WorldWideScience

Sample records for direct laser powder

  1. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  2. Direct laser sintering of metal powders: Mechanism, kinetics and microstructural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simchi, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the densification and microstructural evolution during direct laser sintering of metal powders were studied. Various ferrous powders including Fe, Fe-C, Fe-Cu, Fe-C-Cu-P, 316L stainless steel, and M2 high-speed steel were used. The empirical sintering rate data was related to the energy input of the laser beam according to the first order kinetics equation to establish a simple sintering model. The equation calculates the densification of metal powders during direct laser sintering process as a function of operating parameters including laser power, scan rate, layer thickness and scan line spacing. It was found that when melting/solidification approach is the mechanism of sintering, the densification of metals powders (D) can be expressed as an exponential function of laser specific energy input (ψ) as ln(1 - D) = -Kψ. The coefficient K is designated as 'densification coefficient'; a material dependent parameter that varies with chemical composition, powder particle size, and oxygen content of the powder material. The mechanism of particle bonding and microstructural features of the laser sintered powders are addressed

  3. Direct metal laser deposition of titanium powder Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Sergeev, K. L.; Osintsev, A. V.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Polskiy, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of mechanical properties study of the material produced by direct metal laser deposition of VT6 titanium powder. The properties were determined by the results of stretching at tensile testing machine, as well as compared with the properties of the same rolled material. These results show that obtained samples have properties on the level or even higher than that ones of the samples obtained from the rolled material in a certain range of technological regimes.

  4. Application of laser in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Modern status of works in the field of laser application in powder metallurgy (powders preparation, sintering, coatings formation, powder materials processing) is considered. The attention is paid to the new promising direction in powder products shape-formation technology - laser layer-by-layer selective powders sintering and bulk sintering of packaged layered profiles produced by laser cutting of powder-based sheet blanks. 67 refs

  5. Predictive modeling capabilities from incident powder and laser to mechanical properties for laser directed energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yung C.; Bailey, Neil; Katinas, Christopher; Tan, Wenda

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of vertically integrated comprehensive predictive modeling capabilities for directed energy deposition processes, which have been developed at Purdue University. The overall predictive models consist of vertically integrated several modules, including powder flow model, molten pool model, microstructure prediction model and residual stress model, which can be used for predicting mechanical properties of additively manufactured parts by directed energy deposition processes with blown powder as well as other additive manufacturing processes. Critical governing equations of each model and how various modules are connected are illustrated. Various illustrative results along with corresponding experimental validation results are presented to illustrate the capabilities and fidelity of the models. The good correlations with experimental results prove the integrated models can be used to design the metal additive manufacturing processes and predict the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties.

  6. Predictive modeling capabilities from incident powder and laser to mechanical properties for laser directed energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yung C.; Bailey, Neil; Katinas, Christopher; Tan, Wenda

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of vertically integrated comprehensive predictive modeling capabilities for directed energy deposition processes, which have been developed at Purdue University. The overall predictive models consist of vertically integrated several modules, including powder flow model, molten pool model, microstructure prediction model and residual stress model, which can be used for predicting mechanical properties of additively manufactured parts by directed energy deposition processes with blown powder as well as other additive manufacturing processes. Critical governing equations of each model and how various modules are connected are illustrated. Various illustrative results along with corresponding experimental validation results are presented to illustrate the capabilities and fidelity of the models. The good correlations with experimental results prove the integrated models can be used to design the metal additive manufacturing processes and predict the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties.

  7. Multiphysics simulation of thermal phenomena in direct laser metal powder deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available presents on two dimensional multi-physics models to describe the physical mechanism of heat transfer, melting and solidification that take place during and post laser-powder interaction. The simulated transient temperature profile, the geometrical features...

  8. Laser-Aided Directed Energy Deposition of Steel Powder over Flat Surfaces and Edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Alfieri, Vittorio

    2018-03-16

    In the framework of Additive Manufacturing of metals, Directed Energy Deposition of steel powder over flat surfaces and edges has been investigated in this paper. The aims are the repair and overhaul of actual, worn-out, high price sensitive metal components. A full-factorial experimental plan has been arranged, the results have been discussed in terms of geometry, microhardness and thermal affection as functions of the main governing parameters, laser power, scanning speed and mass flow rate; dilution and catching efficiency have been evaluated as well to compare quality and effectiveness of the process under conditions of both flat and edge depositions. Convincing results are presented to give grounds for shifting the process to actual applications: namely, no cracks or pores have been found in random cross-sections of the samples in the processing window. Interestingly an effect of the scanning conditions has been proven on the resulting hardness in the fusion zone; therefore, the mechanical characteristics are expected to depend on the processing parameters.

  9. A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.syed@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Pinkerton, Andrew J. [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Li Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-15

    Metal powder feeding has been used widely in various rapid prototyping and tooling processes such as direct laser deposition (DLD) and layered engineered net shaping (LENS) to achieve near net shape accuracy. Although powder recycling has been practiced, the material usage efficiency has been very low (normally below 30%). This study compares the process characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of wire- and powder-feed DLD. A 1.5 kW diode laser is used to build multiple layer parts, which are compared and analysed in terms of surface finish, microstructure and deposition efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy are used for the material characterisation. The microstructure of samples from both the methods is similar, with some porosity found in powder-feed components, but the surface finish and material usage efficiency is better for wire-feed samples. The deposition angle is found to be critical in the case of wire feeding and the characteristics of different feed angles are explored. Possible reasons for the different characteristics of the two deposition techniques are discussed.

  10. Direct laser metal deposition of WC/Co/Cr powder by means of the functionally graded materials strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelastro, A.; Campanelli, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    One of the many applications of direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) is the realization of multilayer thick coatings having particular mechanical characteristics, such as high hardness. The objective of this work was to obtain a thick, very hard and wear resistant coating, containing a high percentage of tungsten carbide (WC), on an AISI 304 stainless steel substrate. In order to achieve this result, a tungsten carbide-cobalt-chrome (WC/Co/Cr) powder was processed by the DLMD method. WC/Co/Cr is a composite widely used as a wear-resistant material for cutting tools, molds, coatings and other severe applications. Because of its high hardness, poor ductility and low thermal expansion coefficient, depositing this material directly on the stainless steel substrate is very difficult. In order to overcome this problem, the strategy of functionally graded materials (FGM) was used. Colmonoy 227-F nickel alloy was chosen for this purpose in order to generate a mixture with the WC/Co/Cr powder. Four different materials were deposited, layer by layer, by mixing Colmonoy 227-F with an increasing amount of WC/Co/Cr powders, until obtaining a thick surface coating with a maximum amount of WC of 77.4 wt%. For each powder mixture, a mathematical model was applied to calculate optimal values of translation speed and overlap percentages. A metallographic examination was performed in order to detect macro- and micro-structures of the different materials. Finally, Vickers micro-hardness was measured at various locations along the transverse section to appreciate the gradual increase of the FGM hardness, starting from the substrate and culminating at the top surface of the last deposited material.

  11. New technique for the direct analysis of food powders confined in a small hole using transversely excited atmospheric CO(2) laser-induced gas plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, Ali; Ramli, Muliadi; Deguchi, Yoji; Lee, Yong Inn; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2008-12-01

    Taking advantage of the differences between the interactions of transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO(2) lasers with metal and with organic powder, a new technique for the direct analysis of food powder samples has been developed. In this technique, the powder samples were placed into a small hole with a diameter of 2 mm and a depth of 3 mm and covered by a metal mesh. The TEA CO(2) laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the powder sample surfaces, passing through the metal mesh, at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen gas. It is hypothesized that the small hole functions to confine the powder particles and suppresses the blowing-off of sample, while the metal mesh works as the source of electrons to initiate the strong gas breakdown plasma. The confined powder particles are then ablated by laser irradiation and the ablated particles move into the strong gas breakdown plasma region to be atomized and excited; this method cannot be applied for the case of Nd:YAG lasers because in such case the metal mesh itself was ablated by the laser irradiation. A quantitative analysis of a milk powder sample containing different concentrations of Ca was successfully demonstrated, resulting in a good linear calibration curve with high precision.

  12. Compositionally graded Ti6Al4V + TiC made by direct laser fabrication using powder and wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Mei, J.; Wu Xinhua

    2007-01-01

    Ti6Al4V reinforced with TiC has been fabricated as compositionally graded material by direct laser fabrication using TiC powder and Ti6Al4V wire which were fed simultaneously into the laser focal point. The microstructure along the length of the sample has been characterised using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the composition along the length changes as expected from the imposed changes in feed rate when allowance is made for the different capture efficiency for the powder and the wire. Some unmelted TiC has been observed in regions where the TiC fraction was high, but along most of the length of the samples TiC was completely melted and formed primary TiC, eutectic TiC and secondary TiC. Some preliminary tribological properties of the compositionally graded material were obtained using a sliding wear test which showed that the tribological properties of Ti6Al4V are improved by the reinforced TiC particles with the optimum frictional behaviour being found with approximately 24 vol% of TiC

  13. Directed laser processing of compacted powder mixtures Al2O3-TiO2-Y2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase formation, microstructure and surface texture of laser treated ternary powder mixtures of Al2O3-TiO2-Y2O3 had been studied. Rapid high temperature heating and subsequent rapid cooling due to the directed movement of the laser beam forms concave ceramic tracks. Phase composition and microstructure of the tracks depends on the Al2O3 content and the TiO2/Y2O3 ratio of the initial mixtures. The main phases observed are Y3Al5O12, Y2Ti2O7, Al2O3 and Al2TiO5. Due to the temperature gradient in the heating zone, complex layered structures are formed. The tracks consist of three main layers: a thin surface layer, a layer of crystallization products of eutectic alloys, and a lower sintered layer. The thickness of the crystallization layer and the shrinkage of the irradiation zone depend on the amount of Y3Al5O12 and Al2O3 crystallized from the melt.

  14. Powder densification maps in Selective Laser Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourell, D.; Wohlert, M.; Harlan, N.; Beaman, J.; Das, S.

    2002-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a manufacturing process in which a part is produced without the need for part-specific tooling. It competes effectively with other manufacturing processes when part geometry is complex and the production run is not large. Traditionally, this was limited to prototype production, although tooling applications are now appearing. This paper describes several applications of powder densification maps to advance solutions in direct SLS of metallic and ceramic powders. Time-dependent plasticity issues arise in pre-processing of powder to make it suitable for SLS and in post-processing of SLS parts to obtain desired density. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. From Powders to Dense Metal Parts: Characterization of a Commercial AlSiMg Alloy Processed through Direct Metal Laser Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Diego; Calignano, Flaviana; Krishnan, Manickavasagam; Canali, Riccardo; Ambrosio, Elisa Paola; Atzeni, Eleonora

    2013-03-06

    In this paper, a characterization of an AlSiMg alloy processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is presented, from the analysis of the starting powders, in terms of size, morphology and chemical composition, through to the evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties of specimens built along different orientations parallel and perpendicular to the powder deposition plane. With respect to a similar aluminum alloy as-fabricated, a higher yield strength of about 40% due to the very fine microstructure, closely related to the mechanisms involved in this additive process is observed.

  16. From Powders to Dense Metal Parts: Characterization of a Commercial AlSiMg Alloy Processed through Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Atzeni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a characterization of an AlSiMg alloy processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is presented, from the analysis of the starting powders, in terms of size, morphology and chemical composition, through to the evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties of specimens built along different orientations parallel and perpendicular to the powder deposition plane. With respect to a similar aluminum alloy as-fabricated, a higher yield strength of about 40% due to the very fine microstructure, closely related to the mechanisms involved in this additive process is observed.

  17. Direct determination of halogens in powdered geological and environmental samples using isotope dilution laser ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G.

    2005-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) with a special laser ablation system for bulk analyses (LINA-Spark(TM)-Atomiser) was applied for direct determinations of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in rock and sediment samples. Special attention was focused on possible inter-halogen fractionations and analyte/spike isotope fractionations by using LA-ICP-MS and LA-ICP-IDMS, respectively. A variation of Br/Cl and I/Cl element intensity ratios by a factor of 1.3-3 was observed when changing the nebulizer gas flow rate in the range of 0.84-1.0 L min-1 and the laser power density in the range of 2-10 GW cm-2, respectively. When using an internal standard for halogen quantification in LA-ICP-MS, this inter-element fractionation can cause systematic errors, which can be avoided by applying the isotope dilution technique. However, at high laser power densities (>5.7 GW cm-2 for iodine and >4.0 GW cm-2 for bromine and chlorine) the corresponding measured isotope ratio of the isotope-diluted sample deviates significantly from the target value. Under optimised conditions concentrations in the range of 30 [mu]g g-1-16 × 103 [mu]g g-1 for chlorine, <2-140 [mu]g g-1 for bromine, and <0.1-31 [mu]g g-1 for iodine were determined by LA-ICP-IDMS in two sediment reference materials (SRM 1646, SRM 2704) and three rock reference samples (GS-N, Granite; BX-N, Bauxite; DT-N, Disthene), which have not been certified for these halogens. The sediment results agree well within the given uncertainties with indicative values by different methods and the results of the rock samples with those obtained by negative thermal ionisation isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The detection limits of LA-ICP-IDMS are 8 [mu]g g-1 for chlorine, 1.7 [mu]g g-1 for bromine, and 0.1 [mu]g g-1 for iodine.

  18. Calibration strategies for the direct determination of Ca, K, and Mg in commercial samples of powdered milk and solid dietary supplements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Augusto, Amanda; Barsanelli, Paulo Lopes; Pereira, Fabiola Manhas Verbi; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the direct determination of Ca, K and Mg in powdered milk and solid dietary supplements. The following two calibration strategies were applied: (i) use of the samples to calculate calibration models (milk) and (ii) use of sample mixtures (supplements) to obtain a calibration curve. In both cases, reference values obtained from inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP OES) after acid digestion were used. The emission line selection from LIBS spectra was accomplished by analysing the regression coefficients of partial least squares (PLS) regression models, and wavelengths of 534.947, 766.490 and 285.213nm were chosen for Ca, K and Mg, respectively. In the case of the determination of Ca in supplements, it was necessary to perform a dilution (10-fold) of the standards and samples to minimize matrix interference. The average accuracy for powdered milk ranged from 60% to 168% for Ca, 77% to 152% for K and 76% to 131% for Mg. In the case of dietary supplements, standard error of prediction (SEP) varied from 295 (Mg) to 3782mgkg -1 (Ca). The proposed method presented an analytical frequency of around 60 samples per hour and the step of sample manipulation was drastically reduced, with no generation of toxic chemical residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser Processing Technology using Metal Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Hoon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to review the state of laser processing technology using metal powders. In recent years, a series of research and development efforts have been undertaken worldwide to develop laser processing technologies to fabricate metal-based parts. Layered manufacturing by the laser melting process is gaining ground for use in manufacturing rapid prototypes (RP), tools (RT) and functional end products. Selective laser sintering / melting (SLS/SLM) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid prototyping techniques. This is mainly due to the processes's suitability for almost any materials, including polymers, metals, ceramics and many types of composites. The interaction between the laser beam and the powder material used in the laser melting process is one of the dominant phenomena defining feasibility and quality. In the case of SLS, the powder is not fully melted during laser scanning, therefore the SLS-processed parts are not fully dense and have relatively low strength. To overcome this disadvantage, SLM and laser cladding (LC) processes have been used to enable full melting of the powder. Further studies on the laser processing technology will be continued due to the many potential applications that the technology offers.

  20. Pulsed Laser Cladding of Ni Based Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, A.; Stanciu, E. M.; Croitoru, C.; Roata, I. C.; Tierean, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize the operational parameters and quality of one step Metco Inconel 718 atomized powder laser cladded tracks, deposited on AISI 316 stainless steel substrate by means of a 1064 nm high power pulsed laser, together with a Precitec cladding head manipulated by a CLOOS 7 axes robot. The optimization of parameters and cladding quality has been assessed through Taguchi interaction matrix and graphical output. The study demonstrates that very good cladded layers with low dilution and increased mechanical proprieties could be fabricated using low laser energy density by involving a pulsed laser.

  1. Specific features of laser selective sintering of loose powder layers of metal-polymer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.; Sobolenko, N.V.; Mozzharov, S.E.; Yadrojtsev, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental study was carried out into laser sintering of metal and polymer powder mixtures containing 75 vol.% of nickel base alloy (spherical particles 60-70 μm in diameter) and 25 vol.% of PEP-219 polymer (angular isometric particles 50-100 μm in size). The powder mixture was deposited on a stainless steel substrate and heated by continuous laser beam directed normally to powder layer. Geometrical and structural parameters of single and multilayer sintered products are shown to depend on both laser processing conditions and heat transfer. Some recommendations are given aimed at manufacturing articles of required shape, surface properties and material strength. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  2. Computer Modeling of Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A computational approach to modeling direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing process is presented. The primary application of the model is for determining the temperature history of parts fabricated using DMLS to evaluate residual stresses found in finished pieces and to assess manufacturing process strategies to reduce part slumping. The model utilizes MSC SINDA as a heat transfer solver with imbedded FORTRAN computer code to direct laser motion, apply laser heating as a boundary condition, and simulate the addition of metal powder layers during part fabrication. Model results are compared to available data collected during in situ DMLS part manufacture.

  3. Attenuation of laser power of a focused Gaussian beam during interaction between a laser and powder in coaxial laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jichang; Li Lijun; Zhang Yuanzhong; Xie Xiaozhu

    2005-01-01

    The power of a focused laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile attenuated by powder in coaxial laser cladding is investigated experimentally and theoretically, and its resolution model is developed. With some assumptions, it is concluded that the attenuation of laser power is an exponential function and is determined by the powder feed rate, particle moving speed, spraying angles and waist positions and diameters of the laser beam and powder flow, grain diameter and run of the laser beam through the powder flow. The attenuation of laser power increases with powder feed rate or run of laser beam through the powder flow. In the experiment presented, 300 W laser power from a focused Gaussian beam is attenuated by a coaxial powder flow. The experimental results agree well with the values calculated with the developed model

  4. Rapidly solidified prealloyed powders by laser spin atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitzer, D. G.; Walters, K. W.; Heiser, E. L.; Fraser, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique, termed laser spin atomization, for the production of rapidly solidified prealloyed powders is described. The results of experiments involving the production of powders of two alloys, one based on Ni, the other on Ti, are presented. The powders have been characterized using light optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Auger elec-tron spectroscopy, and these various observations are described.

  5. Potential of advanced ceramics elaborated from laser-synthetized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihrmann, J.M.; Luce, M.; Croix, O.; Cauchetier, M.

    1987-01-01

    Use of ultrafine powders obtained by pyrolysis of gaseous reagents with a CO 2 laser gives high tech ceramics. Initiated by Haggerty from MIT, this new method is in use at the CEA since 1985. Conditions for synthesis with a 1KW laser are presented. Lab production is nearly 40g/hr of SiC with yields of 99%. Methods for powder treatment and results of mechanical and chemical properties of the compact materials obtained are given [fr

  6. The structure and mechanical properties of parts elaborated by direct laser deposition 316L stainless steel powder obtained in various ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, I. S.; Solonin, A. N.; Prosviryakov, A. S.; Adisa, S. B.; Khalil, A. M.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskiy, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    In this work the morphology, the size and the chemical composition of the powders of steel 316L received by the two methods was studied: fusion dispersion by a gas stream and reduction of metal chlorides with the subsequent plasma atomization of the received powder particles. The powder particles received by the first method have a spherical shape (aspect ratio 1,0-1,2) with an average size of 77 μm and are characterized by the absence of internal porosity. Particles of the powder received by the second method also have a spherical shape and faultless structure, however, their chemical composition may vary in different particles. The average size of particles is 32 μm. Though the obtained powders had different properties, the experimental samples received by DLD technology demonstrated by equally high durability (Ultimate strength is 623±5 and of 623±18 MPa respectively) and plasticity (38 and 41% respectively). It is established that mechanical properties of DLD samples increase for 7-10% after treatment of the surface.

  7. The filler powders laser welding of ODS ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shenyong, E-mail: s_y_liang@126.com; Lei, Yucheng; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-15

    Laser welding was performed on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with the self-designed filler powders. The filler powders were added to weld metal to produce nano-particles (Y–M–O and TiC), submicron particles (Y–M–O) and dislocation rings. The generated particles were evenly distributed in the weld metal and their forming mechanism and behavior were analyzed. The results of the tests showed that the nano-particles, submicron particles and dislocation rings were able to improve the micro-hardness and tensile strength of welded joint, and the filler powders laser welding was an effective welding method of ODS ferritic steel.

  8. Powder Flux Regulation in the Laser Material Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizubieta, Jon Iñaki; Wegener, Maximiliam; Arntz, Kristian; Lamikiz, Aitzol; Ruiz, Jose Exequiel

    In the present research work a powder flux regulation system has been designed, developed and validated with the aim of improving the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process. In this process, the amount of deposited material per substrate surface unit area depends on the real feed rate of the nozzle. Therefore, a regulation system based on a solenoid valve has been installed at the nozzle entrance in order to control the powder flux. The powder flux control has been performed based on the machine real feed rate, which is compared with the programmed feed rate. An instantaneous velocity error is calculated and the powder flow is controlled as a function of this variation using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals. Thereby, in zones where the Laser Material Deposition machine reduces the feed rate due to a trajectory change, powder accumulation can be avoided and the generated clads would present a homogeneous shape.

  9. Laser sintering of metal powders on top of sintered layers under multiple-line laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Bin; Zhang Yuwen

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model for multiple-line sintering of loose powders on top of multiple sintered layers under the irradiation of a moving Gaussian laser beam is carried out. The overlaps between vertically deposited layers and adjacent lines which strengthen bonding are taken into account. The energy equation is formulated using the temperature transforming model and solved by the finite volume method. The effects of the number of the existing sintered layers, porosity and initial temperature coupled with the optimal combination laser intensity and scanning velocity are presented. The results show that the liquid pool moves slightly towards the negative scanning direction and the shape of the liquid pool becomes shallower with higher scanning velocity. A higher laser intensity is needed to achieve the required overlaps when the number of the existing sintered layers increases. Increasing porosity or initial temperature enhances the sintering process and thus less intensity is needed for the overlap requirement

  10. Direct solar-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Shiu, Y. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of direct solar pumping of an iodine photodissociation laser at lambda = 1.315 microns was investigated. Threshold inversion density and effect of elevated temperature (up to 670 K) on the laser output were measured. These results and the concentration of solar radiation required for the solar pumped iodine laser are discussed.

  11. Parameters in selective laser melting for processing metallic powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzynowski, Tomasz; Chlebus, Edward; Kuźnicka, Bogumiła; Reiner, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents results of studies on Selective Laser Melting. SLM is an additive manufacturing technology which may be used to process almost all metallic materials in the form of powder. Types of energy emission sources, mainly fiber lasers and/or Nd:YAG laser with similar characteristics and the wavelength of 1,06 - 1,08 microns, are provided primarily for processing metallic powder materials with high absorption of laser radiation. The paper presents results of selected variable parameters (laser power, scanning time, scanning strategy) and fixed parameters such as the protective atmosphere (argon, nitrogen, helium), temperature, type and shape of the powder material. The thematic scope is very broad, so the work was focused on optimizing the process of selective laser micrometallurgy for producing fully dense parts. The density is closely linked with other two conditions: discontinuity of the microstructure (microcracks) and stability (repeatability) of the process. Materials used for the research were stainless steel 316L (AISI), tool steel H13 (AISI), and titanium alloy Ti6Al7Nb (ISO 5832-11). Studies were performed with a scanning electron microscope, a light microscopes, a confocal microscope and a μCT scanner.

  12. Characterization of an aluminum-filled polyamide powder for applications in selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoli, Alida; Moriconi, Giacomo; Pauri, Marco Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Solid free-form fabrication (SFF) techniques use layer-based manufacturing to create physical objects directly from computer-generated models. Using an additive approach to manufacture shapes, SFF systems join liquid, powder or sheet materials. Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a SFF technique by which parts are built layer-by-layer offering the key advantage of the direct manufacturing of functional parts. In SLS, a laser beam is traced over the surface of a tightly compacted powder made of thermoplastic material. In this paper is characterized a new aluminum-filled polyamide powder developed for applications in SLS. This material is promising for many applications that require a metallic look of the part, good finishing properties, high stiffness and higher part quality

  13. Developing Characterization Procedures for Qualifying both Novel Selective Laser Sintering Polymer Powders and Recycled Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive technique which is showing great promise over conventional manufacturing techniques. SLS requires certain key material properties for a polymer powder to be successfully processed into an end-use part, and therefore limited selection of materials are available. Furthermore, there has been evidence of a powder’s quality deteriorating following each SLS processing cycle. The current investigation serves to build a path forward in identifying new SLS powder materials by developing characterization procedures for identifying key material properties as well as for detecting changes in a powder’s quality. Thermogravimetric analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and bulk density measurements were investigated.

  14. Powder neodymium laser with nanometric granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Renato Juliani Ribamar

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years, the interest in random lasers, which refer to lasing in disordered media where strong multiple scattering plays a constructive role instead of being only a loss factor, have received considerable attention due to its unique properties and its potential applications, such as emission at new, extremely low gain lines, simultaneous emission of several very different wavelengths at the same time, strong light localization and miniaturization. Single and multiple particle light scattering, backscattering intensity, light diffusion with gain and the energy level diagram of Neodymium will be presented in this current work, alongside with a parallel from the typical emission lines obtained experimentally with theory. The demonstration of random laser action in Nd:YVO 4 nanopowder, by analyzing the spectral and temporal behavior from the 4 F 3/2 →4I 11/2 (1064 nm) transition is presented. A method that analyzes the decay kinetics after long-pulse excitation is used to determine the laser characteristics, allowing measuring the fractional contribution of spontaneous and stimulated emission in the samples backscattering cone, with is in agreement to the smoothing linewidth narrowing as a function of pump power typical from random lasers. Also the visible emission along a method to determine quantitatively the ETU (energy-transfer up conversion) rate is presented, which is particularly interesting, as is a mechanism that introduces a loss channel for devices emitting in the infrared region. At last, the coherent laser emission and light localization will be evaluated by using the CBS (coherent backscattering) technique in this diffusive media, in which the results are compared with simulation. (author)

  15. Predictive modeling, simulation, and optimization of laser processing techniques: UV nanosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of polymers and selective laser melting of powder metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales Escobar, Luis Ernesto

    One of the most frequently evolving areas of research is the utilization of lasers for micro-manufacturing and additive manufacturing purposes. The use of laser beam as a tool for manufacturing arises from the need for flexible and rapid manufacturing at a low-to-mid cost. Laser micro-machining provides an advantage over mechanical micro-machining due to the faster production times of large batch sizes and the high costs associated with specific tools. Laser based additive manufacturing enables processing of powder metals for direct and rapid fabrication of products. Therefore, laser processing can be viewed as a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach compared to traditional manufacturing processes. Two types of laser processing techniques are studied: laser ablation of polymers for micro-channel fabrication and selective laser melting of metal powders. Initially, a feasibility study for laser-based micro-channel fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via experimentation is presented. In particular, the effectiveness of utilizing a nanosecond-pulsed laser as the energy source for laser ablation is studied. The results are analyzed statistically and a relationship between process parameters and micro-channel dimensions is established. Additionally, a process model is introduced for predicting channel depth. Model outputs are compared and analyzed to experimental results. The second part of this research focuses on a physics-based FEM approach for predicting the temperature profile and melt pool geometry in selective laser melting (SLM) of metal powders. Temperature profiles are calculated for a moving laser heat source to understand the temperature rise due to heating during SLM. Based on the predicted temperature distributions, melt pool geometry, i.e. the locations at which melting of the powder material occurs, is determined. Simulation results are compared against data obtained from experimental Inconel 625 test coupons fabricated at the National

  16. Laser stereolithography by multilayer cladding of metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejewski, Rafal; Rabczuk, Grazyna T.; Zaremba, R.; Sliwinski, Gerard

    1998-07-01

    3D-structures obtained by means of laser cladding of the metal alloy powders: bronze B10 and stellite 6 and the process parameters are studied experimentally. The structures are made trace-on-trace by remelting of the metal powder injected into the focusing region of the 1.2 kW CO2 laser beam. For the powder and sample feeding rates of 8-22 g/min and 0.4-1.2 m/min, respectively, and the applied beam intensities not exceeding 2 X 105 W cm-2 the process is stable and regular traces connected via fusion zones are produced for each material. The thickness of these zones does not exceed several per cent of the layer height. The process results in the efficient formation of multilayer structures. From their geometry the effect of energy coupling and interaction parameters are deduced. Moreover, the microanalysis by means of SEM- and optical photographs of samples produced under different experimental conditions confirms the expected mechanical properties, low porosity and highly homogenous structure of the multilayers. In addition to the known material stellite 6 the bronze B10 is originally proposed for a rapid prototyping.

  17. Residual stress in TI6AL4V objects produced by direct metal laser sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zyl, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct Metal Laser Sintering produces 3D objects using a layer-by- layer method in which powder is deposited in thin layers. Laser beam scans over the powder fusing powder particles as well as the previous layer. High-concentration of laser energy input leads to high thermal gradients which induce residual stress within the as- built parts. Ti6Al4V (ELI samples have been manufactured by EOSINT M280 system at prescribed by EOS process-parameters. Residual stresses were measured by XRD method. Microstructure, values and directions of principal stresses inTi6Al4V DMLS samples were analysed.

  18. STUDIES ON WETTABILITY OF STAINLESS STEEL 316L POWDER IN LASER MELTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURIAN ANTONY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser sintering is one of the techniques used in additive manufacturing processes. The main objective of the work is to study the effects of process parameters on wetting phenomenon and interfacial energy during laser melting of stainless steel powder. This paper reports wetting of laser melted powder particles and its use for the determination of surface energy of stainless steel powder under laser beam exposure. Process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and beam diameter are considered for study. This study also identifies the process parameters for better wettability which produces smooth surfaces.

  19. Effect of complex alloying of powder materials on properties of laser melted surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesker, E.I.; Gur'ev, V.A.; Elistratov, V.S.; Savchenko, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Quality and properties of laser melted surface layers produced using self-fluxing powder mixture of Ni-Cr-B-Si system and the same powders with enhanced Fe content alloyed with Co, Ti, Nb, Mo have been investigated. Composition of powder material is determined which does not cause of defect formation under laser melting and makes possible to produce a good mechanical and tribological properties of treated surface [ru

  20. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny, E-mail: eh@udsu.ru [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Kostenkov, Sergey [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law.

  1. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny; Kostenkov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law

  2. Study of geometry angles forming a coaxial nozzle to performance of laser fusion powder composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павло Васильович Кондрашев

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of scientific and experimental research, as reflected in this work is the search for solutions and approaches aimed at improving process performance laser alloying powder composition focused laser radiation. Priori information analysis showed the complexity of the process of laser powder fusion tracks from the physical point of view with a lot of technological impacts. Therefore, in this paper we used the method of experimental design, which will allow a more accurate experimental results compared with other methods of research. Based on the experimental screening were identified most significant technological factors influence. These are: powder mass flow, the geometric configuration of the delivery means of powder composition in the area of laser processing, the speed of movement of the substrate. To study the process performance laser alloying powder compositions were applied methods of mathematical statistics, namely, was elected symmetric quasi-D-optimal plan Pisochynskoho for 3 technological factors influence that has good statistical properties and sold regression equation of second order. As a result of the measures was received mathematical model of laser powder fusion focused laser radiation in a second order polynomial. The technique demonstrated the productivity of the process of laser powder fusion focused laser radiation, obtained by using a mathematical model of the process.

  3. Laser fabrication nanocrystalline coatings using simultaneous powders/wire feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Zhai, Tongguang; Zhang, Yuanbin; Shan, Feihu; Liu, Peng; Ren, Guocheng

    2016-07-01

    Laser melting deposition (LMD) fabrication is used to investigate feasibilty of simultaneously feeding TC17 wire and the Stellite 20-Si3N4-TiC-Sb mixed powders in order to increase the utilization ratio of materials and also quality of LMD composite coatings on the TA1 substrate. SEM images indicated that such LMD coating with metallurgical joint to substrate was formed free of the obvious defects. Lots of the ultrafine nanocrystals (UNs) were produced, which distributed uniformly in some coating matrix location, retarding growth of the ceramics in a certain extent; UNs were intertwined with amorphous, leading the yarn-shape materials to be produced. Compared with substrate, an improvement of wear resistance was achieved for such LMD coating.

  4. Single-step laser deposition of functionally graded coating by dual ‘wire powder’ or ‘powder powder’ feeding—A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq; Pinkerton, Andrew J.; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin

    2007-07-01

    The creation of iron-copper (Fe-Cu) alloys has practical application in improving the surface heat conduction and corrosion resistance of, for example, conformal cooling channels in steel moulds, but is difficult to achieve because the elements have got low inter-solubility and are prone to solidification cracking. Previous work by these authors has reported a method to produce a graded iron-nickel-copper coating in a single-step by direct diode laser deposition (DLD) of nickel wire and copper powder as a combined feedstock. This work investigates whether dual powder feeds can be used in that process to afford greater geometric flexibility and compares attributes of the 'nickel wire and copper powder' and 'nickel powder and copper powder' processes for deposition on a H13 tool steel substrate. In wire-powder deposition, a higher temperature developed in the melt pool causing a clad with a smooth gradient structure. The nickel powder in powder-powder deposition did not impart much heat into the melt pool so the melt pool solidified with sharp composition boundaries due to single metal melting in some parts. In wire-powder experiments, a graded structure was obtained by varying the flow rates of wire and powder. However, a graded structure was not realised in powder-powder experiments by varying either the feed or the directions. Reasons for the differences and flow patterns in the melt pools and their effect on final part properties of parts produced are discussed.

  5. Laser shock wave consolidation of nanodiamond powders on aluminum 319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molian, Pal [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS, and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)], E-mail: molian@iastate.edu; Molian, Raathai; Nair, Rajeev [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS, and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A novel coating approach, based on laser shock wave generation, was employed to induce compressive pressures up to 5 GPa and compact nanodiamond (ND) powders (4-8 nm) on aluminum 319 substrate. Raman scattering indicated that the coating consisted of amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite with peaks at 1360 cm{sup -1} and 1600 cm{sup -1} respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a wavy, non-uniform coating with an average thickness of 40 {mu}m and absence of thermal effect on the surrounding material. The phase transition from nanodiamond to other phases of carbon is responsible for the increased coating thickness. Vicker's microhardness test showed hardness in excess of 1000 kg{sub f}/mm{sup 2} (10 GPa) while nanoindentation test indicated much lower hardness in the range of 20 MPa to 2 GPa. Optical surface profilometry traces displayed slightly uneven surfaces compared to the bare aluminum with an average surface roughness (R{sub a}) in the range of 1.5-4 {mu}m depending on the shock wave pressure and type of confining medium. Ball-on-disc tribometer tests showed that the coefficient of friction and wear rate were substantially lower than the smoother, bare aluminum sample. Laser shock wave process has thus aided in the generation of a strong, wear resistant, durable carbon composite coating on aluminum 319 substrate.

  6. Influence of small particles inclusion on selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haijun; Dilip, J. J. S.; Yang, Li; Teng, Chong; Stucker, Brent

    2017-12-01

    The particle size distribution and powder morphology of metallic powders have an important effect on powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM). The process development and parameter optimization require a fundamental understanding of the influence of powder on SLM. This study introduces a pre-alloyed titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V powder, which has a certain amount of small particles, for SLM. The influence of small particle inclusion is investigated through microscopy of surface topography, elemental and microstructural analysis, and mechanical testing, compared to the Ti-6Al-4V powder provided by SLM machine vendor. It is found that the small particles inclusion in Ti-6Al-4V powder has a noticeable effect on extra laser energy absorption, which may develop imperfections and deteriorate the SLM fatigue performance.

  7. Laser direct fabrication of silver conductors on glass boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan; Li Huiling; Qi Xiaojing

    2005-01-01

    Laser micro-cladding has been used to fabricate metal conductors, according to a designed electronic circuit, directly onto glass boards which had been coated with a silver-containing electronic paste. The electronic pastes, composed of silver powders, inorganic binders and organic medium, thus formed the conductive metal pattern (i.e. electric circuit) along the path of the laser allowing the rest of the layer to be removed subsequently by an organic solvent. Firing in a furnace at 600 deg. C resulted in conductive lines with resistivity of about 10 -5 Ω cm and with adhesive strength of the order of magnitude of megapascals

  8. Laser fabrication of Ti6Al4V/TiC composites using simultaneous powder and wire feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Mei, J.; Jiang, H.; Wu, X.

    2007-01-01

    Composites of Ti-6Al-4V containing different volume fractions of TiC were manufactured using direct laser fabrication. Ti-6Al-4V wire and TiC powder were fed into the laser with the rate of powder feed being changed so that samples containing different volume fractions of TiC could be manufactured. Optical microscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterise the microstructure of these samples. The room temperature tensile properties were measured also on some selected compositions together with their Young's moduli. In addition the change in wear resistance was studied as a function of TiC volume fraction using a standard wear test. These observations are discussed in terms of the advantages and difficulties of using simultaneous wire and powder feed systems and in terms of the value of this approach in obtaining data over a wide range of compositions for such a composite

  9. Continuum simulation of heat transfer and solidification behavior of AlSi10Mg in Direct Metal Laser Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Akash; Samantaray, Mihir; Nath Thatoi, Dhirendra; Sahoo, Seshadev

    2018-03-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process is a laser based additive manufacturing process, which built complex structures from powder materials. Using high intensity laser beam, the process melts and fuse the powder particles makes dense structures. In this process, the laser beam in terms of heat flux strikes the powder bed and instantaneously melts and joins the powder particles. The partial solidification and temperature distribution on the powder bed endows a high cooling rate and rapid solidification which affects the microstructure of the build part. During the interaction of the laser beam with the powder bed, multiple modes of heat transfer takes place in this process, that make the process very complex. In the present research, a comprehensive heat transfer and solidification model of AlSi10Mg in direct metal laser sintering process has been developed on ANSYS 17.1.0 platform. The model helps to understand the flow phenomena, temperature distribution and densification mechanism on the powder bed. The numerical model takes into account the flow, heat transfer and solidification phenomena. Simulations were carried out for sintering of AlSi10Mg powders in the powder bed having dimension 3 mm × 1 mm × 0.08 mm. The solidification phenomena are incorporated by using enthalpy-porosity approach. The simulation results give the fundamental understanding of the densification of powder particles in DMLS process.

  10. Direct laser sintered WC-10Co/Cu nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongdong; Shen, Yifu

    2008-04-01

    In the present work, the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to prepare the WC-Co/Cu nanocomposites in bulk form. The WC reinforcing nanoparticles were added in the form of WC-10 wt.% Co composite powder. The microstructural features and mechanical properties of the laser-sintered sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), and nanoindentation tester. It showed that the original nanometric nature of the WC reinforcing particulates was well retained without appreciable grain growth after laser processing. A homogeneous distribution of the WC reinforcing nanoparticles with a coherent particulate/matrix interfacial bonding was obtained in the laser-sintered structure. The 94.3% dense nanocomposites have a dynamic nanohardness of 3.47 GPa and a reduced elastic modulus of 613.42 GPa.

  11. Direct laser sintered WC-10Co/Cu nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Dongdong [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China)], E-mail: dongdonggu@nuaa.edu.cn; Shen Yifu [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2008-04-30

    In the present work, the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to prepare the WC-Co/Cu nanocomposites in bulk form. The WC reinforcing nanoparticles were added in the form of WC-10 wt.% Co composite powder. The microstructural features and mechanical properties of the laser-sintered sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), and nanoindentation tester. It showed that the original nanometric nature of the WC reinforcing particulates was well retained without appreciable grain growth after laser processing. A homogeneous distribution of the WC reinforcing nanoparticles with a coherent particulate/matrix interfacial bonding was obtained in the laser-sintered structure. The 94.3% dense nanocomposites have a dynamic nanohardness of 3.47 GPa and a reduced elastic modulus of 613.42 GPa.

  12. Direct laser sintered WC-10Co/Cu nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Dongdong; Shen Yifu

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to prepare the WC-Co/Cu nanocomposites in bulk form. The WC reinforcing nanoparticles were added in the form of WC-10 wt.% Co composite powder. The microstructural features and mechanical properties of the laser-sintered sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), and nanoindentation tester. It showed that the original nanometric nature of the WC reinforcing particulates was well retained without appreciable grain growth after laser processing. A homogeneous distribution of the WC reinforcing nanoparticles with a coherent particulate/matrix interfacial bonding was obtained in the laser-sintered structure. The 94.3% dense nanocomposites have a dynamic nanohardness of 3.47 GPa and a reduced elastic modulus of 613.42 GPa

  13. Numerical algorithm for laser treatment of powder layer with variable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, Polina; Knyazeva, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional model of laser treatment of powder layer on the substrate is proposed in this paper. The model takes into account the shrinkage of powder layer due to the laser treatment. Three simplified variants of the model were studied. Firstly, the influence of optical properties of powder layer on the maximal temperature was researched. Secondly, two-dimensional model for given thickness of powder layer was studied where practically uniform temperature distribution across thin powder layer was demonstrated. Then, the numerical algorithm was developed to calculate the temperature field for the area of variable size. The impact of the optical properties of powder material on the character of the temperature distribution was researched numerically.

  14. Modeling the geometric formation and powder deposition mass in laser induction hybrid cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yong Jun; Yuan, Sheng Fa

    2012-01-01

    A new laser induction hybrid cladding technique on cylinder work piece is presented. Based on a series of laser induction hybrid experiments by off axial powder feeding, the predicting models of individual clad geometric formation and powder catchment were developed in terms of powder feeding rate, laser special energy and induction energy density using multiple regression analysis. In addition, confirmation tests were performed to make a comparison between the predicting results and measured ones. Via the experiments and analysis, the conclusions can be lead to that the process parameters have crucial influence on the clad geometric formation and powder catchment, and that the predicting model reflects well the relationship between the clad geometric formation and process parameters in laser induction hybrid cladding

  15. Two-dimensional model of laser alloying of binary alloy powder with interval of melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyzeva, A. G.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.

    2017-10-01

    The paper contains two-dimensional model of laser beam melting of powders from binary alloy. The model takes into consideration the melting of alloy in some temperature interval between solidus and liquidus temperatures. The external source corresponds to laser beam with energy density distributed by Gauss law. The source moves along the treated surface according to given trajectory. The model allows investigating the temperature distribution and thickness of powder layer depending on technological parameters.

  16. Silicon nanostructures produced by laser direct etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllenborn, Matthias; Dirac, Paul Andreas Holger; Petersen, Jon Wulff

    1995-01-01

    A laser direct-write process has been applied to structure silicon on a nanometer scale. In this process, a silicon substrate, placed in a chlorine ambience, is locally heated above its melting point by a continuous-wave laser and translated by high-resolution direct-current motor stages. Only...

  17. Laser Printing of Superhydrophobic Patterns from Mixtures of Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles and Toner Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Chun, Doo-Man

    2016-11-08

    In this work, a new and facile dry printing method was developed for the direct fabrication of superhydrophobic patterns based on silica nanoparticles. Mixtures of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and toner powder were printed on paper and polymer sheets using a commercial laser printer to produce the superhydrophobic patterns. The mixing ratio of the toner powder (for the laser printer) to hydrophobic silica was also investigated to optimize both the printing quality and the superhydrophobicity of the printed areas. The proper mixing ratio was then used to print various superhydrophobic patterns, including triangular, square, circular, and complex arrangements, to demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces with different patterns can be fabricated in a few seconds without any post-processing. The superhydrophobicity of each sample was evaluated by contact angle measurements, and all printed areas showed contact angles greater than 150°. The research described here opens the possibility of rapid production of superhydrophobic surfaces with various patterns. Ultimately, the obtained findings may have a significant impact on applications related to self-cleaning, control of water geometry and position, fluid mixing and fluid transport.

  18. Laser Printing of Superhydrophobic Patterns from Mixtures of Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles and Toner Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Chun, Doo-Man

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a new and facile dry printing method was developed for the direct fabrication of superhydrophobic patterns based on silica nanoparticles. Mixtures of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and toner powder were printed on paper and polymer sheets using a commercial laser printer to produce the superhydrophobic patterns. The mixing ratio of the toner powder (for the laser printer) to hydrophobic silica was also investigated to optimize both the printing quality and the superhydrophobicity of the printed areas. The proper mixing ratio was then used to print various superhydrophobic patterns, including triangular, square, circular, and complex arrangements, to demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces with different patterns can be fabricated in a few seconds without any post-processing. The superhydrophobicity of each sample was evaluated by contact angle measurements, and all printed areas showed contact angles greater than 150°. The research described here opens the possibility of rapid production of superhydrophobic surfaces with various patterns. Ultimately, the obtained findings may have a significant impact on applications related to self-cleaning, control of water geometry and position, fluid mixing and fluid transport.

  19. Development and directions of powder diffraction on proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Dreele, R B; Besnard, C; Basso, S; Camus, F; Pattison, P; Schiltz, M; Wright, J P; Margiolaki, R; Fitch, A N; Fox, G C; Prugoveeki, S; Beckers, D; Helliwell, J R; Helliwell, M; Jones, R H; Roberts, M A; Miura, K; Kahn, R; Giacovazzo, C; Altomare, A; Caliandro, R; Camalli, M; Cuocci, C; Moliterni, A G.G.; Rizzi, R; Hinrichsen, B; Kern, A; Coelho, A A; Degen, T; Kokkinidis, M; Fadouloglou, V; Gazi, A; Panopoulos, N; Pinotsis, N; Wilmanns, M; Norrman, M; Schluckebier, G; Prugoveeki, B; Dilovic, J; Matkovic-Calogovic, D; Bill, David; Markvardsen, A; Grosse-Kunstleve, R; Rius, J; Glykos Nicholas, M; Murshudov, G N

    2007-07-01

    X-ray diffraction is one of the most important method for obtaining information about the structure of proteins and thereby for gaining insight into fundamental biological and biochemical mechanisms. This seminar was dedicated to X-ray powder diffraction and was organized around 6 sessions: 1) what can powder diffraction do for proteins?, 2) adapting experimentally to proteins, 3) interpreting powder data, 4) the world of protein crystallography, 5) advancing methods for powder data analysis, and 6) transferable methods from single crystals. This document gathers the abstracts of the 23 papers presented. (A.C.)

  20. Development and directions of powder diffraction on proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Dreele, R.B.; Besnard, C.; Basso, S.; Camus, F.; Pattison, P.; Schiltz, M.; Wright, J.P.; Margiolaki, R.; Fitch, A.N.; Fox, G.C.; Prugoveeki, S.; Beckers, D.; Helliwell, J.R.; Helliwell, M.; Jones, R.H.; Roberts, M.A.; Miura, K.; Kahn, R.; Giacovazzo, C.; Altomare, A.; Caliandro, R.; Camalli, M.; Cuocci, C.; Moliterni, A.G.G.; Rizzi, R.; Hinrichsen, B.; Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Degen, T.; Kokkinidis, M.; Fadouloglou, V.; Gazi, A.; Panopoulos, N.; Pinotsis, N.; Wilmanns, M.; Norrman, M.; Schluckebier, G.; Prugoveeki, B.; Dilovic, J.; Matkovic-Calogovic, D.; Bill, David; Markvardsen, A.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.; Rius, J.; Glykos Nicholas, M.; Murshudov, G.N.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray diffraction is one of the most important method for obtaining information about the structure of proteins and thereby for gaining insight into fundamental biological and biochemical mechanisms. This seminar was dedicated to X-ray powder diffraction and was organized around 6 sessions: 1) what can powder diffraction do for proteins?, 2) adapting experimentally to proteins, 3) interpreting powder data, 4) the world of protein crystallography, 5) advancing methods for powder data analysis, and 6) transferable methods from single crystals. This document gathers the abstracts of the 23 papers presented. (A.C.)

  1. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Samar Reda Al-Sayed Ali; Abdel Hamid Ahmed Hussein; Adel Abdel Menam Saleh Nofal; Salah Elden Ibrahim Hasseb Elnaby; Haytham Abdelrafea Elgazzar; Hassan Abdel Sabour

    2017-01-01

    Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resist...

  2. Selective laser melting of hypereutectic Al-Si40-powder using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, T.; Matthäus, G.; Kaden, L.; Engelhardt, H.; Rettenmayr, M.; Risse, S.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the use of ultra-short laser pulses for the selective melting of Al-Si40-powder to fabricate complex light-weight structures with wall sizes below 100 μ {m} combined with higher tensile strength and lower thermal expansion coefficient in comparison to standard Al-Si alloys. During the cooling process using conventional techniques, large primary silicon particles are formed which impairs the mechanical and thermal properties. We demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome using ultra-short laser pulses enabling the rapid heating and cooling in a non-thermal equilibrium process. We analyze the morphology characteristics and micro-structures of single tracks and thin-walled structures depending on pulse energy, repetition rate and scanning velocity utilizing pulses with a duration of 500 {fs} at a wavelength of 1030 {nm}. The possibility to specifically change and optimize the microstructure is shown.

