers (HWs) can be a source of support for patients. We explored the experience of patients in antituberculosis treatment, with the aim of understanding the balance between surveillance and support from the recipient's point of view. We interviewed 27 patients in Tijuana, Mexico, employing narrative analysis to understand how participants made sense of their illness and their experience of DOT. We found a core narrative of biographic disruption and self-reconstruction, in which HWs helped participants to attribute a less negative meaning to TB. Interviewees accepted DOT's as necessary for other people to avoid treatment abandonment, but felt that in their case it was unnecessary. Only a few felt that DOT represented mistrust on the part of the HWs. We conclude that DOT can be a source of support when it is enacted in a patient-centred way. We discuss whether participants' lack of criticism of DOT is a case of adaptive preference, in the context of a power differential between patient and health system.

  12. The Age of the Directly-Imaged Planet Host Star $\\kappa$ Andromedae Determined From Interferometric Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeremy; Quinn, S; Ireland, M; Boyajian, T; Schaefer, G; Baines, E K

    2016-01-01

    $\\kappa$ Andromedae, an early type star that hosts a directly imaged low mass companion, is expected to be oblate due to its rapid rotational velocity ($v\\sin i$ = $\\sim$162 $\\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$). We observed the star with the CHARA Array's optical beam combiner, PAVO, measuring its size at multiple orientations and determining its oblateness. The interferometric measurements, combined with photometry and this $v\\sin i$ value are used to constrain an oblate star model that yields the fundamental properties of the star and finds a rotation speed that is $\\sim$85\\% of the critical rate and a low inclination of $\\sim$30$^\\circ$. Three modeled properties (the average radius, bolometric luminosity, and equatorial velocity) are compared to MESA evolution models to determine an age and mass for the star. In doing so, we determine an age for the system of 47$^{+27}_{-40}$ Myr. Based on this age and previous measurements of the companion's temperature, the BHAC15 evolution models imply a mass for the companion of 22$^...

  13. Does direct observation of procedural skills reflect trainee's progress in otolaryngology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Z; Hayden, L; Muthuswamy, K; Ziprin, P; Darzi, A; Tolley, N S

    2014-06-01

    UK surgical trainees are required to undertake work-based assessments each year in order to progress in their training. Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) is one of these assessments. We aim to investigate the validity of DOPS in assessing otolaryngology trainees at all levels. A retrospective search of the portfolios of all otolaryngology trainees in North Thames was carried out to identify otolaryngology-specific DOPS. A score (Cs) was calculated for each DOPS based on the percentage of satisfactorily-rated items. The overall performance rating (Ps) was analysed as a separate variable and compared with Cs. The Ps and Cs results were then compared across trainee grades and levels within each grade: Core trainees (CT1-CT2) and specialty trainees (ST3-ST8). Seven hundred and sixty-seven otolaryngology DOPS were completed between August 2008 and September 2013. The tool was found to be reliable and internally consistent. Trainees in ST grade had higher Cs and Ps scores than CT grade (P Otolaryngology DOPS is a useful tool in assessing otolaryngology trainees especially from CT1-ST3 level. DOPS can also differentiate between junior and senior trainees. However, it was not able to demonstrate progress at levels above ST3, most likely due to the simplicity of the procedures which trainees tend to master in the first few years of training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Direct observation of strand passage by DNA-topoisomerase and its limited processivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Yogo

    Full Text Available Type-II DNA topoisomerases resolve DNA entanglements such as supercoils, knots and catenanes by passing one segment of DNA duplex through a transient enzyme-bridged double-stranded break in another segment. The ATP-dependent passage reaction has previously been demonstrated at the single-molecule level, showing apparent processivity at saturating ATP. Here we directly observed the strand passage by human topoisomerase IIα, after winding a pair of fluorescently stained DNA molecules with optical tweezers for 30 turns into an X-shaped braid. On average 0.51 ± 0.33 µm (11 ± 6 turns of a braid was unlinked in a burst of reactions taking 8 ± 4 s, the unlinked length being essentially independent of the enzyme concentration between 0.25-37 pM. The time elapsed before the start of processive unlinking decreased with the enzyme concentration, being ~100 s at 3.7 pM. These results are consistent with a scenario where the enzyme binds to one DNA for a period of ~10 s, waiting for multiple diffusional encounters with the other DNA to transport it across the break ~10 times, and then dissociates from the binding site without waiting for the exhaustion of transportable DNA segments.

  15. Direct observations of ice seasonality reveal changes in climate over the past 320-570 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Magnuson, John J.; Batt, Ryan D.; Winslow, Luke A.; Korhonen, Johanna; Aono, Yasuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Lake and river ice seasonality (dates of ice freeze and breakup) responds sensitively to climatic change and variability. We analyzed climate-related changes using direct human observations of ice freeze dates (1443-2014) for Lake Suwa, Japan, and of ice breakup dates (1693-2013) for Torne River, Finland. We found a rich array of changes in ice seasonality of two inland waters from geographically distant regions: namely a shift towards later ice formation for Suwa and earlier spring melt for Torne, increasing frequencies of years with warm extremes, changing inter-annual variability, waning of dominant inter-decadal quasi-periodic dynamics, and stronger correlations of ice seasonality with atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature after the start of the Industrial Revolution. Although local factors, including human population growth, land use change, and water management influence Suwa and Torne, the general patterns of ice seasonality are similar for both systems, suggesting that global processes including climate change and variability are driving the long-term changes in ice seasonality.

  16. Direct three dimensional observation of the microstructure and chemistry of C3S hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinang

    Although portland cement has been used for over a hundred years as the binder in concrete, the basic mechanism of hydration is still not well understood. Progress has been halted for the fact that it is challenging for most current experimental techniques to give direct observation of the hydration process in-situ and provide quantitative measurement on the microstructure and chemistry at the nano-length scale. Recent advances of nano scale X-ray imaging make nano-tomography and nano-X-ray fluorescence reality. The nano-scale X-ray beams in these techniques allow the sample to be imaged nondestructively and provide a high transmission of signal that penetrate through both sample materials and a possible solution environment, which could make themselves in-situ techniques. Moreover, these techniques can be combined to enrich both datasets to become a more powerful technique. In this dissertation, the applications of both techniques have been established from micron lab scale experiment to nano-synchrotron investigation for studying cementitious materials. The progresses have been shown from first application on 3D chemical characterization of fly ash particles at the nanoscale to later updated versions of in-situ experiments for studying cement hydration, which allow quantitative measurements on 3D structure, chemistry and mass density of hydration products at different hydration periods. These unprecedented discoveries could lead to a breakthrough for both nanoscale analysis of any material and cement hydration research.

  17. Direct observations of the role of solution composition in magnesite dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H. E.; Putnis, C. V.

    2012-04-01

    original solutions with respect to Mg-carbonate phases, a precipitate formed on the surface indicating the formation of a fluid boundary layer supersaturated with respect to a new phase (probably hydrated magnesite). This is also consistent with Mg concentrations in experimental outflow solutions. At high ionic strength, despite the direct observations of an increase in dissolution, the Mg concentrations decreased. The precipitated phase was effectively passivating the mineral surface.

  18. The Stochastic Engine Initiative: Improving Prediction of Behavior in Geologic Environments We Cannot Directly Observe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R; Nitao, J; Newmark, R; Carle, S; Ramirez, A; Harris, D; Johnson, J; Johnson, V; Ermak, D; Sugiyama, G; Hanley, W; Sengupta, S; Daily, W; Glaser, R; Dyer, K; Fogg, G; Zhang, Y; Yu, Z; Levine, R

    2002-05-09

    The stochastic engine uses modern computational capabilities to combine simulations with observations. We integrate the general knowledge represented by models with specific knowledge represented by data, using Bayesian inferencing and a highly efficient staged Metropolis-type search algorithm. From this, we obtain a probability distribution characterizing the likely configurations of the system consistent with existing data. The primary use will be optimizing knowledge about the configuration of a system for which sufficient direct observations cannot be made. Programmatic applications include underground systems ranging from environmental contamination to military bunkers, optimization of complex nonlinear systems, and timely decision-making for complex, hostile environments such as battlefields or the detection of secret facilities. We create a stochastic ''base representation'' of system configurations (states) from which the values of measurable parameters can be calculated using forward simulators. Comparison of these predictions to actual measurements drives embedded Bayesian inferencing, updating the distributions of states in the base representation using the Metropolis method. Unlike inversion methods that generate a single bestcase deterministic solution, this method produces all the likely solutions, weighted by their likelihoods. This flexible method is best applied to highly non-linear, multi-dimensional problems. Staging of the Metropolis searches permits us to run the simplest model systems, such as lithology estimators, at the lower stages. The majority of possible configurations are thus eliminated from further consideration by more complex simulators, such as flow and transport models. Because the method is fully automated, large data sets of a variety of types can be used to refine the system configurations. The most important prerequisites for optimal use of this method are well-characterized forward simulators, realistic

  19. Trans-cultural Translation Process of High-skilled Foreign Talents Directed by Interpretive Theory%释意理论视阈下涉外高技能人才的跨文化翻译过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫敏

    2012-01-01

    In the interpretive theory,translation is not the word translation,and the meaning of source language is more important than words of source language.The meaning equivalence of source language and target language is pursued in the translating directed by interpreted theory.Interpretive theory is a good theory to direct high-skilled talents' translation in jobs concerning foreign business.Directed by interpretive theory and three translation steps of interpretive theory,the trans-cultural translation will be achieved successfully.%释意理论认为翻译不是纯粹的字词对应翻译,而应更注重原文的思想内涵,追求原文与译文的意义对等。释意理论很适合指导涉外高技能人才的涉外翻译工作。以释意理论为指导,遵循释意翻译三步骤,就可成功跨越翻译中的文化障碍。

  20. Interpretation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric mean winds observed with MF radar at about 30N with the 2D-SOCRATES model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Hu, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, D.; Wu, X.; G, X.

