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Sample records for direct liquefaction concepts

  1. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  2. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  3. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  4. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  5. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  6. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  7. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  8. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  9. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  10. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  11. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  12. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  13. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  14. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  15. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, N.; Rinaldi, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Due to decreasing of petroleum reserves, direct coal liquefaction is attracting renewed interest as an alternative process to produce liquid fuels. The combination of hydrogen peroxide and coal is not a new one. In the early 1980, Vasilakos and Clinton described a procedure for desulfurization by leaching coal with solutions of sulphuric acid/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. But so far, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has never been ascribed a major role in coal liquefaction. Herein, we describe a novel approach for liquefying low-rank coals using a solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in presence of a soluble non-transition metal catalyst. (orig.)

  16. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  18. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  19. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  20. Novel use of residue from direct coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianli Yang; Zhaixia Wang; Zhenyu Liu; Yuzhen Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2009-09-15

    Direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) is, commonly, designed to be used as a feed stock for gasification or combustion. Use of DCLR as a value added product is very important for improving overall economy of direct coal liquefaction processes. This study shows that the DCLR may be used as a pavement asphalt modifier. The modification ability is similar to that of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), a superior commercial modifier. Asphalts modified by two DCLRs meet the specifications of ASTM D5710 and BSI BS-3690 designated for the TLA-modified asphalts. The required addition amount for the DCLRs tested is less than that for TLA due possibly to the high content of asphaltene in DCLRs. Different compatibility was observed for the asphalts with the same penetration grade but from the different origin. Different components in the DCLR play different roles in the modification. Positive synergetic effects among the fractions were observed, which may due to the formation of the stable colloid structure. Unlike polymer-type modifier, the structure of asphalt-type modifier has a similarity with petroleum asphalts which favors the formation of a stable dispersed polar fluid (DPF) colloid structure and improves the performance of pavement asphalt. 12 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  1. Liquefaction of Lignocellulose in Fractionated Light Bio-Oil: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Lange, Jean Paul; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The direct thermal liquefaction of lignocellulose can provide a biocrude that could be used as a precursor for biofuels. However, earlier attempts to use the whole reactor effluent as a liquefaction medium, by recycling it to the liquefaction reactor, were hampered by the buildup of heavy products.

  2. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  3. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  4. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  5. Motor fuels made by direct liquefaction of coal, peat and biomass. Drivmedel genom direktfoervaetskning av kol, torv och biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granath, L; Karlsson, G; Karlsson, G; Nilsson, T

    1981-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology has completed a system study concerning direct liquefaction of peat and biomass to produce transportation fuel. A comprehensive survey of coal liquefaction is included. Gasoline produced in Sweden from direct liquefaction of imported coal may compete with regular gasoline at the earliest around 1985. Biomass can become a competitive alternative to black coal at the beginning of the 21st century. Methanol can be produced from wood with a higher efficiency than the transportation fuels which are produced by direct liquefaction. The peat is not good source for liquefaction as wood chips. A continuously working liquefaction plant designed also for peat among other substances is under construction at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.

  6. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes

  7. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  9. Direct hydrothermal liquefaction of undried macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera using acid catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Li, Xianguo; Liu, Shishi; Feng, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-oil from liquefaction of wet E. prolifera was as feasible as dry powder. • Adding acid catalysts could improve the flow property of bio-oil. • Alkenes in the bio-oil converted to ketones in the presence of acid catalysts. • Content of 5-methyl furfural increased in the bio-oil obtained with acid catalysts. • Esters were formed in the bio-oil when adding sulfuric acid as a catalyst. - Abstract: Direct liquefaction of macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera without predrying treatment was performed in a batch reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time, biomass-to-water ratio and acid catalysts (sulfuric acid and acetic acid) on liquefaction products were investigated. Raw material and liquefaction products were analyzed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results showed that liquefaction at 290 °C for 20 min with 1:3 biomass-to-water ratio produced the highest bio-oil yield of 28.4 wt%, and high heating value (HHV) was 29.5 MJ/kg. Main components of bio-oil were fatty acids, ketones, alkenes and 5-methyl furfural, and main components of water soluble organics (WSOs) were pyridines, carboxylic acids and glycerol. In the bio-oil obtained with acid catalysts, content of ketones significantly increased while alkenes disappeared. Content of 5-methyl furfural also increased. Flow property of bio-oils was improved in the presence of acid catalysts. Moreover, esters were formed when adding sulfuric acid

  10. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  11. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  12. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  13. Noncatalytic Direct Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin by Ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Madsen, Line Riis

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in lignin valorization to biofuels and chemicals. Here, we propose a novel and simple noncatalytic process to directly liquefy lignin rich solid residual from second generation bioethanol production by solvolysis with ethanol. Through an extensive parameter study...... in batch autoclaves assessing the effects of varying reaction temperature, reaction time, and solvent:lignin ratio, it is shown that hydrothermally pretreated enzymatic hydrolysis lignin solvolysis in supercritical ethanol can produce a heptane soluble bio-oil without the need for exhaustive deoxygenation....... The process does not require addition of catalyst or a reducing agent such as hydrogen. The process is advantageously carried out with a low reaction period ((ethanol:lignin (w/w) ratio of 2:1) which is a previously unexplored domain for lignin...

  14. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of liquefaction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liquefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120

  15. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  16. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  17. Co, Fe and Ni catalysts supported on coke for direct coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Jose A; Villalba, Oscar A; Rodriguez, Luis I; Hernandez, Orlando; Agamez, Yasmin Y; Dias Jose de Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Transition metal catalysts supported on coke were prepared by impregnation with a solution of complex of metal-thiourea, that is produced from salt precursors of cobalt chloride, Nickel chloride or iron sulfate and ammonium. sulphide formation on the support surface was generated by decomposition of the metal complex. The catalysts obtained were used in direct coal liquefaction of a medium volatile bituminous coal (Yerbabuena N 1) from Cundinamarca using a 250 Ml, Parr reactor at 723 K and a hydrogen-donor solvent. The catalytic results show, for all samples, both a good coal conversion and an enhancement of the yield of oils, this indicates that the proposed preparation method of catalyst is effective and that eventually the H 2 S sulphidation conventional process could be replaced

  18. Characterization of the impregnated iron based catalyst for direct coal liquefaction by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianli; Zhun Jisheng; Liu Zhenyu; Zhong Bing

    2002-01-01

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction (DCL). Iron catalysts are regarded as the most attractive catalysts for DCL. To maximize catalytic effect and minimize catalysts usage, ultra-fine size catalysts are preferred. The most effective catalysts are found to be those impregnated onto coal because of their high dispersion on coal surface and intimate contact with coal particles. Besides the physical size, chemical form of a catalyst or a catalyst precursor is also important in determination of DCL activity. The expended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy technique were used in this study. It was shown that the catalysts tested are in nanomater range and have structure mainly in the form of γ-FeOOH and FeS, or possibly of Fe/O/S. The presence of γ-FeOOH can be attributed to the interaction between Fe and the oxygen containing groups of coal or oxygen from moisture

  19. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins; Jasna Tomic

    2000-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the roles of a solid catalyst and the solvent in Direct Coal Liquefaction, a small reactor was equipped with a porous-walled basket which was permeable to the solvent but was not permeable to the coal or solid catalyst. With this equipment and a high volatile bituminous coal it was found that direct contact between the catalyst in the basket and the coal outside the basket is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. The character of the solvent in this system makes a significant difference in the conversion of the coal, the better solvents being strong donor solvents. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory, it was noted that the peak temperature for volatiles evolution from coal was a reliable measure of coal rank. Because of this observation, a variety of coals of a range of ranks was investigated. It was shown in this work that measuring the peak temperature for volatiles evolution was a quite precise indicator of rank and correlated closely with the rank value obtained by measuring vitrinite reflectance, a more difficult measurement to make. This prompted the desire to know the composition of the volatile material evolved as a function of coal rank. This was then measured by coupling a TGA to a mass spectrometer using laser activation and photoionization detection TG-PI-MS. The predominant species in volatiles of low rank coal turned out to be phenols with some alkenes. As the rank increases, the relative amounts of alkene and aromatic hydrocarbons increases and the oxygenated species decrease. It was shown that these volatiles were actually pyrolytic products and not volatilization products of the coal. Solvent extraction experiments coupled with Thermogravimetric-photoionization-mass spectrometry (TG-PI-MS) indicated that the low boiling and more extractable material are essentially similar in chemical types to the non-extractable portions but apparently higher molecular weight

  20. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak

  1. Direct liquefaction of wood through solvolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation: an engineering assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, J.M.; Overend, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Liquefaction of wood to produce fuel and chemical intermediates has been intensively studied over the last decade. The results of Canadian research into process feasibility are presented on the basis of two studies, the first in 1980 utilizing data of the mid-70s and the other on the basis of research conducted up to 1982. The earlier study was for a single reactor concept in which catalyst, wood and hydrogen were reacted to produce a proto-oil, while the later study embodies a two-stage concept involving dissolution of the polymer matrix followed by fractionation and catalytic upgrading using hydrodeoxygenation. Increased knowledge of the characteristics of the first stage products show that there are many component mixtures containing between 10 and 20% oxygen. Most of the oxygen is in aromatic phenol-type structures with some ether linkages, and low severity processes to deoxygenate the product while increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio are called for. The economic prospects for a two-stage process are described on the basis of a hydrocarbon process proposed by HRI International for Kraft process lignin. These show that a mix of BTX products and fuel oil could generate a profitable rate of return. 62 references.

  2. Preparation and Properties of Asphalt Binders Modified by THFS Extracted From Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the preparation and viscoelastic properties of asphalt binder modified by tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction (THFS extracted from direct coal liquefaction residue. The modified asphalt binders, which blended with SK-90 (control asphalt binder and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% THFS (by weight of SK-90, were fabricated. The preparation process for asphalt binder was optimized in terms of the orthogonal array test strategy and gray correlation analysis results. The properties of asphalt binder were measured by applying Penetration performance grade and Superpave performance grade specifications. In addition, the temperature step and frequency sweep test in Dynamic Shear Rheometer were conducted to predict the rheological behavior, temperature and frequency susceptibility of asphalt binder. The test results suggested the optimal preparation process, such as 150 °C shearing temperature, 45 min shearing time and 4000 rpm shearing rate. Subsequently, the addition of THFS was beneficial in increasing the high-temperature properties but decreased the low-temperature properties and resistance to fatigue. The content analysis of THFS showed the percentage of 4~6% achieved a balance in the high-and-low temperature properties of asphalt binder. The asphalt binder with higher THFS content exhibited higher resistance to rutting and less sensitivity to frequency and temperature.

  3. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  4. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Zhuang, Yingbin; Li, Yan; Chen, Limei; Guo, Jingxue; Li, Demao; Ye, Naihao

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C 16 to C 20 . - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

  6. Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential for level ground during earthquakes. A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, H.B.; Arango, I.; Chan, C.K.

    1975-10-01

    The results of a three-year research program conducted to investigate the settlement and liquefaction of sands under multi-directional shaking are evaluated. The investigation indicated that the behavior of a saturated sand under cyclic loading conditions is a function of its geologic and seismic history and grain structure as well as its placement density. It is concluded that the resistance to liquefaction of a sand deposit can best be estimated by laboratory testing on undisturbed samples. It is shown that cyclic triaxial tests used in conjunction with appropriate correction factors to account for multi-directional shaking, simple shear loading conditions, and overconsolidation effects can provide valid data on cyclic loading characteristics. The concepts of ''limited strain potential'' and acceptable value of the factor of safety against initial liquefaction are introduced. Finally, the two basic methods for evaluating liquefaction potential and the effects of liquefaction are reviewed and updated with the information obtained through this research effort

  7. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  8. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  9. Sunshine Program for fiscal 1981. Research on direct coal-liquefaction reactor; 1981 nendo sekitan chokusetsu ekika hannoki no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-04-17

    The research aims to develop a new-type high-efficiency reactor for direct coal-liquefaction from a reaction engineering viewpoint and, at the same time, to settle problems expected to occur in industrializing this technique. The research items are Item 1 on the analysis of characteristics of a tubular continuous reactor and Item 2 on high-activity catalysts. Under Item 1, on the assumption that liquefaction reaction is dominantly a reaction in a continuous phase, a reactor is selected in consideration of homogeneous-phase reaction, and operating conditions are set according to the selected reactor and to the liquefaction reaction characteristics. A somewhat large Re number is assigned to the paste. Since the hydrogen partial pressure lowers with the progress of reaction, hydrogen is resupplied at the middle of the reaction tube. The volume of gas increases toward the final stage of reaction, decreasing the continuous phase holdup. Since it is undesirable to let the decrease stand, a vapor-liquid separator is provided for the control of the gas volume. In this fiscal year, investigation is conducted into details so as to determine if the reactor is equipped with intended characteristics. Under Item 2, the iron ore is deemed to be the most promising as disposal catalysts for liquefaction. In this fiscal year, studies are conducted to disclose the activity etc. of catalysts of this type. (NEDO)

  10. Unconventional Coal in Wyoming: IGCC and Gasification of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffers, William Clemens

    Two unconventional uses for Wyoming Powder River Basin coal were investigated in this study. The first was the use of coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants to generate electricity. Twenty-eight different scenarios were modeled using AspenPlusRTM software. These included slurry, mechanical and dried fed gasifiers; Wyodak and Green River coals, 0%, 70%, and 90% CO2 capture; and conventional evaporative vs air cooling. All of the models were constructed on a feed basis of 6,900 tons of coal per day on an "as received basis". The AspenPlus RTM results were then used to create economic models using Microsoft RTM Excel for each configuration. These models assumed a 3 year construction period and a 30 year plant life. Results for capital and operating costs, yearly income, and internal rates of return (IRR) were compared. In addition, the scenarios were evaluated to compare electricity sales prices required to obtain a 12% IRR and to determine the effects of a carbon emissions tax on the sales price. The second part of the study investigated the gasification potential of residue remaining from solvent extraction or liquefaction of Powder River Basin Coal. Coal samples from the Decker mine on the Wyoming-Montana border were extracted with tetralin at a temperature of 360°C and pressure of 250 psi. Residue from the extraction was gasified with CO2 or steam at 833°C, 900°C and 975°C at pressures of 0.1 and 0.4 MPa. Product gases were analyzed with a mass spectrometer. Results were used to determine activation energies, reaction order, reaction rates and diffusion effects. Surface area and electron microscopic analyses were also performed on char produced from the solvent extraction residue.

  11. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant and researches on liquefaction reactions in the presence of iron-based catalyst); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tetsukei shokubai ni yoru ekika hanno no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at development of iron-based catalyst suited for direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction by elucidating the effects of the catalyst on the liquefaction reactions. The iron-based catalyst seems to act as the radical stabilizer rather than the reaction promoter, because the increased quantity of the catalyst and increased H{sub 2} pressure share the common pattern rather than the catalyst enhances the activity, which is associated with increased reaction temperature or residence time. This is more notably observed when the coal species is changed to brown coal. In other words, recombination of the decomposition products by polycondensation is accelerated in the presence of the catalyst in decomposition of brown coal from bituminous coal, with the result that the catalyst effects are more notably observed. Whether this results from difference in age between brown coal and bituminous coal or content of specific types of ashes should be elucidated, because this point is considered to deeply relate to eventual development of the liquefaction reaction system. The FY 1980 program includes the primary screening of different types of iron compounds and tests of some iron-metal-based catalysts. (NEDO)

  12. Combustion oil production by direct liquefaction of the black liquor; Obtencao de oleo combustivel atraves da liquefacao direta de lixivia negra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J L.M. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rodrigues, J A.R.; Schuchardt, U [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    A large number of publications about the liquefaction of carbonaceous materials with carbon monoxide in water have appeared. As carbon monoxide reacts with water to form formate. We have decided to use this compound for the direct liquefaction of black liquor, obtained from the pulp and paper industry. The reactions were performed in a stainless steel autoclave of 1 litre using a ratio of water/black liquor/sodium formate of 69/29,5/1,5 %. The reaction conditions were varied between 200 and 300 deg C and 110 to 130 bar of inert gas. We obtained heavy oils of an average molecular weight around 500 in 90 to 100 % yield on a dry and ash-free basis. The calorific value of this oil was estimated in 38000 kJ/kg. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. EROI Analysis for Direct Coal Liquefaction without and with CCS: The Case of the Shenhua DCL Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyang Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are considerable discrepancies between China’s central government and some local governments in attitudes towards coal to liquids (CTL technology. Energy return on investment (EROI analysis of CTL could provide new insights that may help solve this dilemma. Unfortunately, there has been little research on this topic; this paper therefore analyses the EROI of China’s Shenhua Group Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL project, currently the only DCL commercial project in the world. The inclusion or omission of internal energy and by-products is controversial. The results show that the EROIstnd without by-product and with internal energy is 0.68–0.81; the EROIstnd (the standard EROI without by-product and without internal energy is 3.70–5.53; the EROIstnd with by-product and with internal energy is 0.76–0.90; the EROIstnd with by-product and without internal energy is 4.13–6.14. Furthermore, it is necessary to consider carbon capture and storage (CCS as a means to control the CO2 emissions. Considering the added energy inputs of CCS at the plant level, the EROIs decrease to 0.65–0.77, 2.87–3.97, 0.72–0.85, and 3.20–4.40, respectively. The extremely low, even negative, net energy, which may be due to high investments in infrastructure and low conversion efficiency, suggests CTL is not a good choice to replace conventional energy sources, and thus, Chinese government should be prudent when developing it.

  15. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Report on 1981 result of Sunshine Project. Research on direct liquefaction reactor of coal; 1981 nendo sekitan no chokusetsu ekika hannoki no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This paper explains the results of research on direct liquefaction reaction of coal in fiscal 1981. The direct liquefaction is a reaction of three phases, gas-liquid-solid, under high temperature and high pressure. A tube type was employed in order to increase volume efficiency of the reactor, the continuous phase disperse number was decreased in order to bring it close to plug flow, and the paste Re number was increased to some extent in order to prevent sedimentation of coal particles. Hydrogen was supplied from the tube halfway for the purpose of supplementing the lowering of hydrogen partial pressure with the progress of reaction. A gas-liquid separator was installed so that increase in gas quantity was controlled in the rear stage of the reactor. As for catalysts, iron ore-sulfur system was examined which was promising as a disposable catalyst in place of the conventional iron system. Effect of catalytic addition was clearly recognizable in comparison with non-catalytic, with an exothermic peak observed comparable to the coal hydrogenation reaction of 350-420 degree C. Its catalytic effect was also presumable from the high pressure differential thermal analysis curve. The catalytic mechanism in the case where sulfur is added to hematite and limonite is similar to that of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} - sulfur catalyst, with the center of activity supposed to be Fe{sub 1-x}S. The catalytic effect is largely dependent on the particle size. (NEDO)

  17. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    CAER/UK: Detail coal and starting solvents from Wilsonville were analyzed to develop the data necessary to conduct process studies in the CO Pretreatment and Catalyst Evaluation segment of this program. A comparison of the solvent separation analysis with the distillation/separation used at Wilsonville showed that the residual solvent components contained a large amount of residual pentane soluble products. The ashy resid contained 3% iron and 400 ppM molybdenum. Although the iron content in the distillate and deashed resid was much less, namely about 200 ppM., the molybdenum concentrations in these fractions were not significantly reduced over the concentration in the ashy resid, i.e., 200 ppM in each. The pretreatment of coal with CO/H{sub 2}O in the presence of NaOH and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} has been shown to give a product which is lower in oxygen content and higher in hydrogen content compared to the raw coal. The atomic H/C ratios of the H{sub 2}O-insolubles, THF insolubles and the PA+A fractions of the products-together with the hydrogen consumption data suggested that the raw coal has been substantially depolymerized and hydrogenated via the WGS reaction during the pretreatment process. The extensive amount of molecular reconstruction that has occurred in the solid product was evident from the ease of solubilization of the product into pyridine. The result of the pretreatment process is a product which is highly reactive under hydroliquefaction conditions at 400{degrees}C. Reaction rates seem to be much faster than the raw coal, especially at shorter reaction times, providing the opportunity for major reductions in plant vessel sizes, and preliminary data has led us to believe that better efficiency in hydrogen utilization is achieved.

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on research under Sunshine Program. Research on direct liquefaction reaction of coal; 1993 nendo sekitan no chokusetsu ekika hanno ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The reaction velocity constant of coal or the distribution of products in a high-pressure hydrocracking process of coal are found not to be affected by the temperature rise rate. The liquefaction of coal using CO and water is analyzed using a high-pressure differential thermal analyzer. The hydrogen gas generated during the water gas reaction reacts with CO for the formation of alcohols, carbonic acid, etc. The reaction rate is found to be higher when the specimen contains more oxygen. When coals greatly different from each other in terms of thermolytic reactivity, caking property, and intersolubility with medium oils are mixed, synergistic effects are exhibited, positive when active hydrogen supply is abundant and negative when it is short. In the case of the Hokkaido coal which contains 73.0-87.4% carbon, the grain diameter does not affect the liquefaction rate when the coal is crushed to the 48-mesh size approximately. Reaction velocity in direct liquefaction does not relate to hydrogen pressure. Asphaltenes in coal liquefaction are produced at the beginning of reaction, to be reduced in molecular weight due to cleavage of methylene crosslinks with the progress of reaction. Studies are conducted in a 0.1t/d-capable bench plant about liquefaction reaction characteristics and coal liquid properties, and chemical structures. (NEDO)

  19. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant (research on liquefaction by bench scale equipment, and research on solid-liquid separation method); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bench scale sochi ni yoru ekika kenkyu, koeki bunriho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. As element studies for supplementing and supporting a 2.4 t/day PDU (process development unit), in the research using a 0.1 t/day bench scale continuous type equipment of fiscal 1981, a hydrogenation experiment was conducted for anthracene oil and also, an examination was made on the reaction conditions of Taiheiyo coal and Horonai coal, as well as on the catalyst and reaction ratio and on the product material distribution. A medium oil equalizing test was performed using Taiheiyo coal in order to obtain knowledge about equalized medium oil. Liquefaction characteristics in the preheating process and reaction process were elucidated by means of a semi-batch device. Comparative studies were made between domestic and overseas coals, in coal properties and liquefaction characteristics using a shaking type autoclave. The performance of iron-sulfur based catalysts was also examined. In the research on a solid-liquid separation method, the basic properties of coal liquefied crude oil were measured such as general properties, solid grading distribution and distillation characteristics, with the basic tests carried out for standing separation, filtrating separation and centrifuging separation, providing selected materials of the solid-liquid separation method suitable for the crude oil produced by the direct hydro-liquefaction method. In addition, studies were conducted on the use of residual oil generated by solid-liquid separation, providing knowledge of the viscosity and thermal cracking. (NEDO)

  20. Microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book containing the proceedings of the SPIE on microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts. Topics covered include: High power microwave sources, Direct energy concepts, Advanced accelerators, and Particle beams

  1. Effect of operating conditions on direct liquefaction of low-lipid microalgae in ethanol-water co-solvent for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changhao; He, Zhixia; Wang, Qian; Xu, Guisheng; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Zhixiang; Ji, Hengsong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-lipid microalgae was selected as feedstock for DL in ethanol-water co-solvent. • Operating conditions had great influence on product yields and conversion rate. • Bio-oil could be obtained from all three main components. • Ethanol and water showed obviously synergistic effect during the DL of microalgae. • Bio-oil composition from DL of microalgae was different from lignocellulose biomass. - Abstract: In this work, the direct liquefaction (DL) of low-lipid microalgae Spirulina was investigated in a 50 ml autoclave reactor with ethanol and water as co-solvent. The objective of this research was carried out to examine the effect of operating conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent/microalgae (S/M) ratio and ethanol-water co-solvent (EWCS) composition on product distribution and bio-oil characterization. The results revealed that the optimal operating conditions for bio-oil yield and conversion rate were reaction temperature of 300 °C, reaction time of 45 min, ethanol content of 50 vol.% and S/M ratio of 40/4 ml/g, which gave the bio-oil yield of 59.5% and conversion rate of 94.73%. Conversion rate in EWCS was significantly higher than that in pure water or ethanol, suggesting the synergistic effect between ethanol and water during microalgae DL. Distinct difference in composition and relative content of compound among bio-oils in different solvents were observed by GC–MS and FT-IR. Compared with hydrothermal liquefaction, the most abundant compounds in bio-oil from both EWCS and pure ethanol were esters. The presence of ethanol could enhance the bio-oil yield and improve bio-oil quality by promoting the formation of esters.

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  3. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  4. 77 FR 60887 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory... and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  6. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  7. Effect of properties of iron compounds on the catalytic activity in direct coal liquefaction; Tetsu kagobutsu no keitai to sekitan ekika kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Tazawa, K. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shimasaki, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-08-20

    When considering merchandising scale of the coal liquefaction process, it is a preliminary condition that metal used for its catalyst is rich in resource volume, cheap in production cost, without pollution, and so forth, and application of cheap iron ore and ferrous compounds to disposable catalyst is desired. As liquefaction activity of the iron ore was hitherto improved by its micro crushing, its mechanical crush had a limit of about 2 {mu}m in mean particle diameter. However, together with recent crushing technique, crushers with high performance were developed, and then micro crushing by sub-micron became possible industri8ally even for iron ore. In this study, three kinds of Australian iron ores such as limonite of ferric hydroxide type iron ore, pyrite of ferrous sulfide type, and hematite of ferric oxide type were micro crushed to examine coal liquefaction activity and hydrogenation reaction activity of 1-methyl naphthalene (1-MN) and also relationship between properties and activity of catalyst for the latter before and after reaction. 11 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  9. Coal liquefaction technologies for producing ultra clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.S.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.; Islam, N.

    2011-01-01

    The expanding demand for petroleum, accompanied by the diminishing petroleum reserves and the energy security, has intensified the significance in coal liquefaction technologies (CTL) globally and specially in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. The Geological Survey of Pakistan based on wide spread drilling over an area of 9000 sq. km, a total of 175 billion tons of coal resource potential has been assessed. This paper overviews a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of CLT such as direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) technologies. (author)

  10. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. [Mainly, the effect of preteatment of coal with carbon monoxide and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    CAER/UK: Detail coal and starting solvents from Wilsonville were analyzed to develop the data necessary to conduct process studies in the CO Pretreatment and Catalyst Evaluation segment of this program. A comparison of the solvent separation analysis with the distillation/separation used at Wilsonville showed that the residual solvent components contained a large amount of residual pentane soluble products. The ashy resid contained 3% iron and 400 ppM molybdenum. Although the iron content in the distillate and deashed resid was much less, namely about 200 ppM., the molybdenum concentrations in these fractions were not significantly reduced over the concentration in the ashy resid, i.e., 200 ppM in each. The pretreatment of coal with CO/H{sub 2}O in the presence of NaOH and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} has been shown to give a product which is lower in oxygen content and higher in hydrogen content compared to the raw coal. The atomic H/C ratios of the H{sub 2}O-insolubles, THF insolubles and the PA+A fractions of the products-together with the hydrogen consumption data suggested that the raw coal has been substantially depolymerized and hydrogenated via the WGS reaction during the pretreatment process. The extensive amount of molecular reconstruction that has occurred in the solid product was evident from the ease of solubilization of the product into pyridine. The result of the pretreatment process is a product which is highly reactive under hydroliquefaction conditions at 400{degrees}C. Reaction rates seem to be much faster than the raw coal, especially at shorter reaction times, providing the opportunity for major reductions in plant vessel sizes, and preliminary data has led us to believe that better efficiency in hydrogen utilization is achieved.

  11. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  12. Coal liquefaction committee report for fiscal 1981; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For the assurance of smooth progress of coal technology development endeavors, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has installed coal technology development committees (general committee on coal technologies, coal liquefaction committee, plant materials committee, coal type survey committee, total system committee, and coal gasification committee). The coal liquefaction committee deliberates and evaluates liquefaction technology and propels forward smoothly the efforts to develop the technology. Under the coal liquefaction committee, there are four subcommittees, which are the 1st subcommittee (primary liquefaction subcommittee), 2nd subcommittee (solid/liquid separation subcommittee), 3rd subcommittee (secondary hydrogenation subcommittee), and the 4th subcommittee (brown coal liquefaction subcommittee). The 2nd and 3rd subcommittees deal with common tasks as they were studied in fiscal 1980. The 1st subcommittee incorporates into itself the old subcommittees that respectively worked on the three liquefaction processes (the direct hydrogenation process, the solvent extraction process, and the Solvolysis process), and is designed to provide a site for information exchange. A brown coal liquefaction committee is incorporated into the coal liquefaction committee as the 4th subcommittee. This report is a compilation of the agendas of the respective subcommittees of the coal liquefaction committee. (NEDO)

  13. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  14. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  15. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  16. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  17. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant and 2.4 T/D test plant); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2.4T/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at construction and operation of a 2.4 T/D test plant for eventual commercialization of the direct hydrogenation type liquefaction process. The FY 1980 program includes designs of the test plant, procurement and manufacture of some equipment, and works for construction of the bases, buildings and scaffolds. The construction site for the 2.4 T/D plant was changed in July 1980 from Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding's Chiba works to NKK's Keihin Steelworks, which was accompanied by some changes in the basic and detailed designs. The detailed designs were reviewed for construction of the test plant, to reflect the results of the individual elementary researches. The works for the FY 1980 program also include preparations for obtaining approvals of plant construction, based on the revised designs, from the related government offices, and equipment procurement. This paper presents the major drawings for the plant construction, including those for PID designs, overall plant layouts, piping systems, buildings, scaffolds, and pipe racks. The loading data are also included. (NEDO)

  18. Experimental investigation of a directionally enhanced DHX concept for high temperature Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Joel T.; Blandford, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel directional heat exchanger design has been developed. • Hydrodynamic tests have been performed on the proposed design. • Heat transfer performance is inferred by hydrodynamic results. • Results are discussed and future work is suggested. - Abstract: The use of Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACSs) as a safety-related decay heat removal system for advanced reactors has developed historically through the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) community. Beginning with the EBR-II, DRACSs have been utilized in a large number of past and current SFR designs. More recently, the DRACS has been adopted for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) for similar decay heat removal functions. In this paper we introduce a novel directionally enhanced DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) concept. We present design options for optimizing such a heat exchanger so that shell-side heat transfer is enhanced in one primary coolant flow direction and degraded in the opposite coolant flow direction. A reduced-scale experiment investigating the hydrodynamics of a directionally enhanced DHX was built and the data collected is presented. The concept of thermal diodicity is expanded to heat exchanger technologies and used as performance criteria for evaluating design options. A heat exchanger that can perform as such would be advantageous for use in advanced reactor concepts where primary coolant flow reversal is expected during Loss-of-Forced-Circulation (LOFC) accidents where the ability to circulate coolant is compromised. The design could also find potential use in certain advanced Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) designs utilizing fluidic diode concepts.

  19. Experimental investigation of a directionally enhanced DHX concept for high temperature Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Joel T.; Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel directional heat exchanger design has been developed. • Hydrodynamic tests have been performed on the proposed design. • Heat transfer performance is inferred by hydrodynamic results. • Results are discussed and future work is suggested. - Abstract: The use of Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACSs) as a safety-related decay heat removal system for advanced reactors has developed historically through the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) community. Beginning with the EBR-II, DRACSs have been utilized in a large number of past and current SFR designs. More recently, the DRACS has been adopted for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) for similar decay heat removal functions. In this paper we introduce a novel directionally enhanced DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) concept. We present design options for optimizing such a heat exchanger so that shell-side heat transfer is enhanced in one primary coolant flow direction and degraded in the opposite coolant flow direction. A reduced-scale experiment investigating the hydrodynamics of a directionally enhanced DHX was built and the data collected is presented. The concept of thermal diodicity is expanded to heat exchanger technologies and used as performance criteria for evaluating design options. A heat exchanger that can perform as such would be advantageous for use in advanced reactor concepts where primary coolant flow reversal is expected during Loss-of-Forced-Circulation (LOFC) accidents where the ability to circulate coolant is compromised. The design could also find potential use in certain advanced Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) designs utilizing fluidic diode concepts.

  20. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  1. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Kamlya, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Utaki, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    This paper reviews the development status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. Liquid hydrogen is in cryogenic temperatures and therefore high efficient liquefaction method must be studied. Magnetic refrigeration which uses the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency > 50 %, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system > 80 % liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 second of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the total efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained in the magnetic refrigeration system operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  2. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  3. Plasma electrolytic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingliang, TANG; Xianhui, ZHANG; Si-ze, YANG

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the rapid liquefaction of a corncob was achieved by plasma electrolysis, providing a new method for cellulosic biomass liquefaction. The liquefaction rate of the corncob was 95% after 5 min with polyethylene glycol and glycerol as the liquefying agent. The experiments not only showed that H+ ions catalyzed the liquefaction of the corncob, but also that using accelerated H+ ions, which were accelerated by an electric field, could effectively improve the liquefaction efficiency. There was an obvious discharge phenomenon, in which the generated radicals efficiently heated the solution and liquefied the biomass, in the process of plasma electrolytic liquefaction. Finally, the optimum parameters of the corncob liquefaction were obtained by experimentation, and the liquefaction products were analyzed.

  4. Kinetics of coal liquefaction during heating-up and isothermal stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian Li; Haoquan Hu; Shengwei Zhu; Shuxun Hu; Bo Wu; Meng Meng [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Direct liquefaction of Shenhua bituminous coal was carried out in a 500 ml autoclave with iron catalyst and coal liquefaction cycle-oil as solvent at initial hydrogen of 8.0 MPa, residence time of 0-90 min. To investigate the liquefaction kinetics, a model for heating-up and isothermal stages was developed to estimate the rate constants of both stages. In the model, the coal was divided into three parts, easy reactive part, hard reactive part and unreactive part, and four kinetic constants were used to describe the reaction mechanism. The results showed that the model is valid for both heating-up and isothermal stages of liquefaction perfectly. The rate-controlled process for coal liquefaction is the reaction of preasphaltene plus asphaltene (PAA) to oil plus gas (O + G). The upper-limiting conversion of isothermal stage was estimated by the kinetic calculation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  6. Transport fuels from two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Martinez, M.T.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.; Prado, J.G. (Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-03-01

    Four Spanish lignites and their vitrinite concentrates were evaluated for coal liquefaction. Correlationships between the content of vitrinite and conversion in direct liquefaction were observed for the lignites but not for the vitrinite concentrates. The most reactive of the four coals was processed in two-stage liquefaction at a higher scale. First-stage coal liquefaction was carried out in a continuous unit at Clausthal University at a temperature of 400[degree]C at 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and with anthracene oil as a solvent. The coal conversion obtained was 75.41% being 3.79% gases, 2.58% primary condensate and 69.04% heavy liquids. A hydroprocessing unit was built at the Instituto de Carboquimica for the second-stage coal liquefaction. Whole and deasphalted liquids from the first-stage liquefaction were processed at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The effects of liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), temperature, gas/liquid ratio and catalyst on the heteroatom liquids, and levels of 5 ppm of nitrogen and 52 ppm of sulphur were reached at 450[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, 0.08 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock and with Harshaw HT-500E catalyst. The liquids obtained were hydroprocessed again at 420[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and 0.06 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock to hydrogenate the aromatic structures. In these conditions, the aromaticity was reduced considerably, and 39% of naphthas and 35% of kerosene fractions were obtained. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. 77 FR 44511 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory... identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  8. Summary of FY 1980 results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques; 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sunshine keikaku itaku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3 R and D themes for coal liquefaction techniques, pursued by the Sunshine Project; (1) development of solvent extraction type liquefaction plant, and brown coal liquefaction technique R and D demonstration surveys, (2) development of solvolysis type liquefaction plant, and (3) development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant. For the theme (1), the 1 T/D test plant, solid/liquid separator and small-size continuous settlement separator are constructed, and partly completed. The elementary studies include solvent extraction type liquefaction process, materials for coal liquefaction plant and solid/liquid separation. Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal are studied to clarify the possible problems involved in liquefaction of these coal species for commercialization of the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. The elementary techniques studied include dehydration of brown coal, milling at high temperature in oil, de-ashing, and secondary and primary hydrogenation. For the theme (2), the 1 T/D plant is inspected and maintained to clarify the problems involved in the continuous operation, revamped and repaired as necessary, given preventive maintenance, and tested for operability confirmation. The elementary studies include solvolysis type liquefaction process, scale-up, hydrogenation plant for solvolysis pitch. For the item (3), the 2.4 T/D test plant is constructed, and the elementary studies are conducted, for, e.g., liquefaction reactions in the presence of an iron-based catalyst. (NEDO)

  9. Summary of FY 1980 results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques; 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sunshine keikaku itaku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3 R and D themes for coal liquefaction techniques, pursued by the Sunshine Project; (1) development of solvent extraction type liquefaction plant, and brown coal liquefaction technique R and D demonstration surveys, (2) development of solvolysis type liquefaction plant, and (3) development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant. For the theme (1), the 1 T/D test plant, solid/liquid separator and small-size continuous settlement separator are constructed, and partly completed. The elementary studies include solvent extraction type liquefaction process, materials for coal liquefaction plant and solid/liquid separation. Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal are studied to clarify the possible problems involved in liquefaction of these coal species for commercialization of the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. The elementary techniques studied include dehydration of brown coal, milling at high temperature in oil, de-ashing, and secondary and primary hydrogenation. For the theme (2), the 1 T/D plant is inspected and maintained to clarify the problems involved in the continuous operation, revamped and repaired as necessary, given preventive maintenance, and tested for operability confirmation. The elementary studies include solvolysis type liquefaction process, scale-up, hydrogenation plant for solvolysis pitch. For the item (3), the 2.4 T/D test plant is constructed, and the elementary studies are conducted, for, e.g., liquefaction reactions in the presence of an iron-based catalyst. (NEDO)

  10. EARTHQUAKE INDUCED LIQUEFACTION ANALYSIS OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam, which is part ... sugar cane plantation in an area of 60,000 hectares. The project .... The model is prepared using the QUAKE/W program for the ..... Geo-slope International, Ltd., Canada. Dynamic ...

  11. Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    All first-stage experimental tests were completed for Task 4 (and the Contract). The first-stage one-liter autoclave tests that were made were duplicates of Run 41-LA. The conditions used were chosen last quarter to reduce the cost of the first-stage of the process from those used at the conclusion of Task 3. Filtration and second-stage tests were made using the products of the first-stage tests. Post-second-stage filtration, tested as an alternative to interstage (pre-second- stage) filtration, resulted in low filtration rates. Different catalyst loadings and type and residence time for second-stage hydrotreating were explored. Longer residence times did not result in significantly more resid conversion. Higher catalyst loadings were more effective in converting the resid at the same residence time. The material and elemental balances for the first-stage were completed. The material and elemental balances for the second-stage were initiated

  12. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  13. Experimental validation of a mathematical model for seabed liquefaction in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt ( d50 = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range 7.7-18 cm with the water depth 55 cm and the wave period 1.6 s enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data was used to validate the model. A numerical...