  3. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures

  4. Laser alloying of Al with mixed Ni, Ti and SiC powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4.4kW Rofin Sinar Nd:YAG laser to improve the surface hardness. Alloying was carried out by depositing Ni, Ti and SiC powders of different weight ratios on the aluminium substrate. The aim...

  5. Material Evaluation and Process Optimization of CNT-Coated Polymer Powders for Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangqin Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs as nano-reinforcements were introduced to facilitate the laser sintering process and enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric composites. A dual experimental-theoretical method was proposed to evaluate the processability and predict the process parameters of newly developed CNT-coated polyamide 12 (CNTs/PA12 powders. The thermal conductivity, melt viscosity, phase transition and temperature-dependent density and heat capacity of PA12 and CNTs/PA12 powders were characterized for material evaluation. The composite powders exhibited improved heat conduction and heat absorption compared with virgin polymer powders, and the stable sintering range of composite powders was extended and found to be favourable for the sintering process. The microstructures of sintered composites revealed that the CNTs remained at the powder boundaries and formed network architectures, which instantaneously induced the significant enhancements in tensile strength, elongation at break and toughness without sacrificing tensile modulus.

  6. Ray tracing method for simulation of laser beam interaction with random packings of powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, O. B.; Kovaleva, I. O.; Belyaev, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Selective laser sintering is a technology of rapid manufacturing of a free form that is created as a solid object by selectively fusing successive layers of powder using a laser. The motivation of this study is due to the currently insufficient understanding of the processes and phenomena of selective laser melting of powders whose time scales differ by orders of magnitude. To construct random packings from mono- and polydispersed solid spheres, the algorithm of their generation based on the discrete element method is used. A numerical method of ray tracing is proposed that is used to simulate the interaction of laser radiation with a random bulk packing of spherical particles and to predict the optical properties of the granular layer, the extinction and absorption coefficients, depending on the optical properties of a powder material.

  7. Direct laser writing for nanoporous liquid core laser sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Peterson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nanoporous liquid core lasers via direct laser writing based on two-photon absorption in combination with thiolene-chemistry. As gain medium Rhodamine 6G was embedded in the nanoporous polybutadiene matrix. The lasing devices with thresholds of 19 µJ/mm2 were measured...

  8. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Khairallah, Saad A.; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-01-01

    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas...

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of uranium and thorium powders and uranium ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Barefield, James E., E-mail: jbarefield@lanl.gov [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berg, John M. [Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M.; Havrilla, George J.; Montoya, Velma M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze depleted uranium and thorium oxide powders and uranium ore as a potential rapid in situ analysis technique in nuclear production facilities, environmental sampling, and in-field forensic applications. Material such as pressed pellets and metals, has been extensively studied using LIBS due to the high density of the material and more stable laser-induced plasma formation. Powders, on the other hand, are difficult to analyze using LIBS since ejection and removal of the powder occur in the laser interaction region. The capability of analyzing powders is important in allowing for rapid analysis of suspicious materials, environmental samples, or trace contamination on surfaces since it most closely represents field samples (soil, small particles, debris etc.). The rapid, in situ analysis of samples, including nuclear materials, also reduces costs in sample collection, transportation, sample preparation, and analysis time. Here we demonstrate the detection of actinides in oxide powders and within a uranium ore sample as both pressed pellets and powders on carbon adhesive discs for spectral comparison. The acquired LIBS spectra for both forms of the samples differ in overall intensity but yield a similar distribution of atomic emission spectral lines. - Highlights: • LIBS analysis of mixed actinide samples: depleted uranium oxide and thorium oxide • LIBS analysis of actinide samples in powder form on carbon adhesive discs • Detection of uranium in a complex matrix (uranium ore) as a precursor to analyzing uranium in environmental samples.

  10. Feature-based characterisation of signature topography in laser powder bed fusion of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, Nicola; Thompson, Adam; Leach, Richard

    2018-04-01

    The use of state-of-the-art areal topography measurement instrumentation allows for a high level of detail in the acquisition of topographic information at micrometric scales. The 3D geometric models of surface topography obtained from measured data create new opportunities for the investigation of manufacturing processes through characterisation of the surfaces of manufactured parts. Conventional methods for quantitative assessment of topography usually only involve the computation of texture parameters, summary indicators of topography-related characteristics that are computed over the investigated area. However, further useful information may be obtained through characterisation of signature topographic formations, as more direct indicators of manufacturing process behaviour and performance. In this work, laser powder bed fusion of metals is considered. An original algorithmic method is proposed to isolate relevant topographic formations and to quantify their dimensional and geometric properties, using areal topography data acquired by state-of-the-art areal topography measurement instrumentation.

  11. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  12. Nanocrystalline AL2 O2 powders produced by laser induced gas phase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsella, E.; Botti, S.; Martelli, S.; Zappa, G.; Giorgi, R.; Turt, S.

    1993-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Al 2 O 3 powders were successfully synthesized by a CO 2 laser-driven gas-phase reaction involving trimethylaluminium (Al(CH 3 ) 3 ) and nitrous-oxide (N 2 O). Ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) was added as gas sensitizer. The as-synthesized powder particles showed a considerable carbon contamination and an amorphous-like structure. After thermal treatment at 1200-1400 degrees C, the powder was transformed to hexagonal a-Al 2 O 3 with very low carbon contamination as confirmed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and chemical analysis. The calcinated powders resulted to be spherical single crystal nanoparticles with a mean size of 15-20 nm, as determined by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and B.E.T. specific surface measurements. The laser synthesized Al 2 O 3 particles are well suited dispersoids for intermetallic alloy technology

  13. CO2 laser cladding of VERSAlloyTM on carbon steel with powder feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Do; Kweon, Jin-Wook

    2007-01-01

    Laser cladding processing with metal powder feeding has been experimented on carbon steel with VERSAlloy TM . A special device for the metal powder feeding was designed and manufactured. By adopting proper cladding parameters, good clad layers and sound metallurgical bonding with the base metal were obtained. Analysis indicates that the micro hardness of clad layer and the heat-affected zone increased with increasing of cladding speed. The experimental results showed that VERSAlloy TM cladded well with carbon steel

  14. PRODUCTION OF PROTOTYPE PARTS USING DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Sedlak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional methods of modern materials preparation include additive technologies which involve the sintering of powders of different chemical composition, granularity, physical, chemical and other utility properties. The technology called Rapid Prototyping, which uses different technological principles of producing components, belongs to this type of material preparation. The Rapid Prototyping technology facilities use photopolymers, thermoplastics, specially treated paper or metal powders. The advantage is the direct production of metal parts from input data and the fact that there is no need for the production of special tools (moulds, press tools, etc.. Unused powder from sintering technologies is re-used for production 98% of the time, which means that the process is economical, as well as ecological.The present paper discusses the technology of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS, which falls into the group of additive technologies of Rapid Prototyping (RP. The major objective is a detailed description of DMLS, pointing out the benefits it offers and its application in practice. The practical part describes the production and provides an economic comparison of several prototype parts that were designed for testing in the automotive industry.

  15. PREPARATION OF WC-Co POWDER BY DIRECT REDUCTION AND CARBONIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonglai Yi; Gangqin Shao; Xinglong Duan; Peng Sun; Xiaoliang Shi; Zhen Xiong; Jingkun Guo

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to produce superfine WC-Co powder by direct reduction and carbonization is proposed.Water-soluble salts containing W and Co were used as raw materials. Tungsten and cobalt oxide powder (CoWO4/WO3)was first formed by a spray-pyrolysis technique, which was then mixed with carbon black and converted to WC-Co composite powder at 950℃ for 4 h in N2 atmosphere. The resulting powder has a particle size of 100-300 nm.

  16. Relationship of Powder Feedstock Variability to Microstructure and Defects in Selective Laser Melted Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Kloesel, M. F.; Sudbrack, C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Powder-bed additive manufacturing processes use fine powders to build parts layer by layer. For selective laser melted (SLM) Alloy 718, the powders that are available off-the-shelf are in the 10-45 or 15-45 micron size range. A comprehensive investigation of sixteen powders from these typical ranges and two off-nominal-sized powders is underway to gain insight into the impact of feedstock on processing, durability and performance of 718 SLM space-flight hardware. This talk emphasizes an aspect of this work: the impact of powder variability on the microstructure and defects observed in the as-fabricated and full heated material, where lab-scale components were built using vendor recommended parameters. These typical powders exhibit variation in composition, percentage of fines, roughness, morphology and particle size distribution. How these differences relate to the melt-pool size, porosity, grain structure, precipitate distributions, and inclusion content will be presented and discussed in context of build quality and powder acceptance.

  17. Densification behavior of gas and water atomized 316L stainless steel powder during selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruidi; Shi, Yusheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Li; Liu, Jinhui; Jiang, Wei

    2010-04-01

    The densification during selective laser melting (SLM) process is an important factor determining the final application of SLM-part. In the present work, the densifications under different processing conditions were investigated and the densification mechanisms were elucidated. It was found that the higher laser power, lower scan speed, narrower hatch spacing and thinner layer thickness could enable a much smoother melting surface and consequently a higher densification. The gas atomized powder possessed better densification than water atomized powder, due to the lower oxygen content and higher packing density of gas atomized powder. A large number of regular-shaped pores can be generated at a wider hatch spacing, even if the scanning track is continuous and wetted very well. The densification mechanisms were addressed and the methods for building dense metal parts were also proposed as follows: inhibiting the balling phenomenon, increasing the overlap ratio of scanning tracks and reducing the micro-cracks.

  18. Laser cladding of Colmonoy 6 powder on AISI316L austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Shi, Y.; Kutsuna, M.; Xu, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Stainless steels are widely used in nuclear power plant due to their good corrosion resistance, but their wear resistance is relatively low. Therefore, it is very important to improve this property by surface treatment. This paper investigates cladding Colmonoy 6 powder on AISI316L austenitic stainless steel by CO 2 laser. It is found that preheating is necessary for preventing cracking in the laser cladding procedure and 450 o C is the proper preheating temperature. The effects of laser power, traveling speed, defocusing distance, powder feed rate on the bead height, bead width, penetration depth and dilution are investigated. The friction and wear test results show that the friction coefficient of specimens with laser cladding is lower than that of specimens without laser cladding, and the wear resistance of specimens has been increased 53 times after laser cladding, which reveals that laser cladding layer plays roles on wear resistance. The microstructures of laser cladding layer are composed of Ni-rich austenitic, boride and carbide.

  19. Laser alloying of Al with Ti and Ni based powders to improve wear resistance and hardness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available /s and 0.012m/s scanning speeds • The was no sufficient melting and infusion of the powder into the substrate obtained at high laser scanning speed • The thickness of the alloyed layer was ~0.52mm Results © CSIR 2008 www...

  20. Dimensional and material characteristics of direct deposited tool steel by CO II laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.

    2006-01-01

    Laser aided direct metalimaterial deposition (DMD) process builds metallic parts layer-by-layer directly from the CAD representation. In general, the process uses powdered metaUmaterials fed into a melt pool, creating fully dense parts. Success of this technology in the die and tool industry depends on the parts quality to be achieved. To obtain designed geometric dimensions and material properties, delicate control of the parameters such as laser power, spot diameter, traverse speed and powder mass flow rate is critical. In this paper, the dimensional and material characteristics of directed deposited H13 tool steel by CO II laser are investigated for the DMD process with a feedback height control system. The relationships between DMD process variables and the product characteristics are analyzed using statistical techniques. The performance of the DMD process is examined with the material characteristics of hardness, porosity, microstructure, and composition.

  1. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1987-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987 under NASA grant NAG1-441 entitled 'Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier'. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar-simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically. It was observed that the threshold pump-beam intensities for both Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals were about 1000 solar constants, and the cw laser operation of the Nd:Cr:GSGG crystal was more difficult than that of the Nd:YAG crystal under the solar-simulator pumping. The possibility of the Nd:Cr:GSGG laser operation with a fast continuously chopped pumping was also observed. In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

  2. Lasers in ophthalmology: achievements and new directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Apostol, Silvia; Gafencu, Otilia L.

    1995-03-01

    The main characteristics of the laser radiations are: directivity, monochromaticity and spatially and temporally coherence. Using the aggregation state as a criterion for classification, we describe solid, liquid and gaseous active media. Concerning the methods used to realize the population inversion, we also describe: optically, electrically and high energy particles pumped lasers. Depending on the laser media and the mode of excitation, a laser may operate in multiple ways: the continuous-wave operation, the long-pulsed operation, the Q-switched mode of operation and the mode-locked operation. The interaction of laser radiations with the living matter is based upon four main effects: the thermal, mechanical, electrical and biological effect. The main field of therapeutical use of lasers are: the management of lid tumors and intraocular tumors, dacryocystorhinostomy, the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, thromboembolic retinal syndromes, inflammatory choriretinal disease, chorioroetinal degenerations, retinal angimatosis, retinal breaks and retinal detachment, corneal diseases, glaucoma, lens diseases. Laser has also nontherapeutical applications in diagnosis and prognosis of ophthalmologic diseases.

  3. Experimental Study Of Polyformaldehyde Propellants Seeded With Micron-Scale Aluminum Powder For Laser Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long; Peng Jie; Hu Xiaojun; Zheng Hang; Tang Zhiping

    2010-01-01

    The propulsion performance of polyoxymethylene (POM) seeded with micron-scale aluminum (μAl) powder has been studied experimentally with CO 2 lasers. The results show that the momentum coupling coefficient (C m ) and specific impulse (I sp ) of POM seeded with μAl powder is almost the same as pure POM at lower power density ( 6 W/cm 2 ). At higher power density (>1·7xl0 6 W/cm 2 ), C m of POM seeded with μAl powder decreases significantly while I sp increases significantly. When this material is put into a cylindrical nozzle, the measured maximum C m and I sp can raise to 40.1 dyne/W and 1361 s, respectively. The energy usage ratio is over 100%, which indicates that the aluminum powder may react chemically with the air under the constraint condition. This conclusion was verified experimentally both in atmosphere and vacuum conditions.

  4. Effects of Powder Attributes and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Process Conditions on the Densification and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrinki, Harish; Dexter, Michael; Barmore, Brenton; Enneti, Ravi; Pasebani, Somayeh; Badwe, Sunil; Stitzel, Jason; Malhotra, Rajiv; Atre, Sundar V.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of powders attributes (shape and size distribution) and critical processing conditions (energy density) on the densification and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) 17-4 PH stainless steel were studied using four types of powders. The % theoretical density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of both water- and gas-atomized powders increased with increased energy density. Gas-atomized powders showed superior densification and mechanical properties when processed at low energy densities. However, the % theoretical density and mechanical properties of water-atomized powders were comparable to gas-atomized powders when sintered at a high energy density of 104 J/mm3. An important result of this study was that, even at high % theoretical density (97% ± 1%), the properties of as-printed parts could vary over a relatively large range (UTS: 500-1100 MPa; hardness: 25-39 HRC; elongation: 10-25%) depending on powder characteristics and process conditions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively inexpensive water-atomized powders as starting raw material instead of the typically used gas-atomized powders to fabricate parts using L-PBF techniques by sintering at high energy densities.

  5. Defectoscopy of direct laser sintered metals by low transmission ultrasonic frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebersold Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the improvement of ultrasonic defectoscopy used for machine elements produced by direct laser metal sintering. The direct laser metal sintering process introduces the mixed metal powder and performs its subsequent laser consolidation in a single production step. Mechanical elements manufactured by laser sintering often contain many hollow cells due to weight reduction. The popular pulse echo defectoscopy method employing very high frequencies of several GHz is not successful on these samples. The aim of this paper is to present quadraphonic transmission ultrasound defectoscopy which uses low range frequencies of few tens of kHz. Therefore, the advantage of this method is that it enables defectoscopy for honeycombed materials manufactured by direct laser sintering. This paper presents the results of testing performed on AlSi12 sample. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 172057

  6. Microstructure and Properties of AlSi10Mg Powder for Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Pengjun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The AlSi10Mg powder was prepared by supersonic gas atomization. After classified, the powder was fabricated into block by selective laser melting (SLM. The microstructure, phase, and evolutions of powder and block were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-Ray Diffraction. The tensile properties of SLM block were tested by tensile experiments at room temperature. The results show that the size distribution of AlSi10Mg powder after classified can meet the requirements of SLM technology. The powder always is spherical and spherical-like. Meanwhile, the microstructure of powders is fine and uniform, which contain α(Al matrix and (α+Si eutectic. In addition, the melt pool boundaries of SLM block are legible. The microstructure is also uniform and densified, the relative density approaches to 99.5%. On the other hand, only α(Al and few Silicon phase are detected in this condition, due to the most alloying elements are dissolved in α(Al matrix. At room temperature, the ultimate tensile strength of SLM block reaches up to 442 MPa.

  7. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed Ali, Samar Reda; Hussein, Abdel Hamid Ahmed; Nofal, Adel Abdel Menam Saleh; Elgazzar, Haytham Abdelrafea; Sabour, Hassan Abdel

    2017-01-01

    Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy. The goal was to create a uniform distribution of hard WC particles that is crack-free and nonporous to enhance the wear resistance of such alloy. This was achieved by changing the laser cladding parameters to reach the optimum conditions for favorable mechanical properties. The laser cladding samples were subjected to thorough microstructure examinations, microhardness and abrasion tests. Phase identification was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results revealed that the best clad layers were achieved at a specific heat input value of 59.5 J·mm−2. An increase by more than three folds in the microhardness values of the clad layers was achieved and the wear resistance was improved by values reaching 400 times. PMID:29036935

  8. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Reda Al-Sayed Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy. The goal was to create a uniform distribution of hard WC particles that is crack-free and nonporous to enhance the wear resistance of such alloy. This was achieved by changing the laser cladding parameters to reach the optimum conditions for favorable mechanical properties. The laser cladding samples were subjected to thorough microstructure examinations, microhardness and abrasion tests. Phase identification was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The obtained results revealed that the best clad layers were achieved at a specific heat input value of 59.5 J·mm−2. An increase by more than three folds in the microhardness values of the clad layers was achieved and the wear resistance was improved by values reaching 400 times.

  9. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed Ali, Samar Reda; Hussein, Abdel Hamid Ahmed; Nofal, Adel Abdel Menam Saleh; Hasseb Elnaby, Salah Elden Ibrahim; Elgazzar, Haytham Abdelrafea; Sabour, Hassan Abdel

    2017-10-15

    Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy. The goal was to create a uniform distribution of hard WC particles that is crack-free and nonporous to enhance the wear resistance of such alloy. This was achieved by changing the laser cladding parameters to reach the optimum conditions for favorable mechanical properties. The laser cladding samples were subjected to thorough microstructure examinations, microhardness and abrasion tests. Phase identification was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results revealed that the best clad layers were achieved at a specific heat input value of 59.5 J·mm -2 . An increase by more than three folds in the microhardness values of the clad layers was achieved and the wear resistance was improved by values reaching 400 times.

  10. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  11. Determination of metal impurities in MOX powder by direct current arc atomic emission spectroscopy. Application of standard addition method for direct analysis of powder sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, Takahiro; Taguchi, Shigeo; Kuno, Takehiko; Surugaya, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    Metal impurities in MOX powder obtained from uranium and plutonium recovered from reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuel have to be determined for its characterization. Direct current arc atomic emission spectroscopy (DCA-AES) is one of the useful methods for direct analysis of powder sample without dissolving the analyte into aqueous solution. However, the selection of standard material, which can overcome concerns such as matrix matching, is quite important to create adequate calibration curves for DCA-AES. In this study, we apply standard addition method using the certified U_3O_8 containing known amounts of metal impurities to avoid the matrix problems. The proposed method provides good results for determination of Fe, Cr and Ni contained in MOX samples at a significant quantity level. (author)

  12. Study on the Selective Laser Melting of CuSn10 Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyang Deng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The selective laser melting of tin bronze (CuSn10 powder was performed with a laser energy density intensity level at 210, 220, and 230 J/mm2. The composition was homogeneous with almost all tin dissolved into the matrix. The grain size of the obtained alpha copper phase was around 5 μm. The best properties were achieved at 220 J/mm2 laser energy density with a density of 8.82 g/cm3, hardness of 78.2 HRB (Rockwell Hardness measured on the B scale, yield strength of 399 MPa, tensile strength of 490 MPa, and an elongation that reached 19%. “Balling effect” appeared and resulted into a decrease of properties when the laser energy density increased to 230 J/mm2.

  13. Study on the Selective Laser Melting of CuSn10 Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chengyang; Kang, Jinwu; Feng, Tao; Feng, Yunlong; Wang, Xiang; Wu, Pengyue

    2018-04-17

    The selective laser melting of tin bronze (CuSn 10 ) powder was performed with a laser energy density intensity level at 210, 220, and 230 J/mm². The composition was homogeneous with almost all tin dissolved into the matrix. The grain size of the obtained alpha copper phase was around 5 μm. The best properties were achieved at 220 J/mm² laser energy density with a density of 8.82 g/cm³, hardness of 78.2 HRB (Rockwell Hardness measured on the B scale), yield strength of 399 MPa, tensile strength of 490 MPa, and an elongation that reached 19%. “Balling effect” appeared and resulted into a decrease of properties when the laser energy density increased to 230 J/mm².

  14. Laser cladding of Ti-6Al-4V with various carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkes, J.A.; Shibata, K.

    1994-01-01

    Laser cladding Ti-6Al-4V can be achieved with various weight percentages of different carbide powders. The microstructure and morphology of the clad layer is determined by the cladding powder composition, for a given set of laser parameters, such that 10 and 20 wt% Cr 3 C 2 results in a β + TiC clad microstructure; 10 and 20 wt% WC results in an α + TiC clad microstructure (plus some original WC); and Mo 2 C gives an α + β + TiC or β + TiC structure, depending on the weight percentage of Mo 2 C. The morphology of the TiC in all cases is dendritic or feathery, depending on the carbide content. The microstructure observed in all cases agreed well with that theoretically predicted from the energetics of carbide formation and β-stabilizing properties of each element

  15. Laser direct joining of metal and plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Seiji; Kawahito, Yousuke

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an innovative rapid laser direct joining process of metal and plastic lap plates without adhesives or glues. The joints made between a Type 304 stainless steel plate and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic sheet of 30 mm width possessed tensile shear loads of about 3000 N. Transmission electron microscope photographs of the joint demonstrated that Type 304 and the PET were bonded on the atomic, molecular or nanostructural level through a Cr oxide film

  16. Kinetic approach in numerical modeling of melting and crystallization at laser cladding with powder injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzade, F. Kh., E-mail: fmirzade@rambler.ru [Institute on Laser and Information Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Svyatoozerskaya Street, Shatura, Moscow Region 140700 (Russian Federation); Niziev, V.G.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Khomenko, M.D.; Grishaev, R.V. [Institute on Laser and Information Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Svyatoozerskaya Street, Shatura, Moscow Region 140700 (Russian Federation); Pityana, S.; Rooyen, Corney van [CSIR-National Laser Centre, Building 46A, Meiring Nauder Road, Brummeria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2013-08-15

    The numerical model of laser cladding with coaxial powder injection includes the equations for heat transfer, melting and crystallization kinetics. It has been shown that the main parameters influencing the melt pool dynamics and medium maximum temperature are mass feed rate, laser power and scanning velocity. It has been observed that, due to the phase change occurring with superheating/undercooling, the melt zone has the boundary distinguished from melting isotherm. The calculated melt pool dimensions and dilution are in a good agreement with the experimental results for cladding of 431 martensitic stainless steel onto carbon steel substrate.

  17. Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd3Ga5O12 garnet crystal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iparraguirre, I; Azkargorta, J; Barredo-Zuriarrain, M; Balda, R; Fernández, J; Kamada, K; Yoshikawa, A; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U R; Lavín, V

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the room temperature infrared random laser (RL) performance of Nd 3+ ions in a new stoichiometric Nd 3 Ga 5 O 12 crystal powder. The time-resolved measurements show that the RL pulse is able to follow the subnanosecond oscillations of the pump pulse profile. The pump threshold energy and the absolute stimulated emission energy have been measured using a method developed by the authors. The laser slope efficiency is the highest compared to other Nd 3+ stoichiometric RL crystals. (letter)

  18. Surface modification of AISI H13 tool steel by laser cladding with NiTi powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Chikarakara, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents laser cladding of NiTi powder on AISI H13 tool steel surface for surface properties enhancement. The cladding process was conducted using Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 laser system with wavelength of 10.6 µm. NiTi powder was pre-placed on H13 tool steel surface. The laser beam was focused with a spot size of 90 µm on the sample surface. Laser parameters were set to 1515 and 1138 W peak power, 18 and 24 % duty cycle and 2300-3500 Hz laser pulse repetition frequency. Hardness properties of the modified layer were characterized by Wilson Hardness tester. Metallographic study and chemical composition were conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDXS) analysis. Results showed that hardness of NiTi clad layer increased three times that of the substrate material. The EDXS analysis detected NiTi phase presence in the modified layer up to 9.8 wt%. The metallographic study shows high metallurgical bonding between substrate and modified layer. These findings are significant to both increased hardness and erosion resistance of high-wear-resistant components and elongating their lifetime.

  19. Nanometric onion-like hollow spheres in laser synthesized boron nitride ultrafine powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, L; Willaime, F [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Cauchetier, M [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l` Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules

    1994-12-31

    TEM observations of ultra-fine B Cl{sub 3}-N H{sub 3} powders elaborated by an innovative method, laser pyrolysis, are presented. The resulting microstructures in the as received state and after thermal treatments show small nanometric scale configurations close to the ones met with carbon, such as an hollowed configuration of onions but at a much smaller scale than with carbon. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  20. A Metallurgical Evaluation of the Powder-Bed Laser Additive Manufactured 4140 Steel Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wesley; Kelly, Shawn

    2016-03-01

    Using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) additive manufacturing (AM) process for steel or iron powder has been attempted for decades. This work used a medium carbon steel (AISI 4140) powder to explore the feasibility of AM. The high carbon equivalent of 4140 steel (CEIIW ≈ 0.83) has a strong tendency toward cold cracking. As such, the process parameters must be carefully controlled to ensure the AM build quality. Through an orthogonally designed experimental matrix, a laser-welding procedure was successfully developed to produce 4140 steel AM builds with no welding defects. In addition, the microstructure and micro-cleanliness of the as-welded PBF-L AM builds were also examined. The results showed an ultra-fine martensite lath structure and an ultra-clean internal quality with minimal oxide inclusion distribution. After optimizing the PBF-L AM process parameters, including the laser power and scan speed, the as-welded AM builds yielded an average tensile strength higher than 1482 MPa and an average 33 J Charpy V-notch impact toughness at -18°C. The surface quality, tensile strength, and Charpy V-notch impact toughness of AM builds were comparable to the wrought 4140 steel. The excellent mechanical properties of 4140 steel builds created by the PBF-L AM AM process make industrial production more feasible, which shows great potential for application in the aerospace, automobile, and machinery industries.

  1. Laser direct writing (LDW of magnetic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Alasadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct writing (LDW has been used to pattern 90nm thick permalloy (Ni81Fe19 into 1-D and 2-D microstructures with strong shape anisotropy. Sub-nanosecond laser pulses were focused with a 0.75 NA lens to a 1.85μm diameter spot, to achieve a fluence of approximately 350 mJ.cm-2 and ablate the permalloy film. Computer-controlled sample scanning then allowed structures to be defined. Scan speeds were controlled to give 30% overlap between successive laser pulses and reduce the extent of width modulation in the final structures. Continuous magnetic wires that adjoined the rest of the film were fabricated with widths from 650 nm - 6.75μm and magneto-optical measurements showed coercivity reducing across this width range from 47 Oe to 11 Oe. Attempts to fabricate wires narrower than 650nm resulted in discontinuities in the wires and a marked decrease in coercivity. This approach is extremely rapid and was carried out in air, at room temperature and with no chemical processing. The 6-kHz laser pulse repetition rate allowed wire arrays across an area of 4 mm x 0.18 mm to be patterned in 85 s.

  2. Laser direct writing (LDW) of magnetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasadi, Alaa; Claeyssens, F.; Allwood, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Laser direct writing (LDW) has been used to pattern 90nm thick permalloy (Ni81Fe19) into 1-D and 2-D microstructures with strong shape anisotropy. Sub-nanosecond laser pulses were focused with a 0.75 NA lens to a 1.85μm diameter spot, to achieve a fluence of approximately 350 mJ.cm-2 and ablate the permalloy film. Computer-controlled sample scanning then allowed structures to be defined. Scan speeds were controlled to give 30% overlap between successive laser pulses and reduce the extent of width modulation in the final structures. Continuous magnetic wires that adjoined the rest of the film were fabricated with widths from 650 nm - 6.75μm and magneto-optical measurements showed coercivity reducing across this width range from 47 Oe to 11 Oe. Attempts to fabricate wires narrower than 650nm resulted in discontinuities in the wires and a marked decrease in coercivity. This approach is extremely rapid and was carried out in air, at room temperature and with no chemical processing. The 6-kHz laser pulse repetition rate allowed wire arrays across an area of 4 mm x 0.18 mm to be patterned in 85 s.

  3. Direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A S; Bagramov, V G; Berezhnoi, K V

    2006-01-01

    The results of experiments on direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink with the help of a copper vapour laser (CVL)-based device are presented. The highly reflecting CVL cavity mirror was replaced by a spatial mirror modulator (SMM). Viscous printer's ink was used for printing. A pressure pulse produced at the boundary (on which an intensified and diminished image of the SMM was projected) between the ink and a transparency was used for transferring the ink to the plastic card. It was shown that the use of a CVL allowed a maximum printing speed of ∼80 cm 2 s -1 , a resolution of 625 dpi and up to 15 gradations. The dependence of the emission intensity of the element being projected (pixel) on its diameter is studied. It is shown that an increase in the brightness of this element with decreasing its size is caused by the summation of the laser and amplified radiation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  5. An empirical-statistical model for laser cladding of Ti-6Al-4V powder on Ti-6Al-4V substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhani, Mohammad; Razavi, Reza Shoja; Barekat, Masoud

    2018-03-01

    In this article, Ti-6Al-4V powder alloy was directly deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate using laser cladding process. In this process, some key parameters such as laser power (P), laser scanning rate (V) and powder feeding rate (F) play important roles. Using linear regression analysis, this paper develops the empirical-statistical relation between these key parameters and geometrical characteristics of single clad tracks (i.e. clad height, clad width, penetration depth, wetting angle, and dilution) as a combined parameter (PαVβFγ). The results indicated that the clad width linearly depended on PV-1/3 and powder feeding rate had no effect on it. The dilution controlled by a combined parameter as VF-1/2 and laser power was a dispensable factor. However, laser power was the dominant factor for the clad height, penetration depth, and wetting angle so that they were proportional to PV-1F1/4, PVF-1/8, and P3/4V-1F-1/4, respectively. Based on the results of correlation coefficient (R > 0.9) and analysis of residuals, it was confirmed that these empirical-statistical relations were in good agreement with the measured values of single clad tracks. Finally, these relations led to the design of a processing map that can predict the geometrical characteristics of the single clad tracks based on the key parameters.

  6. Experimental and numerical studies on laser-based powder deposition of slurry erosion resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Prabu

    Slurry erosion (the removal of material caused by the randomly moving high velocity liquid-solid particle mixture) is a serious issue in crude oil drilling, mining, turbines, rocket nozzles, pumps, and boiler tubes that causes excessive downtime and high operating costs as a result of premature part failure. The goal of this research is to enhance the service life of high-value components subjected to slurry erosion by utilizing the concept of functionally graded metal-ceramic composite material (FGMCCM) in which the favorable properties of metal (toughness, ductility, etc.) and ceramic (hardness) are tailored smoothly to improve erosion resistance. Among the potential manufacturing processes, such as the laser-based powder deposition (LBPD), the plasma transferred arc (PTA), and the thermal spray the LBPD process offers good composition and microstructure control with a high deposition rate in producing the FGMCCM. This research focuses on the development of nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-WC) based FGMCCM using the LBPD process for applications the above mentioned. The LBPD of Ni-WC involves the introduction of Ni and WC powder particle by an inert gas into the laser-formed molten pool at the substrate via nozzles. The LBPD of Ni-WC includes complex multi-physical interactions between the laser beam, Ni-WC powder, substrate, and carrier and shielding gases that are governed by a number of process variables such as laser power, scanning speed, and powder flow rate. In order to develop the best Ni-WC based slurry erosion resistant material using the LBPD process, the following challenges associated with the fabrication and the performance evaluation need to be addressed: 1) flow behavior of the Ni-WC powder and its interaction with the laser, 2) the effect of the process variables, the material compositions, and the thermo-physical properties on thermal cycles, temperature gradient, cooling rate, and residual stress formation within the material and the subsequent

  7. Thermokinetic Modeling of Phase Transformation in the Laser Powder Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroozmehr, Ehsan; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2009-08-01

    A finite element model coupled with a thermokinetic model is developed to predict the phase transformation of the laser deposition of AISI 4140 on a substrate with the same material. Four different deposition patterns, long-bead, short-bead, spiral-in, and spiral-out, are used to cover a similar area. Using a finite element model, the temperature history of the laser powder deposition (LPD) process is determined. The martensite transformation as well as martensite tempering is considered to calculate the final fraction of martensite, ferrite, cementite, ɛ-carbide, and retained austenite. Comparing the surface hardness topography of different patterns reveals that path planning is a critical parameter in laser surface modification. The predicted results are in a close agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Interferometric Laser Scanner for Direction Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Kaloshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the potential capabilities of new laser scanning-based method for direction determination. The method for fully coherent beams is extended to the case when interference pattern is produced in the turbulent atmosphere by two partially coherent sources. The performed theoretical analysis identified the conditions under which stable pattern may form on extended paths of 0.5–10 km in length. We describe a method for selecting laser scanner parameters, ensuring the necessary operability range in the atmosphere for any possible turbulence characteristics. The method is based on analysis of the mean intensity of interference pattern, formed by two partially coherent sources of optical radiation. Visibility of interference pattern is estimated as a function of propagation pathlength, structure parameter of atmospheric turbulence, and spacing of radiation sources, producing the interference pattern. It is shown that, when atmospheric turbulences are moderately strong, the contrast of interference pattern of laser scanner may ensure its applicability at ranges up to 10 km.

  9. Interferometric Laser Scanner for Direction Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, Gennady; Lukin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential capabilities of new laser scanning-based method for direction determination. The method for fully coherent beams is extended to the case when interference pattern is produced in the turbulent atmosphere by two partially coherent sources. The performed theoretical analysis identified the conditions under which stable pattern may form on extended paths of 0.5–10 km in length. We describe a method for selecting laser scanner parameters, ensuring the necessary operability range in the atmosphere for any possible turbulence characteristics. The method is based on analysis of the mean intensity of interference pattern, formed by two partially coherent sources of optical radiation. Visibility of interference pattern is estimated as a function of propagation pathlength, structure parameter of atmospheric turbulence, and spacing of radiation sources, producing the interference pattern. It is shown that, when atmospheric turbulences are moderately strong, the contrast of interference pattern of laser scanner may ensure its applicability at ranges up to 10 km. PMID:26805841

  10. A novel process for production of spherical PBT powders and their processing behavior during laser beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.schmidt@fau.de; Sachs, Marius; Fanselow, Stephanie; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Particle Technology, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Zhao, Meng; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Polymer Technology, Am Weichselgarten 9, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    Additive manufacturing processes like laser beam melting of polymers are established for production of prototypes and individualized parts. The transfer to other areas of application and to serial production is currently hindered by the limited availability of polymer powders with good processability. Within this contribution a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability has been established and applied to produce polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) powders. Moreover, the applicability of the PBT powders in selective laser beam melting and the dependencies of process parameters on device properties will be outlined. First, polymer micro particles are produced by a novel wet grinding method. To improve the flowability the produced particles the particle shape is optimized by rounding in a heated downer reactor. A further improvement of flowability of the cohesive spherical PBT particles is realized by dry coating. An improvement of flowability by a factor of about 5 is achieved by subsequent rounding of the comminution product and dry-coating as proven by tensile strength measurements of the powders. The produced PBT powders were characterized with respect to their processability. Therefore thermal, rheological, optical and bulk properties were analyzed. Based on these investigations a range of processing parameters was derived. Parameter studies on thin layers, produced in a selective laser melting system, were conducted. Hence appropriate parameters for processing the PBT powders by laser beam melting, like building chamber temperature, scan speed and laser power have been identified.

  11. A novel process for production of spherical PBT powders and their processing behavior during laser beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Fanselow, Stephanie; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang; Zhao, Meng; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing processes like laser beam melting of polymers are established for production of prototypes and individualized parts. The transfer to other areas of application and to serial production is currently hindered by the limited availability of polymer powders with good processability. Within this contribution a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability has been established and applied to produce polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) powders. Moreover, the applicability of the PBT powders in selective laser beam melting and the dependencies of process parameters on device properties will be outlined. First, polymer micro particles are produced by a novel wet grinding method. To improve the flowability the produced particles the particle shape is optimized by rounding in a heated downer reactor. A further improvement of flowability of the cohesive spherical PBT particles is realized by dry coating. An improvement of flowability by a factor of about 5 is achieved by subsequent rounding of the comminution product and dry-coating as proven by tensile strength measurements of the powders. The produced PBT powders were characterized with respect to their processability. Therefore thermal, rheological, optical and bulk properties were analyzed. Based on these investigations a range of processing parameters was derived. Parameter studies on thin layers, produced in a selective laser melting system, were conducted. Hence appropriate parameters for processing the PBT powders by laser beam melting, like building chamber temperature, scan speed and laser power have been identified.

  12. Process Evaluation of AISI 4340 Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelis, Elias; Hespos, Michael R.; Ravindra, Nuggehalli M.

    2018-01-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) involves the consolidation of metal powder, layer by layer, through laser melting and solidification. In this study, process parameters are optimized for AISI 4340 steel to produce dense and homogeneous structures. The optimized process parameters produce mechanical properties at the center of the build plate that are comparable to wrought in the vertical and horizontal orientations after heat treatment and machining. Four subsequent builds are filled with specimens to evaluate the mechanical behavior as a function of location and orientation. Variations in the mechanical properties are likely due to recoater blade interactions with the powder and uneven gas flow. The results obtained in this study are analyzed to assess the reliability and reproducibility of the process. A different build evaluates the performance of near-net-shaped tensile specimens angled 35°-90° from the build plate surface (horizontal). Ductility measurements and surface roughness vary significantly as a function of the build angle. In the stress-relieved and as-built conditions, the mechanical behavior of vertically oriented specimens exhibits somewhat lower and more variable ductility than horizontally oriented specimens. Therefore, several process variables affect the mechanical properties of parts produced by the L-PBF process.

  13. Direct biosensor immunoassays for the detection of nonmilk proteins in milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Olieman, K.; Cazemier, G.; Verheijen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The low prices of some nonmilk proteins make them attractive as potential adulterants in dairy products. An optical biosensor (BIACORE 3000) was used to develop a direct and combined biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of soy, pea, and soluble wheat proteins in milk powders.

  14. Direct estimate of cocoa powder content in cakes by colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kulcsar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was

  15. A CO2 laser based system for the production of nanoscaled powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurland, H.-D.; Schindler, K.; Staupendahl, G.; Oestreich, Ch.; Loogk, M.; Mueller, E.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the world-wide industrial competition is increasingly determined by the use of new materials which allow optimised and in part totally new qualities of products or the production of more compact components. Thereby the importance of ultrafine ceramic powders with grain sizes of only a few nanometers rises rapidly. These powders show some interesting physical and chemical features which result from the extremely small dimensions of their particles, for example very high specific surfaces, high surface energy or special behaviour in the phase transformation. Their thermodynamic and kinetic (short diffusion lengths) parameters are mirrored in high sintering activities and hence relatively low sintering temperatures as well as very special properties of the sintered materials, especially the possibility of super plasticity. Nanoscaled powders also have a broad potential for the production of thin layers for example in the electronics industry or as part of composite materials with components of lower thermal stability. At present different technologies for the manufacturing of nanoscaled powders are intensively used and developed. In this paper a technique for the production of ceramic nanopowders by evaporation of solid starting materials with CO 2 laser radiation is presented

  16. New target for high-intensity laser-matter interaction: Gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servol, M.; Quere, F.; Bougeard, M.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Faenov, A.Ya; Pikuz, T.A.; Audebert, P.; Francucci, M.; Petrocelli, G.

    2005-01-01

    The design of efficient targets for high-intensity laser-matter interaction is essential to fully exploit the advantages of laser-induced photons or particles sources. We present an advantageous kind of target, consisting in a free gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powder, and describe its main technical characteristics. We demonstrate a laser-induced keV x-ray source using this target, and show that the photon flux obtained for the Kα line of Si by irradiating different silica powders is comparable to the one obtained with a bulk silica target

  17. The Influence of the Powder Stream on High-Deposition-Rate Laser Metal Deposition with Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongliang Zhong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the productivity of laser metal deposition (LMD, the focus of current research is set on increasing the deposition rate, in order to develop high-deposition-rate LMD (HDR-LMD. The presented work studies the effects of the powder stream on HDR-LMD with Inconel 718. Experiments have been designed and conducted by using different powder feeding nozzles—a three-jet and a coaxial powder feeding nozzle—since the powder stream is mainly determined by the geometry of the powder feeding nozzle. After the deposition trials, metallographic analysis of the samples has been performed. The laser intensity distribution (LID and the powder stream intensity distribution (PID have been characterized, based on which the processes have been simulated. Finally, for verifying and correcting the used models for the simulation, the simulated results have been compared with the experimental results. Through the conducted work, suitable boundary conditions for simulating the process with different powder streams has been determined, and the effects of the powder stream on the process have also been determined. For a LMD process with a three-jet nozzle a substantial part of the powder particles that hit the melt pool surface are rebounded; for a LMD process with a coaxial nozzle almost all the particles are caught in the melt pool. This is due to the different particle velocities achieved with the two different nozzles. Moreover, the powder stream affects the heat exchange between the heated particles and the melt pool: a surface boundary condition applies for a powder stream with lower particle velocities, in the experiment provided by a three-jet nozzle, and a volumetric boundary condition applies for a powder stream with higher particle velocities, provided by a coaxial nozzle.

  18. Concept and nuclear performance of direct-enrichment fusion breeder blanket using UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Kasahara, Takayasu; An, Shigehiro

    1985-01-01

    A new concept is presented for direct enrichment of fissile fuel in the blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The enriched fuel produced by this means can be used in fission reactors without reprocessing. The outstanding feature of the concept is the powdered form in which UO 2 fuel is placed in the reactor blanket, where it is irradiated to the requisite enrichment for use as fuel in burner reactor, e.g. 3%. After removal from blanket, the powder is mixed to homogenize the enrichment. Fuel pellets and assemblies are then fabricated from the powder without reprocessing. The concept of irradiating UO 2 in powder eliminates the problems of spatial nonuniformity in fissile enrichment, and of radiation damage to fuel clad, encountered in attempting to enrich prefabricated fuel. Powder mixing for homogenization brings the additional benefit of removing volatile fission products. Also burnable poison can be added, as necessary, after irradiation. An extensive neutronic parameter survey showed that the optimum blanket arrangement for this enrichment concept is one presenting a fission suppressing configuration and with beryllium adopted as moderator. By this arrangement, the average 239 Pu enrichment obtained on the natural UO 2 fuel in the blanket reaches 3% after only 0.56 MW.yr/m"2 exposure. A conceptual design is presented of the blanket, together with associated fusion breeder, from which, practical application of the concept is shown to be promising. (author)

  19. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Synthesized Cobalt Based Powder on Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, O. S.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Pityana, S. L.; Oloruntoba, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of titanium alloys when used for various dynamic offshore components has been a major concern of titanium drilling risers in deepwater energy extraction. A way of achieving specified requirement is the development of coatings suitable to protect the base material against corrosion. In this work, laser cladding technique which is known as a leading edge due to its distinctive properties and outcomes was used in synthesizing Co-based powder on titanium alloy. The processing parameters used were laser power of 900W; scan speed of 0.6 to 1.2 m/min; powderfeedrate1.0g/min;beamspotsize3mm;gasflowrate1.2L/min.The effects of cobalt addition and laser parameters on corrosion behavior of laser clad Ti6AL4V coating in 0.5M sulfuric medium were investigated using linear potentiodynamic polarization. The changes in microstructure and corrosion behavior were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the X –ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the intermetallics in the coatings. Results showed that the coatings displayed good metallurgical bonding with dendritic formations between the coatings and the substrate. The anodic current density increased with lower scan speed. However, the corrosion current densities of laser-clad samples were lower than Ti6Al4V alloy.

  20. Direct diode lasers with comparable beam quality to fiber, CO2, and solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Kaiman, Michael; Overman, Robert; Glenn, John D.; Tayebati, Parviz

    2012-03-01

    TeraDiode has produced kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 2,040 W from a 50 μm core diameter, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.75 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 2-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers.

  1. Laser alloying of AI with mixed Ni, Ti and SiC powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available composite (MMC) is formed. The MMC layer has excellent hardness and wear resistance compared to the base alloy [9-13]. Man et al. [14] used a high power continuous wave Nd:YAG laser to alloy aluminium AA 6061 with preplaced NiTi (54 wt% Ni & 46 wt...Al, Ti3Al, SiC, Al and Si phases. The hardness increased from 75HV to 650HV due to the formation of the TiC particles and TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallics. Su and Lei [9] laser cladded Al-12wt%Si with a powder containing SiC and Al-12wt%Si in a 3...

  2. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Gharehkhani, Samira; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yarmand, Hooman; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2015-06-01

    Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.

  3. Nanoclay/Polymer Composite Powders for Use in Laser Sintering Applications: Effects of Nanoclay Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansoori, Alaa; Majewski, Candice; Rodenburg, Cornelia

    2017-11-01

    Plasma-etched nanoclay-reinforced Polyamide 12 (PA12) powder is prepared with its intended use in selective laser sintering (LS) applications. To replicate the LS process we present a downward heat sintering (DHS) process, carried out in a hot press, to fabricate tensile test specimens from the composite powders. The DHS parameters are optimized through hot stage microscopy, which reveal that the etched clay (EC)-based PA12 (EC/PA12) nanocomposite powder melts at a temperature 2°C higher than that of neat PA12, and 1-3°C lower than that of the nonetched clay-based nanocompsite (NEC/PA12 composite). We show that these temperature differences are critical to successful LS. The distribution of EC and NEC onto PA12 is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images show clearly that the plasma treatment prevents the micron-scale aggregation of the nanoclay, resulting in an improved elastic modulus of EC/PA12 when compared with neat PA12 and NEC/PA12. Moreover, the reduction in elongation at break for EC/PA12 is less pronounced than for NEC/PA12.

  4. Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadbakhsh, Sasan; Hao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75  μm layer thickness, and 50  μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  5. Effect of Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting on Microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 Powder Consolidated Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Dadbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75 μm layer thickness, and 50 μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  6. Transport mean free path in K5Bi1-xNdx(MoO4)4 laser crystal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illarramendi, M A; Aramburu, I; Fernandez, J; Balda, R; Al-Saleh, M

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we calculate in two different ways the transport mean free paths in K 5 Bi 1-x Nd x (MoO 4 ) 4 (x = 0.05, 0.2, 1) laser crystal powders by using the diffuse spectral reflectance and transmittance of the powders and the absorption coefficient of the crystal materials. The theoretical calculations have been made by assuming a diffusive propagation of light in these materials. Similar results have been obtained from both methods

  7. Fabrication Of Scaffolds From Ti6Al4V Powders Using The Computer Aided Laser Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research, the results of which are presented in the paper, is to fabricate, by Selective Laser Melting (SLM, a metallic scaffold with Ti6Al4V powder based on a virtual model corresponding to the actual loss of a patient’s craniofacial bone. A plaster cast was made for a patient with a palate recess, and the cast was then scanned with a 3D scanner to create a virtual 3D model of a palate recess, according to which a 3D model of a solid implant was created using specialist software. The virtual 3D solid implant model was converted into a 3D porous implant model after designing an individual shape of the unit cell conditioning the size and three-dimensional shape of the scaffold pores by multiplication of unit cells. The data concerning a virtual 3D porous implant model was transferred into a selective laser melting (SLM device and a metallic scaffold was produced from Ti6Al4V powder with this machine, which was subjected to surface treatment by chemical etching. An object with certain initially adopted assumptions, i.e. shape and geometric dimensions, was finally achieved, which perfectly matches the patient bone recesses. The scaffold created was subjected to micro-and spectroscopic examinations.

  8. Tensile properties and microstructure of direct metal laser-sintered TI6AL4V (ELI alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moletsane, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is an additive manufacturing technology used to melt metal powder by high laser power to produce customised parts, light-weight structures, or other complex objects. During DMLS, powder is melted and solidified track-by-track and layer-by-layer; thus, building direction can influence the mechanical properties of DMLS parts. The mechanical properties and microstructure of material produced by DMLS can depend on the powder properties, process parameters, scanning strategy, and building geometry. In this study, the microstructure, tensile properties, and porosity of DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI horizontal samples were analysed. Defect analysis by CT scans in pre-strained samples was used to detect the crack formation mechanism during tensile testing of as-built and heat-treated samples. The mechanical properties of the samples before and after stress relieving are discussed.