    Data obtained from Japanese Yamagawa 31 2 0 N 130 6 0 W MF radar and Chinese Wuhan 30 5 0 N 114 4 0 W MF radar have been used to study the mean winds in the MLT at about 30 0 N The observed mean winds show obvious seasonal variations Westerly wind prevails in winter and decreases with the increasing heights even reverses near the 95km altitude sometimes During summer the mean zonal wind is westward in the mesosphere and eastward in the lower thermosphere with the reversing height about 79km From 70km to 95km the mean meridional wind blows northwards in winter and southwards in summer Northerly wind prevails above about 95km The winds in spring and autumn are the transitions between summer and winter winds structures These wind features are due to the atmospheric photochemistry radiation and dynamics The NCAR interactive chemical-dynamical-radiative 2-D model SOCRATES is used to investigate the effects of the radiation and dynamics on the MLT circulations and to interpret the above observations When both of the radiation and dynamics are considered in the model simulation the resulting zonal-mean winds are similar to the mean winds observed by MF radar When not considering the dynamics the results reveal that the radiative-balanced winds increase with the increasing heights which disagree with the observational winds Large climatological values of forcing are required to account for such discrepancies The gravity waves play a dominant role in contributing to the forcing which provide a drag of the order of

  1. Direct observation of lattice strain in Si1-xGex/Si crystals using planar channeling patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breese, MBH; deKerckhove, DG; King, PJC; Smulders, PJM

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the direct observation of lattice strain in channeling patterns produced by 3 MeV protons transmitted through strained Si1-xGex/Si bilayers close to planar channeling directions. Blocking lines arising from each layer can be separately resolved at certain alignments, whereas onl

  2. A High shear stress segment along the San Andreas Fault: Inferences based on near-field stress direction and stress magnitude observations in the Carrizo Plain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, D. A., [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Younker, L.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-01-30

    Nearly 200 new in-situ determinations of stress directions and stress magnitudes near the Carrizo plain segment of the San Andreas fault indicate a marked change in stress state occurring within 20 km of this principal transform plate boundary. A natural consequence of this stress transition is that if the observed near-field ``fault-oblique`` stress directions are representative of the fault stress state, the Mohr-Coulomb shear stresses resolved on San Andreas sub-parallel planes are substantially greater than previously inferred based on fault-normal compression. Although the directional stress data and near-hydrostatic pore pressures, which exist within 15 km of the fault, support a high shear stress environment near the fault, appealing to elevated pore pressures in the fault zone (Byerlee-Rice Model) merely enhances the likelihood of shear failure. These near-field stress observations raise important questions regarding what previous stress observations have actually been measuring. The ``fault-normal`` stress direction measured out to 70 km from the fault can be interpreted as representing a comparable depth average shear strength of the principal plate boundary. Stress measurements closer to the fault reflect a shallower depth-average representation of the fault zone shear strength. If this is true, only stress observations at fault distances comparable to the seismogenic depth will be representative of the fault zone shear strength. This is consistent with results from dislocation monitoring where there is pronounced shear stress accumulation out to 20 km of the fault as a result of aseismic slip within the lower crust loading the upper locked section. Beyond about 20 km, the shear stress resolved on San Andreas fault-parallel planes becomes negligible. 65 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Direct observation of phase transitions: in situ diffraction measurements at the crystal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, J. V.; Barton, N. R.; Farber, D.; Wenk, H.; Kunz, M.; Lienert, U.

    2012-12-01

    Phase transitions often display determinate crystallographic orientation relationships between parent and symmetrically degenerate daughter domains. Preferred variant selection and orientation memory under the influence of deviatoric stress are the 'fingerprints' of the transformation mechanism, driving force, and microstructure. For the α-ɛ transition in iron - significant to the structure and anisotropy of the Earth's inner core - these have been studied primarily by texture analysis of polycrystalline powders; the convoluted nature of these data, however, render it essentially impossible to examine variant selection, and even precise orientation relationships themselves. Recently developed X-ray diffraction techniques have made it possible to answer these questions. Results from two measurements are presented. First, heterogeneous variant selection was observed and the specific α/ɛ orientation relationship was determined under quasi-static loading using High Energy Diffraction Microscopy at beamline 1-ID of APS-ANL. Second, the spatial heterogeneity and mutual exclusivity among ɛ variants was observed at the incipient transition using the Laue μ-diffraction technique at beamline 12.3.2. of ALS-LBNL. In both cases, a 60x25μm single crystal of iron was pressurized in a DAC and measured before and after the α-ɛ transition at 13GPa. In the HEDM experiment, spatial resolution is sacrificed for domain-averaged orientation and strain resoltuion, making it possible to quantify the magnitude of the applied deviatoric stress in situ. In the Laue μ-Diffraction technique, the local lattice orientations are mapped with 1μm resolution, displaying marked spatial variation. These pilot experiments open new possibilities for investigating high pressure/high temperature transformations in situ. By mapping both orientations and lattice strains, the nature of the mechanisms and driving forces can be illuminated. This work was performed under the auspices of the U

  4. Impact of psychiatric profile and personality trait on directly observed tuberculosis treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chaudhri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in tuberculosis (TB patients is well-known and its impact on treatment compliance needs to be evaluated. Objectives: To study psychiatric profile, personality trait of TB patients registered on directly observed treatment-short course (DOTS and to evaluate their impact on treatment completion and default. Materials and Methods: Psychiatric morbidity and personality traits were assessed by Cornell Medical Index and 16PF personality questionnaire, respectively. Patients with psychiatric comorbidity were randomized into two groups. Group A: DOTS with psychiatric intervention and Group B: DOTS alone. They were followed-up till treatment completion. Results: Out of 214 patients registered, 176 (82.2% had psychiatric comorbidity. 150 (85.2% had anxiety neurosis, and 26 (14.8% had depression. On personality assessment, 54.1% were neurotic, 26% introverts, 15.8% extroverts, and 4.1% had other traits. Forty-one (23.3% patients defaulted. Default rate was low (13.6 vs 33%, P = 0.002 and patient retrieval was good (67 vs 24%, P = 0.01 in group A. Patients with neurotic trait defaulted more (P = 0.006. On multivariate analysis, smoking (odds ratio (OR = 3.76, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.7-8.28; alcoholism (OR = 15.4, CI: 6.67-35.72; and neurotic personality (OR = 3.54, CI: 1.61-7.79 were strongly associated with default whereas age, sex, social class, literacy, and psychiatric morbidity type were not. Conclusion: Pretreatment psychological assessment and intervention reduces default rate.

  5. Unimolecular thermal decomposition of phenol and d5-phenol: Direct observation of cyclopentadiene formation via cyclohexadienone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Adam M.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Barney Ellison, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolyses of phenol and d5-phenol (C6H5OH and C6D5OH) have been studied using a high temperature, microtubular (μtubular) SiC reactor. Product detection is via both photon ionization (10.487 eV) time-of-flight mass spectrometry and matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Gas exiting the heated reactor (375 K-1575 K) is subject to a free expansion after a residence time in the μtubular reactor of approximately 50-100 μs. The expansion from the reactor into vacuum rapidly cools the gas mixture and allows the detection of radicals and other highly reactive intermediates. We find that the initial decomposition steps at the onset of phenol pyrolysis are enol/keto tautomerization to form cyclohexadienone followed by decarbonylation to produce cyclopentadiene; C6H5OH → c-C6H6 = O → c-C5H6 + CO. The cyclopentadiene loses a H atom to generate the cyclopentadienyl radical which further decomposes to acetylene and propargyl radical; c-C5H6 → c-C5H5 + H → HC≡CH + HCCCH2. At higher temperatures, hydrogen loss from the PhO-H group to form phenoxy radical followed by CO ejection to generate the cyclopentadienyl radical likely contributes to the product distribution; C6H5O-H → C6H5O + H → c-C5H5 + CO. The direct decarbonylation reaction remains an important channel in the thermal decomposition mechanisms of the dihydroxybenzenes. Both catechol (o-HO-C6H4-OH) and hydroquinone (p-HO-C6H4-OH) are shown to undergo decarbonylation at the onset of pyrolysis to form hydroxycyclopentadiene. In the case of catechol, we observe that water loss is also an important decomposition channel at the onset of pyrolysis.

  6. Directional Limits on Persistent Gravitational Waves from Advanced LIGO's First Observing Run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Ananyeva, A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Appert, S; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Avila-Alvarez, A; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Beer, C; Bejger, M; Belahcene, I; Belgin, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Billman, C R; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Biscoveanu, A S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackman, J; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bohe, A; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T A; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campbell, W; Canepa, M; Cannon, K C; Cao, H; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, H-P; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Chmiel, T; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, A J K; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Cocchieri, C; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conti, L; Cooper, S J; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, E; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Covas, P B; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cullen, T J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Davis, D; Daw, E J; Day, B; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devenson, J; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Doctor, Z; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorrington, I; Douglas, R; Dovale Álvarez, M; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R C; Etienne, Z; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E J; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fernández Galiana, A; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Forsyth, S S; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fries, E M; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H; Gadre, B U; Gaebel, S M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gayathri, V; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghonge, S; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P

    2017-03-24

    We employ gravitational-wave radiometry to map the stochastic gravitational wave background expected from a variety of contributing mechanisms and test the assumption of isotropy using data from the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory's (aLIGO) first observing run. We also search for persistent gravitational waves from point sources with only minimal assumptions over the 20-1726 Hz frequency band. Finding no evidence of gravitational waves from either point sources or a stochastic background, we set limits at 90% confidence. For broadband point sources, we report upper limits on the gravitational wave energy flux per unit frequency in the range F_{α,Θ}(f)<(0.1-56)×10^{-8}    erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} Hz^{-1}(f/25  Hz)^{α-1} depending on the sky location Θ and the spectral power index α. For extended sources, we report upper limits on the fractional gravitational wave energy density required to close the Universe of Ω(f,Θ)<(0.39-7.6)×10^{-8}  sr^{-1}(f/25  Hz)^{α} depending on Θ and α. Directed searches for narrowband gravitational waves from astrophysically interesting objects (Scorpius X-1, Supernova 1987 A, and the Galactic Center) yield median frequency-dependent limits on strain amplitude of h_{0}<(6.7,5.5,  and  7.0)×10^{-25}, respectively, at the most sensitive detector frequencies between 130-175 Hz. This represents a mean improvement of a factor of 2 across the band compared to previous searches of this kind for these sky locations, considering the different quantities of strain constrained in each case.

  7. Directly observed therapy (DOT) for nonadherent HIV-infected youth: lessons learned, challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Aditya H; Belzer, Marvin; Britto, Paula; Garvie, Patricia A; Hu, Chengcheng; Graham, Bobbie; Neely, Michael; McSherry, George; Spector, Stephen A; Flynn, Patricia M

    2010-09-01

    Adherence to medications is critical to optimizing HIV care and is a major challenge in youth. The utility of directly observed therapy (DOT) to improve adherence in youth with HIV remains undefined and prompted this pilot study. Four U.S. sites were selected for this 24-week cooperative group study to assess feasibility and to identify the logistics of providing DOT to HIV-infected youth with demonstrated adherence problems. Once-a-day DOT was provided by DOT facilitators at the participant's choice of a community-based location and DOT tapered over 12 weeks to self-administered therapy based on ongoing adherence assessments. Twenty participants, median age 21 years and median CD4 227 cells/microl, were enrolled. Participants chose their homes for 82% of DOT visits. Compliance with recommended DOT visits was (median) 91%, 91%, and 83% at weeks 4, 8, and 12, respectively. Six participants completed >90% of the study-specified DOT visits and successfully progressed to self-administered therapy (DOT success); only half sustained >90% medication adherence 12 weeks after discontinuing DOT. Participants considered DOT successes were more likely to have higher baseline depression scores (p = 0.046). Via exit surveys participants reported that meeting with the facilitator was easy, DOT increased their motivation to take medications, they felt sad when DOT ended, and 100% would recommend DOT to a friend. In conclusion, this study shows that while community-based DOT is safe, feasible, and as per participant feedback, acceptable to youth, DOT is not for all and the benefits appear short-lived. Depressed youth appear to be one subgroup that would benefit from this intervention. Study findings should help inform the design of larger community-based DOT intervention studies in youth.