  14. Probabilistic liquefaction hazard analysis at liquefied sites of 1956 Dunaharaszti earthquake, in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Bán, Zoltán; Horváth, Tibor

    2017-04-01

    Liquefaction potential evaluations are generally made to assess the hazard from specific scenario earthquakes. These evaluations may estimate the potential in a binary fashion (yes/no), define a factor of safety or predict the probability of liquefaction given a scenario event. Usually the level of ground shaking is obtained from the results of PSHA. Although it is determined probabilistically, a single level of ground shaking is selected and used within the liquefaction potential evaluation. In contrary, the fully probabilistic liquefaction potential assessment methods provide a complete picture of liquefaction hazard, namely taking into account the joint probability distribution of PGA and magnitude of earthquake scenarios; both of which are key inputs in the stress-based simplified methods. Kramer and Mayfield (2007) has developed a fully probabilistic liquefaction potential evaluation method using a performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework. The results of the procedure are the direct estimate of the return period of liquefaction and the liquefaction hazard curves in function of depth. The method combines the disaggregation matrices computed for different exceedance frequencies during probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with one of the recent models for the conditional probability of liquefaction. We have developed a software for the assessment of performance-based liquefaction triggering on the basis of Kramer and Mayfield method. Originally the SPT based probabilistic method of Cetin et al. (2004) was built-in into the procedure of Kramer and Mayfield to compute the conditional probability however there is no professional consensus about its applicability. Therefore we have included not only Cetin's method but Idriss and Boulanger (2012) SPT based moreover Boulanger and Idriss (2014) CPT based procedures into our computer program. In 1956, a damaging earthquake of magnitude 5.6 occurred in Dunaharaszti, in Hungary. Its epicenter was located

  15. Outline of research achievement of fiscal 1983. Development of coal liquefaction technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu. 1983 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    Reported are the results of (1) the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, (2) development of brown coal liquefaction technology, (3) experimental fabrication and development of plant equipment and materials therefor, and (4) a survey on coal type selection. The goals of the development are mentioned below. Under Item (1), an optimum liquefaction process and a solid/liquid separation process are to be defined, the effect of iron-based catalysts upon liquefaction reaction is to be elucidated, a technology for constructing a direct hydroliquefaction unit is to be established, and a plant using such a unit is to be developed. Under Item (2), an optimum liquefaction technology is to be established, high in economic efficiency and reliability, by subjecting Australia's Victoria brown coal to the direct liquefaction process. In particular, a new brown coal liquefaction technology is to be established, which will be an organic combination of a novel, raw brown coal slurry dehydration technology, a solvent deashing technology, and the secondary hydrogenation technology, all centering on the basic technology of primary hydrogenation. Under Item (3), reactor materials, accessory materials, slurry pumps, etc., are to be experimentally manufactured and developed further. Under Item (4), data are to be collected on coal resources, coal quality, liquefaction characteristics, etc., during the process of technology development for liquefaction, etc. Furthermore, methods are to be established for the effective utilization of liquefaction products and for their optimum refining. (NEDO)

  16. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  17. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flum......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction....

  18. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. H.; Yi, A. C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize 'waverider' aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight.

  19. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  20. Liquefaction technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A survey of coal liquefaction technology and analysis of projected relative performance of high potential candidates has been completed and the results are reported here. The key objectives of the study included preparation of a broad survey of the status of liquefaction processes under development, selection of a limited number of high potential process candidates for further study, and an analysis of the relative commercial potential of these candidates. Procedures which contributed to the achievement of the above key goals included definition of the characteristics and development status of known major liquefaction process candidates, development of standardized procedures for assessing technical, environmental, economic and product characteristics for the separate candidates, and development of procedures for selecting and comparing high potential processes. The comparisons were made for three production areas and four marketing areas of the US. In view of the broad scope of the objectives the survey was a limited effort. It used the experience gained during preparation of seven comprehensive conceptual designs/economic evaluations plus comprehensive reviews of the designs, construction and operation of several pilot plants. Results and conclusions must be viewed in the perspective of the information available, how this information was treated, and the full context of the economic comparison results. Comparative economics are presented as ratios; they are not intended to be predictors of absolute values. Because the true cost of constructing and operating large coal conversion facilities will be known only after commercialization, relative values are considered more appropriate. (LTN)

  1. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  2. Liquefaction macrophenomena in the great Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong; Hou, Longqing; Sun, Rui; Dong, Lin; Wang, Weiming; Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Hongjuan

    2009-06-01

    On May 12, 2008 at 14:28, a catastrophic magnitude M s 8.0 earthquake struck the Sichuan Province of China. The epicenter was located at Wenchuan (31.00°N, 103.40°E). Liquefaction macrophenomena and corresponding destruction was observed throughout a vast area of 500 km long and 200 km wide following the earthquake. This paper illustrates the geographic distribution of the liquefaction and the relationship between liquefaction behavior and seismic intensity, and summarizes the liquefaction macrophenomena, including sandboils and waterspouts, ground subsidence, ground fissures etc., and relevant liquefaction features. A brief summary of the structural damage caused by liquefaction is presented and discussed. Based on comparisons with liquefaction phenomena observed in the 1976 Tangshan and 1975 Haicheng earthquakes, preliminary analyses were performed, which revealed some new features of liquefaction behavior and associated issues arising from this event. The site investigation indicated that the spatial non-uniformity of liquefaction distribution was obvious and most of the liquefied sites were located in regions of seismic intensity VIII. However, liquefaction phenomena at ten different sites in regions of seismic intensity VI were also observed for the first time in China mainland. Sandboils and waterspouts ranged from centimeters to tens of meters, with most between 1 m to 3 m. Dramatically high water/sand ejections, e.g., more than 10 m, were observed at four different sites. The sand ejections included silty sand, fine sand, medium sand, course sand and gravel, but the ejected sand amount was less than that in the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Possible liquefaction of natural gravel soils was observed for the first time in China mainland.

  3. A Concept for Directly Coupled Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma jets with high momentum flux density are required for a variety of applications in propulsion research. Methods of producing these plasma jets are being investigated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental goal in the immediate future is to develop plasma accelerators which are capable of producing plasma jets with momentum flux density represented by velocities up to 200 km/s and ion density up to 10(exp 24) per cu m, with sufficient precision and reproducibility in their properties, and with sufficiently high efficiency. The jets must be sufficiently focused to allow them to be transported over several meters. A plasma accelerator concept is presented that might be able to meet these requirements. It is a self-switching, shaped coaxial pulsed plasma thruster, with focusing of the plasma flow by shaping muzzle current distribution as in plasma focus devices, and by mechanical tapering of the gun walls. Some 2-D MHD modeling in support of the conceptual design will be presented.

  4. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  5. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction is increa...

  6. Geological occurrence response to trace elemental migration in coal liquefaction based on SPSS: take no. 11 coalbed in Antaibao mine for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Weifeng

    2013-03-01

    Coal liquefaction is an adoptable method to transfer the solid fossil energy into liquid oil in large scale, but the dirty material in which will migrate to different step of liquefaction. The migration rule of some trace elements is response to the react activity of macerals in coal and the geological occurrence of the element nature of itself. In this paper, from the SPSS data correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering dendrogram about the trace elements with macerals respond to coal liquefaction yield, it shows the trace elements in No.11 Antaibao coal seam originated from some of lithophile and sulphophle elements. Correlation coefficient between liquefaction yield of three organic macerals and migration of the elements in liquefaction residue indicated that the lithophile are easy to transfer to residue, while sulphophle are apt to in the liquid products. The activated macerals are response to sulphophle trace elements. The conclusion is useful to the coal blending and environmental effects on coal direct liquefaction.

  7. FY 1980 Report on results of research and development project, recommissioned by Sunshine Project. Development of direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction plant (Development of power recovery system by hydrohoist); 1980 nendo chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hydrohoist ni yoru doryoku kaishu system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    The R and D program was implemented for a hydrohoist system, with the objectives to reduce wear and power requirements in the direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction plant. Direct hydrogenation, operating at elevated pressure in the presence of catalyst, is suitable for liquefaction of coal to produce light liquid products, which are in great demand. However, there are many mechanical problems to be solved, because the plant is operated under very severe conditions. The proposed hydrohoist system combines supply of the feed slurry with the let-down step for the slurry effluent as the product of the high-pressure system, to save energy by recovering power from the effluent slurry and, at the same time, reduce wear of the pumps and let-down valves, for the direct hydrogenation plant operating at 150 to 300 kg/cm{sup 2} in the presence of catalyst to liquefy coal. Such a system has been already commercialized for transferring coal and other minerals. In the FY 1980, basic tests are conducted using a small autoclave, to extract the problematical points for the test system. The results serve as the bases for designs and construction of the basic test system by which the hydrohoist system is to be studied and evaluated. (NEDO)

  8. Control concepts for direct steam generation in parabolic troughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain); Berenguel, Manuel [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, Almeria (Spain); Camacho, Eduardo F. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    A new prototype parabolic-trough collector system was erected at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (1996-1998) to investigate direct steam generation (DSG) in a solar thermal power plant under real solar conditions. The system has been under evaluation for efficiency, cost, control and other parameters since 1999. The main objective of the control system is to obtain steam at constant temperature and pressure at the solar field outlet, so that changes in inlet water conditions and/or in solar radiation affect the amount of steam, but not its quality or the nominal plant efficiency. This paper presents control schemes designed and tested for two operating modes, 'Recirculation', for which a proportional-integral-derivative (PI/PID) control functions scheme has been implemented, and 'Once-through', requiring more complex control strategies, for which the scheme is based on proportional-integral (PI), feedforward and cascade control. Experimental results of both operation modes are discussed. (Author)

  9. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  10. Potential of balloon payloads for in flight validation of direct and nulling interferometry concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeon, Olivier; Ollivier, Marc; Le Duigou, Jean-Michel; Cassaing, Frédéric; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Mourard, Denis; Kern, Pierre; Lam Trong, Tien; Evrard, Jean; Absil, Olivier; Defrere, Denis; Lopez, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    While the question of low cost / low science precursors is raised to validate the concepts of direct and nulling interferometry space missions, balloon payloads offer a real opportunity thanks to their relatively low cost and reduced development plan. Taking into account the flight capabilities of various balloon types, we propose in this paper, several concepts of payloads associated to their flight plan. We also discuss the pros and cons of each concepts in terms of technological and science demonstration power.

  11. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes AGENCY... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  12. 77 FR 33622 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation... Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  13. Influence of the void ratio and the confining on the static liquefaction in slopes in shangi sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mariano Ramos Cañón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study on the onset of static liquefaction in slopes under undrained conditions of loading was developed based on a general liquefaction flow instability criterion for elastoplastic soils based on the concept of loss of controllability. The criterion is applied to the case of axisymmetric loading to detect the onset of static liquefaction. The criterion is used in conjunction with an elastoplastic model for sands and is tested by means of numerical simulations of element tests. The numerical results are compared with experimental evidence obtaining good agreement. A quantitative study of the influence of the mean pressure, void ratio and the anisotropy of stress on the onset of static liquefaction is presented for the Changi sand. From the analysis of the numerical results, it can be concluded that: a. the mobilized friction angle at the onset of liquefaction is not an intrinsic property of the material, but is a state variable b. Despite of the multiple variables involved in the process of generation of undrained instability, the state of stresses at the onset of static liquefaction can be conveniently represented by a linear relation between Dq/po and no . This graphical representation can be used in the practice of geotechnical engineering to quantify the margin of security against the static liquefaction of a sandy slope.

  14. Earthquake-induced liquefaction in Ferland, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Seeber, L.

    1991-02-01

    Detailed geological investigations are under way at a number of liquefaction sites in the Ferland-Boilleau valley, Quebec, where sand boils, ground cracks and liquefaction-related damages to homes were documented immediately following the Ms=6.0, Mblg=6.5 Saguenay earthquake of November 25, 1988. To date, results obtained from these subsurface investigations of sand boils at two sites in Ferland, located about 26 km from the epicentre, indicate that: the Saguenay earthquake induced liquefaction in late-Pleistocene and Holocene sediments which was recorded as sand dikes, sills and vents in near-surface sediments and soils; earthquake-induced liquefaction and ground failure have occurred in this area at least three times in the past 10,000 years; and, the size and morphology of liquefaction features and the liquefaction susceptibility of source layers of the features may be indicative of the intensity of ground shaking. These preliminary results are very promising and suggest that with continued research liquefaction features will become a useful tool in glaciated terrains, such as northeastern North America, for determining not only the timing and location but also the size of past earthquakes

  15. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  16. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa; Vogel, Jörg; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Jönsson, Karin

    2018-02-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization. Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and forward osmosis (FO) have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from bench- and pilot-scale experiments applying direct MF and FO, respectively. Additionally, available complementary data from a Swedish full-scale wastewater treatment plant and the literature were used to evaluate the concepts in depth. The results of this study indicate that both concepts are net positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area-efficient manner with techniques that are already commercially available and with future membrane technology.

  18. Histotripsy Liquefaction of Large Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Monsky, Wayne L; Haider, Yasser A; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15-20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms-fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A spotlight on liquefaction: evidence from clinical settings and experimental models in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2011-01-01

    Liquefaction is one of the most intriguing aspects of human tuberculosis. It is a major cause of the transition from the infection to active disease (tuberculosis, TB) as well as the transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. This paper reviews the natural history of liquefaction in humans from a pathological and radiological point of view and discusses how the experimental models available can be used to address the topic of liquefaction and cavity formation. Different concepts that have been related to liquefaction, from the influence of immune response to mechanical factors, are reviewed. Synchronic necrosis or apoptosis of infected macrophages in a close area, together with an ineffective fibrosis, appears to be clue in this process, in which macrophages, the immune response, and bacillary load interact usually in a particular scenario: the upper lobes of the lung. The summary would be that even if being a stochastic effect, liquefaction would result if the organization of the intragranulomatous necrosis (by means of fibrosis) would be disturbed.

  20. A Spotlight on Liquefaction: Evidence from Clinical Settings and Experimental Models in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Joan Cardona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction is one of the most intriguing aspects of human tuberculosis. It is a major cause of the transition from the infection to active disease (tuberculosis, TB as well as the transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. This paper reviews the natural history of liquefaction in humans from a pathological and radiological point of view and discusses how the experimental models available can be used to address the topic of liquefaction and cavity formation. Different concepts that have been related to liquefaction, from the influence of immune response to mechanical factors, are reviewed. Synchronic necrosis or apoptosis of infected macrophages in a close area, together with an ineffective fibrosis, appears to be clue in this process, in which macrophages, the immune response, and bacillary load interact usually in a particular scenario: the upper lobes of the lung. The summary would be that even if being a stochastic effect, liquefaction would result if the organization of the intragranulomatous necrosis (by means of fibrosis would be disturbed.

  1. Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czelada, J. A.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    The simplified empirical procedure in its original form presented in Youd et al (2001) and some further developments given in Idriss and Boulanger (2006) for evaluating liquefaction resistance of soils is presented in this paper only for the criteria based on standard penetration test (SPT). Methods for estimating the ground improvement techniques by stone columns and dynamics compaction are presented. For stone columns Priebe method (1995) and homogenized method (equivalent parameters) are present. for dynamic compaction methods proposed by Recomendacion Geotecnica para las Obras Maritimas y/o Porturaria - ROM 0.5-05 (2005) and Nashed et al. (2009) are described. These analysis methods for each ground improvement technique are compared in two different case histories showing similar results in each one. (Author)

  2. Direct media exposure of MEMS multi-sensor systems using a potted-tube packaging concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Anders; Birkelund, Karen; Janting, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    in the filling material is measured. The packaging concept is used to encapsulate a microfabricated multi-sensor (measuring temperature, water conductivity, pressure and light intensity). The direct exposure of the sensors results in high sensitivity and fast response time. The design of an elongated multi-sensor......A packaging concept for Data Storage Tags is presented. A potted-tube packaging concept, using a polystyrene tube and different epoxies as filling material that allows for direct sensor exposure is investigated. The curing temperature, water uptake and the diffusion coefficient for water...... is described and effectiveness of the packaging is demonstrated with the precise measurement of water conductivity using the packaged multi-sensor. The packaging concept is very promising for high accuracy measurements in harsh environments....

  3. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa

    2018-01-01

    electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from...... positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area...

  5. Attainment of students’ conception in magnetic fields by using of direct observation and symbolic language ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desy Fatmaryanti, Siska; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Ashadi

    2017-11-01

    This study focuses on description attainment of students’ conception in the magnetic field. The conception was based by using of direct observation and symbolic language ability. The method used is descriptive quantitative research. The subject of study was about 86 students from 3 senior high school at Purworejo. The learning process was done by guided inquiry model. During the learning, students were required to actively investigate the concept of a magnetic field around a straight wire electrical current Data retrieval was performed using an instrument in the form of a multiple choice test reasoned and observation during the learning process. There was four indicator of direct observation ability and four indicators of symbolic language ability to grouping category of students conception. The results of average score showed that students conception about the magnitude more better than the direction of magnetic fields in view of symbolic language. From the observation, we found that students could draw the magnetic fields line not from a text book but their direct observation results. They used various way to get a good accuracy of observation results. Explicit recommendations are presented in the discussion section at the end of this paper.

  6. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Small scale demand type neon liquefaction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, W.P.; Slifka, A.J.; Bitsy, R.M.; Sparks, L.L.; Johnson, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    Low-temperature measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials is generally made using a boil-off calorimetry technique involving liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid neon (LNe) has nearly the same normal boiling point as LH2, but has a much larger heat of vaporization, allowing extended run times. The main drawback of using LNe has been its excessive cost; $170.00 versus $1.50/l for LH2 (1989 prices). A neon liquefaction plant has been designed and constructed to capture, purify, and refrigerate the neon boil-off from calorimetry experiments. Recycling the neon reduces operating costs to approximately $20/l. The system consists of a purification section, a heat exchanger, LNe and LH2 storage dewars, and a fully automated control system. After purification, neon is liquified in the heat exchanger by LH2 flowing countercurrently through stainless steel cooling coils. Hydrogen flow is automatically adjusted to keep the neon at its normal saturation temperature, 27 K. The liquid neon is then stored in a dewar placed directly below the heat exchanger

  8. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Reported herein are the details and the results of laboratory and bench scale experiments that were conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92147 during the period of October 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995. The program results described herein build on the previous technology base and investigating additional methods to improve the economics of producing transportation fuels from coal. This included purely physical parameters, coal treatment and variation in solvent to coal ratio, the use of syngas to replace part of the hydrogen as the reducing gas, the use of dispersed catalyst in addition to and replacing the supported catalyst, and the co-processing of coal with plastic waste material. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from direct coal liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. The report includes the results of an economic assessment of the various process strategies that were evaluated during this program. A summary of the technical/economic evaluations is given in Volume I, Section II of this report. The experimental details of the eleven run of the program are given in Volume I, Section III and Volume II of this report. The details of the technical evaluations are given in the Volume III of the report.

  9. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  10. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology in fiscal 1981; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika setsumeisho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of coal liquefaction technology under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. In connection with solvent extraction and liquefaction, an 1 t/day experimental plant was completed for bituminous coals and operated continuously for 153 hours. An examination also started for the development of a 250 t/day pilot plant. As the element studies, R and D is in progress on the solvent extraction and liquefaction process, solid-liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, and plant materials. In brown coals, the construction work of a 50 t/day pilot plant started for the purpose of establishing liquefaction technology for brown coal in Victoria State, Australia, with a part of the equipment manufactured. As the element studies, research was conducted on primary hydrogenation, deliming, secondary hydrogenation, dehydration and catalysts. In solvolysis liquefaction, a short-time concluding liquefaction reaction was continuously performed by a plant of 1 t/day scale. In direct hydro-liquefaction, a 2.4 t/day experimental plant was constructed, with the element studies conducted successively. In other words, researches were carried out by the bench scale plant on liquefaction, solid-liquid separation, iron-based catalysts, catalyst and reutilization, motive force recovery system by hydrohoist, and effect of preheating and deaeration. (NEDO)

  11. Prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartiniati; Dasuki, A.S.; Artanto, Yu.; Sulaksono, D.; Gunanjar

    1997-01-01

    With the current known oil reserves of about 11 billion barrel and annual production of approximately 500 million barrel, the country's oil reserves will be depleted by 2010, and Indonesia would have become net oil importer if no major oil fields be found somewhere in the archipelago. Under such circumstances the development of new sources of liquid fuel becomes a must, and coal liquefaction can be one possible solution for the future energy problem in Indonesia, particularly in the transportation sector due to the availability of coal in huge amount. This paper present the prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia and look at the possibility of integrating the process with HTR as a heat supplier. Evaluation of liquidability of several low grade Indonesian coals will also be presented. Coal from South Banko-Tanjung Enim is found to be one of the most suitable coal for liquefaction. Several studies show that an advanced coal liquefaction technology recently developed has the potential to reduce not only the environmental impact but also the production cost. The price of oil produced in the year 2000 is expected to reach US $ 17.5 ∼ 19.2/barrel and this will compete with the current oil price. Not much conclusion can be drawn from the idea of integrating HTR with coal liquefaction plant due to limited information available. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  12. The Direct Internal Recycling concept to simplify the fuel cycle of a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Christian; Giegerich, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The fusion fuel cycle is presented and its functions are discussed. • Tritium inventories are estimated for an early DEMO configuration. • The Direct Internal Recycling concept to reduce tritium inventories is described. • Concepts for its technical implementation are developed. -- Abstract: A new concept, the Direct Internal Recycling (DIR) concept, is proposed, which minimizes fuel cycle inventory by adding an additional short-cut between the pumped torus exhaust gas and the fuelling systems. The paper highlights quantitative modelling results derived from a simple fuel cycle spreadsheet which underline the potential benefits that can be achieved by implementation of the DIR concept into a fusion power plant. DIR requires a novel set-up of the torus exhaust pumping system, which replaces the batch-wise and cyclic operated cryogenic pumps by a continuous pumping solution and which offers at the same time an additional integral gas separation function. By that, hydrogen can be removed close to the divertor from all other gases and the main load to the fuel clean-up systems is a smaller, helium-rich gas stream. Candidate DIR relevant pump technology based on liquid metals (vapour diffusion and liquid ring pumps) and metal foils is discussed

  13. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  14. Survival of Legionella in earthquake-induced soil disturbance (liquefaction) in residential areas, Christchurch, New Zealand: implications for disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Frances F; Harte, David Jg

    2017-05-12

    To investigate a possible link between liquefaction dust exposure and the noticeable increase in legionellosis cases in response to major earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 that resulted in widespread soil disturbance (liquefaction) in parts of Christchurch, New Zealand. We culture tested liquefaction-affected soil for Legionella spp. in the six months following the first earthquake in 2010. Thirty silt samples were collected randomly from locations within Christchurch's metropolitan area that were affected by liquefaction. The samples were tested to determine the presence of Legionella using qualitative and quantitative methods. Liquefaction-affected soil samples from three sites were further subjected to particle size distribution analysis and determination of major oxides. A controlled field study was established using six silt samples and one control (commercial compost), seeded with a wild-type strain of Legionella bozemanae serogroup (sg) 1 and persistence monitored over a 60-day period by culturing for the presence of Legionella. Dry matter determinations were undertaken so that total Legionella could be calculated on a dry weight basis. Legionella bacteria were undetectable after day one in the silt samples. However, L. bozemanae sg1 was detected in the control sample for the entire study period. This study showed that the liquefaction-affected soil could not contribute directly to the observed increase in legionellosis cases after the earthquakes due to its inability to support growth and survival of the Legionella bacteria.

  15. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  16. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  17. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  18. A Comparison of Three Second-generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustor Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Podboy, Derek P.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2016-01-01

    Three variations of a low emissions aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept were developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. All three variations were based on the baseline 9- point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. The three second generation SV-LDI variations are called the 5-recess configuration, the flat dome configuration, and the 9- recess configuration. These three configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center medium pressure flametube. All three second generation variations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. All three configurations had low NO(sub x) emissions, with the 5-recess configuration generally having slightly lower NO(x) than the flat dome or 9-recess configurations. Due to the limitations of the flametube that prevented testing at pressures above 20 atm, correlation equations were developed for the at dome and 9-recess configurations so that the landing-takeoff NO(sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome and 9-recess landing-takeoff NO(x) emissions are estimated to be 81-88% below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the project goal of 75% reduction.

  19. A Second Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Chang, Clarence T.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2014-01-01

    A low-NO (sub x) aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept was developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. Three second generation SV-LDI configurations were developed. All three were based on the baseline 9-point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. These second generation configurations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. Two of these second generation configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center flametube; these two configurations are called the at dome and 5-recess configurations. Results show that the 5-recess configuration generally had lower NO (sub x) emissions than the flat dome configuration. Correlation equations were developed for the flat dome configuration so that the landing-takeoff NO (sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome landing-takeoff NO (sub x) is estimated to be 87-88 percent below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the ERA project goal of 75 percent reduction.

  20. Probabilistic versus deterministic hazard assessment in liquefaction susceptible zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Gerosa, Daniele; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), usually adopted in the framework of seismic codes redaction, is based on Poissonian description of the temporal occurrence, negative exponential distribution of magnitude and attenuation relationship with log-normal distribution of PGA or response spectrum. The main positive aspect of this approach stems into the fact that is presently a standard for the majority of countries, but there are weak points in particular regarding the physical description of the earthquake phenomenon. Factors like site effects, source characteristics like duration of the strong motion and directivity that could significantly influence the expected motion at the site are not taken into account by PSHA. Deterministic models can better evaluate the ground motion at a site from a physical point of view, but its prediction reliability depends on the degree of knowledge of the source, wave propagation and soil parameters. We compare these two approaches in selected sites affected by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, that caused widespread liquefaction phenomena unusually for magnitude less than 6. We focus on sites liquefiable because of their soil mechanical parameters and water table level. Our analysis shows that the choice between deterministic and probabilistic hazard analysis is strongly dependent on site conditions. The looser the soil and the higher the liquefaction potential, the more suitable is the deterministic approach. Source characteristics, in particular the duration of strong ground motion, have long since recognized as relevant to induce liquefaction; unfortunately a quantitative prediction of these parameters appears very unlikely, dramatically reducing the possibility of their adoption in hazard assessment. Last but not least, the economic factors are relevant in the choice of the approach. The case history of 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, with an officially estimated cost of 6 billions

  1. Concept and nuclear performance of direct-enrichment fusion breeder blanket using UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Kasahara, Takayasu; An, Shigehiro

    1985-01-01

    A new concept is presented for direct enrichment of fissile fuel in the blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The enriched fuel produced by this means can be used in fission reactors without reprocessing. The outstanding feature of the concept is the powdered form in which UO 2 fuel is placed in the reactor blanket, where it is irradiated to the requisite enrichment for use as fuel in burner reactor, e.g. 3%. After removal from blanket, the powder is mixed to homogenize the enrichment. Fuel pellets and assemblies are then fabricated from the powder without reprocessing. The concept of irradiating UO 2 in powder eliminates the problems of spatial nonuniformity in fissile enrichment, and of radiation damage to fuel clad, encountered in attempting to enrich prefabricated fuel. Powder mixing for homogenization brings the additional benefit of removing volatile fission products. Also burnable poison can be added, as necessary, after irradiation. An extensive neutronic parameter survey showed that the optimum blanket arrangement for this enrichment concept is one presenting a fission suppressing configuration and with beryllium adopted as moderator. By this arrangement, the average 239 Pu enrichment obtained on the natural UO 2 fuel in the blanket reaches 3% after only 0.56 MW.yr/m"2 exposure. A conceptual design is presented of the blanket, together with associated fusion breeder, from which, practical application of the concept is shown to be promising. (author)

  2. Improvements on mapping soil liquefaction at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing

    Earthquake induced soil liquefaction is an important secondary hazard during earthquakes and can lead to significant damage to infrastructure. Mapping liquefaction hazard is important in both planning for earthquake events and guiding relief efforts by positioning resources once the events have occurred. This dissertation addresses two aspects of liquefaction hazard mapping at a regional scale including 1) predictive liquefaction hazard mapping and 2) post-liquefaction cataloging. First, current predictive hazard liquefaction mapping relies on detailed geologic maps and geotechnical data, which are not always available in at-risk regions. This dissertation improves the predictive liquefaction hazard mapping by the development and validation of geospatial liquefaction models (Chapter 2 and 3) that predict liquefaction extent and are appropriate for global application. The geospatial liquefaction models are developed using logistic regression from a liquefaction database consisting of the data from 27 earthquake events from six countries. The model that performs best over the entire dataset includes peak ground velocity (PGV), VS30, distance to river, distance to coast, and precipitation. The model that performs best over the noncoastal dataset includes PGV, VS30, water table depth, distance to water body, and precipitation. Second, post-earthquake liquefaction cataloging historically relies on field investigation that is often limited by time and expense, and therefore results in limited and incomplete liquefaction inventories. This dissertation improves the post-earthquake cataloging by the development and validation of a remote sensing-based method that can be quickly applied over a broad region after an earthquake and provide a detailed map of liquefaction surface effects (Chapter 4). Our method uses the optical satellite images before and after an earthquake event from the WorldView-2 satellite with 2 m spatial resolution and eight spectral bands. Our method

  3. Ground Characterization Studies in Canakkale Pilot Site of LIQUEFACT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, F.; Oztoprak, S.; Aysal, N.; Bozbey, I.; Tezel, O.; Ozer, C.; Sargin, S.; Bekin, E.; Almasraf, M.; Cengiz Cinku, M.; Ozdemir, K.

    2017-12-01

    The our aim is to outline the ground characterisation studies in Canakkale test site. Study is based on the EU H2020 LIQUEFACT project entitled "Liquefact: Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: a holistic approach to protect structures / infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake-induced liquefaction disasters". Objectives and extent of ground characterization for Canakkale test site includes pre-existing soil investigation studies and complementary field studies. There were several SPT and geophysical tests carried out in the study area. Within the context of the complementary tests, six (6) study areas in the test site were chosen and complementary tests were carried out in these areas. In these areas, additional boreholes were opened and SPT tests were performed. It was decided that additional CPT (CPTU and SCPT) and Marchetti Dilatometer (DMT) tests should be carried out within the scope of the complementary testing. Seismic refraction, MASW and micro tremor measurements had been carried out in pre-existing studies. Shear wave velocities obtained from MASW measurements were evaluated to the most rigorous level. These tests were downhole seismic, PS-logging, seismic refraction, 2D-ReMi, MASW, micro tremor (H/V Nakamura method), 2D resistivity and resonance acoustic profiling (RAP). RAP is a new technique which will be explained briefly in the relevant section. Dynamic soil properties had not been measured in pre-existing studies, therefore these properties were investigated within the scope of the complementary tests. Selection of specific experimental tests of the complementary campaign was based on cost-benefit considerations Within the context of complementary field studies, dynamic soil properties were measured using resonant column and cyclic direct shear tests. Several sieve analyses and Atterberg Limits tests which were documented in the pre-existing studies were evaluated. In the complementary study carried out

  4. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard Christensen, Per; Peng, Gaël; Vogel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum was processed by hydrothermal liquefaction in order to assess the influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on the product and elemental distribution. The experiments were carried out at different reaction times (5 and 15 min) and over a wide range...

  5. Evaluating liquefaction potential. A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blystra, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Several earthen hydropower embankment dams in the midwestern United States were constructed using hydraulic fill methods and are liable to liquefaction during an earthquake due to the use of very loose, saturated sand in the embankment or foundations. A case history is presented describing the methodology used in evaluating the liquefaction potential of the largest earthfill dam in Michigan. The methodology includes the use of standard penetration and cone penetration test data in the formulation of a simplified procedure. Field investigations, laboratory testing, and analyses used are described. In addition to the drilling program, field work included an extensive ground penetrating radar survey, acoustic emission testing, and an electrical resistivity survey. It was found that the lowest calculated factor of safety against liquefaction is 0.63 for a loose zone ca 140 feet below the top of the embankment, and the factor of safety against slope failure, should the zone liquefy, is 1.49. It was concluded that while liquefaction is possible, post earthquake stability is adequate. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Liquefaction of torrefied wood using microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas Eberhardt; Pingping Xin; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2016-01-01

    Torrefaction is an effective pretreatment method to improve the uniformity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass before further thermal processing (e.g., gasification, combustion). The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of torrefaction as a pretreatment before liquefaction. Wood chips were torrefied for 2 h at three different temperatures (230, 260,...

  7. Advance directives in english and French law: different concepts, different values, different societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth Judith

    2014-03-01

    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts emphasising different values accorded to the duty to respect autonomy and to protect life, and how these differences are informed by different socio-political contexts. Furthermore each country associates different ethical concerns with ADs which raise doubts about whether these directives are a theoretical idea which is hardly applicable in practice.

  8. The Concept of Directly Connected Impervious Areas and Its Implication on Sustainable Development in Urban Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongwon; Hwang, Junsik; Choi, Hyun Il

    2017-04-01

    The concept of directly connected impervious area (DCIA) or efficient impervious areas (EIA) refers to a subset of impervious cover, which is directly connected to a drainage system or a water body via continuous impervious surfaces. The concept of DCIA is important in that it is regarded as a better predictor of stream ecosystem health than the total impervious area (TIA). DCIA is a key concept for a better assessment of green infrastructures introduced in urban catchments. Green infrastructure can help restore water cycle; it improves water quality, manages stormwater, provides recreational environment even at lower cost compared to conventional alternatives. In this study, we evaluated several methods to obtain the DCIA based on a GIS database and showed the importance of the accurate measurement of DCIA in terms of resulting hydrographs. We also evaluated several potential green infrastructure scenarios and showed how the spatial planning of green infrastruesture affects the shape of hydrographs and reduction of peak flows. These results imply that well-planned green infrastructure can be introduced to urban catchments for flood risk managements and quantitative assessment of spatial distribution of DCIA is crucial for sustainable development in urban environment.

  9. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    particular caution should be exercised when extrapolating the results of the conventional thermodynamic models to the actual conception of the gas liquefaction chain.

  10. Toyota's innovative concept for a SI direct fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, E.; Kanda, M.; Hattori, F. [Toyota Motor Corporation, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    To reduce environmental footprint of vehicle, demands have been intensifying for gasoline engines with lower fuel consumption, improved power performance, and lower emissions. The adoption of direct injection technology is rapidly expanding because it is an efficient way to achieve these targets. Originally, gasoline direct injection engines were designed to allow stratified lean combustion, which has a significant fuel consumption reduction effect. However, as exhaust gas emission regulations have become more stringent, the combustion strategy of most gasoline direct injection engines was changed to homogeneous stoichiometric combustion. Stratified lean combustion can nevertheless be used during catalyst heat up phase to fasten it and reduce pollutant emissions. In addition, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), widely used in Diesel combustion, can also be used in gasoline engine to further reduce fuel consumption by reducing fuel requirement to maintain stoichiometric combustion. Regulations covering the emission of particulate matter (PM), which is an issue of direct injection, have also been strengthened, such as by the introduction of particle number restrictions in Europe. Based on this background, this article introduces the new Toyota direct injection (D-4S) concept that was developed to respond to such requirements. In this concept, combustion speed and air-fuel mixture homogeneity were improved by active usage of spray jets to strengthen the in-cylinder flow. The PM number and oil dilution were significantly reduced by usage of a thin fan-shaped spray formed by a slit nozzle. In addition, this developed slit nozzle has high potential to avoid deposit build-up. Moreover, fast catalyst warming up performance was secured to achieve a low level of emissions compatible with the super ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV) standards in North America. (orig.)

  11. Report on coal refining and chemical equipment analogous to coal liquefaction equipment in fiscal 1981. Maintenance of equipment for direct desulfurization, indirect desulfurization, and fluidized catalytic cracking; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika ruiji seiyu seisei oyobi kagaku sochi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Chokudatsu, kandatsu, ryudo sesshoku bunkai sochi no hozen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This questionnaire survey was intended to investigate the actual state of maintenance such as materials used, conditions for use, anti-corrosion measures, and cases and handling of damage, concerning primary apparatus in the direct/indirect desulfurization equipment and the fluidized catalytic crackers, which are owned by each oil refinery and which are analogous to coal liquefaction equipment. The questionnaire was intended for the following equipment and apparatus, with the actual state of their maintenance investigated. 1. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of direct desulfurization (reactor, high temperature separation tank, material furnace tube, reactor exit piping, high temperature heat exchanger, low temperature heat exchanger, and pressure reducing valve), 2. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of indirect desulfurization (reactor, high temperature separation tank, material furnace tube, reactor exit piping, high temperature heat exchanger, low temperature heat exchanger, and pressure reducing valve), 3. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of fluidized catalytic cracker (reactor, regeneration tower, riser pipe, and fractionator bottom pump). The questionnaire this time was distributed to 27 domestic oil companies, with the reply received from 23 of them. The replies were summarized by each type of equipment. Shown at the back of the report were the cases of damage and handling in FCC's and reactors. (NEDO)

  12. Two-stage coal liquefaction without gas-phase hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, H.P.

    1986-06-05

    A process is provided for the production of a hydrogen-donor solvent useful in the liquefaction of coal, wherein the water-gas shift reaction is used to produce hydrogen while simultaneously hydrogenating a donor solvent. A process for the liquefaction of coal using said solvent is also provided. The process enables avoiding the use of a separate water-gas shift reactor as well as high pressure equipment for liquefaction. 3 tabs.

  13. Investigation of students’ intermediate conceptual understanding levels: the case of direct current electricity concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktan, D Cobanoglu

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual understanding is one of the main topics in science and physics education research. In the majority of conceptual understanding studies, students’ understanding levels were categorized dichotomously, either as alternative or scientific understanding. Although they are invaluable in many ways, namely developing new instructional materials and assessment instruments, students’ alternative understandings alone are not sufficient to describe students’ conceptual understanding in detail. This paper introduces an example of a study in which a method was developed to assess and describe students’ conceptual understanding beyond alternative and scientific understanding levels. In this study, six undergraduate students’ conceptual understanding levels of direct current electricity concepts were assessed and described in detail by using their answers to qualitative problems. In order to do this, conceptual understanding indicators are described based on science and mathematics education literature. The students’ understanding levels were analysed by assertion analysis based on the conceptual understanding indicators. The results indicated that the participants demonstrated three intermediate understanding levels in addition to alternative and scientific understanding. This paper presents the method and its application to direct current electricity concepts. (paper)

  14. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  15. Experimental study on the liquefaction of cellulose in supercritical ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinxing; Liu, Xinyuan; Bao, Zhenbo

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose is the major composition of solid waste for producing biofuel; cellulose liquefaction is helpful for realizing biomass supercritical liquefaction process. This paper is taking supercritical ethanol as the medium, liquefied cellulose with the intermittence installation of high press cauldron. Experiments have studied technical condition and the technology parameter of cellulose liquefaction in supercritical ethanol, and the pyrolysis mechanism was analysed based on the pyrolysis product. Results show that cellulose can be liquefied, can get good effect through appropriate technology condition. Under not catalyst, highest liquefaction rate of cellulose can reach 73.5%. The composition of the pyrolysis product was determined by GC-MS.

  16. Comparison of oxygen liquefaction methods for use on the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Hauser, D. M.; Plachta, D. W.; Wang, X.-Y. J.; Banker, B. F.; Desai, P. S.; Stephens, J. R.; Swanger, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to use oxygen that is produced on the surface of Mars from In-Situ production processes in a chemical propulsion system, the oxygen must first be converted from vapor phase to liquid phase and then stored within the propellant tanks of the propulsions system. There are multiple ways that this can be accomplished, from simply attaching a liquefaction system onto the propellant tanks to carrying separate tanks for liquefaction and storage of the propellant and loading just prior to launch (the way that traditional rocket launches occur on Earth). A study was done into these various methods by which the oxygen (and methane) could be liquefied and stored on the Martian surface. Five different architectures or cycles were considered: Tube-on-Tank (also known as Broad Area Cooling or Distributed Refrigeration), Tube-in-Tank (also known as Integrated Refrigeration and Storage), a modified Linde open liquefaction/refrigeration cycle, the direct mounting of a pulse tube cryocooler onto the tank, and an in-line liquefier at ambient pressure. Models of each architecture were developed to give insight into the performance and losses of each of the options. The results were then compared across eight categories: Mass, Power (both input and heat rejection), Operability, Cost, Manufacturability, Reliability, Volume-ility, and Scalability. The result was that Tube-on-Tank and Tube-in-Tank architectures were the most attractive solutions, with NASA's engineering management choosing to pursue tube on tank development rather than further differentiate the two. As a result NASA is focusing its Martian surface liquefaction activities and technology development on Tube-on-Tank liquefaction cycles.