  9. Present status and future prospects for direct drive laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    If one assumes that the best short wavelength laser will have an efficiency of 5--7%, and if one assumes that reasonable cost electricity requires that the product of laser efficiency and pellet gain be greater than 10--15, then pellet grains for laser fusion must be at least 150--300. The only laser fusion concept with any potential for energy applications then seems to be directly driven targets with moderately thin shells and 1/4 micron KrF laser light. This direct drive concept has potential pellet energy gains of 200--300

  10. Temperature-feedback direct laser reshaping of silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouassa, M.; Mitsai, E.; Syubaev, S.; Pavlov, D.; Zhizhchenko, A.; Jadli, I.; Hassayoun, L.; Zograf, G.; Makarov, S.; Kuchmizhak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Direct laser reshaping of nanostructures is a cost-effective and fast approach to create or tune various designs for nanophotonics. However, the narrow range of required laser parameters along with the lack of in-situ temperature control during the nanostructure reshaping process limits its reproducibility and performance. Here, we present an approach for direct laser nanostructure reshaping with simultaneous temperature control. We employ thermally sensitive Raman spectroscopy during local laser melting of silicon pillar arrays prepared by self-assembly microsphere lithography. Our approach allows establishing the reshaping threshold of an individual nanostructure, resulting in clean laser processing without overheating of the surrounding area.

  11. Modeling of microstructure evolution in direct metal laser sintering: A phase field approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Jyotirmoy; Sarangi, Hrushikesh; Sahoo, Seshadev

    2017-02-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a new technology in the field of additive manufacturing, which builds metal parts in a layer by layer fashion directly from the powder bed. The process occurs within a very short time period with rapid solidification rate. Slight variations in the process parameters may cause enormous change in the final build parts. The physical and mechanical properties of the final build parts are dependent on the solidification rate which directly affects the microstructure of the material. Thus, the evolving of microstructure plays a vital role in the process parameters optimization. Nowadays, the increase in computational power allows for direct simulations of microstructures during materials processing for specific manufacturing conditions. In this study, modeling of microstructure evolution of Al-Si-10Mg powder in DMLS process was carried out by using a phase field approach. A MATLAB code was developed to solve the set of phase field equations, where simulation parameters include temperature gradient, laser scan speed and laser power. The effects of temperature gradient on microstructure evolution were studied and found that with increase in temperature gradient, the dendritic tip grows at a faster rate.

  12. Parametric study of development of Inconel-steel functionally graded materials by laser direct metal deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kamran; Haq, Izhar ul; Khan, Ashfaq; Shah, Shaukat Ali; Khan, Mushtaq; Pinkerton, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Functionally graded steel and nickel super-alloy structures have been developed. • Mechanical properties of FGMs can be controlled by process input parameters. • SDAS is strongly dependent on the laser power and powder mass flow rate. • Carbides provide a mechanism to control the hardness and wear resistance of FGM. • Tensile strength of FGM is dependent on the laser power and powder mass flow rate. - Abstract: Laser direct metal deposition (LDMD) has developed from a prototyping to a single and multiple metals manufacturing technique. It offers an opportunity to produce graded components, with differing elemental composition, phase and microstructure at different locations. In this work, continuously graded Stainless Steel 316L and Inconel 718 thin wall structures made by direct laser metal deposition process have been explored. The paper considers the effects of process parameters including laser power levels and powder mass flow rates of SS316L and Inconel 718 during the deposition of the Steel–Ni graded structures. Microstructure characterisation and phase identification are performed by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Mechanical testing, using methods such as hardness, wear resistance and tensile testing have been carried out on the structures. XRD results show the presence of the NbC and Fe 2 Nb phases formed during the deposition. The effect of experimental parameters on the microstructure and physical properties are determined and discussed. Work shows that mechanical properties can be controlled by input parameters and generation of carbides provides an opportunity to selectively control the hardness and wear resistance of the functionally graded material

  13. Parametric Study and Multi-Criteria Optimization in Laser Cladding by a High Power Direct Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Parisa; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-12-01

    In laser cladding, the performance of the deposited layers subjected to severe working conditions (e.g., wear and high temperature conditions) depends on the mechanical properties, the metallurgical bond to the substrate, and the percentage of dilution. The clad geometry and mechanical characteristics of the deposited layer are influenced greatly by the type of laser used as a heat source and process parameters used. Nowadays, the quality of fabricated coating by laser cladding and the efficiency of this process has improved thanks to the development of high-power diode lasers, with power up to 10 kW. In this study, the laser cladding by a high power direct diode laser (HPDDL) as a new heat source in laser cladding was investigated in detail. The high alloy tool steel material (AISI H13) as feedstock was deposited on mild steel (ASTM A36) by a HPDDL up to 8kW laser and with new design lateral feeding nozzle. The influences of the main process parameters (laser power, powder flow rate, and scanning speed) on the clad-bead geometry (specifically layer height and depth of the heat affected zone), and clad microhardness were studied. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop the analytical models for desired output properties according to input process parameters. The Analysis of Variance was applied to check the accuracy of the developed models. The response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function were used for multi-criteria optimization of the cladding process. In order to investigate the effect of process parameters on the molten pool evolution, in-situ monitoring was utilized. Finally, the validation results for optimized process conditions show the predicted results were in a good agreement with measured values. The multi-criteria optimization makes it possible to acquire an efficient process for a combination of clad geometrical and mechanical characteristics control.

  14. An analytical–numerical model of laser direct metal deposition track and microstructure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, M Naveed; Pinkerton, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Multiple analytical and numerical models of the laser metal deposition process have been presented, but most rely on sequential solution of the energy and mass balance equations or discretization of the problem domain. Laser direct metal deposition is a complex process involving multiple interdependent processes which can be best simulated using a fully coupled mass-energy balance solution. In this work a coupled analytical–numerical solution is presented. Sub-models of the powder stream, quasi-stationary conduction in the substrate and powder assimilation into the area of the substrate above the liquidus temperature are combined. An iterative feedback loop is used to ensure mass and energy balances are maintained at the melt pool. The model is verified using Ti–6Al–4V single track deposition, produced with a coaxial nozzle and a diode laser. The model predictions of local temperature history, the track profile and microstructure scale show good agreement with the experimental results. The model is a useful industrial aid and alternative to finite element methods for selecting the parameters to use for laser direct metal deposition when separate geometric and microstructural outcomes are required

  15. In vitro study of hydroxy apatite and enamel powder fused in human enamel by Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrreira, Marcus Vinicius Lucas

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser irradiation on hydroxyapatite and enamel powder fusion. This laser beam is not well absorbed by this two compounds for this reason they were mixed with vegetal coal to increase the absorption of the laser beam. Fifteen enamel flat surfaces and six occlusal enamel surfaces were prepared with three different substances: hydroxyapatite mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); enamel powder mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); vegetal coal. The occlusal surfaces were utilized to determine if the compounds could seal pits and fissures. Flat surfaces were utilized to determine fusion of hydroxyapatite and enamel powder. All samples were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the parameters: 80 mJ, 15 Hz, 1,2 W, 100 μs pulse-width, 131,1 J/cm 2 . Laser beam was delivered to the samples with a 300 μm diameter fiber optic. Morphology of the irradiated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds with hydroxyapatite and enamel powder were fused to enamel surfaces. Only partial pits and fissures sealing could be observed. (author)

  16. Direct laser initiation of open secondary explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assovskiy, I G; Melik-Gaikazov, G V; Kuznetsov, G P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is experimental study of the mechanism of initiation of secondary explosives (SE) by short laser pulse. Laser initiation of SE is much more difficult in comparison with initiation of primary explosives. Using of some special methods is typically requested to realize laser initiation of SE: using of porous SE, putting it in a closed envelope, and using some optically dense additives. In this paper we consider interaction of laser pulse with open surface of non-porous, optically uniform SE. Only pure chemical methods were used to control the light sensitivity of SE. Implementation of the method of laser initiation is reduced to the optimization of composition and molecular structure of the explosives, along with the optimization of the laser pulse (its duration, energy density and wavelength). (paper)

  17. Improving accuracy of overhanging structures for selective laser melting through reliability characterization of single track formation on thick powder beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Repeatability and reproducibility of parts produced by selective laser melting is a standing issue, and coupled with a lack of standardized quality control presents a major hindrance towards maturing of selective laser melting as an industrial scale process. Consequently, numerical process...... modelling has been adopted towards improving the predictability of the outputs from the selective laser melting process. Establishing the reliability of the process, however, is still a challenge, especially in components having overhanging structures.In this paper, a systematic approach towards...... establishing reliability of overhanging structure production by selective laser melting has been adopted. A calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model is used to simulate the single track formation on a thick powder bed. Single tracks are manufactured on a thick powder bed using same processing parameters...

  18. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  19. [Theoretical modeling and experimental research on direct compaction characteristics of multi-component pharmaceutical powders based on the Kawakita equation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Guo-Ning; Chen, Lan; Li, Bao-Guo

    2014-04-01

    Base on the Kawakita powder compression equation, a general theoretical model for predicting the compression characteristics of multi-components pharmaceutical powders with different mass ratios was developed. The uniaxial flat-face compression tests of powder lactose, starch and microcrystalline cellulose were carried out, separately. Therefore, the Kawakita equation parameters of the powder materials were obtained. The uniaxial flat-face compression tests of the powder mixtures of lactose, starch, microcrystalline cellulose and sodium stearyl fumarate with five mass ratios were conducted, through which, the correlation between mixture density and loading pressure and the Kawakita equation curves were obtained. Finally, the theoretical prediction values were compared with experimental results. The analysis showed that the errors in predicting mixture densities were less than 5.0% and the errors of Kawakita vertical coordinate were within 4.6%, which indicated that the theoretical model could be used to predict the direct compaction characteristics of multi-component pharmaceutical powders.

  20. Overview and future direction for blackbody solar-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A review of solar-pumped blackbody lasers is given which addresses their present status and suggests future research directions. The blackbody laser concept is one system proposed to scale to multimegawatt power levels for space-to-space power transmissions for such applications as onboard spacecraft electrical or propulsion needs. Among the critical technical issues are the scalability to high powers and the laser wavelength which impacts the transmission optics size as well as the laser-to-electric converter at the receiver. Because present blackbody solar-pumped lasers will have laser wavelengths longer than 4 microns, simple photovoltaic converters cannot be used, and transmission optics will be large. Thus, future blackbody laser systems should emphasize near visible laser wavelengths.

  1. Layered surface structure of gas-atomized high Nb-containing TiAl powder and its impact on laser energy absorption for selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Lin, S. F.; Hou, Y. H.; Wang, D. W.; Zhou, P.; Han, P. L.; Li, Y. L.; Yan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Ti45Al8Nb alloy (in at.%) is designed to be an important high-temperature material. However, its fabrication through laser-based additive manufacturing is difficult to achieve. We present here that a good understanding of the surface structure of raw material (i.e. Ti45Al8Nb powder) is important for optimizing its process by selective laser melting (SLM). Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were conducted to determine the surface structure of Ti45Al8Nb powder. An envelope structure (∼54.0 nm in thickness) was revealed for the powder, consisting of TiO2 + Nb2O5 (as the outer surface layer)/Al2O3 + Nb2O5 (as the intermediate layer)/Al2O3 (as the inner surface layer)/Ti45Al8Nb (as the matrix). During SLM, this layered surface structure interacted with the incident laser beam and improved the laser absorptivity of Ti45Al8Nb powder by ∼32.21%. SLM experiments demonstrate that the relative density of the as-printed parts can be realized to a high degree (∼98.70%), which confirms good laser energy absorption. Such layered surface structure with appropriate phase constitution is essential for promoting SLM of the Ti45Al8Nb alloy.

  2. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. E., E-mail: weking@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kamath, C. [Computation Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rubenchik, A. M. [NIF and Photon Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  3. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process

  4. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  5. Laser cladding of a Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy with Al–Si powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Erlei [School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang, Kemin, E-mail: zhangkm@sues.edu.cn [School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zou, Jianxin [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: A Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was treated by laser cladding with Al–Si powders at different laser scanning speeds. The laser clad layer mainly contains Mg{sub 2}Si, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}(Gd,Y) phases distributed in the Mg matrix. After laser cladding, the corrosion resistance of the Mg alloy was significantly improved together with increased microhardness in the laser clad layers. - Highlights: • A Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was laser clad with Al–Si powders. • The microstructure and morphology vary with the depth of the clad layer and the laser scanning speed. • Hardness and corrosion resistance were significantly improved after laser cladding. - Abstract: In the present work, a Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was subjected to laser cladding with Al–Si powders at different laser scanning speeds in order to improve its surface properties. It is observed that the laser clad layer mainly contains Mg{sub 2}Si, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}(Gd,Y) phases distributed in the Mg matrix. The depth of the laser clad layer increases with decreasing the scanning speed. The clad layer has graded microstructures and compositions. Both the volume fraction and size of Mg{sub 2}Si, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}(Gd,Y) phases decreases with the increasing depth. Due to the formation of these hardening phases, the hardness of clad layer reached a maximum value of HV440 when the laser scanning speed is 2 mm/s, more than 5 times of the substrate (HV75). Besides, the corrosion properties of the untreated and laser treated samples were all measured in a NaCl (3.5 wt.%) aqueous solution. The corrosion potential was increased from −1.77 V for the untreated alloy to −1.13 V for the laser clad alloy with scanning rate of 2 mm/s, while the corrosion current density was reduced from 2.10 × 10{sup −5} A cm{sup −2} to 1.64 × 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. The results show that laser cladding is an efficient method to improve

  6. Laser cladding of a Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy with Al–Si powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Erlei; Zhang, Kemin; Zou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was treated by laser cladding with Al–Si powders at different laser scanning speeds. The laser clad layer mainly contains Mg_2Si, Mg_1_7Al_1_2 and Al_2(Gd,Y) phases distributed in the Mg matrix. After laser cladding, the corrosion resistance of the Mg alloy was significantly improved together with increased microhardness in the laser clad layers. - Highlights: • A Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was laser clad with Al–Si powders. • The microstructure and morphology vary with the depth of the clad layer and the laser scanning speed. • Hardness and corrosion resistance were significantly improved after laser cladding. - Abstract: In the present work, a Mg based Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was subjected to laser cladding with Al–Si powders at different laser scanning speeds in order to improve its surface properties. It is observed that the laser clad layer mainly contains Mg_2Si, Mg_1_7Al_1_2 and Al_2(Gd,Y) phases distributed in the Mg matrix. The depth of the laser clad layer increases with decreasing the scanning speed. The clad layer has graded microstructures and compositions. Both the volume fraction and size of Mg_2Si, Mg_1_7Al_1_2 and Al_2(Gd,Y) phases decreases with the increasing depth. Due to the formation of these hardening phases, the hardness of clad layer reached a maximum value of HV440 when the laser scanning speed is 2 mm/s, more than 5 times of the substrate (HV75). Besides, the corrosion properties of the untreated and laser treated samples were all measured in a NaCl (3.5 wt.%) aqueous solution. The corrosion potential was increased from −1.77 V for the untreated alloy to −1.13 V for the laser clad alloy with scanning rate of 2 mm/s, while the corrosion current density was reduced from 2.10 × 10"−"5 A cm"−"2 to 1.64 × 10"−"6 A cm"−"2. The results show that laser cladding is an efficient method to improve surface properties of Mg–Rare earth alloys.

  7. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  8. Spectrochemical analysis of powder using 355 nm Nd-YAG laser-induced low-pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Zener S; Pardede, M; Hedwig, R; Suliyanti, M M; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Munadi; Lee, Yong-Inn; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Hattori, Isamu; Tjia, May On

    2008-04-01

    The applicability of spectrochemical analysis of minute amounts of powder samples was investigated using an ultraviolet Nd-YAG laser (355 nm) and low-pressure ambient air. A large variety of chemical powder samples of different composition were employed in the experiment. These included a mixture of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfide, and chromium(III) sulfate n-hydrate powders, baby powder, cosmetic powders, gold films, zinc supplement tablet, and muds and soils from different areas. The powder samples were prepared by pulverizing the original samples to an average size of around 30 microm in order to trap them in the tiny micro holes created on the surface of the quartz subtarget. It was demonstrated that in all cases studied, good quality spectra were obtained with low background, free from undesirable contamination by the subtarget elements and featuring ppm sensitivity. A further measurement revealed a linear calibration curve with zero intercept. These results clearly show the potential application of this technique for practical qualitative and quantitative spectrochemical analysis of powder samples in various fields of study and investigation.

  9. Direct solution-phase synthesis of Se submicrotubes using Se powder as selenium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shancheng; Wang Haitao; Zhang Yuping; Li Shuchun; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-01-01

    The selenium submicrotubes were directly prepared using Se powder as selenium source by microwave-assisted method. Field-emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were adopted to characterize the as-prepared products. The results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and XRD pattern proved that the selenium submicrotubes were single crystalline in nature and [0 0 1] oriented. A possible growth mechanism of the selenium submicrotubes was proposed. The effects of the experimental conditions, such as alkaline concentration and solvent properties, on the morphology and dimension of the products have also been discussed

  10. Direct synthesis of nanocrystalline oxide powders by wet-chemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Srdić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In a recent period there is a great need for increasing the knowledge of tailoring the innovative procedures for the synthesis of electroceramic nanopowders and materials with improved quality for specific application. In order to produce electroceramics with desirable microstructure and properties, synthesis of stoichiometric, ultra-fine and agglomerate free powders with narrow size distributions is one of the most important steps. Within this scope, in the present paper we summarize our recent results on direct synthesis of some important perovskites and ferrites nanopowders by wet-chemical techniques.

  11. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Kim, Khong Hon; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I. Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The materials studied were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals. The slope efficiency of 0.17 percent was measured for the Nd:YLF near the threshold pump intensity which was 211 solar constants (29W/sq cm). The threshold pump intensity of the Nd:YAG was measured to be 236 solar constants (32W/sq cm) and the near-threshold slope efficiency was 0.12 percent. True CW laser operation of Cr:Nd:GSGG was possible only at pump intensities less than or equal to 1,500 solar constants (203 W/sq cm). This fact was attributed to the high thermal focusing effect of the Cr:Nd:GSGG rod.

  12. Experimental Study of Direct Laser Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 by Using Pulsed Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition (LDMD has developed from a prototyping to a single metal manufacturing tool. Its potential for creating multimaterial and functionally graded structures is now beginning to be explored. This work is a first part of a study in which a single layer of Inconel 718 is deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Single layer tracks were built at a range of powder mass flow rates using a coaxial nozzle and 1.5 kW diode laser operating in both continuous and pulsed beam modes. This part of the study focused on the experimental findings during the deposition of Inconel 718 powder on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for characterization and phase identification. Residual stress measurement had been carried out to ascertain the effects of laser pulse parameters on the crack development during the deposition process.

  13. Metallurgical and Mechanical Evaluation of 4340 Steel Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelis, Elias; Clemente, Matthew; Kerwien, Stacey; Ravindra, Nuggehalli M.; Hespos, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) was used to produce high-strength low-alloy 4340 steel specimens. Mechanical and metallurgical analyses were performed on the specimens to determine the samples with the highest strengths and the least porosity. The optimal process parameters were thus defined based on the corresponding experimental conditions. Additionally, the effects of fabricating specimens with both virgin and recycled powders were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-dispersive spectroscopy were performed on both types of powders to determine the starting morphology and composition. The initial tensile results are promising, suggesting that DMLS can produce specimens equal in strength to wrought materials. However, there is evidence of cracking on several of the heat-treated tensile specimens that is unexplained. Several theories point to disturbances in the build chamber environment that went undetected while the specimens were being fabricated.

  14. Direct metal laser sintering: a digitised metal casting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-12-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  15. Direct Metal Laser Sintering: A Digitised Metal Casting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, K. Vijay; Nandini, V. Vidyashree

    2013-01-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  16. Potential for GPC-based laser direct writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew; Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    lasers for such applications by using phase modulation as opposed to amplitude truncating masks. Here, we explore GPC’s potential for increasing the yield of micropscopic 3D printing also known as direct laser writing. Many light based additive manufacturing techniques, adopt a point scanning approach...

  17. Synthesis of mullite-based coatings from alumina and zircon powder mixtures by plasma spraying and laser remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S.; Das, J.; Bandyopadhyay, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical mixture of alumina and pulverized zircon sand in 3:2 M ratio has been plasma sprayed to obtain mullite coating. Thereafter, the top layer of the coating has been remelted using laser. The presence of a mullite phase in the as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings has been confirmed qualitatively using X-ray diffraction. Both as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings have been characterized for their microstructure, hardness and porosity. The ultrafine grain structure of the coating produced by rapid quenching has been analyzed using transmission electron microscope. Presence of a mullite phase in the coatings has also been confirmed using small angle electron diffraction. Laser remelting has resulted in an appreciable reduction in porosity and increase in hardness in the coatings. - Highlights: • Mullite has been produced by plasma spraying of alumina–zircon powder mixture. • As sprayed coating shows good integrity. • Laser remelting reduced porosity and increased coating hardness

  18. Synthesis of mullite-based coatings from alumina and zircon powder mixtures by plasma spraying and laser remelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, S. [Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, Balasore, Odisha 756025 (India); Das, J. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Bandyopadhyay, P.P., E-mail: ppb@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2015-03-15

    A mechanical mixture of alumina and pulverized zircon sand in 3:2 M ratio has been plasma sprayed to obtain mullite coating. Thereafter, the top layer of the coating has been remelted using laser. The presence of a mullite phase in the as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings has been confirmed qualitatively using X-ray diffraction. Both as-sprayed and laser remelted coatings have been characterized for their microstructure, hardness and porosity. The ultrafine grain structure of the coating produced by rapid quenching has been analyzed using transmission electron microscope. Presence of a mullite phase in the coatings has also been confirmed using small angle electron diffraction. Laser remelting has resulted in an appreciable reduction in porosity and increase in hardness in the coatings. - Highlights: • Mullite has been produced by plasma spraying of alumina–zircon powder mixture. • As sprayed coating shows good integrity. • Laser remelting reduced porosity and increased coating hardness.

  19. Direct compression of chitosan: process and formulation factors to improve powder flow and tablet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Gerhard M; du Plessis, Lissinda H; Marais, Andries F; Kotze, Awie F; Hamman, Josias H

    2013-06-01

    Chitosan is a polymer derived from chitin that is widely available at relatively low cost, but due to compression challenges it has limited application for the production of direct compression tablets. The aim of this study was to use certain process and formulation variables to improve manufacturing of tablets containing chitosan as bulking agent. Chitosan particle size and flow properties were determined, which included bulk density, tapped density, compressibility and moisture uptake. The effect of process variables (i.e. compression force, punch depth, percentage compaction in a novel double fill compression process) and formulation variables (i.e. type of glidant, citric acid, pectin, coating with Eudragit S®) on chitosan tablet performance (i.e. mass variation, tensile strength, dissolution) was investigated. Moisture content of the chitosan powder, particle size and the inclusion of glidants had a pronounced effect on its flow ability. Varying the percentage compaction during the first cycle of a double fill compression process produced chitosan tablets with more acceptable tensile strength and dissolution rate properties. The inclusion of citric acid and pectin into the formulation significantly decreased the dissolution rate of isoniazid from the tablets due to gel formation. Direct compression of chitosan powder into tablets can be significantly improved by the investigated process and formulation variables as well as applying a double fill compression process.

  20. Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for coal powder analysis with different particle flow diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shunchun, E-mail: epscyao@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology, Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Xu, Jialong; Dong, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jianping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Lu, Jidong, E-mail: jdlu@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The on-line measurement of coal is extremely useful for emission control and combustion process optimization in coal-fired plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to directly analyze coal particle flow. A set of tapered tubes were proposed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow to different diameters. For optimizing the measurement of coal particle flow, the characteristics of laser-induced plasma, including optical breakdown, the relative standard deviation of repeated measurement, partial breakdown spectra ratio and line intensity, were carefully analyzed. The comparison of the plasma characteristics among coal particle flow with different diameters showed that air breakdown and the random change in plasma position relative to the collection optics could significantly influence on the line intensity and the reproducibility of measurement. It is demonstrated that the tapered tube with a diameter of 5.5 mm was particularly useful to enrich the coal particles in laser focus spot as well as to reduce the influence of air breakdown and random changes of plasma in the experiment. - Highlights: • Tapered tube was designed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow as well as enriching the particles in laser focus spot. • The characteristics of laser-induced plasma of coal particle flow were investigated carefully. • An appropriate diameter of coal particle flow was proven to benefit for improving the performance of LIBS measurement.

  1. The study of the laser parameters and environment variables effect on mechanical properties of high compact parts elaborated by selective laser melting 316L powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Baicheng; Dembinski, Lucas; Coddet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a systematic analysis of the main parameters for the selective laser melting (SLM) of a commercial stainless steel 316L powder was conducted to improve the mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy of the fabricated parts. First, the effects of the processing parameters, such as the laser beam scanning velocity, laser power, substrate condition and thickness of the powder layer, on the formation of single tracks for achieving a continuous melting and densification of the material were analysed. Then, the influence of the environmental conditions (gas nature) and of the preheating temperature on the density and dimensional accuracy of the parts was considered. The microstructural features of the SLM SS 316L parts were carefully observed to elucidate the melting-solidification mechanism and the thermal history, which are the basis of the manufacturing process. Finally, the mechanical properties of the corresponding material were also determined

  2. Fine-structured aluminium products with controllable texture by selective laser melting of pre-alloyed AlSi10Mg powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijs, Lore; Kempen, Karolien; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: This study shows that AlSi10Mg parts with an extremely fine microstructure and a controllable texture can be obtained through selective laser melting (SLM). Selective laser melting creates complex functional products by selectively melting powder particles of a powder bed layer after layer using a high-energy laser beam. The high-energy density applied to the material and the additive character of the process result in a unique material structure. To investigate this material structure, cube-shaped SLM parts were made using different scanning strategies and investigated by microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction. The experimental results show that the high thermal gradients occurring during SLM lead to a very fine microstructure with submicron-sized cells. Consequently, the AlSi10Mg SLM products have a high hardness of 127 ± 3 Hv0.5 even without the application of a precipitation hardening treatment. Furthermore, due to the unique solidification conditions and the additive character of the process, a morphological and crystallographic texture is present in the SLM parts. Thanks to the knowledge gathered in this paper on how this texture is formed and how it depends on the process parameters, this texture can be controlled. A strong fibrous 〈1 0 0〉 texture can be altered into a weak cube texture along the building and scanning directions when a rotation of 90° of the scanning vectors within or between the layers is applied

  3. Efficient Radiation Shielding Through Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a method for efficient component-level radiation shielding that can be printed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) from files generated by the...

  4. Frequency-doubled diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    . However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20...... fs are measured. These results open the opportunity of establishing diode laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers for e.g. biophotonic applications like retinal optical coherence tomography or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS microscopy.......A single-pass frequency doubled high-power tapered diode laser emitting nearly 1.3 W of green light suitable for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The pump efficiencies reached 75 % of the values achieved with a commercial solid-state pump laser...

  5. The influence of direct compression powder blend transfer method from the container to the tablet press on product critical quality attributes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teżyk, Michał; Jakubowska, Emilia; Milczewska, Kasylda; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Voelkel, Adam; Lulek, Janina

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the gravitational powder blend loading method to the tablet press and manual loading in terms of their influence on tablets' critical quality attributes (CQA). The results of the study can be of practical relevance to the pharmaceutical industry in the area of direct compression of low-dose formulations, which could be prone to content uniformity (CU) issues. In the preliminary study, particle size distribution (PSD) and surface energy of raw materials were determined using laser diffraction method and inverse gas chromatography, respectively. For trials purpose, a formulation containing two pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was used. Tablet samples were collected during the compression progress to analyze their CQAs, namely assay and CU. Results obtained during trials indicate that tested direct compression powder blend is sensitive to applied powder handling method. Mild increase in both APIs content was observed during manual scooping. Gravitational approach (based on discharge into the drum) resulted in a decrease in CU, which is connected to a more pronounced assay increase at the end of tableting than in the case of manual loading. The correct design of blend transfer over single unit processes is an important issue and should be investigated during the development phase since it may influence the final product CQAs. The manual scooping method, although simplistic, can be a temporary solution to improve the results of API's content and uniformity when compared to industrial gravitational transfer.

  6. Determination of crystal structures with large known fragments directly from measured X-ray powder diffraction intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rius, J.; Miravitlles, C.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for the determination of crystal structures with large known fragments directly from measured X-ray powder diffraction intensities is presented. It is based on the automated full-symmetry Patterson search method described by Rius and Miravitlles where the Fourier coefficients of the observed Patterson function are modified to allow the use of powder diffraction intensity data. Its application to two structures, one with simulated and one with experimental data, is shown. (orig.)

  7. Investigation of the potential for direct compaction of a fine ibuprofen powder dry-coated with magnesium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Zhou, Qi Tony; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A; Stewart, Peter J; Hapgood, Karen P; Gamlen, Michael; Morton, David A V

    2015-05-01

    Intensive dry powder coating (mechanofusion) with tablet lubricants has previously been shown to give substantial powder flow improvement. This study explores whether the mechanofusion of magnesium stearate (MgSt), on a fine drug powder can substantially improve flow, without preventing the powder from being directly compacted into tablets. A fine ibuprofen powder, which is both cohesive and possesses a low-melting point, was dry coated via mechanofusion with between 0.1% and 5% (w/w) MgSt. Traditional low-shear blending was also employed as a comparison. No significant difference in particle size or shape was measured following mechanofusion. For the low-shear blended powders, only marginal improvement in flowability was obtained. However, after mechanofusion, substantial improvements in the flow properties were demonstrated. Both XPS and ToF-SIMS demonstrated high degrees of a nano-scale coating coverage of MgSt on the particle surfaces from optimized mechanofusion. The study showed that robust tablets were produced from the selected mechanofused powders, at high-dose concentration and tablet tensile strength was further optimized via addition of a Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) binder (10% w/w). The tablets with the mechanofused powder (with or without PVP) also exhibited significantly lower ejection stress than those made of the raw powder, demonstrating good lubrication. Surprisingly, the release rate of drug from the tablets made with the mechanofused powder was not retarded. This is the first study to demonstrate such a single-step dry coating of model drug with MgSt, with promising flow improvement, flow-aid and lubrication effects, tabletability and also non-inhibited dissolution rate.

  8. Demonstration of array eddy current technology for real-time monitoring of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni; Boulware, Paul; Gaah, Kingsley

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at various fabrication stages is required to assure quality of feedstock and solid builds. Industry efforts are shifting towards solutions that can provide real-time monitoring of additive manufacturing (AM) fabrication process layer-by-layer while the component is being built to reduce or eliminate dependence on post-process inspection. Array eddy current (AEC), electromagnetic NDE technique was developed and implemented to directly scan the component without physical contact with the powder and fused layer surfaces at elevated temperatures inside a LPBF chamber. The technique can detect discontinuities, surface irregularities, and undesirable metallurgical phase transformations in magnetic and nonmagnetic conductive materials used for laser fusion. The AEC hardware and software were integrated with the L-PBF test bed. Two layer-by-layer tests of Inconel 625 coupons with AM built discontinuities and lack of fusion were conducted inside the L-PBF chamber. The AEC technology demonstrated excellent sensitivity to seeded, natural surface, and near-surface-embedded discontinuities, while also detecting surface topography. The data was acquired and imaged in a layer-by-layer sequence demonstrating the real-time monitoring capabilities of this new technology.

  9. Direct visual observation of powder dynamics in RF plasma-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C.; Paris, P.J.

    1991-04-01

    Contamination due to particles generated and suspended in silane rf plasmas is investigated. Powder is rendered visible by illumination of the reactor volume. This simple diagnostic for global, spatio-temporal powder dynamics is used to study particle formation, trapping and powder reduction by power modulation. (author) 4 figs., 11 refs

  10. Qualitative Analysis of Dairy and Powder Milk Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarraj, Bader A; Sanghapi, Herve K; Bhatt, Chet R; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2018-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used to compare various types of commercial milk products. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were investigated for the determination of the elemental composition of soy and rice milk powder, dairy milk, and lactose-free dairy milk. The analysis was performed using radiative transitions. Atomic emissions from Ca, K, Na, and Mg lines observed in LIBS spectra of dairy milk were compared. In addition, proteins and fat level in milks can be determined using molecular emissions such as CN bands. Ca concentrations were calculated to be 2.165 ± 0.203 g/L in 1% of dairy milk fat samples and 2.809 ± 0.172 g/L in 2% of dairy milk fat samples using the standard addition method (SAM) with LIBS spectra. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis methods showed that the contents of major mineral elements were higher in lactose-free dairy milk than those in dairy milk. The principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to discriminate four milk samples depending on their mineral elements concentration. In addition, proteins and fat level in dairy milks were determined using molecular emissions such as CN band. We applied partial least squares regression (PLSR) and simple linear regression (SLR) models to predict levels of milk fat in dairy milk samples. The PLSR model was successfully used to predict levels of milk fat in dairy milk sample with the relative accuracy (RA%) less than 6.62% using CN (0,0) band.

  11. The effect of powder composition on the morphology of in situ TiC composite coating deposited by Laser-Assisted Powder Deposition (LAPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamian, Ali; Corbin, Stephen F.; Khajepour, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The novel idea was to develop Fe-TiC containing high volume fraction of TiC. ► Increased TiC volume fraction enhanced clad hardness profile. ► Both, laser conditions and fed powder compositions affected the clad microstructure. ► Hardness and TiC volume fraction was maximized by control over melt pool composition. ► Hardness/TiC volume fraction was maximized by controlling of laser parameters. - Abstract: In this paper, the effect of powder composition on in situ TiC formation within an Fe-based matrix coating during laser cladding was studied. Different atomic ratios of C:Ti (45% and 55%) were selected in order to adjust the matrix from an Fe-Ti-based composition to an Fe-C-based one. Fe percentages of 70, 60, 50 and 10 wt% were explored to increase the volume fraction of TiC in the clad. Results showed that chemical composition affects the TiC morphology as well as the TiC distribution and hardness profile in the clad. By increasing the C:Ti ratio from 45 at% to 55 at%, the volume fraction of the formed TiC increases. A higher volume fraction of TiC in the clad resulted in increases clad hardness. SEM and EDS analyses were used to characterize the phases in the clad, while increasing the C ratio promoted the formation of excess graphite in the Fe matrix.

  12. The effect of powder composition on the morphology of in situ TiC composite coating deposited by Laser-Assisted Powder Deposition (LAPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emamian, Ali, E-mail: aemamian@uwaterloo.ca [Research Associate and Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Mechanics and Mechatronics, University of Waterloo, 200 University West, Waterloo, N2L 4 3G1 (Canada); Corbin, Stephen F. [Professor and Canada Research Chair in the Department of Civil and Resource Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, P.O. Box 15000, B3H 5 4R2 (Canada); Khajepour, Amir [Professor and Canada Research Chair in the Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel idea was to develop Fe-TiC containing high volume fraction of TiC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased TiC volume fraction enhanced clad hardness profile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both, laser conditions and fed powder compositions affected the clad microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness and TiC volume fraction was maximized by control over melt pool composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness/TiC volume fraction was maximized by controlling of laser parameters. - Abstract: In this paper, the effect of powder composition on in situ TiC formation within an Fe-based matrix coating during laser cladding was studied. Different atomic ratios of C:Ti (45% and 55%) were selected in order to adjust the matrix from an Fe-Ti-based composition to an Fe-C-based one. Fe percentages of 70, 60, 50 and 10 wt% were explored to increase the volume fraction of TiC in the clad. Results showed that chemical composition affects the TiC morphology as well as the TiC distribution and hardness profile in the clad. By increasing the C:Ti ratio from 45 at% to 55 at%, the volume fraction of the formed TiC increases. A higher volume fraction of TiC in the clad resulted in increases clad hardness. SEM and EDS analyses were used to characterize the phases in the clad, while increasing the C ratio promoted the formation of excess graphite in the Fe matrix.

  13. Direct modification of silicon surface by nanosecond laser interference lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dapeng [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Ziang [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); Yue, Yong [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Li, Dayou [JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Maple, Carsten [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Periodic and quasi-periodic structures on silicon surface have numerous significant applications in photoelectronics and surface engineering. A number of technologies have been developed to fabricate the structures in various research fields. In this work, we take the strategy of direct nanosecond laser interference lithography technology, and focus on the silicon material to create different well-defined surface structures based on theoretical analysis of the formation of laser interference patterns. Two, three and four-beam laser interference systems were set up to fabricate the grating, regular triangle and square structures on silicon surfaces, respectively. From the AFM micrographs, the critical features of structures have a dependence on laser fluences. For a relative low laser fluence, grating and dot structures formed with bumps due to the Marangoni Effect. With the increase of laser fluences, melt and evaporation behaviors can be responsible for the laser modification. By properly selecting the process parameters, well-defined grating and dot structures can been achieved. It can be demonstrated that direct laser interference lithography is a facile and efficient technology with the advantage of a single process procedure over macroscale areas for the fabrication of micro and nano structures.

  14. Photoluminescence properties of powder and pulsed laser-deposited PbS nanoparticles in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhlamini, M.S.; Terblans, J.J.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Ngaruiya, J.M.; Hillie, K.T.; Botha, J.R.; Swart, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous silica (SiO 2 ) host were grown on Si(1 0 0) substrates at different temperatures by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Surface morphology and photoluminescence (PL) properties of samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a 458 nm Ar + laser, respectively. The PL data show a blue-shift from the normal emission at ∼3200 nm in PbS bulk to ∼560-700 nm in nanoparticulate PbS powders and thin films. Furthermore, the PL emission of the films was red-shifted from that of the powders at ∼560 to ∼660 nm. The blue-shifting of the emission wavelengths from 3200 to ∼560-700 nm is attributed to quantum confinement of charge carriers in the restricted volume of nanoparticles, while the red-shift between powders and thin-film PbS nanoparticles is speculated to be due to an increase in the defect concentration. The red-shift increased slightly with an increase in deposition temperature, which suggests that there has been a relative growth in particle sizes during the PLD of the films at higher temperatures. Generally, the PL emission of the powders was more intense than that of the films, although the intensity of some of the films was improved marginally by post-deposition annealing at 400 deg. C. This paper compares the PL properties of powder and pulsed laser-deposited thin films of PbS nanoparticles and the effects of deposition temperatures

  15. Direct solar pumping of semiconductor lasers: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neal G.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes results of NASA Grant NAG-1-1148, entitled Direct Solar Pumping of Semiconductor Lasers: A Feasibility Study. The goals of this study were to provide a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of pumping semiconductor lasers in space with directly focused sunlight and to identify semiconductor laser structures expected to operate at the lowest possible focusing intensities. It should be emphasized that the structures under consideration would provide direct optical-to-optical conversion of sunlight into laser light in a single crystal, in contrast to a configuration consisting of a solar cell or storage battery electrically pumping a current injection laser. With external modulation, such lasers could perhaps be efficient sources for intersatellite communications. We proposed specifically to develop a theoretical model of semiconductor quantum-well lasers photopumped by a broadband source, test it against existing experimental data where possible, and apply it to estimating solar pumping requirements and identifying optimum structures for operation at low pump intensities. These tasks have been accomplished, as described in this report of our completed project. The report is organized as follows: Some general considerations relevant to the solar-pumped semiconductor laser problem are discussed in Section 2, and the types of structures chosen for specific investigation are described. The details of the laser model we developed for this work are then outlined in Section 3. In Section 4, results of our study are presented, including designs for optimum lattice-matched and strained-layer solar-pumped quantum-well lasers and threshold pumping estimates for these structures. It was hoped at the outset of this work that structures could be identified which could be expected to operate continuously at solar photoexcitation intensities of several thousand suns, and this indeed turned out to be the case as described in this section. Our project is

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of direct metal laser sintered TI-6AL-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Thorsten Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a selective laser melting (SLM manufacturing process that can produce near net shape parts from metallic powders. A range of materials are suitable for SLM; they include various metals such as titanium, steel, aluminium, and cobalt-chrome alloys. This paper forms part of a research drive that aims to evaluate the material performance of the SLM-manufactured metals. It presents DMLS-produced Ti-6Al-4V, a titanium alloy often used in biomedical and aerospace applications. This paper also studies the effect of several heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V processed by SLM. It reports the achievable mechanical properties of the alloy, including quasi-static, crack growth behaviour, density and porosity distribution, and post-processing using various heat-treatment conditions.

  17. 50.4% slope efficiency thulium-doped large-mode-area fiber laser fabricated by powder technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, Dia; Dauliat, Romain; Jamier, Raphaël; Benoit, Aurélien; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Grimm, Stephan; Kobelke, Jens; Schwuchow, Anka; Schuster, Kay; Roy, Philippe

    2016-01-15

    We report on a triple clad large-mode-area Tm-doped fiber laser with 18 μm core diameter manufactured for the first time by an alternative manufacturing process named REPUSIL. This reactive powder sinter material enables similar properties compared to conventional CVD-made fiber lasers, while offering the potential of producing larger and more uniform material. The fiber characterization in a laser configuration provides a slope efficiency of 47.7% at 20°C, and 50.4% at 0°C with 8 W output power, with a laser peak emission at 1970 nm. Finally, a beam quality near the diffraction-limit (M(x,y)2<1.1) is proved.

  18. On the microstructure analysis of FSW joints of aluminium components made via direct metal laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherillo, Fabio; Astarita, Antonello; di Martino, Daniela; Contaldi, Vincenzo; di Matteo, Luca; di Petta, Paolo; Casarin, Renzo; Squillace, Antonino; Langella, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), applied to metal industry, is a family of processes that allow complex shape components to be realized from raw materials in the form of powders. The compaction of the powders can be achieved by local melting of the powder bed or by solid state sintering. Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing process in which a focalized laser beam is the heat source that allows the powders to be compacted. By DMLS it is possible to realize complex shape components. One of the limits of DMLS, as for every additive layer manufacturing techniques, is the unfeasibility to realize large dimension parts. Due to this limit the study of joining process of parts made via ALM is of great interest. One of the most promising options is the Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state welding technique that has been proven to be very effective in the welding of metals difficult to weld, above all aluminium alloys. Since FSW is a solid-state technique, the microstructure of the various zone of the weld bead depends not only by the process itself but also by the parent microstruct ure of the parts to be welded. Furthermore, parts made of aluminium alloy via DMLS have a particular microstructure that is the result of repeated severe thermal cycles. In the present work the authors, starting from the description of the parent microstructure of parts made of AlSi10Mg aluminium alloy, study the microstructure evolution occurred within the joint made by Friction Stir Welding, analysing in details the microstructure of the main well recognized zone of the weld bead. The structure of the parent material is characterized by the presence of melting pools with a very fine microstructure. In the joint the recrystallization, the grain refinement and, above all, the redistribution of intermetallic phases occurs, resulting in an homogenization of the microstructure and in an increase of micro hardness.

  19. Modeling of the Effect of Path Planning on Thermokinetic Evolutions in Laser Powder Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroozmehr, Ehsan; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2011-07-01

    A thermokinetic model coupling finite-element heat transfer with transformation kinetics is developed to determine the effect of deposition patterns on the phase-transformation kinetics of laser powder deposition (LPD) process of a hot-work tool steel. The finite-element model is used to define the temperature history of the process used in an empirical-based kinetic model to analyze the tempering effect of the heating and cooling cycles of the deposition process. An area is defined to be covered by AISI H13 on a substrate of AISI 1018 with three different deposition patterns: one section, two section, and three section. The two-section pattern divides the area of the one-section pattern into two sections, and the three-section pattern divides that area into three sections. The results show that dividing the area under deposition into smaller areas can influence the phase transformation kinetics of the process and, consequently, change the final hardness of the deposited material. The two-section pattern shows a higher average hardness than the one-section pattern, and the three-section pattern shows a fully hardened surface without significant tempered zones of low hardness. To verify the results, a microhardness test and scanning electron microscope were used.

  20. Direct pumping of ultrashort Ti:sapphire lasers by a frequency doubled diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser. Autocorrelation measurements show that pulse widths of less than 20 fs can be expected with an average power of 52 mW when using our laser. These results indicate the high potential of direct diode laser pumped Ti: sapphire lasers to be used in applications....... When using our diode laser system, the optical conversion efficiencies from green to near-infrared light reduces to 75 % of the values achieved with the commercial pump laser. Despite this reduction the overall efficiency of the Ti: sapphire laser is still increased by a factor > 2 due to the superior...... like retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS (coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy) microscopy....

  1. Laser aided direct metal deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: Microstructural evolution and thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinda, G.P.; Dasgupta, A.K.; Mazumder, J.

    2009-01-01

    Direct metal deposition technology is an emerging laser aided manufacturing technology based on a new additive manufacturing principle, which combines laser cladding with rapid prototyping into a solid freeform fabrication process that can be used to manufacture near net shape components from their CAD files. In the present study, direct metal deposition technology was successfully used to fabricate a series of samples of the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 625. A high power CO 2 laser was used to create a molten pool on the Inconel 625 substrate into which an Inconel 625 powder stream was delivered to create a 3D object. The structure and properties of the deposits were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness test. The microstructure has been found to be columnar dendritic in nature, which grew epitaxially from the substrate. The thermal stability of the dendritic morphology was investigated in the temperature range 800-1200 deg. C. These studies demonstrate that Inconel 625 is an attractive material for laser deposition as all samples produced in this study are free from relevant defects such as cracks, bonding error and porosity.

  2. Laser aided direct metal deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: Microstructural evolution and thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinda, G.P., E-mail: dindag@focushope.edu [Center for Advanced Technologies, Focus: HOPE, Detroit, MI 48238 (United States); Center for Laser Aided Intelligent Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dasgupta, A.K. [Center for Advanced Technologies, Focus: HOPE, Detroit, MI 48238 (United States); Mazumder, J. [Center for Laser Aided Intelligent Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2009-05-25

    Direct metal deposition technology is an emerging laser aided manufacturing technology based on a new additive manufacturing principle, which combines laser cladding with rapid prototyping into a solid freeform fabrication process that can be used to manufacture near net shape components from their CAD files. In the present study, direct metal deposition technology was successfully used to fabricate a series of samples of the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 625. A high power CO{sub 2} laser was used to create a molten pool on the Inconel 625 substrate into which an Inconel 625 powder stream was delivered to create a 3D object. The structure and properties of the deposits were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness test. The microstructure has been found to be columnar dendritic in nature, which grew epitaxially from the substrate. The thermal stability of the dendritic morphology was investigated in the temperature range 800-1200 deg. C. These studies demonstrate that Inconel 625 is an attractive material for laser deposition as all samples produced in this study are free from relevant defects such as cracks, bonding error and porosity.

  3. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T [Biomedical Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Huang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY (United States); Chrisey, Douglas B, E-mail: schien@rpi.ed, E-mail: chrisd@rpi.ed [Material Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location ({+-}5 {mu}m) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  4. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  5. Influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of Al-12Si/SiCp coatings produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anandkumar, R.; Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of coatings consisting of an Al-Si matrix reinforced with SiC particles prepared by laser cladding from mixtures of powders of Al-12 wt.% Si alloy and SiC was investigated both experimentally and by modeling. At low injection

  6. Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangauer, Andreas; Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard; Spinner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) utilizing direct modulation of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. By controlling the laser bias nearly single- and dual-sideband CLaDS operation can be realized in an extremely simplified optical setup with no external optical modulators. Capability of direct single-sideband modulation is a unique feature of QCLs that exhibit a low linewidth enhancement factor. The developed analytical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental, directly modulated CLaDS spectra. This method overcomes major technical limitations of mid-infrared CLaDS systems by allowing significantly higher modulation frequencies and eliminating optical fringes introduced by external modulators

  7. Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carbajo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Compact laser-driven accelerators are pursued heavily worldwide because they make novel methods and tools invented at national laboratories widely accessible in science, health, security, and technology [V. Malka et al., Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators, Nat. Phys. 4, 447 (2008]. Current leading laser-based accelerator technologies [S. P. D. Mangles et al., Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions, Nature (London 431, 535 (2004; T. Toncian et al., Ultrafast laser-driven microlens to focus and energy-select mega-electron volt protons, Science 312, 410 (2006; S. Tokita et al. Single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction with a laser-accelerated sub-MeV electron pulse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111911 (2009] rely on a medium to assist the light to particle energy transfer. The medium imposes material limitations or may introduce inhomogeneous fields [J. R. Dwyer et al., Femtosecond electron diffraction: “Making the molecular movie,”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 741 (2006]. The advent of few cycle ultraintense radially polarized lasers [S. Carbajo et al., Efficient generation of ultraintense few-cycle radially polarized laser pulses, Opt. Lett. 39, 2487 (2014] has ushered in a novel accelerator concept [L. J. Wong and F. X. Kärtner, Direct acceleration of an electron in infinite vacuum by a pulsed radially polarized laser beam, Opt. Express 18, 25035 (2010; F. Pierre-Louis et al. Direct-field electron acceleration with ultrafast radially polarized laser beams: Scaling laws and optimization, J. Phys. B 43, 025401 (2010; Y. I. Salamin, Electron acceleration from rest in vacuum by an axicon Gaussian laser beam, Phys. Rev. A 73, 043402 (2006; C. Varin and M. Piché, Relativistic attosecond electron pulses from a free-space laser-acceleration scheme, Phys. Rev. E 74, 045602 (2006; A. Sell and F. X. Kärtner, Attosecond electron bunches accelerated and

  8. Microstructural and Mechanical Study of Inconel 625 – Tungsten Carbide Composite Coatings Obtained by Powder Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huebner J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the investigation of fine (~0.54 μm tungsten carbide particles effect on structural and mechanical properties of laser cladded Inconel 625-WC composite. Three powder mixtures with different Inconel 625 – WC weight ratio (10, 20 and 30 weight % of WC were prepared. Coatings were made using following process parameters: laser beam diameter ø ≈ 500 μm, powder feeder rotation speed – 7 m/min, scanning velocity – 10 m/min, laser power – 220 W changed to 320 W, distance between tracks – 1 mm changed to 0.8 mm. Microstructure and hardness were investigated. Coatings produced by laser cladding were crack and pore free, chemically and structurally homogenous. High cooling rate during cladding process resulted in fine microstructure of material. Hardness improved with addition of WC from 396.3 ±10.5 HV for pure Inconel 625, to 469.9 ±24.9 HV for 30 weight % of WC. Tungsten carbide dissolved in Inconel 625 which allowed formation of intergranular eutectic that contains TCP phases.