  8. Southeast Atlantic Ocean aerosol direct radiative effects over clouds: Comparison of observations and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, M.; Haywood, J.; Bellouin, N.; Tilstra, L. G.; Stammes, P.

    2017-02-01

    Absorbing aerosols exert a warming or a cooling effect on the Earth's system, depending on the circumstances. The direct radiative effect (DRE) of absorbing aerosols is negative (cooling) at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) over a dark surface like the ocean, as the aerosols increase the planetary albedo, but it is positive (warming) over bright backgrounds like clouds. Furthermore, radiation absorption by aerosols heat the atmosphere locally, and, through rapid adjustments of the atmospheric column and cloud dynamics, the net effect can be amplified considerably. We developed a technique to study the absorption of radiation of smoke over low lying clouds using satellite spectrometry. The TOA DRE of smoke over clouds is large and positive over the southeast Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Africa, which can be explained by the large decrease of reflected radiation by a polluted cloud, especially in the UV. However, general circulation models (GCMs) fail to reproduce these strong positive DRE, and in general GCMs disagree on the magnitude and even sign of the aerosol DRE in the southeast Atlantic region. Our satellite-derived DRE measurements show clear seasonal and inter-annual variations, consistent with other satellite measurements, which are not reproduced by GCMs. A comparison with model results showed discrepancies with the Ångström exponent of the smoke aerosols, which is larger than assumed in simulations, and a sensitivity to emission scenarios. However, this was not enough to explain the discrepancies, and we suspect that the modeling of cloud distributions and microphysics will have the necessary larger impact on DRE that will explain the differences between observations and modeling.

  9. Rates of ingestion and their variability between individual calanoid copepods: Direct observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Lewis, K.D. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States); Bundy, M.H. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)]|[Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany). Inst. fuer Fernerkundung (IFE); Metz, C. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany). Inst. fuer Fernerkundung (IFE)

    1995-12-01

    The goals of this study were to determine rates of ingestion and fecal pellet release, and their variability, for individual planktonic copepods over extended periods of time (>20 min). Ingestions and rejections of individual cells of the diatom Thalassiosira eccentrica by a adult females of the calanoid Paracalanus aculeatus were directly quantified by observing individual copepods continuously at cell concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Average ingestion rates increased with increasing food concentration, but were not significantly different between 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1} (9.8 and 32.7 {mu}g Cl{sup {minus}1}) of T.eccentrica. Rates of cell rejections were low and similar at 0.1 and 0.3. but were significantly higher at 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. The coefficients of variation for average ingestion rates of individual copepods hardly differed between food concentrations, ranging from 17 to 22%, and were close to those for average fecal pellet release intervals which ranged from 15 to 21%. A comparison between individuals at each food concentration found no significant differences at 1.0; at 0.1 and 0.3 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}, respectively, ingestion rates of four out of five females did not differ significantly from each other. Average intervals between fecal pellet releases were similar at 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Fecal pellet release intervals between individuals were significantly different at each food concentration; these significant differences were attributed to rather narrow ranges of pellet release intervals of each individual female. Potential sources/causes of variability in the sizes and rates of copepods in the ocean are evaluated.

  10. Directly observed therapy of tuberculosis in Brazil: associated determinants and impact on treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis-Santos, B; Pellacani-Posses, I; Macedo, L R; Golub, J E; Riley, L W; Maciel, E L

    2015-10-01

    All Brazilian states. To assess the determinants of tuberculosis (TB) in patients undergoing directly observed therapy (DOT) and the impact of DOT on treatment outcomes. This is a cross-sectional study among TB patients aged ⩾18 years conducted in 2011. The primary outcome was the status of DOT received, while the secondary was the outcome of anti-tuberculosis treatment. In 2011, 35 775 (38.3%) subjects received DOT. The odds of receiving DOT were higher in patients with the following characteristics: brown/mestizo patients (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.14-1.22) and those of other ethnic groups (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.79-2.27) compared to Whites, alcohol users (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.28-1.47) and those with mental disorders (OR 1.88, 95%CI 1.54-2.29). The odds of receiving DOT were lower in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients (OR 0.64, 95%CI 0.60-0.68). Patients who did not receive DOT were more likely to default from anti-tuberculosis treatment (OR 0.62, 95%CI 0.57-0.66), die due to TB (OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.61-0.77) and to have unknown treatment outcomes (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.66-0.76). The adjusted preventable fraction of DOT in the reduction of unfavorable outcomes was 25%. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics are determinants of anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes in patients undergoing DOT; DOT use led to a 25% reduction in unfavorable outcomes.

  11. Direct observation of markovian behavior of the mechanical unfolding of individual proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Kuske, Rachel; Li, Hongbin

    2008-07-01

    Single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy is a valuable tool to analyze unfolding kinetics of proteins. Previous force-clamp spectroscopy experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin deviates from the generally assumed Markovian behavior and involves the features of glassy dynamics. Here we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to study the unfolding kinetics of a computationally designed fast-folding mutant of the small protein GB1, which shares a similar beta-grasp fold as ubiquitin. By treating the mechanical unfolding of polyproteins as the superposition of multiple identical Poisson processes, we developed a simple stochastic analysis approach to analyze the dwell time distribution of individual unfolding events in polyprotein unfolding trajectories. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that the mechanical unfolding of NuG2 fulfills all criteria of a memoryless Markovian process. This result, in contrast with the complex mechanical unfolding behaviors observed for ubiquitin, serves as a direct experimental demonstration of the Markovian behavior for the mechanical unfolding of a protein and reveals the complexity of the unfolding dynamics among structurally similar proteins. Furthermore, we extended our method into a robust and efficient pseudo-dwell-time analysis method, which allows one to make full use of all the unfolding events obtained in force-clamp experiments without categorizing the unfolding events. This method enabled us to measure the key parameters characterizing the mechanical unfolding energy landscape of NuG2 with improved precision. We anticipate that the methods demonstrated here will find broad applications in single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy studies for a wide range of proteins.

  12. Directional Limits on Persistent Gravitational Waves from Advanced LIGO's First Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, A. S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campbell, W.; Canepa, M.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. 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R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schlassa, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, D.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We employ gravitational-wave radiometry to map the stochastic gravitational wave background expected from a variety of contributing mechanisms and test the assumption of isotropy using data from the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory's (aLIGO) first observing run. We also search for persistent gravitational waves from point sources with only minimal assumptions over the 20-1726 Hz frequency band. Finding no evidence of gravitational waves from either point sources or a stochastic background, we set limits at 90% confidence. For broadband point sources, we report upper limits on the gravitational wave energy flux per unit frequency in the range Fα ,Θ(f )<(0.1 - 56 )×10-8 erg cm-2 s-1 Hz-1(f /25 Hz )α -1 depending on the sky location Θ and the spectral power index α . For extended sources, we report upper limits on the fractional gravitational wave energy density required to close the Universe of Ω (f ,Θ )<(0.39 - 7.6 )×10-8 sr-1(f /25 Hz )α depending on Θ and α . Directed searches for narrowband gravitational waves from astrophysically interesting objects (Scorpius X-1, Supernova 1987 A, and the Galactic Center) yield median frequency-dependent limits on strain amplitude of h0<(6.7 ,5.5 , and 7.0 )×10-25 , respectively, at the most sensitive detector frequencies between 130-175 Hz. This represents a mean improvement of a factor of 2 across the band compared to previous searches of this kind for these sky locations, considering the different quantities of strain constrained in each case.

  13. Direct observation of multiple tautomers of oxythiamine and their recognition by the thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vipender; Peng, Chunte Sam; Li, Deyu; Mitra, Koyel; Silvestre, Katherine J; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Essigmann, John M

    2014-01-17

    Structural diversification of canonical nucleic acid bases and nucleotide analogues by tautomerism has been proposed to be a powerful on/off switching mechanism allowing regulation of many biological processes mediated by RNA enzymes and aptamers. Despite the suspected biological importance of tautomerism, attempts to observe minor tautomeric forms in nucleic acid or hybrid nucleic acid-ligand complexes have met with challenges due to the lack of sensitive methods. Here, a combination of spectroscopic, biochemical, and computational tools probed tautomerism in the context of an RNA aptamer-ligand complex; studies involved a model ligand, oxythiamine pyrophosphate (OxyTPP), bound to the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitch (an RNA aptamer) as well as its unbound nonphosphorylated form, oxythiamine (OxyT). OxyTPP, similarly to canonical heteroaromatic nucleic acid bases, has a pyrimidine ring that forms hydrogen bonding interactions with the riboswitch. Tautomerism was established using two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy, variable temperature FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, binding isotope effects (BIEs), and computational methods. All three possible tautomers of OxyT, including the minor enol tautomer, were directly identified, and their distributions were quantitated. In the bound form, BIE data suggested that OxyTPP existed as a 4'-keto tautomer that was likely protonated at the N1'-position. These results also provide a mechanistic framework for understanding the activation of riboswitch in response to deamination of the active form of vitamin B1 (or TPP). The combination of methods reported here revealing the fine details of tautomerism can be applied to other systems where the importance of tautomerism is suspected.

  14. Interpretation of satellite airglow observations during the March 22, 1979, magnetic storm, using the coupled ionosphere-thermosphere model developed at University College, London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, H. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1994-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley, extreme ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the U.S. Air Force STP 78-1 satellite measured emission features in the Earth's dayglow due to neutral and ionized species in the atmosphere, in the 35 to 140-nm range. The spectrometer was operating between March 1979 and March 1980, including the period of the magnetic storm on March 22, 1979. Some of these measurements are interpreted using the predictions of the three-dimensional time-dependent coupled ionosphere-thermosphere model developed at University College, London. The observations show a reduction in the atomic oxygen 130.4-nm airglow emission at high northern latitudes following the storm. Model simulations show that this reduction in 130.4-nm emission is associated with an increase in the O2/O ratio. Analysis of model results using electron transport and radiative transport codes show that the brightness of 130.4-nm emission at high latitudes due to resonantly scattered sunlight is approximately twice that due to photoelectron impact excitation. However, the observed decrease in the brightness at high northern latitudes is mainly due to a change in the photoelectron impact source, which contributes approximately 75% of the total, as well as its multiple scattering component; for the photoelectron impact source at 70 deg latitude and 200 km altitude, the reduction in multiple scattering is 1.5 times greater than the reduction in the initial excitation. The reduction in the airglow emission is visible only in the norther n hemisphere because the south pole was not sunlit over the storm period. The comparison of model results with observations suggests that 130.4-nm emission may be useful as a tracer for global changes in the concentration of atomic energy.