  17. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qyyum Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG. A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2 as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  18. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Wei, Feng; Hussain, Arif; Ali, Wahid; Sehee, Oh; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-11-01

    This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG). A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2) as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO) approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  19. Liquefaction of Semen Generates and Later Degrades a Conserved Semenogelin Peptide That Enhances HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haichuan; Usmani, Shariq M.; Neidleman, Jason; Müller, Janis A.; Avila-Herrera, Aram; Gawanbacht, Ali; Zirafi, Onofrio; Chu, Simon; Dong, Ming; Kumar, Senthil T.; Smith, James F.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Fändrich, Marcus; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Semen enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been carefully examined. Immediately postejaculation, semen exists as a semisolid coagulum, which then converts to a more liquid form in a process termed liquefaction. We demonstrate that early during liquefaction, semen exhibits maximal HIV-enhancing activity that gradually declines upon further incubation. The decline in HIV-enhancing activity parallels the degradation of peptide fragments derived from the semenogelins (SEMs), the major components of the coagulum that are cleaved in a site-specific and progressive manner upon initiation of liquefaction. Because amyloid fibrils generated from SEM fragments were recently demonstrated to enhance HIV infection, we set out to determine whether any of the liquefaction-generated SEM fragments associate with the presence of HIV-enhancing activity. We identify SEM1 from amino acids 86 to 107 [SEM1(86-107)] to be a short, cationic, amyloidogenic SEM peptide that is generated early in the process of liquefaction but that, conversely, is lost during prolonged liquefaction due to the activity of serine proteases. Synthetic SEM1(86-107) amyloids directly bind HIV-1 virions and are sufficient to enhance HIV infection of permissive cells. Furthermore, endogenous seminal levels of SEM1(86-107) correlate with donor-dependent variations in viral enhancement activity, and antibodies generated against SEM1(86-107) recognize endogenous amyloids in human semen. The amyloidogenic potential of SEM1(86-107) and its virus-enhancing properties are conserved among great apes, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved function. These studies identify SEM1(86-107) to be a key, HIV-enhancing amyloid species in human semen and underscore the dynamic nature of semen's HIV-enhancing activity. IMPORTANCE Semen, the most common vehicle for HIV transmission, enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been investigated. Semen

  20. System evaluation of offshore platforms with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; de Oliveira Júnior, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore for liqu......Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore...... improvements are discussed based on an energy and exergy analysis. Compared to a standard platform where gas is directly injected into the reservoir, the total power consumption increases by up to 50%, and the exergy destruction within the processing plant doubles when a liquefaction system is installed....... It is therefore essential to conduct a careful analysis of the trade-off between the capital costs and operating revenues for such options....

  1. Combined hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic hydrothermal gasification system and process for conversion of biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A combined hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system and process are described that convert various biomass-containing sources into separable bio-oils and aqueous effluents that contain residual organics. Bio-oils may be converted to useful bio-based fuels and other chemical feedstocks. Residual organics in HTL aqueous effluents may be gasified and converted into medium-BTU product gases and directly used for process heating or to provide energy.

  2. Comparison of FeS, FeS + S and solid superacid catalytic properties for coal hydro-liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicai Wang; Hengfu Shui; Dexiang Zhang; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering

    2007-03-15

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction. This paper focuses on the catalytic behavior of a novel SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} superacid catalyst in coal hydro-liquefaction. A series of hydro-liquefaction experiments were conducted under mild conditions - 400{sup o}C, 30 min and H{sub 2} initial pressure 4 MPa in a batch autoclave with a volume of 100 ml. The catalytic property of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} was compared with FeS and FeS + S by Shenhua coal. The liquefaction products catalyzed by different catalysts were analyzed by FTIR spectrum, {sup 1}H NMR spectrum and element analysis. In addition, the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} solid superacid was characterized. The results indicated that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} solid superacid shows outstanding catalytic property for direct liquefaction of coal and gives the highest coal conversion and gas + oil yield compared to other two catalysts. The THF conversion and the extraction yield of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent of liquefied coal catalyzed with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} are 76.3%, daf and 81.2%, daf respectively, and the yield of gas + oil is 62.5%, daf under the condition used in this study. The pyrolysis of coal macromolecular clusters can be promoted by catalysts such as FeS, FeS + S and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2}. There may be only the pyrolysis of volatile matter and the relaxation of the structure of coal macromolecular clusters in non-catalytic liquefaction at 400{sup o}C. Added sulfur in FeS can improve the catalytic activity of hydrogenation. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} is a notable catalyst in the study of coal direct liquefaction because it shows excellent catalytic activities for the pyrolysis and the hydrogenation. In addition, it has been found that the C-O bond is the most stable group in coal liquefaction reaction except for the covalent bond between carbon and carbon. 34 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. A Direct Proof of the Resonance-Impaired Hydrogen Bond (RIHB) Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuhui; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong

    2018-01-24

    The concept of resonance-enhanced hydrogen bond (RAHB) has been widely accepted and applied as it highlights the positive impact of π-conjugation on intramolecular H-bonds. However, electron delocalization is directional and there is a possibility that π-resonance goes from the H-bond acceptor to the H-bond donor, leading to a negative impact on H-bonds. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method which is a variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and able to derive strictly electron-localized structures self-consistently, to quantify the interplay between H-bond and π-resonance in the terms of geometry, energetics and spectral properties. The comparison of geometrical optimizations with and without π-resonance shows that conjugation can indeed either enhance or weaken intramolecular H-bonds. We further experimented with various substituents attached to either the H-bond acceptor and/or H-bond donor side(s) to tune the H-bonding strength in both directions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  5. Age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body : LM and TEM evaluation of the role of proteoglycans and collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, Leonoor I.; van der Worp, Roelofje J; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.

    PURPOSE. To evaluate morphologic aspects of age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body by fight and electron microscopy to provide a basis from which future studies directed at the pathogenesis of this phenomenon can be undertaken. The study focuses on changes in fibrillar Collagen and

  6. Liquefaction Microzonation of Babol City Using Artificial Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Choobbasti, A.J.; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    that will be less susceptible to damage during earthquakes. The scope of present study is to prepare the liquefaction microzonation map for the Babol city based on Seed and Idriss (1983) method using artificial neural network. Artificial neural network (ANN) is one of the artificial intelligence (AI) approaches...... microzonation map is produced for research area. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the trained neural network is capable in prediction of liquefaction potential with an acceptable level of confidence. At the end, zoning of the city is carried out based on the prediction of liquefaction...... that can be classified as machine learning. Simplified methods have been practiced by researchers to assess nonlinear liquefaction potential of soil. In order to address the collective knowledge built-up in conventional liquefaction engineering, an alternative general regression neural network model...

  7. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  9. Mars Propellant Liquefaction Modeling in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja; Hauser, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    NASAs current Mars architectures are assuming the production and storage of 23 tons of liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars over a duration of 500+ days. In order to do this in a mass efficient manner, an energy efficient refrigeration system will be required. Based on previous analysis NASA has decided to do all liquefaction in the propulsion vehicle storage tanks. In order to allow for transient Martian environmental effects, a propellant liquefaction and storage system for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) was modeled using Thermal Desktop. The model consisted of a propellant tank containing a broad area cooling loop heat exchanger integrated with a reverse turbo Brayton cryocooler. Cryocooler sizing and performance modeling was conducted using MAV diurnal heat loads and radiator rejection temperatures predicted from a previous thermal model of the MAV. A system was also sized and modeled using an alternative heat rejection system that relies on a forced convection heat exchanger. Cryocooler mass, input power, and heat rejection for both systems were estimated and compared against sizing based on non-transient sizing estimates.

  10. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  12. Influence of clay content on wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    of measurements were carried out: (1) pore-water pressure measurements across the soil depth and (2) water-surface elevation measurements. These measurements were synchronized with video recordings of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height...... of silt and clay was not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction-resistant under waves. For instance, sand with d50 50:4 mmwas liquefied with CC510:8%, whereas sand with d50 50...

  13. Thermodynamic design of hydrogen liquefaction systems with helium or neon Brayton refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Baik, Jong Hoon

    2018-04-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for the design of hydrogen liquefaction systems with helium (He) or neon (Ne) Brayton refrigerator. This effort is motivated by our immediate goal to develop a small-capacity (100 L/h) liquefier for domestic use in Korea. Eight different cycles are proposed and their thermodynamic performance is investigated in comparison with the existing liquefaction systems. The proposed cycles include the standard and modified versions of He Brayton refrigerators whose lowest temperature is below 20 K. The Brayton refrigerator is in direct thermal contact with the hydrogen flow at atmospheric pressure from ambient-temperature gas to cryogenic liquid. The Linde-Hampson system pre-cooled by a Ne Brayton refrigerator is also considered. Full cycle analysis is performed with the real properties of fluids to estimate the figure of merit (FOM) under an optimized operation condition. It is concluded that He Brayton refrigerators are feasible for this small-scale liquefaction, because a reasonably high efficiency can be achieved with simple and safe (low-pressure) operation. The complete cycles with He Brayton refrigerator are presented for the development of a prototype, including the ortho-to-para conversion.

  14. Numerical simulation of liquefaction behaviour of granular materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    cles using Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to study the liquefaction behaviour of ... studies have focussed on the stress-strain relation- ... experimentation still remains quite problematic. ... distorting the periodic cell and changing its vol-.

  15. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m{sup 3} or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m{sup 3}. Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes.

  16. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m 3 or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m 3 . Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes

  17. Initial Earthquake Centrifuge Model Experiments for the Study of Liquefaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steedman, R

    1998-01-01

    .... These are intended to gather data suitable for the development of improved design approaches for the prediction of liquefaction under earthquake loading using the new centrifuge facility at the WES...

  18. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  19. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies including...

  20. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  1. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Paying special attention to geotechnical hazards such as liquefaction in huge civil projects like urban railways especially in susceptible regions to liquefaction is of great importance. A number of approaches to evaluate the potential for initiation of liquefaction, such as Seed and Idriss...... simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...... accuracy, also they lack the potential to predict the pore pressure developed in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a ground response analysis to obtain pore pressures and shear stresses in the soil due to earthquake loading. Using soil historical, geological and compositional criteria...

  2. New method for evaluating liquefaction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmoli, K.; Arulanandan, K.; Seed, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A new method of indexing the grain and aggregate properties of sand using electrical parameters is described. Correlations are established between these parameters and relative density, D /sub r/ , cyclic stress ratio, /tau//sigma'/sub 0/, and K2 /sub max/ . An electrical probe, used to predict these parameters from in-situ electrical measurements, is described. Evaluations are made of D /sub r/ and /tau//sigma/sub 0/, which are compared with values measured independently from controlled laboratory tests. Reasonable agreement is found between predicted and measured values. The potential applicability of the electrical probe in the field is shown by evaluation of liquefaction and nonliquefaction at sites affected by the 1906 San Francisco, Niigata and Tangshan earthquakes.

  3. A Concept-Mapping Strategy for Assessing Conceptual Change in a Student-Directed, Research-Based Geoscience Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, S.

    2003-12-01

    The concept mapping technique has been proposed as a method for examining the evolving nature of students' conceptualizations of scientific concepts, and promises insight into a dimension of learning different from the one accessible through more conventional classroom testing techniques. The theory behind concept mapping is based on an assumption that knowledge acquisition is accomplished through "linking" of new information to an existing knowledge framework, and that meaningful (as opposed to arbitrary or verbatim) links allow for deeper understanding and conceptual change. Reflecting this theory, concept maps are constructed as a network of related concepts connected by labeled links that illustrate the relationship between the concepts. Two concepts connected by one such link make up a "proposition", the basic element of the concept map structure. In this paper, we examine the results of a pre- and post-test assessment program for an upper-division undergraduate geography course entitled "Mock Environmental Summit," which was part of a research project on assessment. Concept mapping was identified as a potentially powerful assessment tool for this course, as more conventional tools such as multiple-choice tests did not seem to provide a reliable indication of the learning students were experiencing as a result of the student-directed research, presentations, and discussions that make up a substantial portion of the course. The assessment program began at the beginning of the course with a one-hour training session during which students were introduced to the theory behind concept mapping, provided with instructions and guidance for constructing a concept map using the CMap software developed and maintained by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition at the University of West Florida, and asked to collaboratively construct a concept map on a topic not related to the one to be assessed. This training session was followed by a 45-minute "pre-test" on the

  4. Potential of soil liquefaction at Perlis, northern region of Malalysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Nasir, Mohamad Amzar Bin Mhd; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Zaki, Mohd Faiz Mohammad; Hassan, Zulkarnain Bin; Ismail, Zul-Atfi Bin

    2017-09-01

    Soil liquefaction is earthquake's secondary effect which could cause fatal damages and structures instability. Despite Malaysia been located in stable zone of Pacific Ring of Fire, few significant surrounded quakes like Sumatra-Andaman earthquake had prompted Malaysian's public concern, especially in Perlis area, on local seismic resistant. Hence, this research presents the analysis result of liquefaction potential of the soils, as the secondary effect of earthquake, within Perlis, northern region of Malaysia; the next strong and sustainable metropolis by using semi-empirical procedures introduced by Seed and Idriss. The study consists of two stages which were determination of the local geological and geotechnical site conditions within Perlis and analysis of soil liquefaction susceptibility by using various methods and liquefaction potential by using Simplified Procedure developed by Seed and Idriss on stress approach. There were consist of four phases implemented in order to achieve the objectives targeted for the study after problem being identified. Firstly, a comprehensive review of literature on liquefaction at Perlis was carried out. Second phase was data collection process that includes collection of Site Investigation (SI) report. Thirdly, data analysis was carried out by utilizing suitable method. The final phase was to draw conclusion and recommendation for this study. It can be concluded that the overall Perlis due to earthquake moment magnitude below 7.5 has no potential to soil liquefaction. However, with the range of liquefaction potential of 1.60 to 5.64 in Kuala Perlis area, it is liquefiable. The development of liquefaction severity map of Perlis, Malaysia in this research, may be used by others as a reference for seismic design and standard safety measures as well as for further research work.

  5. Liquefaction Potential for Soil Deposits in Muscat, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hussain, I. W.; Deif, A.; Girgis, M.; Al-Rawas, G.; Mohamed, A.; Al-Jabri, K.; Al-Habsi, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Muscat is located in the northeastern part of Oman on a narrow strip between Oman coast and Oman Mountains, which is the place for at least four earthquakes of order of 5.2 magnitude in the last 1300 years. The near surface geology of Muscat varies from hard rocks in the eastern, southern and western parts to dense and lose sediments in the middle and northern parts. Liquefaction occurs in saturated cohesionless soils when its shear strength decreased to zero due to the increase of pore pressure. More than 500 boreholes in Muscat area were examined for their liquefaction susceptibility based on the soil characteristics data. Only soils susceptible to liquefaction are further considered for liquefaction hazard assessment. Liquefaction occurs if the cyclic stress ratio (CSR) caused by the earthquake is higher than the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) of the soil. CSR values were evaluated using PGA values at the surface obtained from previously conducted seismic hazard and microzonation studies. CRR for Muscat region is conducted using N values of SPT tests from numerous borehole data and the shear wave velocity results from 99 MASW surveys over the entire region. All the required corrections are conducted to get standardized (N1) 60 values, to correct shear-wave velocity, and scale the results for Mw 6.0 instead of the proposed 7.5 (magnitude scaling factor). Liquefaction hazard maps are generated using the minimum factor of safety (FS) at each site as a representative of the FS against liquefaction at that location. Results indicate that under the current level of seismic hazard, liquefaction potential is possible at few sites along the northern coast where alluvial soils and shallow ground water table are present. The expected soft soil settlement is also evaluated at each liquefiable site.

  6. The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second stage of the cooler. Once the gas being liquefied was pre-cooled using the cooler first stage, improvements in the liquefaction rates were noted. The advent of low temperature pulse tube cooler (down to 2.5 K) permitted one to achieve dramatic improvement is the liquefactions rates for helium. Similar but less dramatic improvements are expected for hydrogen as well. Using the PT-415 cooler, one can expect liquefaction rates of 15 to 20 liters per day for helium or hydrogen provided the heat leak into the cooler and the storage vessel is low. A hydrogen liquefier for MICE is presented at the end of this report

  7. Mongolian coal liquefaction test; Mongorutan no ekika tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kubo, H. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsedevsuren, T. [National Research Center of Chemistry and Technology of Coal in Mongoria (Mongolia)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes the results of liquefaction tests of Mongolian coals using an autoclave and a flow micro reactor. Uvdughudag coal, Hootiinhonhor coal, and Shivee-Ovoo coal were used for liquefaction tests with an autoclave. Oil yields of Uvdughudag and Hootiinhonhor coals were 55.56 wt% and 55.29 wt%, respectively, which were similar to that of Wyoming coal. Similar results were obtained, as to produced gas and water yields. These coals were found to be suitable for coal liquefaction. Lower oil yield, 42.55 wt% was obtained for Shivee-Ovoo coal, which was not suitable for liquefaction. Liquefaction tests were conducted for Uvdughudag coal with a flow micro reactor. The oil yield was 55.7 wt%, which was also similar to that of Wyoming coal, 56.1 wt%. Hydrogen consumption of Uvdughudag coal was also similar to that of Wyoming coal. From these, Uvdughudag coal can be a prospective coal for liquefaction. From the distillation distribution of oil, distillate fraction yield below 350{degree}C of Uvdughudag coal was 50.7 wt%, which was much higher than that of Wyoming coal, 35.6 wt%. Uvdughudag coal is a coal with high light oil fraction yield. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Two-stage liquefaction of a Spanish subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.T.; Fernandez, I.; Benito, A.M.; Cebolla, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.H. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A Spanish subbituminous coal has been processed in two-stage liquefaction in a non-integrated process. The first-stage coal liquefaction has been carried out in a continuous pilot plant in Germany at Clausthal Technical University at 400[degree]C, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and anthracene oil as solvent. The second-stage coal liquefaction has been performed in continuous operation in a hydroprocessing unit at the Instituto de Carboquimica at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The total conversion for the first-stage coal liquefaction was 75.41 wt% (coal d.a.f.), being 3.79 wt% gases, 2.58 wt% primary condensate and 69.04 wt% heavy liquids. The heteroatoms removal for the second-stage liquefaction was 97-99 wt% of S, 85-87 wt% of N and 93-100 wt% of O. The hydroprocessed liquids have about 70% of compounds with boiling point below 350[degree]C, and meet the sulphur and nitrogen specifications for refinery feedstocks. Liquids from two-stage coal liquefaction have been distilled, and the naphtha, kerosene and diesel fractions obtained have been characterized. 39 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Status of work on the final repository concept concerning direct disposal of spent fuel rods in fuel rod casks (BSK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, W.; Wehrmann, J.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Graf, R.; Fopp, S.

    2008-01-01

    The reference concept in Germany on direct final storage of spent fuel rods is the burial of POLLUX containers in the final repository salt dome. The POLLUX container is self-shielded. The final storage concept also includes un-shielded borehole storage of high-level waste and packages of compacted waste. GNS has developed a spent fuel container (BSK-3) for unshielded borehole storage with a mass of 5.2 tons that can carry the fuel rods of three PWR reactors of 9 BWR reactors. The advantages of BSK storage include space saving, faster storage processes, less requirements concerning technical barriers, cost savings for self-shielded casks.

  10. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel DEAB. Systems analysis. Ultimate disposal concepts. Final report. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.

    1995-10-01

    The results elaborated under the project, systems analysis of mixed radwaste disposal concepts and systems analysis of ultimate disposal concepts, provide a comprehensive description and assessment of a radwaste repository, for heat generating wastes and for wastes with negligible heat generation, and thus represent the knowledge basis for forthcoming planning work for a repository in an abandoned salt mine. A fact to be considered is that temperature field calculations have shown that there is room for further optimization with regard to the mine layout. The following aspects have been analysed: (1) safety of operation; (2) technical feasibility and realisation and licensability of the concepts; (3) operational aspects; (4) varieties of utilization of the salt dome for the intended purpose (boreholes for waste emplacement, emplacement in galleries, multi-horizon systems); (5) long-term structural stability of the mine; (6) economic efficiency; (7) nuclear materials safeguards. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Extended exergy concept to facilitate designing and optimization of frequency-dependent direct energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijewardane, S.; Goswami, Yogi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proved exergy method is not adequate to optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion. • Exergy concept is modified to facilitate the thermoeconomic optimization of photocell. • The exergy of arbitrary radiation is used for a practical purpose. • The utility of the concept is illustrated using pragmatic examples. - Abstract: Providing the radiation within the acceptable (responsive) frequency range(s) is a common method to increase the efficiency of the frequency-dependent energy conversion systems, such as photovoltaic and nano-scale rectenna. Appropriately designed auxiliary items such as spectrally selective thermal emitters, optical filters, and lenses are used for this purpose. However any energy conversion method that utilizes auxiliary components to increase the efficiency of a system has to justify the potential cost incurred by those auxiliary components through the economic gain emerging from the increased system efficiency. Therefore much effort should be devoted to design innovative systems, effectively integrating the auxiliary items and to optimize the system with economic considerations. Exergy is the widely used method to design and optimize conventional energy conversion systems. Although the exergy concept is used to analyze photovoltaic systems, it has not been used effectively to design and optimize such systems. In this manuscript, we present a modified exergy method in order to effectively design and economically optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion systems. Also, we illustrate the utility of this concept using examples of thermophotovoltaic, Photovoltaic/Thermal and concentrated solar photovoltaic

  12. Catalysis in coal liquefaction: New directions for research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbyshire, F.J.

    1988-06-01

    The economic viability and operability of processes to convert coals to useful liquid products could be greatly improved by the successful development and application of suitable catalysts. New and improved catalysts can lead to more favorable process economics by increasing the rates of reaction and product selectively and by lowering reaction temperatures and pressures. Hydrogenation catalysts, such as certain metal sulfides, may function by providing a source of H atoms through the dissociation of molecular hydrogen. The H atoms can promote bond cleavage reactions and assist in stabilizing the products of these reactions. The partial pressure of H/sub 2/S is important to the catalyst mechanism. Acid catalysts, such as metal halides, promote bond cleavage by an ionic mechanism. In general, they are not particularly active hydrogenation catalysts which create the potential for the stabilization of cracked products through the formation of high molecular weight adducts. Consideration has been given to the limitations of these catalysts and to approaches which could lead to improvements in their performance and utilization. Multicomponent systems appear to offer excellent prospects for the development of more active and selective catalysts. Existing supported catalysts are quite adequate to the task of hydroprocessing distillate coal liquids. In the presence of high boiling and nondistillable coal-derived liquids they are rapidly deactivated by the deposition of carbonaceous materials and metals. One prospective solution to this problem is to generate feeds which are more amenable to upgrading by enhanced catalytic control of the dissolution process. There is also a need for the development of supported catalysts which are resistant to deactivation. 275 refs.

  13. Effects of Long-Duration Ground Motions on Liquefaction Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael W.

    Soil liquefaction during past earthquakes has caused extensive damage to buildings, bridges, dam, pipelines and other elements of infrastructure. Geotechnical engineers use empirical observations from earthquake case histories in conjunction with soil mechanics to predict the behavior of liquefiable soils. However, current empirical databases are insufficient to evaluate the behavior of soils subject to long-duration earthquakes, such as a possible Mw = 9.0 Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake. The objective of this research is to develop insight into the triggering and effects of liquefaction due to long-duration ground motions and to provide recommendations for analysis and design. Recorded ground motions from 21 case histories with surficial evidence of liquefaction showed marked differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction was triggered. In some cases, strong shaking continued for several minutes after the soil liquefied, and a variety of behaviors were observed including dilation pulses, continued softening due to soil fabric degradation, and soil stiffening due to pore pressure dissipation and drainage. Supplemental field and laboratory investigations were performed at three sites that liquefied during the 2011 Mw = 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The recorded ground motions and field investigation data were used in conjunction with laboratory observations, analytical models, and numerical models to evaluate the behavior of liquefiable soils subjected to long-duration ground motions. Observations from the case histories inspired a framework to predict ground deformations based on the differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction has triggered. This framework decouples the intensity of shaking necessary to trigger liquefaction from the intensity of shaking that drives deformation by identifying the time when liquefaction triggers. The timing-based framework promises to dramatically reduce the uncertainty in deformation estimates compared to

  14. Sinking during earthquakes: Critical acceleration criteria control drained soil liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C.; Toussaint, R.; Stojanova, M.; Aharonov, E.

    2018-02-01

    This article focuses on liquefaction of saturated granular soils, triggered by earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined here as the transition from a rigid state, in which the granular soil layer supports structures placed on its surface, to a fluidlike state, in which structures placed initially on the surface sink to their isostatic depth within the granular layer. We suggest a simple theoretical model for soil liquefaction and show that buoyancy caused by the presence of water inside a granular medium has a dramatic influence on the stability of an intruder resting at the surface of the medium. We confirm this hypothesis by comparison with laboratory experiments and discrete-element numerical simulations. The external excitation representing ground motion during earthquakes is simulated via horizontal sinusoidal oscillations of controlled frequency and amplitude. In the experiments, we use particles only slightly denser than water, which as predicted theoretically increases the effect of liquefaction and allows clear depth-of-sinking measurements. In the simulations, a micromechanical model simulates grains using molecular dynamics with friction between neighbors. The effect of the fluid is captured by taking into account buoyancy effects on the grains when they are immersed. We show that the motion of an intruder inside a granular medium is mainly dependent on the peak acceleration of the ground motion and establish a phase diagram for the conditions under which liquefaction happens, depending on the soil bulk density, friction properties, presence of water, and peak acceleration of the imposed large-scale soil vibrations. We establish that in liquefaction conditions, most cases relax toward an equilibrium position following an exponential in time. We also show that the equilibrium position itself, for most liquefaction regimes, corresponds to the isostatic equilibrium of the intruder inside a medium of effective density. The characteristic time to relaxation is

  15. MEMS pressure sensor with maximum performances by using novel back-side direct-exposure concept featuring through glass vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, B.; Fritz, M.; Mackowiak, P.; Vu, T. C.; Ehrmann, O.; Lang, K.-D.; Ngo, H.-D.

    2013-05-01

    Design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of novel MEMS pressure sensors with new back-side-direct-exposure packaging concept are presented. The sensor design is optimized for harsh environments e.g. space, military, offshore and medical applications. Unbreakable connection between the active side of the Si-sensor and the protecting glass capping was realized by anodic bonding using a thin layer of metal. To avoid signal corruption of the measured pressure caused by an encapsulation system, the media has direct contact to the backside of the Si membrane and can deflect it.

  16. Le risque hydrologique : du concept à sa gestion, Alain GIRET, sous la direction de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Ballais

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage constitue les actes du colloque Les Rencontres de Géo. 13, organisé à l'Université Paris 13, le 28 octobre 2005. La courte introduction d'Alain GIRET (2 p. permet à l'organisateur du colloque de préciser la conception du risque hydrologique de ce colloque "Le cadre conceptuel se réduit aux seuls extrêmes hydrologiques fluviaux : les étiages et les inondations, écartant problèmes de pollution et de qualité des eaux".La section 1 regroupe concept et processus. François CHAGNAUD s'i...

  17. Sector Tests of a Low-NO(sub x), Lean, Direct- Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combustor Concept Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Robert R.; Wey, Chang-Lie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    The low-emissions combustor development described is directed toward advanced high pressure aircraft gas-turbine applications. The emphasis of this research is to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high-power conditions and to maintain carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons at their current low levels at low power conditions. Low-NOx combustors can be classified into rich-burn and lean-burn concepts. Lean-burn combustors can be further classified into lean-premixed-prevaporized (LPP) and lean direct injection (LDI) concepts. In both concepts, all the combustor air, except for liner cooling flow, enters through the combustor dome so that the combustion occurs at the lowest possible flame temperature. The LPP concept has been shown to have the lowest NOx emissions, but for advanced high-pressure-ratio engines, the possibility of autoignition or flashback precludes its use. LDI differs from LPP in that the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone, and thus, it does not have the potential for autoignition or flashback and should have greater stability. However, since it is not premixed and prevaporized, good atomization is necessary and the fuel must be mixed quickly and uniformly so that flame temperatures are low and NOx formation levels are comparable to those of LPP. The LDI concept described is a multipoint fuel injection/multiburning zone concept. Each of the multiple fuel injectors has an air swirler associated with it to provide quick mixing and a small recirculation zone for burning. The multipoint fuel injection provides quick, uniform mixing and the small multiburning zones provide for reduced burning residence time, resulting in low NOx formation. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers, and fuel manifold into a single element. The multipoint concept combustor was demonstrated in a 15 sector test. The configuration tested had 36

  18. Meteorite as raw material for Direct Metal Printing: A proof of concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietaert, Karel; Thijs, Lore; Neirinck, Bram; Lapauw, Thomas; Morrison, Brian; Lewicki, Chris; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas

    2018-02-01

    Asteroid mining as such is not a new concept, as it has been described in science fiction for more than a century and some of its aspects have been studied by academia for more than 30 years. Recently, there is a renewed interest in this subject due the more and more concrete plans for long-duration space missions and the need for resources to support industrial activity in space. The use of locally available resources would greatly improve the economics and sustainability of such missions. Due to its economy in material, use of additive manufacturing (AM) provides an interesting route to valorize these resources for the production of spare parts, tools and large-scale structures optimized for their local microgravity environment. Proof of concept has already been provided for AM of moon regolith. In this paper the concept of In-Situ Resource Utilization is extended towards the production of metallic objects using powdered iron meteorite as raw material. The meteorite-based powder was used to produce a structural part but further research is needed to obtain a high density part without microcracks.

  19. Organizational Communication: An Analysis of the Main Perspectives, Main Concepts and Future Directions of the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yüksel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a scholarly debate since the 1980s regarding the content, theory, methodology and applications that define the scope of organizational communication and separate it from other related disciplines. This debate is critical in the sense that it enables to identity organizational communication in a rich manner and helps us define the scope of the field and its unique characteristics. Based on this main assumption, this study addressed the major theoretical/methodological dimensions of the field (functional, interpretive, and critical, conceptualization of the most critical concepts (organization, communication, culture, voice/control in these dimensions, and current gaps and future directions of the field. This study revealed that the field of organizational communication has made great improvements since the field emerged in the last three decade with its own content, methodology, and applications and generated an adequate body of research within these different perspectives. It is shown that representation of the field by different perspectives provides richness to the field compared with the time when organizational communication was solely dominated by functional, positivist research. Key words: Functional/interpretive/critical perspectives, communication, organization, culture, control, effectiveness. Örgütsel İletişim: Alanın Ana Yaklaşımları, Ana Kavramları ve Gelecek Yönelimlerinin AnaliziÖzÖrgütsel iletişim alanının kapsamı ve bu alanı ilgili displinlerden ayıracak içerik, teori, yöntem, ve uygulamalar üzerine akademik tartışmalar 1980’li yıllardan beri devam etmektedir. Bu tartışmalar, örgütsel iletişim alanının derinlemesine anlaşılması, sınırlarının belirlenmesi ve diğer disiplinlerden ayrılan özelliklerinin anlaşılması noktasında hayati öneme sahiptir. Bu temel varsayımdan hareketle, bu çalışma alandaki temel teorik/yöntemsel yaklaşımları (işlevsel, yorumlayıcı, ele

  20. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e + 3 - linear colliders

  1. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Hazard analyses were performed to evaluate the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment process was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. The analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public. The following selected hazardous scenarios received increased attention: •Scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy, controls were identified in the What-If analysis table that prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release. •Scenarios with significant consequences that could impact personnel outside the immediate operations area, quantitative analyses were performed to determine the potential magnitude of the scenario. The set of “critical controls” were identified for these scenarios (see Section 4) which prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release of events with significant consequences.

  2. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  3. African Cultural Concept of Death and the Idea of Advance Care Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekore, Rabi Ilemona; Lanre-Abass, Bolatito

    2016-01-01

    An advance care directive is a person's oral or written instructions about his or her future medical care, if he or she becomes unable to communicate. It may be in written or oral form. Africans ordinarily do not encourage the contemplation of death or any discussion about their own or their loved ones' death. According to the African belief system, life does not end with death, but continues in another realm. Becoming an ancestor after death is a desirable goal of every individual, a feat which cannot be achieved if an individual asks for an unnatural death by attempting to utilize advance care directives. Advance care directives are considered to be too individualistic for communitarian societies such as Africa. Coupled with the communitarian nature of African societies are issues such as lack of awareness of advance directives, fear of death and grief, and the African cultural belief system, which are potential barriers to the utilization of advance care directives in the African setting. Hence, the need for culture sensitivity which makes it imperative that patient's family and loved ones are carried along as far as possible, without compromising the autonomy of the patient in question when utilizing advance care directives.

  4. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  5. Energy-based numerical models for assessment of soil liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Alavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents promising variants of genetic programming (GP, namely linear genetic programming (LGP and multi expression programming (MEP to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils. Generalized LGP and MEP-based relationships were developed between the strain energy density required to trigger liquefaction (capacity energy and the factors affecting the liquefaction characteristics of sands. The correlations were established based on well established and widely dispersed experimental results obtained from the literature. To verify the applicability of the derived models, they were employed to estimate the capacity energy values of parts of the test results that were not included in the analysis. The external validation of the models was verified using statistical criteria recommended by researchers. Sensitivity and parametric analyses were performed for further verification of the correlations. The results indicate that the proposed correlations are effectively capable of capturing the liquefaction resistance of a number of sandy soils. The developed correlations provide a significantly better prediction performance than the models found in the literature. Furthermore, the best LGP and MEP models perform superior than the optimal traditional GP model. The verification phases confirm the efficiency of the derived correlations for their general application to the assessment of the strain energy at the onset of liquefaction.

  6. Seismic behavior of breakwaters on complex ground by numerical tests: Liquefaction and post liquefaction ground settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Zhang, Feng; Bao, Xiaohua; Shi, Zhenming; Ye, Guanlin; Ling, Xianzhang

    2018-04-01

    A large number of breakwaters have been constructed along coasts to protect humans and infrastructures from tsunamis. There is a risk that foundation soils of these structures may liquefy, or partially liquefy during the earthquake preceding a tsunami, which would greatly reduce the structures' capacity to resist the tsunami. It is necessary to consider not only the soil's liquefaction behavior due to earthquake motions but also its post-liquefaction behavior because this behavior will affect the breakwater's capacity to resist an incoming tsunami. In this study, numerical tests based on a sophisticated constitutive model and a soil-water coupled finite element method are used to predict the mechanical behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils. Two real breakwaters subjected to two different seismic excitations are examined through numerical simulation. The simulation results show that, earthquakes affect not only the immediate behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils but also their long-term settlements due to post-earthquake consolidation. A soil profile with thick clayey layers beneath liquefied soil is more vulnerable to tsunami than a soil profile with only sandy layers. Therefore, quantitatively evaluating the seismic behavior of breakwaters and surrounding soils is important for the design of breakwater structures to resist tsunamis.

  7. FY 1994 report on the Coal Liquefaction Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reported the FY 1994 activities of the Coal Liquefaction Committee. The Coal Liquefaction Committee in this fiscal year was held on November 29, 1994 (1st) and March 22, 1995 (2nd), and report was made on the bituminous coal liquefaction study and state of the R and D of liquefaction base technology. Report was also made on the state of construction of bituminous coal liquefaction PP, outline of the results of the PSU operation, outline of the 11th Japan-U.S. JTM, etc. In the liquefaction base study, report/discussion were made about the improvement/rationalization of liquefaction process, study of innovative technology of coal liquefaction, study of coal liquefaction conditions, study for higher liquefaction element technology, project on the internationalization of coal liquefaction technology, etc. As to the relation of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant, report/discussion were made about survey/study on the processing of coal for coal gasification use (survey of coal kind selection, development of information processing system for coal conversion technology). Besides, as a topic, report was made on the economical evaluation/calculation of a commercial plant for brown coal liquefaction. (NEDO)

  8. Liquefaction behaviors of bamboo residues in a glycerol-based solvent using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Jinqiu Qi; Hui Pan

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of bamboo was performed in glycerol–methanol as co-solvent using microwave energy and was evaluated by characterizing the liquefied residues. High efficiency conversion of bamboo was achieved under mild reaction conditions. Liquefaction temperature and time interacted to affect the liquefaction reaction. Fourier transform infrared analyzes of the residues...

  9. 3D visualization of liquefaction-induced dune collapse in the Navajo Sandstone, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Colby; Nick, Kevin; Bryant, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    The eolian Navajo Sandstone outcrop on the Canyon Overlook Trail in Zion National Park in Southern Utah is dissected by modern erosion in a way which reveals a great deal of the three-dimensional architecture of a major soft-sediment deformation event. The feature is bounded below by a well-developed interdune complex made up of two superimposed carbonate lenses, above by an irregular truncational surface, and incorporates 3 - 10 m of sandstone over an approximately 2 km area. The material above the deformed interval is undeformed cross-bedded sandstone, with crossbeds downlapping onto the surface of truncation. The stratigraphic confinement of deformation and the irregularity of the upper bounding surface suggests a deformation process which created topography, which was in turn covered by the next upwind dune before it could be eroded flat. The deformed material itself is laterally segmented by a stacked succession of shear surfaces, which all strike approximately perpendicular to the paleo-wind direction and dip at decreasing angles in the down paleo-wind direction. These factors point to the collapse of a major dune into the downwind interdune area, likely initiated by liquefaction in the interdune complex. The foundering of the dune's toe into the liquefied area created a powerful lateral stress field which did not extend significantly into the subsurface. The dune collapse process has been used in the past to describe other soft-sediment deformation features in the Navajo Sandstone, but this site provides a wealth of physical details which were not previously associated with dune collapse. Shear surfaces originate in the interdune deposit as slip between laminae, then the cohesive muds provided support as they were thrust upward to angles of up to 50 degrees. The margins of the site also contain important paleoenvironmental indicators. Dinosaur tracks are exposed both at the extreme upwind and downwind margins of the interdune deposit in and slightly above

  10. Direct-to-consumer DNA testing: the fallout for individuals and their families unexpectedly learning of their donor conception origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2017-07-11

    Increasing numbers of donor-conceived individuals (and/or parents) are seeking individuals genetically related through donor conception. One route is through 'direct-to-consumer' (DTC) DNA testing, prompting calls for fertility services to alert donors and prospective parents to the increasing unsustainability of anonymity and secrecy. The complexity of interpreting DNA results in this context has also been discussed, including their lack of absolute certainty, as has the need for professional and peer support. This commentary highlights a different 'threat', from individuals learning of their donor-conception origins through the use of such tests by themselves or relatives for such purposes as genealogy or health checks. It illustrates the personal complexities faced by three older women and their families on learning not only of their genetic relationship to each other but also to 15 more donor-related siblings. DTC DNA services are a growing feature of modern life. This commentary raises ethical questions about their responsibilities towards those inadvertently learning of donor conception origins and the responsibilities of fertility services to inform prospective parents and donors of this new phenomenon. Considerations of how and when parents should tell their children of their donor-conception origins here instead become how and when children should inform their parents.

  11. Load-Direction-Derived Support Structures for Wind Turbines: A Lattice Tower Concept and Preparations for Future Certifications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Struve, Achim [University of Applied Sciences Flensburg; Faber, Torsten [University of Applied Sciences Flensburg; Ummenhofer, Thomas [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

    2017-11-07

    The call for more cost-effective and environmentally friendly tower concepts is motivated by tower costs [1] and tower CO2-emission contributions [2], which are high relative to the whole wind turbine system. The proposed rotatable tower concept with yaw bearing at the bottom instead of the top of the tower will provide beneficial economic and environmental impacts to the turbine system. This wind alignment capability indicates a load-direction-derived tower design. By combining this approach with a lattice concept, large material and cost savings for the tower can be achieved. This paper presents a way to analyze and verify the proposed design through aero-servo-elastic simulations, which make future certifications of rotatable tower concepts viable. For this reason, the state-of-the-art, open-source lattice-tower finite-element-method (FEM) module SubDyn [10], developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has been modified to account for arbitrary member cross-sections. Required changes in the beam element stiffness and mass matrix formulation took place according to an energy method [13]. All validated adaptions will be usable within the aero-servo-elastic simulation framework FAST and are also beneficial for other nonrotatable lattice structures.

  12. New Three-Dimensional Porous Electrode Concept: Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Directly Grown on Embroidered Copper Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Aguiló-Aguayo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New three-dimensional (3D porous electrode concepts are required to overcome limitations in Li-ion batteries in terms of morphology (e.g., shapes, dimensions, mechanical stability (e.g., flexibility, high electroactive mass loadings, and electrochemical performance (e.g., low volumetric energy densities and rate capabilities. Here a new electrode concept is introduced based on the direct growth of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs on embroidered Cu current collectors. The direct growth of VA-CNTs was achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD, and there was no application of any post-treatment or cleaning procedure. The electrochemical behavior of the as-grown VA-CNTs was analyzed by charge/discharge cycles at different specific currents and with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The results were compared with values found in the literature. The as-grown VA-CNTs exhibit higher specific capacities than graphite and pristine VA-CNTs found in the literature. This together with the possibilities that the Cu embroidered structures offer in terms of specific surface area, total surface area, and designs provide a breakthrough in new 3D electrode concepts.