  9. Direct and simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ingredients in herbal powder preparations by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Bo; Sun, Su-Qin; Tang, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Zhao; Zhou, Qun

    2016-08-05

    Herbal powder preparation is a kind of widely-used herbal product in the form of powder mixture of herbal ingredients. Identification of herbal ingredients is the first and foremost step in assuring the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal powder preparations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopic identification method is proposed for the direct and simultaneous recognition of multiple organic and inorganic ingredients in herbal powder preparations. First, the reference spectrum of characteristic particles of each herbal ingredient is assigned according to FT-IR results and other available information. Next, a statistical correlation threshold is determined as the lower limit of correlation coefficients between the reference spectrum and a larger number of calibration characteristic particles. After validation, the reference spectrum and correlation threshold can be used to identify herbal ingredient in mixture preparations. A herbal ingredient is supposed to be present if correlation coefficients between the reference spectrum and some sample particles are above the threshold. Using this method, all kinds of herbal materials in powder preparation Kouqiang Kuiyang San are identified successfully. This research shows the potential of FT-IR microspectroscopic identification method for the accurate and quick identification of ingredients in herbal powder preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė; Vladislav Markovič; Olegas Černašėjus

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS) method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treat...

  11. Theoretical and experimental aspects of laser cutting with a direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Rodrigues, G.; Pencinovsky, J.; Cuypers, M.; Duflou, J. R.

    2014-10-01

    Recent developments in beam coupling techniques have made it possible to scale up the power of diode lasers with a laser beam quality suitable for laser cutting of metal sheets. In this paper a prototype of a Direct Diode Laser (DDL) source (BPP of 22 mm-mrad) is analyzed in terms of efficiency and cut performance and compared with two established technologies, CO2 and fiber lasers. An analytical model based on absorption calculations is used to predict the performance of the studied laser source with a good agreement with experimental results. Furthermore results of fusion cutting of stainless steel and aluminium alloys as well as oxygen cutting of structural steel are presented, demonstrating that industrial relevant cutting speeds with high cutting quality can now be achieved with DDL.

  12. Directivity measurements in aluminum using a laser ultrasonics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, J M S; Pacheco, G M; Tittmann, B R; Baba, A

    2011-01-01

    A laser ultrasonics system was setup to measure the directivity (angular dependence pattern) of the amplitude of ultrasonic waves generated in aluminum samples. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm optical wavelength, with typical pulse width (FWHM) of 8 ns, and energy per pulse of 450 mJ, was used to generate the ultrasound waves in the samples. The laser detection system was a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with typical noise-limited resolution of 0.25 nm (rms), frequency range from 50 kHz to 20 MHz, and measurement range from -75 nm/V to +75 nm/V. Two different optical spot sizes of the Nd:YAG laser were used to generate waves in the ablation regime: one was focused and the other was unfocused. Using the obtained data, the directivity graphics were drawn and compared with the theoretical curves, showing a good agreement. The experiments showed the directivity as a function of the optical spot size. For a point ultrasonic source (or focused optical spot), the directivity shows that the longitudinal waves present considerable amplitude in all directions. For a larger ultrasonic source (or an unfocused optical spot) the directivity shows that the longitudinal waves are generated with the higher amplitudes inside angles around ±10 0 .

  13. Prediction of microstructure, residual stress, and deformation in laser powder bed fusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. P.; Jamshidinia, M.; Boulware, P.; Kelly, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process has been investigated significantly to build production parts with a complex shape. Modeling tools, which can be used in a part level, are essential to allow engineers to fine tune the shape design and process parameters for additive manufacturing. This study focuses on developing modeling methods to predict microstructure, hardness, residual stress, and deformation in large L-PBF built parts. A transient sequentially coupled thermal and metallurgical analysis method was developed to predict microstructure and hardness on L-PBF built high-strength, low-alloy steel parts. A moving heat-source model was used in this analysis to accurately predict the temperature history. A kinetics based model which was developed to predict microstructure in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint was extended to predict the microstructure and hardness in an L-PBF build by inputting the predicted temperature history. The tempering effect resulting from the following built layers on the current-layer microstructural phases were modeled, which is the key to predict the final hardness correctly. It was also found that the top layers of a build part have higher hardness because of the lack of the tempering effect. A sequentially coupled thermal and mechanical analysis method was developed to predict residual stress and deformation for an L-PBF build part. It was found that a line-heating model is not suitable for analyzing a large L-PBF built part. The layer heating method is a potential method for analyzing a large L-PBF built part. The experiment was conducted to validate the model predictions.

  14. Prediction of microstructure, residual stress, and deformation in laser powder bed fusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. P.; Jamshidinia, M.; Boulware, P.; Kelly, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process has been investigated significantly to build production parts with a complex shape. Modeling tools, which can be used in a part level, are essential to allow engineers to fine tune the shape design and process parameters for additive manufacturing. This study focuses on developing modeling methods to predict microstructure, hardness, residual stress, and deformation in large L-PBF built parts. A transient sequentially coupled thermal and metallurgical analysis method was developed to predict microstructure and hardness on L-PBF built high-strength, low-alloy steel parts. A moving heat-source model was used in this analysis to accurately predict the temperature history. A kinetics based model which was developed to predict microstructure in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint was extended to predict the microstructure and hardness in an L-PBF build by inputting the predicted temperature history. The tempering effect resulting from the following built layers on the current-layer microstructural phases were modeled, which is the key to predict the final hardness correctly. It was also found that the top layers of a build part have higher hardness because of the lack of the tempering effect. A sequentially coupled thermal and mechanical analysis method was developed to predict residual stress and deformation for an L-PBF build part. It was found that a line-heating model is not suitable for analyzing a large L-PBF built part. The layer heating method is a potential method for analyzing a large L-PBF built part. The experiment was conducted to validate the model predictions.

  15. Direct-drive laser-fusion in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Soures, J.M.; Audebert, P.

    1986-01-01

    Direct-drive experiments at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) are presently addressing issues in pellet compression and heating: efficiency of coupling of laser energy to the target and the coupling of absorbed energy to the fuel, drive uniformity, hydrodynamic stability, preheat arising from laser plasma instabilities and x-rays, and target diagnostics. The 24-beam, 2500-Joule, 351 nm OMEGA laser system at LLE has been used in an experimental effort to achieve high compressed DT fuel densities. Detailed hydrodynamic computer simulations at NRL predict that the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is less than the classical values. Recent Rayleigh-Taylor experiments ar NRL are testing these predictions

  16. Effect of powders refinement on the tribological behavior of Ni-based composite coatings by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingqian; Zhou Jiansong; Yu Youjun; Guo Chun; Chen Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    NiCr + Cr 3 C 2 + Ag + BaF 2 /CaF 2 composite coatings were produced on stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9Ti) substrates by laser cladding. Corresponding powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling technique. The friction and wear behavior at room temperature was investigated through sliding against the Si 3 N 4 ball. The morphologies of the wear debris, worn surfaces of both samples and the Si 3 N 4 ball were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and three dimensional non-contact surface mapping. Results showed that milling time had a great effect on the size, morphology, uniformity of the powders as well as the microstructure and properties of laser cladding coatings. The wear mechanism of the coatings is dominated by abrasive wear, plastic deformation and slight adhesive wear. The consecutive evolution trend of friction coefficient, wear rate as well as microhardness of the serials of coatings produced with powders of different sizes was presented.

  17. Effect of powders refinement on the tribological behavior of Ni-based composite coatings by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingqian; Zhou, Jiansong; Yu, Youjun; Guo, Chun; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-06-01

    NiCr + Cr3C2 + Ag + BaF2/CaF2 composite coatings were produced on stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9Ti) substrates by laser cladding. Corresponding powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling technique. The friction and wear behavior at room temperature was investigated through sliding against the Si3N4 ball. The morphologies of the wear debris, worn surfaces of both samples and the Si3N4 ball were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and three dimensional non-contact surface mapping. Results showed that milling time had a great effect on the size, morphology, uniformity of the powders as well as the microstructure and properties of laser cladding coatings. The wear mechanism of the coatings is dominated by abrasive wear, plastic deformation and slight adhesive wear. The consecutive evolution trend of friction coefficient, wear rate as well as microhardness of the serials of coatings produced with powders of different sizes was presented.

  18. Effect of powders refinement on the tribological behavior of Ni-based composite coatings by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lingqian [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Jiansong, E-mail: jszhou@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu Youjun; Guo Chun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Jianmin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-06-15

    NiCr + Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} + Ag + BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2} composite coatings were produced on stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9Ti) substrates by laser cladding. Corresponding powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling technique. The friction and wear behavior at room temperature was investigated through sliding against the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball. The morphologies of the wear debris, worn surfaces of both samples and the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and three dimensional non-contact surface mapping. Results showed that milling time had a great effect on the size, morphology, uniformity of the powders as well as the microstructure and properties of laser cladding coatings. The wear mechanism of the coatings is dominated by abrasive wear, plastic deformation and slight adhesive wear. The consecutive evolution trend of friction coefficient, wear rate as well as microhardness of the serials of coatings produced with powders of different sizes was presented.

  19. Spatio-temporal powder formation and trapping in RF silane plasmas using 2-D polarization-sensitive laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.; Howling, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    Powder formation studies in deposition plasmas are motivated by the need to reduce contamination in the plasma and films. Models for the force acting upon particles in rf discharges suffer from a lack of quantitative experimental data for comparison in the case of silane-containing plasmas. In this work, a cross-section of the parallel-plate capacitor discharge is illuminated with a polarized beam-expanded laser and global spatio-temporal scattered light and extinction are recorded by CCD cameras. Spatially-regular periodic bright/dark zones due to constructive/destructive Mie interference are visible over large regions of the powder layers, which shows the uniform nature of particle growth in silane plasmas. For particles trapped in an argon plasma, as for steady-state conditions in silane, spatial size segregation is demonstrated by fringes which reverse according to the polarisation of scattered light. The method allow a self-consistent estimation of particle size and number density throughout the discharge volume from which strong particle Coulomb coupling (Γ>40) is suggested to influence powder dynamics. Correction must be made to the plasma emission profile for the extinction by powder. In conclusion, this global diagnostics improves understanding of particle growth and dynamics in silane rf discharges and provides experimental input for testing the validity of models. (author) 6 figs., 43 refs

  20. Properties of aerosol particles generated during 213 nm laser ablation: a study of compact and powdered tungsten carbides as materials with a two-component matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, M.; Konecna, V.; Kanicky, V.; Mikuska, P.; Kaiser, J.; Hanzlikova, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The laser ablation process of tungsten carbide hardmetals was studied using 213 nm Nd:YAG laser. The samples were presented for ablation as sintered compacts or powders pressed into pellets to compare the generation of particles from samples with similar chemical composition but different physical properties. The influence of laser ablation parameters on the aerosol generation was studied using an optical aerosol spectrometer. In the case of powders, the effect of binder amount was investigated. The structure of generated particles and the properties of ablation-craters were additionally studied by SEM. (author)

  1. Influence of Selective Laser Melting Processing Parameters of Co-Cr-W Powders on the Roughness of Exterior Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, M. A.; Baciu, E. R.; Bejinariu, C.; Toma, S. L.; Danila, A.; Baciu, C.

    2018-06-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) represents an Additive Manufacturing method widely used in medical practice, mainly in dental medicine. The powder of 59% Co, 25% Cr, 2.5% W alloy (Starbond CoS Powder 55, S&S Scheftner C, Germany) was processed (SLM) on a Realizer SLM 50 device (SLM Solution, Germany). After laser processing and simple sanding with Al2O3 or two-phase sanding (Al2O3 and glass balls), measurements of surface roughness were conducted. This paper presents the influences exercised by laser power (P = 60 W, 80 W and 100 W), the scanning speed (vscan = 333 mm/s, 500 mm/s and 1000 mm/s) and exposure time (te = 20 µs, 40 µs and 60 µs) on the roughness of surfaces obtained by SLM processing. Based on the experimental results obtained for roughness (Ra), some recommendations regarding the choice of favorable combinations among the values of technological parameters under study in order to obtain the surface quality necessary for subsequent applications of the processed parts (SLM) have been made.

  2. Laser shock processing on microstructure and hardness of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tools with and without nanodiamond powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melookaran, Roslyn; Melaibari, Ammar; Deng, Cheng; Molian, Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Laser shock waves hardened polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tools by up to 15%. ► Laser shock waves can build layer-by-layer of nanodiamond to form micro-diamond tools. ► Multiple laser shocks induce significant phase transitions in cBN and nanodiamond. -- Abstract: High amplitude, short duration shock waves created by a 1064 nm, 10 ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser were used to increase the hardness as well as build successive layers of nanodiamond on sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PcBN) tools. Multiple scans of laser shocking were applied. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Tukon microhardness tester, and optical surface profilometer were used to evaluate the microstructure, phase change, Vicker’s microhardness and surface roughness. Results indicated that laser shock processing of plain PcBN changed the binder concentration, caused phase transition from cubic to hexagonal form, increased the hardness, and almost unaffected surface roughness. Laser shock wave sintering of nanodiamond powders on PcBN resulted in deagglomeration and layer-by-layer build-up of nanoparticles for a thickness of 30 μm inferring that a novel solid freeform technique designated as “shock wave induced freeform technique (SWIFT)” is being discovered for making micro-tools. Depending on the number of multiple laser shocks, the hardness of nanodiamond compact was lower or higher than that of PcBN. It is hypothesized that nanodiamond particles could serve as crack deflectors, increasing the fracture toughness of PcBN.

  3. Rapid additive manufacturing of MR compatible multipinhole collimators with selective laser melting of tungsten powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Karel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas; Van Holen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    The construction of complex collimators with a high number of oblique pinholes is very labor intensive, expensive or is sometimes impossible with the current available techniques (drilling, milling or electric discharge machining). All these techniques are subtractive: one starts from solid plates and the material at the position of the pinholes is removed. The authors used a novel technique for collimator construction, called metal additive manufacturing. This process starts with a solid piece of tungsten on which a first layer of tungsten powder is melted. Each subsequent layer is then melted on the previous layer. This melting is done by selective laser melting at the locations where the CAD design file defines solid material. A complex collimator with 20 loftholes with 500 μm diameter pinhole opening was designed and produced (16 mm thick and 70 × 52 mm(2) transverse size). The density was determined, the production accuracy was measured (GOM ATOS II Triple Scan, Nikon AZ100M microscope, Olympus IMT200 microscope). Point source measurements were done by mounting the collimator on a SPECT detector. Because there is increasing interest in dual-modality SPECT-MR imaging, the collimator was also positioned in a 7T MRI scanner (Bruker Pharmascan). A uniform phantom was acquired using T1, T2, and T2* sequences to check for artifacts or distortion of the phantom images due to the collimator presence. Additionally, three tungsten sample pieces (250, 500, and 750 μm thick) were produced. The density, attenuation (140 keV beam), and uniformity (GE eXplore Locus SP micro-CT) of these samples were measured. The density of the collimator was equal to 17.31 ± 0.10 g∕cm(3) (89.92% of pure tungsten). The production accuracy ranges from -260 to +650 μm. The aperture positions have a mean deviation of 5 μm, the maximum deviation was 174 μm and the minimum deviation was -122 μm. The mean aperture diameter is 464 ± 19 μm. The calculated and measured sensitivity and

  4. Dry coating of micronized API powders for improved dissolution of directly compacted tablets with high drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Davé, Rajesh

    2013-02-14

    Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 μm) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 μm API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t(80) for the tablets with dry coated APIs was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct dissolution and supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from UO2 powder, granule, green pellet and sintered pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ankita; Kumar, Pradeep; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, direct dissolution and extraction of UO 2 from the solid rejects various stages of fuel fabrication viz. powder granules green pellet and, sintered pellet has been studied. Powder and granules could be easily dissolved in TBP-HNO 3 complex at 50 deg C., whereas in case of green and sintered pellets at elevated temperature at raised to 80 deg C in TBP-HNO 3 complex. With supercritical (SC) CO 2 alone the efficiency was ∼70%. But with SC CO 2 +2.5% TBP, the efficiency was ∼95% for powder and granules, and ∼60% for green and sintered pellets. Nearly complete extraction (∼99%) was achievable for SC CO 2 + 2.5 % TTA in all cases. The method has distinct advantage of elimination of acid usage and minimization of liquid waste generation. (author)

  6. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treated and untreated areas of the material has been made.

  7. Experimental signatures of direct-laser-acceleration-assisted laser wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J. L.; Lemos, N.; Marsh, K. A.; Froula, D. H.; Joshi, C.

    2018-04-01

    The direct laser acceleration (DLA) of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) operating in the forced or quasi-blowout regimes has been investigated through experiment and simulation. When there is a significant overlap between the trapped electrons and the drive laser in a LWFA cavity, the resulting electrons can gain energy from both the LWFA and the DLA mechanisms. Experimental work investigates the properties of the electron beams produced in a LWFA with ionization injection by dispersing those beams in the direction perpendicular to the laser polarization. These electron beams show certain spectral features that are characteristic of DLA. These characteristic features are reproduced using particle-in-cell simulations, where particle tracking was used to elucidate the roles of LWFA and DLA to the energy gain of the electrons in this experimental regime and to demonstrate that such spectral features are definitive signatures of the presence of DLA in LWFA.

  8. Direct Iron Coating onto Nd-Fe-B Powder by Thermal Decomposition of Iron Pentacarbonyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, S; Okano, M; Tanaka, T; Sumiyama, K; Nozawa, N; Nishiuchi, T; Hirosawa, S; Ohkubo, T

    2011-01-01

    Iron-coated Nd-Fe-B composite powder was prepared by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in an inert organic solvent in the presence of alkylamine. Though this method is based on a modified solution-phase process to synthesize highly size-controlled iron nanoparticles, it is in turn featured by a suppressed formation of iron nanoparticles to achieve an efficient iron coating solely onto the surfaces of rare-earth magnet powder. The Nd-Fe-B magnetic powder was successfully coated by iron shells whose thicknesses were of the order of submicrometer to micrometer, being tuneable by the amount of initially loaded iron pentacarbonyl in a reaction flask. The amount of the coated iron reached to more than 10 wt.% of the initial Nd-Fe-B magnetic powder, which is practically sufficient to fabricate Nd-Fe-B/α-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets.

  9. To Study Capping or Lamination Tendency of Tablets Through Evaluation of Powder Rheological Properties and Tablet Mechanical Properties of Directly Compressible Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhat, Siddhi M; Kettler, Charles N; Dave, Rutesh H

    2017-05-01

    Air entrapment efficiency of the powders is one of the main factors leading to occurrence of capping or lamination tendency of tablets manufactured from the directly compressible powder blends. The purpose of the current research was to study this underlying cause leading to occurrence of capping or lamination of tablets through evaluation of powder rheological properties. Powder blends were prepared by addition of 0% w/w to 100% w/w of individual active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) [two model API: acetaminophen (APAP) and ibuprofen (IBU)] with microcrystalline cellulose without and with 0.5% w/w Magnesium Stearate as lubricant. Powder rheological properties were analyzed using FT4 Powder Rheometer for dynamic, bulk, and shear properties. Tablet mechanical properties of the respective blends were studied by determining the ability of the material to form tablet of specific strength under applied compaction pressure through tabletability profile. The results showed that powder rheometer distinguished the powder blends based on their ability to relieve entrapped air along with the distinctive flow characteristics. Powder blend prepared with increasing addition of APAP displayed low powder permeability as compared to IBU blends with better powder permeability, compressibility and flow characteristics. Also, lubrication of the APAP blends did not ease their ability to relieve air. Tabletability profiles revealed the potential occurrence of capping or lamination in tablets prepared from the powder blends with high APAP content. This study can help scientist to understand tableting performance at the early-developmental stages and can avoid occurrence capping and lamination of tablets.

  10. Development of Blue Laser Direct-Write Lithography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Wen Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical lithography system researched in this study adopted the laser direct-write lithography technology with nano-positioning stage by using retailing blue ray optical pickup head contained 405nm wavelength and 0.85 numerical aperture of focus lens as the system lighting source. The system employed a photodiode received the focusing error signal reflected by the glass substrate to identify specimen position and automatic focused control with voice coil motor. The pattern substrate was loaded on a nano-positioning stage; input pattern path automatically and collocate with inner program at the same time. This research has successfully developed a blue laser lithography process system. The single spot size can be narrowed down to 3.07 μm and the linewidth is 3.3μm, time of laser control can reach to 450 ns and the exposure pattern can be controlled by program as well.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al10SiMg fabricated by pulsed laser powder bed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, R.; Ghosh, A.; Chou, S.C. [Aluminum Research Centre – REGAL, Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Paliwal, M. [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Materials Science and Engineering, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Brochu, M., E-mail: mathieu.brochu@mcgill.ca [Aluminum Research Centre – REGAL, Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2017-03-24

    A series of high-density Al10SiMg specimens were fabricated using a custom built pulsed laser powder bed fusion unit operating with a pulsed-laser source. The fabricated components were analyzed using optical microscopy, computerized tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A significantly refined cellular microstructure was observed, where Al cell diameter refinement upto ~210 nm was obtained throughout the component. Age hardening T6 treatment was also performed to investigate the heat treatment response of this fine microstructure. The mechanical properties in the as-built condition were assessed by microhardness testing (136 HV) and compressive tests (true compressive yield strength of 380 MPa and true ultimate compressive strength of 485 MPa). On the other hand, the mechanical responses of T6 specimens displayed strength reduction while demonstrating enhanced ductility.

  12. Novel aspects of direct laser acceleration of relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefiev, Alexey

    2015-11-01

    Production of energetic electrons is a keystone aspect of ultraintense laser-plasma interactions that underpins a variety of topics and applications, including fast ignition inertial confinement fusion and compact particle and radiation sources. There is a wide range of electron acceleration regimes that depend on the duration of the laser pulse and the plasma density. This talk focuses on the regime in which the plasma is significantly underdense and the laser pulse duration is longer than the electron response time, so that, in contrast to the wakefield acceleration regime, the pulse creates a quasi-static channel in the electron density. Such a regime is of particular interest, since it can naturally arise in experiments with solid density targets where the pre-pulse of an ultraintense laser produces an extended sub-critical pre-plasma. This talk examines the impact of several key factors on electron acceleration by the laser pulse and the resulting electron energy gain. A detailed consideration is given to the role played by: (1) the static longitudinal electric field, (2) the static transverse electric field, (3) the electron injection into the laser pulse, (4) the electromagnetic dispersion, and (5) the static longitudinal magnetic field. It is shown that all of these factors lead, under conditions outlined in the talk, to a considerable electron energy gain that greatly exceeds the ponderomotive limit. The static fields do not directly transfer substantial energy to electrons. Instead, they alter the longitudinal dephasing between the electrons and the laser pulse, which then allows the electrons to gain extra energy from the pulse. The talk will also outline a time-resolution criterion that must be satisfied in order to correctly reproduce these effects in particle-in-cell simulations. Supported by AFOSR Contract No. FA9550-14-1-0045, National Nuclear Security Administration Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512, and US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FG02

  13. On the role of heat and mass transfer into laser processability during selective laser melting AlSi12 alloy based on a randomly packed powder-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianfeng; Yan, Biao; Guo, Lijie; Gu, Dongdong

    2018-04-01

    A newly transient mesoscopic model with a randomly packed powder-bed has been proposed to investigate the heat and mass transfer and laser process quality between neighboring tracks during selective laser melting (SLM) AlSi12 alloy by finite volume method (FVM), considering the solid/liquid phase transition, variable temperature-dependent properties and interfacial force. The results apparently revealed that both the operating temperature and resultant cooling rate were obviously elevated by increasing the laser power. Accordingly, the resultant viscosity of liquid significantly reduced under a large laser power and was characterized with a large velocity, which was prone to result in a more intensive convection within pool. In this case, the sufficient heat and mass transfer occurred at the interface between the previously fabricated tracks and currently building track, revealing a strongly sufficient spreading between the neighboring tracks and a resultant high-quality surface without obvious porosity. By contrast, the surface quality of SLM-processed components with a relatively low laser power notably weakened due to the limited and insufficient heat and mass transfer at the interface of neighboring tracks. Furthermore, the experimental surface morphologies of the top surface were correspondingly acquired and were in full accordance to the calculated results via simulation.

  14. Femtosecond laser direct writing of monocrystalline hexagonal silver prisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Moebius, Michael [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Mazur, Eric [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Bottom-up growth methods and top-down patterning techniques are both used to fabricate metal nanostructures, each with a distinct advantage: One creates crystalline structures and the other offers precise positioning. Here, we present a technique that localizes the growth of metal crystals to the focal volume of a laser beam, combining advantages from both approaches. We report the fabrication of silver nanoprisms—hexagonal nanoscale silver crystals—through irradiation with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The growth of these nanoprisms is due to a nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a polyvinylpyrrolidone film doped with silver nitrate. The hexagonal nanoprisms have bases hundreds of nanometers in size and the crystal growth occurs over exposure times of less than 1 ms (8 orders of magnitude faster than traditional chemical techniques). Electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows that the hexagonal nanoprisms are monocrystalline. The fabrication method combines advantages from both wet chemistry and femtosecond laser direct-writing to grow silver crystals in targeted locations. The results presented in this letter offer an approach to directly positioning and growing silver crystals on a substrate, which can be used for plasmonic devices.

  15. Femtosecond laser direct writing of monocrystalline hexagonal silver prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Moebius, Michael; Mazur, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up growth methods and top-down patterning techniques are both used to fabricate metal nanostructures, each with a distinct advantage: One creates crystalline structures and the other offers precise positioning. Here, we present a technique that localizes the growth of metal crystals to the focal volume of a laser beam, combining advantages from both approaches. We report the fabrication of silver nanoprisms—hexagonal nanoscale silver crystals—through irradiation with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The growth of these nanoprisms is due to a nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a polyvinylpyrrolidone film doped with silver nitrate. The hexagonal nanoprisms have bases hundreds of nanometers in size and the crystal growth occurs over exposure times of less than 1 ms (8 orders of magnitude faster than traditional chemical techniques). Electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows that the hexagonal nanoprisms are monocrystalline. The fabrication method combines advantages from both wet chemistry and femtosecond laser direct-writing to grow silver crystals in targeted locations. The results presented in this letter offer an approach to directly positioning and growing silver crystals on a substrate, which can be used for plasmonic devices.

  16. Study on the Characteristics of Walnut Shell/Co-PES/Co-PA Powder Produced by Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqiang Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and forestry wastes are used as materials for selective laser sintering (SLS to alleviate resource shortage, reduce the pollution of the environment, lower the cost of materials, and improve the accuracy of parts produced by SLS. However, the mechanical properties of wood–plastic parts are poor, and thus they cannot be applied widely. In order to improve the mechanical properties of wood–plastic parts, a new type of walnut shell polymer composite (WSPC was prepared by a polymer mixing method and was used to produce parts via SLS. Additionally, the dimensional accuracy, morphologies, density, and mechanical properties of the WSPC parts were studied. The results showed that the addition of a small amount of copolyamide (Co-PA powder could effectively improve the mechanical properties and decrease the density of the WSPC parts. By increasing the amount of Co-PA powder and decreasing that of copolyester (Co-PES powder, the mechanical properties first increased, then decreased, and finally increased again; in addition, the density first decreased then increased. By increasing the preheating temperature, the mechanical properties and density of the WSPC parts were enhanced.

  17. Processing of Polysulfone to Free Flowing Powder by Mechanical Milling and Spray Drying Techniques for Use in Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.

  18. Microstructural control during direct laser deposition of a β-titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Chunlei; Ravi, G.A.; Attallah, Moataz M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Microstructural development of Ti5553 during Direct Laser Deposition (DLD). - Highlights: • Good structural and geometrical integrity could be achieved by process design. • Build height increases with decreased scanning speed and increased powder flow rate. • Keeping Z increment close to actual layer thickness is crucial for consistent building. • The laser deposited Ti5553 are dominated by mixed columnar and equiaxed grains. • In situ dwelling and annealing promote α precipitation which improves microhardness. - Abstract: A concern associated with Direct Laser Deposition (DLD) is the difficulty in controlling microstructure due to rapid cooling rates after deposition, particularly in beta-Ti alloys. In these alloys, the beta-phase is likely to exist following DLD, instead of the desirable duplex alpha + beta microstructure that gives a good balance of properties. Thus, in this work, a parametric study was performed to assess the role of DLD parameters on porosity, build geometry, and microstructure in a beta-Ti alloy, Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr (Ti5553). The builds were examined using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness measurements were performed to assess the degree of re-precipitation of alpha-phase following an in situ dwelling and laser annealing procedure. The study identified several processing conditions that enable deposition of samples with the desired geometry and low porosity level. The microstructure was dominated by beta-phase, except for the region near the substrate where a limited amount of alpha-precipitates was present due to reheating effect. Although the microstructure was a mixture of equiaxed and columnar beta-grains alongside infrequent fine alpha-precipitates, the builds showed fairly uniform microhardness in different regions. In situ dwelling and annealing did not cause an obvious change in porosity, but did promote the formation of alpha-precipitates

  19. A compressibility based model for predicting the tensile strength of directly compressed pharmaceutical powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gavin K; Campbell, Jacqueline I; Roberts, Ron J

    2017-10-05

    A new model to predict the compressibility and compactability of mixtures of pharmaceutical powders has been developed. The key aspect of the model is consideration of the volumetric occupancy of each powder under an applied compaction pressure and the respective contribution it then makes to the mixture properties. The compressibility and compactability of three pharmaceutical powders: microcrystalline cellulose, mannitol and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate have been characterised. Binary and ternary mixtures of these excipients have been tested and used to demonstrate the predictive capability of the model. Furthermore, the model is shown to be uniquely able to capture a broad range of mixture behaviours, including neutral, negative and positive deviations, illustrating its utility for formulation design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid direct laser writing of desired plasmonic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Quang Cong; Luong, Mai Hoang; Remmel, Jacqueline; Do, Minh Thanh; Nguyen, Dam Thuy Trang; Lai, Ngoc Diep

    2017-06-15

    We demonstrate a direct way to realize arbitrary gold nanostructures via a local dewetting method. This technique was based on the optically induced local thermal effect at the focusing region of a direct laser writing (DLW) system employing a green continuous-wave laser. The local high temperature allowed the creation of gold nano-islands only at the focusing area of the optical system. By moving the focusing spot, this DLW method allowed us to "write" desired two-dimensional gold patterns with a feature size down to sub-lambda. A heat model was also proposed to theoretically explain the localized heating process of the absorbing gold layer. The preliminary results were demonstrated for data storage and color printer applications.

  1. Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Triturated charcoal nano-powder directly brushed on a fiber connector end-face is used for the first time as a fast saturable absorber for a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber-ring laser (EDFL). These dispersant-free charcoal nano-powders with a small amount of crystalline graphene phase and highly disordered carbon structure exhibit a broadened x-ray diffraction peak and their Raman spectrum shows the existence of a carbon related D-band at 1350 cm −1 and the disappearance of the 2D-band peak at 2700 cm −1 . The charcoal nano-powder exhibits a featureless linear absorbance in the infrared region with its linear transmittance of 0.66 nonlinearly saturated at 0.73 to give a ΔT/T of 10%. Picosecond mode-locking at a transform-limited condition of a low-gain EDFL is obtained by using the charcoal nano-powder. By using a commercial EDFA with a linear gain of only 17 dB at the saturated output power of 17.5 dB m required to initiate the saturable absorption of the charcoal nano-powder, the EDFL provides a pulsewidth narrowing from 3.3 to 1.36 ps associated with its spectral linewidth broadening from 0.8 to 1.83 nm on increasing the feedback ratio from 30 to 90%. This investigation indicates that all the carbon-based materials containing a crystalline graphene phase can be employed to passively mode-lock the EDFL, however, the disordered carbon structure inevitably induces a small modulation depth and a large mode-locking threshold, thus limiting the pulsewidth shortening. Nevertheless, the nanoscale charcoal passively mode-locked EDFL still shows the potential to generate picosecond pulses under a relatively low cavity gain. An appropriate cavity design can be used to compensate this defect-induced pulsewidth limitation and obtain a short pulsewidth. (letter)

  2. A Study on the Effects of the Use of Gas or Water Atomized AISI 316L Steel Powder on the Corrosion Resistance of Laser Deposited Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, M. J.; Amado, J. M.; Montero, J.; Yáñez, A.

    Water atomized and gas atomized powders are commonly used in 3D laser manufacturing. Both types of AISI 316L stainless steel powders are available which differ in their manganese content. This is due to specific procedures related to the two different atomization process. The amount of manganese in the laser processed part might have important implications in its corrosion resistance. It could lead to the formation of manganese sulfides (MnS) which are known to be initiation sites for pitting corrosion. In this work, corrosion performance of laser deposited 316L steel using gas and atomized powders is compared by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests in 0.35%wt. NaCL solution. Worse performance of the gas atomized samples is observed as with respect to the water atomized ones in terms of polarization resistance, corrosion rate and pitting susceptibility.

  3. Fabrication of submicron proteinaceous structures by direct laser writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serien, Daniela [Center for International Research on Integrative Biomedical Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, Shoji, E-mail: takeuchi@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for International Research on Integrative Biomedical Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); ERATO Takeuchi Biohybrid Innovation Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    In this paper, we provide a characterization of truly free-standing proteinaceous structures with submicron feature sizes depending on the fabrication conditions by model-based analysis. Protein cross-linking of bovine serum albumin is performed by direct laser writing and two-photon excitation of flavin adenine dinucleotide. We analyze the obtainable fabrication resolution and required threshold energy for polymerization. The applied polymerization model allows prediction of fabrication conditions and resulting fabrication size, alleviating the application of proteinaceous structure fabrication.

  4. Effects of hot isostatic pressing on the elastic modulus and tensile properties of 316L parts made by powder bed laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavery, N.P., E-mail: N.P.Lavery@swansea.ac.uk [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Cherry, J.; Mehmood, S. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Davies, H. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Girling, B.; Sackett, E. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Brown, S.G.R. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Sienz, J. [Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-02

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L steel have been examined for parts built by a powder bed laser fusion process, which uses a laser to melt and build parts additively on a layer by layer basis. Relative density and porosity determined using various experimental techniques were correlated against laser energy density. Based on porosity sizes, morphology and distributions, the porosity was seen to transition between an irregular, highly directional porosity at the low laser energy density and a smaller, more rounded and randomly distributed porosity at higher laser energy density, thought to be caused by keyhole melting. In both cases, the porosity was reduced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). High throughput ultrasound based measurements were used to calculate elasticity properties and show that the lower porosities from builds with higher energy densities have higher elasticity moduli in accordance with empirical relationships, and hot isostatic pressing improves the elasticity properties to levels associated with wrought/rolled 316L. However, even with hot isostatic pressing the best properties were obtained from samples with the lowest porosity in the as-built condition. A finite element stress analysis based on the porosity microstructures was undertaken, to understand the effect of pore size distributions and morphology on the Young's modulus. Over 1–5% porosity range angular porosity was found to reduce the Young's modulus by 5% more than rounded porosity. Experimentally measured Young's moduli for samples treated by HIP were closer to the rounded trends than the as-built samples, which were closer to angular trends. Tensile tests on specimens produced at optimised machine parameters displayed a high degree of anisotropy in the build direction and test variability for as-built parts, especially between vertical and horizontal build directions. The as-built properties were generally found to have a higher yield stress, but

  5. Effects of hot isostatic pressing on the elastic modulus and tensile properties of 316L parts made by powder bed laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavery, N.P.; Cherry, J.; Mehmood, S.; Davies, H.; Girling, B.; Sackett, E.; Brown, S.G.R.; Sienz, J.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L steel have been examined for parts built by a powder bed laser fusion process, which uses a laser to melt and build parts additively on a layer by layer basis. Relative density and porosity determined using various experimental techniques were correlated against laser energy density. Based on porosity sizes, morphology and distributions, the porosity was seen to transition between an irregular, highly directional porosity at the low laser energy density and a smaller, more rounded and randomly distributed porosity at higher laser energy density, thought to be caused by keyhole melting. In both cases, the porosity was reduced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). High throughput ultrasound based measurements were used to calculate elasticity properties and show that the lower porosities from builds with higher energy densities have higher elasticity moduli in accordance with empirical relationships, and hot isostatic pressing improves the elasticity properties to levels associated with wrought/rolled 316L. However, even with hot isostatic pressing the best properties were obtained from samples with the lowest porosity in the as-built condition. A finite element stress analysis based on the porosity microstructures was undertaken, to understand the effect of pore size distributions and morphology on the Young's modulus. Over 1–5% porosity range angular porosity was found to reduce the Young's modulus by 5% more than rounded porosity. Experimentally measured Young's moduli for samples treated by HIP were closer to the rounded trends than the as-built samples, which were closer to angular trends. Tensile tests on specimens produced at optimised machine parameters displayed a high degree of anisotropy in the build direction and test variability for as-built parts, especially between vertical and horizontal build directions. The as-built properties were generally found to have a higher yield stress, but lower upper

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting of Powder Produced by Granulation-Sintering-Deoxygenation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Z. Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Commercial spherical Ti powders for additive manufacturing applications are produced today by melt-atomization methods at relatively high costs. A meltless production method, called granulation-sintering-deoxygenation (GSD), was developed recently to produce spherical Ti alloy powder at a significantly reduced cost. In this new process, fine hydrogenated Ti particles are agglomerated to form spherical granules, which are then sintered to dense spherical particles. After sintering, the solid fully dense spherical Ti alloy particles are deoxygenated using novel low-temperature deoxygenation processes with either Mg or Ca. This technical communication presents results of 3D printing using GSD powder and the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. The results showed that tensile properties of parts fabricated from spherical GSD Ti-6Al-4V powder by SLM are comparable with typical mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V. The characteristics of 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V from GSD powder are also compared with that of commercial materials.

  7. A Modeling Approach for Plastic-Metal Laser Direct Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Ascari, Alessandro; Romoli, Luca

    2017-09-01

    Laser processing has been identified as a feasible approach to direct joining of metal and plastic components without the need for adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The present work sees development of a modeling approach for conduction and transmission laser direct joining of these materials based on multi-layer optical propagation theory and numerical heat flow simulation. The scope of this methodology is to predict process outcomes based on the calculated joint interface and upper surface temperatures. Three representative cases are considered for model verification, including conduction joining of PBT and aluminum alloy, transmission joining of optically transparent PET and stainless steel, and transmission joining of semi-transparent PA 66 and stainless steel. Conduction direct laser joining experiments are performed on black PBT and 6082 anticorodal aluminum alloy, achieving shear loads of over 2000 N with specimens of 2 mm thickness and 25 mm width. Comparison with simulation results shows that consistently high strength is achieved where the peak interface temperature is above the plastic degradation temperature. Comparison of transmission joining simulations and published experimental results confirms these findings and highlights the influence of plastic layer optical absorption on process feasibility.

  8. Oxotungstates of lanthanum and alkaline-earth elements - materials for neodymium powder lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolin, V F; Vetkina, S N; Markushev, V M

    1988-02-01

    The spectra of Sr(2.95)(Nd, Nb)(0.025)WO/sub 6/ and MeLa/sub 2/WO/sub 7/:Nd (Me = Sr, Ba) oxotungstates obtained via solid-phase synthesis in the powdered form are studied. At nitrogen and helium temperatures, the stimulated emission of neodymium was observed in the 1.07 micron region in BaLa/sub 2/WO/sub 7/ powders. This finding is supported by the sharp narrowing of the luminescence spectrum which features a threshold character and by the characteristic pedestal cut-off in the lumescence excitation spectrum which is dependent on the pumping intensity. 7 references.

  9. Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moat, R.J.; Pinkerton, A.J.; Li, L.; Withers, P.J.; Preuss, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Neutron diffraction and the contour method show good agreement. → Tensile stresses found parallel to the surfaces. → Compressive stresses within the bulk of the structures. → Residual stress weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters. → Maximum tensile residual stress unaffected across range of pulse parameters used. - Abstract: This paper reports a study into the effect of laser pulse length and duty cycle on the residual stress distributions in multi-track laser direct metal deposits of Waspaloy onto an Inconel 718 substrate. The residual stresses have been evaluated using neutron diffraction and the contour method, while electron microscopy and micro hardness indentation have been used to map the concomitant microstructural variation. In all cases, near the tops of the deposited walls, the longitudinal stresses are tensile towards the mid-length of the wall, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are negligible. By contrast near the base of the walls, the stresses along the direction of deposition are small, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are compressive at the centre and tensile towards the ends. Consistent with previous observations, the stresses parallel to free surfaces are tensile, balanced by compressive stresses in the interior (an inverse quench stress profile). These profiles have been found to be weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters, most notably an increase in tensile stress gradient with increasing duty cycle, but the maximum residual stresses are largely unaffected. Furthermore, microstructural analysis has shown that the effect of laser pulse parameters on grain morphology in multi-track thick walls is less marked than previously reported for single-track wall structures.

  10. Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moat, R.J., E-mail: richard.moat@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Pinkerton, A.J.; Li, L. [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J.; Preuss, M. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Neutron diffraction and the contour method show good agreement. {yields} Tensile stresses found parallel to the surfaces. {yields} Compressive stresses within the bulk of the structures. {yields} Residual stress weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters. {yields} Maximum tensile residual stress unaffected across range of pulse parameters used. - Abstract: This paper reports a study into the effect of laser pulse length and duty cycle on the residual stress distributions in multi-track laser direct metal deposits of Waspaloy onto an Inconel 718 substrate. The residual stresses have been evaluated using neutron diffraction and the contour method, while electron microscopy and micro hardness indentation have been used to map the concomitant microstructural variation. In all cases, near the tops of the deposited walls, the longitudinal stresses are tensile towards the mid-length of the wall, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are negligible. By contrast near the base of the walls, the stresses along the direction of deposition are small, while the stresses perpendicular to the substrate are compressive at the centre and tensile towards the ends. Consistent with previous observations, the stresses parallel to free surfaces are tensile, balanced by compressive stresses in the interior (an inverse quench stress profile). These profiles have been found to be weakly dependent on the laser pulse parameters, most notably an increase in tensile stress gradient with increasing duty cycle, but the maximum residual stresses are largely unaffected. Furthermore, microstructural analysis has shown that the effect of laser pulse parameters on grain morphology in multi-track thick walls is less marked than previously reported for single-track wall structures.

  11. Fabrication of large Ti–6Al–4V structures by direct laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Chunlei; Ravi, G.A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dance, Chris; Ranson, Andrew; Dilworth, Steve [Integrated Operations, Manufacturing & Materials Engineering Department, BAE Systems Ltd (United Kingdom); Attallah, Moataz M., E-mail: m.m.attallah@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • High laser power and a reasonably low powder feed rate are key to low porosity. • Scaling-up of samples requires smaller Z steps to achieve geometrical integrity. • HIPing effectively closed pores, changed microstructure and improved ductility. • Optimised processing conditions plus HIPing led to good quality Ti-64 structures. • HIPing helps recover shape of unclamped large structures from distortion. - Abstract: Ti–6Al–4V samples have been prepared by direct laser deposition (DLD) using varied processing conditions. Some of the as-fabricated samples were stress-relieved or hot isostatically pressed (HIPed). The microstructures of all the samples were characterised using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the tensile properties assessed. It was found that a high laser power together with a reasonably low powder feed rate was essential for achieving minimum porosity. The build height and geometrical integrity of samples were sensitive to the specified laser nozzle moving step along the build height direction (or Z step) with a too big Z step usually leading to a build height smaller than specified height (or under build) and a too small Z step to excessive building (or excess build). Particularly, scaling-up of samples requires a smaller Z step to obtain specified build height and geometry. The as-fabricated microstructure was characterised by columnar grains together with martensitic needle structure and a small fraction of β phase. This led generally to high tensile strengths but low elongations. The vertically machined samples showed even lower elongation than horizontally machined ones due to the presence of large lack-of-fusion pores at interlayer interfaces. HIPing effectively closed pores and fully transformed the martensites into lamellar α + β phases, which considerably improved ductility but caused slight reduction in strength. With optimisation of processing conditions

  12. Titanium and zirconium metal powder spheroidization by thermal plasma processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bissett, H.; van der Walt, I.J.; Havenga, J.L.; Nel, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    New technologies used to manufacture high-quality components, such as direct laser sintering, require spherical powders of a narrow particle size distribution as this affects the packing density and sintering mechanism. The powder also has to be chemically pure as impurities such as H, O, C, N, and S causes brittleness, influence metal properties such as tensile strength, hardness, and ductility, and also increase surface tension during processing. Two new metal powder processes have been dev...

  13. Melt-Pool Temperature and Size Measurement During Direct Laser Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gockel, Joy E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Additive manufacturing has demonstrated the ability to fabricate complex geometries and components not possible with conventional casting and machining. In many cases, industry has demonstrated the ability to fabricate complex geometries with improved efficiency and performance. However, qualification and certification of processes is challenging, leaving companies to focus on certification of material though design allowable based approaches. This significantly reduces the business case for additive manufacturing. Therefore, real time monitoring of the melt pool can be used to detect the development of flaws, such as porosity or un-sintered powder and aid in the certification process. Characteristics of the melt pool in the Direct Laser Sintering (DLS) process is also of great interest to modelers who are developing simulation models needed to improve and perfect the DLS process. Such models could provide a means to rapidly develop the optimum processing parameters for new alloy powders and optimize processing parameters for specific part geometries. Stratonics’ ThermaViz system will be integrated with the Renishaw DLS system in order to demonstrate its ability to measure melt pool size, shape and temperature. These results will be compared with data from an existing IR camera to determine the best approach for the determination of these critical parameters.

  14. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladded composite coatings prepared from pre-alloyed WC-NiCrMo powder with different laser spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Guolong; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Qunli; Liu, Rong

    2018-05-01

    The distribution of WC particles in laser cladded composite coatings can significantly affect the wear resistance of the coatings under aggressive environments. In this study, pre-alloyed WC-NiCrMo powder is deposited on SS316L via laser cladding with circular spot and wide-band spot, respectively. The microstructure and WC distribution of the coatings are investigated with optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear behavior of the coatings is investigated under dry sliding-wear test. The experimental results show that the partially dissolved WC particles are uniformly distributed in both coatings produced with circular spot and wide-band spot, respectively, and the microstructures consist of WC and M23C6 carbides and γ-(Ni, Fe) solid solution matrix. However, due to Fe dilution, the two coatings have different microstructural characteristics, resulting in different hardness and wear resistance. The wide-band spot laser prepared coating shows better performance than the circular spot laser prepared coating.

  15. Polymeric turbidity sensor fabricated by laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shu; Lin, Qiao; Wu, George; Chen, Liuhua; Wu, X

    2011-01-01

    The design of a miniature-sized turbidity sensor fabricated by laser direct writing was proposed and tested. A dual-beam dual-detector sensing structure was written by a 488 nm laser from UV curable optical polymer to form a 4 mm diameter turbidity sensing probe, with the fabrication process being shortened to a few seconds. Experimental tests on prototypes were conducted by using standard turbidity solutions, and the data were processed with a self-adapting neural network based on a single input single output algorithm. The scattering coefficient for normalized turbidity of the standards was obtained, and system accuracy was validated by an error analysis. Experimental results indicated that in the testing situation presented in this paper, the sensor was capable of responding to turbidity with a relative error of about 3%

  16. Microstructure of bonding zones in laser-clad Ni-alloy-based composite coatings reinforced with various ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Y.T.; Ouyang, J.H.; Lei, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    Microstructure of the bonding zones (BZs) between laser-clad Ni-alloy-based composite coatings and steel substrates was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. Observations indicate that for pure Ni-alloy coating the laser parameters selected for good interface fusion have no effect on the microstructure of the BZ except for its thickness. However, the addition of ceramic particles (TiN, SiC, or ZrO 2 ) to the Ni alloy varies the compositional or constitutional undercooling of the melt near the solid/liquid interface and consequently leads to the observed changes of microstructure of the BZs. For TiN/Ni-alloy coating the morphology of γ-Ni solid solution in the BZ changes from dendritic to planar form with increasing scanning speed. A colony structure of eutectic is found in the BZ of SiC/Ni-alloy coating in which complete dissolution of SiC particles takes place during laser cladding. The immiscible melting of ZrO 2 and Ni-alloy powders induces the stratification of ZrO 2 /Ni-alloy coating which consists of a pure ZrO 2 layer fin the upper region and a BZ composed mainly of γ-Ni dendrites adjacent to the substrate. All the BZs studied in this investigation have good metallurgical characteristics between the coatings and the substrates

  17. Technical evaluation of the direct denitration process to obtain ceramic-grade UO2 powders using microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, Viviana J.; Marchi, Daniel E.; Menghini, Jorge E.