  15. Direct space-time observation of pulse tunneling in an electromagnetic band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Serge; Haché, Alain; Winful, Herbert G.

    2007-08-01

    We present space-time-resolved measurements of electromagnetic pulses tunneling through a coaxial electromagnetic band gap structure. The results show that during the tunneling process the field distribution inside the barrier is an exponentially decaying standing wave whose amplitude increases and decreases as it slowly follows the temporal evolution of the input pulse. At no time is a pulse maximum found inside the barrier, and hence the transmitted peak is not the incident peak that has propagated to the exit. The results support the quasistatic interpretation of tunneling dynamics and confirm that the group delay is not the traversal time of the input pulse peak.

  16. Direct oxygen imaging within a ceramic interface, with some observations upon the dark contrast at the grain boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott@sigma.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering Innovation, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 116-0013 (Japan); Azuma, S. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 116-0013 (Japan); Shibata, N. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 116-0013 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Okunishi, E. [JEOL Ltd., Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Ikuhara, Y. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 116-0013 (Japan); Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramic Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy, which has recently been established to produce directly interpretable images with both light and heavier atomic columns visible simultaneously, is shown to allow directly interpretable imaging of the oxygen columns within the {Sigma}13[12-bar 10](101-bar 4) pyramidal twin grain boundary in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. By using information in the high-angle annular dark field image and annular bright field images simultaneously, we estimate the specimen thickness and finite source size, and use them to explore in simulation the issue of dark contrast in the vicinity of the grain boundary in the annular dark field image. -- Research highlights: {yields} Simultaneous HAADF and ABF images of a pristine {Sigma}13 grain boundary in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. {yields} Oxygen columns are clearly visible in the grain boundary in the ABF image. {yields} ABF is more robust than HAADF for imaging defect structures. {yields} Thickness and source size are estimated from quantitative analysis of the contrast. {yields} Dark contrast at the grain boundary in HAADF is likely due to strain and vacancies.

  17. Using Water Vapor Isotope Observations from above the Greenland Ice Sheet to improve the Interpretation of Ice Core Water Stable Isotope Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Risi, C. M.; Yoshimura, K.; Werner, M.; Butzin, M.; Brun, E.; Landais, A.; Bonne, J. L.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Water stable isotope data from Greenland ice cores provide key paleoclimatic information. For the purpose of improving the climatic interpretation from ice core records, a monitoring of the isotopic composition δ18O and δD at several height levels (up to 13 meter) of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and snow in the first 0.5 cm surface layer has been conducted during three summers (2010-2012) at NEEM, NW Greenland. We compare the observed water vapor isotopic composition with model outputs from three isotope-enabled general circulation models: LMDZiso, isoGSM, ECHAM-wiso. This allows us to benchmark the models and address effect of model resolution, effect of transport, effect of isotope parameterization, and representation of significant source region contributions. We find for all models that the simulated isotopic value δD are significantly biased towards too enriched values. A bias, which is only partly explained by the air temperature. The simulated amplitude in d-excess variations is ~50% smaller than observed and the simulated average summer level is ~10‰ lower than in observations. Using back trajectories we observe water vapor of Arctic origin to have a high d-excess fingerprint. This fingerprint is not observed in the GCMiso simulations indicating a problem of simulating accurately the Arctic hydrological cycle. The bias in the simulated δD and d-excess water vapor is similar to the already-documented bias in the simulated δD and d-excess of Greenland ice core records. This suggests that if we improve the simulation of the water vapor isotopic composition we might also improve the simulation of the ice core isotope record. During periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is

  18. Direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptor molecules in A549 human lung epithelial cells by nanodiamond labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C.-Y.; Perevedentseva, E.; Tu, J.-S.; Chung, P.-H.; Cheng, C.-L.; Liu, K.-K.; Chao, J.-I.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, C.-C.

    2007-04-01

    This letter presents direct observation of growth hormone receptor in one single cancer cell using nanodiamond-growth hormone complex as a specific probe. The interaction of surface growth hormone receptor of A549 human lung epithelial cells with growth hormone was observed using nanodiamond's unique spectroscopic signal via confocal Raman mapping. The growth hormone molecules were covalent conjugated to 100nm diameter carboxylated nanodiamonds, which can be recognized specifically by the growth hormone receptors of A549 cell. The Raman spectroscopic signal of diamond provides direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptors in physiology condition in a single cell level.

  19. Direct observation of electronic-liquid-crystal phase transitions and their microscopic origin in La1/3Ca2/3MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Sun, K.; Yin, W.-G.; Wu, L.; Xin, H.; Wen, J. G.; Luo, W.; Pennycook, S. J.; Tranquada, J. M.; Zhu, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The ground-state electronic order in doped manganites is frequently associated with a lattice modulation, contributing to their many interesting properties. However, measuring the thermal evolution of the lattice superstructure with reciprocal-space probes alone can lead to ambiguous results with competing interpretations. Here we provide direct observations of the evolution of the superstructure in La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 in real space, as well as reciprocal space, using transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. We show that the transitions are the consequence of a proliferation of dislocations plus electronic phase separation. The resulting states are well described by the symmetries associated with electronic-liquid-crystal (ELC) phases. Moreover, our results resolve the long-standing controversy over the origin of the incommensurate superstructure and suggest a new structural model that is consistent with recent theoretical calculations.

  20. Unimolecular Thermal Decomposition of Phenol and d5-Phenol: Direct Observation of Cyclopentadiene Formation via Cyclohexadienone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, A. M.; Mukarakate, C.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.; Carstensen, H. H.; Barney, E. G.

    2012-01-28

    The pyrolyses of phenol and d{sub 5}-phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH and C{sub 6}D{sub 5}OH) have been studied using a high temperature, microtubular ({mu}tubular) SiC reactor. Product detection is via both photon ionization (10.487 eV) time-of-flight mass spectrometry and matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Gas exiting the heated reactor (375 K-1575 K) is subject to a free expansion after a residence time in the {mu}tubular reactor of approximately 50-100 {micro}s. The expansion from the reactor into vacuum rapidly cools the gas mixture and allows the detection of radicals and other highly reactive intermediates. We find that the initial decomposition steps at the onset of phenol pyrolysis are enol/keto tautomerization to form cyclohexadienone followed by decarbonylation to produce cyclopentadiene; C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH {yields} c-C{sub 6}H{sub 6} = O {yields} c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6} + CO. The cyclopentadiene loses a H atom to generate the cyclopentadienyl radical which further decomposes to acetylene and propargyl radical; c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6} {yields} c-C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + H {yields} HC {triple_bond} CH + HCCCH{sub 2}. At higher temperatures, hydrogen loss from the PhO-H group to form phenoxy radical followed by CO ejection to generate the cyclopentadienyl radical likely contributes to the product distribution; C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O-H {yields} C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O + H {yields} c-C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO. The direct decarbonylation reaction remains an important channel in the thermal decomposition mechanisms of the dihydroxybenzenes. Both catechol (o-HO-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-OH) and hydroquinone (p-HO-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-OH) are shown to undergo decarbonylation at the onset of pyrolysis to form hydroxycyclopentadiene. In the case of catechol, we observe that water loss is also an important decomposition channel at the onset of pyrolysis.

  1. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  2. Direct observation of large quantum interference effect in anthraquinone solid-state junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabache, Vincent; Chaste, Julien; Petit, Philippe; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L; Lafarge, Philippe

    2013-07-17

    Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules embedded in solid-state devices was investigated by direct current-voltage and differential conductance transport measurements of anthraquinone (AQ)-based large area planar junctions. A thin film of AQ was grafted covalently on the junction base electrode by diazonium electroreduction, while the counter electrode was directly evaporated on top of the molecular layer. Our technique provides direct evidence of a large quantum interference effect in multiple CMOS compatible planar junctions. The quantum interference is manifested by a pronounced dip in the differential conductance close to zero voltage bias. The experimental signature is well developed at low temperature (4 K), showing a large amplitude dip with a minimum >2 orders of magnitude lower than the conductance at higher bias and is still clearly evident at room temperature. A temperature analysis of the conductance curves revealed that electron-phonon coupling is the principal decoherence mechanism causing large conductance oscillations at low temperature.

  3. Interpreting Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  4. A Method for Direct Systematic Observation of Collective Violence and Public Order Policing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adang, Otto

    2016-01-01

    The article outlines a methodology for systematically observing collective violence (and public order policing in relation to it). Specific attention is given to matters of sampling and measurement and to the way in which observational challenges have been met in comparison with participant observat

  5. Assessing the Accuracy of Classwide Direct Observation Methods: Two Analyses Using Simulated and Naturalistic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Evan H.; Radley, Keith C.; Briesch, Amy M.; Furlow, Christopher M.; Cavell, Hannah J.; Briesch, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies investigated the accuracy of eight different interval-based group observation methods that are commonly used to assess the effects of classwide interventions. In Study 1, a Microsoft Visual Basic program was created to simulate a large set of observational data. Binary data were randomly generated at the student level to represent…

  6. Direct observations of the MOF (UiO-66) structure by transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Liangkui

    2013-01-01

    As a demonstration of ab initio structure characterizations of nano metal organic framework (MOF) crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction tomography methods, a Zr-MOF (UiO-66) structure was determined and further confirmed by Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray diffraction. HRTEM gave direct imaging of the channels. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Direct observation of dynamical heterogeneities in colloidal hard-sphere suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, W.K.; Blaaderen, A. van

    2000-01-01

    The real-space dynamics in a model system of colloidal hard spheres was studied by means of time-resolved ßuorescence confocal scanning microscopy. Direct experimental evidence for the presence of dynamical heterogeneities in a dense liquid was obtained from an analysis of particle trajectories in t

  8. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator - presentation slides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    Direct emittance measurement based on vertical undulator is discussed. Emittance was evaluated from peak ratios, the smallest measured being =0.9 ±0.3 pm rad. The angular distribution of undulator radiation departs from Gaussian approximations, a fact of which diffraction-limited light sources should be aware.