  13. New Three-Dimensional Porous Electrode Concept: Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Directly Grown on Embroidered Copper Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Noemí; Amade, Roger; Hussain, Shahzad; Bertran, Enric; Bechtold, Thomas

    2017-12-11

    New three-dimensional (3D) porous electrode concepts are required to overcome limitations in Li-ion batteries in terms of morphology (e.g., shapes, dimensions), mechanical stability (e.g., flexibility, high electroactive mass loadings), and electrochemical performance (e.g., low volumetric energy densities and rate capabilities). Here a new electrode concept is introduced based on the direct growth of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) on embroidered Cu current collectors. The direct growth of VA-CNTs was achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and there was no application of any post-treatment or cleaning procedure. The electrochemical behavior of the as-grown VA-CNTs was analyzed by charge/discharge cycles at different specific currents and with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The results were compared with values found in the literature. The as-grown VA-CNTs exhibit higher specific capacities than graphite and pristine VA-CNTs found in the literature. This together with the possibilities that the Cu embroidered structures offer in terms of specific surface area, total surface area, and designs provide a breakthrough in new 3D electrode concepts.

  14. New concept of direct torque neuro-fuzzy control for induction motor drives. Simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, P.Z. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a new control strategy in the discrete Direct Torque Control (DTC) based on neuro-fuzzy structure. Two schemes are proposed: neuro-fuzzy switching times calculator and neuro-fuzzy incremental controller with space vector modulator. These control strategies guarantee very good dynamic and steady-states characteristics, with very low sampling time and constant switching frequency. The proposed techniques are verified by simulation study of the whole drive system and results are compared with conventional discrete Direct Torque Control method. (orig.) 18 refs.

  15. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  16. The sequence of sediment behaviour during wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    to be in agreement with recent centrifuge wave-tank experiments. As for the final stage of the sequence of processes (formation of ripples), the ripple steepness (normalized with the angle of repose) for sediment with liquefaction history is found to be the same as that in sediment with no liquefaction history.......This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the complete sequence of sediment behaviour beneath progressive waves. The sediment was silty with d(50) = 0.060 mm. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore-water pressure measurements (across the sediment depth...... of liquefaction and compaction fronts in the sediment and (iii) the characteristics of the orbital motion of the liquefied sediment including the motion of the interface between the water body and the sediment. The ranges of the various quantities in the tests were: wave height, H = 9-17 cm, wave period, T = 1...

  17. Ground motions estimates for a cascadia earthquake from liquefaction evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, S.E.; Obermeier, S.F.

    1998-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies conducted in the coastal regions of the Pacific Northwest in the past decade have revealed evidence of crustal downdropping and subsequent tsunami inundation, attributable to a large earthquake along the Cascadia subduction zone which occurred approximately 300 years ago, and most likely in 1700 AD. In order to characterize the severity of ground motions from this earthquake, we report on results of a field search for seismically induced liquefaction features. The search was made chiefly along the coastal portions of several river valleys in Washington, rivers along the central Oregon coast, as well as on islands in the Columbia River of Oregon and Washington. In this paper we focus only on the results of the Columbia River investigation. Numerous liquefaction features were found in some regions, but not in others. The regional distribution of liquefaction features is evaluated as a function of geologic and geotechnical factors at each site in order to estimate the intensity of ground shaking.

  18. Direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG): A concept for removing the contact resistance between thermoelectric modules and heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Young; Negash, Assmelash; Cho, Gyubaek

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A design concept of a direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG) is proposed. • Power generation characteristics of the DCTEG on a diesel engine are examined. • Maximum power output of ∼45 W and conversion efficiency of ∼2.0% are obtained. • Effect of clearance on energy conversion of the DCTEG is numerically investigated. • A 132% increase in output power with a flush mounted configuration is obtained. - Abstract: This paper proposes the concept of a direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG) to enhance the practicality and widen the application areas of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). In the DCTEG, one thermoelectric module (TEM) surface is directly exposed to a heat source, and the other surface is in direct contact with a coolant flow. The current direct-contact configuration is beneficial for system fabrication, maintenance, long-term reliability, and maximizing energy usage in cooperation with other energy systems because of its simple configuration and lack of interfaces between the TEMs and heat sources. In order to validate the proposed concept experimentally, a DCTEG was constructed by fabricating customized TEMs and exhaust gas and coolant channels with openings to mount the TEMs. A diesel engine served as a heat source by providing hot exhaust gas into the DCTEG, while the coolant (water–ethylene glycol mixture) was pumped into the coolant channels to remove heat. Based on the experimental results obtained under various engine operating conditions, the power generation of the DCTEG was characterized in the form of current–voltage and power–voltage curves. The maximum output power of 43 W and conversion efficiency of 2.0% were obtained under the highest engine load and rotation speed conditions. A series of numerical simulations was carried out to investigate the effect of the system configuration on the DCTEG power generation performance with the clearance between the TEM surfaces and exhaust gas

  19. Risk assessment concept in the new approach directives and its integration in the Enterprise Risk Management (ERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapić Mirko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the nineties years of the previous century, the European Union achieved, through introducing the New and Global Approach to technical harmonization and standardization, a significant improvement in the approach to conformity assessment of products, by integrating the requirements for technical products safety into the process of its designing. This was achieved by preventive analyzing and quantifying of risk levels in the design process with the objective of determining the scope of the needed safety systems. On the other hand, we have witnessed a rapid development and implementation of holistic approaches to risks management in enterprises, unified in the modern business practice by the name of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM. Going along that line, the paper presents, through the basis of the EU New and Global Approach, the concept of risk assessment in the New Approach directives (Machinery, Lifts, ATEX, etc and provides the concept of its integration into the holistic approach of risks management in enterprises, such as ERM.

  20. Anti-Nuclear antibodies: Current concepts and future direction for diagnosing connective tissue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gautam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of antinuclear antibodies has been used for the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases for more than fifty years. Indirect immunofluorescence on human epithelial (HEp-2 cells is considered the gold standard screening method for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies. As the demand of ANA testing increased, the need for automation and standardization has also come forth. A high level of false positive and false negative cases is seen in various populations making it difficult to take clinical decisions. Newer technologies were introduced for the antibody detection to ensure high sensitivity and specificity. This article intends to provide an overview of the concepts on ANA testing, the different diagnostic methods available, the various patterns and clinical utility, the clinical guidelines to be followed, the drawbacks and what lies ahead in the future of ANA testing.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2015 Vol. 5, 766-773

  1. Mass, Speed, Direction: John Buridan's 14th-Century Concept of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    2013-10-01

    "Modern science began in the Middle Ages," a fact that has been forgotten thanks to the celebrated accomplishments of Copernicus and Galileo, who did not acknowledge their predecessors. So states James Hannam in a January 2010 article in History Today. Among the scientists of the Middle Ages that Hannam mentions is John Buridan, a French thinker who was the first to develop modern concepts of inertia and momentum. Buridan's work has been known to historians of science for decades2 and remains a topic of discussion among them today.3,4 However, it is not well-known in physics circles,5 although there was an American Journal of Physics discussion of Buridan 35 years ago as part of a history of inertia.6 Readers of The Physics Teacher may find Buridan of interest both as a matter of history and because Buridan presents important physics ideas in a different sort of way, which may be of value in the physics classroom.

  2. Liquefaction of solid carbonaceous material with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In the two stage liquefaction of a carbonaceous solid such as coal wherein coal is liquefied in a first stage in the presence of a liquefaction solvent and the first stage effluent is hydrogenated in the presence of a supported hydrogenation catalyst in a second stage, catalyst which has been previously employed in the second stage and comminuted to a particle size distribution equivalent to 100% passing through U.S. 100 Mesh, is passed to the first stage to improve the overall operation.

  3. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-oil yield of 46% was obtained on Nannochloropsis salina at 310 °C...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  4. Contribution of wave-induced liquefaction in triggering hyperpycnal flows in Yellow River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Jia, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperpycnal flows, driven mainly by the gravity of near-bed negatively buoyant layers, are one of the most important processes for moving marine sediment across the earth. The issue of hyperpycnal flows existing in marine environment has drawn increasing scholars' attention since that was observed in situ off the Yellow River estuary in the 1980s. Most researches maintain that hyperpycnal flows in the Yellow River estuary are caused by the high-concentration sediments discharged from the Yellow River into sea, however, other mechanisms have been discounted since the sediment input from the river has been significantly changed due to climate and anthropogenic change. Here we demonstrate that wave-seabed interactions can generate hyperpycnal flows, without river input, by sediment flux convergence above an originally consolidated seabed. Using physical model experiments and multi-sensor field measurements, we characterize the composition-dependent liquefaction properties of the sediment due to wave-induced pore water pressure accumulation. This allows quantification of attenuation of sediment threshold velocity and critical shear stress (predominant variables in transport mechanics) during the liquefaction under waves. Parameterising the wave-seabed interactions in a new concept model shows that high waves propagating over the seabed sediment can act as a scarifier plough remoulding the seabed sediment. This contributes to marine hyperpycnal flows as the sediment is quickly resuspended under accumulating attenuation in strength. Therefore, the development of more integrative numerical models could supply realistic predictions of marine record in response to rising magnitude and frequency of storms.

  5. Fuels from biomass. Potentials, concepts, competitive situation with regard to combustion; Kraftstoffe aus Biomassen. Potentiale, Konzepte, Konkurrenzsituationen zur Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrendt, F.; Neubauer, Y. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2006-07-01

    Liquid fuels are today something of an elixir of life for the industrialised societies and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Mobility is dependent on the availability of petrol, diesel and kerosine. Whereas the introduction of alternative vehicle drives is expected to proceed only stepwise over a period of decades, the origin of liquid fuels will change fundamentally. This will involve a shift away from crude oil towards the synthesis of fuels from natural gas, coal and biomass. It will also lead to a revival of long-known technical concepts such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or the direct liquefaction of source materials, albeit using significantly refined techniques.

  6. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  7. Movement rehabilitation after spinal cord injuries: emerging concepts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Barnaby C; Astill, Sarah L; Utley, Andrea; Ichiyama, Ronaldo M

    2011-03-10

    Considerable inroads are being made into developing new treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) which aim to facilitate functional recovery, including locomotion. Research on rehabilitative strategies following SCI using animal models has demonstrated that regaining and maintaining motor function, such as standing or stepping, is governed by principles of skill acquisition. Mechanisms key to learning motor tasks, including retention and transfer of skill, feedback and conditions of practice, all have examples in the SCI animal literature, although the importance of many concepts may often be overlooked. Combinatorial strategies which include physical rehabilitation are beginning to yield promising results. However, the effects of molecular-cellular interventions including chondroitinaseABC, anti-NogoA, foetal stem cell transplantation, etc., are still poorly understood with reference to the changes made to spinal plasticity by training and exercise. Studies that investigate the interplay between rehabilitation and other treatments have had mixed results; it appears likely that precise timings of different interventions will help to maximize recovery of function. Understanding how the time-course of injury and different rehabilitative and treatment modalities might factor into spinal plasticity will be critical in future therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maintenance concept of the gas turbine in a 1640 MW direct cycle HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmied, H.; Karaus, H.; Schenker, E.

    1981-01-01

    The description which follows refers to a helium-cooled high-temperature reactor with a gas turbine and a thermal output of 1640 MW. The turbomachine which comes into contact with the cooling gas is contaminated with radioactivity during its operation. For the maintenance of the turbomachine, a major inspection is planned at six-year intervals. This overhaul involves disassembling and dismantling the turbomachine. Two minor inspections, at two-year intervals, are planned between the major inspections. The minor inspections involve inspection of the bearings, for which purpose the turbomachine does not have to be disassembled and dismantled. This paper presents in summarized form the sequence in which the maintenance work is to be carried out for both the major and minor inspections. The shutdown time and the collective dose were estimated to this end. Costs have not yet been determined. Details of the concept are given and significant results from the areas dealing with release, deposition and decontamination have been appropriately adapted

  9. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Effects on Athletes’ Cognitive Performance: An Exploratory Proof of Concept Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davimar Borduchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games unforgettable moments, one could not overlook performances by Phelps and Bolt, which challenge old premises about the maximum extension of individual supremacism in ultracompetitive modalities and the doping scandals. Different media channels resonated these two trends, with an unseen rise on discussions about traits and practices that may set ultrahigh performance athletes apart from the more ordinary ones. Yet, some key issues remain undebated. This paper aims to add to this debate, with a proof of concept trial, which investigates whether tDCS may serve as an aid for professional athletes. Ten professional athletes of three different modalities of (judo, N=4 athletes, swimming, N=3 athletes and rhythmic gymnastics, N=3 athletes received anodal stimulation (2mA for 20 minutes on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for ten consecutive weekdays. We observed a positive effect of tDCS in their cognitive performance, including a significant improvement in alternated, sustained and divided attention and in memory scores. We also observed a decrease in Beck Depression Inventory scores (4.50 points in this non-clinical population. These preliminary results suggest that tDCS sessions may translate into competitive advantages for professional athletes and recommend the deepening of the discussion on its ethical use in sports, which is ultimately tied to the wider debate around the risks and opportunities that neuromodulation brings to the table.

  10. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  11. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  12. African Cultural Concept of Death and the Idea of Advance Care Directives

    OpenAIRE

    Ekore, Rabi Ilemona; Lanre-Abass, Bolatito

    2016-01-01

    An advance care directive is a person's oral or written instructions about his or her future medical care, if he or she becomes unable to communicate. It may be in written or oral form. Africans ordinarily do not encourage the contemplation of death or any discussion about their own or their loved ones? death. According to the African belief system, life does not end with death, but continues in another realm. Becoming an ancestor after death is a desirable goal of every individual, a feat wh...

  13. Assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards using Bayesian networks based on standard penetration test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Wei; Bai, Xu; Hu, Ji-Lei; Qiu, Jiang-Nan

    2018-05-01

    Liquefaction-induced hazards such as sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading are responsible for considerable damage to engineering structures during major earthquakes. Presently, there is no effective empirical approach that can assess different liquefaction-induced hazards in one model. This is because of the uncertainties and complexity of the factors related to seismic liquefaction and liquefaction-induced hazards. In this study, Bayesian networks (BNs) are used to integrate multiple factors related to seismic liquefaction, sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading into a model based on standard penetration test data. The constructed BN model can assess four different liquefaction-induced hazards together. In a case study, the BN method outperforms an artificial neural network and Ishihara and Yoshimine's simplified method in terms of accuracy, Brier score, recall, precision, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). This demonstrates that the BN method is a good alternative tool for the risk assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards. Furthermore, the performance of the BN model in estimating liquefaction-induced hazards in Japan's 2011 Tōhoku earthquake confirms its correctness and reliability compared with the liquefaction potential index approach. The proposed BN model can also predict whether the soil becomes liquefied after an earthquake and can deduce the chain reaction process of liquefaction-induced hazards and perform backward reasoning. The assessment results from the proposed model provide informative guidelines for decision-makers to detect the damage state of a field following liquefaction.

  14. Report on the coal liquefaction committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the coal liquefaction committee in fiscal 1992. The first committee meeting was held on August 21. After having confirmed the minutes of the previous meeting, an explanation was given on the research and development plans in fiscal 1992. The explanation covered the general explanation, bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, and the common and fundamental aspects. The presented topics included the achievements in the operations using a bituminous coal liquefaction PSU and a small device, the status of compiling the achievements in the brown coal liquefaction project, preparation of the basic policy on developing the common basic technologies, and structuring of a coal liquefaction technology package. The second meeting was held on March 18, 1993. The meeting verified the minutes of the previous meeting, and gave the sub-committee reports for fiscal 1992. The sub-committees include those for bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, environmental safety evaluation, and separation and refining technologies. As the summary of the achievements in fiscal 1992, descriptions were given on the bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, and common and basic aspects. The fiscal 1993 plan presented included the budget aspect. A description was given as a topic on the economic performance evaluation and the working scheme (the execution plan) for the brown coal liquefaction process. (NEDO)

  15. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  16. Continuous production of bio-oil by catalytic liquefaction from wet distiller’s grain with solubles (WDGS) from bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Glasius, Marianne; Rudolf, Andreas; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt

    2012-01-01

    Bio-refinery concepts are currently receiving much attention due to the drive toward flexible, highly efficient systems for utilization of biomass for food, feed, fuel and bio-chemicals. One way of achieving this is through appropriate process integration, in this particular case combining enzymatic bio-ethanol production with catalytic liquefaction of the wet distillers grains with soluble, a byproduct from the bio-ethanol process. The catalytic liquefaction process is carried out at sub-critical conditions (280–370 °C and 25 MPa) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst, a process known as the Catliq ® process. In the current work, catalytic conversion of WDGS was performed in a continuous pilot plant with a maximum capacity of 30 dm 3 h −1 of wet biomass. In the process, WDGS was converted to bio-oil, gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The oil obtained was characterized using several analysis methods, among them elementary analysis and GC–MS. The study shows that WDGS can be converted to bio oil with high yields. The results also indicate that through the combination of bio-ethanol production and catalytic liquefaction, it is possible to significantly increase the liquid product yield and scope, opening up for a wider end use applicability. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass. ► Product phase analysis: oil, acqeous, gas and mineral phase. ► Energy and mass balance evaluation.

  17. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-09-07

    The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding) were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  18. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...

  19. Mineral catalysis of oil producing reactions in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    This work was concerned primarily with the development of a relatively inexpensive, readily available, high activity catalyst that can be used as a disposable catalyst in coal liquefaction processes. For a fair evaluation of the developmental mineral catalyst (presulfided iron oxide), it was necessary to determine at different stages of this work, whether catalyst inhibition, deactivation or activity was the limiting factor in coal liquefaction catalysis. First, different routes were explored to prepare a high hydrogenation activity, iron-based catalyst. Naphthalene hydrogenation was used as a model reaction to rate the hydrogenation activities of different additives. Presulfiding of iron oxide with H/sub 2/S, under controlled conditions, rendered the highest hydrogenation activity mineral catalyst, which had a hydrogenation activity even greater than that of commercial CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst sulfided with creosote oil and hydrogen. Sulfiding of CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst with H/sub 2/S remarkably improved its initial hydrogenation activity. Second, the catalyst inhibition and deactivation during liquefaction were studied. Liquefaction-process solvents contain a number of compounds that can either deactivate or inhibit the hydrogenation activity of a catalyst. Finally, the hydrocracking activity of the presulfided iron oxide catalyst was compared with that of commercial catalysts, CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and low alumina FCC catalyst.

  20. Finite Element Modelling of Seismic Liquefaction in Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galavi, V.; Petalas, A.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical aspects of seismic liquefaction in soils as implemented in the finite element code, PLAXIS, is described in this paper. After description of finite element equations of dynamic problems, three practical dynamic boundary conditions, namely viscous boundary tractions, tied degrees of freedom

  1. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Prieto, S; Harrison, S B; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. The making of Andersen’s liquefaction chart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation stabilizing soil response.The process of obtaining the original chart has been...

  3. Determination of Liquefaction Potential using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F; Choobbasti, A.J; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose an alternative general regression model based on neural networks, which enables analysis of summary data obtained by liquefaction analysis according to usual methods. For that purpose, the data from some thirty boreholes made during field investigations in Babol, in the Iranian...

  4. Liquefaction of ground tire rubber at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangyun; Song, Pan; Zhao, Xinyu; Peng, Zonglin; Wang, Shifeng

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature liquefaction has been investigated as a novel method for recycling ground tire rubber (GTR) into liquid using an environmentally benign process. The liquefaction was carried out at different temperatures (140, 160 and 180 °C) over variable time ranges (2-24 h) by blending the GTR with aromatic oil in a range from 0 to 100 parts per hundred rubber (phr). The liquefied GTR was separated into sol (the soluble fraction of rubber which can be extracted with toluene) and gel fractions (the solid fraction obtained after extraction) to evaluate the reclaiming efficiency. It was discovered that the percentage of the sol fraction increased with time, swelling ratio and temperature. Liquefied rubber was obtained with a high sol fraction (68.34 wt%) at 140 °C. Simultaneously, separation of nano-sized carbon black from the rubber networks occurred. The separation of carbon black from the network is the result of significant damage to the cross-linked-network that occurs throughout the liquefaction process. During liquefaction, a competitive reaction between main chain scission and cross-link bond breakage takes place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of microalgae in sub- and supercritical ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Qiao; Chen, Liang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Changsha (China)

    2011-01-15

    Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of Spirulina, a kind of high-protein microalgae, were investigated with the sub- and supercritical ethanol as solvent in a 1000 mL autoclave. The influences of various liquefaction parameters on the yields of products (bio-oil and residue) from the liquefaction of Spirulina were studied, such as the reaction temperature (T), the S/L ratio (R{sub 1}, solid: Spirulina, liquid: ethanol), the solvent filling ratio (R{sub 2}) and the type and dosage of catalyst. Without catalyst, the bio-oil yields were in the range of 35.4 wt.% and 45.3 wt.% depending on the changes of T, R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}. And the bio-oil yields increased generally with increasing T and R{sub 2}, while the bio-oil yields reduced with increasing R{sub 1}. The FeS catalyst was certified to be an ideal catalyst for the liquefaction of Spirulina microalgae for its advantages on promoting bio-oil production and suppressing the formation of residue. The optimal dosage of catalyst (FeS) was ranging from 5-7 wt.%. The elemental analyses and FT-IR and GC-MS measurements for the bio-oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude Spirulina sample and fatty acid ethyl ester compounds were dominant in the bio-oils, irrespective of whether catalyst was used. (author)

  6. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  7. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels

  8. Techno-economic Assessment of Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Combined Heat and Power Production from Lignocellulose Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste biomass as a mean for global carbon dioxide emissions mitigation remains under-utilized. This is mainly due to the low calorific value of virgin feedstock, characterized generally with high moisture content. Aqueous processing, namely hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water conditions, has been demonstrated experimentally to thermally densify solid lignocellulose into liquid fuels without the pre-requisite and energy consuming drying step. This study presents a techno-economic evaluation of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction system with downstream combined heat and power production from forest residues. The utilization of the liquefaction by-products and waste heat from the elevated processing conditions, coupled with the chemical upgrading of the feedstock enables the poly-generation of biocrude, electricity and district heat. The plant thermal efficiency increases by 3.5 to 4.6% compared to the conventional direct combustion case. The economic assessment showed that the minimum selling price of biocrude, based on present co-products market prices, hinders commercialization and ranges between 138 EUR to 178 EUR per MWh. A sensitivity analysis and detailed discussion on the techno-economic assessment results are presented for the different process integration and market case scenarios.

  9. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Cooke, W.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-02-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. Here in this quarterly, we report on the catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds in the reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with hydrogen under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds have been examined in the hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The metal compounds are candidate catalyst precursors for direct coal liquefaction. The reactions were carried out in batch microautoclave reactors at 400{degrees}C for 30 minutes with 6.9 MPa (cold) hydrogen pressure, and tridecane solvent. A metal loading of 0.5 mol% resulted in low conversion and only hydrogenation. Addition of sulfur in 4:1 molar ratio led only to a minor increase in conversion and hydrodesulfurization. The use of a higher boiling solvent (octadecane vs. tridecane) was beneficial in providing increased conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrogenation. An increase in metal compound loading to 36.2 mol% led to a dramatic increase in conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking. Molybdenum hexacarbonyl at 36 mol% loading, with added sulfur at 6:1 ratio and octadecane solvent, gave 100% conversion of dibenzothiophene to other products with 100% hydrodesulfurization. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate and molybdenum(III) chloride are less active under similar conditions. A cobalt-molybdenum thiocubane complex gave unexpectedly low conversions. Iron and cobalt carbonyls also provided very low conversions, even with added sulfur.

  10. Semi-automated landform classification for hazard mapping of soil liquefaction by earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Soil liquefaction damages were caused by huge earthquake in Japan, and the similar damages are concerned in near future huge earthquake. On the other hand, a preparation of soil liquefaction risk map (soil liquefaction hazard map) is impeded by the difficulty of evaluation of soil liquefaction risk. Generally, relative soil liquefaction risk should be able to be evaluated from landform classification data by using experimental rule based on the relationship between extent of soil liquefaction damage and landform classification items associated with past earthquake. Therefore, I rearranged the relationship between landform classification items and soil liquefaction risk intelligibly in order to enable the evaluation of soil liquefaction risk based on landform classification data appropriately and efficiently. And I developed a new method of generating landform classification data of 50-m grid size from existing landform classification data of 250-m grid size by using digital elevation model (DEM) data and multi-band satellite image data in order to evaluate soil liquefaction risk in detail spatially. It is expected that the products of this study contribute to efficient producing of soil liquefaction hazard map by local government.

  11. Effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on performance of natural gas liquefaction with mixed refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-12-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out to investigate the effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on the performance of natural gas (NG) liquefaction with mixed refrigerant (MR). A cold stream (low-pressure MR) is in thermal contact with opposite flow of two hot streams (high-pressure MR and NG feed) at the same time. In typical process simulation with commercial software (such as Aspen HYSYS®), the liquefaction performance is estimated with a method of minimum temperature approach, simply assuming that two hot streams have the same temperature. In this study, local energy balance equations are rigorously solved with temperature-dependent properties of MR and NG feed, and are linked to the thermodynamic cycle analysis. The figure of merit (FOM) is quantitatively examined in terms of UA (the product of overall heat transfer coefficient and heat exchange area) between respective streams. In a single-stage MR process, it is concluded that the temperature profile from HYSYS is difficult to realize in practice, and the FOM value from HYSYS is an over-estimate, but can be closely achieved with a proper heat-exchanger design. It is also demonstrated that there exists a unique optimal ratio in three UA's, and no direct heat exchanger between hot streams is recommended.

  12. In-situ testing of the liquefaction potential of soft ground using an s-wave vibrator and seismic cones. Part 1. System, concept and preliminary test result; S ha vibrator oyobi seismic cone wo mochiita gen`ichi jiban ekijoka potential no hyoka. 1. System kosei oyobi genchi yosatsu keisoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of evaluating liquefaction in situ, it was proposed that an S-wave vibrator designed to serve as a source in a reflection exploration method be utilized as a strong vibration generating source, and measurement was conducted in this connection. Equipment used in this test included an S-wave vibrator, static cone penetration machine, and various measuring cones. A multiplicity of measuring cones had been inserted beforehand into the target layers and comparison layers, and changes upon vibrator activation were measured. On a dry bed of the Tonegawa river, a 40m{sup 2} field was set up, and 41 cone penetration tests were conducted, with the cones positioned zigzag at 5m intervals. In this way, the ground structure was disclosed from the surface to the 10m-deep level. For the measurement, 3-component cones and seismic cones were placed at prescribed depths, and fluctuations and waveforms presented by pore water pressure at each level were determined with the vibration source changing its place. It was found that the changes in the pore water pressure exposed to vibration assume characteristic patterns corresponding to the conditions of vibration application. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    of their performance. However, the thermodynamic models used for this purpose are characterised by different mathematical formulations, ranges of application and levels of accuracy. This may lead to inconsistent results when estimating hydrocarbon properties and assessing the efficiency of a given process. This paper...... are related to the prediction of the energy flows (up to 7%) and to the heat exchanger conductances (up to 11%), and they are not systematic errors. The results illustrate the superiority of using the GERG-2008 model for designing gas processes in real applications, with the aim of reducing their energy use....... They demonstrate as well that particular caution should be exercised when extrapolating the results of the conventional thermodynamic models to the actual conception of the gas liquefaction chain....

  14. Development, modelling and evaluation of a small-scale gas liquefaction plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    A small-scale gas liquefaction plant was developed and analysed based on process simulation tools and pilot tests. It will be installed in harbours, easing the penetration of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a maritime fuel, in a sector facing more stringent environmental regulations. The proposed...... plant uses a multi-component refrigerant together with a propane precooling cycle and plate heat exchangers, to achieve a higher performance. This LNG production concept was modelled based on the Danish natural gas composition. Firstly, the total power consumption and heat transfer conductance were...... minimised by optimising the operating conditions and the refrigerant composition. The effects of varying feed and refrigerant compositions were analysed. Secondly, the system layouts were evaluated by conducting an exergetic assessment. Finally, the most promising layouts were validated by pilot plant...

  15. The effects of rational stage directed imagery on self-concept and reduction of psychological stress in adolescent delinquent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, J P; Tosi, D J

    1977-10-01

    This study examined the effect of four treatment conditions on self-concept and reduction of psychological stress in adolescent delinquent females. The treatments were Rational State Directed Imagery, a cognitive behavioral approach that utilized intensive muscle relaxation and vivid-emotive-imagery, a rational (cognitive) restructuring treatment, a placebo condition, and a no treatment control. Ss were assigned randomly to one of these treatment groups, which met 1 hour per week for 6 consecutive weeks, with in-vivo homework assignments also utilized. Statistically scale were noted for the RSDI group at the posttest and at a 2-month follow-up, which supports the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment. Support was found for the effectiveness of the rational (cognitive) restructuring approach immediately posttreatment; however these effects disappeared at the 2-month follow-up. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects at either posttreatment or the follow-up. These results suggest that RSDI has potential for use as a short-term psychotherapeutic approach when self-concept modification is a primary goal.

  16. Scrap tyre recycling process with molten zinc as direct heat transfer and solids separation fluid: A new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Goode, Kieran; Sexton, Aidan; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Every year about 1.5 billion tyres are discarded worldwide representing a large amount of solid waste, but also a largely untapped source of raw materials. The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel scrap tyre recycling process which uses molten zinc as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this media to separate the solids products (i.e. steel and rCB) in a sink-float separation at an operating temperature of 450-470 °C. This methodology involved: •construction of the laboratory scale batch reactor,•separation of floating rCB from the zinc,•recovery of the steel from the bottom of the reactor following pyrolysis.

  17. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis - An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    Liquefaction features can be used in many field settings to estimate the recurrence interval and magnitude of strong earthquakes through much of the Holocene. These features include dikes, craters, vented sand, sills, and laterally spreading landslides. The relatively high seismic shaking level required for their formation makes them particularly valuable as records of strong paleo-earthquakes. This state-of-the-art summary for using liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic interpretation and analysis takes into account both geological and geotechnical engineering perspectives. The driving mechanism for formation of the features is primarily the increased pore-water pressure associated with liquefaction of sand-rich sediment. The role of this mechanism is often supplemented greatly by the direct action of seismic shaking at the ground surface, which strains and breaks the clay-rich cap that lies immediately above the sediment that liquefied. Discussed in the text are the processes involved in formation of the features, as well as their morphology and characteristics in field settings. Whether liquefaction occurs is controlled mainly by sediment grain size, sediment packing, depth to the water table, and strength and duration of seismic shaking. Formation of recognizable features in the field generally requires a low-permeability cap above the sediment that liquefied. Field manifestations are controlled largely by the severity of liquefaction and the thickness and properties of the low-permeability cap. Criteria are presented for determining whether observed sediment deformation in the field originated by seismically induced liquefaction. These criteria have been developed mainly by observing historic effects of liquefaction in varied field settings. The most important criterion is that a seismic liquefaction origin requires widespread, regional development of features around a core area where the effects are most severe. In addition, the features must have a

  18. Hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes: state-of-the-art review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Leichang; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Huihui; Tsang, Daniel C W; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction has been widely applied to obtain bioenergy and high-value chemicals from biomass in the presence of a solvent at moderate to high temperature (200-550°C) and pressure (5-25MPa). This article summarizes and discusses the conversion of agricultural and forestry wastes by hydrothermal liquefaction. The history and development of hydrothermal liquefaction technology for lignocellulosic biomass are briefly introduced. The research status in hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes is critically reviewed, particularly for the effects of liquefaction conditions on bio-oil yield and the decomposition mechanisms of main components in biomass. The limitations of hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes are discussed, and future research priorities are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-liquefaction soil-structure interaction for buried structures: Sensitivity analysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.A.; Ang, H.S.; Katayama, I.; Satoh, M.

    1993-01-01

    The post liquefaction behavior of buried conduits is analyzed and sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the damage potential of the forces induced in the buried lifelines following seismically induced liquefaction of the surrounding soil. Various lifeline configurations and loading conditions are considered. The loading conditions considered are: buoyancy forces and permanent ground displacements parallel to the lifeline axis. Pertinent parameters for the soil-lifeline interaction following liquefaction are identified. (author)

  20. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  1. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  2. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity

  3. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  4. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1992 report on the Coal Liquefaction Committee; 1992 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Liquefaction Committee in FY 1992. In the 1st committee meeting, report/discussion were made of the summary of the FY 1992 R and D plan on the bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction and the common/basic technology. Further, the following were reported as topics: results of the operation by bituminous coal liquefaction PSU and small equipment, state of arrangement of the results of the brown coal liquefaction project, making of the basic policy for development of the common/basic technology, construction of package of coal liquefaction technology. In the 2nd committee meeting, the summary of the results of the FY 1992 R and D was reported/discussed. As to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, study using pilot plant and support study were reported. Concerning the development of brown coal liquefaction technology, study using a 50t/d pilot plant and complementary study of operation. Relating to the development of the common/basic technology, trial manufacture/development of plant equipment/materials, survey of selection of coal kind, etc. The paper also reported a scheme on the evaluation of efficiency of the brown coal liquefaction process. (NEDO)

  7. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  8. The making of Andersen’s liquefaction chart

    OpenAIRE

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation stabilizing soil response.The process of obtaining the original chart has been improved. Algorithm based approximation is introduced. Pore pressure dependent ultimate bearing capacity normalization factor is introduced to normalize the chart.

  9. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel

  10. New magnetic refrigeration materials for the liquefaction of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A.; Takeya, H.; Moorman, J.O.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Malik, S.K.; Zimm, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Five heavy lanthanide ferromagnetic intermetallic compounds were studied as potential magnetic refrigerants for the liquefaction of hydrogen gas. (Dy 0.5 Er 0.5 )Al 2 and TbNi 2 appear to be better refrigerants than GdPd for a Joule-Brayton cycle refrigerator, while (Gd 0.54 Er 0.46 )AlNi seems to be a suitable refrigerant for an Ericsson cycle refrigerator

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, DC; Biller, P; Ross, AB; Schmidt, AJ; Jones, SB

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their pr...

  12. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    An updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams and a review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils are presented in this document. In addition, a summary is provided for the University of Delaware program conducted under this contract to develop an empirical test to determine relative resid reactivity and to construct a computer model to describe resid structure and predict reactivity.

  13. Machine learning modelling for predicting soil liquefaction susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Samui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two machine learning techniques applied to predict liquefaction susceptibility of soil based on the standard penetration test (SPT data from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. The first machine learning technique which uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN based on multi-layer perceptions (MLP that are trained with Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The second machine learning technique uses the Support Vector machine (SVM that is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning theory, uses classification technique. ANN and SVM have been developed to predict liquefaction susceptibility using corrected SPT [(N160] and cyclic stress ratio (CSR. Further, an attempt has been made to simplify the models, requiring only the two parameters [(N160 and peck ground acceleration (amax/g], for the prediction of liquefaction susceptibility. The developed ANN and SVM models have also been applied to different case histories available globally. The paper also highlights the capability of the SVM over the ANN models.

  14. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1987. Collection of data from coal liquefaction processes, and development of a disposal system; 1987 nendo sekitan ekika process nado no data no shushu, shori system nado no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The present study is intended to investigate the current status of the information control system in the coal liquefaction technology development project, and structure a coal liquefaction database system to manage and utilize comprehensively the items of information provided by the system. Section 2 shows the result of epitomizing opinions on the purpose of the coal liquefaction database by means of a questionnaire survey to NEDO, and opinions of people of experience and academic standing. Section 3 depicts the basic conception of a coal database total system. Section 4 summarizes the conceptual idea of the fundamental database by washing out the data input and output, and the contents recorded in the database. Section 5 summarizes the basic sub-system required for management and utilization of the database, and different application systems for data analysis required in each stage of performing the coal liquefaction technology development, and for operation assistance. Section 6 summarizes a general technological information retrieval system, in which general information on coal liquefaction is recorded, processed, and registered and accumulated in the database, and then the information retrieval and the original information providing service are carried out. Section 7 summarizes philosophies on development and operation of the coal liquefaction database, operating institutions, and problems to be solved. (NEDO)

  15. Post-cyclic behavior of low plasticity silt under full and limited liquefaction using triaxial compression testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    During an earthquake, liquefaction does not happen all the time. It depends on the duration and magnitude of the earthquake and the properties (with relationship to resistance of liquefaction) of the low plasticity silt. Under low duration or magnitu...

  16. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Gracilaria gracilis and Cladophora glomerata macro-algae for biocrude production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mehran; Jalilzadeh, Hamoon; Pazoki, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Reza; Abduli, MohammadAli

    2018-02-01

    The potential of Gracilaria gracilis (G. gracilis) and Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) macro-algae species harvested from Caspian Sea for biocrude oil production under Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) reaction at 350 °C and 15 min has been investigated. Furthermore, the effect of using recycled aqueous phase as the HTL reaction solvent was studied. The biocrude yield for G. gracilis and C. glomerata was 15.7 and 16.9 wt%, respectively with higher heating value (HHV) of 36.01 and 33.06 MJ/kg. The sources of each existing component in bio-oil were identified by GC-MS based on their suggested reaction pathways. Moreover, after two series of aqueous solution recycling, experiments showed that the bio-oil yield significantly increased compared with the initial condition. This increasing directly relates with recovery of carbon content from the aqueous solution residue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. CONCEPT OF DIRECTION: WHAT DO STUDENTS OF A MASTER’S DEGREE SAY? / CONCEITO DE DIREÇÃO: O QUE DIZEM MESTRANDOS A RESPEITO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pinto Leivas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches a qualitative study with seven students of a master’s degree. The aim was to investigate how knowledge theirs about the concept of direction in mathematics. The investigation occurred when started the discipline where one of the researchers is the holder. On this discipline we study Linear Algebra and Analytic Geometry. We proposed three open questions without answer choices for the students answer freely. The results showed that students relate the concept basically to vectors and they confuse with sense and they don’t emphasizing geometric aspects involved. None of the students related the concept of direction as something existing in a common bundle of parallel lines, or tangent to a curve or tangent plane to a surface. The article suggests some possibilities for relate direction with others topics in geometry.

  19. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Creosote- and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste and untreated southern pine wood were liquefied with phenol and sulfuric acid. The effects of sulfuric acid content, liquefaction time, liquefaction temperature, and phenol to wood ratio on liquefaction rate (i.e., wood residue content) were investigated and analyzed by analysis of variance (...

  20. BP and NCB to collaborate in coal liquefaction study. [Supercritical gas extraction; dissolution in anthracene oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-17

    British Petroleum and NCB are collaborating in a two year study of coal liquefaction which could result in a demonstration plant being built. The two liquefaction techniques which the NCB is developing at present are supercritical extraction, and dissolution in anthracene oil. A disadvantage of the latter process is that high grade coking coals must be used.

  1. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  2. Renewable chemical feedstocks from integrated liquefaction processing of lingocellulosic materials using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to find a simple method for the production of phenolic rich products and sugar derivatives (biopolyols) via separation of liquefied lingocellulosic materials. Liquefaction of lignocellulosic materials was conducted in methanol at 180 °C for 15 min with the conversion of raw materials at about 75%. After liquefaction, the...

  3. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  4. Influence of solvent type on microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Tingxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo in glycerol, polyethylene glycerol (PEG), methanol, ethanol, and water were comparatively investigated by evaluating the temperature-dependence for conversion and liquefied residue characteristics. The conversion for the liquefaction in methanol, ethanol, and water increased with an increase in reaction temperature, while that...

  5. Dynamic dielectric properties of a wood liquefaction system using polyethylene glycol and glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Bo Cai; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction has shown potential for rapid thermal processing of lignocellulosic biomass. The efficiency of microwave heating depends largely on the dielectric properties of the materials being heated. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic interactions between microwave energy and the reaction system during the liquefaction of a...