    1999-01-01

    The direct denitration process to obtain ceramic-grade UO 2 powders using microwaves has been studied and developed at laboratory scale. Conditions were given to obtain powders apt for fuel pellets fabrication within the required specifications, where mechanical treatments before pressing are not necessary. This work describes the equipment used in the process, evaluates the necessary supply and waste generation and describes the characteristics of the product obtained, as well as the conditions for its fabrication. Results show that this method allows to reduce the volume of liquid wastes generated due to their partial re-utilization, simplifying their final disposal treatment, which, in addition to their operational advantages, make this method attractive from the economical point of view. (author)

  18. Simple fabrication of active electrodes using direct laser transference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, P.; Coneo Rodriguez, R.; Broglia, M.; Acevedo, D.F.; Barbero, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electroactive materials can be transferred using a single pulse of laser light. •The transfer is made in air using a 6 ns pulse of Nd-YAG laser (532 or 1064 nm). •Conducting polymers films can be transferred maintaining the electroactivity. •Conducting polymer multilayers can be deposited using successive pulses. •Metallic (Au, Pt) transferred micro/nanoparticles are electrocatalytic. -- Abstract: Direct laser transference (DLT) method is applied to obtain electrodes modified with thin films of conducting polymers (CPs) or catalytic metals. A short (6–10 ns) pulse of laser light (second harmonic of Nd-YAG Laser, λ = 532 nm) is shined on the backside of a thin (<200 nm) film of the material to be transferred, which is deposited on a transparent substrate. The illuminated region heats up and the material (conducting polymer or metal) is thermally transferred to a solid target placed at short distance in air. In that ways, CPs are transferred onto polypropylene, glass, indium doped tin oxide (ITO), glassy carbon and gold films. In the same manner, electrocatalytic metals (platinum or gold) are transferred onto conductive substrates (glassy carbon or ITO films on glass). The films have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, atomic force microscopy, UV-visible and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopies. The chemical, electrical and redox properties of the polymeric materials transferred remain unaltered after the transfer. Moreover, CP multilayers can be built applying DLT several times onto the same substrate. Besides polyaniline, it is shown that it is also possible to transfer functionalized polyanilines. The electrode modified with transferred Pt shows electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation while ferricyanide shows a quasireversible behavior on electrodes modified with transferred Au. The method is simple and fast, works in air without complex environmental conditions and can produce active

  19. Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Miguel; Pires, Inês; Moseke, Claus; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Teßmar, Jörg; Vorndran, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The 3D printing technique based on cement powders is an excellent method for the fabrication of individual and complex bone substitutes even in the case of large defects. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in varying ratios makes the adaption of powder systems resulting in BCP materials to this fabrication technique a desirable aim. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel powder system for the 3D printing process, intended for the production of complexly shaped BCP scaffolds by a hydraulic setting reaction of calcium carbonate and TCP with phosphoric acid. The HA/TCP ratio in the specimens could be tailored by the calcium/phosphate ratio of the starting powder. The scaffolds could be fabricated with a dimensional accuracy of >96.5% and a minimal macro pore size of 300 µm. Independent of the phase composition the printed specimens showed a microporosity of approximately 68%, while the compressive strength strongly depended on the chemical composition and increased with rising TCP content in the scaffolds to a maximum of 1.81 MPa. Post-treatment of the scaffolds with a polylactic-co-glycolic acid-solution enhanced the mechanical properties by a factor of 8. In vitro studies showed that all BCP scaffolds were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell viability as well as the cell proliferation, as compared with pure TCP. Cell proliferation is even better on BCP when compared to HA and cell viability is in a similar range on these materials. (paper)

  20. Optimization of laser cladding of cold spray coatings with B4C and Ni powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, V. M.; Golyshev, A. A.; Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.; Filippov, A. A.; Ryashin, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, a combined method is considered for the production of a metal-matrix composite coating based on Ni and B4C. The coating is created by consistently applied methods: cold spray and laser cladding. The conditions of obtaining cermet layers are investigated depending on the parameters of laser cladding and cold spray. It is shown that the laser track structure significantly changes in accordance to the size of ceramic particles ranging 3-75 µm and its concentration. It is shown that the most perspective layers for additive manufacturing could be obtain from cold spray coatings with ceramic concentrations more than 50% by weight treated in the heat-conductivity laser mode.

  1. Direct observation of solid-phase adsorbate concentration profile in powdered activated carbon particle to elucidate mechanism of high adsorption capacity on super-powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Naoya; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Decreasing the particle size of powdered activated carbon (PAC) by pulverization increases its adsorption capacities for natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, which is used as a model adsorbate). A shell adsorption mechanism in which NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle and instead preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle has been proposed as an explanation for this adsorption capacity increase. In this report, we present direct evidence to support the shell adsorption mechanism. PAC particles containing adsorbed PSS were sectioned with a focused ion beam, and the solid-phase PSS concentration profiles of the particle cross-sections were directly observed by means of field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDXS). X-ray emission from sulfur, an index of PSS concentration, was higher in the shell region than in the inner region of the particles. The X-ray emission profile observed by EDXS did not agree completely with the solid-phase PSS concentration profile predicted by shell adsorption model analysis of the PSS isotherm data, but the observed and predicted profiles were not inconsistent when the analytical errors were considered. These EDXS results provide the first direct evidence that PSS is adsorbed mainly in the vicinity of the external surface of the PAC particles, and thus the results support the proposition that the increase in NOM and PSS adsorption capacity with decreasing particle size is due to the increase in external surface area on which the molecules can be adsorbed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereo imaging and cytocompatibility of a model dental implant surface formed by direct laser fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Raspanti, Mario; Traini, Tonino; Piattelli, Adriano; Sammons, Rachel

    2009-03-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) allows solids with complex geometry to be produced by sintering metal powder particles in a focused laser beam. In this study, 10 Ti6Al4V alloy model dental root implants were obtained by DLF, and surface characterization was carried out using stereo scanning electron microscopy to produce 3D reconstructions. The surfaces were extremely irregular, with approximately 100 microm deep, narrow intercommunicating crevices, shallow depressions and deep, rounded pits of widely variable shape and size, showing ample scope for interlocking with the host bone. Roughness parameters were as follows: R(t), 360.8 microm; R(z), 358.4 microm; R(a), 67.4 microm; and R(q), 78.0 microm. Disc specimens produced by DLF with an identically prepared surface were used for biocompatibility studies with rat calvarial osteoblasts: After 9 days, cells had attached and spread on the DLF surface, spanning across the crevices, and voids. Cell density was similar to that on a commercial rough microtextured surface but lower than on commercial smooth machined and smooth-textured grit-blasted, acid-etched surfaces. Human fibrin clot extension on the DLF surface was slightly improved by inorganic acid etching to increase the microroughness. With further refinements, DLF could be an economical means of manufacturing implants from titanium alloys. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Spray Drying as a Processing Technique for Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Powder Form for Part Manufacturing Through Selective Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.

    2017-03-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.

  4. Qualification of Ti6Al4V ELI Alloy Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadroitsev, I.; Krakhmalev, P.; Yadroitsava, I.; Du Plessis, A.

    2018-03-01

    Rectangular Ti6Al4V extralow interstitials (ELI) samples were manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) in vertical and horizontal orientations relative to the build platform and subjected to various heat treatments. Detailed analyses of porosity, microstructure, residual stress, tensile properties, fatigue, and fracture surfaces were performed based on x-ray micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The types of fracture and the tensile fracture mechanisms of the LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI alloy were also studied. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the corresponding mechanical properties were compared against standard specifications for conventional Ti6Al4V alloy for use in surgical implant applications. Conclusions regarding the mechanical properties and heat treatment of LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI for biomedical applications are made.

  5. Crystal and Particle Engineering Strategies for Improving Powder Compression and Flow Properties to Enable Continuous Tablet Manufacturing by Direct Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Sayantan; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-04-01

    Continuous manufacturing of tablets has many advantages, including batch size flexibility, demand-adaptive scale up or scale down, consistent product quality, small operational foot print, and increased manufacturing efficiency. Simplicity makes direct compression the most suitable process for continuous tablet manufacturing. However, deficiencies in powder flow and compression of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) limit the range of drug loading that can routinely be considered for direct compression. For the widespread adoption of continuous direct compression, effective API engineering strategies to address power flow and compression problems are needed. Appropriate implementation of these strategies would facilitate the design of high-quality robust drug products, as stipulated by the Quality-by-Design framework. Here, several crystal and particle engineering strategies for improving powder flow and compression properties are summarized. The focus is on the underlying materials science, which is the foundation for effective API engineering to enable successful continuous manufacturing by the direct compression process. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser photothermal non-destructive metrology of cracks in un-sintered powder metallurgy manufactured automotive transmission sprockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolev, J; Mandelis, A

    2010-01-01

    A non-contact and non-intrusive method of revealing crack presence in un-sintered (green) automotive transmission parts (sprockets), manufactured by means of a powder metallurgy technology based on analysis of photo-thermal radiometric (PTR) signals and their statistical analysis was developed. The inspection methodology relies on the interaction of a modulated laser generated thermal wave with the potential crack and the resulting change in amplitude and phase of the detected signal [1-5]. The crack existence at points in high stress regions of a group of green (unsintered) sprockets was evaluated through frequency scans. The results were validated by independent destructive cross-sectioning of the sprockets following sintering and polishing. Examination of the sectioned sprockets under a microscope at the locations where signal changes was used for correlation with the PTR signals. Statistical analysis confirmed the capabilities of the method to detect the presence of hairline cracks (∼5 - 10 μm size) with excellent sensitivity (91%) and good accuracy (78%) and specificity (61%). This measurement technique and the associated statistical analysis can be used as a simple and reliable on-line inspection methodology of industrial powder metallurgy manufactured steel products for non-destructive quality and feedback control of the parts forming process.

  7. Droplet-Assisted Laser Direct Nanoscale Writing on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jen Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano-structuring using laser direct writing technology has shown great potential for industrial applications. A novel application of water droplets to this technology is proposed in this paper. With a hydrophobic layer and a controlled substrate temperature, a layer of randomly distributed water droplets with a high contact angle is formed on the substrate. These liquid droplets can be used as lenses to enhance the laser intensity at the bottom of the droplets. As a result, nanoscale holes can be fabricated on the substrate by controlling the laser energy density. We successfully fabricated holes with a diameter of 600 nm at a substrate temperature of 12 ∘C and a power density of 1.2 × 108 W/cm2 in our experiments. We also found that the hole diameter was around a ninth of the water droplet diameter. Meanwhile, the machined holes are not affected much by the focal length of the lens, but a hole with less than 100 nm in diameter at the center was observed.

  8. Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based direct writing of materials has undergone significant development in recent years. The ability to modify a variety of materials at small length scales and using short production times provides laser direct writing with unique capabilities for fabrication of medical devices. In many laser-based rapid prototyping methods, microscale and submicroscale structuring of materials is controlled by computer-generated models. Various laser-based direct write methods, including selective laser sintering/melting, laser machining, matrix-assisted pulsed-laser evaporation direct write, stereolithography and two-photon polymerization, are described. Their use in fabrication of microstructured and nanostructured medical devices is discussed. Laser direct writing may be used for processing a wide variety of advanced medical devices, including patient-specific prostheses, drug delivery devices, biosensors, stents and tissue-engineering scaffolds. PMID:20420557

  9. Direct Laser-Driven Quasi-Isentropic Compression on HEAVEN-I Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pin-Liang; Tang Xiu-Zhang; Li Ye-Jun; Wang Zhao; Tian Bao-Xian; Yin Qian; Lu Ze; Xiang Yi-Huai; Gao Zhi-Xing; Li Jing; Hu Feng-Ming; Gong Zi-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The HEAVEN-I laser is used for direct drive quasi-isentropic compression up to ∼18 GPa in samples of aluminum without being temporal pulse shaped. The monotonically increasing loading is with a rise time over 17 ns. The compression history is well reproduced by the 1D radiation hydrodynamics simulation. We find that a small shock precursor where the backward integration method cannot process is formed at the beginning of illumination. We compare the loading process of HEAVEN-I with the typical profile (concave down, prefect pulse shape), the results show that a typical profile can obtain more slowly rising and higher pressure, and the shock precursor has significant effects on temperature and entropy production. However, it is demonstrated that the HEAVEN-I is an excellent optical source for direct laser-driven quasi-isentropic compression, even if it produces more temperature rise and entropy than the typical profile. (paper)

  10. Application of ring lasers to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyaev, Yu D; Kolbas, Yu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Application of a ring laser to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation is considered. The maximum accuracy of determining the directions is calculated, physical and technical mechanisms that limit the accuracy are analysed, and the instrumental errors are estimated by the example of ring He — Ne lasers with Zeeman biasing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. Colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy as suitable tools for direct determination of cocoa powder in confectionary products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Pragai, E.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kulcsar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and colorimetry have been used to rapidly and accurately determine the content of fat-free cocoa solids in dark chocolates. Both techniques are inexpensive and require only a one-time calibration step versus a method capable of absolute concentration

  12. Laser alloying of Al with mixed Ti and Ni powders to improve surface properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is used in industry for various applications due to its low cost, light weight and excellent workability, but lacks wear resistance and hardness. Laser alloying is used to improve surface properties such as hardness and wear resistance...

  13. Laser assisted cold spraying of aluminium alloy powder on stainless steel substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly acquired, in-house assembled laser assisted cold spraying coating technique had to be commissioned for use in future for metal coating for different industrial application which include, but not limited to chemical and orthopedic industries...

  14. Custom-made, root-analogue direct laser metal forming implant: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; Cirotti, Bruno; Sammons, Rachel Lilian; Mangano, Carlo

    2012-11-01

    In the last few years, the application of digital technology in dentistry has become widespread with the introduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan technology, and considerable progress has been made in the development of computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques, including direct laser metal forming (DLMF). DLMF is a technology which allows solids with complex geometry to be produced by annealing metal powder microparticles in a focused laser beam, according to a computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) model. For dental implants, the fabrication process involves the laser-induced fusion of titanium microparticles, in order to build, layer by layer, the desired object. At present, the combined use of CBCT 3D data and CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to manufacture custom-made, root-analogue implants (RAI) with sufficient precision. This report demonstrates the successful clinical use of a custom-made, root-analogue DLMF implant. CBCT images of a non-restorable right maxillary first premolar were acquired and transformed into a 3D model. From this model, a custom-made, root-analogue DLMF implant was fabricated. Immediately after tooth extraction, the RAI with a pre-operatively designed abutment was placed in the extraction socket and restored with a single crown. At the 1-year follow-up examination, the RAI showed a good functional and aesthetic integration. The introduction of DLMF technology signals the start of a new revolutionary era for implant dentistry as its immense potential for producing highly complex macro- and microstructures is receiving vast interest in different medical fields.

  15. In vitro study of hydroxy apatite and enamel powder fused in human enamel by Nd:YAG laser; Estudo in vitro da fusao de hidroxiapatita e esmalte em superficies de esmalte humano pelo laser de Nd:YAg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrreira, Marcus Vinicius Lucas

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser irradiation on hydroxyapatite and enamel powder fusion. This laser beam is not well absorbed by this two compounds for this reason they were mixed with vegetal coal to increase the absorption of the laser beam. Fifteen enamel flat surfaces and six occlusal enamel surfaces were prepared with three different substances: hydroxyapatite mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); enamel powder mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); vegetal coal. The occlusal surfaces were utilized to determine if the compounds could seal pits and fissures. Flat surfaces were utilized to determine fusion of hydroxyapatite and enamel powder. All samples were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the parameters: 80 mJ, 15 Hz, 1,2 W, 100 {mu}s pulse-width, 131,1 J/cm{sup 2}. Laser beam was delivered to the samples with a 300 {mu}m diameter fiber optic. Morphology of the irradiated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds with hydroxyapatite and enamel powder were fused to enamel surfaces. Only partial pits and fissures sealing could be observed. (author)

  16. Tubular depressed cladding waveguide laser realized in Yb: YAG by direct inscription of femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wenlong; Zhang, Wenfu; Liu, Xin; Liu, Shuang; Cheng, Guanghua; Stoian, Razvan

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of tubular depressed cladding waveguides in single crystalline Yb:YAG by the direct femtosecond laser writing technique. Full control over the confined light spatial distribution is demonstrated by the photoinscription of high index contrast waveguides with tubular configuration. Under optical pumping, highly efficient laser oscillation in depressed cladding waveguide at 1030 nm is demonstrated. The maximum output power obtained is 68 mW with a slope efficiency of 35% for an outcoupling transmission of 50%. A slope efficiency as high as 44% is realized when the coupling output ratio is 91% and a low lasing threshold of 70 mW is achieved with the output coupling mirror of 10%. (paper)

  17. Functionalization of Biomedical Ti6Al4V via In Situ Alloying by Cu during Laser Powder Bed Fusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakhmalev, Pavel; Yadroitsev, Igor; Yadroitsava, Ina; de Smidt, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The modern medical industry successfully utilizes Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) to manufacture complex custom implants. Ti6Al4V is one of the most commonly used biocompatible alloys. In surgery practice, infection at the bone–implant interface is one of the key reasons for implant failure. Therefore, advanced implants with biocompatibility and antibacterial properties are required. Modification of Ti alloy with Cu, which in small concentrations is a proven non-toxic antibacterial agent, is an attractive way to manufacture implants with embedded antibacterial functionality. The possibility of achieving alloying in situ, during manufacturing, is a unique option of the LPBF technology. It provides unique opportunities to manufacture customized implant shapes and design new alloys. Nevertheless, optimal process parameters need to be established for the in situ alloyed materials to form dense parts with required mechanical properties. This research is dedicated to an investigation of Ti6Al4V (ELI)-1 at % Cu material, manufactured by LPBF from a mixture of Ti6Al4V (ELI) and pure Cu powders. The effect of process parameters on surface roughness, chemical composition and distribution of Cu was investigated. Chemical homogeneity was discussed in relation to differences in the viscosity and density of molten Cu and Ti6Al4V. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of as-built 3D samples were analyzed and discussed. Pilot antibacterial functionalization testing of Ti6Al4V (ELI) in situ alloyed with 1 at % Cu showed promising results and notable reduction in the growth of pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:28972546

  18. Functionalization of Biomedical Ti6Al4V via In Situ Alloying by Cu during Laser Powder Bed Fusion Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Krakhmalev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern medical industry successfully utilizes Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF to manufacture complex custom implants. Ti6Al4V is one of the most commonly used biocompatible alloys. In surgery practice, infection at the bone–implant interface is one of the key reasons for implant failure. Therefore, advanced implants with biocompatibility and antibacterial properties are required. Modification of Ti alloy with Cu, which in small concentrations is a proven non-toxic antibacterial agent, is an attractive way to manufacture implants with embedded antibacterial functionality. The possibility of achieving alloying in situ, during manufacturing, is a unique option of the LPBF technology. It provides unique opportunities to manufacture customized implant shapes and design new alloys. Nevertheless, optimal process parameters need to be established for the in situ alloyed materials to form dense parts with required mechanical properties. This research is dedicated to an investigation of Ti6Al4V (ELI-1 at % Cu material, manufactured by LPBF from a mixture of Ti6Al4V (ELI and pure Cu powders. The effect of process parameters on surface roughness, chemical composition and distribution of Cu was investigated. Chemical homogeneity was discussed in relation to differences in the viscosity and density of molten Cu and Ti6Al4V. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of as-built 3D samples were analyzed and discussed. Pilot antibacterial functionalization testing of Ti6Al4V (ELI in situ alloyed with 1 at % Cu showed promising results and notable reduction in the growth of pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  19. Direct multielement trace analyses of silicon carbide powders by spark ablation simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiera, Arne F.; Schmidt-Lehr, Sebastian; Song, Ming; Bings, Nicolas H.; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2008-01-01

    A procedure for the direct analysis of silicon carbide powders (SiC) by simultaneous detection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using a Spectro-CIROS TM spectrometer (CCD-ICP-OES) and a novel spark ablation system Spectro-SASSy (SA) as sample introduction technique is described. The sample preparation procedure for SA of non-conducting material is based on mixing the sample powders with a conducting matrix, in this case copper and briquetting pellets. Pressing time, pressure and mixing ratio are shown to be important parameters of the pelleting technique with respect to their mechanical stability for the reliability of the analysis results. A mixing ratio of 0.2 g +0.6 g for SiC and Cu, a pressure of 10 t cm -2 and a pressing time of 8 min have been found optimum. It has also been shown that the spark parameters selected are crucial for uniform volatilization. Electron probe micrographs of the burning spots and the analytical signal magnitude showed that a rather hard spark at 100 Hz was optimum. The determination of trace elements in silicon carbide powders is demonstrated using a calibration based on the addition of standard solutions. For Al, Ti, V, Mn and Fe detection limits in the lower μg g -1 range can be achieved. Internal standardization with Y in combination with the addition of standard solutions allows relative standard deviations in the range of 4 to 24% for concentration levels of the order of 3 to 350 μg g -1

  20. Direct multielement trace analyses of silicon carbide powders by spark ablation simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiera, Arne F.; Schmidt-Lehr, Sebastian; Song, Ming [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Bings, Nicolas H. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: bings@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Broekaert, Jose A.C. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    A procedure for the direct analysis of silicon carbide powders (SiC) by simultaneous detection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using a Spectro-CIROS{sup TM} spectrometer (CCD-ICP-OES) and a novel spark ablation system Spectro-SASSy (SA) as sample introduction technique is described. The sample preparation procedure for SA of non-conducting material is based on mixing the sample powders with a conducting matrix, in this case copper and briquetting pellets. Pressing time, pressure and mixing ratio are shown to be important parameters of the pelleting technique with respect to their mechanical stability for the reliability of the analysis results. A mixing ratio of 0.2 g +0.6 g for SiC and Cu, a pressure of 10 t cm{sup -2} and a pressing time of 8 min have been found optimum. It has also been shown that the spark parameters selected are crucial for uniform volatilization. Electron probe micrographs of the burning spots and the analytical signal magnitude showed that a rather hard spark at 100 Hz was optimum. The determination of trace elements in silicon carbide powders is demonstrated using a calibration based on the addition of standard solutions. For Al, Ti, V, Mn and Fe detection limits in the lower {mu}g g{sup -1} range can be achieved. Internal standardization with Y in combination with the addition of standard solutions allows relative standard deviations in the range of 4 to 24% for concentration levels of the order of 3 to 350 {mu}g g{sup -1}.

  1. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.benayas@emt.inrs.ca [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-14

    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  2. In situ formation of titanium carbide using titanium and carbon-nanotube powders by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savalani, M.M.; Ng, C.C.; Li, Q.H.; Man, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium metal matrix composite coatings are considered to be important candidates for high wear resistance applications. In this study, TiC reinforced Ti matrix composite layers were fabricated by laser cladding with 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% carbon-nanotube. The effects of the carbon-nanotube content on phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coating were studied. Microstructural observation using scanning electron microscopy showed that the coatings consisted of a matrix of alpha-titanium phases and the reinforcement phase of titanium carbide in the form of fine dendrites, indicating that titanium carbide was synthesized by the in situ reaction during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of carbon-nanotube in the starting precursor materials and were enhanced by increasing the carbon-nanotube content. Results indicated that the composite layers exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance.

  3. In situ formation of titanium carbide using titanium and carbon-nanotube powders by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savalani, M.M., E-mail: mmfsmm@inet.polyu.edu.hk [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Ng, C.C.; Li, Q.H.; Man, H.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2012-01-15

    Titanium metal matrix composite coatings are considered to be important candidates for high wear resistance applications. In this study, TiC reinforced Ti matrix composite layers were fabricated by laser cladding with 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% carbon-nanotube. The effects of the carbon-nanotube content on phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coating were studied. Microstructural observation using scanning electron microscopy showed that the coatings consisted of a matrix of alpha-titanium phases and the reinforcement phase of titanium carbide in the form of fine dendrites, indicating that titanium carbide was synthesized by the in situ reaction during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of carbon-nanotube in the starting precursor materials and were enhanced by increasing the carbon-nanotube content. Results indicated that the composite layers exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance.

  4. Direct determination of trace elements in boron nitride powders by slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberger, Martin A.; Hoeltig, Michael; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SlS-TXRF) for the direct determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ti in four boron nitride powders has been described. Measurements of the zeta potential showed that slurries with good stabilities can be obtained by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) at a concentration of 0.1 wt.% and by adjusting the pH at 4. For the optimization of the concentration of boron nitride in the slurries the net line intensities and the signal to background ratios were determined for the trace elements Ca and Ti as well as for the internal standard element Ga in the case of concentrations of boron nitride ranging from 1 to 30 mg mL -1 . As a compromise with respect to high net line intensities and high signal to background ratios, concentrations of 5 mg mL -1 of boron nitride were found suitable and were used for all further measurements. The limits of detection of SlS-TXRF for the boron nitride powders were found to range from 0.062 to 1.6 μg g -1 for Cu and Ca, respectively. Herewith, they are higher than those obtained in solid sampling and slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SoS-GFAAS, SlS-GFAAS) as well as those of solid sampling electrothermal evaporation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SoS-ETV-ICP-OES). For Ca and Fe as well as for Cu and Fe, however, they were found to be lower than for GFAAS and for ICP-OES subsequent to wet chemical digestion, respectively. The universal applicability of SlS-TXRF to the analysis of samples with a wide variety of matrices could be demonstrated by the analysis of certified reference materials such as SiC, Al 2 O 3 , powdered bovine liver and borate ore with a single calibration. The correlation coefficients of the plots for the values found for Ca, Fe and Ti by SlS-TXRF in the boron nitride powders as well as in the before mentioned samples versus the reference values for the respective samples over a

  5. Direct determination of trace elements in boron nitride powders by slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amberger, Martin A.; Hoeltig, Michael [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, Jose A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.d [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The use of slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SlS-TXRF) for the direct determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ti in four boron nitride powders has been described. Measurements of the zeta potential showed that slurries with good stabilities can be obtained by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) at a concentration of 0.1 wt.% and by adjusting the pH at 4. For the optimization of the concentration of boron nitride in the slurries the net line intensities and the signal to background ratios were determined for the trace elements Ca and Ti as well as for the internal standard element Ga in the case of concentrations of boron nitride ranging from 1 to 30 mg mL{sup -1}. As a compromise with respect to high net line intensities and high signal to background ratios, concentrations of 5 mg mL{sup -1} of boron nitride were found suitable and were used for all further measurements. The limits of detection of SlS-TXRF for the boron nitride powders were found to range from 0.062 to 1.6 mug g{sup -1} for Cu and Ca, respectively. Herewith, they are higher than those obtained in solid sampling and slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SoS-GFAAS, SlS-GFAAS) as well as those of solid sampling electrothermal evaporation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SoS-ETV-ICP-OES). For Ca and Fe as well as for Cu and Fe, however, they were found to be lower than for GFAAS and for ICP-OES subsequent to wet chemical digestion, respectively. The universal applicability of SlS-TXRF to the analysis of samples with a wide variety of matrices could be demonstrated by the analysis of certified reference materials such as SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, powdered bovine liver and borate ore with a single calibration. The correlation coefficients of the plots for the values found for Ca, Fe and Ti by SlS-TXRF in the boron nitride powders as well as in the before mentioned samples versus the reference values for the respective

  6. The development of lasers at the CEA Military Applications Direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the development of lasers and their application at the CEA to the study of plasma inertial confinement in the framework of military applications, is presented. The first solid laser was a ruby laser, and has been used for studying laser-matter interaction, which led to a better knowledge of fusion plasmas. Advancements were achieved with a new lasing medium (neodymium doped glass), the control of pulse duration and shape, parallel setting of several laser chains (OCTAL), the use of glass disks instead of bars (PHEBUS laser)... In the late 70's, power lasers reached the power needed to experiment D-T implosions and give the way to future simulations of the plasma conditions encountered in thermonuclear explosions

  7. Developments of integrated laser crystals by a direct bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Katsumata, Masaki; Tanaka, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Yukikatu

    2003-01-01

    Laser crystal integration using a neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (or orthovanadate) laser crystal, and non-doped yttrium vanadate crystals that function as cold fingers has been demonstrated. A newly developed dry etching process was adopted in the preparation for contact of mechanically polished surfaces. In the heat treatment process, temperature optimization was essential to get rid of precipitation of vanadic acid caused by the thermo-chemical reaction in a vacuum furnace. The bonded crystal was studied via optical characteristics, magnified inspections, laser output performances pumped by a CW laser diode. From these experiments, it was clear that the integrated Nd:YVO 4 laser crystal, securing the well-improved thermal conductivity, can increase laser output power nearly twice that of the conventional single crystal which was cracked in high power laser pumping of 10 W due to its intrinsic poor thermal conductivity. (author)

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Heat-Treated AlSi10Mg Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cabrini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work is aimed at studying the effect of microstructural modifications induced by post-processing heat treatments on the corrosion behavior of silicon-aluminum alloys produced by means of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF. The manufacturing technique leads to microstructures characterized by the presence of melt pools, which are quite different compared to casting alloys. In this study, the behavior of an AlSi10Mg alloy was evaluated by means of intergranular corrosion tests according to ISO 11846 standard on heat-treated samples ranging from 200 to 500 °C as well as on untreated samples. We found that temperatures above 200 °C reduced microhardness of the alloy, and different corrosion morphologies occurred due to the modification of both size and distribution of silicon precipitates. Selective penetrating attacks occurred at melt pool borders. The intergranular corrosion phenomena were less intense for as-produced specimens without heat treatments compared to the heat-treated specimens at 200 and 300 °C. General corrosion morphologies were noticed for specimens heat treated at temperatures exceeding 400 °C.

  9. Elucidating the Relations Between Monotonic and Fatigue Properties of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Stainless Steel 316L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Chen-Nan; Zhang, Xiang; Goh, Phoi Chin; Wei, Jun; Li, Hua; Hardacre, David

    2018-03-01

    The laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) technique builds parts with higher static strength than the conventional manufacturing processes through the formation of ultrafine grains. However, its fatigue endurance strength σ f does not match the increased monotonic tensile strength σ b. This work examines the monotonic and fatigue properties of as-built and heat-treated L-PBF stainless steel 316L. It was found that the general linear relation σ f = mσ b for describing conventional ferrous materials is not applicable to L-PBF parts because of the influence of porosity. Instead, the ductility parameter correlated linearly with fatigue strength and was proposed as the new fatigue assessment criterion for porous L-PBF parts. Annealed parts conformed to the strength-ductility trade-off. Fatigue resistance was reduced at short lives, but the effect was partially offset by the higher ductility such that comparing with an as-built part of equivalent monotonic strength, the heat-treated parts were more fatigue resistant.

  10. Structure and mechanical properties of parts obtained by selective laser melting of metal powder based on intermetallic compounds Ni3Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, V. G.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Nosova, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of samples are obtained from metal powder based on intermetallic compound by selective laser melting. The chemical analysis of the raw material and static tensile test of specimens were made. Change in the samples’ structure and mechanical properties after homogenization during four and twenty-four hours were investigated. A small-sized combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine was performed by the selective laser melting method. The print combustion chamber was subjected to the gas-dynamic test in a certain temperature and time range.

  11. Direct Metal Laser Sintering Titanium Dental Implants: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, F.; Chambrone, L.; van Noort, R.; Miller, C.; Hatton, P.; Mangano, C.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technology that allows fabrication of complex-shaped objects from powder-based materials, according to a three-dimensional (3D) computer model. With DMLS, it is possible to fabricate titanium dental implants with an inherently porous surface, a key property required of implantation devices. Objective. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the reliability of DMLS titanium dental implants and their clinical and histologic/histomorphometric outcomes, as well as their mechanical properties. Materials and Methods. Electronic database searches were performed. Inclusion criteria were clinical and radiographic studies, histologic/histomorphometric studies in humans and animals, mechanical evaluations, and in vitro cell culture studies on DMLS titanium implants. Meta-analysis could be performed only for randomized controlled trials (RCTs); to evaluate the methodological quality of observational human studies, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used. Results. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. No RCTs were found, and meta-analysis could not be performed. The outcomes of observational human studies were assessed using the NOS: these studies showed medium methodological quality. Conclusions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential for the use of DMLS titanium implants. However, further studies that demonstrate the benefits of DMLS implants over conventional implants are needed. PMID:25525434

  12. Direct metal laser sintering titanium dental implants: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, F; Chambrone, L; van Noort, R; Miller, C; Hatton, P; Mangano, C

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technology that allows fabrication of complex-shaped objects from powder-based materials, according to a three-dimensional (3D) computer model. With DMLS, it is possible to fabricate titanium dental implants with an inherently porous surface, a key property required of implantation devices. Objective. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the reliability of DMLS titanium dental implants and their clinical and histologic/histomorphometric outcomes, as well as their mechanical properties. Materials and Methods. Electronic database searches were performed. Inclusion criteria were clinical and radiographic studies, histologic/histomorphometric studies in humans and animals, mechanical evaluations, and in vitro cell culture studies on DMLS titanium implants. Meta-analysis could be performed only for randomized controlled trials (RCTs); to evaluate the methodological quality of observational human studies, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used. Results. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. No RCTs were found, and meta-analysis could not be performed. The outcomes of observational human studies were assessed using the NOS: these studies showed medium methodological quality. Conclusions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential for the use of DMLS titanium implants. However, further studies that demonstrate the benefits of DMLS implants over conventional implants are needed.

  13. Direct Metal Laser Sintering Titanium Dental Implants: A Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mangano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a technology that allows fabrication of complex-shaped objects from powder-based materials, according to a three-dimensional (3D computer model. With DMLS, it is possible to fabricate titanium dental implants with an inherently porous surface, a key property required of implantation devices. Objective. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the reliability of DMLS titanium dental implants and their clinical and histologic/histomorphometric outcomes, as well as their mechanical properties. Materials and Methods. Electronic database searches were performed. Inclusion criteria were clinical and radiographic studies, histologic/histomorphometric studies in humans and animals, mechanical evaluations, and in vitro cell culture studies on DMLS titanium implants. Meta-analysis could be performed only for randomized controlled trials (RCTs; to evaluate the methodological quality of observational human studies, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS was used. Results. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. No RCTs were found, and meta-analysis could not be performed. The outcomes of observational human studies were assessed using the NOS: these studies showed medium methodological quality. Conclusions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential for the use of DMLS titanium implants. However, further studies that demonstrate the benefits of DMLS implants over conventional implants are needed.

  14. Evidence for the direct ejection of clusters from non-metallic solids during laser vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, L.A.; Yang, Y.A.; Xia, P.; Junkin, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the formation of molecular scale particles or clusters of alkali halides and semiconductors during laser vaporization of solids. By measuring the abundances of cluster ions produced in several different source configurations, the authors have determined that clusters are ejected directly from the source sample and do not need to grow from atomic or molecular vapor. Using samples of mixed alkali halide powders, the authors have found that unalloyed clusters are easily produced in a source that prevents growth from occurring after the clusters leave the sample surface. However, melting the sample or encouraging growth after vaporization lead to the production of alloyed cluster species. The sizes of the ejected clusters are initially random, but the population spectrum quickly becomes structured as hot, unstable-sized clusters decay into smaller particles. In carbon, large clusters with odd number of atoms decay almost immediately. The hot even clusters also decay, but much more slowly. The longest lived clusters are the magic C 50 and C 60 fullerenes. The mass spectrum of large carbon clusters evolves in time from structureless, to only the even clusters, to primarily C 50 and C 60 . If cluster growth is encouraged, the odd clusters reappear and the population spectrum again becomes relatively structureless

  15. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang; Lee, Daeho; Sherry, Alexander; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2011-01-01

    direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical

  16. Direct laser writing of auxetic structures: present capabilities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengsbach, Stefan; Lantada, Andrés Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and that display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several micromanufacturing technologies have already been applied to the development of auxetic geometries and devices, additional precision is needed to take full advantage of their special mechanical properties. In this study we present a very promising approach for the development of auxetic metamaterials and devices based on the use of direct laser writing. The process stands out for its precision and complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries attainable without the need of supporting structures. To our knowledge it represents one of the first examples of the application of this technology to the manufacture of auxetic geometries and mechanical metamaterials, with details even more remarkable than those shown in very recent studies, almost reaching the current limit of this additive manufacturing technology. We have used some special 3D auxetic designs whose remarkable NPR has been previously highlighted. (paper)

  17. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of TC2 Ti alloy by laser cladding with Ti/TiC/TiB_2 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Yunhua; Zhang, Kemin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A TiC/TiB_2 composite coating was produced onto a TC2 Ti alloy by laser cladding with Ti/TiC/TiB_2 powders. • A maximum hardness of 1100 HV was achieved in the laser clad TiC/TiB_2 composite layer. • Corrosion resistance of the TC2 alloy in NaCl (3.5 wt%) aqueous solution can be improved after laser cladding. - Abstract: In the present work, a TiC/TiB_2 composite coating was produced onto a TC2 Ti alloy by laser cladding with Ti/TiC/TiB_2 powders. The surface microstructure, phase components and compositions were characterized with methods of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The cladding layer is consisted of Ti, TiC and TiB_2. And the surface microhardness was measured. After laser cladding, a maximum hardness of 1100 HV is achieved in the laser cladding surface layer, which is more three times higher than that of the TC2 substrate (∼300 HV). Due to the formation of TiC and TiB_2 intermetallic compounds in the alloyed region and grain refinement, the microhardness of coating is higher than TC2 Ti alloy. In this paper, the corrosion property of matrix material and treated samples were both measured in NaCl (3.5 wt%) aqueous solution. From the result we can see that the laser cladding specimens’ corrosion property is clearly becoming better than that of the substrate.

  18. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of TC2 Ti alloy by laser cladding with Ti/TiC/TiB{sub 2} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Yunhua, E-mail: 990722012@qq.com; Zhang, Kemin, E-mail: zhangkm@sues.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A TiC/TiB{sub 2} composite coating was produced onto a TC2 Ti alloy by laser cladding with Ti/TiC/TiB{sub 2} powders. • A maximum hardness of 1100 HV was achieved in the laser clad TiC/TiB{sub 2} composite layer. • Corrosion resistance of the TC2 alloy in NaCl (3.5 wt%) aqueous solution can be improved after laser cladding. - Abstract: In the present work, a TiC/TiB{sub 2} composite coating was produced onto a TC2 Ti alloy by laser cladding with Ti/TiC/TiB{sub 2} powders. The surface microstructure, phase components and compositions were characterized with methods of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The cladding layer is consisted of Ti, TiC and TiB{sub 2}. And the surface microhardness was measured. After laser cladding, a maximum hardness of 1100 HV is achieved in the laser cladding surface layer, which is more three times higher than that of the TC2 substrate (∼300 HV). Due to the formation of TiC and TiB{sub 2} intermetallic compounds in the alloyed region and grain refinement, the microhardness of coating is higher than TC2 Ti alloy. In this paper, the corrosion property of matrix material and treated samples were both measured in NaCl (3.5 wt%) aqueous solution. From the result we can see that the laser cladding specimens’ corrosion property is clearly becoming better than that of the substrate.

  19. Solid-state structural properties of 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene derivatives, determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data in conjunction with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zhigang; Xu Mingcan; Cheung, Eugene Y.; Platts, James A.; Harris, Kenneth D.M.; Constable, Edwin C.; Housecroft, Catherine E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural properties of 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzyl alcohol and 2,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone have been determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data, using the direct-space Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique for structure solution followed by Rietveld refinement. Structural similarities and contrasts within this family of materials are elucidated. The work illustrates the value of utilizing information from other sources, including spectroscopic data and computational techniques, as a means of augmenting the structural knowledge established from the powder X-ray diffraction data

  20. Influence of pre-heating on the surface modification of powder-metallurgy processed cold-work tool steel during laser surface melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šturm, Roman, E-mail: roman.sturm@fs.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Štefanikova, Maria [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Steiner Petrovič, Darja [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat-treatment protocol for laser surface melting of cold-work tool steel is proposed. • The laser melted steel surface is hardened, and morphologically modified. • The pre-heating of substrate creates a crack-and pore-free steel surface. • The optimum pre-heating temperature is determined to be 350 °C. • Using pre-heating the quantity of retained austenite is reduced. - Abstract: In this study we determine the optimal parameters for surface modification using the laser surface melting of powder-metallurgy processed, vanadium-rich, cold-work tool steel. A combination of steel pre-heating, laser surface melting and a subsequent heat treatment creates a hardened and morphologically modified surface of the selected high-alloy tool steel. The pre-heating of the steel prior to the laser surface melting ensures a crack- and pore-free modified surface. Using a pre-heating temperature of 350 °C, the extremely fine microstructure, which typically evolves during the laser-melting, became slightly coarser and the volume fraction of retained austenite was reduced. In the laser-melted layer the highest values of microhardness were achieved in the specimens where a subsequent heat treatment at 550 °C was applied. The performed thermodynamic calculations were able to provide a very valuable assessment of the liquidus temperature and, especially, a prediction of the chemical composition as well as the precipitation and dissolution sequence for the carbides.

  1. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD for the selective laser melting (SLM process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g−1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

  2. Application of the laser pyrolysis to the synthesis of SiC, TiC and ZrC pre-ceramics nano-powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, Y.; Maskrot, H.; Combemale, L.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Reynaud, C.

    2007-01-01

    Refractory carbide nano-structured ceramics appear to be promising materials for high temperature applications requiring hard materials such as nuclear energy industry. Such carbide materials are usually obtained with micrometric sizes from the high temperature carbo-reduction of an oxide phase in a raw mixture of C black and titania or zirconia. TiC and ZrC nano-powders were produced from an intimate mixture of oxide nano-grains with free C synthesized by laser pyrolysis from the decomposition of a liquid precursor. The temperature and the duration of the thermal treatment leading to the carburization were decreased, allowing the preservation of the nano-scaled size of the starting grains. A solution of titanium iso-prop-oxide was laser-pyrolyzed with ethylene as sensitizer in order to synthesize Ti/C/O powders. These powders were composed of crystalline TiO 2 nano-grains mixed with C. Annealing under argon enabled the formation of TiC through the carburization of TiO 2 by free C. The final TiC mean grain size was about 80 nm. Zr/O/C powders were prepared from a solution of zirconium butoxide and were composed of ZrO 2 crystalline nano-grains and free C. The same thermal treatment as for TiC, but at higher temperature, showed the formation of crystalline ZrC with a final mean grain size of about 40 nm. These two liquid routes of nano-particles synthesis are also compared to the very efficient gaseous route of SiC nano-powders synthesis from a mixture of silane and acetylene. (authors)

  3. Selective Laser Sintering And Melting Of Pristine Titanium And Titanium Ti6Al4V Alloy Powders And Selection Of Chemical Environment For Etching Of Such Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigations described in this article is to present a selective laser sintering and melting technology to fabricate metallic scaffolds made of pristine titanium and titanium Ti6Al4V alloy powders. Titanium scaffolds with different properties and structure were manufactured with this technique using appropriate conditions, notably laser power and laser beam size. The purpose of such elements is to replace the missing pieces of bones, mainly cranial and facial bones in the implantation treatment process. All the samples for the investigations were designed in CAD/CAM (3D MARCARM ENGINEERING AutoFab (Software for Manufacturing Applications software suitably integrated with an SLS/SLM system. Cube-shaped test samples dimensioned 10×10×10 mm were designed for the investigations using a hexagon-shaped base cell. The so designed 3D models were transferred to the machine software and the actual rapid manufacturing process was commenced. The samples produced according to the laser sintering technology were subjected to chemical processing consisting of etching the scaffolds’ surface in different chemical mediums. Etching was carried out to remove the loosely bound powder from the surface of scaffolds, which might detach from their surface during implantation treatment and travel elsewhere in an organism. The scaffolds created were subjected to micro- and spectroscopic examinations

  4. Physical mechanisms of SiNx layer structuring with ultrafast lasers by direct and confined laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, S.; Heinrich, G.; Wollgarten, M.; Huber, H. P.; Schmidt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the production process of silicon microelectronic devices and high efficiency silicon solar cells, local contact openings in thin dielectric layers are required. Instead of photolithography, these openings can be selectively structured with ultra-short laser pulses by confined laser ablation in a fast and efficient lift off production step. Thereby, the ultrafast laser pulse is transmitted by the dielectric layer and absorbed at the substrate surface leading to a selective layer removal in the nanosecond time domain. Thermal damage in the substrate due to absorption is an unwanted side effect. The aim of this work is to obtain a deeper understanding of the physical laser-material interaction with the goal of finding a damage-free ablation mechanism. For this, thin silicon nitride (SiN x ) layers on planar silicon (Si) wafers are processed with infrared fs-laser pulses. Two ablation types can be distinguished: The known confined ablation at fluences below 300 mJ/cm 2 and a combined partial confined and partial direct ablation at higher fluences. The partial direct ablation process is caused by nonlinear absorption in the SiN x layer in the center of the applied Gaussian shaped laser pulses. Pump-probe investigations of the central area show ultra-fast reflectivity changes typical for direct laser ablation. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that the Si surface under the remaining SiN x island is not damaged by the laser ablation process. At optimized process parameters, the method of direct laser ablation could be a good candidate for damage-free selective structuring of dielectric layers on absorbing substrates

  5. Integration of Heat Treatment with Shot Peening of 17-4 Stainless Steel Fabricated by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMangour, Bandar; Yang, Jenn-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a promising powder-based additive manufacturing process for fabrication of near-net-shape parts. However, the typically poor fatigue performance of DMLS parts must be addressed for use in demanding industrial applications. Post-treatment can be applied to enhance the performance of such components. Earlier attempts at inducing grain refinement through severe plastic deformation of part surfaces using shot peening improved the physical and mechanical properties of metals without chemical alteration. However, heat treatment can modify the surface-hardening effects attained by shot peening. Hence, we examined the feasibility of applying shot peening combined with heat treatment to improve the performance of DMLS-fabricated 17-4 stainless steel parts through microstructural evolution studies and hardness measurements. Compared to a specimen treated only by shot peening, the sample exposed to additional heat treatment showed increased hardness due to aging of the dominant phase.

  6. Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique — Optimization of process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar, E-mail: subratagh82@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura 799055 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik; Saha, Partha [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminum based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the combination of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and direct metal laser sintering process. The different mixtures of Al, TiO{sub 2} and B{sub 4}C powders were used to initiate and maintain the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser during the sintering process. It was found from the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy that the reinforcements like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were formed in the composite. The scanning electron microscopy revealed the distribution of the reinforcement phases in the composite and phase identities. The variable parameters such as powder layer thickness, laser power, scanning speed, hatching distance and composition of the powder mixture were optimized for higher density, lower porosity and higher microhardness using Taguchi method. Experimental investigation shows that the density of the specimen mainly depends upon the hatching distance, composition and layer thickness. On the other hand, hatching distance, layer thickness and laser power are the significant parameters which influence the porosity. The composition, laser power and layer thickness are the key influencing parameters for microhardness. - Highlights: • The reinforcements such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were produced in Al-MMC through SHS. • The density is mainly influenced by the material composition and hatching distance. • Hatching distance is the major influencing parameter on porosity. • The material composition is the significant parameter to enhance the microhardness. • The SEM micrographs reveal the distribution of TiC, TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the composite.

  7. Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique — Optimization of process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik; Saha, Partha

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminum based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the combination of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and direct metal laser sintering process. The different mixtures of Al, TiO 2 and B 4 C powders were used to initiate and maintain the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser during the sintering process. It was found from the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy that the reinforcements like Al 2 O 3 , TiC, and TiB 2 were formed in the composite. The scanning electron microscopy revealed the distribution of the reinforcement phases in the composite and phase identities. The variable parameters such as powder layer thickness, laser power, scanning speed, hatching distance and composition of the powder mixture were optimized for higher density, lower porosity and higher microhardness using Taguchi method. Experimental investigation shows that the density of the specimen mainly depends upon the hatching distance, composition and layer thickness. On the other hand, hatching distance, layer thickness and laser power are the significant parameters which influence the porosity. The composition, laser power and layer thickness are the key influencing parameters for microhardness. - Highlights: • The reinforcements such as Al 2 O 3 , TiC, and TiB 2 were produced in Al-MMC through SHS. • The density is mainly influenced by the material composition and hatching distance. • Hatching distance is the major influencing parameter on porosity. • The material composition is the significant parameter to enhance the microhardness. • The SEM micrographs reveal the distribution of TiC, TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 in the composite

  8. Solid state lasers: a major direction in quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the report is to analyze development of solid-state lasers (SSL) as one of the most important avenues of the quantum electronics. The obtained intensity of a laser radiation at the focus equal to 5x10 1 0 W/cm 2 (the field intensity equal to about 5x10 1 0 V/cm 2 ) is noted to enable to observe nonlinear quantum- electrodynamic effects. Besides, one managed to increase the SSL efficiency conventionally equal to maximum 3% up to 48-50%. Paper describes new types of SSLs, namely, the crystalline fiber lasers with the lateral gradient of the index of refraction [ru

  9. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, Marketa; Otruba, Vitezslav; Kanicky, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm 3 ) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between ± 3% and ± 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed. The

  10. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Otruba, Vitezslav [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz

    2006-05-15

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm{sup 3}) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between {+-} 3% and {+-} 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed

  11. Periodic patterning of silicon by direct nanosecond laser interference ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, T.; Pérez, N.; Rodríguez, A.; Yurrita, P.; Olaizola, S.M.; Castaño, E.