  9. Direct Power Control for Three-Phase Two-Level Voltage-Source Rectifiers Based on Extended-State Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Tian, Yanjun; Yan, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    characteristic is highly dynamic behaviors, the proposed control strategy can present comparably enhanced transient performance. Furthermore, excellent steady-state power performance can also be observed when the proposed control scheme is adopted. In addition, another attractive feature lies in its robust......This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent...... control strategy, the vector-oriented control scheme and the proposed strategy, which demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme....

  10. Direct observation of the mass renormalization in SrVO3 by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, t.

    2010-05-03

    We have performed an angle-resolved photoemission study of the three-dimensional perovskite-type SrVO{sub 3}. Observed spectral weight distribution of the coherent part in the momentum space shows cylindrical Fermi surfaces consisting of the V 3d t{sub 2g} orbitals as predicted by local-density approximation (LDA) band-structure calculation. The observed energy dispersion shows a moderately enhanced effective mass compared to the LDA results, corresponding to the effective mass enhancement seen in the thermodynamic properties. Contributions from the bulk and surface electronic structures to the observed spectra are discussed based on model calculations.

  11. The implementation of a mobile problem-specific electronic CEX for assessing directly observed student–patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Ferenchick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facilitating direct observation of medical students' clinical competencies is a pressing need. Methods: We developed an electronic problem-specific Clinical Evaluation Exercise (eCEX based on a national curriculum. We assessed its feasibility in monitoring and recording students' competencies and the impact of a grading incentive on the frequency of direct observations in an internal medicine clerkship. Students (n=56 at three clinical sites used the eCEX and comparison students (n=56 at three other clinical sites did not. Students in the eCEX group were required to arrange 10 evaluations with faculty preceptors. Students in the second group were required to document a single, faculty observed ‘Full History and Physical’ encounter with a patient. Students and preceptors were surveyed at the end of each rotation. Results: eCEX increased students' and evaluators' understanding of direct-observation objectives and had a positive impact on the evaluators' ability to provide feedback and assessments. The grading incentive increased the number of times a student reported direct observation by a resident preceptor. Conclusions: eCEX appears to be an effective means of enhancing student evaluation.

  12. Anna Freud: the Hampstead War Nurseries and the role of the direct observation of children for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2007-08-01

    The psychoanalytic tradition of direct observation of children has a long history, going back to the early 20th century, when psychoanalysis and the emerging field of 'child studies' came into fruitful contact in Freud's Vienna. As a leading figure in the attempted integration of direct observation with the new psychoanalytic knowledge emerging from the consulting room, Anna Freud played a crucial role in the emergence of this field. But her major contribution to the theory and practice of observing children came during the Second World War, when she founded the Hampstead War Nurseries. The author describes in detail this important period of Anna Freud's career, and discusses the impact it had on later work. He explores the theoretical contribution that Anna Freud made in the post-war years to the debate about the place of direct observation in psychoanalysis, and concludes that Anna Freud's 'double approach' (direct observation plus analytic reconstruction) still has a great deal to offer as a method of both psychoanalytic research and education.

  13. Direct observation of plasticity and quantitative hardness measurements in single crystal cyclotrimethylene trinitramine by nanoindention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Kyle J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hooks, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bahr, David F [WSU

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of deformation beginning with elasticity and continuing through the elastic-plastic transition to incipient cracking has been conducted for (210), (021), and (001) oriented single crystals of the explosive cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, commonly known as 'RDX' Instrumented indentation was performed with a conical tip over a range of loads. The resulting load-depth data exhibited distinct, reproducible, orientation dependent load excursions demonstrating elastic-plastic transitions. Indent impressions were imaged by scanning probe microscopy. Impressions on the (210) and (001) planes showed deformation pileup features associated with zone axes of slip planes. Clearly discernable slip traces were evident on the (210) plane. The (021) indentations produced significant material pile-up surrounding the impression, but did not contain discrete features associable with specific zone axes. All of the orientations exhibited cracking thresholds at very low loads. The reduced moduli were anisotropic and the hardness's were isotropic indicating limited plasticity. Maximum shear stresses estimated from a Hertzian model, at load excursions, were within a factor of 10 of published shear moduli indicating deformation initiated near the theoretical yield strength presumably by homogeneous nucleation of dislocations. The material strength parameters and apparent deformation pathways inferred from this work are compared to historical microhardness testing and interpretation of anisotropic hardness in which ambiguity of results can be attributed to the effects of cracking and simultaneous slip on multiple systems.

  14. Pseudophakodonesis and corneal endothelial contact: direct observations by high-speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P M; Cheng, H; Price, N C

    1983-10-01

    High-speed cinematography was used to observe the movement of Federov type I lens implants within the anterior chamber. Our measurements suggest that in most patients contact between the lens implant and corneal endothelium does not occur.

  15. Electromagnetic Wave-filled Cavities Observed by the GEODESIC Sounding Rocket: A Direct Encounter with VLF Saucer Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Rasoul

    The GEODESIC sounding rocket encountered hundreds of localized, VLF-wave-filled density depletions in an auroral return current region at altitudes between 900--1000 km. While these are similar to well-studied lower-hybrid "spikelets", which are electrostatic, many of the GEODESIC events exhibited strong VLF magnetic field enhancements as well. In the present study we show that these magnetic field fluctuations can be interpreted as the result of geomagnetic field-aligned electron currents driven by fluctuating electric fields parallel to the geomagnetic field lines. This observation suggests that the electromagnetic wave-filled cavities are signatures of unstable filaments of return current fluctuating at VLF frequencies. We argue that the cavities' spatial dimensions, their location inside the return current region and their total radiated power are consistent with the properties of VLF saucer source regions inferred from earlier satellite observations taken at higher altitudes.

  16. Direct observation of the autophosphorylation of insulin receptor kinase by mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Li Li

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic and signaling activities of insulin receptor kinase(IRK)are regulated by the autophosphorylation of three tyrosine residues in a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase domain at Tyro 1158,Tyro 1162 and Tyro 1163.In this study,time-course of the auphosphorylation of the core kinase(residues 978-1283)from IRK was directly investigated by online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.It is found that two tyrosine residues were phosphorylated in reaction time range of 30 min.This study implies that mass spectrometric technique must be a powerful tool to directly monitor the biological macromolecular modification and will also provide the information of the order and the mechanism of autophosphorylation at the tyrosine sites coupled with tandem mass spectrometric technique.

  17. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  18. Direct observation of electron-to-hole energy transfer in CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, E; Koeberg, M; Wang, F; Zhang, H; de Mello Donegá, C; Vanmaekelbergh, D; Bonn, M

    2006-02-10

    We independently determine the subpicosecond cooling rates for holes and electrons in CdSe quantum dots. Time-resolved luminescence and terahertz spectroscopy reveal that the rate of hole cooling, following photoexcitation of the quantum dots, depends critically on the electron excess energy. This constitutes the first direct, quantitative measurement of electron-to-hole energy transfer, the hypothesis behind the Auger cooling mechanism proposed in quantum dots, which is found to occur on a 1 +/- 0.15 ps time scale.

  19. Perivascular action of the local anaesthetic, lidocaine, on pial terminal arterioles: direct observations on the microcirculation.

    OpenAIRE

    Altura, B. M.; Lassoff, S.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable controversy currently exists with respect to whether or not local anaesthetics exert direct action on cerebral arteriolar tone. In situ experiments were therefore undertaken on pial terminal arterioles of rats to determine whether or not perivascular application of lidocaine exerts any action on such cerebral vessels. Vessel size was assessed with an image-splitting television microscope recording system. The vessels studied ranged in size from 25 to 30 micron. Lidocaine was appl...

  20. Flux observer algorithms for direct torque control of brushless doubly-fed reluctance machines

    OpenAIRE

    Chaal, Hamza; Jovanovic, Milutin

    2009-01-01

    Direct Torque Control (DTC) has been extensively researched and applied to most AC machines during the last two decades. Its first application to the Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machine (BDFRM), a promising cost-effective candidate for drive and generator systems with limited variable speed ranges (such as large pumps or wind turbines), has only been reported a few years ago. However, the original DTC scheme has experienced flux estimation problems and compromised performance under the ma...

  1. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE ALPHA-EPSILON TRANSITION IN SHOCKED SINGLE CRYSTAL IRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantar, D H; Collins, G W; Colvin, J D; Davies, H M; Eggert, J H; Hawreliak, J; Lorenzana, H E; Meyers, M A; Rosolankova, K; Schneider, M S; Sheppard, J; Stolken, J S; Wark, J S

    2005-08-23

    In-situ x-ray diffraction was used to study the response of single crystal iron under shock conditions. Measurements of the response of [001] iron showed a uniaxial compression of the initially bcc lattice along the shock direction by up to 6% at 13 GPa. Above this pressure, the lattice responded with a further collapse of the lattice by 15-18% and a transformation to a hcp structure. The in-situ measurements are discussed and results summarized.

  2. Direct experimental observation of the single reflection optical Goos-Hänchen shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwefel, H G L; Köhler, W; Lu, Z H; Fan, J; Wang, L J

    2008-04-15

    We report a precise direct measurement of the Goos-Hänchen shift after one reflection off a dielectric interface coated with periodic metal stripes. The spatial displacement of the shift is determined by image analysis. A maximal absolute shift of 5.18 and 23.39 mum for TE and TM polarized light, respectively, is determined. This technique is simple to implement and can be used for a large range of incident angles.

  3. Direct observation of the oxygenated species during oxygen reduction on a platinum fuel cell cathode

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Sarp; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian ; Miller, Daniel J. ; Friebel, Daniel ; Hansen, Heine A. ; Nørskov, Jens K. ; Nilsson, Anders ; Ogasawara, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    The performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we use ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and directly probe the correlation between the adsorbed species on the surface and the electrochemical potential. We demonstrate that, during the oxygen reduction reaction, hydroxyl intermediates on the cathode surface occur in sever...

  4. Towards a first observation of magneto-electric directional anisotropy and linear birefringence in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Robilliard, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution to PSAS'2010 we report on recent progress on an experiment aimed at measuring small optical directional anisotropies by frequency metrology in a high finesse ring cavity. We focus on our first experimental goal, the measurement of magneto-electric effects in gases. After a review of the expected effects in our set-up, we present the apparatus and the measurement procedure, showing that we already have the necessary sensitivity to start novel experiments.