  6. Social health and dementia: a European consensus on the operationalization of the concept and directions for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröes, R M; Chattat, R; Diaz, A; Gove, D; Graff, M; Murphy, K; Verbeek, H; Vernooij-Dassen, M; Clare, L; Johannessen, A; Roes, M; Verhey, F; Charras, K

    2017-01-01

    Because the pattern of illnesses changes in an aging population and many people manage to live well with chronic diseases, a group of health care professionals recently proposed reformulating the static WHO definition of health towards a dynamic one based on the ability to physically, mentally and socially adapt and self-manage. This paper is the result of a collaborative action of the INTERDEM Social Health Taskforce to operationalize this new health concept for people with dementia, more specifically the social domain, and to formulate directions for research and practice to promote social health in dementia. Based on the expertise of the Social Health Taskforce members (N = 54) three groups were formed that worked on operationalizing the three social health dimensions described by Huber et al.: (1) capacity to fulfil potential and obligations; (2) ability to manage life with some degree of independence; (3) participation in social activities. For each dimension also influencing factors, effective interventions and knowledge gaps were inventoried. After a consensus meeting, the operationalizations of the dimensions were reviewed by the European Working Group of People with Dementia (EWGPWD). The social health dimensions could be well operationalized for people with dementia and are assessed as very relevant according to the Social Health Taskforce and EWGPWD. Personal (e.g. sense of coherence, competencies), disease-related (e.g. severity of cognitive impairments, comorbidity), social (support from network, stigma) and environmental factors (e.g. enabling design, accessibility) that can influence the person with dementia's social health and many interventions promoting social health were identified. A consensus-based operationalization of social health in dementia is proposed, and factors that can influence, and interventions that improve, social health in dementia identified. Recommendations are made for research and practice.

  7. Coal liquefaction policy in China: Explaining the policy reversal since 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Fang; Victor, David G.

    2011-01-01

    China has emerged as a leader in coal liquefaction. While the country's abundant coal resources and acute concerns about oil security help explain China's interest in liquefaction, the driving forces for this industry are complicated and policy has been inconsistent. Since 2006 Beijing has tried to slow down the development of liquefaction; even as China has become more dependent on imported oil, the central government has been wary about the large impact of liquefaction technologies on scarce resources such as water. However, local government officials in coal rich areas have strong incentives to pour investment into the technology, which helps explain the uneven development and policy. The future of coal liquefaction will depend on how these forces unfold along with major Beijing-led reforms in the Chinese coal industry, which is closing smaller mines and favoring the emergence of larger coal producing firms. Those reforms will have mixed effects on liquefaction. They temporarily contribute to higher prices for coal while over the longer term creating coal companies that have much greater financial and technical skills needed to deploy technologies such as coal liquefaction at a scale needed if this energy pathway is to be competitive with conventional sources of liquid fuel. - Highlights: ► We explain swings in Chinese policy on coal liquefaction, a possible substitute for imported oil. ► Since 2006 Beijing's support has waned due to fears about environmental impacts and cost of liquefaction. ► Local governments in some coal rich regions remain strongly supportive. ► Volatile oil prices and rising coal prices make this industry more risky than previously thought. ► Consolidation of the coal industry will have mixed effects on viability of liquefaction projects.

  8. Volumetric MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound with Direct Skin Cooling for the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids : Proof-of-Concept Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikink, Marlijne E; van Breugel, Johanna M M; Schubert, Gerald; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; Bartels, LW; Moonen, Chrit T W; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To prospectively assess the safety and technical feasibility of volumetric magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation with direct skin cooling (DISC) during treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods. In this proof-of-concept study, eight patients were

  9. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siika-aho Matti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases, resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C.

  10. Latent hazard related to a hydrogen liquefaction installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoendlin, R.

    1961-01-01

    In this note, the author reports an attempt of analysis of hazards which could be related to a hydrogen liquefaction installation in order to identify the most appropriate safety measures. In order to do so, experiments have been performed on electrostatic charges born by solid crystals in liquid hydrogen, and explosion tests have been performed on a mixture of solid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. Moreover, the author tried to analyse accidents which occurred in this field by performing a survey among scientists working in laboratories in different countries

  11. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  12. Liquefaction of Saturated Soil and the Diffusion Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Andrzej; Sławińska, Justyna

    2015-06-01

    The paper deals with the diffusion equation for pore water pressures with the source term, which is widely promoted in the marine engineering literature. It is shown that such an equation cannot be derived in a consistent way from the mass balance and the Darcy law. The shortcomings of the artificial source term are pointed out, including inconsistencies with experimental data. It is concluded that liquefaction and the preceding process of pore pressure generation and the weakening of the soil skeleton should be described by constitutive equations within the well-known framework of applied mechanics. Relevant references are provided

  13. Rationale for continuing R&D in indirect coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this analysis is to use the world energy demand/supply model developed at MITRE to examine future liquid fuels supply scenarios both for the world and for the United States. This analysis has determined the probable extent of future oil resource shortages and the likely time frame in which the shortages will occur. The role that coal liquefaction could play in helping to alleviate this liquid fuels shortfall is also examined. The importance of continuing R&D to improve process performance and reduce the costs of coal-derived transportation fuel is quantified in terms of reducing the time when coal liquids will become competitive with petroleum.

  14. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  15. Study on thermochemical liquefaction of biomass feedstocks; Biomass genryo no yuka hanno tokusei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-10

    Liquefaction is applied to various biomass wastes and unused biomass to study characteristics of the liquefaction in each case. The paper described the system of the conversion and use of biomass into energy, conducted the positioning of the liquefaction, and outlined a history of the liquefaction chemistry and the study. To obtain basic data of characteristics of the liquefaction of various biomass raw materials, the liquefaction was conducted changing operational factors for the purpose of clarifying the product distribution of oil and by-products and oil properties. A comprehensive consideration was made of the liquefaction based on basic data and literature reports on the liquefaction of various biomass. From the above-mentioned studies, it was concluded that the energy can be recovered in a form of oil by applying the liquefaction to various biomass materials. A series of the study clarified effects of various operational factors on characteristics of the liquefaction as well as effects of classification of biomass materials and composition of the materials on characteristics of the liquefaction. 141 refs., 78 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Biodiesel production from lipids in wet microalgae with microwave irradiation and bio-crude production from algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    A cogeneration process of biodiesel and bio-crude was proposed to make full use of wet microalgae biomass. High-grade biodiesel was first produced from lipids in wet microalgae through extraction and transesterification with microwave irradiation. Then, low-grade bio-crude was produced from proteins and carbohydrates in the algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction. The total yield (40.19%) and the total energy recovery (67.73%) of the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude were almost equal to those of the bio-oil obtained from raw microalgae through direct hydrothermal liquefaction. Upon microwave irradiation, proteins were partially hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were apt for deaminization under the hydrothermal condition of the algal residue. Hence, the total remaining nitrogen (16.02%) in the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude was lower than that (27.06%) in the bio-oil. The cogeneration process prevented lipids and proteins from reacting to produce low-grade amides and other long-chain nitrogen compounds during the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient Air Desulfurization Catalysts Derived from Pig Manure Liquefaction Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Wallace

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from the liquefaction of pig manure was used as a precursor of H2S desulfurization adsorbents. In its inorganic matter, it contains marked quantities of calcium, magnesium and iron, which are known as hydrogen sulfide oxidation catalysts. The char was used either as-received or mixed with 10% nanographite. The latter was added to increase both the content of the carbon phase and conductivity. ZnCl2 in two different ratios of char to an activation agent (1:1 and 1:2 was used to create the porosity in the carbon phase. The content of the later was between 18–45%. The activated samples adsorbed 144 mg/g H2S. Sulfur was the predominant product of reactive adsorption. Its deposition in the pore system and blockage of the most active pores ceased the materials’ activity. The presence of the catalytic phase was necessary but not sufficient to guarantee good performance. The developed porosity, which can store oxidation products in the resulting composite, is essential for the good performance of the desulfurization process. The surface of the composite with nanographite showed the highest catalytic activity, similar to that of the commercial Midas® carbon catalyst. The results obtained indicate that a high quality reactive adsorbent/catalyst for H2S removal can be obtained from pig manure liquefaction wastes.

  18. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  19. Report for fiscal 1995 by basic liquefaction technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Delivered at the 1st meeting are a report on the fiscal 1995 research plan and an interim report, involving the use of coal-derived oils, research on refining technology using a PDU (process developing unit), reforming technology and petroleum blending technology for coal-derived oils, development of new reforming catalysts, technology of heterocompound separation, and the development of applications. Reported in relation with the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technology are the study of coal liquefaction conditions, study of the upgrading of basic liquefaction techniques for the improvement and rationalization of the liquefaction process, and a project of liquefaction technology internationalization. A report is also given on a liquefaction catalyst study meeting. At the 2nd meeting, reports are delivered on the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technology, including a briefing on the situation in general, designing of highly active catalysts, elucidation of the mechanism of emergence of activity, achievement of the marginal yield of coal-derived oils, and the properties of catalyst attached to coal. Delivered in relation with the use of coal-derived oils and technology for their refining are a briefing on the situation in general and reports on the blockup to occur in the naphtha fraction process and measures to counter the problem, control of the metamorphosis of active metals in reaction, heterocompound separation technology, and the development of applications. (NEDO)

  20. Post Hoc Analysis of Passive Cavitation Imaging for Classification of Histotripsy-Induced Liquefaction in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Maxwell, Adam D; Holland, Christy K

    2018-01-01

    Histotripsy utilizes focused ultrasound to generate bubble clouds for transcutaneous tissue liquefaction. Bubble activity maps are under development to provide image guidance and monitor treatment progress. The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using plane wave B-mode and passive cavitation images to be used as binary classifiers of histotripsy-induced liquefaction. Prostate tissue phantoms were exposed to histotripsy pulses over a range of pulse durations (5- ) and peak negative pressures (12-23 MPa). Acoustic emissions were recorded during the insonation and beamformed to form passive cavitation images. Plane wave B-mode images were acquired following the insonation to detect the hyperechoic bubble cloud. Phantom samples were sectioned and stained to delineate the liquefaction zone. Correlation between passive cavitation and plane wave B-mode images and the liquefaction zone was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Liquefaction of the phantom was observed for all the insonation conditions. The area under the ROC (0.94 versus 0.82), accuracy (0.90 versus 0.83), and sensitivity (0.81 versus 0.49) was greater for passive cavitation images relative to B-mode images ( ) along the azimuth of the liquefaction zone. The specificity was greater than 0.9 for both imaging modalities. These results demonstrate a stronger correlation between histotripsy-induced liquefaction and passive cavitation imaging compared with the plane wave B-mode imaging, albeit with limited passive cavitation image range resolution.

  1. Fiscal 1991 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1991 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1991, the 2nd in August 1991, and the 3rd in March 1992, when fiscal 1990 research and development results, fiscal 1991 research and development programs, fiscal 1991 research and development results, etc., were reported and deliberated. At the 2nd meeting, the meaning of coal liquefaction technology development and how to go ahead with the task were described, which topic for discussion was entitled 'How coal liquefaction technology should be for the 21st century.' After discussion, it was agreed upon that a coal liquefaction technology package be completed in fiscal 2000 based on the absorption of each other's findings and on the utilization of basic studies common to both to be realized through the exchange of technologies between the brown coal liquefaction project and the bituminous coal liquefaction project. Under the brown coal liquefaction project, a 50 ton/day pilot plant was built and operated in Victoria, Australia, and the operation was completed in October 1990. The results of research and development under the coal brown liquefaction project will be compiled by fiscal 1993. (NEDO)

  2. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The effects of pre-swelling of Shenhua coal on its liquefaction property were studied in this paper. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of Shenhua coal in three solvents, i.e toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its liquefaction conversion, and the liquefied product distributions were also quite different. Removal of the pre-swelling solvent from the swollen coals further increased the liquefaction conversion compared to that of the swollen coals with the swelling solvent existed in them. It was found that oil and gas yields for the liquefaction of swollen coals in NMP and TOL with swelling solvent existed dramatically decreased. Pre-swelling in THN at 120{sup o}C gave the highest liquefaction conversion, however the liquefaction conversion decreased with the increase of pre-swelling temperature in the case of NMP. TG and FTIR analyses of raw coal, the swollen coals and liquefied products were carried out and the mechanism of the effects of pre-swelling of coal on its extraction and liquefaction behaviors were probed in the paper. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  4. Survey on development of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of literature survey on brown coal liquefaction reactions and elementary techniques. Liquefaction of brown coal in the presence of CO and steam, or CO, H{sub 2} and steam has been investigated. It is not clear by the literature survey whether it is superior to the normal process which uses hydrogen. Brown coal contains moisture at high contents, and the drying techniques are necessary to be developed for its liquefaction. The future coal liquefaction plant will be much larger than the past one, and there are a number of problems to be solved, such as those involved in the designs of large-sized high-pressure slurry pumps, heat exchangers and preheaters. It is also necessary to develop the materials of and production techniques for large reactors which are serviceable under severe conditions. The solid-liquid separation for liquefaction products involves a number of the elementary techniques characteristic of coal liquefaction processes, and needs many technological developments. The one-stage brown coal liquefaction process is compared with the two-stage process for the secondary hydrogenation of SCR, but no clear conclusions are reached. (NEDO)

  5. Liquefaction induced by earthquakes in Japan. Jiban no ekijoka/ekijoka saigai chosa kenkyu no seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tono, I [Nation Inst. for Enviromental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    Disaster caused by liquefaction is an important problem for the development of water-front because most of the places suffered from liquefaction disasters recently are located on sandy grounds. The damaged cases in the past due to liquefaction induced by earthquakes are grouped into: subsidence and inclination caused by the loss of supporting force of the ground, coming to the surface of buried structures due to excess pore hydrostatic pressure, destruction of lifeline accompanying the fluidization of ground, breakdown of bulkhead, retaining wall, etc. by increased earth pressure, sinking of soil structures, ground fissure, sliding, and immersion in floods and submergence of farms due to spouting of underground water. As regards prediction of liquefaction, description is made on the prediction of the occurrence of liquefaction and liquefaction prediction for which sedimentation environment is taken into consideration. Open-cut investigation can be said as the most effective means for accurate learning of the depth, thickness and sedimentation structure of liquefied layers. Liquefaction layers found in remains are also introduced. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  6. FY 1991 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section; 1991 nendo rekiseitan ekikabukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction section in FY 1991. In the 1st bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting, report/discussion were made on the outline of the plan on the FY 1991 research using pilot plant and the support study of pilot plant. In the 2nd section meeting, report was made on 'How the development of coal liquefaction technology should be in the 21st century,' a report made by the joint section of bituminous coal/brown coal liquefaction. In the 3rd section meeting, report/discussion were made on the state of progress of the FY 1991 R and D and results. In the study using the bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, report was made on the outline of construction of a 150t/d pilot plant, study on the acquisition of material balance, analytical study of the data on liquefaction tower, testing survey on properties of coal slurry, and testing survey on slurry preheating furnace. In the support study of pilot plant, report was made on the study using 1t/d PUS, study on the development of the optimum coal refining technology and improvement in the distillate distribution, study of conditions for coal liquefaction and study of solvent hydrogenation catalyst. (NEDO)

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used {sub 31}P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850{degrees}F{sup +} distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.{sup 31}P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different {sup 31}P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a {sup 31}P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by [sup 31]P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. (Ames Lab., IA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used [sub 31]P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850[degrees]F[sup +] distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.[sup 31]P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different [sup 31]P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a [sup 31]P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe[sub 2]CMe[sub 2]O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  9. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  10. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, March 1, 1981-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-06-01

    This report covers results from both tubing-bomb experiments and continuous PDU runs. The following materials were evaluated in the PDU on Elkhorn No. 2 coal from Floyd County, Kentucky: Molybdic oxides; iron oxide; pyrite; pyrite/iron oxide mixture, and iron sulfate impregnation. A base case liquefaction run was also made for direct comparison. All of the above materials were examined at both 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Tubing-bomb experiments are reported on pyrite, red mud, sodium sulfide and organic compounds of cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, chromium and lead. Significant conclusions were drawn on the catalysis by different materials. Especially significant was the higher level of activity resulting from impregnation versus particle incorporation of the catalyst in the system. Impregnation of coal decreased the hydrocarbon gases yield and increased oil yield. Hydrogen consumption was significantly reduced by impregnation. Addition of molybdic oxide containing 90% MoO/sub 3/ and 10% silica to coal liquefaction reaction mixture had the following effect: coal conversion increased, oil yield increased by more than a factor of two at both temperatures, hydrogen consumption increased, solvent/oil fraction showed substantial increase in hydrogen content, and molybdenum in the resulting liquefaction residue was apparently transformed into an amorphous material. A more thorough evaluation of completely sulfided molybdenum will be made to see if its activity increases. In the tubing-bomb experiments organic compound of molybdenum showed the highest activity for coal conversion and oil production. Significant synergism was noted between red mud and sodium sulfide in the coal liquefaction reaction.

  11. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL of biomass for bio-crude production using Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL is an effective method that can convert biomass into bio-crude, but direct use of bio-crude derived from biomass HTL remains a challenge due to the lower quality. In this study, bifunctional Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts and zinc hydrolysis were combined to produce upgraded bio-crude in an in-situ HTL process. The K2CO3 and HZSM-5 catalysts with different Ni loading ratios were tested. The effects of different catalysts on the yield and quality of bio-crude and gas were investigated. The results indicated that the catalysts improved bio-crude and gas yields, compared to pine sawdust liquefaction without catalyst. The catalysts reduced the contents of undesirable oxygenated compounds such as acids, ketones, phenols, alcohols and esters in bio-crude products while increased desirable hydrocarbons content. K2CO3 produced highest bio-crude yield and lowest solid residue yield among all catalysts. Compared to parent HZSM-5 catalyst, bifunctional Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts exhibited higher catalyst activity to improve quality of upgraded bio-crude due to its integration of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation reactions. 6%Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst produced the bio-crude with the highest hydrocarbons content at 11.02%. This catalyst can be a candidate for bio-crude production from biomass HTL.

  12. Exergy analysis of helium liquefaction systems based on modified Claude cycle with two-expanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale helium liquefaction systems, being energy-intensive, demand judicious selection of process parameters. An effective tool for design and analysis of thermodynamic cycles for these systems is exergy analysis, which is used to study the behavior of a helium liquefaction system based on modified Claude cycle. Parametric evaluation using process simulator Aspen HYSYS® helps to identify the effects of cycle pressure ratio and expander flow fraction on the exergetic efficiency of the liquefaction cycle. The study computes the distribution of losses at different refrigeration stages of the cycle and helps in selecting optimum cycle pressures, operating temperature levels of expanders and mass flow rates through them. Results from the analysis may help evolving guidelines for designing appropriate thermodynamic cycles for practical helium liquefaction systems.

  13. Report on results for fiscal 1997 on development of coal liquefaction technology . Development of liquefaction base technology (studies on development and internationalization of environmentally benign coal liquefaction technology); 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu seika hokokusho. Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (kankyo chowagata sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu oyobi kokusaika kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The research objective is the development of environmentally benign coal liquefaction technology and the studies on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology. Implemented for the former are (1) research on improvement and rationalization of liquefaction process and (2) research on advancement of liquefaction base technology. In (1), studies were made on in-oil preprocessing technology and scale suppressing measures for the purpose of obtaining reform/high grade of coal, and on improvement of liquefied oil collecting ratio, sophistication of coal slurry and attainment of light oil/high grade from liquefied crude oil for the purpose of optimizing liquefaction reactive conditions and improving a solvent. In (2), in developing high activity/high dispersion type new catalysts, catalytic sufurization behavior and activity manifestation mechanism were explored, as were iron hydroxide based iron ore properties and liquefaction reactive characteristics. The initial reactive characteristics of liquefaction for example were investigated for the purpose of collecting basic data for expanding kinds of coal. In order to attain the latter objective of the research, a feasibility study of liquefaction location was conducted, as were the investigation including sampling of iron ore for catalytic material and the investigation of coal gasification technology. After the completion of the Australian brown coal liquefaction project, the development of the coal liquefaction technology commenced in fiscal 1994 produced a number of useful records and ended in 1997. (NEDO)

  14. Pressure swing adsorption cycle for natural gas pretreatment for liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.E.

    1984-01-10

    An improved apparatus and method for a regeneration of a solid adsorbent used to pretreat a gas before liquefaction. The spent adsorbent is subjected to a two-step regenerative process, in the first of which the adsorbent is subjected to a low pressure produced by the use of mechanical vacuum pumps. When the pressure of the atmosphere in contact with the adsorbent has been reduced to a level sufficiently low to insure that the gas will flow under laminar rather than viscous conditions, the adsorbent is exposed to the action of a cryoplate condenser maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause any molecules of water which impinge thereon to condense and freeze, thereby reducing the partial pressure of water vapor within the chamber. The reduced partial pressure of the water vapor in turn causes adsorbed water on the adsorbent to be desorbed, thereby effectively removing the water from the adsorbent and depositing it as solid ice on the cryoplate condenser.

  15. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...... bio-crudes were analyzed. The results showed that the higher heating values (HHVs) were in the range of 24.15 to 31.79 MJ/kg, and they were enhanced in the presence of catalyst, except for that of the macroalgae. The solid residues were characterized by heating value, SEM and FTIR. It was found...... that the addition of K2CO3 lowered the solids quality in terms of the heating values, while it did not have apparent effect on the functional groups of solid residues. SEM analysis of the raw biomass and solid residues revealed that the char formation for wood, sawdust and macroalgae had initially finished when...

  16. An optimum cold end configuration for helium liquefaction cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, M.; Smith, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the effect of the non-ideal behavior of helium at low temperature on the performance of helium liquefaction cycles. The effect is isolated by means of a continuum model for the precooling stage. The cold end losses are due primarily to the composite effect of the non-ideality of helium at low temperatures and the heat exchanger losses, in addition to the component losses fixed by the expander/compressor efficiencies. Topics considered include continuously distributed full-pressure ratio expanders, continuously distributed full-flow expanders, the heat exchange effect (ideal gas working fluid, real gas working fluid), and cold end configuration. The cold end configuration minimizes the cycle cold end losses

  17. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  18. Zeolites as Catalysts for Fuels Refining after Indirect Liquefaction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno de Klerk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher–Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. The zeolite types that are already industrially used were pointed out, as well as zeolite types that have future promise for specific conversion processes.

  19. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, B.; Bramwell, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG and E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California

  20. GIS-based soil liquefaction susceptibility map of Mumbai city for earthquake events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Sumedh Yamaji; Choudhury, Deepankar

    2010-03-01

    The problem of liquefaction of soil during seismic event is one of the important topics in the field of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Liquefaction of soil is generally occurs in loose cohesionless saturated soil when pore water pressure increases suddenly due to induced ground motion and shear strength of soil decreases to zero and leading the structure situated above to undergo a large settlement, or failure. The failures took place due to liquefaction induced soil movement spread over few square km area continuously. Hence this is a problem where spatial variation involves and to represent this spatial variation Geographic Information System (GIS) is very useful in decision making about the area subjected to liquefaction. In this paper, GIS software GRAM++ is used to prepare soil liquefaction susceptibility map for entire Mumbai city in India by marking three zones viz. critically liquefiable soil, moderately liquefiable soil and non liquefiable soil. Extensive field borehole test data for groundwater depth, standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts, dry density, wet density and specific gravity, etc. have been collected from different parts of Mumbai. Simplified procedure of Youd et al. (2001) is used for calculation of factor of safety against soil liquefaction potential. Mumbai city and suburban area are formed by reclaiming lands around seven islands since 1865 till current date and still it is progressing in the area such as Navi Mumbai and beyond Borivali to Mira road suburban area. The factors of safety against soil liquefaction were determined for earthquake moment magnitude ranging from Mw = 5.0 to 7.5. It is found that the areas like Borivali, Malad, Dahisar, Bhandup may prone to liquefaction for earthquake moment magnitude ranging from Mw = 5.0 to 7.5. The liquefaction susceptibility maps were created by using GRAM++ by showing the areas where the factor of safety against the soil liquefaction is less than one. Proposed liquefaction

  1. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid

  2. Combined Reverse-Brayton Joule Thompson Hydrogen Liquefaction Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimko, Martin A. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States); Dunn, Paul M. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The following is a compilation of Annual Progress Reports submitted to the DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Gas Equipment Engineering Corp. for contract DE-FG36-05GO15021. The reports cover the project activities from August 2005 through June 2010. The purpose of this project is to produce a pilot-scale liquefaction plant that demonstrates GEECO’s ability to meet or exceed the efficiency targets set by the DOE. This plant will be used as a model to commercialize this technology for use in the distribution infrastructure of hydrogen fuel. It could also be applied to markets distributing hydrogen for industrial gas applications. Extensive modeling of plant performance will be used in the early part of the project to identify the liquefaction cycle architecture that optimizes the twin goals of increased efficiency and reduced cost. The major challenge of the project is to optimize/balance the performance (efficiency) of the plant against the cost of the plant so that the fully amortized cost of liquefying hydrogen meets the aggressive goals set by DOE. This project will design and build a small-scale pilot plant (several hundred kg/day) that will be both a hardware demonstration and a model for scaling to larger plant sizes (>50,000 kg/day). Though an effort will be made to use commercial or near-commercial components, key components that will need development for either a pilot- or full-scale plant will be identified. Prior to starting pilot plant fabrication, these components will be demonstrated at the appropriate scale to demonstrate sufficient performance for use in the pilot plant and the potential to achieve the performance used in modeling the full-scale plant.

  3. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Research on liquefaction characteristics different between coal types and on technical physical properties; 1984 nendo tanshu ni yoru ekika tokusei to kogakuteki busseichi ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Liquefaction characteristics of coal specimens, collected from many locations across the world, are determined so as to make clear the correlations between coal type and liquefaction reactivity. Conducted for this purpose are the analysis of chemical structures of the specimens, liquefaction tests in an autoclave using various catalysts and medium oils, liquefaction tests in a 0.1t/d bench plant, investigation of the constituents of the generated oil and their separation, and the secondary stabilization treatment for the commercialization of the product. The reaction tower is kept under constant conditions, the state of the liquid mixture in the reaction tower is evaluated by tracking the flow of coal out of the reaction tower after switchover from anthracene oil to coal paste, the gas flow in the reaction tower is estimated by tracking time-wise changes in the concentration level of inert gas at the reaction tower outlet port, the inert gas having been injected in pulses into the reaction system operating under the reaction conditions. For the implementation of the above-mentioned steps, a system is designed and constructed for directly collecting samples from the vapor phase section in the reaction tower operating under given reaction conditions (temperature: 400-450 degrees C, pressure 150-300kg/cm{sup 2}), and experiments are conducted to collect gas/liquid equilibrium data in the reaction tower under the given reaction conditions. (NEDO)

  5. A novel biorefinery integration concept for lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özdenkçi, Karhan; De Blasio, Cataldo; Muddassar, Hassan R.; Melin, Kristian; Oinas, Pekka; Koskinen, Jukka; Sarwar, Golam; Järvinen, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Wide review is provided on supply chain and biomass conversion processes. • The requirements for sustainable biorefinery are listed. • An enhanced version distributed-centralized network is proposed. • A novel hydrothermal process is proposed for biomass conversion. - Abstract: The concept of an integrated biorefinery has increasing importance regarding sustainability aspects. However, the typical concepts have techno-economic issues: limited replacement in co-processing with fossil sources and high investment costs in integration to a specific plant. These issues have directed the current investigations to supply-chain network systems. On the other hand, these studies have the scope of a specific product and/or a feedstock type. This paper proposes a novel biorefinery concept for lignocellulosic biomass: sectoral integration network and a new hydrothermal process for biomass conversion. The sectoral integration concept has the potential for sustainable production from biomass: pre-treatment at the biomass sites, regional distributed conversion of biomass from various sectors (e.g. black liquor, sawdust, straw) and centralized upgrading/separation of crude biofuels. On the other hand, the conversion processes compose the vital part of such a concept. The new conversion involves partial wet oxidation - or simultaneous dissolution with partial wet oxidation for solid biomass- followed by lignin recovery with acidification and a reactor that can perform either hydrothermal liquefaction or supercritical water gasification. The process can intake both liquid and solid biomass to produce lignin as biomaterial and syngas or bio-oil. The new concept can contribute social development of rural areas by utilizing waste as valuable raw material for the production of multiple products and reduce the net greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil-based production.

  6. Thermal properties of biopolyol from oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) using solvolysis liquefaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.

    2017-09-01

    Liquefaction is known to be an effective method for converting biomass into a biopolyol. The biomass liquefaction of oil palm fruit waste (PFW) in the presence of liquefaction solvent/polyhydric alcohol (PA): polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) using sulfuric acid as catalyst was studied. For all experiments, the liquefaction was conducted at 150°C and atmospheric pressure. The mass ratio of OPFW to liquefaction solvents used in all the experiments was, 1/3. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to analyze their biopolyol and residue behaviors. It was found that thermal stability of oil palm mesocarp fibre (PM), oil palm shell (PS) and oil palm kernel (PK) fibre exhibited the first degradation of hard segment at (232, 104, 230°C) and the second degradation of soft segment at (314, 226, 412°C) as compared to PM, PS and PK residue which (229, 102, 227°C) of hard segment and (310, 219, 299°C) of segment, respectively. This behavior of thermal degradation of the hard segment and soft segment of biopolyol was changes after undergo solvolysis liquefaction process. The result analysis showed that the resulting biopolyol and its residue was suitable monomer for polyurethane (PU) synthesis for the production of PU foams.

  7. Prediction of strain energy-based liquefaction resistance of sand-silt mixtures: An evolutionary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziar, Mohammad H.; Jafarian, Yaser; Shahnazari, Habib; Movahed, Vahid; Amin Tutunchian, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Liquefaction is a catastrophic type of ground failure, which usually occurs in loose saturated soil deposits under earthquake excitations. A new predictive model is presented in this study to estimate the amount of strain energy density, which is required for the liquefaction triggering of sand-silt mixtures. A wide-ranging database containing the results of cyclic tests on sand-silt mixtures was first gathered from previously published studies. Input variables of the model were chosen from the available understandings evolved from the previous studies on the strain energy-based liquefaction potential assessment. In order to avoid overtraining, two sets of validation data were employed and a particular monitoring was made on the behavior of the evolved models. Results of a comprehensive parametric study on the proposed model are in accord with the previously published experimental observations. Accordingly, the amount of strain energy required for liquefaction onset increases with increase in initial effective overburden pressure, relative density, and mean grain size. The effect of nonplastic fines on strain energy-based liquefaction resistance shows a more complicated behavior. Accordingly, liquefaction resistance increases with increase in fines up to about 10-15% and then starts to decline for a higher increase in fines content. Further verifications of the model were carried out using the valuable results of some downhole array data as well as centrifuge model tests. These verifications confirm that the proposed model, which was derived from laboratory data, can be successfully utilized under field conditions.

  8. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its solvent extraction and liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Effects of pre-swelling of coal on solvent extraction and liquefaction properties were studied with Shenhua coal. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of the coal in three solvents, i.e., toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its extraction yield and liquefaction conversion, and differed the liquefied product distributions. The pre-swollen coals after removing the swelling solvents showed increased conversion in liquefaction compared with that of the swollen coals in the presence of swelling solvents. It was also found that the yields of (oil + gas) in liquefaction of the pre-swollen coals with NMP and TOL dramatically decreased in the presence of swelling solvent. TG and FTIR analyses of the raw coal, the swollen coals and the liquefied products were carried out in order to investigate the mechanism governing the effects of pre-swelling treatment on coal extraction and liquefaction. The results showed that the swelling pre-treatment could disrupt some non-covalent interactions of the coal molecules, relax its network structure and loosened the coal structure. It would thus benefit diffusion of a hydrogen donor solvent into the coal structure during liquefaction, and also enhance the hydrogen donating ability of the hydrogen-rich species derived from the coal. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Preliminary study of soil liquefaction hazard at Terengganu shoreline, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H.; Suhatril, M.; Hashim, R.

    2017-06-01

    Terengganu is a shoreline state located in Peninsular Malaysia which is a growing hub for port industries and tourism centre. The northern part offers pristine settings of a relax beach areas whereas the southern part are observed to be a growing centre for development. The serious erosion on soil deposit along the beach line presents vulnerable soil condition to soil liquefaction consists of sandy with low plasticity and shallow ground water. Moreover, local earthquake from nearby fault have present significant tremors over the past few years which need to be considered in the land usage or future development in catering the seismic loading. Liquefaction analysis based on field standard penetration of soil is applied on 546 boreholes scattered along the shoreline areas ranging 244 km of shoreline stretch. Based on simplified approach, it is found that more than 70% of the studied areas pose high liquefaction potential since there are saturated loose sand and silt deposits layer ranges at depth 3 m and up to 20 m. The presence of clay deposits and hard stratum at the remaining 30% of the studied areas shows good resistance to soil liquefaction hence making the area less significant to liquefaction hazard. Result indicates that liquefaction improving technique is advisable in future development of shoreline areas of Terengganu state.

  10. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  11. A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, T.B.; Ju, Y.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel process was proposed to liquefy natural gas by utilizing the pressure exergy. • The process is zero energy consumption. • The maximum liquefaction rate of the process is 12.61%. • The maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. • The economic analysis showed that the payback period of the process is quit short. - Abstract: A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction is designed and presented. The novel process can utilize the pressure exergy of the pipeline to liquefy a part of natural gas without any energy consumption. The thermodynamic analysis including mass, energy balance and exergy analysis are adopted in this paper. The liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate are chosen as the objective functions. Several key parameters are optimized to approach the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate. The optimization results showed that the maximum liquefaction rate is 12.61% and the maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. What is more, the economic performances of the process are also discussed and compared by using the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate as indexes. In conclusion, the novel process is suitable for pressure exergy utilization due to its simplicity, zero energy consumption and short payback period

  12. The concept of landscape education at school level with respect to the directions of the science of landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsna, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    School education is both a starting point for the development of various scientific disciplines (school educates future researchers) and the result of science. The landscape research is conducted within many scientific disciplines and has a long tradition. Lanscape education, which is the result of a scientific dimension, is implemented in primary school under the nature subject. Primary school education is the only level at which the geographical contents are carried out on landscape. The landscape is of interest to many disciplines: geography, architecture, social sciences and the arts. In recent years, there were many studies which contained an overview of the main strands of the science of landscape, presented the differences in the meaning of the concept and objectives of individual research disciplines. These studies have become the ground for the characterization of the concept of landscape education implemented in Polish school and its evaluation in terms of scientific achievements. A review of educational purposes, the basic content of education and achievements of students, demonstrate the influence of multiple scientific disciplines in school landscape education. The most significant share of the course content are achievements of geography disciplines, particularly: physical geography, environmental protection and landscape ecology. Other scientific fields: literature, art, psychology, sociology, and architecture do not have any impact on the school landscape education or their impact remains marginal.

  13. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  14. Direct and Indirect Effects of IQ, Parental Help, Effort, and Mathematics Self-Concept on Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abu-Hilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the structural relationships among cognitive constructs (intelligence and achievement and affective constructs (perceived parental help, effort and self-concept. It was proposed that the relationships are not invariant across gender. The sample consisted of 219 boys and 133 girls from elementary and preparatory public schools in Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates. Intelligence (IQ was measured by the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI and parental help was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Effort was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Self-concept (SC was measured by 8-Likert-type items taken from the SDQ I (Abu-Hilal, 2000. Mathematic Achievement was the scores of students in mathematics from school records. The structural model assumed that IQ would have an effect on parental help, effort, SC and achievement. Parental help would have an effect on effort, SC and achievement. Also, effort would have an effect on SC and achievement. Finally, SC would have an effect on achievement. The structural model was tested for invariance across gender. The measurement model proved to be invariant across gender and so was the structural model. The non-constrained model indicated that the structural relationships among the variables do vary according to gender. For example, boys benefited from parental help by exerting more effort while girls did not. Boys with high IQ exerted more effort than boys with low IQ; but girls with high IQ exerted the same amount of effort as girls with low IQ. The model explained 45% and 39% of the variance in math scores for boys and girls, respectively.

  15. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  17. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty A. Akundi; Jian H. Zhang; A.N. Murty; S.V. Naidu

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) To synthesize iron catalysts: Fe/MoO{sub 3}, and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} employing two distinct techniques: Pyrolysis with organic precursors and Co-precipitation of metal nitrates; (2) To investigate the magnetic character of the catalysts before and after exposure to CO and CO+H{sub 2} by (a) Mossbauer study of Iron (b) Zerofield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of Cobalt, and (c) Magnetic character of the catalyst composite; (3) To study the IR active surface species of the catalyst while stimulating (CO--Metal, (CO+H{sub 2})--Metal) interactions, by FTIR Spectroscopy; and (4) To analyze the catalytic character (conversion efficiency and product distribution) in both direct and indirect liquefaction Process and (5) To examine the correlations between the magnetic and chemical characteristics. This report presents the results of our investigation on (a) the effect of metal loading (b) the effect of intermetallic ratio and (c) the effect of catalyst preparation procedure on (i) the magnetic character of the catalyst composite (ii) the IR active surface species of the catalyst and (iii) the catalytic yields for three different metal loadings: 5%, 15%, and 25% (nominal) for three distinct intermetallic ratios (Fe/Co = 0.3, 1.5, 3.0).

  18. Hydrotreatment of heavy oil from coal liquefaction on Sulfide Ni - W Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-ping Lei; Li-juan Gao; Heng-fu Shui; Shi-biao, Ren; Zhi-cai Wang; Kang-shi Gang, E-mail: shhf@ahut.edu.c [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Anhui Key Lab. of Coal Clean Conversion and Utilization

    2011-07-01

    Heavy oil (distillation temperature: 320-340 deg C) derived from the direct coal liquefaction process using Shengli coal were hydrotreated using sulfided Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni-W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ni-W/SiO{sub 2} catalysts respectively. The sulfided catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR and NH{sub 3}-TPD respectively. The evaluations of the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) properties of heavy oil on the three catalysts were carried out at 400 deg C and 5.0 MPa initial H2 pressure. The W-based catalysts displayed better performances than Mo-based catalysts for the HDN and HDA reactions. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts were found to have higher catalytic activities than on SiO{sub 2} supported ones. The activities of sulfided catalysts were associated mainly with the nature of active sites, acidity, metal sulfide crystallite size and the amount of the reducible sulfur species of metal sulfide. (author)

  19. Hydrotreatment of heavy oil from coal liquefaction on Sulfide Ni - W Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-ping Lei; Li-juan Gao; Heng-fu Shui; Shi-biao, Ren; Zhi-cai Wang; Kang-shi Gang

    2011-01-01

    Heavy oil (distillation temperature: 320-340 deg C) derived from the direct coal liquefaction process using Shengli coal were hydrotreated using sulfided Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 , Ni-W/Al 2 O 3 , and Ni-W/SiO 2 catalysts respectively. The sulfided catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, H 2 -TPR and NH 3 -TPD respectively. The evaluations of the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) properties of heavy oil on the three catalysts were carried out at 400 deg C and 5.0 MPa initial H2 pressure. The W-based catalysts displayed better performances than Mo-based catalysts for the HDN and HDA reactions. Al 2 O 3 supported catalysts were found to have higher catalytic activities than on SiO 2 supported ones. The activities of sulfided catalysts were associated mainly with the nature of active sites, acidity, metal sulfide crystallite size and the amount of the reducible sulfur species of metal sulfide. (author)

  20. Liquefaction susceptibility of fine-grained soils: preliminary study report. Final report, September 1985-March 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.Y.

    1987-09-01

    Soil liquefaction, a hazardous ground failure induced by strong motion earthquakes, can cause catastrophic damage to structures such as dams, bridges, power plants, and water-front structures and may involve great losses of life. Examples of liquefaction and resulting damage were observed during the Alaska (1964), Niigata, Japan (1964), and Tangshan, China (1976), earthquakes. Ground failure due to earthquake-induced soil liquefaction may manifest itself as excessive settlement, loss of bearing capacity, sand boiling, and flow slides. The liquefaction potential of clean sands has been studied extensively for the last two decades. However, case histories revealed that liquefied sands were seldom clean. They may contain various percentages of silt or clay or both. In fact, the Chinese observation in the Tansghan earthquake indicated that some cohesive soils may have liquefied. If this indeed had happened, then structures underlain by fine-grained soils, with a marginal safety factor based on the liquefaction criteria normally applied to sands, may actually be unsafe. Thus there is an urgent need for establishing new criteria for the liquefaction susceptibility of soils to include those identified as fine-grained. The author, Professor N.Y. Chang of the University of Colorado at Denver, visited several Chinese agencies and and universities in and near Beijing, China, in the summer of 1985 in an attempt to investigate and verify reported data on the liquefaction of cohesive soils during the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 and to negotiate cooperative research into the problem. This report presents the result of supportive literature review and the findings of the China trip.