    2011-01-01

    The production of periodic structures in silicon wafers by four-beam is presented. Because laser interference ablation is a single-step and cost-effective process, there is a great technological interest in the fabrication of these structures for their use as antireflection surfaces. Three different laser fluences are used to modify the silicon surface (0.8 J cm -2 , 1.3 J cm -2 , 2.0 J cm -2 ) creating bumps in the rim of the irradiated area. Laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), in particular micro and nano-ripples, are also observed. Measurements of the reflectivity show a decrease in the reflectance for the samples processed with a laser fluence of 2.0 J cm -2 , probably caused by the appearance of the nano-ripples in the structured area, while bumps start to deteriorate.

  12. Direct writing of sub-wavelength ripples on silicon using femtosecond laser at high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Changxin; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Kaijun; Zhu, Min; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NSRs and DSRs are obtained on silicon surface. • With increasing direct writing speed, the NSRs suddenly changes and becomes the DSRs. • We develop a Sipe–Drude interference theory by considering the thermal excitation. - Abstract: The near sub-wavelength and deep sub-wavelength ripples on monocrystalline silicon were formed in air by using linearly polarized and high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses (f = 76 MHz, λ = 800 nm, τ = 50 fs). The effects of laser pulse energy, direct writing speed and laser polarization on silicon surface morphology are studied. When the laser pulse energy is 2 nJ/pulse and the direct writing speed varies from 10 to 25 mm/s, the near sub-wavelength ripples (NSRs) with orientation perpendicular to the laser polarization are generated. While the direct writing speed reaches 30 mm/s, the direction of the obtained deep sub-wavelength ripples (DSRs) suddenly changes and becomes parallel to the laser polarization, rarely reported so far for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon. Meanwhile, we extend the Sipe–Drude interference theory by considering the thermal excitation, and numerically calculate the efficacy factor for silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The revised Sipe–Drude interference theoretical results show good agreement with the periods and orientations of sub-wavelength ripples.

  13. Direct Emissivity Measurements of Painted Metals for Improved Temperature Estimation During Laser Damage Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    policy or position of the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government . This material is declared a work of the...U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-14-M-43 DIRECT EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF PAINTED METALS FOR...Source The laser probe in use for this test is a Daylight Solutions Unicorn II quantum cascade laser operating at 3.77 µm. According to the laser

  14. Exotic behavior of molecules in intense laser light fields. New research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru [Tokyo Univ., Department of Chemistry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    The recent investigation of the dynamical behavior of molecules and clusters in intense laser fields has afforded us invaluable opportunities to understand fundamentals of the interaction between molecular species and light fields as well as to manipulate molecules and their dynamical pathways by taking advantage of characteristics of coherent ultrashort laser light fields. In the present report, new directions of this rapidly growing interdisciplinary research fields called molecular science in intense laser fields are discussed by referring to our recent studies. (author)

  15. Pengaruh One Direction Pre-Tension pada Reinforcement Fibre terhadap Kekuatan Tarik dan Impact Fibre-Powder Reinforcement Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilang Gumilar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, industrial manufacturing needs environmentally and friendly material and has special properties which are difficult to obtain from the metal material. Composite is one of the alternative materials that can be used to meet those needs. A structural composite material consisting of a combination of two or more elements bonded material at the macroscopic level. This study was conducted to determine the effect of pre-tension one direction on a hybrid composite reinforcement against tensile strength and impact strength. Composite materials prepared by C-Glass fiber types woven rovings, coconut shell powder and vinyl ester resin. manufacturing composite using hand lay-up methods. The variation of the tension given 0N, 50N, 100N, 150N, and 200N. A tensile test based on the reference standard ASTM D 3039 while testing the impact based on ASTM D 6110-04. The results were obtained giving tension to the hybrid composite reinforcement increases tensile strength and impact strength of the material. The lowest tensile strength of the composite obtained in 0N treatment (without treatment ranged 71,58N / mm², and the greatest tensile strength is obtained in the pre-tension 200N, ranging from 106.05 N / mm2. As for the lowest impact on specimens obtained without treatment ranges 1,34J / mm2 and provision of pre-tension 200N biggest impact strength values obtained, ranging 15,09J / mm2.

  16. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Functionalized ormosil scaffolds processed by direct laser polymerization for application in tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, A.; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    Synthesized N,N′-(methacryloyloxyethyl triehtoxy silyl propyl carbamoyl-oxyhexyl)-urea hybrid methacrylate was polymerized by direct laser polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses with the aim of using it for subsequent applications in tissue engineering. The as-obtained scaffolds were...

  18. Intra-cavity decomposition of a dual-directional laser beam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of decomposing a dual-directional laser beam into a forward propagating field and a backward propagating field for an apertured plano-concave cavity is presented. An intra-cavity aperture is a simple method of laser beam shaping as higher...

  19. The development of heterogeneous materials based on Ni and B4C powders using a cold spray and stratified selective laser melting technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. A.; Fomin, V. M.; Buzyurkin, A. E.; Kosarev, V. F.; Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.; Ryashin, N. S.

    2018-01-01

    The work is dedicated to the creation of new ceramic-composite materials based on boron carbide, nickel and using a laser welding in order to obtain three dimensional objects henceforth. The perspective way of obtaining which has been suggested by the authors combined two methods: cold spray technology and subsequent laser post-treatment. At this stage, the authors focused on the interaction of the laser with the substance, regardless of the multi-layer object development. The investigated material of this work was the metal-ceramic mixture based on boron carbide, which has high physical and mechanical characteristics, such as hardness, elastic modulus, and chemical resistance. The nickel powder as a binder and different types of boron carbide were used. The ceramic content varied from 30 to 70% by mass. Thin ceramic layers were obtained by the combined method and cross-sections of different seams were studied. It was shown that the most perspective layers for additive manufacturing could be obtained from cold spray coatings with ceramic concentrations more than 50% by weight treated when laser beam was defocused (thermal-conductive laser mode).

  20. MICROSTRUCTURE AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE COATINGS PRODUCED BY LASER CLADDING OF Ti-6Al-4V WITH GRAPHITE AND SILICON MIXED POWDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. TIAN; C. Z. CHEN; D. Y. WANG; Q. H. HUO; T. Q. LEI

    2005-01-01

    Composite coatings are fabricated by laser cladding of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V with graphite and silicon mixed powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) indicate that the coatings mainly consist of pre-eutectic TiC and eutectic Ti5Si3 compounds. Test results show that the coatings exhibit a higher microhardness and a lower friction coefficient compared with the as-received sample. EPMA micrographs show that the compounds' morphology in the top zone of the coat...

  1. Effect of heat treatment and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitcberg, Alena, E-mail: alena.kreitcberg.1@ens.etsmtl.ca [École de technologie supérieure, 110 Notre-Dame Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 Canada (Canada); Brailovski, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.brailovski@etsmtl.ca [École de technologie supérieure, 110 Notre-Dame Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 Canada (Canada); Turenne, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.turenne@polymtl.ca [École Polytechnique de Montréal, 2900 boul. Édouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 Canada (Canada)

    2017-03-24

    The effect of different heat treatments and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion IN625 alloy was studied. The heat treatments were: stress relief annealing, recrystallization annealing and low-temperature solution treatment. The resulting microstructure and crystallographic textures were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the as-built and post-treated IN625 alloy were obtained after tensile testing at room temperature and at 760 °C (1400 °F), and compared to those of an annealed wrought alloy of the same composition.

  2. Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysonnave, J; Maussang, K; Freeman, J R; Jukam, N; Madéo, J; Cavalié, P; Rungsawang, R; Khanna, S P; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Dhillon, S S; Tignon, J

    2012-09-10

    A novel scheme to achieve mode-locking of a multimode laser is demonstrated. Traditional methods to produce ultrashort laser pulses are based on modulating the cavity gain or losses at the cavity roundtrip frequency, favoring the pulsed emission. Here, we rather directly act on the phases of the modes, resulting in constructive interference for the appropriated phase relationship. This was performed on a terahertz quantum cascade laser by multimode injection seeding with an external terahertz pulse, resulting in phase mode-locked terahertz laser pulses of 9 ps duration, characterized unambiguously in the time domain.

  3. Direct Patterning of Oxides by Pulsed Laser Stencil Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Riele, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a detailed study of the application of stencil technology in the patterning of epitaxial oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Stencil patterning has been applied in thin film sub-micron patterning of metals successfully for decades since it has several advantages

  4. Analysis of the laser oxidation kinetics process of In-In(2)O(3) MTMO photomasks by laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Meng; Liu, Qian; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-11-02

    One kind of novel grayscale photomask based on Metal-transparent-metallic-oxides (MTMOs) system fabricated by laser direct writing was demonstrated recently. Here, a multilayer oxidation model of In-In(2)O(3) film with a glass substrate was proposed to study the pulsed laser-induced oxidation mechanism. The distribution of the electromagnetic field in the film is calculated by the transfer matrix method. Temperature fields of the model are simulated based on the heat transfer equations with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The oxidation kinetics process is studied based on the laser-induced Cabrera-Mott theory. The simulated oxidation processes are consistent with the experimental results, which mean that our laser-induced oxidation model can successfully interpret the fabrication mechanism of MTMO grayscale photomasks.

  5. Direct measurement of burn up monitor by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) followed by Isotopic Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajimol, R.; Manoravi, P.; NaIini, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Joseph, M.

    2012-01-01

    Burn-up measurement is an important aspect in the assessment of fuel performance especially for experimental nuclear fuels. Conventional mass spectrometric technique offer the best accuracy for determination of burn-up but they suffer from the labour intensive and time consuming chemical separation procedures followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Our laboratory has reported a potential laser mass spectrometric technique with advantages of (i) direct and fast measurement of ion intensities of selected rare earth element and residual heavy element atoms to deduce burn up and (ii) adaptability to remote handling of radioactive samples. Direct quantification of burn up monitor element in fuel in the form of pellet as well as liquid was probed by pulsed laser deposition followed by Isotopic Dilution Mass Spectrometric technique (IDMS). The procedure involving laser ablation of heavy element (namely U and Pu) and fission product (Nd, La etc) from a simulated spent fuel matrix followed by isotopic dilution mass spectrometry using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has been presently attempted to arrive at the rare earth element to heavy element ratio to deduce burn up using the methodology described in our earlier work. The details of IDMS technique has been reviewed by Heumann et al. Accurately weighed amounts of major rare earth fission products such as Nd, La, Ce and Sm in solution form were mixed with known quantity of uranium solution (all the weights are corresponding to their fission yields and the residual heavy element atoms after a given burn up) and mixed together to attain uniformity. The solution is then dried and resulting powder was pelletized and sintered. Subsequently, the pellet was ablated with pulsed laser (8 ns, 532 nm, Nd-YAG) and the plume was deposited on a glass plate. This deposit was dissolved in minimum amount of nitric acid. A known volume of the solution was mixed with spike (for e.g., 150 Nd/ 142 Nd, 233 U/ 238 U in this study

  6. Determination of the direction of motion on the basis of CW-homodyne laser Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Eugen; Werner, Christian

    1989-03-01

    Four methods for measuring the direction of a moving object using homodyne laser Doppler techniques are reviewed. The dynamic ranges of the signals for two methods that make use of the transmitter laser resonator characteristics or gain cell characteristics are shown to be limited. The resonance effects observed using a rotating wheel as an auxiliary target are discussed. The method employing eccentric scanner movement bidirectional scanning provides information concerning the direction of the velocity component to be measured.

  7. Mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade laser by direct phase synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maussang, K.; Maysonnave, J.; Jukam, N.; Freeman, J. R.; Cavalié, P.; Dhillon, S. S.; Tignon, J.; Khanna, S. P.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Mode-locking of a terahertz quantum cascade laser is achieved using multimode injection seeding. Contrary to standard methods that rely on gain modulation, here a fixed phase relationship is directly imprinted to the laser modes. In this work, we demonstrate the generation of 9 ps phase mode-locked pulses around 2.75 THz. A direct measurement of the emitted field phase shows that it results from the phase of the initial injection

  8. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  9. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  10. Calibration-free absolute frequency response measurement of directly modulated lasers based on additional modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Liu, Yong

    2015-10-15

    A calibration-free electrical method is proposed for measuring the absolute frequency response of directly modulated semiconductor lasers based on additional modulation. The method achieves the electrical domain measurement of the modulation index of directly modulated lasers without the need for correcting the responsivity fluctuation in the photodetection. Moreover, it doubles measuring frequency range by setting a specific frequency relationship between the direct and additional modulation. Both the absolute and relative frequency response of semiconductor lasers are experimentally measured from the electrical spectrum of the twice-modulated optical signal, and the measured results are compared to those obtained with conventional methods to check the consistency. The proposed method provides calibration-free and accurate measurement for high-speed semiconductor lasers with high-resolution electrical spectrum analysis.

  11. Laser deposition and direct-writing of thermoelectric misfit cobaltite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jikun; Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Li, Yulong; Chen, Lidong; Shi, Xun; Döbeli, Max; Stender, Dieter; Populoh, Sascha; Xie, Wenjie; Weidenkaff, Anke; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    A two-step process combining pulsed laser deposition of calcium cobaltite thin films and a subsequent laser induced forward transfer as micro-pixel is demonstrated as a direct writing approach of micro-scale thin film structures for potential applications in thermoelectric micro-devices. To achieve the desired thermo-electric properties of the cobaltite thin film, the laser induced plasma properties have been characterized utilizing plasma mass spectrometry establishing a direct correlation to the corresponding film composition and structure. The introduction of a platinum sacrificial layer when growing the oxide thin film enables a damage-free laser transfer of calcium cobaltite thereby preserving the film composition and crystallinity as well as the shape integrity of the as-transferred pixels. The demonstrated direct writing approach simplifies the fabrication of micro-devices and provides a large degree of flexibility in designing and fabricating fully functional thermoelectric micro-devices.

  12. In situ elaboration of a binary Ti-26Nb alloy by selective laser melting of elemental titanium and niobium mixed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Joguet, D; Robin, G; Peltier, L; Laheurte, P

    2016-05-01

    Ti-Nb alloys are excellent candidates for biomedical applications such as implantology and joint replacement because of their very low elastic modulus, their excellent biocompatibility and their high strength. A low elastic modulus, close to that of the cortical bone minimizes the stress shielding effect that appears subsequent to the insertion of an implant. The objective of this study is to investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties of a Ti-Nb alloy elaborated by selective laser melting on powder bed of a mixture of Ti and Nb elemental powders (26 at.%). The influence of operating parameters on porosity of manufactured samples and on efficacy of dissolving Nb particles in Ti was studied. The results obtained by optical microscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray microtomography show that the laser energy has a significant effect on the compactness and homogeneity of the manufactured parts. Homogeneous and compact samples were obtained for high energy levels. Microstructure of these samples has been further characterized. Their mechanical properties were assessed by ultrasonic measures and the Young's modulus found is close to that of classically elaborated Ti-26 Nbingot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laser direct marking applied to rasterizing miniature Data Matrix Code on aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia-Shuang; He, Wei-Ping; Lei, Lei; Wang, Jian; Guo, Gai-Fang; Zhang, Teng-Yun; Yue, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Precise miniaturization of 2D Data Matrix (DM) Codes on Aluminum alloy formed by raster mode laser direct part marking is demonstrated. The characteristic edge over-burn effects, which render vector mode laser direct part marking inadequate for producing precise and readable miniature codes, are minimized with raster mode laser marking. To obtain the control mechanism for the contrast and print growth of miniature DM code by raster laser marking process, the temperature field model of long pulse laser interaction with material is established. From the experimental results, laser average power and Q frequency have an important effect on the contrast and print growth of miniature DM code, and the threshold of laser average power and Q frequency for an identifiable miniature DM code are respectively 3.6 W and 110 kHz, which matches the model well within normal operating conditions. In addition, the empirical model of correlation occurring between laser marking parameters and module size is also obtained, and the optimal processing parameter values for an identifiable miniature DM code of different but certain data size are given. It is also found that an increase of the repeat scanning number effectively improves the surface finish of bore, the appearance consistency of modules, which has benefit to reading. The reading quality of miniature DM code is greatly improved using ultrasonic cleaning in water by avoiding the interference of color speckles surrounding modules.

  14. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M.; Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D.; Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P.; Zergioti, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser Direct Writing of metallic patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm. • Selective Laser Ablation of 50 nm thick metal films on flexible substrates. • Selective Laser sintering resulting in an electrical resistivity of 9 μΩ cm. • Laser fabrication of interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications. - Abstract: To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm"2. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for

  15. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M. [National Technical University of Athens, Physics Department, Zografou Campus, 15780 (Greece); Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D. [Oxford Lasers Ltd, Unit 8 Moorbrook Park, Oxfordshire OX11 7HP (United Kingdom); Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 – UMR 7341, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Zergioti, I., E-mail: zergioti@central.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Physics Department, Zografou Campus, 15780 (Greece)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Laser Direct Writing of metallic patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm. • Selective Laser Ablation of 50 nm thick metal films on flexible substrates. • Selective Laser sintering resulting in an electrical resistivity of 9 μΩ cm. • Laser fabrication of interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications. - Abstract: To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm{sup 2}. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for

  16. Direct synthesis of nano-sized glass powders with spherical shape by RF (radio frequency) thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Ju, W.T.; Nam, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new route for obtaining very small, spheroid glass powders is demonstrated using an RF (radio frequency) thermal plasma system. During the process, four kinds of chemicals, here SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , BaCO 3 , and K 2 CO 3 , were mixed at pre-set weight ratios, spray-dried, calcined at 250 deg. C for 3 h, and crushed into fragments. Then, they were successfully reformed into nano-sized amorphous powders (< 200 nm) with spherical shape by injecting them along the centerline of an RF thermal plasma reactor at ∼ 24 kW. The as-synthesized powders show negligible (< 1%) composition changes when compared with the injected precursors of raw material compounds.

  17. In situ elaboration of a binary Ti–26Nb alloy by selective laser melting of elemental titanium and niobium mixed powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux LEM3 (UMR CNRS 7239), Université de Lorraine, Ile de Saulcy, F-57045 Metz (France); Joguet, D. [Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Matériaux, les Procédés et les Surfaces LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort Montbéliard, Sevenans, 90010 Belfort (France); Robin, G. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux LEM3 (UMR CNRS 7239), Université de Lorraine, Ile de Saulcy, F-57045 Metz (France); Peltier, L. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux LEM3 (UMR CNRS 7239), Ecole Nationale Supérieure d' Arts et Métiers, F-57078 Metz (France); Laheurte, P. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux LEM3 (UMR CNRS 7239), Université de Lorraine, Ile de Saulcy, F-57045 Metz (France)

    2016-05-01

    Ti–Nb alloys are excellent candidates for biomedical applications such as implantology and joint replacement because of their very low elastic modulus, their excellent biocompatibility and their high strength. A low elastic modulus, close to that of the cortical bone minimizes the stress shielding effect that appears subsequent to the insertion of an implant. The objective of this study is to investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties of a Ti–Nb alloy elaborated by selective laser melting on powder bed of a mixture of Ti and Nb elemental powders (26 at.%). The influence of operating parameters on porosity of manufactured samples and on efficacy of dissolving Nb particles in Ti was studied. The results obtained by optical microscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray microtomography show that the laser energy has a significant effect on the compactness and homogeneity of the manufactured parts. Homogeneous and compact samples were obtained for high energy levels. Microstructure of these samples has been further characterized. Their mechanical properties were assessed by ultrasonic measures and the Young's modulus found is close to that of classically elaborated Ti–26Nb ingot. - Highlights: • Biomimetic implants can be provided from additive manufacturing with Ti–Nb. • We made parts in a Ti–Nb alloy elaborated in situ from a mixture of elemental powders. • Process parameters have a significant impact on homogeneity and compactness. • Non-columnar elongated beta-grains are stacked with an orientation {001}<100 >. • Low Young's modulus is achieved by this texture.

  18. Higher-resolution selective metallization on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Suhuan; Ai, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mechanisms of laser direct writing and electroless plating were studied. • Active seeds in laser-irradiated zone and laser-affected zone were found to be different. • A special chemical cleaning method with aqua regia was taken. • Higher-resolution copper patterns on alumina ceramic were obtained conveniently. - Abstract: How to fabricate conductive patterns on ceramic boards with higher resolution is a challenge in the past years. The fabrication of copper patterns on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless copper plating is a low cost and high efficiency method. Nevertheless, the lower resolution limits its further industrial applications in many fields. In this report, the mechanisms of laser direct writing and electroless copper plating were studied. The results indicated that as the decomposed products of precursor PdCl_2 have different chemical states respectively in laser-irradiated zone (LIZ) and laser-affected zone (LAZ). This phenomenon was utilized and a special chemical cleaning method with aqua regia solution was taken to selectively remove the metallic Pd in LAZ, while kept the PdO in LIZ as the only active seeds. As a result, the resolution of subsequent copper patterns was improved significantly. This technique has a great significance to develop the microelectronics devices.

  19. Characteristics of thin-film transistors based on silicon nitride passivation by excimer laser direct patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chao-Nan; Huang, Jung-Jie

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the removal of silicon nitride using KrF laser ablation technology with a high threshold fluence of 990 mJ/cm 2 . This technology was used for contact hole patterning to fabricate SiN x -passivation-based amorphous-silicon thin films in a transistor device. Compared to the photolithography process, laser direct patterning using KrF laser ablation technology can reduce the number of process steps by at least three. Experimental results showed that the mobility and threshold voltages of thin film transistors patterned using the laser process were 0.16 cm 2 /V-sec and 0.2 V, respectively. The device performance and the test results of gate voltage stress reliability demonstrated that laser direct patterning is a promising alternative to photolithography in the panel manufacturing of thin-film transistors for liquid crystal displays. - Highlights: ► KrF laser ablation technology is used to remove silicon nitride. ► A simple method for direct patterning contact-hole in thin-film-transistor device. ► Laser technology reduced processing by at least three steps

  20. Comparative study of the microstructures and mechanical properties of direct laser fabricated and arc-melted Al{sub x}CoCrFeNi high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Jithin, E-mail: jithin@deakin.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds 3216 (Australia); Jarvis, Tom; Wu, Xinhua [Monash Centre for Additive Manufacturing, Monash University, Clayton 3168 (Australia); Stanford, Nicole; Hodgson, Peter; Fabijanic, Daniel Mark [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds 3216 (Australia)

    2015-05-01

    High entropy alloys (HEA) are a relatively new metal alloy system that have promising potential in high temperature applications. These multi-component alloys are typically produced by arc-melting, requiring several remelts to achieve chemical homogeneity. Direct laser fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping technique, which produces complex components from alloy powder by selectively melting micron-sized powder in successive layers. However, studies of the fabrication of complex alloys from simple elemental powder blends are sparse. In this study, DLF was employed to fabricate bulk samples of three alloys based on the Al{sub x}CoCrFeNi HEA system, where x was 0.3, 0.6 and 0.85 M fraction of Al. This produced FCC, FCC/BCC and BCC crystal structures, respectively. Corresponding alloys were also produced by arc-melting, and all microstructures were characterised and compared longitudinal and transverse to the build/solidification direction by x-ray diffraction, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (EDX and EBSD). Strong similarities were observed between the single phase FCC and BCC alloys produced by both techniques, however the FCC/BCC structures differed significantly. This has been attributed to a difference in the solidification rate and thermal gradient in the melt pool between the two different techniques. Room temperature compression testing showed very similar mechanical behaviour and properties for the two different processing routes. DLF was concluded to be a successful technique to manufacture bulk HEA's.

  1. Design of High Precise Focusing System in Laser Direct Writer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y Y; Tian, F; Luo, J B; Yang, G G

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of fabricating lines with laser pattern generator, a novel focusing system was designed. Focusing system is based on optical off-axis detection principle. The detector is a two-quadrant photocell and the defocus signal is constructed by division. Focusing system has the character of second-order system with overdamp. The new embedded PID controller improves the performance of focusing system and upgrades the closed-loop precision to 0.2 μm. Furthermore focusing system has the fabrication capabilities for alterable-width lines under various defocus amount

  2. 5 nm structures produced by direct laser writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, E; Jinga, S; Andronescu, E; Vasile, B S; Rotiu, E; Ionescu, L; Mazilu, C

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a new approach to overcome the optical diffraction limit by using novel materials. In the paper, we report experimental results obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and optical absorption spectroscopy, for a fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramic containing rare-earth ions such as samarium (Sm). Using a home built dynamic tester, with a low power laser, we recorded nanostructures having 5 nm line widths. In the line structure, measurements reveal the presence of silver nanocrystals with few nanometre sizes. HRTEM shows that there is a random orientation of the nanocrystals. A writing mechanism with three steps is proposed.

  3. Direct synthesis of La9.33Si6O26 ultrafine powder via sol-gel self-combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Changan; Liu Junliang; Cai Jun; Zeng Yanwei

    2008-01-01

    Single phase La 9.33 Si 6 O 26 ultrafine powder, as a kind of highly activated precursor to prepare medium-to-low temperature electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), has been successfully synthesized via a non-aqueous sol-gel and self-combustion approach from the starting materials: lanthanum nitrate (La(NO 3 ) 3 .6H 2 O), citric acid, ethylene glycol (EG), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ammonium nitrate. The details of gel's self-combustion were investigated by DTA-TG and the structural characterization of as-synthesized powder from self-combustion was performed by XRD and SEM. The results show that La 9.33 Si 6 O 26 single phase of apatite-type crystal structure can be directly synthesized by sol-gel self-combustion method without further calcinations on the condition that the molar ratio (R) of NO 3 - to citric acid and ethylene glycol being 6:1. Such powders composed of well-dispersed particles with an average size of 200 nm and a specific surface area of 5.54 m 2 /g. It can be sintered to 90% of its theoretical density at 1500 deg. C for 10 h, about 200 deg. C lower than the sintering temperature for the powder derived from traditional solid reactions. The sintered material has a thermal expansion coefficient of 9.2 x 10 -6 K -1 between room temperature and 800 deg. C

  4. Laser Direct Write micro-fabrication of large area electronics on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharatos, F.; Makrygianni, M.; Geremia, R.; Biver, E.; Karnakis, D.; Leyder, S.; Puerto, D.; Delaporte, P.; Zergioti, I.

    2016-06-01

    To date, Laser Direct Write (LDW) techniques, such as Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), selective laser ablation and selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) ink layers are receiving growing attention for the printing of uniform and well-defined conductive patterns with resolution down to 10 μm. For flexible substrates in particular, selective laser sintering of such NP patterns has been widely applied, as a low temperature and high resolution process compatible with large area electronics. In this work, LDW of silver NP inks has been carried out on polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) and polyimide (PI) substrates to achieve low electrical resistivity electrodes. In more detail, high speed short pulsed (picosecond and nanosecond) lasers with repetition rates up to 1 MHz were used to print (LIFT) metal NP inks. We thus achieved uniform and continuous patterns with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and a total footprint larger than 1 cm2. Next, the printed patterns were laser sintered with ns pulses at 532 nm over a wide laser fluence window, resulting in an electrical resistivity of 10 μΩ cm. We carried out spatial beam shaping experiments to achieve a top-hat laser intensity profile and employed selective laser ablation of thin films (thickness on the order of 100 nm) to produce silver micro-electrodes with a resolution on the order of 10 μm and a low line edge roughness. Laser sintering was combined with laser ablation to constitute a fully autonomous micro-patterning technique of metallic micro-features, with a 10 μm resolution and geometrical characteristics tuned for interdigitated electrodes for sensor applications.

  5. Laser direct writing using submicron-diameter fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Yang, Guoguang; Bai, Jian; Xu, Jianfeng; Hou, Changlun; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.

  6. Direct diode lasers and their advantages for materials processing and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Haro; Ferrario, Fabio; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Pahl, Ulrich; Pflueger, Silke; Grohe, Andreas; Gries, Wolfgang; Eibl, Florian; Kohl, Stefanie; Dobler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The brightness of diode lasers is improving continuously and has recently started to approach the level of some solid state lasers. The main technology drivers over the last decade were improvements of the diode laser output power and divergence, enhanced optical stacking techniques and system design, and most recently dense spectral combining. Power densities at the work piece exceed 1 MW/cm2 with commercially available industrial focus optics. These power densities are sufficient for cutting and welding as well as ablation. Single emitter based diode laser systems further offer the advantage of fast current modulation due their lower drive current compared to diode bars. Direct diode lasers may not be able to compete with other technologies as fiber or CO2-lasers in terms of maximum power or beam quality. But diode lasers offer a range of features that are not possible to implement in a classical laser. We present an overview of those features that will make the direct diode laser a very valuable addition in the near future, especially for the materials processing market. As the brightness of diode lasers is constantly improving, BPP of less than 5mm*mrad have been reported with multikW output power. Especially single emitter-based diode lasers further offer the advantage of very fast current modulation due to their low drive current and therefore low drive voltage. State of the art diode drivers are already demonstrated with pulse durations of direct current control allows pulses of several microseconds with hundreds of watts average power. Spot sizes of less than 100 μm are obtained at the work piece. Such a diode system allows materials processing with a pulse parameter range that is hardly addressed by any other laser system. High productivity material ablation with cost effective lasers is enabled. The wide variety of wavelengths, high brightness, fast power modulation and high efficiency of diode lasers results in a strong pull of existing markets, but

  7. Laser development: Taking physics to industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available & Specifications ? Few examples ? Pumping another laser ? Directed infrared countermeasures ? 3 D printing ? Gated imaging ? Concept Laser Products ? Advanced Photonics Manufacturing Facility ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2 Target Divergence... Laser application: Additive Manufacturing (3 D printing) Laser Powder layer Argon System 1 m Mode: Continuous & modulation Power : 5 000 W Beam Quality: extremely good Wavelength: 1 ?m E-to-O Efficiency: 28% 3-phase power & water cooling...

  8. Plasma dynamics near critical density inferred from direct measurements of laser hole boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy J.; Joshi, Chan

    2016-06-01

    We have used multiframe picosecond optical interferometry to make direct measurements of the hole boring velocity, vHB, of the density cavity pushed forward by a train of C O2 laser pulses in a near critical density helium plasma. As the pulse train intensity rises, the increasing radiation pressure of each pulse pushes the density cavity forward and the plasma electrons are strongly heated. After the peak laser intensity, the plasma pressure exerted by the heated electrons strongly impedes the hole boring process and the vHB falls rapidly as the laser pulse intensity falls at the back of the laser pulse train. A heuristic theory is presented that allows the estimation of the plasma electron temperature from the measurements of the hole boring velocity. The measured values of vHB, and the estimated values of the heated electron temperature as a function of laser intensity are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  9. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources.

  10. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2011-08-12

    In this study we demonstrate a novel approach for the rapid fabricating micro scale metal (silver) patterning directly on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Silver nanoparticles were sintered on PDMS to form conductive metal films using laser direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical conductivities and good film properties of the sintered silver patterns. This study reveals an advanced method of metal patterning on PDMS, and proposes a new research application of LDW in a nanoparticle colloidal environment. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics from intense laser irradiated blazed grating targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobo; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Weng, Suming; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanyun; Shao, Fuqiu; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-02

    Relativistically intense laser solid target interaction has been proved to be a promising way to generate high-order harmonics, which can be used to diagnose ultrafast phenomena. However, their emission direction and spectra still lack tunability. Based upon two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics can be realized using blazed grating targets. Such targets can select harmonics with frequencies being integer times of the grating frequency. Meanwhile, the radiation intensity and emission area of the harmonics are increased. The emission direction is controlled by tailoring the local blazed structure. Theoretical and electron dynamics analysis for harmonics generation, selection and directional enhancement from the interaction between multi-cycle laser and grating target are carried out. These studies will benefit the generation and application of laser plasma-based high order harmonics.

  12. GaAs circuit restructuring by multi-level laser-direct-written tungsten process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.G.; Doran, S.P.; Rothschild, M.; Sedlacek, J.H.C.; Ehrlich, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-direct-writing processes are employed to fabricate a GaAs digital integrated circuit. The lithography-free techniques deposit and etch conductors and resistors, and remove insulating layers, thus enabling multilevel interconnections. These combined direct-write processes provide the flexibility of clip-lead prototyping on a micrometer scale

  13. Higher-resolution selective metallization on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Suhuan; Ai, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    How to fabricate conductive patterns on ceramic boards with higher resolution is a challenge in the past years. The fabrication of copper patterns on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless copper plating is a low cost and high efficiency method. Nevertheless, the lower resolution limits its further industrial applications in many fields. In this report, the mechanisms of laser direct writing and electroless copper plating were studied. The results indicated that as the decomposed products of precursor PdCl2 have different chemical states respectively in laser-irradiated zone (LIZ) and laser-affected zone (LAZ). This phenomenon was utilized and a special chemical cleaning method with aqua regia solution was taken to selectively remove the metallic Pd in LAZ, while kept the PdO in LIZ as the only active seeds. As a result, the resolution of subsequent copper patterns was improved significantly. This technique has a great significance to develop the microelectronics devices.

  14. Gas flow rate and powder flow rate effect on properties of laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available . The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were varied to study their effect on the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the deposits. The physical properties studied are: the track width, the track height and the deposit weight...

  15. Direct Laser Writing of Nanophotonic Structures on Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQattan, Bader; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-04-24

    Contact lenses are ubiquitous biomedical devices used for vision correction and cosmetic purposes. Their application as quantitative analytical devices is highly promising for point-of-care diagnostics. However, it is a challenge to integrate nanoscale features into commercial contact lenses for application in low-cost biosensors. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm, 3 ns pulse, 240 mJ) in holographic interference patterning mode was utilized to produce optical nanostructures over the surface of a hydrogel contact lens. One-dimensional (925 nm) and two-dimensional (925 nm × 925 nm) nanostructures were produced on contact lenses and analyzed by spectroscopy and angle-resolve measurements. The holographic properties of these nanostructures were tested in ambient moisture, fully hydrated, and artificial tear conditions. The measurements showed a rapid tuning of optical diffraction from these nanostructures from 41 to 48°. The nanostructures were patterned near the edges of the contact lens to avoid any interference and obstruction to the human vision. The formation of 2D nanostructures on lenses increased the diffraction efficiency by more than 10%. The versatility of the holographic laser ablation method was demonstrated by producing four different 2D nanopattern geometries on contact lenses. Hydrophobicity of the contact lens was characterized by contact angle measurements, which increased from 59.0° at pristine condition to 62.5° at post-nanofabrication. The holographic nanostructures on the contact lens were used to sense the concentration of Na + ions. Artificial tear solution was used to simulate the conditions in dry eye syndrome, and nanostructures on the contact lenses were used to detect the electrolyte concentration changes (±47 mmol L -1 ). Nanopatterns on a contact lens may be used to sense other ocular diseases in early stages at point-of-care settings.

  16. Direct Laser Cladding of Cobalt on Ti-6Al-4V with a Compositionally Graded Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct laser cladding of cobalt on Ti-6Al-4V with and without a graded interface has been attempted using a continuous wave CO2 laser. Graded interface is developed by depositing a thin copper layer on Ti-6Al-4V substrate prior to multiple laser cladding of cobalt on it. Presence of copper interlayer was found to suppress the formation of brittle intermetallics of Ti and Co. The effect of process parameters on the microstructures, compositions, and phases of the interface was studied in details. Finally, the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the interface processed under optimum process parameters are reported.

  17. Functionalized Ormosil Scaffolds Processed by Direct Laser Polymerization for Application in Tissue Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, A.; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela

    The N,N’-(methacryloyloxyethyl triehtoxy silyl propyl carbamoyl-oxyhexyl)-urea hybrid methacrylate for applications in tissue engineering was synthesized and afterwards polymerized by direct laser polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses with the aim of using it for further applications...... in tissue engineering. The as-obtained scaffolds were modified either by low pressure argon plasma treatment or by using two different proteins (lysozyme, fibrinogen). For improved adhesion, the proteins were deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation. The functionalized structures were tested...

  18. Direct synthesis of sp-bonded carbon chains on graphite surface by femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, A.; Rybachuk, M.; Lu, Q.-B.; Duley, W. W.

    2007-01-01

    Microscopic phase transformation from graphite to sp-bonded carbon chains (carbyne) and nanodiamond has been induced by femtosecond laser pulses on graphite surface. UV/surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectra displayed the local synthesis of carbyne in the melt zone while nanocrystalline diamond and trans-polyacetylene chains form in the edge area of gentle ablation. These results evidence possible direct 'writing' of variable chemical bonded carbons by femtosecond laser pulses for carbon-based applications

  19. Optical-feedback semiconductor laser Michelson interferometer for displacement measurements with directional discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Lim, May; Saloma, Caesar

    2001-01-01

    An optical-feedback semiconductor laser Michelson interferometer (OSMI) is presented for measuring microscopic linear displacements without ambiguity in the direction of motion. The two waves from the interferometer arms, one from the reference mirror and the other from the reflecting moving target, are fed back into the lasing medium (λ=830 nm), causing variations in the laser output power. We model the OSMI into an equivalent Fabry-Perot resonator and derive the dependence of the output power (and the junction voltage) on the path difference between the two interferometer arms. Numerical and experimental results consistently show that the laser output power varies periodically (period, λ/2) with path difference. The output power variation exhibits an asymmetric behavior with the direction of motion, which is used to measure, at subwavelength resolution, the displacement vector (both amplitude and direction) of the moving sample. Two samples are considered in the experiments: (i) a piezoelectric transducer and (ii) an audio speaker

  20. Systems modeling for a laser-driven IFE power plant using direct conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W R

    2008-01-01

    A variety of systems analyses have been conducted for laser driver IFE power plants being developed as part of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program. A key factor determining the economics attractiveness of the power plant is the net power conversion efficiency which increases with increasing laser efficiency, target gain and fusion-to-electric power conversion efficiency. A possible approach to increasing the power conversion efficiency is direct conversion of ionized target emissions to electricity. This study examines the potential benefits of increased efficiency when the expanding plasma is inductively coupled to an external circuit allowing some of the ion energy to be directly converted to electricity. For base case direct-drive targets with approximately 24% of the target yield in ions, the benefits are modest, especially for chamber designs that operate at high temperature and thus already have relatively high thermal conversion efficiencies. The reduction in the projected cost of electricity is ∼5-10%

  1. Numerical research of influence of laser radiation parameters on the formation of intermetallic phases from metal powders in selective laser melting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapovichev, A. V.; Knyazeva, A. G.; Smelov, V. G.

    2017-10-01

    A large number of factors influence the quality of the material obtained with selective laser melting. Through correct understanding and managing these factors, it is possible to achieve the necessary quality of the materials, which is highly competitive to the traditional production methods. The technique of selective laser melting is a complex process in which a large number of parameters affect the quality of the final product. The complexity of the process of selective laser melting consists of many thermal, physical and chemical interactions, which are influenced by a large number of parameters. The main parameters of SLM are scanning rate, laser radiation power and layer thickness. In the framework of this paper, there was made an attempt to take into account real physical and chemical processes taking place during the selective laser melting of an Ni-Al alloy.

  2. A clinical application of laser direction in anastomosis for inferior canalicular laceration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Tao; ZHAO Ke-xiao; ZHANG Ling-yun

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic efficiency and effecacy of laser-directing approach on searching for the nasal broken end of lacerated lacrimal canaliculus in anastomosis for canalicular laceration.Methods: Forty-nine patients ( 49 eyes ) suffering from traumatic inferior canalicular laceration were divided into control group and laser-directing group. The distance between the lacrimal punctum and the nasal broken end of lacerated lacrimal canaliculus was more than 6 mm. During the course of management of eyelid trauma, the patients were treated by canalicular anastomosis operation with traditional method and laser-directing method in searching for the nasal broken end of lacerated lacrimal canaliculus respectively. The silicone tube of 1 mm diameter was intubated in the lacrimal passage as a stent for 4 to 6months.Results: In the laser-directing group, the mean time in searching for the nasal broken end of lacerated lacrimal canaliculus was (5.75 ± 1.49) minutes and the mean time of operation was (49.21±3.37) minutes; both were significantly shorter than that of the control group(P <0.01). The cure rate of the laser-directing group was96.55 %, higher than that of the control group but without statistical significance (P > 0.05).Conclusions: The laser-directing method is much quicker and more convenient to searching for the nasal broken end of the lacerated lacrimal canaliculus than the traditional approach, and patients suffer less pain and damaging in canalicular anastomosis operation.

  3. Effects of Process Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminium Wrought Alloy EN AW-2219 (AlCu6Mn Additively Manufactured by Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cornelius Hermann Karg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing is especially suitable for complex-shaped 3D parts with integrated and optimized functionality realized by filigree geometries. Such designs benefit from low safety factors in mechanical layout. This demands ductile materials that reduce stress peaks by predictable plastic deformation instead of failure. Al–Cu wrought alloys are established materials meeting this requirement. Additionally, they provide high specific strengths. As the designation “Wrought Alloys” implies, they are intended for manufacturing by hot or cold working. When cast or welded, they are prone to solidification cracks. Al–Si fillers can alleviate this, but impair ductility. Being closely related to welding, Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed (LBM of Al–Cu wrought alloys like EN AW-2219 can be considered challenging. In LBM of aluminium alloys, only easily-weldable Al–Si casting alloys have succeeded commercially today. This article discusses the influences of boundary conditions during LBM of EN AW-2219 on sample porosity and tensile test results, supported by metallographic microsections and fractography. Load direction was varied relative to LBM build-up direction. T6 heat treatment was applied to half of the samples. Pronounced anisotropy was observed. Remarkably, elongation at break of T6 specimens loaded along the build-up direction exceeded the values from literature for conventionally manufactured EN AW-2219 by a factor of two.

  4. Fabrication of computer-generated holograms using femtosecond laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlich, René; Richter, Daniel; Richardson, Martin; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a single-step fabrication method for computer-generated holograms based on femtosecond laser direct writing. Therefore, a tightly arranged longitudinal waveguide array is directly inscribed into a transparent material. By tailoring the individual waveguide length, the phase profile of an incident laser beam can be arbitrarily adapted. The approach is verified in common borosilicate glass by inscribing a designed phase hologram, which forms the desired intensity pattern in its far field. The resulting performance is analyzed, and the potential as well as limitations of the method are discussed.

  5. Dynamic exposure model analysis of continuous laser direct writing in Polar-coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Lv, Yingjun; Mao, Wenjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to exactly predict the continuous laser direct writing quality in Polar-coordinate, we take into consideration the effect of the photoresist absorbing beam energy, the Gaussian attribute of the writing beam and the dynamic exposure process, and establish a dynamic exposure model to describe the influence of the tangential velocity of the normal incident facular center and laser power on the line width and sidewall angle. Numerical simulation results indicate that while writing velocity remains unchanged, the line width and sidewall angle are all increased as the laser power increases; while laser power remains unchanged, the line width and sidewall angle are all decreased as the writing velocity increases; at the same time the line profile in the exposure section is asymmetry and the center of the line has tiny excursion toward the Polar-coordinate origin compared with the facular center. Then it is necessary to choose the right writing velocity and laser power to obtain the ideal line profile. The model makes up the shortcomings of traditional models that can only predict line width or estimate the profile of the writing line in the absence of photoresist absorption, and can be considered as an effect analysis method for optimizing the parameters of fabrication technique of laser direct writing.

  6. Development and Characterisation of Aluminium Matrix Nanocomposites AlSi10Mg/MgAl2O4 by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Marchese

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, additive manufacturing techniques have been gaining attention for the fabrication of parts from aluminium alloys to composites. In this work, the processing of an AlSi10Mg based composite reinforced with 0.5% in weight of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles through laser powder bed fusion (LPBF process is presented. After an initial investigation about the effect of process parameters on the densification levels, the LPBF materials were analysed in terms of microstructure, thermo-mechanical and mechanical properties. The presence of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles involves an increment of the volumetric energy density delivered to the materials, in order to fabricate samples with high densification levels similar to the AlSi10Mg samples. However, the application of different building parameters results in modifying the size of the cellular structures influencing the mechanical properties and therefore, limiting the strengthening effect of the reinforcement.

  7. 2000W high beam quality diode laser for direct materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-bin; Liu, You-qiang; Cao, Yin-hua; Gao, Jing; Pan, Fei; Wang, Zhi-yong

    2011-11-01

    This article describes high beam quality and kilowatt-class diode laser system for direct materials processing, using optical design software ZEMAX® to simulate the diode laser optical path, including the beam shaping, collimation, coupling, focus, etc.. In the experiment, the diode laser stack of 808nm and the diode laser stack of 915nm were used for the wavelength coupling, which were built vertical stacks up to 16 bars. The threshold current of the stack is 6.4A, the operating current is 85A and the output power is 1280W. Through experiments, after collimating the diode laser beam with micro-lenses, the fast axis BPP of the stack is less than 60mm.mrad, and the slow-axis BPP of the stack is less than 75mm.mrad. After shaping the laser beam and improving the beam quality, the fast axis BPP of the stack is still 60mm.mrad, and the slow-axis BPP of the stack is less than 19mm.mrad. After wavelength coupling and focusing, ultimately the power of 2150W was obtained, focal spot size of 1.5mm * 1.2mm with focal length 300mm. The laser power density is 1.2×105W/cm2, and that can be used for metal remelting, alloying, cladding and welding. The total optical coupling conversion efficiency is 84%, and the total electrical - optical conversion efficiency is 50%.

  8. Engineering fluidic delays in paper-based devices using laser direct-writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P J W; Katis, I N; Eason, R W; Sones, C L

    2015-10-21

    We report the use of a new laser-based direct-write technique that allows programmable and timed fluid delivery in channels within a paper substrate which enables implementation of multi-step analytical assays. The technique is based on laser-induced photo-polymerisation, and through adjustment of the laser writing parameters such as the laser power and scan speed we can control the depth and/or the porosity of hydrophobic barriers which, when fabricated in the fluid path, produce controllable fluid delay. We have patterned these flow delaying barriers at pre-defined locations in the fluidic channels using either a continuous wave laser at 405 nm, or a pulsed laser operating at 266 nm. Using this delay patterning protocol we generated flow delays spanning from a few minutes to over half an hour. Since the channels and flow delay barriers can be written via a common laser-writing process, this is a distinct improvement over other methods that require specialist operating environments, or custom-designed equipment. This technique can therefore be used for rapid fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices that can perform single or multistep analytical assays.

  9. Improvement of Surface Properties of Inconel718 by HVOF Coating with WC-Metal Powder and by Laser Heat Treatment of the Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gon Chun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF thermal spray coating with WC-metal powder was carried out by using optimal coating process on an Inconel718 surface for improvement of the surface properties, friction, wear, and corrosion resistance. Binder metals such as Cr and Ni were completely melted and WC was decomposed partially to W2C and graphite during the high temperature (up to 3500°C thermal spraying. The melted metals were bonded with WC and other carbides and were formed as WC-metal coating. The graphite and excessively sprayed oxygen formed carbon oxide gases, and these gases formed porous coating by evolution of the gases. The surface properties were improved by HVOF coating and were improved further by CO2 laser heat treatment (LH. Wear resistance of In718 surface was improved by coating and LH at 25°C and an elevated temperature of 450°C, resulting in reduction of wear trace traces, and was further improved by LH of the coating in reducing wear depth. Corrosion resistance due to coating in sea water was improved by LH. HVOF coating of WC-metal powder on a metal surface and a LH of the coating were highly recommended for the improvement of In718 surface properties, the friction behavior, and wear resistance.