  5. Direct observations of plasma upflows and condensation in a catastrophically cooling solar transition region loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, N. B.; Chesny, D. L.; Oluseyi, H. M.; Hesterly, K.; Patel, M.; Champey, P. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Minimal observational evidence exists for fast transition region (TR) upflows in the presence of cool loops. Observations of such occurrences challenge notions of standard solar atmospheric heating models as well as their description of bright TR emission. Using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, we observe fast upflows (v {sub λ} ≤ –10 km s{sup –1}) over multiple TR temperatures (5.8 ≤log T ≤ 6.0) at the footpoint sites of a cool loop (log T ≤ 6.0). Prior to cool loop energizing, asymmetric flows of +5 km s{sup –1} and –60 km s{sup –1} are observed at footpoint sites. These flows, speeds, and patterns occur simultaneously with both magnetic flux cancellation (at the site of upflows only) derived from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic Magnetic Imager's line-of-sight magnetogram images, and a 30% mass influx at coronal heights. The incurred non-equilibrium structure of the cool loop leads to a catastrophic cooling event, with subsequent plasma evaporation indicating that the TR is the heating site. From the magnetic flux evolution, we conclude that magnetic reconnection between the footpoint and background field is responsible for the observed fast TR plasma upflows.

  6. Multilayers at the surface of solutions of exogenous lung surfactant: direct observation by neutron reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, D; Tiberg, F; Thomas, R K; Larsson, M

    2007-02-01

    Pharmacy-grade exogenous lung surfactant preparations of bovine and porcine origin, dispersed in physiological electrolyte solution have been studied. The organization and dynamics at the air/water interface at physiological temperature was analysed by neutron reflection. The results show that a well-defined surface phase is formed, consisting of a multilayer structure of lipid/protein bilayers alternating with aqueous layers, with a repetition period of about 70 A and correlation depths of 3 to >25 bilayers, depending on electrolyte composition and time. The experimental surfactant concentration of 0.15% (w/w) is far below that used in therapeutic application of exogenous surfactants and it is therefore likely that similar multilayer structures are also formed at the alveolar surface in the clinical situation during surfactant substitution therapy. Lung surfactant preparations in dry form swell in aqueous solution towards a limit of about 60% (w/w) of water, forming a lamellar liquid-crystalline phase above about 34 degrees C, which disperses into lamellar bodies at higher water concentrations. The lamellar spacings in the surface multilayers at the air/water interface are smaller than those in the saturated limit even though they are in contact with much greater water concentrations. The surface multilayers are laterally disordered in a way that is consistent with fragments of Lalpha-phase lamellae. The near surface layers of the multilayer structure have a significant protein content (only SP-B and SP-C are present in the preparations). The results demonstrate that a multilayer structure can be formed in exogenous surfactant even at very low concentrations and indicate that multilayers need to be incorporated into present interpretations of in vitro studies of similar lung surfactant preparations, which are largely based on monolayer models.

  7. Compliance with hygiene guidelines: the effect of a multimodal hygiene intervention and validation of direct observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Svensson, Per-Olof; Rensfeldt, Gunhild; Davidsson, Ewa; Isaksson, Barbro; Löfgren, Sture; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Good compliance with hygiene guidelines is essential to prevent bacterial transmission and health care-associated infections. However, the compliance is usually dress code at the 4 departments were 39% to 47% and 79% to 98%, respectively. Point of stability was reached approximately 1 year after the hygiene intervention was launched. The compliance with barrier precautions was significantly higher at follow-up compared with baseline in 3 departments. In the validation by double appraisal, 471 of 483 components were judged identical between observers. In the multiappraisal, 95% to 100% of the observers correctly judged the 7 components. It is possible to improve compliance with hygiene guidelines, but, to ensure a long-lasting effect, a continuous focus on barrier precautions is required. Observation is a valid method to monitor compliance. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct observations of sigma phase growth and dissolution in 2205 duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, T.A.; Elmer, J.W.; Babu, S.S.; Specht, E.D. (LLNL); (ORNL)

    2007-10-10

    The formation and growth of sigma ({sigma}) phase in a 2205 duplex stainless steel is monitored during an 850 C isothermal heat treatment using an in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. At this temperature, {sigma} phase is first observed within approximately 40 seconds of the start of the isothermal heat treatment and grows rapidly over the course of the 3600 second heat treatment to a volume fraction of approximately 13%. A simultaneous increase in the austenite ({gamma}) volume fraction and a decrease in the ferrite ({delta}) volume fraction are observed. The {sigma} phase formed at this temperature is rapidly dissolved within approximately 200 seconds when the temperature is increased to 1000 C. Accompanying this rapid dissolution of the {sigma} phase, the {delta} and {gamma} volume fractions both approach the balanced (50/50) level observed in the as-received material.

  9. Antisymmetric Couplings Enable Direct Observation of Chirality in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    King, Jonathan P; Blanchard, John W

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that a term in the nuclear spin Hamiltonian, the antisymmetric \\textit{J}-coupling, is fundamentally connected to molecular chirality. We propose and simulate a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment to observe this interaction and differentiate between enantiomers without adding any additional chiral agent to the sample. The antisymmetric \\textit{J}-coupling may be observed in the presence of molecular orientation by an external electric field. The opposite parity of the antisymmetric coupling tensor and the molecular electric dipole moment yields a sign change of the observed coupling between enantiomers. We show how this sign change influences the phase of the NMR spectrum and may be used to discriminate between enantiomers.

  10. Low-energy resonances in the 22Ne(p,γ23Na reaction directly observed at LUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanna Francesca

    2015-01-01

    A study of this reaction has been carried out at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA, in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, using a windowless gas target and two high-purity germanium detectors. Several resonances have been observed for the first time in a direct experiment.

  11. Establishing the Feasibility of Direct Observation in the Assessment of Tics in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himle, Michael B.; Chang, Susanna; Woods, Douglas W.; Pearlman, Amanda; Buzzella, Brian; Bunaciu, Liviu; Piacentini, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been at the forefront in establishing effective treatments for children and adults with chronic tic disorders. As is customary in behavior analysis, the efficacy of these treatments has been established using direct-observation assessment methods. Although behavior-analytic treatments have enjoyed acceptance and integration…

  12. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS EFFICACY OF DIRECTLY OBSERVED TREATMENT SHORT - COURSE INTERMITTENT REGIME IN DIFFERENT STAGES OF SPINAL TUBERCULOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar; Somashekara; Shivaraj; Abhijit Patil; Suresh

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A Prospective non - randomised study . INTRODUCTION: Management of Tuberculosis spine still possesses many challenges. Availability of anti - tubercular drugs has changed the outcome. However, present recommendation by the WHO of Directly Observed Treatment Short - course (DOTS) has sound scientific basis, but the optimum duration is ...

  13. Replication of Non-Trivial Directional Motion in Multi-Scales Observed by the Runs Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    Non-trivial autocorrelation in up-down statistics in financial market price fluctuation is revealed by a multi-scale runs test(Wald-Wolfowitz test). We apply two models, a stochastic price model and dealer model to understand this property. In both approaches we successfully reproduce the non-stationary directional price motions consistent with the runs test by tuning parameters in the models. We find that two types of dealers exist in the markets, a short-time-scale trend-follower and an extended-time-scale contrarian who are active in different time periods.

  14. Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, P.; Shen, H.; Hauke, P.; Maier, C.; Brydges, T.; Hempel, C.; Lanyon, B. P.; Heyl, M.; Blatt, R.; Roos, C. F.

    2017-08-01

    The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.

  15. Direct Observation of Electrostatically Driven Band Gap Renormalization in a Degenerate Perovskite Transparent Conducting Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebens-Higgins, Z.; Scanlon, D. O.; Paik, H.; Sallis, S.; Nie, Y.; Uchida, M.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Wahila, M. J.; Sterbinsky, G. E.; Arena, Dario A.; Woicik, J. C.; Schlom, D. G.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    We have directly measured the band gap renormalization associated with the Moss-Burstein shift in the perovskite transparent conducting oxide (TCO), La-doped BaSnO 3 , using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We determine that the band gap renormalization is almost entirely associated with the evolution of the conduction band. Our experimental results are supported by hybrid density functional theory supercell calculations. We determine that unlike conventional TCOs where interactions with the dopant orbitals are important, the band gap renormalization in La - BaSnO 3 is driven purely by electrostatic interactions.

  16. Direct observation of surface mode excitation and slow light coupling in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V.S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2007-01-01

    are obtained for light at telecom wavelengths propagating in the PhCW, demonstrating directly, for the first time to our knowledge, drastic widening of the PhCW guided mode in the slow-light regime and excitation of surface waves at the PhCW interface along with their feeding into the guided mode......A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to systematically study the properties of guided modes in linear and slow-light regimes of silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) with different terminations of the photonic lattice. High quality SNOM images...

  17. Direct Observation of Electrostatically Driven Band Gap Renormalization in a Degenerate Perovskite Transparent Conducting Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebens-Higgins, Z; Scanlon, D O; Paik, H; Sallis, S; Nie, Y; Uchida, M; Quackenbush, N F; Wahila, M J; Sterbinsky, G E; Arena, Dario A; Woicik, J C; Schlom, D G; Piper, L F J

    2016-01-15

    We have directly measured the band gap renormalization associated with the Moss-Burstein shift in the perovskite transparent conducting oxide (TCO), La-doped BaSnO_{3}, using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We determine that the band gap renormalization is almost entirely associated with the evolution of the conduction band. Our experimental results are supported by hybrid density functional theory supercell calculations. We determine that unlike conventional TCOs where interactions with the dopant orbitals are important, the band gap renormalization in La-BaSnO_{3} is driven purely by electrostatic interactions.

  18. Direct observation of enzymes replicating DNA using a single-molecule DNA stretching assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulczyk, A.W.; Tanner, N.A.; Loparo, J.J.; Richardson, C.C.; Oijen, A.M. van

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for observing real time replication of individual DNA molecules mediated by proteins of the bacteriophage replication system. Linearized lambda DNA is modified to have a biotin on the end of one strand, and a digoxigenin moiety on the other end of the same strand. The biotinylat

  19. MALDI-imaging enables direct observation of kinetic and thermodynamic products of mixed peptide fiber assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Karima; West, Brandi; Williams, David E; Brimble, Margaret A; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2017-02-04

    Controlling the self-assembly of multicomponent systems provides a key to designing new materials and understanding the molecular complexity of biology. Here, we demonstrate the first use of MALDI-imaging to characterize a multicomponent self-assembling peptide fiber. Observations of mixed peptide systems over time demonstrate how simple sequence variation can change the balance between kinetic and thermodynamic products.

  20. A Class of Speed Sensorless Sliding Mode Observers for Direct Torque Controlled Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Cristian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    A family of speed-sensorless sliding-mode observers for induction motors has been developed. Three topologies have been investigated in order to determine their feasibility, parameter sensitivity and practical applicability. The salient feature of all schemes is that they do not require the rotor...