  1. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  2. Design of a Natural Gas Liquefaction System with Minimum Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergese, Franco

    2004-01-01

    In this work an economic method for liquefying natural gas by diminishing its temperature by means of the Joule-Thomson effect is presented.The pressures from and to which the gas must be expanded arose from a thermodynamic calculation optimizing the cost per unit mass of Liquefied Natural Gas LNG).It was determined that the gas should be expanded from 200 atm to 4 atm.This expansion ratio can be used in different scales.Large Scale: liquefaction of gas at well.It takes advantage of the fact that the gas inside the well is stored at high pressure.The gas is expanded in a valve / nozzle and then compressed to the pressure of the local pipeline system.The objective of this project is to export natural gas as LNG, which is transported by ships to the markets of consumption.Using this method of liquefaction, the LNG production levels are limited to a fraction of the production of the well, due to the injection of the un condensed gas into the local pipelines system.Medium Scale: A high pressure pipeline is the source of the gas.The expansion is performed and then the gas is again compressed to the pressure of a lower pressure pipeline into which the gas is injected.The pressure reductions of natural gas are performed nearby big cities.The aim of this project scale is the storage of fuel for gas thermal power plants during periods of low energy consumption for later burning when the resource is limited. Another possibility that offers this size of plant is the transportation of gas to regions where the resource is unavailable.This transportation would be carried out by means of cistern trucks, in the same way that conventional liquid fuels are transported.Small scale: the place of production would be a CNG refueling station. The source of gas is in this case a gas pipeline of urban distribution and the gas should be compressed with the compressor of the refueling station.Compressors have generally low loading factor and the periods of time when they are not producing

  3. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the liquefaction dynamics of a phase change material in a normal gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, R. L.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were undertaken to determine the role of gravity-induced free convection upon the liquefaction dynamics of a cylindrical paraffin slab under normal gravity conditions. The experimental equipment consisted of a test cell, a fluid-loop heating system, and a multipoint recorder. The test chamber was annular in shape with an effective radius of 1.585 cm and a length of 5.08 cm. The heating chamber was a 1.906 cm diameter tube going through the center of the test chamber, and connected to the fluid loop heating system. All experimental runs were made with the longitudinal axis of the test cell in the vertical direction to insure that convection was not a function of the angular axis of the cell. Ten melting runs were made at various hot wall temperatures. Also, two pure conduction solidification runs were made to determine an experimental latent heat of fusion.

  4. Failure analysis at a 2 kW helium liquefaction facility; Fehleranalyse bei einer 2kW- Heliumverfluessigungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenk, Rafael; Bobien, Steffen; Neumann, Holger [KIT Campus Nord, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Bereich Kryotechnik

    2016-07-01

    At the Institute for Technical Physics of the KIT Campus Nord helium is cooled respectively liquefied by means of the Claude process. This process is beside the Brayton and Joule-Thomson process meanwhile a standard process for the liquefaction of helium. As example here a 2 kW low-temperature helium facility shall be evaluated by means of different, superordinated failure sources. This consists of condensers, heat exchangers, expansion turbines and a Joule-Thomson valve. The facility respectively component failures are divided in failures of the condenser, turbine units and failures by external factors. For this entries of the last twelve years are token. This listing shall give information about repeating events, so that here directed facility improvements can be token up.

  5. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic

  6. An entropy flow optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, M.; Smith, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter proposes a new method of analyzing thermodynamic cycles based on a continuous distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle. The method gives the optimum distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle by specifying the mass flow to be expanded at each temperature. The result is used to select a cycle configuration with discrete expansions and to initialize the independent variables for final optimization. Topics considered include the continuous precooling model, the results for ideal gas, the results for real gas, and the application to the design of a saturated vapor compression (SVC) cycle. The optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles starts with the minimization of the generated entropy in a cycle model with continuous precooling. The pressure ratio, the pressure level and the distribution of the heat exchange are selected based on the results of the continuous precooling analysis. It is concluded that the technique incorporates the non-ideal behavior of helium in the procedure and allows the trade-off between heat exchange area and losses to be determined

  7. Hydrotreating of heavy distillate derived from Wandoan coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Osaka (Japan). Hydrocarbon Research Lab.

    1997-12-03

    The paper reports how the hydrotreatment of coal-derived heavy distillate, obtained from the liquefaction of Wandoan coal using a 1 t/day bench unit, was performed to clarify the effects of catalyst species, reaction temperature and hydrogen pressure on the chemical composition of the product. Experimental runs were carried out over alumina-supported Go-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts in a fixed bed reactor of 20 ml in volume at 350-390{degree}C under hydrogen pressure of 50-150 kg/cm{sup 2}G with liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.5-2 h{sup -1}. The product, as analyzed by gas chromatography, indicated that larger amounts of alkylbenzenes such as toluene or xylenes were produced at the elevated temperature of 390{degree}C, but the concentrations of condensed aromatics such as naphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene and phenanthrene decreased with the severity of reaction conditions. Pyrene and methylpyrene decreased in amount with a shorter LHSV and higher hydrogen pressure, but increased at higher temperature of 390{degree}C. Shorter LHSV and higher hydrogen pressure are much more effective in hydrogenation, hydrodnitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation than the higher reaction temperature up to 390{degree}C.

  8. [Longjintonglin Capsules for type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction: A clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-cai; Wan, Chang-chun; Geng, Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Guo-wei; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Longjintonglin Capsules on type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction. We selected 140 patients with type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction according to the diagnostic standards of the American Institutes of Health (NIH) and treated them with Longjintonglin Capsules orally 3 capsules once tid for 12 weeks. We obtained the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Indexes (NIH-CPSI), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, leukocyte count in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), semen liquefaction time, and the results of semen analysis and compared these indicators before and after the treatment. Of the 140 cases, 132 were included in this study, excluding 8 due to their incomplete case histories. Before and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication, the total NIH-CPSI scores were 24.52 ± 5.43, 21.28 ± 4.85, 18.01 ± 4.28, and 14.49 ± 3.65 (P prostatitis were cured and another 72 well responded, with an overall response rate of 78.0%. Of those with abnormal semen liquefaction, 61 were cured, 39 well responded, and 32 failed to respond, with an overall effectiveness rate of 75.8%. Semen analysis showed significantly increased percentage of progressively motile sperm after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication as compared with the baseline (P prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction.

  9. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Retesting of liquefaction and nonliquefaction case histories from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R.E.S.; Kayen, R.E.; Tong, L.-Y.; Liu, S.-Y.; Cai, G.-J.; Wu, J.

    2011-01-01

    A field investigation was performed to retest liquefaction and nonliquefaction sites from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China. These sites were carefully investigated in 1978 and 1979 by using standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT) equipment; however, the CPT measurements are obsolete because of the now nonstandard cone that was used at the time. In 2007, a modern cone was mobilized to retest 18 selected sites that are particularly important because of the intense ground shaking they sustained despite their high fines content and/or because the site did not liquefy. Of the sites reinvestigated and carefully reprocessed, 13 were considered accurate representative case histories. Two of the sites that were originally investigated for liquefaction have been reinvestigated for cyclic failure of fine-grained soil and removed from consideration for liquefaction triggering. The most important outcome of these field investigations was the collection of more accurate data for three nonliquefaction sites that experienced intense ground shaking. Data for these three case histories is now included in an area of the liquefaction triggering database that was poorly populated and will help constrain the upper bound of future liquefaction triggering curves. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  11. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  12. Fiscal 1991 report on the brown coal liquefaction section meeting; 1991 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    At the 1st through 5th brown coal liquefaction group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. At the 1st meeting, a fiscal 1991 brown coal liquefaction research plan is introduced, and discussed. At the 2nd meeting, an interim report on the brown coal liquefaction technology development project is discussed. At the 3rd meeting (a joint meeting of the brown coal and bituminous coal liquefaction groups), an agendum entitled 'what the development of brown/bituminous coal liquefaction technologies for the 21st century should be' is reported, and discussed. At the 4th meeting, reports are made on the results of deliberation at the Industrial Technology Council, progress of the follow-up study, progress of the collection of achievements, and so forth. At the 5th meeting, the outline of the follow-up study, the collection of achievements in the pilot plant study (a project report preparation schedule and materials evaluation), the progress of pilot plant dismantling work, etc., are reported and discussed. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1989 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1989 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had its 1st meeting in June 1989 and 2nd meeting in March 1990, when fiscal 1989 research and development programs and fiscal 1989 research and development results, etc., were reported and discussed. The operating status of the 1 ton/day PSU (process supporting unit) for bituminous coal liquefaction was reported and discussed. The report included its 1st operation for the demonstration of a long-term stable run under standard conditions that continued for trouble-free 50 days, the 2nd operation for the investigation of the effect of liquefaction reaction temperature in which the liquefaction yield recorded the maximum at 450 degrees C with the collection of coal oils of 55 wt.% on the average, and the 3rd operation for the investigation of the effects of liquefaction reaction pressure and catalyst injection size whose details were being analyzed. Reported in relation with the brown coal liquefaction pilot plant was a comprehensive operation of a series of 1st hydrogenation, solvent deashing, and 2nd hydrogenation processes completed after a continuous operation of 460 hours establishing a total operating time of 1050 hours. (NEDO)

  14. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential in Defence Housing Authority, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Asif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of liquefaction phenomenon may be induced in the event of a large magnitude earthquake but sometimes loose, saturated and poorly graded sand may be subjected to liquefaction due to the vibration produced by other sources. Liquefaction could cause damage to building and infrastructure due to sudden increase of pore pressure in the loose layers of saturated sand causing the loss of bearing capacity and shear strength. Defence Housing Authority (DHA is the well planned residential scheme established by Pakistan Army along the coastal belt of Karachi. The soil occurring in DHA is fine grained, poorly graded and mainly comprises of sandy silt and silty sand of Recent age, where water table is encountered at very shallow depth. Hence, it is important to assess the geotechnical behavior of the soil in DHA area, where most of the high rise buildings and mega civil structures are being constructed. In present study, seismic soil liquefaction was evaluated at 15 sites (30 bore holes in DHA by using simplified empirical method in terms of Factor of Safety (FS. The Relative Density (RD was determined with the help of Standard Penetration Test (SPT data. Grain size analysis was also carried out on each borehole samples. The results revealed that the DHA area is vulnerable to liquefaction during severe seismic event of magnitude between 6.5 and 7.5 in Karachi.

  15. Fiscal 1991 report on the brown coal liquefaction section meeting; 1991 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    At the 1st through 5th brown coal liquefaction group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. At the 1st meeting, a fiscal 1991 brown coal liquefaction research plan is introduced, and discussed. At the 2nd meeting, an interim report on the brown coal liquefaction technology development project is discussed. At the 3rd meeting (a joint meeting of the brown coal and bituminous coal liquefaction groups), an agendum entitled 'what the development of brown/bituminous coal liquefaction technologies for the 21st century should be' is reported, and discussed. At the 4th meeting, reports are made on the results of deliberation at the Industrial Technology Council, progress of the follow-up study, progress of the collection of achievements, and so forth. At the 5th meeting, the outline of the follow-up study, the collection of achievements in the pilot plant study (a project report preparation schedule and materials evaluation), the progress of pilot plant dismantling work, etc., are reported and discussed. (NEDO)

  16. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37m3/day to 0.4m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350m2 to 550m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16m3 to 28.8m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50°C to 80°C have been investigated in October and December.

  17. The Milky Way: paediatric milk-based dispersible tablets prepared by direct compression - a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orubu, Samuel E F; Hobson, Nicholas J; Basit, Abdul W; Tuleu, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Dispersible tablets are proposed by the World Health Organization as the preferred paediatric formulation. It was hypothesised that tablets made from a powdered milk-base that disperse in water to form suspensions resembling milk might be a useful platform to improve acceptability in children. Milk-based dispersible tablets containing various types of powdered milk and infant formulae were formulated. The influence of milk type and content on placebo tablet properties was investigated using a design-of-experiments approach. Responses measured included friability, crushing strength and disintegration time. Additionally, the influence of compression force on the tablet properties of a model formulation was studied by compaction simulation. Disintegration times increased as milk content increased. Compaction simulation studies showed that compression force influenced disintegration time. These results suggest that the milk content, rather than type, and compression force were the most important determinants of disintegration. Up to 30% milk could be incorporated to produce 200 mg 10-mm flat-faced placebo tablets by direct compression disintegrating within 3 min in 5-10 ml of water, which is a realistic administration volume in children. The platform could accommodate 30% of a model active pharmaceutical ingredient (caffeine citrate). © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Tingxing Hu; Jinqiu Qi; Todd F. Shupe

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibers were successfully isolated from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combinedwith chemical treatment and ultrasonic nanofibrillation processes. The microwave liquefaction couldeliminate almost all the lignin in bamboo, resulting in high cellulose content residues within 7 min, andthe cellulose enriched residues could be readily purified by...

  19. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  20. Report for fiscal 1994 by subcommittee on coal liquefaction basic technology; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report covers the proceedings of subcommittee meetings. Using PDUs (process development unit), comparison is made between bituminous coal-derived oils (150t/d plant for the Indonesian coal) and brown coal-derived oils (50t/d plant for the Yallourn coal), product quality is improved by a 2-stage refining process, engines are tested, etc., all these demonstration and research efforts intended to win social recognition for coal liquefaction products. Among basic studies, there are the development of technologies for reforming coal-derived oils and for mixing them will petroleum, development of new catalysts for reforming, development of a technology for separating heterocompounds and the like, and the development of their applications. Furthermore, technologies are developed for environmentally friendly coal liquefaction, feasibility of coal liquefaction technology internationalization is deliberated, and technical researches and joint researches are conducted. At the second meeting of the subcommittee, achievements relative to the refining and applications of liquefaction products are presented, including the hydrorefining of naphtha, heating oil, and light oil; development of new catalysts; heterocompound separation technology; and the development of new applications. In relation with the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technologies, studies are presented on liquefaction conditions and on the upgrading of basic technologies of liquefaction. Also referred to are the reports delivered at a meeting on liquefaction catalysts (January 1995). (NEDO)

  1. Investigation of bio-composites using Novolac type liquefied wood resin: effects of liquefaction and fabrication conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Wood liquefaction using an organic solvent and an acid catalyst has long been studied as a novel technique to utilize biomass as an alternative to petroleum-based products. Oxalic acid is a weaker organic acid than a mineral acid and wood liquefaction with oxalic acid as a catalyst will result in a higher amount of wood residue than that with a mineral acid....

  2. Two-stage alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of wood to biocrude in a continuous bench-scale system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Grigoras, Ionela; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt

    2017-01-01

    unit. In total, 100 kg of wood paste with 25% dry matter is processed at 400 °C and 30 MPa, demonstrating the usefulness of this two-stage liquefaction strategy. An additional advantage liquefaction of such pretreated wood shows increased biocrude yields with approximately 10% compared to the case...

  3. Activity and selectivity of three molybdenum catalysts for coal liquefaction reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.; Pellegrino, J.L.

    The activity and selectivity of three different molybdenum catalysts for reactions occurring in coal liquefaction, specifically for hydrogenation (HYD), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodesulfurization (HDS), and hydrocracking (HYC), have been examined. The three molybdenum catalysts used were molybdenum napthenate, molybdenum on ..gamma..-alumina, and a precipitated, disordered MoS/sub 2/. Molybdenum naphthenate was most selective for HYD and HDN. All three catalysts exhibited approximately equal activity for HDS and HDO and little selectivity for HYC of alkyl bridge structures. The activity and selectivity of the three molybdenum catalysts for producing hydrocarbons and removing heteroatoms from coal during liquefaction were determined and compared. Molybdenum naphthenate was the most active catalyst for hydrocarbon production and removal of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing species during coal liquefaction. 31 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Numerical analysis of stone columns in mitigating liquefaction effects in embankment fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghei, Z.; Soroush, A. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorzad, A. [Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The traditional approach to liquefaction in embankment fills is to use in-situ densification. The use of stone columns offers the possibility of preventing liquefaction and associated settlements while reducing the cost and time required for treatment. This paper investigated the behaviour of stone columns using a numerical method. The study focused on a case study, a sand layer beneath two wall tanks, butane and propane NGL, located on Siri Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. Numerical analyses were carried out to evaluate the rate of excess pore pressure build-up in the improved ground. The numerical model results were compared to the simulation results from a centrifuge test for a uniform 19m-thick liquefiable sand layer. The numerical methodology was verified. The results showed that the stone columns can significantly increase the rate of pore pressure dissipation and reduce the settlement. It was found that the installation process densifies the surrounding soil, decreasing the liquefaction potential.

  5. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the investigation of addition of aqueous phase in the production of biofuel from biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a wet thermal conversion process, which can convert all kinds of biomass to fuels. In this study, barley...... straw was first liquefied in fresh distilled water with the presence of K2CO3 catalyst at 300 C as the reference run. Afterwards, the aqueous phase which is obtained from liquefaction process in the previous run was recycled and used as the reaction medium from the second to the fourth run....... With the addition of recycling aqueous phase in HTL process, it is expected that the amount of the waste water and energy consumption can be reduced. The effect of water recirculation on product yield and properties was investigated in this study. The results showed that bio-oil yield was 34.85 wt% when the barley...

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2017-02-17

    We provide a direct and detailed comparison of the chemical composition of petroleum crude oil (from the Gulf of Mexico), shale oil, and three biocrudes (i.e., clean pine, microalgae Chlorella sp., and sewage sludge feedstocks) generated by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) reveals that HTL biocrudes are compositionally more similar to shale oil than petroleum crude oil and that only a few heteroatom classes (e.g., N1, N2, N1O1, and O1) are common to organic sediment- and biomass-derived oils. All HTL biocrudes contain a diverse range of oxygen-containing compounds when compared to either petroleum crude or shale oil. Overall, petroleum crude and shale oil are compositionally dissimilar to HTL oils, and >85% of the elemental compositions identified within the positive-ion electrospray (ESI) mass spectra of the HTL biocrudes were not present in either the petroleum crude or shale oil (>43% for negative-ion ESI). Direct comparison of the heteroatom classes that are common to both organic sedimentand biomass-derived oils shows that HTL biocrudes generally contain species with both smaller core structures and a lower degree of alkylation relative to either the petroleum crude or the shale oil. Three-dimensional plots of carbon number versus molecular double bond equivalents (with observed abundance as the third dimension) for abundant molecular classes reveal the specific relationship of the composition of HTL biocrudes to petroleum and shale oils to inform the possible incorporation of these oils into refinery operations as a partial amendment to conventional petroleum feeds.

  7. Quaternary Geology and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Napa, California 1:100,000 Quadrangle: A Digital Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Janet M.; Noller, Jay S.; Lettis, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Earthquake-induced ground failures such as liquefaction have historically brought loss of life and damage to property and infrastructure. Observations of the effects of historical large-magnitude earthquakes show that the distribution of liquefaction phenomena is not random. Liquefaction is restricted to areas underlain by loose, cohesionless sands and silts that are saturated with water. These areas can be delineated on the basis of thorough geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic mapping and map analysis (Tinsley and Holzer, 1990; Youd and Perkins, 1987). Once potential liquefaction zones are delineated, appropriate public and private agencies can prepare for and mitigate seismic hazard in these zones. In this study, we create a liquefaction susceptibility map of the Napa 1:100,000 quadrangle using Quaternary geologic mapping, analysis of historical liquefaction information, groundwater data, and data from other studies. The study is atterned after state-of-the-art studies by Youd (1973) Dupre and Tinsley (1980) and Dupre (1990) in the Monterey-Santa Cruz area, Tinsley and others (1985) in the Los Angeles area, and Youd and Perkins (1987) in San Mateo County, California. The study area comprises the northern San Francisco Metropolitan Area, including the cities of Santa Rosa, Vallejo, Napa, Novato, Martinez, and Fairfield (Figure 1). Holocene estuarine deposits, Holocene stream deposits, eolian sands, and artificial fill are widely present in the region (Helley and Lajoie, 1979) and are the geologic materials of greatest concern. Six major faults capable of producing large earthquakes cross the study area, including the San Andreas, Rodgers Creek, Hayward, West Napa, Concord, and Green Valley faults (Figure 1).

  8. Application of Algae as Cosubstrate To Enhance the Processability of Willow Wood for Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Zhao, Xueli

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a novel strategy to improve the continuous processing of wood slurries in hydrothermal liquefaction systems by coprocessing with algae. Of all algae tested, brown seaweeds and microalgae perform best in preventing slurries dewatering, the main reason for pumpability issues...... with wood slurries. Rheological tests (viscosity–shear rate profile) indicate that the addition of these two algae to the wood slurry causes the highest increase in viscosity, which coincides with improved wood slurries stability and pumpability. Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood-algae slurries at 400 °C...

  9. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusen, III, L C [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research Div.

    1997-06-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author).

  10. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusen, L.C. III

    1997-01-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author)

  11. Method of controlling a distillatory coulumn in a liquefaction and distillation device for radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Awata, Yoshihisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To automatically and securely perform controlling purity of column bottom liquid, which is most difficult in the liquefaction and distillation device. Structure: In a liquefaction and distillation device for liquefying and separating rare gas krypton in fuel reprocessing gases, a difference in temperature between the column bottom liquid (column top) and the distillation portion is detected so as to maintain temperature in the distillation portion of the distilling column constant, and the vaporization amount of column bottom liquid is varied with the difference in temperature to control purity of the column bottom liquid. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Probabilistic and Scenario Seismic and Liquefaction Hazard Analysis of the Mississippi Embayment Incorporating Nonlinear Site Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C. H.; Dhar, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of deep sediment deposits of the Mississippi Embayment (ME) on the propagation of seismic waves is poorly understood and remains a major source of uncertainty for site response analysis. Many researchers have studied the effects of these deposits on seismic hazard of the area using available information at the time. In this study, we have used updated and newly available resources for seismic and liquefaction hazard analyses of the ME. We have developed an improved 3D geological model. Additionally, we used surface geological maps from Cupples and Van Arsdale (2013) to prepare liquefaction hazard maps. Both equivalent linear and nonlinear site response codes were used to develop site amplification distributions for use in generating hazard maps. The site amplification distributions are created using the Monte Carlo approach of Cramer et al. (2004, 2006) on a 0.1-degree grid. The 2014 National Seismic Hazard model and attenuation relations (Petersen et al., 2014) are used to prepare seismic hazard maps. Then liquefaction hazard maps are generated using liquefaction probability curves from Holzer (2011) and Cramer et al. (2015). Equivalent linear response (w/ increased precision, restricted nonlinear behavior with depth) shows similar hazard for the ME compared to nonlinear analysis (w/o pore pressure) results. At short periods nonlinear deamplification dominates the hazard, but at long periods resonance amplification dominates. The liquefaction hazard tends to be high in Holocene and late Pleistocene lowland sediments, even with lowered ground water levels, and low in Pleistocene loess of the uplands. Considering pore pressure effects in nonlinear site response analysis at a test site on the lowlands shows amplification of ground motion at short periods. PGA estimates from ME liquefaction and MMI observations are in the 0.25 to 0.4 g range. Our estimated M7.5 PGA hazard within 10 km of the fault can exceed this. Ground motion observations from

  13. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  14. Feasibility of a laser or charged-particle-beam fusion-reactor concept with direct electric generation by magnetic-flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasche, G.P.

    1983-06-01

    A new concept for an inertial-confinement fusion reactor is described which, because of its fundamentally different approach to blanket geometry and energy conversion, makes possible a unique combination of high efficiency, high power density, and low radioactivity. The conventional blanket is replaced with a liquid-density mass of lithium contiguously surrounding the fusion yield. This compact blanket configuration produces the maximum shock-induced kinetic energy in liquid metal and the maximum neutron absorption per unit mass. The shock-induced kinetic energy of the liquid lithium is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed normal-conducting magnetic field applied to the exterior of the lithium

  15. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1986. Surveys on systems to structure a coal liquefaction database; 1986 nendo sekitan ekika database kochiku no tame no system chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    Surveys are carried out on the current status of information control systems for development projects being performed or planned in developing coal liquefaction technologies. The conception for structuring a coal liquefaction database (CLDB) is made clear to manage comprehensively and utilize effectively the information in the systems. Section 3 investigated and analyzed the current status of data processing for experimental plants. The data for each experimental plant are processed individually. Therefore, it is preferable that the CLDB shall be provided with accommodating locations to receive respective data. Section 4 put into order the flows of operation and information in the coal liquefaction research, and depicted an overall configuration diagram for the system. Section 5 discusses problems in structuring this system. There is a large number of problems to be discussed from now on, not only in the technological aspect, but in analyzing the organizational roles of NEDO and commissioned business entities, and the needs of users. The last section summarizes the steps and schedule for developing this system. The development steps should preferably be implemented stepwise along the progress of the experimental plants, in such an order as the fundamental database, analysis database and engineering database. (NEDO)

  16. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  17. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Part 2. Program-assisted project. Research and development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of direct coal hydroliquefaction plant; development of 2.4T/day-capable research plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu / chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. 2.4t/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For the goal of developing a direct coal hydroliquefaction plant, designing of a 2.4T/day-capable research plant is conducted as in the preceding fiscal year, devices are purchased and manufactured, and construction work is carried out. The construction work is now over, and the plant is subjected to various inspections by the relevant Government offices. Preparatory tasks are discharged for the study of operation. The material of the 2.4T/day-capable research plant presented here is a compilation of charts of the piping routes, charts of civil engineering and construction, charts of instrumentation, charts of electrical systems, documents of approvals and licenses, etc. (NEDO)

  19. A case study of liquefaction risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer using CPT and electric resistivity data in the Hinode area, Itako City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinguuji, Motoharu; Toprak, Selcuk

    2017-12-01

    The Hinode area of Itako City in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, suffered some of the most severe liquefaction damage of any areas in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011. This liquefaction damage has been investigated by Itako City, as well as by universities and research institutes in Japan. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has carried out numerous investigations along the Tone River, and in particular, intensive surveys were done in the Hinode area. We have conducted a risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer measured using cone penetration testing (CPT) data and electric resistivity data obtained in the Hinode area. The distribution of the risk estimated from CPT at 143 points, and that obtained from analysis of the resistivity survey data, agreed with the distribution of actual damage. We also carried out conventional risk analyses method using the liquefaction resistance factor (FL) and liquefaction potential index (PL) methods with CPT data. The results show high PL values over the entire area, but their distribution did not agree well with actual damage in some parts of the study area. Because the analysis of the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer, using geophysical prospecting methods, can cover a widespread area, this method will be very useful in investigating liquefaction risk, especially for gas and water pipelines.

  20. Future directions for ADTT concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliekowski, C. [Scandatronix Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This presentation is the collection of viewgraphs used by the author to summarize the future for accelerator based systems for transmutation technologies. The author also emphasizes points which need short term effort to provide critical information necessary for modeling, and planning for future work. The author points out how the value of this technology varies depending upon the political and economic factors which are driving the necessity of dealing with radioactive materials. The issues of feasibility, safety, proliferation, cost, and public perception are also addressed.

  1. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008; La liquefaction du charbon: ou en est-on aujourd'hui? - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel.

  2. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report No. 7, April 1--July 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1993-07-14

    In our last report we discussed observations in our cell concerning the behavior or Illinois No. 6 coal in tetralin to 460{degrees}C. We noted that there were possibly two distinct types of particles comprising the organic phase, reacting respectively at 420{degrees}--430{degrees}C, and at 450{degrees}--460{degrees}C. Alternatively we could interpret the data as describing a range of reactivity bounded by those temperatures. As evidenced by the contraction of the particles, the reactions were rapid. The particles lost half of their substance within 1 min, and we suggested that the rates were too fast to be accommodated by the commonly held scheme for coal liquefaction involving thermolytic scission of weak, bibenzyl-like bonds. Our analyses were aided by our use of Adobe Photoshop, which allows us to store, digitized versions of our recorded images. The images can then be manipulated at will to provide quantitative data on morphological changes. We noted in our last report that printer limitations prevented us from presenting images with the desirable quality, and we are at present attempting to find access to equipment which will provide satisfactory figures. Accordingly our progress will be described here without any photographs, and we expect to present a more complete account of our work in our next report. The work reported here includes studies of Illinois No. 6 coal with water as the medium, and a control run with argon as medium. Our temperature ramping was like that used last time, 25{degrees}C/min to 250{degrees}C, and then 10{degrees}C/min to 450{degrees}C. The results from the earlier work and the data presented here can therefore be directly compared.

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis on of Skid-Mounted Coal-bed Methane Liquefaction Device using Cryogenic Turbo-Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Niu, Lu; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Xiaojiang; Lou, Fang; Chen, Liang; Hou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) reserves are rich in Sinkiang of China, and liquefaction is a critical step for the CBM exploration and utilization. Different from other CBM gas fields in China, CBM distribution in Sinkiang is widespread but scattered, and the pressure, flow-rate and nitrogen content of CBM feed vary significantly. The skid-mounted liquefaction device is suggested as an efficient and economical way to recover methane. Turbo-expander is one of the most important parts which generates the cooling capacity for the cryogenic liquefaction system. Using turbo-expander, more cooling capacity and higher liquefied fraction can be achieved. In this study, skid-mounted CBM liquefaction processes based on Claude cycle are established. Cryogenic turbo-expander with high expansion ratio is employed to improve the efficiency of CBM liquefaction process. The unit power consumption per liquefaction mole flow-rate for CBM feed gas is used as the object function for process optimization, compressor discharge pressure, flow ratio of feed gas to turbo-expander and nitrogen friction are analyzed, and optimum operation range of the liquefaction processes are obtained.

  4. Necessary, but Not Sufficient. The Benefit Concept in the Project Evaluation of Animal Research in the Context of Directive 2010/63/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggel, Matthias; Grimm, Herwig

    2018-02-28

    Directive 2010/63/EU (henceforth "Directive") on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes mandates that every project proposal in EU member states involving procedures on living non-human vertebrates and cephalopods has to be approved in an review process, including a harm-benefit-analysis (HBA), to assess "whether the harm to the animals in terms of suffering, pain and distress is justified by the expected outcome taking into account ethical consideration and may ultimately benefit human beings, animals or the environment". Despite the justifying relevance of "outcome" and "benefit", it remains unclear how to understand these concepts. However, national authorities and applicants require a clear understanding of this to carry out a HBA. To analyze the underlying premises of the HBA and its consequences for the evaluation process, we introduce a heuristic to analyze the relation between "outcome", "benefit" and "prospective benefit assessment". We then apply the heuristic to all seven legitimate purposes for animal research stated in the Directive, namely basic research, translational or applied research, product safety, education and training, protection of the environment, preservation of species and forensic inquiries. As we show, regardless of which purpose is aimed for, applicants are hard-pressed to demonstrate tangible benefits in a prospective assessment. In the HBA, this becomes a problem since-as we argue-the only reasonable, expected and tangible outcome of research can ever be knowledge. The potential long-term benefits on the basis of gained knowledge are unforeseeable and impossible to predict. Research is bound to fall short of these proclaimed societal benefits and its credibility will suffer as long as research has to validate itself through short-term societal benefit. We propose to revise the ethical evaluation based on the HBA and we think it necessary to develop an alternative model for project evaluation that focuses on the value

  5. Fiscal 1989 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1989 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are given and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. Reported and discussed in relation to the progress of the pilot plant support research are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); development of an optimum decalcification technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd., and Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.); and studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.). In relation to studies using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil, Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) are reported and discussed, the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry preheating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  6. Process Water Recycle in Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae To Enhance Bio-oil Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Tercero, E.A.; Bertucco, A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of recycling the process water (PW) of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to the HTL reactor was investigated, with the objective being to recover carbon from the organic content of the PW and to develop a solvent-free process. When recycling twice the PW at 220, 240, and 265

  7. Hydrothermal co-liquefaction of microalgae, wood, and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilman, D. W.F.; Drabik, N.; Wądrzyk, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal co-liquefaction of mixed (wet and dry) biomass residue streams would greatly enhance the viability and scale up potential of the technology as platform in bioenergy and biorefinery applications. This study aims to identify possible interaction effects between three different feeds

  8. Comparison of the sand liquefaction estimated based on codes and practical earthquake damage phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Huang, Yahong

    2017-12-01

    Conducting sand liquefaction estimated based on codes is the important content of the geotechnical design. However, the result, sometimes, fails to conform to the practical earthquake damages. Based on the damage of Tangshan earthquake and engineering geological conditions, three typical sites are chosen. Moreover, the sand liquefaction probability was evaluated on the three sites by using the method in the Code for Seismic Design of Buildings and the results were compared with the sand liquefaction phenomenon in the earthquake. The result shows that the difference between sand liquefaction estimated based on codes and the practical earthquake damage is mainly attributed to the following two aspects: The primary reasons include disparity between seismic fortification intensity and practical seismic oscillation, changes of groundwater level, thickness of overlying non-liquefied soil layer, local site effect and personal error. Meanwhile, although the judgment methods in the codes exhibit certain universality, they are another reason causing the above difference due to the limitation of basic data and the qualitative anomaly of the judgment formulas.

  9. Influence of saturation degree and role of suction in unsaturated soils behaviour: application to liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernay Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the pore fluid compressibility on liquefaction has been studied by various authors. But few papers have been published about the role of suction in cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils. Most of these works use Skempton coefficient B as a reference in terms of saturation degree to analyze their results. The use of B in experimental conditions is convenient, but is not accurate when studying liquefaction behavior, since effects of suction are neglected. In this paper, the influence of saturation degree on mechanical behavior of a soil under dynamic loads is studied. Cyclic undrained triaxial tests were performed on sand samples, under various levels of saturation. Soil-water characteristic curve was used, in order to study influence of suction. The first results confirm that when the degree of saturation decreases, the resistance increases. Initial positive suction tends to stiffen the soil. It also appears that the presence of air delays the occurrence of liquefaction, but doesn’t prevent it. Indeed, liquefaction is observed, whether the soil is saturated or not.

  10. Microalgae growth on the aqueous phase from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the same microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. microalgae in the recycled aqueous phase (AP) recovered after Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of the same microalgae was studied to evaluate the potential of nutrients recycling. AP dilution ratio was systematically varied, using either water or water enriched with

  11. Effect of methanol on the liquefaction reaction of biomass in hot compressed water under microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chun-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2013-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied in methanol-water solutions using an acid catalyst under microwave energy. The effect of the methanol concentration on the changes of components in the liquefied products was analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS). It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the...

  12. Liquefaction analysis of alluvial soil deposits in Bedsa south west of Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedsa is one of the districts in Dahshour that lays south west of Cairo and suffered from liquefaction during October 1992 earthquake, Egypt. The soil profile consists of alluvial river Nile deposits mainly sandy mud with low plasticity; the ground water is shallow. The earthquake hypocenter was 18 km far away with local magnitude 5.8; the fault length was 13.8 km, as recorded by the Egyptian national seismological network (ENSN at Helwan. The analysis used the empirical method introduced by the national center for earthquake engineering research (NCEER based on field standard penetration of soil. It is found that the studied area can liquefy since there are saturated loose sandy silt layers at depth ranges from 7 to 14 m. The settlement is about 26 cm. The probability of liquefaction ranges between 40% and 100%. The presence of impermeable surface from medium cohesive silty clay acts as a plug resisting and trapping the upward flow of water during liquefaction, so fountain and spouts at weak points occurs. It is wise to use point bearing piles with foundation level deeper than 14 m beyond the liquefiable depth away from ground slopes, otherwise liquefaction improving techniques have to be applied in the area.

  13. Catalytic Liquefaction of Humin Substances from Sugar Biorefineries with Pt/C in 2-Propanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Agarwal, S.; Heeres, H. J.

    The catalytic liquefaction of humins, the solid byproduct from the conversion of C6 sugars (glucose, fructose) to S-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), using a supported Pt/C catalyst in isopropanol (IPA) as the solvent was investigated. At bench mark conditions (400 degrees C, 7 h,

  14. Renewable hydrocarbon fuels from hydrothermal liquefaction: A techno-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Hansen, Nick Høy; Pérez, Oscar Miralles

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates the economic feasibility of producing renewable transportation drop-in fuels from lignocellulosic biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading. An Aspen Plus® process model is developed based on extensive experimental data to document a techno-economic assessmen...

  15. To the vibrational over wetting and liquefaction effects in moistured soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, F.H.; Oripov, G.O.; Saidov, R.M.; Tojibekov, M.

    2003-01-01

    There is a lot of evidence of the dynamical effects in soils when they become wetted or during or after the earthquakes or explosions. There are some quantitative estimates for the vibrational wetting and liquefaction of soils under consideration. For the models in the present research the moistured sands and weak soils like losses are accepted. The first model is focusing on soil fractures sliding down under the action of vibrations, tightening of a hard phase, squeezing water phase out and thus bringing to soil liquefaction. The second is based on soil fractures plunging at the action of vibrations into the aquatic background. This mechanism seems to be more effective for the high degree moistured soils. The third mechanism is based on capillary phenomena in moistured porous medium. When inertia forces are large enough the resultant force, consisting of sliding down gravity component and inertia forces, overcomes friction and fracture becomes unstable. Both vibrations amplitude and frequency are the stability controlling factors, playing an important role in the vibrational wetting and liquefaction effects through porous water phase squeezing out or capillary lifting phenomena leading to the wetting or liquefaction of the medium. (author)

  16. Biocrude production via supercritical hydrothermal co-liquefaction of spent mushroom compost and aspen wood sawdust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasiunas, Lukas; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    2017-01-01

    The work investigates a new potential feedstock source for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) driven biocrude production. Specifically, the focus is set on utilizing spent mushroom compost (SMC), the primary waste by-product from mushroom farming. It is considered as a feedstock for HTL conversion due...

  17. Shear-wave velocity-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Moss, R.E.S.; Thompson, E.M.; Seed, R.B.; Cetin, K.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) offers a means to determine the seismic resistance of soil to liquefaction by a fundamental soil property. This paper presents the results of an 11-year international project to gather new Vs site data and develop probabilistic correlations for seismic soil liquefaction occurrence. Toward that objective, shear-wave velocity test sites were identified, and measurements made for 301 new liquefaction field case histories in China, Japan, Taiwan, Greece, and the United States over a decade. The majority of these new case histories reoccupy those previously investigated by penetration testing. These new data are combined with previously published case histories to build a global catalog of 422 case histories of Vs liquefaction performance. Bayesian regression and structural reliability methods facilitate a probabilistic treatment of the Vs catalog for performance-based engineering applications. Where possible, uncertainties of the variables comprising both the seismic demand and the soil capacity were estimated and included in the analysis, resulting in greatly reduced overall model uncertainty relative to previous studies. The presented data set and probabilistic analysis also help resolve the ancillary issues of adjustment for soil fines content and magnitude scaling factors.