  10. Remarkable enhancement on elimination reaction of side groups in excimer laser ablation of mixture targets of perylene derivatives with metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoru; Tamura, Kazuyuki; Tsujine, Yukari; Fukao, Tomoko; Nakano, Masayoshi; Matsuzaki, Akiyoshi; Sato, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    Films are deposited on substrates at 20 deg.C by excimer laser ablation (ELA) of mixture targets of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with metal powder, PTCDA/M (M=Co, Ni, Fe, W, Cu and Ag) using XeCl and ArF beams. Large amount of fragments with ''naked'' perylene skeletons can be produced owing to effective elimination of carboxylic dianhydride groups by ELA of PTCDA/Co both with XeCl and ArF beams under optimized ablation conditions. Elimination reaction of side groups of PTCDA is observed for ELA of the targets with metal powder of the iron group, Co, Fe and Ni, especially remarkable for Co and Fe. The film from PTCDA/Ni consists of small particles with the various diameters ranging from 10 to 100 nm as well as that from PTCDA/Co. Morphology like petal of rose can be seen everywhere for the film from PTCDA/Fe

  11. Direct acceleration of ions to low and medium energies by a crossed-laser-beam configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Salamin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Calculations show that 10 keV helium and carbon ions, injected midway between two identical 1 TW-power crossed laser beams of radial polarization, can be accelerated in vacuum to energies of utility in ion lithography. As examples, identical laser beams, crossed at 10° and focused to waist radii of 7.42  μm, accelerate He^{2+} and C^{6+} ions to average kinetic energies near 75 and 165 keV over distances averaging less than 7 and 6 mm, respectively. The spread in kinetic energy in both cases is less than 1% and the particle average angular deflection is less than 7 mrad. More energy-demanding industrial applications require higher-power laser beams for their direct ion laser acceleration.

  12. Laser direct writing of thin-film copper structures as a modification of lithographic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F; Ostendorf, A; Stute, U

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible, mask-free and efficient technique for UV-laser micropatterning of photosensitive resist by laser direct writing (LDW). Photo resist spun on gold sputtered silicon wafers has been laser structured by a scanner guided 266nm DPSSL and electroplated. Ablation behaviour and optimum seed layer preparation in relation to parameters like pulse energy, scanning speed and number of scanned cycles and the electroplating results are discussed. The resulting adhesive strength was measured by a μ-sear device and the gold seed layer-plated copper interface investigated by SEM and EDX to explain correlation to identified bonding behaviour. Improved adhesive strength was observed with higher laser pulse energy and reduced number of cycle

  13. A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

  14. Determination of magnetic field direction in tokamaks from laser-induced Lyman-α fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voslamber, D.

    1988-04-01

    Resonant laser scattering in the Lyman-α line of hydrogen is investigated as a possible tool for measuring the magnetic field direction in tokamak plasmas. The method is based on the depolarisation-dependence of the scattering process. Limitations arising from depolarising collisions are studied in detail by employing a previously developed theory for the collisional redistribution of light. An error analysis is performed to derive the expected experimental precision under various plasma conditions and for laser energies ranging between 1 micronJ and 10 mJ. This analysis also includes the measurement of neutral hydrogen densities. It is shown that with presently available laser powers application of the method would be restricted to the border regions of the plasma. Application to the central regions would require further developments in laser technology, especially with regard to higher powers at the wavelength of Lyman-α and (or) to fast repetition rates

  15. Direct conversion of nuclear energy into radiation: New direction in thermonuclear laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, Yu.N.; Vedenov, A.A.; Filyukov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    In investigations dealing with thermonuclear fusion, a radical new direction appeared some time ago, namely the direct conversion of nuclear and thermonuclear energy into radiation energy. This paper reviews early work on this topic in Russia and the United States and discusses some recent new directions

  16. An Experimental Study on Slurry Erosion Resistance of Single and Multilayered Deposits of Ni-WC Produced by Laser-Based Powder Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Prabu; Hamid, Syed; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Single and multilayered deposits containing different mass fractions of tungsten carbide (WC) in nickel (Ni)-matrix (NT-20, NT-60, NT-80) are deposited on a AISI 4140 steel substrate using a laser-based powder deposition process. The transverse cross section of the coupons reveals that the higher the mass fraction of WC in Ni-matrix leads to a more uniform distribution through Ni-matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of the fabricated coupons is tested at three different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet cutting machine, which is quantified based on the erosion rate. The top layer of a multilayered deposit (i.e., NT-60 in a two-layer NT-60 over NT-20 deposit) exhibits better erosion resistance at all three tested impingement angles when compared to a single-layer (NT-60) deposit. A definite increase in the erosion resistance is noted with an addition of nano-size WC particles. The relationship between the different mass fractions of reinforcement (WC) in the deposited composite material (Ni-WC) and their corresponding matrix (Ni) hardness on the erosion rate is studied. The eroded surface is analyzed in the light of a three-dimensional (3-D) profilometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that a volume fraction of approximately 62% of WC with a Ni-matrix hardness of 540 HV resulting in the gouging out of WC from the Ni-matrix by the action of slurry. It is concluded that the slurry erosion resistance of the AISI 4140 steel can be significantly enhanced by introducing single and multilayered deposits of Ni-WC composite material fabricated by the laser-based powder deposition process.

  17. Modification of Surface Energy via Direct Laser Ablative Surface Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J., Jr. (Inventor); Belcher, Marcus A. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hopkins, John W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Surface energy of a substrate is changed without the need for any template, mask, or additional coating medium applied to the substrate. At least one beam of energy directly ablates a substrate surface to form a predefined topographical pattern at the surface. Each beam of energy has a width of approximately 25 micrometers and an energy of approximately 1-500 microJoules. Features in the topographical pattern have a width of approximately 1-500 micrometers and a height of approximately 1.4-100 micrometers.

  18. Laser sub-Doppler cooling of atoms in an arbitrarily directed magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Soo; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Lee, Ho Seong; Minogin, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the influence of an arbitrarily directed uniform magnetic field on the laser sub-Doppler cooling of atoms. The analysis is done for a (3+5)-level atom excited by a σ + -σ - laser field configuration. Our analysis shows that the effects of the magnetic field depend strongly on the direction of the magnetic field. In an arbitrarily directed magnetic field the laser cooling configuration produces both the main resonance existing already at zero magnetic field and additional sub-Doppler resonances caused by two-photon and higher-order multiphoton processes. These sub-Doppler resonances are, however, well separated on the velocity scale if the Zeeman shift exceeds the widths of the resonances. This allows one to use the main sub-Doppler resonance for an effective laser cooling of atoms even in the presence of the magnetic field. The effective temperature of the atomic ensemble at the velocity of the main resonance is found to be almost the same as in the absence of the magnetic field. The defined structure of the multiphoton resonances may be of importance for the sub-Doppler laser cooling of atoms, atomic extraction from magneto-optical traps, and applications related to the control of atomic motion

  19. Etching of enamel for direct bonding with a thulium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaş Sarp, Ayşe S.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2011-03-01

    Background: Laser etching of enamel for direct bonding can decrease the risk of surface enamel loss and demineralization which are the adverse effects of acid etching technique. However, in excess of +5.5°C can cause irreversible pulpal responses. In this study, a 1940- nm Thulium Fiber Laser in CW mode was used for laser etching. Aim: Determination of the suitable Laser parameters of enamel surface etching for direct bonding of ceramic brackets and keeping that intrapulpal temperature changes below the threshold value. Material and Method: Polycrystalline ceramic orthodontic brackets were bonded on bovine teeth by using 2 different kinds of etching techniques: Acid and Laser Etching. In addition to these 3 etched groups, there was also a group which was bonded without etching. Brackets were debonded with a material testing machine. Breaking time and the load at the breaking point were measured. Intrapulpal temperature changes were recorded by a K-type Thermocouple. For all laser groups, intrapulpal temperature rise was below the threshold value of 5.5°C. Results and Conclusion: Acid-etched group ( 11.73 MPa) significantly required more debonding force than 3- second- irradiated ( 5.03 MPa) and non-etched groups ( 3.4 MPa) but the results of acid etched group and 4- second- irradiated group (7.5 MPa) showed no significant difference. Moreover, 4- second irradiated group was over the minimum acceptable value for clinical use. Also, 3- second lasing caused a significant reduction in time according to acid-etch group. As a result, 1940- nm laser irradiation is a promising method for laser etching.

  20. Scanning pattern angle effect on the resulting properties of selective laser sintered monolayers of Cu-Sn-Ni powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelle, Matías; Walczak, Magdalena; Ramos-Grez, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Laser-based layer manufacturing of metals, also known as additive manufacturing, is a growing research field of academic and industrial interest. However, in the associated laser-driven processes (i.e. selective laser sintering (SLS) or melting (SLM)), optimization of some parameters has not been fully explored. This research aims at determining how the angle of laser scanning pattern (i.e. build orientation) in SLS affects the mechanical properties and structure of an individual Cu-Sn-Ni alloy metallic layer sintered in the process. Experiments consist in varying the angle of the scanning pattern (0°, 30°, 45° 60° and 90° relative to the transverse dimension of the piece), at constant scanning speed and laser beam power, producing specimens of different thicknesses. A noticeable effect of the scan angle on the mechanical strength and degree of densification of the sintered specimens is found. Thickness of the resulting monolayer correlates negatively with increasing scan angle, whereas relative density correlates positively. A minimum porosity and maximum UTS are found at the angle of 60°. It is concluded that angle of the scanning pattern angle plays a significant role in SLS of metallic monolayers.

  1. Multiple-layer laser deposition of steel components using gas- and water-atomised powders: the differences and the mechanisms leading to them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.; Li Lin

    2005-01-01

    Functionally-graded or composite components have been recognised as having immense potential for many industries. The flexibility of direct metal deposition (DMD) has the potential to expand this to microstructurally graded components, but accurate control of the process is a problem. In this work, the effects of using different powder morphologies as a control mechanism for microstructure and other material properties are investigated experimentally. For the first time, comparison of the characteristics of two different gas-atomised (GA) and water-atomised (WA) materials is undertaken in order to evaluate the significance of the different DMD characteristics originating from the difference in atomisation method. 316L and H13 materials and a 1.2 kW CO 2 DMD system are used. Three primary factors for the differences are identified: increased vaporisation of the powder, a hotter melt pool and less powerful outward Marangoni flow when using water-atomised powder. The reasons for these, the influence they have on process characteristics and final material properties, and the circumstances under which they occur are discussed

  2. Laser imprint and implications for direct drive ignition with the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.V.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Remington, B.A.; Rothenberg, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    For direct drive ICF, nonuniformities in laser illumination can seed ripples at the ablation front in a process called imprint. Such nonuniformities will grow during the capsule implosion and can penetrate the capsule shell impede ignition, or degrade burn. We have simulated imprint for a number of experiments on tile Nova laser. Results are in generally good agreement with experimental data. We leave also simulated imprint upon National Ignition Facility (NIF) direct drive ignition capsules. Imprint modulation amplitude comparable to the intrinsic surface finish of ∼40 nm is predicted for a laser bandwidth of 0.5 THz. Ablation front modulations experience growth factors up to several thousand, carrying modulation well into the nonlinear regime. Saturation modeling predicts that the shell should remain intact at the time of peak velocity, but penetration at earlier times appears more marginal

  3. Simple collision operators for direct Vlasov simulations of laser plasma interaction and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arber, T D; Sircombe, N J

    2010-01-01

    Non-local electron transport effects have a direct influence on the compression of cryogenic targets in laser driven ICF and target heating in high energy density experiments. There is a growing need for self-consistent models of laser plasma interactions coupled to nonlocal transport. We present a direct Vlasov solver that includes multiple species and a simple collision operator. This BGK model operator - which conserves particle density, energy and momentum - is fully implicit. For collisionless plasmas it has been shown that a double layer may be formed in which an accelerated, kinetic ion population satisfies the zero current condition. Here we extend this result to collisionalities of interest to laser driven ignition to assess the validity of nonlocal electron transport models based on fluid ions.

  4. Direct measurement of the pulse duration and frequency chirp of seeded XUV free electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azima, Armin; Bödewadt, Jörn; Becker, Oliver; Düsterer, Stefan; Ekanayake, Nagitha; Ivanov, Rosen; Kazemi, Mehdi M.; Lamberto Lazzarino, Leslie; Lechner, Christoph; Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Manschwetus, Bastian; Miltchev, Velizar; Müller, Jost; Plath, Tim; Przystawik, Andreas; Wieland, Marek; Assmann, Ralph; Hartl, Ingmar; Laarmann, Tim; Rossbach, Jörg; Wurth, Wilfried; Drescher, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We report on a direct time-domain measurement of the temporal properties of a seeded free-electron laser pulse in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. Utilizing the oscillating electromagnetic field of terahertz radiation, a single-shot THz streak-camera was applied for measuring the duration as well as spectral phase of the generated intense XUV pulses. The experiment was conducted at FLASH, the free electron laser user facility at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. In contrast to indirect methods, this approach directly resolves and visualizes the frequency chirp of a seeded free-electron laser (FEL) pulse. The reported diagnostic capability is a prerequisite to tailor amplitude, phase and frequency distributions of FEL beams on demand. In particular, it opens up a new window of opportunities for advanced coherent spectroscopic studies making use of the high degree of temporal coherence expected from a seeded FEL pulse.

  5. Direct drive acceleration of planar targets with the Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawley, C.J.; Sethian, J.D.; Bodner, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nike is a multi-kilojoule KrF laser with very high beam uniformity (ΔI/I<0.2% with all 36 overlapped beams), and the capability to accelerate relatively thick targets on a low adiabat under conditions scalable to direct drive ICF. In a first set of experiments we determined the effect of the imprinting by varying the uniformity of the foot of the laser pulse and measuring the growth of the subsequent Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We found that the lower the imprint, the longer the mass modulations take to reach a given level. This is in quantitative agreement with our 2-D hydrodynamics simulations. The results are promising for direct drive with a very uniform laser. (orig.)

  6. Direct drive acceleration of planar targets with the Nike KrF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawley, C.J.; Sethian, J.D.; Bodner, S.E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.] [and others

    1999-02-01

    Nike is a multi-kilojoule KrF laser with very high beam uniformity ({Delta}I/I<0.2% with all 36 overlapped beams), and the capability to accelerate relatively thick targets on a low adiabat under conditions scalable to direct drive ICF. In a first set of experiments we determined the effect of the imprinting by varying the uniformity of the foot of the laser pulse and measuring the growth of the subsequent Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We found that the lower the imprint, the longer the mass modulations take to reach a given level. This is in quantitative agreement with our 2-D hydrodynamics simulations. The results are promising for direct drive with a very uniform laser. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. Quantitative analysis of major and trace elements in NH4HF2-modified silicate rock powders by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Wenwu; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Hongyan

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we described a NH 4 HF 2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH 4 HF 2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d 80  rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder. The influences of the digestion parameters were investigated and optimized, including the evaporation stage of removing residual NH 4 HF 2 , sample homogenization, selection of the digestion vessel and calibration strategy of quantitative analysis. The optimized NH 4 HF 2 digestion method was applied to dissolve six silicate rock reference materials (BCR-2, BHVO-2, AGV-2, RGM-2, GSP-2, GSR-1) covering a wide range of rock types. Ten major elements and thirty-five trace elements were simultaneously analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The analytical results of the six reference materials generally agreed with the recommended values, with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. The analytical precision is within 5% for most major elements and within 10% for most trace elements. Compared with previous methods of LA-ICP-MS bulk analysis, our method enables the complete dissolution of refractory minerals, such as zircon, in intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks and limits contamination as well as the loss of volatile elements. Moreover, there are many advantages for the new technique, including reducing matrix effects between reference materials and samples, spiking the internal standard simply and feasibly and sample batch processing. The applicability filed of the new technique in this study was focused on the whole-rock analysis of igneous rock samples, which are from basic rocks to acid rocks (45% rock analysis

  8. Preparation of Nd-doped gadolinium-gallium garnet laser ceramic powder by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yan-ping; LIU Jing-he

    2006-01-01

    Preparation of Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 polycrystalline material by sol-gel method was preparated in this paper.The structure and the pattern of the sample were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis(TG-DTA),Infrared spectrum,XRD,TEM and electron spectrum,which indicated that the powder with good characteristics of 70-100 nm can be obtained by sintering at 1 000℃.It was shown that the chemical composition of the sample was agreed with experimental requirements by electron spectrum analysis.

  9. Anisotropic microstructure and superelasticity of additive manufactured NiTi alloy bulk builds using laser directed energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimber, Beth A. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamilton, Reginald F., E-mail: rfh13@psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Keist, Jayme; Palmer, Todd A. [Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16804 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The microstructure and superelasticity in additive manufactured NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. Using elementally blended Ni and Ti powder feedstock, Ni-rich build coupons were fabricated via the laser-based directed energy deposition (LDED) technique. The build volumes were large enough to extract tensile and compressive test specimens from selected locations for spatially resolving microconstituents and the underlying stress-induced martensitic phase transformation (SIMT) morphology. In the as-deposited condition, X-ray diffraction identified the B2 atomic crystal structure of the austenitic parent phase in NiTi SMAs, and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitates were the predominant microconstituent identified through scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure exhibited anisotropy, which was characterized by the Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitate morphology being coarsest nearest the substrate, while a finer morphology was observed farthest from the substrate. In-situ full-field deformation measurements calculated using digital image correlation confirmed that the SIMT predominately occurred in the finer precipitate morphology. Heat treatment reduced the degree of anisotropy, and DIC analysis revealed localized SIMT strains increased compared to the as-deposited condition.

  10. Large-area nanoimprinting on various substrates by reconfigurable maskless laser direct writing

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Daeho

    2012-08-10

    Laser-assisted, one-step direct nanoimprinting of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated to fabricate submicron structures including mesh, line, nanopillar and nanowire arrays. Master molds were fabricated with high-speed (200mms 1) laser direct writing (LDW) of negative or positive photoresists on Si wafers. The fabrication was completely free of lift-off or reactive ion etching processes. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps fabricated from master molds replicated nanoscale structures (down to 200nm) with no or negligible residual layers on various substrates. The low temperature and pressure used for nanoimprinting enabled direct nanofabrication on flexible substrates. With the aid of high-speed LDW, wafer scale 4inch direct nanoimprinting was demonstrated. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Residual stress determination of direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) inconel specimens and parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Unocic, Kinga A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maziasz, Philip J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bunn, Jeffrey R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fancher, Christopher M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peralta, Alonso [Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Sundarraj, Suresh [Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Neumann, James [Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Residual stress determinations and microstructural studies were performed on a series of Inconel 718Plus prisms built using Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) at Honeywell Aerospace (hereafter also referred to as Honeywell). The results are being used to validate and improve existing models at Honeywell, and ultimately will expedite the implementation of DMLS throughout various industrial sectors (automotive, biomedical, etc.).

  12. Analog direct-modulation behavior of semiconductor laser transmitters using optical FM demodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yabre, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of the analog modulation performance of a semiconductor laser transmitter which employs the direct optical FM demodulation. This analysis is based on the rate equations in which Langevin noise functions are included. The optical FM response has

  13. Engineering of refractive index in sulfide chalcogenide glass by direct laser writing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yaping; Gao, Yangqin; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Chew, Basil; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Zhao, Donghui; Jain, Himanshu

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) glass is an interesting material for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) as infrared (IR) or nonlinear optical components. In this paper, direct laser writing was applied to engineer the refractive index of As2S3 thin film

  14. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  15. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  16. Uniformity analysis for a direct-drive laser fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, L.D.; Skupsky, S.; Goldman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    We show the results of an analysis of the uniformity for a direct-drive reactor using 20, 32, 60, or 96 beams. Several of these options achieve less than the 1% nonuniformity that is required. These options are considered for the cases where the solid angle fraction of the beam ports is 2% and 8%. The analysis is facilitated by separating the contributions due to the geometrical effects related to the number and orientation of the beams from those due to the spatial profile of the individual beams. Emphasis is placed on the wavelength of the nonuniformities, as the shorter wavelength nonuniformities are more easily smoothed by thermal conduction within the target. The analysis demonstrates that the longer wavelengths can be minimized by suitable choices of geometry and by maintaining beam balance, whereas the shorter wavelength nonuniformities can be reduced by optimizing parameters such as the focal position and the spatial intensity profile of each beam. The tolerances required for beam-to-beam energy balance will be discussed

  17. Femtosecond Laser-Inscripted Direct Ultrafast Fabrication of a DNA Distributor Using Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojun Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A femtosecond laser can be used for single or multiple writing processes to create sub 10-μm lines or holes directly without the use of masks. In this study, we characterized the depth and width of micro-channels created by femtosecond laser micro-scribing in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS under various energy doses (1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% and laser beam passes (5, 10 and 15. Based on a microfluidic simulation in a bio-application, a DNA distributor was designed and fabricated based on an energy dose of 5% and a laser beam pass of 5. The simulated depth and width of the micro-channels was 3.58 and 5.27 μm, respectively. The depth and width of the micro-channels were linearly proportional to the energy dose and the number of laser beam passes. In a DNA distribution experiment, a brighter fluorescent intensity for YOYO-1 Iodide with DNA was observed in the middle channels with longer DNA. In addition, the velocity was the lowest as estimated in the computational simulation. The polymer processability of the femtosecond laser and the bio-applicability of the DNA distributor were successfully confirmed. Therefore, a promising technique for the maskless fabrication of sub 10-μm bio-microfluidic channels was demonstrated.

  18. Mask-free and programmable patterning of graphene by ultrafast laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao-Yan; Han, Dongdong; Tian, Ye; Shao, Ruiqiang; Wei, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a mask-free and programmable patterning of graphene. • Ultrafast laser can homogeneously reduce graphene oxides into micropatterns. • Desired graphene micropatterns could be created on flexible substrates. • Laser exposure duration shows influence on the conductivity of reduced graphene. • The method holds promise for fabrication and integration of graphene electronics. - Abstract: Reported here is a mask-free and programmable patterning of graphene by using femtosecond laser direct writing on graphene oxide (GO) films. Take advantage of the ultrahigh instantaneous intensity of the femtosecond laser pulse, and especially its nonlinear interactions with materials, the GO could be efficiently reduced under atmospheric condition at room temperature. Moreover, the designability of femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW) technique allow making graphene micropatterns arbitrarily according to the preprogrammed structures, which provides the feasibility for rational design, flexible fabrication and integration of graphene-based micro-devices. Raman spectra show that the reduced and patterned region is very homogeneous, which is confirmed by the almost consistent I D /I G ratio. The novel graphene patterning technique would provide a technical support for the development of graphene-based micro-devices for future electronics

  19. Non-Maxwellian electron distributions resulting from direct laser acceleration in near-critical plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toncian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The irradiation of few-nm-thick targets by a finite-contrast high-intensity short-pulse laser results in a strong pre-expansion of these targets at the arrival time of the main pulse. The targets decompress to near and lower than critical densities with plasmas extending over few micrometers, i.e. multiple wavelengths. The interaction of the main pulse with such a highly localized but inhomogeneous target leads to the generation of a short channel and further self-focusing of the laser beam. Experiments at the Glass Hybrid OPCPA Scaled Test-bed (GHOST laser system at University of Texas, Austin using such targets measured non-Maxwellian, peaked electron distribution with large bunch charge and high electron density in the laser propagation direction. These results are reproduced in 2D PIC simulations using the EPOCH code, identifying direct laser acceleration (DLA [1] as the responsible mechanism. This is the first time that DLA has been observed to produce peaked spectra as opposed to broad, Maxwellian spectra observed in earlier experiments [2]. This high-density electrons have potential applications as injector beams for a further wakefield acceleration stage as well as for pump-probe applications.

  20. Controlling the optical performance of transparent conducting oxides using direct laser interference patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Jana; Roch, Teja; Correia, Stelio; Eberhardt, Jens; Lasagni, Andrés Fabián

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a laser based process called Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) was used to fabricate micro-textured boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films to be used as electrodes in thin-film silicon solar cells. First, the ablation thresholds of the ZnO:B film were determined using a nanosecond pulsed laser at wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm (100 mJ/cm"2 and 89 mJ/cm"2, respectively). After that, DLIP experiments were performed at 355 nm wavelength. Line-like periodic surface structures with spatial periods ranging from 0.8 to 5.0 μm were fabricated using two interfering laser beams. It was found that the structuring process of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) is mainly based on a photo-thermal mechanism. The surface of the ZnO:B film was molten and evaporated at the interference maxima positions and the depth and width of the generated microfeatures depend on the laser parameters as well as the spatial period of the interference pattern. The optical properties of the structured TCOs were investigated as a function of the utilized laser processing parameters. Both diffuse and total transmission and the intensity of the diffraction orders were determined. These data were used to calculate the increase of the optical path of the transmitted light. - Highlights: • Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) on boron doped zinc oxide (LPCVD-ZnO:B) • No relevant decrease of total transmission • Periods of 1.5 μm provide large diffraction angle and good diffraction intensity. • Significant increase of optical path length could be reached.

  1. Controlling the optical performance of transparent conducting oxides using direct laser interference patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Jana; Roch, Teja [Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff-und Strahltechnik IWS, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Manufacturing Technology, George-Baehr-Str.1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Correia, Stelio; Eberhardt, Jens [Bosch Solar Energy AG, August-Broemel-Str. 6, 99310 Arnstadt (Germany); Lasagni, Andrés Fabián, E-mail: andres_fabian.lasagni@tu-dresden.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff-und Strahltechnik IWS, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Manufacturing Technology, George-Baehr-Str.1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a laser based process called Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) was used to fabricate micro-textured boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films to be used as electrodes in thin-film silicon solar cells. First, the ablation thresholds of the ZnO:B film were determined using a nanosecond pulsed laser at wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm (100 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 89 mJ/cm{sup 2}, respectively). After that, DLIP experiments were performed at 355 nm wavelength. Line-like periodic surface structures with spatial periods ranging from 0.8 to 5.0 μm were fabricated using two interfering laser beams. It was found that the structuring process of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) is mainly based on a photo-thermal mechanism. The surface of the ZnO:B film was molten and evaporated at the interference maxima positions and the depth and width of the generated microfeatures depend on the laser parameters as well as the spatial period of the interference pattern. The optical properties of the structured TCOs were investigated as a function of the utilized laser processing parameters. Both diffuse and total transmission and the intensity of the diffraction orders were determined. These data were used to calculate the increase of the optical path of the transmitted light. - Highlights: • Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) on boron doped zinc oxide (LPCVD-ZnO:B) • No relevant decrease of total transmission • Periods of 1.5 μm provide large diffraction angle and good diffraction intensity. • Significant increase of optical path length could be reached.

  2. Method of measuring directed electron velocities in flowing plasma using the incoherent regions of laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, B.A.; York, T.M.

    1979-02-01

    With the presumption that a shifted Maxwellian velocity distribution adequately describes the electrons in a flowing plasma, the details of a method to measure their directed velocity are described. The system consists of a ruby laser source and two detectors set 180 0 from each other and both set at 90 0 with respect to the incident laser beam. The lowest velocity that can be determined by this method depends on the electron thermal velocity. The application of this diagnostic to the measurement of flow velocities in plasma being lost from the ends of theta-pinch devices is described

  3. Design of titania nanotube structures by focused laser beam direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enachi, Mihai; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Sarua, Andrei; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report on electrochemical fabrication of titania films consisting of nanotubes (NTs) and their treatment by focused laser beam. The results of sample characterization by optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, and Raman scattering scanning spectroscopy are compared to those inherent to specimens subjected to thermal treatment in a furnace. The obtained data demonstrate possibilities for controlling crystallographic structure of TiO 2 NTs by focused laser beam direct writing. These findings open new prospects for the design and fabrication of spatial architectures based on titania nanotubes

  4. Directed Acceleration of Electrons from a Solid Surface by Sub-10-fs Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, F.; Hidding, B.; Osterholz, J.; Hemmers, D.; Pretzler, G.; Karmakar, A.; Pukhov, A.

    2009-01-01

    Electrons have been accelerated from solid target surfaces by sub-10-fs laser pulses of 120 μJ energy which were focused to an intensity of 2x10 16 W/cm 2 . The electrons have a narrow angular distribution, and their observed energies exceed 150 keV. We show that these energies are not to be attributed to collective plasma effects but are mainly gained directly via repeated acceleration in the transient field pattern created by incident and reflected laser, alternating with phase-shift-generating scattering events in the solid.

  5. Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Quang Cong [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moléculaire, UMR 8537, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, CentraleSupélec, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 61 avenue du Président Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Dam Thuy Trang; Do, Minh Thanh; Luong, Mai Hoang; Journet, Bernard; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Lai, Ngoc Diep, E-mail: nlai@lpqm.ens-cachan.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moléculaire, UMR 8537, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, CentraleSupélec, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 61 avenue du Président Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France)

    2016-05-02

    We demonstrate the fabrication of desired structures with feature size below the diffraction limit by use of a positive photoresist. The direct laser writing technique employing a continuous-wave laser was used to optically induce a local thermal effect in a positive photoresist, which then allowed the formation of solid nanostructures. This technique enabled us to realize multi-dimensional sub-microstructures by use of a positive photoresist, with a feature size down to 57 nm. This mechanism acting on positive photoresists opens a simple and low-cost way for nanofabrication.

  6. UV waveguides light fabricated in fluoropolymer CYTOP by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Yasutaka; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2010-01-18

    We have fabricated optical waveguides inside the UV-transparent polymer, CYTOP, by femtosecond laser direct writing for propagating UV light in biochip applications. Femtosecond laser irradiation is estimated to increase the refractive index of CYTOP by 1.7 x 10(-3) due to partial bond breaking in CYTOP. The waveguide in CYTOP has propagation losses of 0.49, 0.77, and 0.91 dB/cm at wavelengths of 632.8, 355, and 266 nm, respectively.

  7. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-19

    Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  8. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  9. Gelatin-based laser direct-write technique for the precise spatial patterning of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2011-03-01

    Laser direct-writing provides a method to pattern living cells in vitro, to study various cell-cell interactions, and to build cellular constructs. However, the materials typically used may limit its long-term application. By utilizing gelatin coatings on the print ribbon and growth surface, we developed a new approach for laser cell printing that overcomes the limitations of Matrigel™. Gelatin is free of growth factors and extraneous matrix components that may interfere with cellular processes under investigation. Gelatin-based laser direct-write was able to successfully pattern human dermal fibroblasts with high post-transfer viability (91% ± 3%) and no observed double-strand DNA damage. As seen with atomic force microscopy, gelatin offers a unique benefit in that it is present temporarily to allow cell transfer, but melts and is removed with incubation to reveal the desired application-specific growth surface. This provides unobstructed cellular growth after printing. Monitoring cell location after transfer, we show that melting and removal of gelatin does not affect cellular placement; cells maintained registry within 5.6 ± 2.5 μm to the initial pattern. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gelatin in laser direct-writing to create spatially precise cell patterns with the potential for applications in tissue engineering, stem cell, and cancer research.

  10. Laser direct synthesis and patterning of silver nano/microstructures on a polymer substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Kai; Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2014-08-27

    This study presents a novel approach for the rapid fabrication of conductive nano/microscale metal structures on flexible polymer substrate (polyimide). Silver film is simultaneously synthesized and patterned on the polyimide substrate using an advanced continuous wave (CW) laser direct writing technology and a transparent, particle-free reactive silver ion ink. The location and shape of the resulting silver patterns are written by a laser beam from a digitally controlled micromirror array device. The silver patterns fabricated by this laser direct synthesis and patterning (LDSP) process exhibit the remarkably low electrical resistivity of 2.1 μΩ cm, which is compatible to the electrical resistivity of bulk silver. This novel LDSP process requires no vacuum chamber or photomasks, and the steps needed for preparation of the modified reactive silver ink are simple and straightforward. There is none of the complexity and instability associated with the synthesis of the nanoparticles that are encountered for the conventional laser direct writing technology which involves nanoparticle sintering process. This LDSP technology is an advanced method of nano/microscale selective metal patterning on flexible substrates that is fast and environmentally benign and shows potential as a feasible process for the roll-to-roll manufacturing of large area flexible electronic devices.

  11. Experimental investigation on densification behavior and surface roughness of AlSi10Mg powders produced by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-zhi; Wang, Sen; Wu, Jiao-jiao

    2017-11-01

    Effects of laser energy density (LED) on densities and surface roughness of AlSi10Mg samples processed by selective laser melting were studied. The densification behaviors of the SLM manufactured AlSi10Mg samples at different LEDs were characterized by a solid densitometer, an industrial X-ray and CT detection system. A field emission scanning electron microscope, an automatic optical measuring system, and a surface profiler were used for measurements of surface roughness. The results show that relatively high density can be obtained with the point distance of 80-105 μm and the exposure time of 140-160 μs. The LED has an important influence on the surface morphology of the forming part, too high LED may lead to balling effect, while too low LED tends to produce defects, such as porosity and microcrack, and then affect surface roughness and porosities of the parts finally.

  12. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Scott; Baca, Georgina; O'Connor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  13. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Significant theoretical and experimental progress towards the validation of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been recently made at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Direct-drive ICF offers the potential for high-gain implosions and is a leading candidate for an inertial fusion energy power plant. LLE's base-line direct-drive ignition design for NIF is an 'all-DT' design that has a 1-D gain of ∼45. Recent calculations show that targets composed of foam shells, wicked with DT, can potentially achieve 1-D gains of ∼100. LLE experiments are conducted on the OMEGA 60-beam, 30-kJ, UV laser system. Beam smoothing of OMEGA includes 1-THz, 2-D SSD and polarization smoothing. Cryogenic D2 and plastic shell (warm) spherical targets and a comprehensive suite of x-ray, nuclear, charged particle and optical diagnostics are used in these experiments. Future experiments will use cryogenic DT targets. (author)

  14. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company; Baca, Georgina [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company; O' Connor, Michael [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company

    2015-12-31

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation on cladding of corrosion-erosion resistant materials by a high power direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Parisa

    advantages due to creating coating layers with superior properties in terms of purity, homogeneity, low dilution, hardness, bonding, and microstructure. In the development of modern materials for hardfacing applications, the functionality is often improved by combining materials with different properties into composites. Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) coating is a composite material with two constituent parts, i.e., matrix and the reinforcement. This class of composites are addressing improved mechanical properties such as stiffness, strength, toughness, and tribological and chemical resistance. Fabrication of MMCs is to achieve a combination of properties not achievable by any of the materials acting alone. MMCs have attracted significant attention for decades due to their combination of wear-resistivity, corrosion-resistivity, thermal, electrical and magnetic properties. Presently, there is a strong emphasis on the development of advanced functional coatings for corrosion, erosion, and wear protection for different industrial applications. In this research, a laser cladding system equipped with a high power direct diode laser associated with gas driven metal powder delivery system was used to develop advanced MMC coatings. The high power direct diode laser used in this study offers wider beam spot, shorter wavelength and uniform power distribution. These properties make the cladding set-up ideal for coating due to fewer cladding tracks, lower operation cost, higher laser absorption, and improved coating qualities. In order to prevent crack propagation, porosity, and uniform dispersion of carbides in MMC coating, cladding procedure was assisted by an induction heater as a second heat source. The developed defect free MMC coatings were combined with nano-size particles of WC, rare earth (RE) element (La2O3), and Mo as a refractory metal to enhance mechanical properties, chemical composition, and subsequently improve the tribological performance of the coatings. The resistance

  16. Experimental configuration of direct drive cylindrical implosions on the Omega Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.W.; Tubbs, D.L.; Beck, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Details about the cylindrical implosions using direct-drive irradiation on the OMEGA Laser facility are provided. The experimental configuration, including orientation, construction, and mounting of the targets is described. An attempt to characterize the modulation transfer function of the primary x-ray framing camera diagnostic results in insufficient exposure contrast but relative agreement with other determinations. The x-ray intensity of the titanium backlighter driven by the 2.5-nsec linear ramp of the laser beams is described, and the relative intensity on film is compared to similar Nova experiments. The parallax effects of different length marker layers of high-opacity dichloropolystyrene is measured, resulting in the conclusion that the marker layer length should be matched to the laser drive illumination profile

  17. CO2 laser direct writing of silver lines on epoxy resin from solid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.G.; Chen, C.H.; Zheng, J.S.; Huang, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    A technique of CO 2 laser direct writing from solid film was proposed in this paper. Patterns of silver lines were locally deposited on the non-conductive substrate using a preset layer of silver compound solid film, which was irradiated by focused CO 2 laser beam. The deposits were analyzed by XPS and EPMA. Results showed that metallic silver was dominant with an even distribution on the surface of the substrate, and part of the deposited silver had diffused into the substrate interior. The deposits had catalytic activity for the further electroless copper plating and had strong adhesion to the substrate. At last, the deposition mechanism and the dependence of the width of silver lines on the laser power and scan speed were roughly explored

  18. Design of LD in-band direct-pumping side surface polished micro-rod Nd:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Qi; Wang Fei; Liu Qiang; Gong Ma-Li

    2016-01-01

    To diminish the thermal load, two ways, that is, in-band direct pumping and micro-rod crystal, could be adopted at the same time. The efficiency of LD in-band direct-pumping side surface polished micro-rod Nd:YVO 4 laser is numerically analyzed. By optimizing parameters such as crystal length, laser mode radius, pump beam radius, doping concentration and crystal cross-section size, the overall efficiency can reach over 50%. It is found that with micro-rod crystal implemented in the laser oscillator, high overall efficiency LD in-band direct-pumping Nd:YVO 4 laser could be realized. High efficiency combined with low thermal load makes this laser an outstanding scheme for building high-power Nd:YVO 4 lasers. (paper)

  19. Device for preparing combinatorial libraries in powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shoufeng; Evans, Julian R G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a powder-metering, -mixing, and -dispensing mechanism that can be used as a method for producing large numbers of samples for metallurgical evaluation or electrical or mechanical testing from multicomponent metal and cermet powder systems. It is designed to make use of the same commercial powders that are used in powder metallurgy and, therefore, to produce samples that are faithful to the microstructure of finished products. The particle assemblies produced by the device could be consolidated by die pressing, isostatic pressing, laser sintering, or direct melting. The powder metering valve provides both on/off and flow rate control of dry powders in open capillaries using acoustic vibration. The valve is simple and involves no relative movement, avoiding seizure with fine powders. An orchestra of such valves can be arranged on a building platform to prepare multicomponent combinatorial libraries. As with many combinatorial devices, identification and evaluation of sources of mixing error as a function of sample size is mandatory. Such an analysis is presented.

  20. Laser cladding of turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepeleva, L.; Medres, B.; Kaplan, W.D.; Bamberger, M.

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study of two different techniques for the application of wear-resistant coatings for contact surfaces of shroud shelves of gas turbine engine blades (GTE) has been conducted. Wear-resistant coatings were applied on In713 by laser cladding with direct injection of the cladding powder into the melt pool. Laser cladding was conducted with a TRUMPF-2500, CW-CO 2 laser. The laser cladding was compared with commercially available plasma cladding with wire. Both plasma and laser cladded zones were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the laser cladded zone has a higher microhardness value (650-820 HV) compared with that of the plasma treated material (420-440 HV). This is a result of the significant reduction in grain size in the case of laser cladding. Unlike the plasma cladded zones, the laser treated material is free of micropores and microcracks. (orig.)

  1. Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Zheng, Cheng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; In, Jung Bin; Sakellari, Ioanna; Raman, Rajesh N; Matthews, Manyalibo J; Elhadj, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of a thin film with a beam-shaped laser is proposed to achieve site-selectively controlled dewetting of the film into nanoscale structures. As a proof of concept, the laser-directed dewetting of an amorphous silicon thin film on a glass substrate is demonstrated using a donut-shaped laser beam. Upon irradiation of a single laser pulse, the silicon film melts and dewets on the substrate surface. The irradiation with the donut beam induces an unconventional lateral temperature profile in the film, leading to thermocapillary-induced transport of the molten silicon to the center of the beam spot. Upon solidification, the ultrathin amorphous silicon film is transformed to a crystalline silicon nanodome of increased height. This morphological change enables further dimensional reduction of the nanodome as well as removal of the surrounding film material by isotropic silicon etching. These results suggest that laser-based dewetting of thin films can be an effective way for scalable manufacturing of patterned nanostructures. (paper)

  2. Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; In, Jung Bin; Zheng, Cheng; Sakellari, Ioanna; Raman, Rajesh N; Matthews, Manyalibo J; Elhadj, Selim; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2015-04-24

    Irradiation of a thin film with a beam-shaped laser is proposed to achieve site-selectively controlled dewetting of the film into nanoscale structures. As a proof of concept, the laser-directed dewetting of an amorphous silicon thin film on a glass substrate is demonstrated using a donut-shaped laser beam. Upon irradiation of a single laser pulse, the silicon film melts and dewets on the substrate surface. The irradiation with the donut beam induces an unconventional lateral temperature profile in the film, leading to thermocapillary-induced transport of the molten silicon to the center of the beam spot. Upon solidification, the ultrathin amorphous silicon film is transformed to a crystalline silicon nanodome of increased height. This morphological change enables further dimensional reduction of the nanodome as well as removal of the surrounding film material by isotropic silicon etching. These results suggest that laser-based dewetting of thin films can be an effective way for scalable manufacturing of patterned nanostructures.

  3. 3D Laser Scanning Assisted by Ordinary Plane Mirror for Non-direct Viewing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial 3D laser scanning is one of principal methods to get the geometric information of object surface,and the integrity of the scanned object is a basic requirement in data acquisition. In order to solve the missing point cloud problem due to the scanning dead angle caused by confined working space,this paper proposes a method using ordinary plane mirror to obtain laser scanning data for non-direct viewing area according to the plane mirror reflection principle,analyzes the influence mechanism of the ordinary plane mirror on the propagation path and distance of laser beam,deduces the coordinate equation of the object point corresponding to the image point reflected by ordinary plane mirror in laser scanning. Given the laser scanning characteristic,this paper introduces a mirror reflection system included target balls and ordinary plane mirror,and expounds the system construction,system calibration and constructing method of system coordinate system. The feasibility and precision of the method are verified by experiments.

  4. Flame Characterization Using a Tunable Solid-State Laser with Direct UV Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mohammed M.; Dubinskii, Mark A.; Misra, Prabhakar

    1996-01-01

    Tunable solid-state lasers with direct UV pumping, based on d-f transitions of rare earth ions incorporated in wide band-gap dielectric crystals, are reliable sources of laser radiation that are suitable for excitation of combustion-related free radicals. We have employed such a laser for analytical flame characterization utilizing Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. LIF spectra of alkane-air flames (used for studying combustion processes under normal and microgravity conditions) excited in the region of the A-X (0,0) OH-absorption band have been recorded and found to be both temperature-sensitive and positionally-sensitive. In addition, also clearly noticeable was the sensitivity of the spectra to the specific wavelength used for data registration. The LiCAF:Ce laser shows good prospects for being able to cover the spectral region between 280 and 340 nm and therefore be used excitation of combustion-intermediates such as the hydroxyl OH, methoxy CH30 and methylthio CH3S radicals.

  5. A predictive thermal dynamic model for parameter generation in the laser assisted direct write process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Shuo; Fearon, Eamonn; Wellburn, Dan; Sato, Taku; Edwardson, Stuart; Dearden, G; Watkins, K G

    2011-01-01

    The laser assisted direct write (LADW) method can be used to generate electrical circuitry on a substrate by depositing metallic ink and curing the ink thermally by a laser. Laser curing has emerged over recent years as a novel yet efficient alternative to oven curing. This method can be used in situ, over complicated 3D contours of large parts (e.g. aircraft wings) and selectively cure over heat sensitive substrates, with little or no thermal damage. In previous studies, empirical methods have been used to generate processing windows for this technique, relating to the several interdependent processing parameters on which the curing quality and efficiency strongly depend. Incorrect parameters can result in a track that is cured in some areas and uncured in others, or in damaged substrates. This paper addresses the strong need for a quantitative model which can systematically output the processing conditions for a given combination of ink, substrate and laser source; transforming the LADW technique from a purely empirical approach, to a simple, repeatable, mathematically sound, efficient and predictable process. The method comprises a novel and generic finite element model (FEM) that for the first time predicts the evolution of the thermal profile of the ink track during laser curing and thus generates a parametric map which indicates the most suitable combination of parameters for process optimization. Experimental data are compared with simulation results to verify the accuracy of the model.

  6. Summary of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen, Direct Metal Laser Sintering Injector Testing and Evaluation Effort at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory; Bullard, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a significant advancement in the area of additive manufacturing technology. One area that has seen substantial expansion in application has been laser sintering (or melting) in a powder bed. This technology is often termed 3D printing or various acronyms that may be industry, process, or company specific. Components manufactured via 3D printing have the potential to significantly reduce development and fabrication time and cost. The usefulness of 3D printed components is influenced by several factors such as material properties and surface roughness. This paper details three injectors that were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to evaluate the utility of 3D printed components for rocket engine applications. The three injectors were tested in a hot-fire environment with chamber pressures of approximately 1400 psia. One injector was a 28 element design printed by Directed Manufacturing. The other two injectors were identical 40 element designs printed by Directed Manufacturing and Solid Concepts. All the injectors were swirl-coaxial designs and were subscale versions of a full-scale injector currently in fabrication. The test and evaluation programs for the 28 element and 40 element injectors provided a substantial amount of data that confirms the feasibility of 3D printed parts for future applications. The operating conditions of previously tested, conventionally manufactured injectors were reproduced in the 28 and 40 element programs in order to contrast the performance of each. Overall, the 3D printed injectors demonstrated comparable performance to the conventionally manufactured units. The design features of the aforementioned injectors can readily be implemented in future applications with a high degree of confidence.

  7. Passive directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometry by the two-wavelength quadrature homodyne technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen

    2003-07-01

    We report a method for passive optical directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometers. For this purpose frequency-shift elements such as acousto-optic modulators, which are bulky and difficult to align during assembly, have traditionally been employed. We propose to use a quadrature homodyne technique to achieve directional discrimination of the fluid flow without any frequency-shift elements. It is based on the employment of two laser wavelengths, which generate two interference fringe systems with a phase shift of a quarter of the common fringe spacing. Measurement signal pairs with a direction-dependent phase shift of +/- pi/2 are generated. As a robust signal-processing technique, the cross-correlation technique is used. The principles of quadrature homodyne laser-Doppler anemometry are investigated. A setup that provides a constant phase shift of pi/2 throughout the entire measurement volume was achieved with both single-mode and multimode radiation. The directional discrimination was successfully verified with wind tunnel measurements. The complete passive technique offers the potential of building miniaturized measurement heads that can be integrated, e.g., into wind tunnel models.

  8. Sub-100 fs high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Markovic, Vesna; Pallmann, Wolfgang; Resan, Bojan

    2016-03-01

    Ti:sapphire oscillators are a proven technology to generate sub-100 fs (even sub-10 fs) pulses in the near infrared and are widely used in many high impact scientific fields. However, the need for a bulky, expensive and complex pump source, typically a frequency-doubled multi-watt neodymium or optically pumped semiconductor laser, represents the main obstacle to more widespread use. The recent development of blue diodes emitting over 1 W has opened up the possibility of directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillators. Beside the lower cost and footprint, a direct diode pumping provides better reliability, higher efficiency and better pointing stability to name a few. The challenges that it poses are lower absorption of Ti:sapphire at available diode wavelengths and lower brightness compared to typical green pump lasers. For practical applications such as bio-medicine and nano-structuring, output powers in excess of 100 mW and sub-100 fs pulses are required. In this paper, we demonstrate a high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator without active cooling. The SESAM modelocking ensures reliable self-starting and robust operation. We will present two configurations emitting 460 mW in 82 fs pulses and 350 mW in 65 fs pulses, both operating at 92 MHz. The maximum obtained pulse energy reaches 5 nJ. A double-sided pumping scheme with two high power blue diode lasers was used for the output power scaling. The cavity design and the experimental results will be discussed in more details.

  9. Prototyping chips in minutes: Direct Laser Plotting (DLP) of functional microfluidic structures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Limu

    2013-10-10

    We report a fast and simple prototyping method to fabricate polymer-based microfluidic chips using Direct Laser Plotting (DLP) technique, by which various functional micro-structures can be realized within minutes, in a mask-free and out-of-cleanroom fashion. A 2D Computer-Aid-Design (CAD) software was employed to layout the required micro-structures and micro-channels, a CO2 laser plotter was then used to construct the microstructures. The desired patterns can be plotted directly on PDMS substrates and bio-compatible polymer films by manipulating the strength and density of laser pulses. With the DLP technique, chip-embedded micro-electrodes, micro-mixers and 3D microfluidic chips with 5 layers, which normally require several days of work in a cleanroom facility, can be fabricated in minutes in common laboratory. This novel method can produce microfluidic channels with average feature size of 100 μm, while feature size of 50 μm or smaller is achievable by making use of the interference effect from laser impulsion. In this report, we present the optimized parameters for successful fabrication of 3D microchannels, micro-mixers and microfluidic chips for protein concentration measurements (Bovine Serum Albumine (BSA) test), and a novel procedure to pattern flexible embedding electrodes on PDMS-based microfluidic chips. DLP offers a convenient and low cost alternative to conventional microfluidic channel fabrication technique which relies on complicated and hazardous soft lithography process.

  10. A 50-kW Module Power Station of Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Meador, W. E.; Conway, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 50 kW Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser (DSPIL) module was developed for a space-based power station which transmits its coherent-beam power to users such as the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites with large (greater than 25 kW) electric power requirements. Integration of multiple modules would provide an amount of power that exceeds the power of a single module by combining and directing the coherent beams to the user's receiver. The model developed for the DSPIL system conservatively predicts the laser output power (50 kW) that appears much less than the laser output (93 kW) obtained from the gain volume ratio extrapolation of experimental data. The difference in laser outputs may be attributed to reflector configurations adopted in both design and experiment. Even though the photon absorption by multiple reflections in experimental cavity setup was more efficient, the maximum secondary absorption amounts to be only 24.7 percent of the primary. However, the gain volume ratio shows 86 percent more power output than theoretical estimation that is roughly 60 percent more than the contribution by the secondary absorption. Such a difference indicates that the theoretical model adopted in the study underestimates the overall performance of the DSPIL. This fact may tolerate more flexible and radical selection of design parameters than used in this design study. The design achieves an overall specific power of approximately 5 W/kg and total mass of 10 metric tons.