  1. Direct Observation of a Sharp Transition to Coherence in Dense Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Arce, Héctor G.; Caselli, Paola; Foster, Jonathan B.; Myers, Philip C.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2010-03-01

    We present NH3 observations of the B5 region in Perseus obtained with the Green Bank Telescope. The map covers a region large enough (~11'×14') that it contains the entire dense core observed in previous dust continuum surveys. The dense gas traced by NH3(1,1) covers a much larger area than the dust continuum features found in bolometer observations. The velocity dispersion in the central region of the core is small, presenting subsonic non-thermal motions which are independent of scale. However, it is because of the coverage and high sensitivity of the observations that we present the detection, for the first time, of the transition between the coherent core and the dense but more turbulent gas surrounding it. This transition is sharp, increasing the velocity dispersion by a factor of 2 in less than 0.04 pc (the 31'' beam size at the distance of Perseus, ~250 pc). The change in velocity dispersion at the transition is ≈3 km s-1 pc-1. The existence of the transition provides a natural definition of dense core: the region with nearly constant subsonic non-thermal velocity dispersion. From the analysis presented here, we can neither confirm nor rule out a corresponding sharp density transition.

  2. Direct observation of dynamic charge stripes in La2-xSrxNiO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissimova, S.; Parshall, D.; Gu, G. D.; Marty, K.; Lumsden, M. D.; Chi, Songxue; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Abernathy, D. L.; Lamago, D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Reznik, D.

    2014-03-01

    The insulator-to-metal transition continues to be a challenging subject, especially when electronic correlations are strong. In layered compounds, such as La2-xSrxNiO4 and La2-xBaxCuO4, the doped charge carriers can segregate into periodically spaced charge stripes separating narrow domains of antiferromagnetic order. Although there have been theoretical proposals of dynamically fluctuating stripes, direct spectroscopic evidence of charge-stripe fluctuations has been lacking. Here we report the detection of critical lattice fluctuations, driven by charge-stripe correlations, in La2-xSrxNiO4 using inelastic neutron scattering. This scattering is detected at large momentum transfers where the magnetic form factor suppresses the spin fluctuation signal. The lattice fluctuations associated with the dynamic charge stripes are narrow in q and broad in energy. They are strongest near the charge-stripe melting temperature. Our results open the way towards the quantitative theory of dynamic stripes and for directly detecting dynamical charge stripes in other strongly correlated systems, including high-temperature superconductors such as La2-xSrxCuO4.

  3. Direct observation of dynamic charge stripes in La2 xSrxNiO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anissimova, S. [University of Colorado, Boulder; Parshall, D [University of Colorado, Boulder; Gu, Genda [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Marty, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL; Chi, Songxue [ORNL; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A [ORNL; Abernathy, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lamago, D. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, France; Tranquada, John M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Reznik, Dmitry [University of Colorado, Boulder

    2014-01-01

    The insulator-to-metal transition continues to be a challenging subject, especially when electronic correlations are strong. In layered compounds, such as La2 xSrxNiO4 and La2 xBaxCuO4, the doped charge carriers can segregate into periodically spaced charge stripes separating narrow domains of antiferromagnetic order. Although there have been theoretical proposals of dynamically fluctuating stripes, direct spectroscopic evidence of charge-stripe fluctuations has been lacking. Here we report the detection of critical lattice fluctuations, driven by charge-stripe correlations, in La2 xSrxNiO4 using inelastic neutron scattering. This scattering is detected at large momentum transfers where the magnetic form factor suppresses the spin fluctuation signal. The lattice fluctuations associated with the dynamic charge stripes are narrow in q and broad in energy. They are strongest near the charge-stripe melting temperature. Our results open the way towards the quantitative theory of dynamic stripes and for directly detecting dynamical charge stripes in other strongly correlated systems, including high-temperature superconductors such as La2 xSrxCuO4.

  4. Direct observation of titanium-centered octahedra in titanium-antimony-tellurium phase-change material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Feng; Song, Zhitang; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Xiaosong; Xia, Mengjiao; Li, Wei; Ding, Keyuan; Feng, Xuefei; Zhu, Min; Feng, Songlin

    2015-11-27

    Phase-change memory based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material has one order of magnitude faster Set speed and as low as one-fifth of the Reset energy compared with the conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 based device. However, the phase-transition mechanism of the Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material remains inconclusive due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. Here we report a direct atom-by-atom chemical identification of titanium-centered octahedra in crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material with a state-of-the-art atomic mapping technology. Further, by using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density function theory simulations, we identify in amorphous Ti0.4Sb2Te3 the titanium atoms preferably maintain the octahedral configuration. Our work may pave the way to more thorough understanding and tailoring of the nature of the Ti-Sb-Te material, for promoting the development of dynamic random access memory-like phase-change memory as an emerging storage-class memory to reform current memory hierarchy.

  5. Direct observation of the nutrition care practices of Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball LE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nutrition care refers to nutrition-related advice or counselling provided by health professionals in an attempt to improve the nutrition behaviour of patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the practices of a sample of Australian general practitioners (GPs when providing nutrition care to adult patients. METHODS: Eighteen GPs (13 male, 5 female were observed by fourth-year medical students during their general practice rotation. Each GP was observed for five consultations that included nutrition care, totalling 90 observed consultations. In each consultation, students completed a 31-item nutrition care checklist of nutrition care practices that could feasibly occur in a standard consultation. Each practice was marked with either a ‘yes’ (completed, ‘no’ (did not complete or ‘completed by practice nurse prior to or after the consultation’. RESULTS: Twenty-eight nutrition care practices were observed at least once. The most frequently observed practices were measuring and discussing blood pressure (76.7%; n=69, followed by general questions about current diet (74.4%; n=67. Approximately half of the consultations included a statement of a nutrition-related problem (52.2%; n=47, and the provision of nutrition advice that focused on a nutrient (45.6%; n=41 or food group (52.2%; n=47. Consultations with male GPs, as well as GPs with more than 25 years of experience, were associated with an increased number of nutrition care practices per consultation. DISCUSSION: The GPs performed nutrition care practices in varying frequencies. Further research is required to identify the most effective GP nutrition care practices to improve the nutrition behaviour of patients.

  6. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in

  7. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  8. Direct observation of fine structure in ion tracks in amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, K.; Morita, Y.; Suzuki, M. [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Narumi, K.; Saitoh, Y. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan); Ishikawa, N. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hojou, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tsujimoto, M.; Isoda, S. [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kimura, K., E-mail: kimura@kues.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Thin films of amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (thickness 20 nm) were irradiated with 120-720 keV C{sub 60}{sup +,2+} ions and observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ion track produced in an amorphous material was directly observed by TEM. For quantitative analysis, the ion tracks were also observed using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The observed ion track consists of a low density core (radius {approx}2.5 nm) and a high density shell (width {approx}2.5 nm), which is very similar to the ion tracks in amorphous SiO{sub 2} irradiated with high energy heavy ions observed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Although the observed ion tracks may be affected by surface effects, the present result indicates that TEM and HAADF-STEM have potential to observe directly the fine structures of ion tracks in amorphous materials.

  9. Direct observation of strong localization of quasi-two-dimensional light waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons on rough metal surfaces is investigated by using scanning near-field optical microscopy. Different scattering regimes, i.e. single, double and multiple scattering, are observed and related to the spatial Fourier spectra of the corresponding near......-field optical images. For the regime of strong multiple scattering, the near-field optical images exhibit spatially localized (within 150-250 nm) intensity enhancement by 10-50 times. This feature is attributed to strong localization of surface polaritons due to interference effects in multiple scattering...... caused by surface roughness. Similar bright light spots are observed with light scattering by silver colloid clusters deposited on glass substrates. Differences and similarities in these scattering phenomena are discussed....

  10. Direct in situ observations of single Fe atom catalytic processes and anomalous diffusion at graphene edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Fu, Lei; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-atom catalysts are of great interest because of their high efficiency. In the case of chemically deposited sp2 carbon, the implementation of a single transition metal atom for growth can provide crucial insight into the formation mechanisms of graphene and carbon nanotubes. This knowledge is particularly important if we are to overcome fabrication difficulties in these materials and fully take advantage of their distinct band structures and physical properties. In this work, we present atomically resolved transmission EM in situ investigations of single Fe atoms at graphene edges. Our in situ observations show individual iron atoms diffusing along an edge either removing or adding carbon atoms (viz., catalytic action). The experimental observations of the catalytic behavior of a single Fe atom are in excellent agreement with supporting theoretical studies. In addition, the kinetics of Fe atoms at graphene edges are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion, which again, is in agreement with our theoretical investigations. PMID:25331874

  11. Direct in situ observations of single Fe atom catalytic processes and anomalous diffusion at graphene edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M; Fu, Lei; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2014-11-01

    Single-atom catalysts are of great interest because of their high efficiency. In the case of chemically deposited sp(2) carbon, the implementation of a single transition metal atom for growth can provide crucial insight into the formation mechanisms of graphene and carbon nanotubes. This knowledge is particularly important if we are to overcome fabrication difficulties in these materials and fully take advantage of their distinct band structures and physical properties. In this work, we present atomically resolved transmission EM in situ investigations of single Fe atoms at graphene edges. Our in situ observations show individual iron atoms diffusing along an edge either removing or adding carbon atoms (viz., catalytic action). The experimental observations of the catalytic behavior of a single Fe atom are in excellent agreement with supporting theoretical studies. In addition, the kinetics of Fe atoms at graphene edges are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion, which again, is in agreement with our theoretical investigations.

  12. Direct observations of magnetic flux rope formation during a solar coronal mass ejection

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hongqiang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Yao; Cheng, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most spectacular eruptive phenomena in the solar atmosphere. It is generally accepted that CMEs are results of eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). However, a heated debate is on whether MFRs pre-exist before the eruptions or they are formed during the eruptions. Several coronal signatures, \\textit{e.g.}, filaments, coronal cavities, sigmoid structures and hot channels (or hot blobs), are proposed as MFRs and observed before the eruption, which suppor...

  13. Direct observation of coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihara, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sasaki, Yuji; Nagaya, Tomoyuki

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium, we simultaneously observe the intensity change due to director fluctuations under a polarizing microscope and the Brownian motion of a fluorescent particle trapped weakly by optical tweezers. The calculated cross-correlation function of the particle position and the spatial gradient of the intensity is nonzero, clearly indicating the existence of coupling.

  14. Value-directed human behavior analysis from video using partially observable Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Jesse; Little, James J

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a method for learning decision theoretic models of human behaviors from video data. Our system learns relationships between the movements of a person, the context in which they are acting, and a utility function. This learning makes explicit that the meaning of a behavior to an observer is contained in its relationship to actions and outcomes. An agent wishing to capitalize on these relationships must learn to distinguish the behaviors according to how they help the agent to maximize utility. The model we use is a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP. The video observations are integrated into the POMDP using a dynamic Bayesian network that creates spatial and temporal abstractions amenable to decision making at the high level. The parameters of the model are learned from training data using an a posteriori constrained optimization technique based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. The system automatically discovers classes of behaviors and determines which are important for choosing actions that optimize over the utility of possible outcomes. This type of learning obviates the need for labeled data from expert knowledge about which behaviors are significant and removes bias about what behaviors may be useful to recognize in a particular situation. We show results in three interactions: a single player imitation game, a gestural robotic control problem, and a card game played by two people.