  18. Liquefaction of H2 molecules upon exterior surfaces of carbon nanotube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Soo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Duin, Adri C.T. van; Goddard, William A. III

    2005-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate interaction of H 2 molecules on the exterior surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs): single and bundle types. At 80 K and 10 MPa, it is found that charge transfer occurs from a low curvature region to a high curvature region of the deformed CNT bundle, which develops charge polarization only on the deformed structure. The long-range electrostatic interactions of polarized charges on the deformed CNT bundle with hydrogen molecules are observed to induce a high local-ordering of H 2 gas that results in hydrogen liquefaction. Our predicted heat of hydrogen liquefaction on the CNT bundle is 97.6 kcal kg -1 . On the other hand, hydrogen liquefaction is not observed in the CNT of a single type. This is because charge polarization is not developed on the single CNT as it is symmetrically deformed under the same pressure. Consequently, the hydrogen storage capacity on the CNT bundle is much higher due to liquefaction than that on the single CNT. Additionally, our results indicate that it would also be possible to liquefy H 2 gas on a more strongly polarized CNT bundle at temperatures higher than 80 K

  19. Fiscal 1990 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1990 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made concerning the progress of research and development activities. Reported and discussed in relation to the pilot plant support research, etc., are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum coal refining technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum pretreatment technique and improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.); and studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.). Reported and discussed in relation to researches using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant are the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.), the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry pre-heating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1993 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1993, the 2nd in December 1993, and the 3rd in March 1994, when fiscal 1993 research and development programs and results were reported and discussed. Reported and discussed at the 2nd meeting were the compilation of brown coal liquefaction technology development project results, evaluation report on the same, hydrorefining of oil from brown coal and the research and development of application technologies for the same, and an environmental safety evaluation test on the same. In selecting a standard coal for the operation of the 150 ton/day pilot plant, PSU (process supporting unit)-aided studies were made on the analytical values presented by coals, yield of the liquid, yield of the liquefaction residue, yield of the generated gas, amount of the hydrogen consumed, coal oil properties, liquefaction residue properties, operationality, etc. On-site investigations were conducted also in Indonesia, and a conclusion was reached that Tanito Harum coal would be the most suitable for the pilot plant. Concerning the liquefaction catalyst for the pilot plant, a report was given on a comparison made between the activity of a synthetic iron sulfide and that of natural pyrite. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1994 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in August 1994 and the 2nd in March 1995, when preceding fiscal year's research results, fiscal 1994 research plans, fiscal 1994 research results, etc., were introduced, and deliberated. In the study of hydrorefining of naphtha, kerosene, and light oil fractions, a nitrogen concentration level of not more than 5 ppm was achieved by refining oils from Indonesian coal. Studies were also made about the two-step hydrorefining system, the relationship between the coal oil refining level and sludge formation, etc. In the research for the development of novel catalysts for upgrading coal oil, the active life of a nickel-supporting catalyst for hydrogenation at the 1st step was somewhat prolonged with an increase in the amount of nickel. In the study of coal liquefaction conditions, an AWIP method was deliberated, wherein liquefaction process waste water was utilized as one of catalytic component adjusting materials. For upgrading liquefaction key technologies, studies were made for catalyst improvement and pretreatment method development, and about the behavior of liquefaction reaction in a high boiling solvent-aided process. (NEDO)

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.

    2013-01-01

    residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained...

  3. Bio-char derived from sewage sludge by liquefaction: Characterization and application for dye adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Lijian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yuan, Xingzhong, E-mail: yxz@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Huang, Huajun [School of Land Resources and Environment, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China); Shao, Jianguang; Wang, Hou [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Xiaohong [School of Business, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SS liquefaction bio-chars were effective on MG and MB removal from aqueous. • MG adsorption capacity depended strongly on carboxylic and phenolic groups. • Metal release accounted for nearly 30% of the total MG adsorbed on bio-chars. • Acetone and low temperature favor effective adsorbent production by liquefaction. - Abstract: Bio-chars produced by liquefaction of sewage sludge with methanol, ethanol, or acetone as the solvent at 260–380 °C were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, thermogravimetric characteristics, surface area and pore size distribution, and oxygen-containing functional groups composition. The surface area and total volume of the bio-chars were low, but the contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were high. The bio-chars were effective on Malachite green (MG) and Methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The MG adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data fitted well to the Pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic investigations indicated that MG adsorption on bio-char was spontaneous and endothermic. The MG adsorption mechanism appears to be associated with cation release and functional group participation. Additionally, liquefaction of SS with acetone as the solvent at low temperature (280 °C) would favor the production of bio-char adsorbent in terms of bio-char yield and MG and MB adsorption capacity.

  4. Quantitative characterization of the aqueous fraction from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous streams generated from hydrothermal liquefaction contain approximately 30% of the total carbon present from the algal feed. Hence, this aqueous carbon must be utilized to produce liquid fuels and/or specialty chemicals for economic sustainability of hydrothermal liquefaction on industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of fresh water and saline water algal cultures were analyzed using a wide variety of analytical instruments to determine their compositional characteristics. This study will also inform researchers designing catalysts for down-stream processing such as high-pressure catalytic conversion of organics in aqueous phase, catalytic hydrothermal gasification, and biological conversions. Organic chemical compounds present in all eight aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds and aldehydes/ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were utilized to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of algae were identified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported. The amount quantified carbon ranged from 45 to 72 % of total carbon in the aqueous fractions.

  5. Assessment of Susceptibility to Liquefaction of Saturated Road Embankment Subjected to Dynamic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Anna; Maciejewski, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Liquefaction has always been intensely studied in parts of the world where earthquakes occur. However, the seismic activity is not the only possible cause of this phenomenon. It may in fact be triggered by some human activities, such as constructing and mining or by rail and road transport. In the paper a road embankment built across a shallow water reservoir is analyzed in terms of susceptibility to liquefaction. Two types of dynamic loadings are considered: first corresponding to an operation of a vibratory roller and second to an earthquake. In order to evaluate a susceptibility of soil to liquefaction, a factor of safety against triggering of liquefaction is used (FSTriggering). It is defined as a ratio of vertical effective stresses to the shear stresses both varying with time. For the structure considered both stresses are obtained using finite element method program, here Plaxis 2D. The plastic behavior of the cohesionless soils is modeled by means of Hardening Soil (HS) constitutive relationship, implemented in Plaxis software. As the stress tensor varies with time during dynamic excitation, the FSTriggering has to be calculated for some particular moment of time when liquefaction is most likely to occur. For the purposes of this paper it is named a critical time and established for reference point at which the pore pressures were traced in time. As a result a factor of safety distribution throughout embankment is generated. For the modeled structure, cyclic point loads (i.e., vibrating roller) present higher risk than earthquake of magnitude 5.4. Explanation why considered structure is less susceptible to earthquake than typical dam could lay in stabilizing and damping influence of water, acting here on both sides of the slope. Analogical procedure is applied to assess liquefaction susceptibility of the road embankment considered but under earthquake excitation. Only the higher water table is considered as it is the most unfavorable. Additionally the

  6. Liquefaction assessment based on combined use of CPT and shear wave velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Mahler, András; Győri, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the most devastating secondary effects of earthquakes and can cause significant damage in built infrastructure. For this reason liquefaction hazard shall be considered in all regions where moderate-to-high seismic activity encounters with saturated, loose, granular soil deposits. Several approaches exist to take into account this hazard, from which the in-situ test based empirical methods are the most commonly used in practice. These methods are generally based on the results of CPT, SPT or shear wave velocity measurements. In more complex or high risk projects CPT and VS measurement are often performed at the same location commonly in the form of seismic CPT. Furthermore, VS profile determined by surface wave methods can also supplement the standard CPT measurement. However, combined use of both in-situ indices in one single empirical method is limited. For this reason, the goal of this research was to develop such an empirical method within the framework of simplified empirical procedures where the results of CPT and VS measurements are used in parallel and can supplement each other. The combination of two in-situ indices, a small strain property measurement with a large strain measurement, can reduce uncertainty of empirical methods. In the first step by careful reviewing of the already existing liquefaction case history databases, sites were selected where the records of both CPT and VS measurement are available. After implementing the necessary corrections on the gathered 98 case histories with respect to fines content, overburden pressure and magnitude, a logistic regression was performed to obtain the probability contours of liquefaction occurrence. Logistic regression is often used to explore the relationship between a binary response and a set of explanatory variables. The occurrence or absence of liquefaction can be considered as binary outcome and the equivalent clean sand value of normalized overburden corrected cone tip

  7. Report on the FY 1998 results of the New Sunshine Project (B version). Development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of base technology of liquefaction (Project on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology)); 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan ekika gijutsu no kokusaika jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In 1994, a memorandum on the research cooperation was agreed between NEDO and BPPT (The Agency for the Assessment and Application Technology) in Indonesia, based on the request for the coal liquefaction technology cooperation from BPPT. It includes the following items: conference for professionals to be held, invitation and training of Indonesian engineers, activity for joint field survey and potential survey of location of coal liquefaction commercial plant. Further in 1997, the secondary memorandum was concluded for the potential survey for securing the hydrogen required for coal liquefaction by coal gasification. The survey was summarized as the potential survey for location of coal liquefaction. In the testing study for improving economical efficiency of liquefaction process, it was made clear that the higher the Fe content of Banko coal is, the higher the reaction of liquefaction is, and that Fe compounds in coal show catalysis. In the Soroako area in Sulawesi island, there are the nickel mine run by PT. Inco. Soroako limonite is promising as catalyst material for commercial-scale coal liquefaction. In the gasification method, the plant construction cost increases, but the production amount of coal-derived liquid can be increased. That is more profitable than the production of hydrogen from natural gas. (NEDO)

  8. Dynamic behavior of potentially unstable soils and application of model for seismic risk reduction from liquefaction occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheshov, Vlatko

    2002-11-01

    Throughout the last decades, liquefaction phenomenon has been one of the most frequently discussed subjects in geotechnical earthquake engineering. Liquefaction has been a problem arousing considerable attention among the world scientists. The consequences from liquefaction occurrence have been present after each stronger earthquake. We have been witnesses of several strong earthquakes (Kobe - Japan, Chi Chi-Taiwan, Bhuj-India) that have occurred in the last decade. In these earthquakes, the liquefaction phenomenon caused severe damage to structures, loss of their functioning and indirect loss of human lives. Liquefaction as a phenomenon should not arouse fear but should call for serious elaboration and attention instead. The destructive nature of liquefaction could be mitigated, i.e., overcome in two ways: avoiding construction at locations characterized by high liquefaction potential which is not always possible and taking of measures for improvement of foundation soil. Finding out suitable measures for improvement of soil and thus mitigating the liquefaction potential has been the main incentive for the elaboration of this dissertation. The dissipation method involving the use of vertical drains as one of the measures for improvement of soils has been elaborated in details in this scientific work. The doctoral dissertation has been realized through experimental and analytical investigations. The experimental investigations done in the first phase represent model seismic shaking table tests of the efficiency of vertical drains (prefabricated and gravel drains). The analytical investigations in this phase have involved mathematical simulation of the effect of vertical drains upon pore pressure state during the experiments. The second phase of the experimental investigations has involved model tests of the behavior of pile foundations in soils susceptible to liquefaction with installed prefabricated drains. In this phase, the 'p - y' relationships have been

  9. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  10. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  11. Catalytic subcritical water liquefaction of flax straw for high yield of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, Inibehe; Ibrahim, Hussameldin; Thring, Ron; Idem, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial interest in the application of biomass as a renewable fuel or for production of chemicals. Flax straw can be converted into valuable chemicals and biofuels via liquefaction in sub-critical water. In this study, the yield of furfural and the kinetics of flax straw liquefaction under sub-critical water conditions were investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The liquefaction was conducted in the temperature range of 175–325 °C, pressure of 0.1 MPa–8 MPa, retention time in the range of 0 min–120 min, and flax straw mass fraction (w F ) of 5–20 %. Also, the effect of acid catalysts on furfural yield was studied. The kinetic parameters of flax straw liquefaction were determined using nonlinear regression of the experimental data, assuming second-order kinetics. The apparent activation energy was found to be 27.97 kJ mol −1 while the reaction order was 2.0. The optimum condition for furfural yield was at 250 °C, 6.0 MPa, w F of 5% and 0 retention time after reaching set conditions. An acid catalyst was found to selectively favour furfural yield with 40% flax straw conversion. - Highlights: • Flax straw liquefaction in subcritical water. • Creation of a reaction pathway that can be used to optimized furfural production. • Acid catalyst selectively favoured furfural yield with respect to other liquid products. • At the highest process temperature of 325 °C, a carbon conversion of 40% was achieved. • Activation energy and reaction order was 28 kJ/mol and 2.0 respectively

  12. Analysis of flammability limits for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, Y.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel liquefaction and distillation process is designed for oxygen bearing coal-bed methane. → Oxygen contained in coal-bed methane is removed in distillation process. → Flammability limits are analyzed for the whole operation process. → We find explosion hazard may exist in distillation tower. → Effective measures are proposed to ensure the operation safety in distillation tower. - Abstract: A novel liquefaction and distillation process has been proposed and designed for the typical oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM), in which the impurities of the oxygen and nitrogen components are removed in the distillation column. The flammability limit theory combining with HYSYS simulation results are employed to analyze and calculate the flammability limits and the results indicate that no flammability hazard exists in the stages of compression, liquefaction and throttling. However, flammability hazard exists at the top the distillation column because the methane mole fraction decreases to the value below the upper flammability limit (UFL). The safety measures of initially removing oxygen content from the feed gas combining with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom) are proposed to ensure the operation safety of the liquefaction process. The results reveal that the operation safety of the whole process can be guaranteed, together with high methane recovery rate and high purity of the liquid product. The applicability of the liquefaction process has also been analyzed in this paper. The simulation results can offer references for the separation of oxygen from CBM, the analysis of flammability limits and the safety measures for the whole process.

  13. Development of liquefaction process of coal and biomass in supercritical water; Chorinkaisui wo mochiita sekitan biomass doji ekika process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, H.; Matsumura, Y.; Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Masuno, Y.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Liquefaction of coal and biomass in supercritical water has been investigated, in which strong solubilization force of supercritical water against hydrocarbons is utilized. Free radicals are formed through the cleavage of covalent bonds in coal under the heating condition at around 400{degree}C during coal liquefaction. It is important to stabilize these unstable intermediate products by hydrogen transfer. On the other hand, hydrogen is not required for the liquefaction of biomass having higher H/C atomic ratio and oxygen content than those of coal. Co-liquefaction of coal and biomass was conducted using supercritical water, in which excess hydrogen from the liquefaction of biomass would be transferred to coal, resulting in the effective liquefaction of coal. Mixture of coal and cellulose was liquefied in supercritical water at 390{degree}C under the pressure of 25 MPa using a semi-continuous reactor, and the results were compared with those from the separate liquefaction of them. The co-liquefaction of coal and cellulose did not show any difference in the residue yield from the separate liquefaction of these, but led to the increased production of compounds with lower molecular weight. The liquefaction was completed in 15 minutes. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Influence of catalytic activity and reaction conditions on the product distribution in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekikayu no seiseibutsu bunpu ni taisuru shokubai kassei oyobi hanno joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, H.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    The NiMo sulfide supported on Ketjen Black (KB) was more effective and yielded lighter oil products containing light fractions with their boiling point below 300{degree}C during the two stage liquefaction combining low temperature and high temperature hydrogenation the conventional NiMo/alumina catalyst and FeS2 catalyst. Although the NiMo/alumina yielded increased oil products during the two stage liquefaction, the lighter oil fractions did not increase and the heavier fractions increased mainly. This suggests that the hydrogenation of aromatic rings and successive cleavage of the rings are necessary for producing the light oil, which is derived from the sufficient hydrogenation of aromatic rings using catalysts. For the two stage reaction with NiMo/KB catalyst, it was considered that sufficient hydrogen was directly transferred to coal molecules at the first stage of the low temperature reaction, which promoted the solubilization of coal and the successive hydrogenation at the high temperature reaction. Thus, high activity of the catalyst must be obtained. It is expected that further high quality distillates can be produced through the optimization of catalysts and solvents at the two stage reaction. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project. Technology assessment on coal gasification and liquefaction; 1975 nendo sekitan no gas ka ekika gijutsu no technology assessment seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research was intended to find the desirable direction of technological development, by discussing the effects of coal gasification/liquefaction technologies from every angle, for the purpose coping with the social demand for steadily and continuously obtaining clean energy. This year, the examination was conducted not only on the energy conversion technologies of coal gasification/liquefaction, but also on the impact generating from the entire supply system of coal energy from coal mine development to mining, transportation, storage and conversion to secondary energy. For this purpose, while the outline was grasped of coal resources in the world as well as each technology for the mining, transportation, storage, electric power generation by gasification, and high calorie gasification, a case study was made on the assumption that electric power generation and high calorie gasification were conducted by importing 1,000 tons of coal from overseas, extracting the impact on the basis of this case study. In addition, examination was made on the position of coal energy in the energy supply of the future, with an impact investigated on condition that about 300 million tons were imported equivalent to roughly 16% of energy supply in the year 2000 or about. (NEDO)

  16. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Updated Review of the Core Features, the RBD-Neurodegenerative Disease Association, Evolving Concepts, Controversies, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve, Bradley F.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia manifested by vivid, often frightening dreams associated with simple or complex motor behavior during REM sleep. Patients appear to “act out their dreams,” in which the exhibited behaviors mirror the content of the dreams, and the dream content often involves a chasing or attacking theme. The polysomnographic features of RBD include increased electromyographic tone +/- dream enactment behavior during REM sleep. Management with counseling and pharmacologic measures is usually straight-forward and effective. In this review, the terminology, clinical and polysomnographic features, demographic and epidemiologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and management strategies are discussed. Recent data on the suspected pathophysiologic mechanisms of RBD are also reviewed. The literature and our institutional experience on RBD are next discussed, with an emphasis on the RBD-neurodegenerative disease association and particularly the RBD-synucleinopathy association. Several issues relating to evolving concepts, controversies, and future directions are then reviewed, with an emphasis on idiopathic RBD representing an early feature of a neurodegenerative disease and particularly an evolving synucleinopathy. Planning for future therapies that impact patients with idiopathic RBD is reviewed in detail. PMID:20146689

  17. Volumetric MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound with Direct Skin Cooling for the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlijne E. Ikink

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To prospectively assess the safety and technical feasibility of volumetric magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU ablation with direct skin cooling (DISC during treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods. In this proof-of-concept study, eight patients were consecutively selected for clinical MR-HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids with the use of an additional DISC device to maintain a constant temperature (T≈20°C at the interface between the HIFU table top and the skin. Technical feasibility was verified by successful completion of MR-HIFU ablation. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI was used to measure the treatment effect (nonperfused volume (NPV ratio. Safety was evaluated by recording of adverse events (AEs within 30 days’ follow-up. Results. All MR-HIFU treatments were successfully completed in an outpatient setting. The median NPV ratio was 0.56 (IQR [0.27–0.72]. Immediately after treatment, two patients experienced coldness related discomfort which resolved at the same day. No serious (device-related AEs were reported. Specifically, no skin burns, cold injuries, or subcutaneous edema were observed. Conclusion. This study showed that it is safe and technically feasible to complete a volumetric MR-HIFU ablation with DISC. This technique may reduce the risk of thermal injury to the abdominal wall during MR-HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids. This trial is registered with NTR4189.

  18. Summary of the achievements in fiscal 1991 in developing the coal liquefaction technology and the bituminous coal liquefaction technology. Studies by using a pilot plant; 1991 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika gaiyo. Pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes the achievements in 1991 on studies on the bituminous coal liquefaction technology using a pilot plant. Based on the detailed design of the 150-t/d pilot plant, study problems and analysis items were reviewed, and a material balance acquiring method and a reaction column data analyzing method were discussed. Utilization of the liquefaction simulator was attempted. Efficient execution of the pilot plant operation study requires to have the basic and support study achievements reflected on the pilot plant operation, and clarify the roles to be played by the groups. Therefore, discussion items were compiled. The overall process plan for the design and construction was reviewed based on the plan discussed in fiscal 1990. Fiscal 1991 has launched common civil engineering constructions. The operation plans for the main four facilities in the pilot plant, which have been prepared in fiscal 1988, were continued of reviewing to cope with the situation of the decreased construction budget. The budget was reviewed again in fiscal 1991, which would present a prospect of starting the operation in fiscal 1995. Annual reviews on the basic operation plans for the main four facilities and the conceptions taken to date were put into order. The project management system was also expanded and re-arranged, including the information registration and retrieval system. (NEDO)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 4. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (Shiryo 4). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elements, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include instrumentation-related drawings covering an instrumentation loop sketch, instrument inspection specifications (flow meter, level gage, pressure gage, thermometer, regulation meter, analyzing meter, signal receiving meter, and instrument board), general specifications for electrical instrumentation facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 2. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 2). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the machine design, such as the piping specifications, standard piping drawings, piping design procedures, piping drawings, pipe lists, and device inspection specifications. In relation with the instrumentation design, the instrumentation engineering specifications and meter lists. (NEDO)

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 4. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (Shiryo 4). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elements, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include instrumentation-related drawings covering an instrumentation loop sketch, instrument inspection specifications (flow meter, level gage, pressure gage, thermometer, regulation meter, analyzing meter, signal receiving meter, and instrument board), general specifications for electrical instrumentation facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  2. Survey on peripheral techniques of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru shuhen gijutsu no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of survey on brown coal liquefaction techniques and peripheral techniques, centered by COSTEAM process under development in USA, solubilization by alcohol and liquefaction and cracking with the aid of tetrahydroquinoline as the hydrogen donor under development in Japan, and low-temperature carbonization and new promising techniques. The COSTEAM process shows higher reaction rates, conversions and oil yields for brown coal liquefaction than the one using hydrogen gas. Some of the problems involved in this process high viscosity and oxygenated compound content of the product oil. The product oil is acceptable as fuel for power generating plants and can be produced at a moderate cost, but may be unsuitable as vehicle fuel. Coal liquefaction and solubilization processes are mainly represented by those which use hydrogen. The hydrogen cost, which is high, determines the product price. The processes which use alcohol or tetrahydroquinoline are still in the experimental stage. (NEDO)

  3. Numerical modeling of liquefaction-induced failure of geo-structures subjected to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapti, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of performance-based earthquake engineering analysis points out the necessity to assess quantitatively the risk of liquefaction. In this extreme scenario of soil liquefaction, devastating consequences are observed, e.g. excessive settlements, lateral spreading and slope instability. The present PhD thesis discusses the global dynamic response and interaction of an earth structure-foundation system, so as to determine quantitatively the collapse mechanism due to foundation's soil liquefaction. As shear band generation is a potential earthquake-induced failure mode in such structures, the FE mesh dependency of results of dynamic analyses is thoroughly investigated and an existing regularization method is evaluated. The open-source FE software developed by EDF R and D, called Code-Aster, is used for the numerical simulations, while soil behavior is represented by the ECP constitutive model, developed at Centrale-Supelec. Starting from a simplified model of 1D SH wave propagation in a soil column with coupled hydro-mechanical nonlinear behavior, the effect of seismic hazard and soil's permeability on liquefaction is assessed. Input ground motion is a key component for soil liquefaction apparition, as long duration of main shock can lead to important nonlinearity and extended soil liquefaction. Moreover, when a variation of permeability as function of liquefaction state is considered, changes in the dissipation phase of excess pore water pressure and material behavior are observed, which do not follow a single trend. The effect of a regularization method with enhanced kinematics approach, called first gradient of dilation model, on 1D SH wave propagation is studied through an analytical solution. Deficiencies of the use of this regularization method are observed and discussed, e.g. spurious waves apparition in the soil's seismic response. Next, a 2D embankment-type model is simulated and its dynamic response is evaluated in dry, fully drained

  4. Direct liquefaction of lignocellulose: exploration, design and evaluation of conceptual processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Fossil resources are currently the major energy sources but are the main culprits for the emission of CO2, NOx, SOx and particulate matters that cause air pollution and global warming. This has led to exploration of alternative energy sources, which are CO2 neutral and renewable to meet the future

  5. Effect of hydrogen pressure on free radicals in direct coal liquefaction/coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seehra, M.S.; Ibrahim, M.M. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the coprocessing of coal with waste tires and commingled plastics and to characterize the relevant catalysts, using high pressure/high temperature in-situ ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) spectroscopy. The recent results from high pressure ESR spectroscopy are emphasized. During this period, considerable progress was made in developing the high pressure capabilities in in-situ ESR spectroscopy and new results carried out in 1000 psi of H{sub 2}gas are presented. In these experiments, sapphire tubes were used to contain the high pressures at temperatures up to 500{degrees}C. Results of the experiments carried out under 1000 psi of H{sub 2} are compared with those under 1000 psi of non-interacting argon and with the earlier experiments in flowing H{sub 2} gas where the volatiles are removed by the flowing gas. In these experiments, the free radical density N of the Blind Canyon coal was measured at each temperature and pressure by double integration of the ESR signal and calibrating it against a standard. The details of the experimental apparatus and procedures have been described in earlier publications.

  6. Process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein nitrogen is separated from hydrogen via ammonia synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetka, Steven S.; Nazario, Francisco N.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein bottoms residues are upgraded with a process wherein air is employed, the improvement wherein nitrogen buildup in the system is avoided by ammonia synthesis. In a preferred embodiment hydrogen from other portions of the liquefaction process will be combined with hydrogen produced as a result of the bottoms upgrading to increase the H.sub.2 :N.sub.2 ratio in the ammonia reactor.

  7. Studies on characteristics of fluid dynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor; Sekitan ekika hanno tonai no ryudo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakawaki, K.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tachikawa, N.; Moki, T.; Ishikawa, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To design the coal liquefaction reactor of large scale plant in future, it is important to understand characteristics of fluid dynamics within the coal liquefaction reactor. In this study, to measure the fluid dynamics of liquid phase within the coal liquefaction reactor operated under high temperature and high pressure coal liquefaction condition, neutron attenuating tracer (NAT) technique, one of the tracer test methods, was applied using 1 t/d coal treating PSU. The residence time of liquid phase within the reactor can be measured by utilizing property of neutron of being absorbed by materials. The tracer was injected at the inlets of first and third reactors, and the neutron was counted at each outlet. The concentration of tracer was derived from the discrete value, to determine the residence time distribution of liquid phase. The mean residence time of liquid phase in the single first reactor and in the total three reactors were prolonged under the severe operation conditions of liquefaction. The more severe the liquefaction operation condition was, the more active the mixing of liquid phase was in the first reactor. It was found that the progress of reaction was accelerated. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Evaluation of liquefaction potential of soil based on standard penetration test using multi-gene genetic programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduli, Pradyut; Das, Sarat

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of liquefaction potential of soil based on standard penetration test (SPT) dataset using evolutionary artificial intelligence technique, multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP). The liquefaction classification accuracy (94.19%) of the developed liquefaction index (LI) model is found to be better than that of available artificial neural network (ANN) model (88.37%) and at par with the available support vector machine (SVM) model (94.19%) on the basis of the testing data. Further, an empirical equation is presented using MGGP to approximate the unknown limit state function representing the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) of soil based on developed LI model. Using an independent database of 227 cases, the overall rates of successful prediction of occurrence of liquefaction and non-liquefaction are found to be 87, 86, and 84% by the developed MGGP based model, available ANN and the statistical models, respectively, on the basis of calculated factor of safety (F s) against the liquefaction occurrence.

  9. Liquefaction induced by modern earthquakes as a key to paleoseismicity: A case study of the 1988 Saguenay event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Cowie, P.; Wolf, L.

    1992-01-01

    Liquefaction features, including sand dikes, sills, and sand-filled craters, that formed at different distances from the epicenter of the 1988 (Mw 5.9) Saguenay earthquake are compared with one another and with older features. Modern liquefaction features decrease in size with increasing distance from the Saguenay epicenter. This relationship suggests that the size of liquefaction features may be used to determine source zones of past earthquakes and to estimate attenuation of seismic energy. Pre-1988 liquefaction features are cross-cut by the 1988 features. Although similar in morphology to the modern features, the pre-1988 features are more weathered and considerably larger in size. The larger pre-1988 features are located in the Ferland area, whereas the smallest pre-1988 feature occurs more than 37 km to the southwest. This spatial distribution of different size features suggests that an unidentified earthquake source zone (in addition to the one that generated the Saguenay earthquake) may exist in the Laurentide-Saguenay region. Structural relationships of the liquefaction features indicate that one, possibly two, earthquakes induced liquefaction in the region prior to 1988. The age of only one pre-1988 feature is well-constrained at 340 ± 70 radiocarbon years BP. If the 1663 earthquake was responsible for the formation of this feature, this event may have been centered in the Laurentide-Saguenay region rather than in the Charlevoix seismic zone

  10. “Pivot” Toward Asia: The Strategic Direction of Russia’s Foreign Policy Concept in a Changing Balance of Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yu. Litsareva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines some reasons of the “Russia’s pivot” toward Asia at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. The Asian policy of the Russia was starting to change at the second half of the 1990s. Russia conducted its policy at the East Asia in a view of the changed balance of national interests, regardless of the ideological considerations and attached a special importance to the economic cooperation. Developing the external political concept and determining the priority areas for development, Russia has had to reckon with the objective processes, occurring in the world. Russia, as the "Eurasian" power, building relations with the Asia-Pacific countries, was to have a vital task - to raise the political and economic cooperation with the Asia-Pacific region to the level, achieved by Russia in Europe. Gradually, the East Asia has become the priority strategic direction of the Russia positioning in the world. For a long time it was thought that using its geostrategic position, Russia could be an important factor in the global political and economic system, linking Europe and Asia-Pacific markets. Russia Federation supported the East Asia countries in ensuring regional security and stability. Analysis of the Asia-Pacific regional political situation shows that there are significant changes here and these changes are largely connected with the significant changes in the global balance of powers. In the course of the Ukrainian events (spring 2014 and entering the West economic sanctions against Russia in connection with the accession of the Crimea, Russian “pivot” toward Asia, in particular the East Asia, looks entirely justified and reasonable.

  11. Re-Condensation and Liquefaction of Helium and Hydrogen Using Coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Coolers are used to cool cryogen free devices at temperatures from 5 to 30 K. Cryogen free cooling involves a temperature drop within the device being cooled and between the device and the cooler cold heads. Liquid cooling with a liquid cryogen distributed over the surface of a device combined with re-condensation can result in a much lower temperature drop between the cooler and the device being cooled. The next logical step beyond simple re-condensation is using a cooler to liquefy the liquid cryogen in the device. A number of tests of helium liquefaction and re-condensation of helium have been run using a pulse tube cooler in the drop-in mode. This report discusses the parameter space over which re-condensation and liquefaction for helium and hydrogen can occur.

  12. Liquefaction of Warukin Formation Coal, Barito Basin, South Kalimantan on Low Pressure and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Nursanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on the quality of coal in Warukin Formation has been conducted in coal outcrops located on Tabalong area, particularly in 3 coal seams, namely Wara 120 which consists of low rank coal (lignite. Meanwhile, coals in seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 are medium rank coal (sub-bituminous. Coal liquefaction is conducted in an autoclave on low pressure and temperature. Pressure during the process is 14 psi and temperature is 120oC. Catalyst used are alumina, hydrogen donor NaOH and water solvent. Liquefaction is conducted in three times variables of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. This process shows following yield : Wara seam 120: 25.37% - 51.27%; Tutupan seam 210: 3.02%-15.45% and seam Paringin 712:1.99%-11.95%. The average result of yield shows that coals in seam Wara has higher yield conversion than coals in seam Tutupan and Paringin.

  13. Fractional Multistage Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass and Catalytic Conversion into Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortright, Randy [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Rozmiarek, Robert [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Dally, Brice [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Holland, Chris [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-08-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an improved multistage process for the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass to serve as a new front-end, deconstruction process ideally suited to feed Virent’s well-proven catalytic technology, which is already being scaled up. This process produced water soluble, partially de-oxygenated intermediates that are ideally suited for catalytic finishing to fungible distillate hydrocarbons. Through this project, Virent, with its partners, demonstrated the conversion of pine wood chips to drop-in hydrocarbon distillate fuels using a multi-stage fractional conversion system that is integrated with Virent’s BioForming® process. The majority of work was in the liquefaction task and included temperature scoping, solvent optimization, and separations.

  14. Determination of soil liquefaction characteristics by large-scale laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The testing program described in this report was carried out to study the liquefaction behavior of a clean, uniform, medium sand. Horizontal beds of this sand, 42 inches by 90 inches by 4 inches were prepared by pluviation with a special sand spreader, saturated, and tested in a shaking table system designed for this program, which applied a horizontal cyclic shear stress to the specimens. Specimen size was selected to reduce boundary effects as much as possible. Values of pore pressures and shear strains developed during the tests are presented for sand specimens at relative densities of 54, 68, 82, and 90 percent, and the results interpreted to determine the values of the stress ratio causing liquefaction at the various relative densities

  15. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275[degrees]C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  16. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  17. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remote locations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, considering two mixed-refrigerant and two expansion-based processes suitable for offshore applications. Two FPSO configurations are considered...... in this work, and they were suggested by Brazilian operators for fields processing natural gas with moderate to high content of carbon dioxide. The performance of the combined systems is analysed by conducting energy and exergy analyses. The integration of gas liquefaction results in greater power consumption...

  18. Liquefaction of lignohemicellulosic waste by processing with carbon monoxide and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Saied, H

    1977-09-01

    The liquefaction of lignohemicellulosic waste by processing with carbon monoxide and water for 10 minutes at 250/sup 0/-440/sup 0/C and 40 to 70 atm initial pressure in a rocking autoclave produced benzene-soluble heavy oil in yields up to 80%. High conversion and yields were favored by high thermal stress, short reaction times, and sufficient hydrogen to prevent radical recombination in the critical liquefaction stages. The addition of sodium or calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, iron oxide, etc. in small amounts gave good oil yields under less severe conditions. Lignins from rice straw, bagasse, and other grasses gave higher yields than the woody lignin obtained from cotton stalks. In products obtained by liquefying black liquor lignohemicellulose from an Eyptian rice straw pulping plant, the hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio was 1.0 to 1.3:1.

  19. RESEARCH ON THE DEGREE OF SATURATION INVESTIGATION BY THE SAMPLING OF THE SAND FOR LIQUEFACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Nao; Ohuchi, Masatoshi; Sakai, Katsuo; Nishigaki, Makoto

    The liquefaction countermeasure technical method, whereby the liquefaction strength is enhanced by making sand deposit in the state of unsaturation, is currently under study. The author et al have suggested a simple method of verifying the persistence of residual air using the undisturbed sample under ordinary temperature and sampling underground water; and have actually implemented the method in the adjacent ground with the foundation of viaduct pneumatic caisson where the leaked air during the construction was considered to have been trapped. We demonstrated the method of correcting the influence of the pressure of sampling specimen as well as of the dissolved air, and studied the precision of required degree of saturation. As the result, it has been shown that the residual air entrapped in the sand deposit is sustainable for as long time as about 28 years.

  20. Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in Oceano, California, during the 2003 San Simeon Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.; Di Alessandro, Carola; Boatwright, John; Tinsley, John C.; Sell, Russell W.; Rosenberg, Lewis I.

    2004-01-01

    The December 22, 2003, San Simeon, California, (M6.5) earthquake caused damage to houses, road surfaces, and underground utilities in Oceano, California. The community of Oceano is approximately 50 miles (80 km) from the earthquake epicenter. Damage at this distance from a M6.5 earthquake is unusual. To understand the causes of this damage, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted extensive subsurface exploration and monitoring of aftershocks in the months after the earthquake. The investigation included 37 seismic cone penetration tests, 5 soil borings, and aftershock monitoring from January 28 to March 7, 2004. The USGS investigation identified two earthquake hazards in Oceano that explain the San Simeon earthquake damage?site amplification and liquefaction. Site amplification is a phenomenon observed in many earthquakes where the strength of the shaking increases abnormally in areas where the seismic-wave velocity of shallow geologic layers is low. As a result, earthquake shaking is felt more strongly than in surrounding areas without similar geologic conditions. Site amplification in Oceano is indicated by the physical properties of the geologic layers beneath Oceano and was confirmed by monitoring aftershocks. Liquefaction, which is also commonly observed during earthquakes, is a phenomenon where saturated sands lose their strength during an earthquake and become fluid-like and mobile. As a result, the ground may undergo large permanent displacements that can damage underground utilities and well-built surface structures. The type of displacement of major concern associated with liquefaction is lateral spreading because it involves displacement of large blocks of ground down gentle slopes or towards stream channels. The USGS investigation indicates that the shallow geologic units beneath Oceano are very susceptible to liquefaction. They include young sand dunes and clean sandy artificial fill that was used to bury and convert marshes into developable lots. Most of

  1. Coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for energy valorization from model biomass feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmanik, Roy; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Kim, Andrew H; Usack, Joseph G; Tester, Jefferson W; Angenent, Largus T

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction converts food waste into oil and a carbon-rich hydrothermal aqueous phase. The hydrothermal aqueous phase may be converted to biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Here, the feasibility of coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for the conversion of food waste into energy products was examined. A mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids, representing food waste, underwent hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350°C. The anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was examined through conducting biochemical methane potential assays. The results demonstrate that the anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was lower when the temperature of hydrothermal processing increased. The chemical composition of the hydrothermal aqueous phase affected the anaerobic biodegradability. However, no inhibition of biodegradation was observed for most samples. Combining hydrothermal and anaerobic digestion may, therefore, yield a higher energetic return by converting the feedstock into oil and biomethane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

  3. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Predicted Liquefaction in the Greater Oakland and Northern Santa Clara Valley Areas for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by latest Holocene alluvial fan levee deposits where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906. The liquefaction scenario maps were created with ArcGIS ModelBuilder. Peak ground accelerations first were computed with the new Boore and Atkinson NGA attenuation relation (2008, Earthquake Spectra, 24:1, p. 99-138), using VS30 to account for local site response. Spatial liquefaction probabilities were then estimated using the predicted ground motions

  5. Indirect Liquefaction of Biomass to Transportation Fuels Via Mixed Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C.D.

    2016-11-14

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of four emerging conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The processing steps include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation.

  6. Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Rudra, Souman; Toor, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL...... grid or for CHP. An estimated 62–84% of the biomass energy can be recovered in the biofuels....

  7. Shear wave velocity-based evaluation and design of stone column improved ground for liquefaction mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanguo; Sun, Zhengbo; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yunmin; Chen, Renpeng

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation and design of stone column improvement ground for liquefaction mitigation is a challenging issue for the state of practice. In this paper, a shear wave velocity-based approach is proposed based on the well-defined correlations of liquefaction resistance (CRR)-shear wave velocity ( V s)-void ratio ( e) of sandy soils, and the values of parameters in this approach are recommended for preliminary design purpose when site specific values are not available. The detailed procedures of pre- and post-improvement liquefaction evaluations and stone column design are given. According to this approach, the required level of ground improvement will be met once the target V s of soil is raised high enough (i.e., no less than the critical velocity) to resist the given earthquake loading according to the CRR- V s relationship, and then this requirement is transferred to the control of target void ratio (i.e., the critical e) according to the V s- e relationship. As this approach relies on the densification of the surrounding soil instead of the whole improved ground and is conservative by nature, specific considerations of the densification mechanism and effect are given, and the effects of drainage and reinforcement of stone columns are also discussed. A case study of a thermal power plant in Indonesia is introduced, where the effectiveness of stone column improved ground was evaluated by the proposed V s-based method and compared with the SPT-based evaluation. This improved ground performed well and experienced no liquefaction during subsequent strong earthquakes.

  8. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Lignin: Biomass Pretreatment Severity Affects Lignin Valorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads M.; Djajadi, Demi T.; Torri, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Alkalinehydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of lignin-rich enzymatichydrolysis residues (EnzHR) from wheat straw and Miscanthusx giganteus was performed at 255, 300, and 345 °C to investigate valorization of this side-stream from second-generation bioethanol production. The EnzHR were from biomass...... contributed with additional chemical information as well as confirming trends seen from quantified monomers. This work is relevant for future lignin valorization in biorefineries based on current second-generation bioethanol production....

  9. Development of 1-D Shake Table Testing Facility for Liquefaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Kartha G.; Beena, K. S.; Mahesh, C.

    2018-04-01

    One of the major challenges researchers face in the field of earthquake geotechnical engineering in India is the high cost of laboratory infrastructure. Developing a reliable and low cost experimental set up is attempted in this research. The paper details the design and development of a uniaxial shake table and the data acquisition system with accelerometers and pore water pressure sensors which can be used for liquefaction studies.

  10. NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION UNITS ON THE BASE OF EXPANDER NITROGEN CYCLES

    OpenAIRE

    Кузьменко, И. Ф.; Передельский, В. А.; Довбиш, А. Л.

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary to create large-capacity LNG-units for natural gas peaks consumption shaving and also to expand liquefied natural gas (LNG) marketing. It is proposed to create such natural gas liquefaction units with the use of outer nitrogen cryogenic thermodynamic cycles. It is necessary to use turboexpander-compressor sets (TECS) in them for maximizing cycles efficiency. Different technological schemes of LNG-units including nitrogen cryogenic units with TECS from one to four have been exa...

  11. Study on hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction by tritium and carbon-14 tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoh, Osamu; Kabe, Toshiaki; Kabe, Yaeko.