  15. Direct observations of magnetic flux rope formation during a solar coronal mass ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Hongqiang; Chen, Yao; Cheng, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most spectacular eruptive phenomena in the solar atmosphere. It is generally accepted that CMEs are results of eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). However, a heated debate is on whether MFRs pre-exist before the eruptions or they are formed during the eruptions. Several coronal signatures, \\textit{e.g.}, filaments, coronal cavities, sigmoid structures and hot channels (or hot blobs), are proposed as MFRs and observed before the eruption, which support the pre-existing MFR scenario. There is almost no reported observation about MFR formation during the eruption. In this letter, we present an intriguing observation of a solar eruptive event occurred on 2013 November 21 with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the \\textit{Solar Dynamic Observatory}, which shows a detailed formation process of the MFR during the eruption. The process started with the expansion of a low-lying coronal arcade, possibly caused by the flare magnetic reconnection underneath. The newly-fo...

  16. Direct observation of charge re-distribution in a MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng Yun; Shih, Po-Hsun; Ji, Jhong-Yi; Chan, Ting-Shan; Yang, Chun Chuen

    2016-04-01

    To study the origin of negative thermal expansion effects near the superconducting transition temperature TC in MgB2, low-temperature high-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction was used to probe the charge redistribution near the boron atoms. Our results reveal that the in-plane hole-distribution of B- hops through the direct orbital overlap of Mg2+ along the c-axis at 50 K and is re-distributed out-of-plane. This study shows that the out-of-plane π-hole distribution plays a dominant role in the possible origin of superconductivity and negative thermal effects in MgB2.

  17. Observation of Anisotropy in the Arrival Direction Distribution of TeV Cosmic Rays with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    BenZvi, S Y; Westerhoff, S

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located 4100 m above sea level near Sierra Negra (19$^\\circ$ N) in Mexico, is sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays at TeV energies. The arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays at these energies shows significant anisotropy on several angular scales, with a relative intensity ranging between 10$^{-3}$ and 10$^{-4}$. We present the results of a study of cosmic-ray anisotropy based on more than 86 billion cosmic-ray air showers recorded with HAWC since June 2013. The HAWC cosmic-ray sky map, which has a median energy of 2 TeV, exhibits several regions of significantly enhanced cosmic-ray flux. We present the energy dependence of the anisotropy and the cosmic-ray spectrum in the regions of significant excess.

  18. Direct observation of multiferroic vortex domains in YMnO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Tan, Guotai; Gu, Lin; Yao, Yuan; Jin, Changqing; Wang, Yanguo; Duan, Xiaofeng; Yu, Richeng

    2013-01-01

    Topological vortices with swirling ferroelectric, magnetic and structural anti-phase relationship in hexagonal RMnO3 (R = Ho to Lu, Y, and Sc) have attracted much attention because of their intriguing behaviors. Herein, we report the structure of multiferroic vortex domains in YMnO3 at atomic scale using state-of-the-art aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Two types of displacements were identified among six domain walls (DWs); six translation-ferroelectric domains denoted by α+, γ-, β+, α-, γ+ and β-, respectively, were recognized, demonstrating the interlocking nature of the anti-vortex domain. We found that the anti-vortex core is about four unit cells wide. In addition, we reconstructed the vortex model with three swirling pairs of DWs along the [001] direction. These results are very critical for the understanding of topological behaviors and unusual properties of the multiferroic vortex.

  19. A Flexible Reporter System for Direct Observation and Isolation of Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binwu Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tumors are hierarchically organized with a minority cell population that has stem-like properties and enhanced ability to initiate tumorigenesis and drive therapeutic relapse. These cancer stem cells (CSCs are typically identified by complex combinations of cell-surface markers that differ among tumor types. Here, we developed a flexible lentiviral-based reporter system that allows direct visualization of CSCs based on functional properties. The reporter responds to the core stem cell transcription factors OCT4 and SOX2, with further selectivity and kinetic resolution coming from use of a proteasome-targeting degron. Cancer cells marked by this reporter have the expected properties of self-renewal, generation of heterogeneous offspring, high tumor- and metastasis-initiating activity, and resistance to chemotherapeutics. With this approach, the spatial distribution of CSCs can be assessed in settings that retain microenvironmental and structural cues, and CSC plasticity and response to therapeutics can be monitored in real time.

  20. Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polking, Mark J.; Zheng, Haimei; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.; Chan, Emory; Caldwell, Marissa A.; Raoux, Simone; Kisielowski, Christian F.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Alivisatos, A.P.

    2009-12-07

    Ferroelectrics and other materials that exhibit spontaneous polar ordering have demonstrated immense promise for applications ranging from non-volatile memories to microelectromechanical systems. However, experimental evidence of polar ordering and effective synthetic strategies for accessing these materials are lacking for low-dimensional nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of size-controlled nanocrystals of the polar material germanium telluride (GeTe) using colloidal chemistry and provide the first direct evidence of room-temperature polar ordering in nanocrystals less than 5 nm in size using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman studies demonstrate a sizeable polar distortion and a reversible size-dependent polar phase transition in these nanocrystals. The stability of polar ordering in solution-processible nanomaterials suggests an economical avenue to Tbit/in2-density non-volatile memory devices and other applications.

  1. Direct Neutron Spectroscopy Observation of Cerium Hydride Species on a Cerium Oxide Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zili; Cheng, Yongqiang; Tao, Franklin; Daemen, Luke; Foo, Guo Shiou; Nguyen, Luan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Beste, Ariana; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J

    2017-07-19

    Ceria has recently shown intriguing hydrogenation reactivity in catalyzing alkyne selectively to alkenes. However, the mechanism of the hydrogenation reaction, especially the activation of H2, remains experimentally elusive. In this work, we report the first direct spectroscopy evidence for the presence of both surface and bulk Ce-H species upon H2 dissociation over ceria via in situ inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. Combined with in situ ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, IR, and Raman spectroscopic studies, the results together point to a heterolytic dissociation mechanism of H2 over ceria, leading to either homolytic products (surface OHs) on a close-to-stoichiometric ceria surface or heterolytic products (Ce-H and OH) with the presence of induced oxygen vacancies in ceria. The finding of this work has significant implications for understanding catalysis by ceria in both hydrogenation and redox reactions where hydrogen is involved.

  2. Direct observation of ClO from chlorine nitrate photolysis. [as mechanism of polar ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Timothy K.; Nelson, Christine M.; Moore, Teresa A.; Okumura, Mitchio

    1992-01-01

    Chlorine nitrate photolysis has been investigated with the use of a molecular beam technique. Excitation at both 248 and 193 nanometers led to photodissociation by two pathways, ClONO2 yields ClO + NO2 and ClONO2 yields Cl + NO3, with comparable yields. This experiment provides a direct measurement of the ClO product channel and consequently raises the possibility of an analogous channel in ClO dimer photolysis. Photodissociation of the ClO dimer is a critical step in the catalytic cycle that is presumed to dominate polar stratospheric ozone destruction. A substantial yield of ClO would reduce the efficiency of this cycle.

  3. Direct observation of phase-sensitive Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Petr; Zapletal, Petr; Filip, Radim; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Toyama, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Makino, Kenzo; Furusawa, Akira

    2017-09-01

    The quality of individual photons and their ability to interfere are traditionally tested by measuring the Hong-Ou-Mandel photon bunching effect. However, this phase-insensitive measurement only tests the particle aspect of the quantum interference, leaving out the phase-sensitive aspects relevant for continuous-variable processing. To overcome these limitations we formulate a witness capable of recognizing both the indistinguishability of the single photons and their quality with regard to their continuous-variable utilization. We exploit the conditional nonclassical squeezing and show that it can reveal both the particle and the wave aspects of the quantum interference in a single set of direct measurements. We experimentally test the witness by applying it to a pair of independent single photons retrieved on demand.

  4. Direct observation of ultrafast long-range charge separation at polymer:fullerene heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    In polymeric semiconductors, charge carriers are polarons, which means that the excess charge deforms the molecular structure of the polymer chain that hosts it. This effect results in distinctive signatures in the vibrational modes of the polymer. We probe polaron photogeneration dynamics at polymer:fullerene heterojunctions by monitoring its time-resolved resonance-Raman spectrum following ultrafast photoexcitation. We conclude that polarons emerge within 200 fs, which is nearly two orders of magnitude faster than exciton localisation in the neat polymer film. Surprisingly, further vibrational evolution on polarons is not significantly different from that in equilibrium. This suggests that charges are free from their mutual Coulomb potential, under which vibrational dynamics would report charge-pair relaxation. Our work addresses current debates on the photocarrier generation mechanism at organic semiconductor heterojunctions, and is, to our knowledge, the first direct probe of molecular conformation dynamics during this fundamentally important process in these materials.

  5. Direct observation of two-step crystallization in nanoparticle superlattice formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jungwon; Zheng, Haimei; Lee, Won Chul; Geissler, Phillip L.; Rabani, Eran; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-10-06

    Direct imaging of nanoparticle solutions by liquid phase transmission electron microscopy has enabled unique in-situ studies of nanoparticle motion and growth. In the present work, we report on real-time formation of two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays in the very low diffusive limit, where nanoparticles are mainly driven by capillary forces and solvent fluctuations. We find that superlattice formation appears to be segregated into multiple regimes. Initially, the solvent front drags the nanoparticles, condensing them into an amorphous agglomerate. Subsequently, the nanoparticle crystallization into an array is driven by local fluctuations. Following the crystallization event, superlattice growth can also occur via the addition of individual nanoparticles drawn from outlying regions by different solvent fronts. The dragging mechanism is consistent with simulations based on a coarse-grained lattice gas model at the same limit.

  6. Direct observation of microstructures on superconducting single crystals of K x Fe2- y Se2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2017-02-01

    Potassium-intercalated FeSe has been reported as a superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature (T c) of 30-48 K. However, the relationship among the surface morphology, compositional ratio, and crystal structure has not yet been clarified. This report directly reveals the correspondence among these three characteristics in single crystals with a T c onset of around 44 K by using a microsampling technique. Island-like parts on the surface of the crystals clearly exhibit the K x Fe2Se2 structure with perfect FeSe layers, which is formed in conjunction with the K2Fe4Se5 phase. This results in the appearance of the T c onset at 44 K.

  7. Measuring and accounting for the Hawthorne effect during a