    1985-01-01

    For the analysis of mechanism of hydrogenation and cracking of coal, the liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal using tritium labeled gaseous hydrogen and tritium labeled tetralin with small amounts of carbon-14 labeled naphthalene has been studied. Taiheiyo coal(25g) was thermally decomposed in tetralin or naphthalene solvent(75g) at 400--440 0 C under the initial hydrogen pressure of 5.9MPa for 30min with Ni-Mo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst(0--5g). The reaction mixture in an autoclave was separated by filtration, distillation and solvent extraction. Produced gas, oils and the solvent were analyzed by gas chromatography. The tritium and carbon-14 contents of separated reaction products were measured with a liquid scintilation counter to study the hydrogen transfer mechanism. The distribution of reaction products and the amount of hydrogen transfer from gas or solvent to the products were also determined. In hydrogen donor solvent such as tetralin, the coal liquefaction yield was independent from the catalyst, but the catalyst was effective in hydrocracking of preasphaltene and asphaltene. In naphthalene solvent, the coal liquefaction reaction hardly occured in the absence of the catalyst, because hydrogen transfer from both the solvent and gaseous hydrogen was scarce. Tritium distribution in the reaction products showed that complicated hydrogen exchange reactions between gaseous hydrogen, coal liquids and solvent came out by the presence of coal liquids and catalyst. The very small amounts of carbon-14 transferred to the liquefaction products showed that carbon exchange or transfer between solvent and coal did not take place. (author)

  12. Conceptual study of hydrogen donor solvent in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzu, M.; Onozaki, M.; Oi, S. [Mitsui SRC Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A 150 ton/day coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) of the NEDOL process, supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), was operated successfully for a total of 269 days at Kashima, Japan. With a great number of data obtained through the operation, the design procedure for the NEDOL process was studied. Middle and heavy oils from the coal employed were recycled as a hydrogen-donor solvent after hydrotreatment over Ni Mo/gamma-Al2O{sub 3} in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrogen donating ability of the solvent was high enough to obtain higher oil yield (50-58 wt%) at the aromaticity of ca. 0.45. Life expectancy of solvent hydrotreatment catalyst, requisite to the hydrotreater design, was estimated under PP operating conditions. In addition, physical properties of the solvent required for process design were determined, and hydrodynamics in the liquefaction bubble column reactors were examined. Taking the obtained hydrodynamics and thermal behavior into consideration, a design procedure of the liquefaction bubble column reactors was establsihed using a process simulator (CARD) validated by the product yields of PP. The simulation including distillation and solvent hydrotreatment showed that the content of heavy oil fraction (b.p. 350 - 538{degree} C) in the solvent was a determinant factor in the design of a large scale plant based on the NEDOL process.

  13. Techno-economic Analysis of Acid Gas Removal and Liquefaction for Pressurized LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Seo, Y. K.; Chang, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    This study estimated the life cycle cost (LCC) of an acid gas removal and a liquefaction processes for Pressurized LNG (PLNG) production and compared the results with the cost of normal LNG production. PLNG is pressurized LNG that is liquefied at a higher pressure and temperature than normal LNG. Due to the high temperature, the energy for liquefaction is reduced. The allowable CO2 concentration in PLNG is increased up to 3 mol% when the product pressure 25 bar. An amine process with 35 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solution and a nitrogen expansion cycle were selected for the acid gas removal and the liquefaction processes, respectively. Two types of CO2 concentration in the feed gas were investigated to analyze their impacts on the acid gas removal unit. When the CO2 concentration was 5 mol%, the acid gas removal unit was required for both LNG and PLNG production. However, the acid gas removal unit was not necessary in PLNG when the concentration was 0.5 mol% and the pressure was higher than 15 bar. The results showed that the LCC of PLNG was reduced by almost 35% relative to that of LNG when the PLNG pressure was higher than 15 bar.

  14. Assessment of wood liquefaction in acidified ethylene glycol using experimental design methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezzoug, S.A. [Universite de La Rochelle, Lab. de Maitrise des Technologies Agro-Industrielles, La Rochelle, 17 (France); Capart, R. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Dept. de Genie Chimique, Compiegne, 60 (France)

    2003-03-01

    The liquefaction of milled wood (Pinus pinaster) was effected in ethylene glycol acidified with small quantities of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence upon the liquefaction yield of the three operating variables, the maximal temperature (150-280 deg C), the reaction time at maximal temperature (20-60 min) and the amount of added H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0-1.5% on dry wood). The individual effects, as well as the interactions between operating variables, are investigated by using an experimental design methodology. From a Pareto chart, it appears that the most significant effects are clearly those of the maximum temperature and the interaction between acidity and temperature. Such effects can be graphically verified through response surfaces and contour line plots. From a regression analysis, the conversion rate of wood into liquid is simply expressed as a function of the operating variables by a polynomial containing quadratic terms. A statistical model seems particularly appropriate in the case of complex and multi-components, as wood, a kinetic model is nevertheless proposed for the liquefaction of micro-crystalline cellulose. This model accounts for the formation of a carbonaceous solid residue from the liquid product. Such an unwanted phenomenon obviously results in a lower yield in liquid product. (Author)

  15. Role of expanders in helium liquefaction cycles: Parametric studies using Collins cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Large scale helium liquefaction/refrigeration plant is a key subsystem of fusion devices. Performance of these plants is dependent on a number of geometric and operating parameters of its constituting components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expanders, valves, etc. Expander has been chosen as the subject matter of analyses in the present study. As the sensible cold of helium vapor is lost in liquefiers, the expanders in liquefaction cycles have to provide more refrigeration than those in refrigeration cycles. The expander parameters such as rate of mass flow, operating pressure, inlet temperature, etc. are inter-dependent, and hence, it is difficult to predict the system behavior with variation of a particular parameter. This necessitates the use of process simulators. Parametric studies have been performed on Collins helium liquefaction cycle using Aspen HYSYS. Collins cycle has all the basic characteristics of a large-scale helium liquefier and the results of this study may be extrapolated to understand the behavior of large scale helium liquefiers. The study shows that the maximum liquid production is obtained when 80% of the compressor flow is diverted through the expanders and it is equally distributed between the two expanders. The relationships between the liquid production and the isentropic efficiency of expanders are almost linear and both the higher and lower temperature expanders exhibit similar trends.

  16. Role of expanders in helium liquefaction cycles: Parametric studies using Collins cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob, E-mail: rijojthomas@gmail.com [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Large scale helium liquefaction/refrigeration plant is a key subsystem of fusion devices. Performance of these plants is dependent on a number of geometric and operating parameters of its constituting components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expanders, valves, etc. Expander has been chosen as the subject matter of analyses in the present study. As the sensible cold of helium vapor is lost in liquefiers, the expanders in liquefaction cycles have to provide more refrigeration than those in refrigeration cycles. The expander parameters such as rate of mass flow, operating pressure, inlet temperature, etc. are inter-dependent, and hence, it is difficult to predict the system behavior with variation of a particular parameter. This necessitates the use of process simulators. Parametric studies have been performed on Collins helium liquefaction cycle using Aspen HYSYS. Collins cycle has all the basic characteristics of a large-scale helium liquefier and the results of this study may be extrapolated to understand the behavior of large scale helium liquefiers. The study shows that the maximum liquid production is obtained when 80% of the compressor flow is diverted through the expanders and it is equally distributed between the two expanders. The relationships between the liquid production and the isentropic efficiency of expanders are almost linear and both the higher and lower temperature expanders exhibit similar trends.

  17. Producing Lignin-Based Polyols through Microwave-Assisted Liquefaction for Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Liang Xue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-based polyols were synthesized through microwave-assisted liquefaction under different microwave heating times (5–30 min. The liquefaction reactions were carried out using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400/glycerol as liquefying solvents and 97 wt% sulfur acid as a catalyst at 140 °C. The polyols obtained were analyzed for their yield, composition and structural characteristics using gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra. FT-IR and NMR spectra showed that the liquefying solvents reacted with the phenol hydroxyl groups of the lignin in the liquefied product. With increasing microwave heating time, the viscosity of polyols was slightly increased and their corresponding molecular weight (MW was gradually reduced. The optimal condition at the microwave heating time (5 min ensured a high liquefaction yield (97.47% and polyol with a suitable hydroxyl number (8.628 mmol/g. Polyurethane (PU foams were prepared by polyols and methylene diphenylene diisocyanate (MDI using the one-shot method. With the isocyanate/hydroxyl group ([NCO]/[OH] ratio increasing from 0.6 to 1.0, their mechanical properties were gradually increased. This study provided some insight into the microwave-assisted liquefied lignin polyols for the production of rigid PU foam.

  18. Fiscal 1995 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in September 1955 and the 2nd in March 1996, when fiscal 1995 research plans and research results were introduced and deliberated. In the study for designing a high-dispersion catalyst and the elucidation of the mechanism of activity expression, catalysts of highly dispersed iron supported on the brown coal surface in various ways were compared with each other in terms of liquefaction activity. Furthermore, geometric changes in the iron catalyst during the sulfurizing process were examined using the XRD (X-ray diffraction) and TEM (transient electromagnetic) methods. An improved catalyst was found to achieve a liquefaction yield near the Yallourn coal liquefaction limit in a high boiling solvent system. Concerning the study of coal oil product applications and refining technologies, reports were delivered on research results relating to the problem of blocking to occur during naphtha fraction refining and measures therefor, inhibition of active metal geometric changes during reaction, methods for separating hetero-compounds from coal oil and application thereof, and so forth. (NEDO)

  19. Rotating disk atomization of Gd and Gd-Y for hydrogen liquefaction via magnetocaloric cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinger, Tyler [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    In order to enable liquid hydrogen fuel cell technologies for vehicles the cost of hydrogen liquefaction should be lowered. The current method of hydrogen liquefaction is the Claude cycle that has a figure of merit (FOM) of 0.3-0.35. New magnetocaloric hydrogen liquefaction devices have been proposed with a FOM>0.5, which is a significant improvement. A significant hurdle to realizing these devices is the synthesis of spherical rare earth based alloy powders of 200μm in diameter. In this study a centrifugal atomization method that used a rotating disk with a rotating oil quench bath was developed to make gadolinium and gadolinium-yttrium spheres. The composition of the spherical powders included pure Gd and Gd0.91Y0.09. The effect of atomization parameters, such as superheat, melt properties, disk shape, disk speed, and melt system materials and design, were investigated on the size distribution and morphology of the resulting spheres. The carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen impurity levels also were analyzed and compared with the magnetic performance of the alloys. The magnetic properties of the charge material as well as the resulting powders were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The saturation magnetization and Curie temperature were the target properties for the resulting spheres. These values were compared with measurements taken on the charge material in order to investigate the effect of atomization processing on the alloys.

  20. Characteristics of the products of hydrothermal liquefaction combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rundong; Xie, Yinghui; Yang, Tianhua; Li, Bingshuo; Zhang, Yang; Kai, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    The integration utilization of fermentation residues from cellulosic bio-ethanol has attracted a great deal of attention to balance the total cost of bio-ethanol production while simultaneously dealing with bio-ethanol wastewater. A process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of intact materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol in a batch reactor was proposed. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on the liquefaction characteristics were examined. The optimum condition for liquefaction fermentation residues was 370 °C (21.25 MPa) and 30 min with a bio-oil yield of 40.79 wt%. GC-MS results indicated that the major chemical species in the bio-oil were phenols, ketones, long-chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Supercritical conditions (375 °C, 23.50 MPa) was favored for the low-molecular-weight species formation compared to subcritical conditions (370 °C, 21.25 MPa), as some long-chain species decreased. This work thus can provide a novel idea for bio-oil production from HTL of cellulosic bio-ethanol fermentation residues. - Highlights: • Bio-oil production via HTL combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process was proposed. • Optimum condition for HTL of materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol was 370 °C and 30 min. • Bio-oil contained higher content of hydrocarbons and lower contents of organic acids.

  1. Co-Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 3 - Effect of Reaction Time and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions. To minimize retrogressive reactions, the liquefaction of coal was carried out in a flowing solvent reactor in which a fixed bed of coal is continuously permeated by hot solvent. Solvent flowing through the coal bed carries the liquefaction products out of the reactor. Unlike experiments carried out under similar conditions in a batch reactor no increase in solid residue is observed during long time high temperature runs in the flowing solvent reactor. There is a greater appreciation of the importance of retrograde, or polymerization, reactions. If the free radicals formed when coal breaks down are not quickly capped with hydrogen, they react with each other to form large molecules that are much harder to break down than the original coal. Reaction time impacts both the co-liquefaction cost and the product yield. So as to study this idea, the experiments of Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure co-liquefaction carried out by changing the reaction time from 30 to 120 minutes. As a result, the greatest oil products yields obtained at 60 minutes. Therefore, by thinking about the oil products yield values acquired, the optimal reaction time was obtained to be 60 minutes for Elbistan lignite (EL) with manure liquefied with the temperature of 350°C and 400°C. Above 425°C did not examine because solvent (tetraline) loses its function after 425 °C. The obtained optimum temperature found 400°C due to higher total conversion of liquefaction products and also oil+gas yields.

  2. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of materials for the coal liquefaction plant); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika plant zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A 1 T/D solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction test plant was constructed and operated to obtain the technical data for the design of, and establish the techniques for, an efficient coal liquefaction plant. The FY 1980 program includes surveys on the materials for coal liquefaction plants, covering those already developed and under development, to clarify the problematical points; drafting the test schedules; and conceptual designs of the material testing facilities. The major problems involved in the materials for coal liquefaction plants include erosion by fluidizing coal slurry, hydrogen embrittlement of the reactor materials, and corrosion by the liquefaction products (e.g., stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steel, and corrosion by organic acids). The surveys on materials research trends suggest that USA seems to concentrate their research efforts on the reactor materials. The corrosion tests are mostly of in-plant tests, but the stress corrosion and slurry erosion tests are conducted on a laboratory scale. The conceptual designs are drawn for some testing units, e.g., the loop type material testing unit and basic testing unit for jet-spray type slurry erosion. (NEDO)

  3. Earthquake induced liquefaction hazard, probability and risk assessment in the city of Kolkata, India: its historical perspective and deterministic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Srivastava, Nishtha; Ghatak, Chitralekha; Adhikari, Manik Das; Ghosh, Ambarish; Sinha Ray, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    Liquefaction-induced ground failure is one amongst the leading causes of infrastructure damage due to the impact of large earthquakes in unconsolidated, non-cohesive, water saturated alluvial terrains. The city of Kolkata is located on the potentially liquefiable alluvial fan deposits of Ganga-Bramhaputra-Meghna Delta system with subsurface litho-stratigraphic sequence comprising of varying percentages of clay, cohesionless silt, sand, and gravel interbedded with decomposed wood and peat. Additionally, the region has moderately shallow groundwater condition especially in the post-monsoon seasons. In view of burgeoning population, there had been unplanned expansion of settlements in the hazardous geological, geomorphological, and hydrological conditions exposing the city to severe liquefaction hazard. The 1897 Shillong and 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquakes both of M w 8.1 reportedly induced Modified Mercalli Intensity of IV-V and VI-VII respectively in the city reportedly triggering widespread to sporadic liquefaction condition with surface manifestation of sand boils, lateral spreading, ground subsidence, etc., thus posing a strong case for liquefaction potential analysis in the terrain. With the motivation of assessing seismic hazard, vulnerability, and risk of the city of Kolkata through a consorted federal funding stipulated for all the metros and upstart urban centers in India located in BIS seismic zones III, IV, and V with population more than one million, an attempt has been made here to understand the liquefaction susceptibility condition of Kolkata under the impact of earthquake loading employing modern multivariate techniques and also to predict deterministic liquefaction scenario of the city in the event of a probabilistic seismic hazard condition with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years and a return period of 475 years. We conducted in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations in the city encompassing 435 km2 area. The stochastically

  4. Thermoeconomic optimization of a cryogenic refrigeration cycle for re-liquefaction of the LNG boil-off gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaelahi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box: 19395-1999, No. 15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran 1999 143344 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    The development of the liquefaction process for the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) boil-off re-liquefaction plants will be addressed to provide an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for the gas transportation. In this manner, onboard boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system as a cryogenic refrigeration cycle is utilized in order to re-liquefy the BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it. In this paper, a thermoeconomic optimization of the LNG-BOG liquefaction system is performed. A thermoeconomic model based on energy and exergy analyses and an economic model according to the total revenue requirement (TRR) are developed. Minimizing of the unit cost of the refrigeration effect as a product of BOG re-liquefaction plant is performed using the genetic algorithm. Results of thermoeconomic optimization are compared with corresponding features of the base case system. Finally, sensitivity of the total cost of the system product with respect to the variation of some operating parameters is studied. (author)

  5. Report for fiscal 1981 of Sunshine Program coal group. Basic research on Solvolysis liquefaction technology; 1981 nendo solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Basic research is conducted on the Solvolysis liquefaction process for the purpose of producing from coal an ashless, low-sulfur, pollution-free liquid fuel. In the research on the Solvolysis liquefaction (1st stage liquefaction) of coal using a hydrogenation solvent, the Solvolysis liquefaction of coal is studied, for which a refined Solvolysis pitch containing coal substances and a hydride of solvent refined coal are used as Solvolysis liquefaction solvents for the 1st stage. In the research on the 1st stage liquefaction reaction conditions using a high-temperature closed process, two methods are employed. One is a method that uses a mini-pump type reactor in which a small hermetic container is submerged in a high-temperature solvent for rapid heating and the other is a method that uses a pipe type reactor in which coal slurry is caused to travel through a pipe heated to a high temperature. For the analysis of the 2nd stage liquefaction (hydrogenation) reaction conditions, the properties of the 2nd coal liquid, and the constitution of the 2nd coal liquid, and the for the research on the 1st stage liquefaction capacity, the hydrogenation of anthracene oil and solvent refined coal as recyclable solvent models is studied. (NEDO)

  6. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 25, 1990--October 24, 1991: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  7. Evaluation of performance of analytical and numerical methods to account for liquefaction effects on the seismic response of anchored quay walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elsäcker, W.A.; Besseling, F.; Lengkeek, H.J.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.; de Gijt, J.G.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Liquefaction induced by earthquakes has shown to have potential devastating influence on seismic performance of anchored quay walls. Therefore, measures to mitigate liquefaction are commonly part of the design of quay walls in
    seismically active regions. Such mitigation measures are costly.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of coal liquefaction technology (Conceptual designs for coal liquefaction pilot plants - Solvent extraction liquefaction process); 1982 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika pilot plant no gainen sekkei (yozai chushutsu ekikaho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This research aims to prepare conceptual designs for a 250t/d-class and 500t/d-class coal liquefaction pilot plants based on the achievement of research on solvent extraction liquefaction of coal. It also aims to define the solvent extraction process and provide decision-making material relative to the development and promotion of coal liquefaction technologies in the future. Development started in 1978 of the technology of solvent extraction liquefaction of coal, and a 1t/d PDU (process development unit) was completed in 1981. Studies through its operation have continued for more than 3000 hours already, and technical data are being accumulated steadily. Techniques acquired through operating the 1t/d PDU have been put together, and rough process conditions are established. A rough process result is achieved of the same conditions. In these two respects, the newly developed process is equal to other processes. The phenomena in this process are roughly grasped. It is deemed that, with the existing technique combined with the technique acquired here, a technological level has been reached where conceptual designs of large pilot plants may be worked out for solvent extraction liquefaction of coal. Under the circumstances, with a view to developing a commercial plant whose main products will be fuel oils, conceptual designs are prepared for large pilot plants, and are compiled into this report. (NEDO)

  9. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Simulation and Optimization of an Innovative Dual Mixed Component Refrigerant Cycle (DMRC) for Natural Gas Offshore Liquefaction Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAHBA, L.A.; Fahmy, M.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation and optimization of an innovative liquefaction process used for the LNG production , namely the Dual Mixed Refrigerant Process (DMRC) has been conducted using the HYSYS simulator .This new process is especially suitable for off shore natural gas liquefaction plants. A numerical optimization technique has been used to determine the optimum conditions for Egyptian natural gas feed source. The investigation of the effect of different compositions of the Mixed refrigerants used was conducted. Meanwhile, the investigation of the influence of the temperature of cooling water used was conducted. The best optimum conditions for the DMRC process were determined .The optimum results achieved for the DMRC process revealed that the DMRC process can be successfully applied as a promising technique for off shore natural gas liquefaction plants

  11. Energy consumption, destruction of exergy and boil off during the process of liquefaction, transport and regasification of liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradioto, Diogo Angelo; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], e-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    A supply chain of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is composed by several processes like extraction, purification, liquefaction, storage, transport, regasification and distribution. In all these stages, processes need of energy. The main objective of this work is to quantify the energy consumption, mass loss and exergy destruction occurred throughout the chain. Results show that the process of liquefaction is the largest consumer of energy. Storage and transport by ship are responsible for the bigger mass losses and regasification is the process of larger destruction of exergy. A case study is performed considering a stream of pure methane at the input of a liquefaction plant, and evaluates energy along the chain, ending up at the distribution of NG after its regasification. (author)

  12. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to produce biofuels: state of the art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, M. S.; Chernova, N. I.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Popel', O. S.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The article presents a review of the state of the art and lines of research on hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae (MA). The main advantages of this technology for production of biofuel are that it does not require predrying of the feedstock and ensures a relatively high product yield—the ratio of the end product weight to the feedstock weight—owing to the fact that all the microalgal components, viz., lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, are converted into biofuel. MA hydrothermal liquefaction is considered to be a promising technology for conversion of biomass and is a subject of a series of research studies and, judging by the available publications, the scope of research in this field is expanding currently. However, many significant problems remain unsolved. In particular, an active searched is being conducted for suitable strains that will ensure not only a high lipid yield—necessary to convert microalgae into biodiesel—but also higher biomass productivity and a higher biofuel yield; the chemical reactions that occur during the hydrothermal treatment are being studied; and the effect of significant process variables, such as temperature, heating rate, holdup time at the maximum temperature, biomass concentration in the water suspension, biochemical and elemental compositions of the microalgae, use of catalysts, etc., on the liquefaction processes is being studied. One of the urgent tasks is also the reduction of the nitrogen content in the resulting biofuel. Studies aimed at the development of a continuous process and rational heat-processing plants for thermal microalgal conversion are being conducted to increase the energy efficiency of the HTL process, in particular, to provide the heat recovery and separation of the end product.

  14. Design and analysis of liquefaction process for offshore associated gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Ju, Y.L.

    2010-01-01

    Liquefaction is the key section on floating platform. Some experts and designers selected mixed refrigerant process for floating platform, while some recommended expander cycle. However, few of them compared the two types of processes systemically before making a choice. In this paper, the liquefaction processes of propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant cycle (C 3 /MRC), mixed refrigerant cycle (MRC) and nitrogen expander cycle (N 2 expander) for the special offshore associated gases in South China Sea have been designed and studied. These processes have been analyzed and compared systematically considering the main factors including the performance parameters, economic performance, layout, sensitivity to motion, suitability to different gas resources, safety and operability, accounting for the features of the floating production, storage and offloading unit for liquefied natural gas (LNG-FPSO) in marine environment. The results indicated that N 2 expander has higher energy consumption and poorer economic performance, while it has much more advantages than C 3 /MRC and MRC for offshore application because it is simpler and more compact and thus requiring less deck area, less sensitive to LNG-FPSO motion, has better suitability for other gas resources, has higher safety and is easier to operate. Therefore, N 2 expander is the most suitable offshore liquefaction process. In addition, the exergy analysis is conducted for N 2 expander and the results indicate that the compression equipments and after coolers, expanders and LNG heat exchangers are the main contribution to the total exergy losses. The measures to decrease the losses for these equipments are then discussed.

  15. Final report on research project: Soil liquefaction testing and evaluation for Kozloduy nuclear power plant units 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonov, S [Energoproekt plc., Power Consulting Engineers, Hydropower Division, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-07-01

    The object of this study is the region of the channels of additional technical water supply of Kozloduy NPP, Units 5 and 6. This region is chosen because there are enough data for water saturated sands, necessary for the analysis, including data from cyclic triaxial tests and standard penetration tests. Three kinds ofprocedures for estimation of liquefaction potential of water saturated sands are used in the study. The results obtained by different procedures were compared, analyzed and conclusions drawn about the liquefaction potential of water saturated sands in the area of the channels of additional technical water supply.

  16. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  17. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  18. Use of microalgae to recycle nutrients in aqueous phase derived from hydrothermal liquefaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Li, Jun; Wen, Zhiyou; Zhou, Wenguang

    2018-05-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae biomass generates an aqueous phase (AP) byproduct with limited energy value. Recycling the AP solution as a source of nutrients for microalgae cultivation provides an opportunity for a cost-effective production of HTL based biofuel and algal biomass feedstock for HTL, allowing a closed-loop biofuel production in microalgae HTL biofuel system. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of characteristics of AP and its nutrients recycling for algae production. Inhibitory effects resulted from the toxic compounds in AP and alleviation strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Floating Production Storage and Offloading Facilities with Liquefaction Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Sánchez, Yamid Alberto Carranza; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing.They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producingoil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remotelocations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, consideringfour possible petroleum compositions, which differ in their contents of carbon dioxide, light and heavy hydrocarbons.The performance...

  20. Studies on liquefaction and pyrolysis of peat and biomass at KTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernbom, E.; Sjoestrom, K.; Hoernel, C.; Zanzi, R.; Bjoernbom, P.

    1996-01-01

    A brief review of the study on thermochemical conversion of solid fuels is done. The study have been performed in the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, since the outbreak of energy crisis in the seventies. The main problems connected with utilisation of peat for energy are: 90% moisture content in the deposits and 35-40% oxygen content in the dry substance. Simultaneous dewatering and liquefaction of peat have been achieved by the Bjoerbom method. The wet peat has been treated with CO and H 2 O without preliminary drying, using water as a medium agent. After treatment water has been phase-separated from the heavy oil product. Another approach is de-oxygenation of peat prior to liquefaction. A significant part of oxygen in peat and biomass can be removed by thermal decomposition of the fuels prior to liquefaction and removal of carbon dioxide and water from the organic matter in them. The products obtained after de-oxygenation demand low consumption of external hydrogenation agent because they are rich in hydrogen. Some criteria for selection of peat as a raw material for liquefaction are given. The equipment and experimental procedure for pyrolysis of peat and biomass are described. A free fall tubular reactor with max operating pressure of 5 MPa and temperature of 1100 o C has been used. The effect of treatment conditions under the rapid pyrolysis in the free fall reactor on the yield and the reactivity of char obtained after the final pyrolysis is shown. Peat and wood are transformed into pyrolysis products for less than 1 second; 35-50% of the moisture- and ash-free peat and 70% of the wood have been converted into gaseous products.The char obtained in the rapid pyrolysis contains a fraction which can be further de-volatilized by slow pyrolysis for a few minutes - time much longer than the time for formation of primary products. High reactivity of char is favoured by lower pyrolysis temperature, shorter residence time and larger particle size of the fuel

  1. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  2. Non-linear transient behavior during soil liquefaction based on re-evaluation of seismic records

    OpenAIRE

    Kamagata, S.; Takewaki, Izuru

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on soil liquefaction, the seismic records during the Niigata-ken earthquake in 1964, the southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake in 1995 and the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake are analyzed by the non-stationary Fourier spectra. The shift of dominant frequency in the seismic record of Kawagishi-cho during the Niigata-ken earthquake is evaluated based on the time-variant property of dominant frequencies. The reduction ratio of the soil stiffness is evaluated from the shif...

  3. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 2. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 2). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the machine design, such as the piping specifications, standard piping drawings, piping design procedures, piping drawings, pipe lists, and device inspection specifications. In relation with the instrumentation design, the instrumentation engineering specifications and meter lists. (NEDO)

  4. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  6. Deoxy-liquefaction of three different species of macroalgae to high-quality liquid oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guoming; Chen, Ming; Li, Jiedong; Yang, Yaoyao; Zhu, Qiuyan; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Zonghua; Liu, Haichao

    2014-10-01

    Three species of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica and Gelidium amansii) were converted into liquid oils via deoxy-liquefaction. The elemental analysis, FTIR and GC-MS results showed that the three liquid oils were all mainly composed of aromatics, phenols, alkanes and alkenes, other oxygen-containing compounds, and some nitrogen-containing compounds though there were some differences in terms of their types or contents due to the different constituents in the macroalgae feedstocks. The oxygen content was only 5.15-7.30% and the H/C molar ratio was up to 1.57-1.73. Accordingly, the HHV of the three oils were 42.50, 41.76 and 40.00 MJ/kg, respectively. The results suggested that U. lactuca, L. japonica and G. amansii have potential as biomass feedstock for fuel and chemicals and that deoxy-liquefaction technique may be an effective way to convert macroalgae into high-quality liquid oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues Final Report – CRADA #PNNL/277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Fjare, K. A.; Dunn, B. C.; McDonald, S. L.; Dassor, G.

    2010-07-28

    This project was performed as a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the participants: Archer-Daniels-Midland Company (ADM), ConocoPhillips (COP), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Funding from the federal government was provided by the Office of the Biomass Program within the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy assistant secretariat as part of the Thermochemical Conversion Platform. The three-year project was initiated in August 2007 with formal signing of the CRADA (#PNNL/277) in March 3, 2008 with subsequent amendments approved in November of 2008 and August of 2009. This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL and the CRADA partners ADM and COP. It is considered Protected CRADA Information and is not available for public disclosure. The work conducted during this project involved developing process technology at PNNL for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of agricultural and biorefinery residues and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) of the aqueous byproduct from the liquefaction step. Related work performed by the partners included assessment of aqueous phase byproducts, hydroprocessing of the bio-oil product and process analysis and economic modeling of the technology.

  8. Modelling landslide liquefaction, mobility bifurcation and the dynamics of the 2014 Oso disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Some landslides move slowly or intermittently downslope, but others liquefy during the early stages of motion, leading to runaway acceleration and high-speed runout across low-relief terrain. Mechanisms responsible for this disparate behaviour are represented in a two-phase, depth-integrated, landslide dynamics model that melds principles from soil mechanics, granular mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model assumes that gradually increasing pore-water pressure causes slope failure to nucleate at the weakest point on a basal slip surface in a statically balanced mass. Failure then spreads to adjacent regions as a result of momentum exchange. Liquefaction is contingent on pore-pressure feedback that depends on the initial soil state. The importance of this feedback is illustrated by using the model to study the dynamics of a disastrous landslide that occurred near Oso, Washington, USA, on 22 March 2014. Alternative simulations of the event reveal the pronounced effects of a landslide mobility bifurcation that occurs if the initial void ratio of water-saturated soil equals the lithostatic, critical-state void ratio. They also show that the tendency for bifurcation increases as the soil permeability decreases. The bifurcation implies that it can be difficult to discriminate conditions that favour slow landsliding from those that favour liquefaction and long runout.

  9. Numerical Analyses of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction and Deformation Behaviour of an Upstream Tailings Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Auchar Zardari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the seismic activity of northern Sweden consists of micro-earthquakes occurring near postglacial faults. However, larger magnitude earthquakes do occur in Sweden, and earthquake statistics indicate that a magnitude 5 event is likely to occur once every century. This paper presents dynamic analyses of the effects of larger earthquakes on an upstream tailings dam at the Aitik copper mine in northern Sweden. The analyses were performed to evaluate the potential for liquefaction and to assess stability of the dam under two specific earthquakes: a commonly occurring magnitude 3.6 event and a more extreme earthquake of magnitude 5.8. The dynamic analyses were carried out with the finite element program PLAXIS using a recently implemented constitutive model called UBCSAND. The results indicate that the magnitude 5.8 earthquake would likely induce liquefaction in a limited zone located below the ground surface near the embankment dikes. It is interpreted that stability of the dam may not be affected due to the limited extent of the liquefied zone. Both types of earthquakes are predicted to induce tolerable magnitudes of displacements. The results of the postseismic slope stability analysis, performed for a state after a seismic event, suggest that the dam is stable during both the earthquakes.

  10. Optimisation of expansion liquefaction processes using mixed refrigerant N_2–CH_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, He; Sun, Heng; He, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A refrigerant composition matching method for N_2–CH_4 expansion processes. • Efficiency improvements for propane pre-cooled N_2–CH_4 expansion processes. • The process shows good adaptability to varying natural gas compositions. - Abstract: An expansion process with a pre-cooling system is simulated and optimised by Aspen HYSYS and MATLAB"™. Taking advantage of higher specific refrigeration effect of methane and easily reduced refrigeration temperature of nitrogen, the designed process adopts N_2–CH_4 as a mixed refrigerant. Based on the different thermodynamic properties and sensitivity difference of N_2 and CH_4 over the same heat transfer temperature range, this work proposes a novel method of matching refrigerant composition which aims at single-stage or multi-stage series expansion liquefaction processes with pre-cooling systems. This novel method is applied successfully in propane pre-cooled N_2–CH_4 expansion process, and the unit power consumption is reduced to 7.09 kWh/kmol, which is only 5.35% higher than the global optimised solutions obtained by genetic algorithm. This novel method can fulfil the accomplishments of low energy consumption and high liquefaction rate, and thus decreases the gap between the mixed refrigerant and expansion processes in energy consumption. Furthermore, the high exergy efficiency of the process indicates good adaptability to varying natural gas compositions.

  11. Report of liquefaction catalyst study meeting (March 1996); Ekika shokubai kentokai hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Studied in the research are four iron-based catalysts, which are natural pyrite, synthetic iron sulfide, synthetic iron hydroxide, and catalyst-attached carbon. Tanito Harum coal is treated in a 0.01t/d-capable continuous operation furnace (once-through) under conditions of 450 degrees C and 170kgf/cm{sup 2} with catalyst addition of 1.0, 3.0wt% (catalyst-attached carbon 0.6, 1.0wt%), and a liquid yield of 41.5-48.6wt%-daf coal is achieved. A higher yield results when more catalyst is added. The same yield as achieved by the addition of 3wt% natural pyrite is obtained by the addition of 1.9wt% synthetic iron sulfide, 1.5wt% of synthetic iron hydroxide, or 0.7wt% catalyst-attached coal. The catalyst cost for treating a ton of coal is 4-9 hundred yen, which is far more expensive than the cost set forth as the target. Catalysts whose production process embodiment is now under study are natural pyrite and synthetic iron sulfide, and studies for others are just preliminary. Provided that the practical application of the liquefaction technology realizes in about 2000, then the petroleum price is predicted to be 23 dollars per barrel. Coal liquefaction products will have to be produced at a cost which will enable competition with the said petroleum price. (NEDO)

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrocarbon refrigerants-based ethylene BOG re-liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladjine, Boumedienne M.; Ouadha, Ahmed; Addad, Yacine

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to make a thermodynamic analysis of an ethylene cascade re-liquefaction system that consists of the following two subsystems: a liquefaction cycle using ethylene as the working fluid and a refrigeration cycle operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The hydrocarbon refrigerants considered are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), and propylene (R1270). A computer program written in FORTRAN is developed to compute parameters for characteristic points of the cycles and the system's performance, which is determined and analyzed using numerical solutions for the refrigerant condensation temperature, temperature in tank, and temperature difference in the cascade condenser. Results show that R600a gives the best performance, followed by (in order) R600, R290, and R1270. Furthermore, it is found that an increase in tank temperature improves system performance but that an increase in refrigerant condensation temperature causes deterioration. In addition, it is found that running the system at a low temperature difference in the cascade condenser is advantageous.

  13. Techno-economic analysis of solar integrated hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Matthew; Shemfe, Mobolaji; Sansom, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal liquefaction and concentrated solar power provide integrated biofuel technology. • Heat kinetics and energy efficiency Aspen plus modelling of CSP and HTL. • Microalgae biofuel minimum fuel sales price of $1.23/kg. - Abstract: Integration of Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae biomass with concentrated solar power thermal processing (CSP) for bio-oil production is a potential processing pathway for energy efficient generation of renewable biofuels. Solar HTL infrastructure avoids additional bolt-on components of conventional solar parabolic trough systems used for electricity production including heat transfer fluids, counter current heat exchangers, fluid transfer interconnectivity and electrical power control systems. The absence of such capital intensive additional equipment considerably reduces the production costs of solar HTL biofuels compared to electricity generation from conventional CSP power systems. An economic and market appraisal of variance and system economic resilience is presented. It is hypothesised that the combination of nutrient recycling with HTL/CSP unification has the potential for economically sustainable microalgae bio-oil production. A microalgae biofuel minimum fuel sales price of $1.23/kg has been modelled. Further experimental work would be able to validate this integrated model.

  14. Identification of tsunami deposits and liquefaction features in the Gargano area (Italy: paleoseismological implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Graziani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gargano region (Southeastern Italy was hit by a M = 6.8 earthquake and inundated by a subsequent tsunami in 1627. To better define the hazard in the region, we searched for evidence of this and prior earthquakes in the geologic record. We identified potential earthquake-related liquefaction features and tsunami deposits in the stratigraphic sequences of the marsh areas both north and south of the Gargano promontory. We recognized clear liquefaction features and possible tsunamigenic sands that can be related to the 1627 seismic event in irrigation ditch exposures and gouge cores along the Northern Gargano coast. In total, six potential tsunami sand deposits have been recognized in two areas located close to the northern and southern coasts of the Gargano promontory. However, ambiguous evidence comes from the paleontological analysis of these sands. Although fragments of marine shells have been found in the coarser portion of the sand samples, foraminifera and ostracods assemblages are typical of brackish water condition. Radiocarbon dating of three of these deposits from the Northern Gargano coast, near the town of Lesina, suggests an average recurrence interval of 1700 years for tsunami events in this area. Assuming that all the paleotsunamis are related to the same seismogenic source responsible for the 1627 earthquake, this average recurrence interval may be typical for that source. Radiocarbon dating of three sand layers observed on the southern coast, close to the city of Manfredonia, suggests that the average recurrence time for violent sea inundation there is about 1200 years.

  15. Electrical resistivity tomography investigation of coseismic liquefaction and fracturing at San Carlo, Ferrara Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abu Zeid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Massive surface fracturing and sand ejection took place during the main shock of the May 20, 2012, earthquake (Ml = 5.9 in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. These phenomena were induced by the liquefaction of water-saturated sand layers, and they damaged several buildings, as well as many roads and sidewalks. They were clustered between the villages of Sant'Agostino and Vigarano Mainarda, located along a paleo-reach of the Reno River [Papathanassiou et al. 2012, this volume]. The subsurface surrounding two major (several decameters long ground ruptures was investigated using electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT, as resistivity is strongly affected by the chemico-physical conditions of loose sediments. Italian regulations require the Municipalities within seismically active areas to develop maps of the potential liquefaction risk. Not all of the territories that are under this kind of risk have been investigated to date. A strong effort to improve this knowledge is therefore needed. Noninvasive geophysical methods can help to fill this gap, as high-resolution techniques are available with good result-to-cost ratios. Among the available methodologies, the most suitable are the methods based on electrical resistivity and permittivity, as they are highly sensitive to the presence of underground water. The ERT method has been carried out successfully across active faults, providing crucial paleoseismological information [Caputo et al. 2003, 2007]. […

  16. Study of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Increase in oil yield with suppression of retrogressive reaction during initial stage; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, K.; Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the coal liquefaction, improvement of liquefaction conditions and increase of liquefied oil yield are expected by suppressing the recombination through rapid stabilization of pyrolytic radicals which are formed at the initial stage of liquefaction. Two-stage liquefaction combining prethermal treatment and liquefaction was performed under various conditions, to investigate the effects of reaction conditions on the yields and properties of products as well as to increase liquefied oil yield. Consequently, it was found that the catalyst contributes greatly to the hydrogen transfer to coal at the prethermal treatment. High yield of n-hexane soluble fraction with products having low condensation degree could be obtained by combining the prethermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen and catalyst with the concentration of slurry after the treatment. This was considered to be caused by the synergetic effect between the improvement of liquefaction by suppressing polymerization/condensation at the initial stage of reaction through the prethermal treatment and the effective hydrogen transfer accompanied with the improvement of contact efficiency of coal/catalyst by the concentration of slurry at the stage of liquefaction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  18. Direct versus Indirect Explicit Methods of Enhancing EFL Students' English Grammatical Competence: A Concept Checking-Based Consciousness-Raising Tasks Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Trang Thi Doan; Nguyen, Huong Thu

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches to grammar instruction are often discussed in the ESL literature: direct explicit grammar instruction (DEGI) (deduction) and indirect explicit grammar instruction (IEGI) (induction). This study aims to explore the effects of indirect explicit grammar instruction on EFL learners' mastery of English tenses. Ninety-four…

  19. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  20. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.