  11. UV Direct Laser Interference Patterning of polyurethane substrates as tool for tuning its surface wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevam-Alves, Regina [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13560-970 São Carlos (Brazil); Günther, Denise; Dani, Sophie; Eckhardt, Sebastian; Roch, Teja [Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, Winterbergstr. 28, Dresden 01277 (Germany); Chair for Large Area Laser Based Surface Micro/Nano-Structuring, Institute for Manufacturing Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 3c, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Mendonca, Cleber R., E-mail: crmendon@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13560-970 São Carlos (Brazil); Cestari, Ismar N. [Heart Institute (InCOr), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo 05403-000 (Brazil); Lasagni, Andrés F., E-mail: andres_fabian.lasagni@tu-dresden.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, Winterbergstr. 28, Dresden 01277 (Germany); Chair for Large Area Laser Based Surface Micro/Nano-Structuring, Institute for Manufacturing Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 3c, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • First reported experiments on Direct Laser Interference Patterning of polyurethane. • First reported sub-micrometer structures (feature size ∼250 nm) fabricated in polyurethane materials using laser processing technologies. • Anisotropic wetting behavior of structured surfaces and possibility to tune the contact angle as function of surface structure parameters. - Abstract: Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) is a versatile tool for the fabrication of micro and sub-micropatterns on different materials. In this work, DLIP was used to produce periodic surface structures on polyurethane (PU) substrates with spatial periods ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 μm. The influence of the laser energy density on the quality and topographical characteristics of the produced micropatterns was investigated. To characterize the surface topography of the produced structures, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Confocal Microscopy (CFM) were utilized. It was found that high quality and defect free periodic line-like patterns with spatial periods down to 500 nm could be fabricated, with structure depths between 0.88 up to 1.25 μm for spatial periods larger than 2.0 μm and up to 270 nm for spatial periods between 500 nm and 1.0 μm. Measurements of the contact angle of water on the treated surface allowed to identify an anisotropic wetting behavior depending mainly on the spatial period and filling factor of the structured surfaces.

  12. A HWIL test facility of infrared imaging laser radar using direct signal injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Lu, Wei; Wang, Chunhui; Wang, Qi

    2005-01-01

    Laser radar has been widely used these years and the hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of laser radar become important because of its low cost and high fidelity compare with On-the-Fly testing and whole digital simulation separately. Scene generation and projection two key technologies of hardware-in-the-loop testing of laser radar and is a complicated problem because the 3D images result from time delay. The scene generation process begins with the definition of the target geometry and reflectivity and range. The real-time 3D scene generation computer is a PC based hardware and the 3D target models were modeled using 3dsMAX. The scene generation software was written in C and OpenGL and is executed to extract the Z-buffer from the bit planes to main memory as range image. These pixels contain each target position x, y, z and its respective intensity and range value. Expensive optical injection technologies of scene projection such as LDP array, VCSEL array, DMD and associated scene generation is ongoing. But the optical scene projection is complicated and always unaffordable. In this paper a cheaper test facility was described that uses direct electronic injection to provide rang images for laser radar testing. The electronic delay and pulse shaping circuits inject the scenes directly into the seeker's signal processing unit.

  13. Studies of the Influence of Beam Profile and Cooling Conditions on the Laser Deposition of a Directionally-Solidified Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the laser deposition of single crystal and directionally-solidified superalloys, it is desired to form laser deposits with high volume fractions of columnar grains by suppressing the columnar-to-equiaxed transition efficiently. In this paper, the influence of beam profile (circular and square shapes and cooling conditions (natural cooling and forced cooling on the geometric morphology and microstructure of deposits were experimentally studied in the laser deposition of a directionally-solidified superalloy, IC10, and the mechanisms of influence were revealed through a numerical simulation of the thermal processes during laser deposition. The results show that wider and thinner deposits were obtained with the square laser beam than those with the circular laser beam, regardless of whether natural or forced cooling conditions was used. The heights and contact angles of deposits were notably increased due to the reduced substrate temperatures by the application of forced cooling for both laser beam profiles. Under natural cooling conditions, columnar grains formed epitaxially at both the center and the edges of the deposits with the square laser beam, but only at the center of the deposits with the circular laser beam; under forced cooling conditions, columnar grains formed at both the center and the edges of deposits regardless of the laser beam profile. The high ratios of thermal gradient and solidification velocity in the height direction of the deposits were favorable to forming deposits with higher volume fractions of columnar grains.

  14. Evidence for highly localized damage in internal tin and powder-in-tube Nb{sub 3}Sn strands rolled before reaction obtained from coupled magneto-optical imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyanskii, A A; Lee, P J; Jewell, M C; Larbalestier, D C [Applied Superconductivity Center, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Barzi, E; Turrioni, D; Zlobin, A V [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Nb{sub 3}Sn strands for high-current, high-field magnets must be cabled before reaction while the conductor is still composed of ductile components. Even though still in the ductile, deformable state, significant damage can occur in this step, which expresses itself by inhomogeneous A15 formation, Sn leakage or even worse effects during later reaction. In this study, we simulate cabling damage by rolling recent high performance powder-in-tube (PIT) and internal tin (IT) strands in controlled increments, applying standard Nb{sub 3}Sn reaction heat treatments, and then examining the local changes using magneto-optical imaging (MOI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). These combined characterizations allow any local damage to the filament architecture to be made clear. MOI directly reveals the local variation of superconductivity while CLSM is extremely sensitive in revealing Sn leakage beyond the diffusion barrier into the stabilizing Cu. These techniques reveal a markedly different response to deformation by the PIT and IT strands. The study demonstrates that these tools can provide a local, thorough, and detailed view of how strands degrade and thus complement more complex extracted strand studies.

  15. Ultrafast direct imprinting of nanostructures in metals by pulsed laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bo; Keimel, Chris; Chou, Stephen Y

    2010-01-01

    We report a method of one-step direct patterning of metallic nanostructures. In the method, termed laser assisted direct imprinting (LADI), the surface of a metal film on a substrate is melted by a single excimer laser pulse and subsequently imprinted within ∼100 ns using a transparent quartz mold, while the substrate is kept at a low temperature and in a solid phase. Using LADI, we imprinted gratings with ∼100 nm linewidth, 100 nm depth, and 200 nm pitch, as well as isolated mesas of ∼20 μm size, in Al, Au, Cu and Ni thin films. We found that the quartz mold was able to imprint metals even at temperatures higher than its melting point. The technique could be extended to other metals regardless of their ductility and hardness, and would find applications in photonic and plasmonic device production.

  16. Direct welding of glass and metal by 1  kHz femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Cheng, Guanghua

    2015-10-20

    In the welding process between similar or dissimilar materials, inserting an intermediate layer and pressure assistance are usually thought to be necessary. In this paper, the direct welding between alumina-silicate glass and metal (aluminum, copper, and steel), under exposure from 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses without any auxiliary processes, is demonstrated. The micron/nanometer-sized metal particles induced by laser ablation were considered to act as the adhesive in the welding process. The welding parameters were optimized by varying the pulse energy and the translation velocity of the sample. The shear joining strength characterized by a shear force testing equipment was as high as 2.34 MPa. This direct bonding technology has potential for applications in medical devices, sensors, and photovoltaic devices.

  17. Quasi-crystalline and disordered photonic structures fabricated using direct laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnik, Artem D.; Pinegin, Konstantin V.; Bulashevich, Grigorii A.; Rybin, Mikhail V.; Limonov, Mikhail F.; Samusev, Kirill B.

    2017-09-01

    Direct laser writing is a rapid prototyping technology that has been utilized for the fabrication of micro- and nano-scale materials that have a perfect structure in most of the cases. In this study we exploit the direct laser writing to create several classes of non-periodic materials, such as quasi-crystalline lattices and three-dimensional (3D) objects with an orientation disorder in structural elements. Among quasi-crystalline lattices we consider Penrose tiling and Lévy-type photonic glasses. Images of the fabricated structures are obtained with a scanning electron microscope. In experiment we study the optical diffraction from 3D woodpile photonic structures with orientation disorder and analyze diffraction patters observed on a flat screen positioned behind the sample. With increasing of the disorder degree, we find an impressive transformation of the diffraction patterns from perfect Laue picture to a speckle pattern.

  18. 2D modeling of direct laser metal deposition process using a finite particle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anedaf, T.; Abbès, B.; Abbès, F.; Li, Y. M.

    2018-05-01

    Direct laser metal deposition is one of the material additive manufacturing processes used to produce complex metallic parts. A thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena is required to obtain a high-quality parts. In this work, a mathematical model is presented to simulate the coaxial laser direct deposition process tacking into account of mass addition, heat transfer, and fluid flow with free surface and melting. The fluid flow in the melt pool together with mass and energy balances are solved using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software NOGRID-points, based on the meshless Finite Pointset Method (FPM). The basis of the computations is a point cloud, which represents the continuum fluid domain. Each finite point carries all fluid information (density, velocity, pressure and temperature). The dynamic shape of the molten zone is explicitly described by the point cloud. The proposed model is used to simulate a single layer cladding.

  19. Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S C; Man, B Y; Jiang, S Z; Chen, C S; Liu, M; Yang, C; Gao, S B; Zhang, C; Feng, D J; Huang, Q J; Hu, G D; Chen, X F

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method for the direct metal-free growth of graphene on quartz substrate. The direct-grown graphene yields excellent nonlinear saturable absorption properties and is demonstrated to be suitable as a saturable absorber (SA) for an ultrafast solid-state laser. Nearly Fourier-limited 367 fs was obtained at a central wavelength of 1048 nm with a repetition rate of 105.7 MHz. At a pump power of 7.95 W, the average output power was 1.93 W and the highest pulse energy reached 18.3 nJ, with a peak power of 49.8 kW. Our work opens an easy route for making a reliable graphene SA with a mode-locking technique and also displays an exciting prospect in making low-cost and ultrafast lasers. (letter)

  20. Controllable assembly of silver nanoparticles induced by femtosecond laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huan; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Wang, Jian-Nan; Wang, Lei; Xia, Hong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Ding, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We report controllable assembly of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for patterning of silver microstructures. The assembly is induced by femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW). A tightly focused femtosecond laser beam is capable of trapping and driving Ag NPs to form desired micropatterns with a high resolution of ∼190 nm. Taking advantage of the ‘direct writing’ feature, three microelectrodes have been integrated with a microfluidic chip; two silver-based microdevices including a microheater and a catalytic reactor have been fabricated inside a microfluidic channel for chip functionalization. The FsLDW-induced programmable assembly of Ag NPs may open up a new way to the designable patterning of silver microstructures toward flexible fabrication and integration of functional devices. (focus issue paper)

  1. In-volume structuring of a bilayered polymer foil using direct laser interference patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößler, Florian; Günther, Katja; Lasagni, Andrés F.

    2018-05-01

    Periodic surface patterns can provide materials with special optical properties, which are usable in decorative or security applications. However, they can be sensitive to contact wear and thus their lifetime and functionality are limited. This study describes the use of direct laser interference patterning for structuring a multilayered polymer film at its interface creating periodic in-volume structures which are resistant to contact wear. The spatial period of the structures are varied in the range of 1.0 μm to 2.0 μm in order to produce decorative elements. The pattern formation at the interface is explained using cross sectional observations and a thermal simulation of the temperature evolution during the laser treatment at the interface. Both, the diffraction efficiency and direct transmission are characterized by light intensity measurements to describe the optical behavior of the produced periodic structures and a decorative application example is presented.

  2. Reduction of deposition asymmetries in directly driven ion-beam and laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have developed a procedure for reducing energy-dependent asymmetry in spherical targets driven directly by ion or laser beams. This work is part of a strategy for achieving illumination symmetry in such targets, which they propose as an alternative to those in the literature. This strategy allows an axially symmetric placement of beamlets, which would be convenient for some driver or reactor scenarios. It also allows the use of beam currents or energy fluxes to help reduce deposition asymmetry

  3. Ultrafast directional beam switching in coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, C. Z.; Goorjian, P.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a strategy to performing ultrafast directional beam switching using two coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The proposed strategy is demonstrated for two VCSELs of 5.6 μm in diameter placed about 1 μm apart from the edges, showing a switching speed of 42 GHz with a maximum far-field angle span of about 10 degree. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  4. Spontaneous and artificial direct nanostructuring of solid surface by extreme ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Prukner, Václav; Melich, Radek; Psota, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2016), s. 11-22 ISSN 0263-0346 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometer * Aspheric interferometer mirrors * Multilayer reflection coating for 46.9 nm * Ar8+ laser application * XUV direct nanostructuring Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0263034615000786

  5. Center frequency shift and reduction of feedback in directly modulated external cavity lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, G.; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Olesen, H.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown experimentally and theoretically that a center frequency shift occurs when an external cavity laser is directly modulated. The shift can be observed even when the frequency deviation is small compared to the roundtrip frequency of the external cavity and can qualitatively be explained...... by a reduction in the effective feedback level due to modulation. The frequency shift was measured as a function of modulation frequency and current, and frequency shifts up to 350 MHz were observed...

  6. The space-time evolution of an electrical discharge directed by a laser spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asinovskii, E.I.; Vasilyak, L.M.; Unkovskii, S.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    The study of electrical discharges directed by a laser spark has been made necessary by the creation of new types of switches, plasma antennas, and lightning rods, channels for the transport of charged particle beams in inertial thermonuclear fusion devices, and also for modeling the processes in streak lightning. For the most part, previous studies have explored the feasibility of creating such discharges, depending on experimental conditions, and proposed possible mechanisms for the development of discharges, e.g., the stepwise nature of its propagation. A model was proposed in which the discharge front propagates as an ionization wave. This model was based on measurements of the electric potential along the trajectory of a directed discharge. To construct a model and obtain directed discharges with prescribed parameters, one must know the mechanisms of discharge development. In this work, the authors report the results of an electrooptical study of the origin and motion of luminous fronts of ionization waves in an electrical discharge during its initiation, both for a single breakdown site and for a long laser spark with a large number of laser breakdown sites. Results are presented of our study of the stability of a discharge for a current flow of long duration

  7. Direct Laser Writing of Low-Density Interdigitated Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping [Direct Laser Writing of Low Density Nanostitched Foams for Plasma Drive Shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakdale, James S.; Smith, Raymond F.; Forien, Jean-Baptiste; Smith, William L.; Ali, Suzanne J.

    2017-01-01

    Monolithic porous bulk materials have many promising applications ranging from energy storage and catalysis to high energy density physics. High resolution additive manufacturing techniques, such as direct laser writing via two photon polymerization (DLW-TPP), now enable the fabrication of highly porous microlattices with deterministic morphology control. In this work, DLW-TPP is used to print millimeter-sized foam reservoirs (down to 0.06 g cm –3 ) with tailored density-gradient profiles, where density is varied by over an order of magnitude (for instance from 0.6 to 0.06 g cm –3 ) along a length of <100 µm. Taking full advantage of this technology, however, is a multiscale materials design problem that requires detailed understanding of how the different length scales, from the molecular level to the macroscopic dimensions, affect each other. The design of these 3D-printed foams is based on the brickwork arrangement of 100 × 100 × 16 µm 3 log-pile blocks constructed from sub-micrometer scale features. A block-to-block interdigitated stitching strategy is introduced for obtaining high density uniformity at all length scales. Lastly, these materials are used to shape plasma-piston drives during ramp-compression of targets under high energy density conditions created at the OMEGA Laser Facility.

  8. Missing facial parts computed by a morphable model and transferred directly to a polyamide laser-sintered prosthesis: an innovation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A A; Paysan, P; Schumacher, R; Zeilhofer, H-F; Berg-Boerner, B-I; Maurer, J; Vetter, T; Schkommodau, E; Juergens, P; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K

    2011-12-01

    Mirroring of missing facial parts and rapid prototyping of templates have become widely used in the manufacture of prostheses. However, mirroring is not applicable for central facial defects, and the manufacture of a template still requires labour-intensive transformation into the final facial prosthesis. We have explored innovative techniques to meet these remaining challenges. We used a morphable model of a face for the reconstruction of missing facial parts that did not have mirror images, and skin-coloured polyamide laser sintering for direct manufacture of the prosthesis. From the knowledge gleaned from a data set of 200 coloured, three-dimensional scans, we generated a missing nose that was statistically compatible with the remaining parts of the patient's face. The planned prosthesis was manufactured directly from biocompatible skin-coloured polyamide powder by selective laser sintering, and the prosthesis planning system produced a normal-looking reconstruction. The polyamide will need adjustable colouring, and we must be able to combine it with a self-curing resin to fulfil the requirements of realistic permanent use. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-user bidirectional communication using isochronal synchronisation of array of chaotic directly modulated semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Bindu M.; John, Manu P.; Nandakumaran, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Isochronal synchronisation between the elements of an array of three mutually coupled directly modulated semiconductor lasers is utilized for the purpose of simultaneous bidirectional secure communication. Chaotic synchronisation is achieved by adding the coupling signal to the self feedback signal provided to each element of the array. A symmetric coupling is effective in inducing synchronisation between the elements of the array. This coupling scheme provides a direct link between every pair of elements thus making the method suitable for simultaneous bidirectional communication between them. Both analog and digital messages are successfully encrypted and decrypted simultaneously by each element of the array.

  10. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoev, K.; Grozeva, M.; Malcheva, G.; Neykova, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893–972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts. - Highlights: ► LIBS, XRF and XRD analyses of medieval white-clay ceramic tiles fragments are done. ► Different elements and phases, presented in the ceramics fragments were determined. ► Differences in the tiles' raw material mineral composition are found. ► Information of the tiles' production process and the raw clay deposits is obtained

  11. Formation of the Ni3Nb δ-Phase in Stress-Relieved Inconel 625 Produced via Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Eric A.; Stoudt, Mark R.; Williams, Maureen E.; Katz, Michael B.; Levine, Lyle E.; Phan, Thien Q.; Gnaeupel-Herold, Thomas H.; Ng, Daniel S.

    2017-11-01

    The microstructural evolution of laser powder-bed additively manufactured Inconel 625 during a post-build stress-relief anneal of 1 hour at 1143 K (870 °C) is investigated. It is found that this industry-recommended heat treatment promotes the formation of a significant fraction of the orthorhombic D0a Ni3Nb δ-phase. This phase is known to have a deleterious influence on fracture toughness, ductility, and other mechanical properties in conventional, wrought Inconel 625; and is generally considered detrimental to materials' performance in service. The δ-phase platelets are found to precipitate within the inter-dendritic regions of the as-built solidification microstructure. These regions are enriched in solute elements, particularly Nb and Mo, due to the micro-segregation that occurs during solidification. The precipitation of δ-phase at 1073 K (800 °C) is found to require up to 4 hours. This indicates a potential alternative stress-relief processing window that mitigates δ-phase formation in this alloy. Ultimately, a homogenization heat treatment is recommended for additively manufactured Inconel 625 because the increased susceptibility to δ-phase precipitation increases the possibility for significant degradation of materials' properties in service.

  12. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagoev, K., E-mail: kblagoev@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grozeva, M., E-mail: margo@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Malcheva, G., E-mail: bobcheva@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Neykova, S., E-mail: sevdalinaneikova@abv.bg [National Institute of Archaeology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Saborna, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893–972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts. - Highlights: ► LIBS, XRF and XRD analyses of medieval white-clay ceramic tiles fragments are done. ► Different elements and phases, presented in the ceramics fragments were determined. ► Differences in the tiles' raw material mineral composition are found. ► Information of the tiles' production process and the raw clay deposits is obtained.

  13. An instrument for in situ time-resolved X-ray imaging and diffraction of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calta, Nicholas P.; Wang, Jenny; Kiss, Andrew M.; Martin, Aiden A.; Depond, Philip J.; Guss, Gabriel M.; Thampy, Vivek; Fong, Anthony Y.; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Stone, Kevin H.; Tassone, Christopher J.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Toney, Michael F.; Van Buuren, Anthony; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2018-05-01

    In situ X-ray-based measurements of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process produce unique data for model validation and improved process understanding. Synchrotron X-ray imaging and diffraction provide high resolution, bulk sensitive information with sufficient sampling rates to probe melt pool dynamics as well as phase and microstructure evolution. Here, we describe a laboratory-scale LPBF test bed designed to accommodate diffraction and imaging experiments at a synchrotron X-ray source during LPBF operation. We also present experimental results using Ti-6Al-4V, a widely used aerospace alloy, as a model system. Both imaging and diffraction experiments were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Melt pool dynamics were imaged at frame rates up to 4 kHz with a ˜1.1 μm effective pixel size and revealed the formation of keyhole pores along the melt track due to vapor recoil forces. Diffraction experiments at sampling rates of 1 kHz captured phase evolution and lattice contraction during the rapid cooling present in LPBF within a ˜50 × 100 μm area. We also discuss the utility of these measurements for model validation and process improvement.

  14. Eddy-current testing of fatigue degradation upon contact fatigue loading of gas powder laser clad NiCrBSi-Cr3C2 composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrai, R. A.; Makarov, A. V.; Gorkunov, E. S.; Soboleva, N. N.; Kogan, L. Kh.; Malygina, I. Yu.; Osintseva, A. L.; Davydova, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The possibilities of the eddy-current method for testing the fatigue degradation under contact loading of gas powder laser clad NiCrBSi-Cr3C2 composite coating with 15 wt.% of Cr3C2 additive have been investigated. It is shown that the eddy-current testing of the fatigue degradation under contact loading of the NiCrBSi-15%Cr3C2 composite coating can be performed at high excitation frequencies 72-120 kHz of the eddy-current transducer. At that, the dependences of the eddy-current instrument readings on the number of loading cycles have both downward and upward branches, with the boundary between the branches being 3×105 cycles in the given loading conditions. This is caused, on the one hand, by cracking, and, on the other hand, by cohesive spalling and compaction of the composite coating, which affect oppositely the material resistivity and, correspondingly, the eddy-current instrument readings. The downward branch can be used to monitor the processes of crack formation and growth, the upward branch - to monitor the degree of cohesive spalling, while taking into account in the testing methodology an ambiguous character of the dependences of the eddy-current instrument readings on the number of loading cycles.

  15. A Comprehensive Comparison of the Analytical and Numerical Prediction of the Thermal History and Solidification Microstructure of Inconel 718 Products Made by Laser Powder-Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharapit Promoppatum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The finite-element (FE model and the Rosenthal equation are used to study the thermal and microstructural phenomena in the laser powder-bed fusion of Inconel 718. A primary aim is to comprehend the advantages and disadvantages of the Rosenthal equation (which provides an analytical alternative to FE analysis, and to investigate the influence of underlying assumptions on estimated results. Various physical characteristics are compared among the FE model, Rosenthal equation, and experiments. The predicted melt pool shapes compared with reported experimental results from the literature show that both the FE model and the analytical (Rosenthal equation provide a reasonably accurate estimation. At high heat input, under conditions leading to keyholing, the reported melt width is narrower than predicted by the analytical equation. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis based on choices of the absorptivity is performed, which shows that the Rosenthal approach is more sensitive to absorptivity, compared with the FE approach. The primary reason could be the effect of radiative and convective losses, which are assumed to be negligible in the Rosenthal equation. In addition, both methods predict a columnar solidification microstructure, which agrees well with experimental reports, and the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS predicted with the two approaches is comparable with measurements.

  16. The Static and Fatigue Behavior of AlSiMg Alloy Plain, Notched, and Diamond Lattice Specimens Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Soul

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of engineered lattice structures has recently gained momentum due to the development of novel additive manufacturing techniques. Interest in lattice structures resides not only in the possibility of obtaining efficient lightweight materials, but also in the functionality of pre-designed architectured structures for specific applications, such as biomimetic implants, chemical catalyzers, and heat transfer devices. The mechanical behaviour of lattice structures depends not only the composition of the base material, but also on the type and size of the unit cells, as well as on the material microstructure resulting from a specific fabrication procedure. The present work focuses on the static and fatigue behavior of diamond cell lattice structures fabricated from an AlSiMg alloy by laser powder bed fusion technology. In particular, the specimens were fabricated with three different orientations of lattice cells—[001], [011], [111]—and subjected to static tensile testing and force-controlled pull–pull fatigue testing up to 1 × 107 cycles. In parallel, the mechanical behavior of dense tensile plain and notched specimens was also studied and compared to that of their lattice counterparts. Results showed a significant effect of the cell orientation on the fatigue lives: specimens oriented at [001] were ~30% more fatigue-resistant than specimens oriented at [011] and [111].

  17. Highly textured fresnoite thin films synthesized in situ by pulsed laser deposition with CO2 laser direct heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Stölzel, Marko; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Grundmann, Marius; De Pablos-Martin, Araceli; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 (BTS) thin films were grown and crystallized in situ using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with CO 2 laser direct heating of the a-plane sapphire (1 1 0) substrates up to 1250 °C. Starting with 775 °C growth temperature, (0 0 1)- and (1 1 0)-textured BTS and BaTiO 3 phases, respectively, could be assigned in the films, and the typical fern-like BTS crystallization patterns appear. For higher process temperatures of 1100 to 1250 °C, atomically smooth, terraced surface of the films was found, accompanied by crystalline high-temperature phases of Ba–Ti–Si oxides. HAADF micrographs taken in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry mode show details of morphology and elemental distribution inside the films and at the interface. To balance the inherent Si deficiency of the BTS films, growth from glassy BTS × 2 SiO 2 and BTS × 2.5 SiO 2 targets was considered as well. The latter targets are ideal for PLD since the employed glasses possess 100% of the theoretical density and are homogeneous at the atomic scale. (paper)

  18. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  19. Direct laser writing of nanorough cell microbarriers on anatase/Si and graphite/Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Y.C. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Martínez-Martínez, R.M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Agulló-Rueda, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); García-Ruiz, J.P. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Manso-Silván, M., E-mail: miguel.manso@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-01

    The formation of hierarchical structures consisting of microstripe barriers decorated with nanorough ablated materials prepared by direct laser writing is described. Linear features of circa 25 μm width and 12 μm height are achieved on amorphous and crystalline titania and graphitic carbon films deposited on silicon. Ablated protrusions build up barriers decorated by nanoscale Si-film reconstructions, as indicated by EDX maps and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Wettability tests show a dramatic change in water contact angle, which leads to almost full wetting after irradiation, irrespective of the original film composition. Fluorescence microscopy images of human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on 1D and 2D structures demonstrate the short term biocompatibility of the ablated surfaces. It is shown that cells adhere, extend and polarize on feature edges, independently of the type of surface, thus suggesting that the created nanoroughness is at the origin of the antifouling behavior. In particular, irradiated anatase and graphite surfaces demonstrate an increased performance of crystalline films for the creation of cell guiding and trapping devices. The results suggest that such laser processing of films may serve as a time-and-cost-efficient method for the design of few-cells analytical surfaces. - Graphical abstract: Response of human mesenchymal stem cells to the microbarriers grown by direct laser writing on anatase/Si. Microbarriers show low colonization and high induction of cellular polarization on the feature edges. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hierarchical microbarriers by direct IR laser writing on thin films. • Complex reconstruction of irradiated materials includes nanorough features. • Ablated areas become fully wettable. • Short term biocompatibility of the grown hierarchical structures confirmed. • Particular designs functional for cell guiding or trapping.

  20. Direct laser writing of nanorough cell microbarriers on anatase/Si and graphite/Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Y.C.; Martínez-Martínez, R.M.; Torres-Costa, V.; Agulló-Rueda, F.; García-Ruiz, J.P.; Manso-Silván, M.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of hierarchical structures consisting of microstripe barriers decorated with nanorough ablated materials prepared by direct laser writing is described. Linear features of circa 25 μm width and 12 μm height are achieved on amorphous and crystalline titania and graphitic carbon films deposited on silicon. Ablated protrusions build up barriers decorated by nanoscale Si-film reconstructions, as indicated by EDX maps and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Wettability tests show a dramatic change in water contact angle, which leads to almost full wetting after irradiation, irrespective of the original film composition. Fluorescence microscopy images of human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on 1D and 2D structures demonstrate the short term biocompatibility of the ablated surfaces. It is shown that cells adhere, extend and polarize on feature edges, independently of the type of surface, thus suggesting that the created nanoroughness is at the origin of the antifouling behavior. In particular, irradiated anatase and graphite surfaces demonstrate an increased performance of crystalline films for the creation of cell guiding and trapping devices. The results suggest that such laser processing of films may serve as a time-and-cost-efficient method for the design of few-cells analytical surfaces. - Graphical abstract: Response of human mesenchymal stem cells to the microbarriers grown by direct laser writing on anatase/Si. Microbarriers show low colonization and high induction of cellular polarization on the feature edges. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hierarchical microbarriers by direct IR laser writing on thin films. • Complex reconstruction of irradiated materials includes nanorough features. • Ablated areas become fully wettable. • Short term biocompatibility of the grown hierarchical structures confirmed. • Particular designs functional for cell guiding or trapping.

  1. Engineering of refractive index in sulfide chalcogenide glass by direct laser writing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yaping

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) glass is an interesting material for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) as infrared (IR) or nonlinear optical components. In this paper, direct laser writing was applied to engineer the refractive index of As2S3 thin film. Film samples were exposed to focused above bandgap light with wavelength at 405 nm using different fluence adjusted by laser power and exposure time. The index of refraction before and after laser irradiation was calculated by fitting the experimental data obtained from Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (SE) measurement to Tauc-Lorenz dispersion formula. A positive change in refractive index (Δn = 0.19 at 1.55 μm) as well as an enhancement in anisotropy was achieved in As2S3 film by using 10 mW, 0.3 μs laser irradiation. With further increasing the fluence, refractive index increased while anisotropic property weakened. Due to the rapid and large photo-induced modification of refractive index obtainable with high spatial resolution, this process is promising for integrated optic device fabrication.

  2. Quantification of the activity of biomolecules in microarrays obtained by direct laser transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, V; Ranella, A; Farsari, M; Kafetzopoulos, D; Dinescu, M; Popescu, A; Fotakis, C

    2008-10-01

    The direct-writing technique laser-induced forward transfer has been employed for the micro-array printing of liquid solutions of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase and the protein Titin on nitrocellulose solid surfaces. The effect of two UV laser pulse lengths, femtosecond and nanosecond has been studied in relation with maintaining the activity of the transferred biomolecules. The quantification of the active biomolecules after transfer has been carried out using Bradford assay, quantitative colorimetric enzymatic assay and fluorescence techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements of the HRP and the Titin activity as well as chromatogenic and fluorescence assay studies have revealed a connection between the properties of the deposited, biologically active biomolecules, the experimental conditions and the target composition. The bioassays have shown that up to 78% of the biomolecules remained active after femtosecond laser transfer, while this value reduced to 54% after nanosecond laser transfer. The addition of glycerol in a percentage up to 70% in the solution to be transferred has contributed to the stabilization of the micro-array patterns and the increase of their resolution.

  3. Thermonuclear targets for direct-drive ignition by a megajoule laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel’kov, S. A.; Bondarenko, S. V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Vergunova, G. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Garanin, S. G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Gus’kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru; Demchenko, N. N.; Doskoch, I. Ya.; Kuchugov, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Rozanov, V. B.; Stepanov, R. V.; Yakhin, R. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Central ignition of a thin two-layer-shell fusion target that is directly driven by a 2-MJ profiled pulse of Nd laser second-harmonic radiation has been studied. The parameters of the target were selected so as to provide effective acceleration of the shell toward the center, which was sufficient for the onset of ignition under conditions of increased hydrodynamic stability of the ablator acceleration and compression. The aspect ratio of the inner deuterium-tritium layer of the shell does not exceed 15, provided that a major part (above 75%) of the outer layer (plastic ablator) is evaporated by the instant of maximum compression. The investigation is based on two series of numerical calculations that were performed using one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic codes. The first 1D code was used to calculate the absorption of the profiled laser-radiation pulse (including calculation of the total absorption coefficient with allowance for the inverse bremsstrahlung and resonance mechanisms) and the spatial distribution of target heating for a real geometry of irradiation using 192 laser beams in a scheme of focusing with a cubo-octahedral symmetry. The second 1D code was used for simulating the total cycle of target evolution under the action of absorbed laser radiation and for determining the thermonuclear gain that was achieved with a given target.

  4. Direct Silver Micro Circuit Patterning on Transparent Polyethylene Terephthalate Film Using Laser-Induced Photothermochemical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Jui Lan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new and improved approach to the rapid and green fabrication of highly conductive microscale silver structures on low-cost transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate. In this new laser direct synthesis and pattering (LDSP process, silver microstructures are simultaneously synthesized and laid down in a predetermined pattern using a low power continuous wave (CW laser. The silver ion processing solution, which is transparent and reactive, contains a red azo dye as the absorbing material. The silver pattern is formed by photothermochemical reduction of the silver ions induced by the focused CW laser beam. In this improved LDSP process, the non-toxic additive in the transparent ionic solution absorbs energy from a low cost CW visible laser without the need for the introduction of any hazardous chemical process. Tests were carried out to determine the durability of the conductive patterns, and numerical analyses of the thermal and fluid transport were performed to investigate the morphology of the deposited patterns. This technology is an advanced method for preparing micro-scale circuitry on an inexpensive, flexible, and transparent polymer substrate that is fast, environmentally benign, and shows potential for Roll-to-Roll manufacture.

  5. Direct femtosecond laser writing of buried infrared waveguides in chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coq, D.; Bychkov, E.; Masselin, P.

    2016-02-01

    Direct laser writing technique is now widely used in particular in glass, to produce both passive and active photonic devices. This technique offers a real scientific opportunity to generate three-dimensional optical components and since chalcogenide glasses possess transparency properties from the visible up to mid-infrared range, they are of great interest. Moreover, they also have high optical non-linearity and high photo-sensitivity that make easy the inscription of refractive index modification. The understanding of the fundamental and physical processes induced by the laser pulses is the key to well-control the laser writing and consequently to realize integrated photonic devices. In this paper, we will focus on two different ways allowing infrared buried waveguide to be obtained. The first part will be devoted to a very original writing process based on a helical translation of the sample through the laser beam. In the second part, we will report on another original method based on both a filamentation phenomenon and a point by point technique. Finally, we will demonstrate that these two writing techniques are suitable for the design of single mode waveguide for wavelength ranging from the visible up to the infrared but also to fabricate optical components.

  6. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  7. Measurements of direct drive laser imprint in thin foils by XUV radiography using an X-ray laser backlighter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D.H.; Key, M.H.; DaSilva, L.B.

    1996-11-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement fusion, the residual speckle pattern remaining after beam smoothing plays an important role in the seeding of instabilities at the ablation front. We have used an x-ray laser as an XUV backlighter to characterize the imprinted modulation in thin foils for smoothing by random phase plate and spectral dispersion at both 0.35 pm and 0.53 pm irradiation, and induced spatial incoherence at 0.53 pm irradiation. We also demonstrate measurements of the modulation due to a single mode optical imprint generated by a narrow slit interference pattern, and modification of the imprint with a superposed smooth irradiation to study time dependence of the imprinting process. 8 refs., 10 figs

  8. Measurements of direct drive laser imprint in thin foils by radiography using an x-ray laser backlighter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D.H.; Key, M.H.; Da Silva, L.B.; Glendinning, S.G.; Remington, B.A.; Rothenberg, J.E.; Weber, F.; Weber, S.V.; Wolfrum, E.; Kim, N.S.; Neely, D.; Zhang, J.; Wark, J.S.; Demir, A.; Lin, J.; Smith, R.; Tallents, G.J.; Lewis, C.L.; MacPhee, A.; Warwick, J.; Knauer, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement fusion, the residual speckle pattern remaining after beam smoothing plays an important role in the seeding of instabilities at the ablation front. An x-ray laser is used as an extreme ultraviolet backlighter to characterize the imprinted modulation in thin foils for smoothing by random phase plate and by spectral dispersion for both 0.35 and 0.53 μm irradiation, and by induced spatial incoherence for 0.53 μm irradiation. Measurements of the imprinted modulation due to a single optical mode generated by two beam interference, and modification of the imprint with a superposed smooth irradiation to study time dependence of the imprinting process are demonstrated. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Powder agglomeration study in RF silane plasmas by in situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteille, C; Hollenstein, C; Dorier, J L; Gay, P; Schwarzenbach, W; Howling, A A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Bertran, E; Viera, G [Barcelona Univ., Dep. de de Fisica Aplicada I Electronica, Barcelona (Spain); Martins, R; Macarico, A [FCTUNL, Materials Science Dep., Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    1966-03-01

    To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135{sup o} and ex-situ TEM analysis demonstrate the existence of non-spherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (author) 11 figs., 48 refs.

  10. Powder agglomeration study in RF silane plasmas by in situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, C.; Hollenstein, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Gay, P.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Bertran, E.; Viera, G.; Martins, R.; Macarico, A.

    1966-03-01

    To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135 o and ex-situ TEM analysis demonstrate the existence of non-spherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (author) 11 figs., 48 refs

  11. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  12. Indirect Versus Direct Heating of Sheet Materials: Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding Using Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelyn, Alan; Kar, Aravinda; Fanourakis, Alexander; Flower, Terence; Ackerman, Mike; Keevil, Allen; Way, Jerome

    2010-06-01

    Many from within manufacturing industry consider superplastic forming (SPF) to be ‘high tech’, but it is often criticized as too complicated, expensive, slow and, in general, an unstable process when compared to other methods of manipulating sheet materials. Perhaps, the fundamental cause of this negative perception of SPF, and also of diffusion bonding (DB), is the fact that the current process of SPF/DB relies on indirect sources of heating to produce the conditions necessary for the material to be formed. Thus, heat is usually derived from the electrically heated platens of hydraulic presses, to a lesser extent from within furnaces and, sometimes, from heaters imbedded in ceramic moulds. Recent evaluations of these isothermal methods suggest they are slow, thermally inefficient and inappropriate for the process. In contrast, direct heating of only the material to be formed by modern, electrically efficient, lasers could transform SPF/DB into the first choice of designers in aerospace, automotive, marine, medical, architecture and leisure industries. Furthermore, ‘variable temperature’ direct heating which, in theory, is possible with a laser beam(s) may provide a means to control material thickness distribution, a goal of enormous importance as fuel efficient, lightweight structures for transportation systems are universally sought. This paper compares, and contrasts, the two systems and suggests how a change to laser heating might be achieved.

  13. Bistable direction switching in an off-axis pumped continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, R. Sohrab; Lawandy, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented of the observation of hysteretic bistable direction switching in a single-mode CW ruby laser system. This effect is only observed when the pump beam which is focused into the ruby rod is misaligned with respect to the rod end faces. At low pump powers, the ruby lases in a mode nearly collinear with the pump axis. At a higher pump power the ruby switches to a mode that is collinear with the rod end faces and preserves the original polarization. The effect is large enough to switch the beam by an angle equal to twice the diffraction angle. The observations show that under steady-state pumping, a CW ruby laser can exhibit bistable operation in its output direction and power. A calculation using the heat equation with two concentric cylinders with one as a heat source (pump laser) and the outer wall of the other held at 77 K, gives an increase in core temperature of about 0.01 K. Therefore, the increase in temperature is not large enough to change the index of refraction to account for such large macroscopic effects.

  14. Predictive modeling of solidification during laser additive manufacturing of nickel superalloys: recent developments, future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriyo

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes produce parts with improved physical, chemical, and mechanical properties compared to conventional manufacturing processes. In AM processes, intricate part geometries are produced from multicomponent alloy powder, in a layer-by-layer fashion with multipass laser melting, solidification, and solid-state phase transformations, in a shorter manufacturing time, with minimal surface finishing, and at a reasonable cost. However, there is an increasing need for post-processing of the manufactured parts via, for example, stress relieving heat treatment and hot isostatic pressing to achieve homogeneous microstructure and properties at all times. Solidification in an AM process controls the size, shape, and distribution of the grains, the growth morphology, the elemental segregation and precipitation, the subsequent solid-state phase changes, and ultimately the material properties. The critical issues in this process are linked with multiphysics (such as fluid flow and diffusion of heat and mass) and multiscale (lengths, times and temperature ranges) challenges that arise due to localized rapid heating and cooling during AM processing. The alloy chemistry-process-microstructure-property-performance correlation in this process will be increasingly better understood through multiscale modeling and simulation.

  15. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  16. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2016-07-01

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  17. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan, E-mail: ahsan.mian@wright.edu; Srinivasan, Raghavan [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  18. Direct-drive high-convergence-ratio implosion studies on the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Radha, P. B.; Seka, W.; Skupsky, S.

    2000-01-01

    A series of direct-drive implosion experiments, using room-temperature, gas-filled CH targets, are performed on the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The target performance at stagnation and its dependence on beam smoothing and pulse shaping is investigated. Compressed core conditions are diagnosed using x-ray and neutron spectroscopy, and x-ray imaging. The individual beams of OMEGA are smoothed by spectral dispersion in two dimensions (2D SSD) with laser bandwidths up to ∼0.3 THz, with 1 ns square to 2.5 ns shaped pulses. A clear dependence of target performance on pulse shape and beam smoothing is seen, with the target performance (yield, areal density, and shell integrity) improving as SSD bandwidth is applied. (c)

  19. Simulation flow and model verification for laser direct-write lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onanuga, Temitope; Rumler, Maximilian; Erdmann, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    A simulation flow for laser direct-write lithography (LDWL), a maskless lithography process in which a focused laser beam is scanned through a photoresist, is proposed. The simulation flow includes focusing of Gaussian beams, photoresist exposure, free-radical polymerization chemistry of the photoresist, and photoresist development. We applied the simulation method to investigate the scaling of feature sizes or linewidths for a varying number of exposure cycles at a total constant exposure dose. Experimental results from literature demonstrate that exposing the photoresist over multiple exposure cycles causes a reduction in linewidths. We explore possible reasons for this phenomenon and conclude that radical losses occurring between subsequent exposures provide a possible explanation of the observed effects. Furthermore, we apply the developed simulation method to analyze lithographic structures that were fabricated by a combination of LDWL and nanoimprint lithography. The simulation results agree with the experimental tendencies of a reduced likelihood of overexposures with an increase in the number of exposure cycles.

  20. Fabrication of multi-functional silicon surface by direct laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashwani Kumar; Soni, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    We present a simple, quick and one-step methodology based on nano-second laser direct writing for the fabrication of micro-nanostructures on silicon surface. The fabricated surfaces suppress the optical reflection by multiple reflection due to light trapping effect to a much lower value than polished silicon surface. These textured surfaces offer high enhancement ability after gold nanoparticle deposition and then explored for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) for specific molecular detection. The effect of laser scanning line interval on optical reflection and SERS signal enhancement ability was also investigated. Our results indicate that low optical reflection substrates exhibit uniform SERS enhancement with enhancement factor of the order of 106. Furthermore, this methodology provide an alternative approach for cost-effective large area fabrication with good control over feature size.

  1. A finite volume alternate direction implicit approach to modeling selective laser melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Mohanty, Sankhya

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, several studies have attempted to develop thermal models for analyzing the selective laser melting process with a vision to predict thermal stresses, microstructures and resulting mechanical properties of manufactured products. While a holistic model addressing all involved...... to accurately simulate the process, are constrained by either the size or scale of the model domain. A second challenging aspect involves the inclusion of non-linear material behavior into the 3D implicit FE models. An alternating direction implicit (ADI) method based on a finite volume (FV) formulation...... is proposed for modeling single-layer and few-layers selective laser melting processes. The ADI technique is implemented and applied for two cases involving constant material properties and non-linear material behavior. The ADI FV method consume less time while having comparable accuracy with respect to 3D...

  2. Laser-Directed CVD 3D Printing System for Refractory Metal Propulsion Hardware, Phase II, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, Ultramet is developing a three-dimensional (3D) laser-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) additive manufacturing system to build free-form...

  3. Uniformity of spherical shock wave dynamically stabilized by two successive laser profiles in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temporal, M., E-mail: mauro.temporal@hotmail.com [Centre de Mathématiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan and CNRS, 61 Av. du President Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Canaud, B. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Garbett, W. J. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Ramis, R. [ETSI Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The implosion uniformity of a directly driven spherical inertial confinement fusion capsule is considered within the context of the Laser Mégajoule configuration. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations have been performed assuming irradiation with two laser beam cones located at 49° and 131° with respect to the axis of symmetry. The laser energy deposition causes an inward shock wave whose surface is tracked in time, providing the time evolution of its non-uniformity. The illumination model has been used to optimize the laser intensity profiles used as input in the 2D hydro-calculations. It is found that a single stationary laser profile does not maintain a uniform shock front over time. To overcome this drawback, it is proposed to use two laser profiles acting successively in time, in order to dynamically stabilize the non-uniformity of the shock front.

  4. Performance Characterization of an xy-Stage Applied to Micrometric Laser Direct Writing Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jaramillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the characterization of the stability and performance of a motorized stage used in laser direct writing lithography. The system was built from commercial components and commanded by G-code. Measurements use a pseudo-periodic-pattern (PPP observed by a camera and image processing is based on Fourier transform and phase measurement methods. The results report that the built system has a stability against vibrations determined by peak-valley deviations of 65 nm and 26 nm in the x and y directions, respectively, with a standard deviation of 10 nm in both directions. When the xy-stage is in movement, it works with a resolution of 0.36 μm, which is an acceptable value for most of research and development (R and D microtechnology developments in which the typical feature size used is in the micrometer range.

  5. Performance Characterization of an xy-Stage Applied to Micrometric Laser Direct Writing Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juan; Zarzycki, Artur; Galeano, July; Sandoz, Patrick

    2017-01-31

    This article concerns the characterization of the stability and performance of a motorized stage used in laser direct writing lithography. The system was built from commercial components and commanded by G-code. Measurements use a pseudo-periodic-pattern (PPP) observed by a camera and image processing is based on Fourier transform and phase measurement methods. The results report that the built system has a stability against vibrations determined by peak-valley deviations of 65 nm and 26 nm in the x and y directions, respectively, with a standard deviation of 10 nm in both directions. When the xy-stage is in movement, it works with a resolution of 0.36 μm, which is an acceptable value for most of research and development (R and D) microtechnology developments in which the typical feature size used is in the micrometer range.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence with an OPO system. Part II: direct determination of lead content in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, A; Lijour, Y; Giamarchi, P; Burel-Deschamps, L; Stephan, L

    2003-03-01

    Fluorescence was induced by coupling a laser with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to develop an analytical method for the direct determination of lead content, at ultra-trace level, in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF). The optimization of atomization conditions, laser pulse energy, and mainly temporal parameters allowed us to reach a 3 fg detection limit (0.3 ng L(-1)) despite the low repetition rate of the device. The expected error on predicted concentrations of lead, at trace levels, in seawater was below 15%.

  7. Direct quantitative comparison of molecular responses in photodamaged human skin to fractionated and fully ablative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orringer, Jeffrey S; Sachs, Dana L; Shao, Yuan; Hammerberg, Craig; Cui, Yilei; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2012-10-01

    Fractionated ablative laser resurfacing has become a widely used treatment modality. Its clinical results are often found to approach those of traditional fully ablative laser resurfacing. To directly compare the molecular changes that result from fractionated and fully ablative carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser resurfacing in photodamaged human skin. Photodamaged skin of 34 adult volunteers was focally treated at distinct sites with a fully ablative CO(2) laser and a fractionated CO(2) laser. Serial skin samples were obtained at baseline and several time points after treatment. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technology and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify molecular responses to each type of laser treatment. Fully ablative and fractionated CO(2) laser resurfacing induced significant dermal remodeling and collagen induction. After a single treatment, fractionated ablative laser resurfacing resulted in collagen induction that was approximately 40% to 50% as pronounced as that induced by fully ablative laser resurfacing. The fundamental cutaneous responses that result from fully ablative and fractionated carbon dioxide laser resurfacing are similar but differ in magnitude and duration, with the fully ablative procedure inducing relatively greater changes including more pronounced collagen induction. However, the molecular data reported here provide substantial support for fractionated ablative resurfacing as an effective treatment modality for improving skin texture. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dewetting of thin films on flexible substrates via direct-write laser exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Anthony Jesus

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled a wide variety of technologies both in the consumer space and in industrial/research areas. At the market level, such devices advance by the invention and innovation of production techniques. Additionally, there has been increased demand for flexible versions of such MEMS devices. Thin film patterning, represents a key technology for the realization of such flexible electronics. Patterns and methods that can be directly written into the thin film allow for design modification on the fly with the need for harsh chemicals and long etching steps. Laser-induced dewetting has the potential to create patterns in thin films at both the microscopic and nanoscopic level without wasting deposited material. This thesis presents the first demonstration of high-speed direct-write patterning of metallic thin films that uses a laser-induced dewetting phenomenon to prevent material loss. The ability to build film material with this technique is explored using various scanning geometries. Finally, demonstrations of direct-write dewetting of a variety of thin films will be presented with special consideration for high melting point metals deposited upon polymer substrates.

  9. All-Fiber, Directly Chirped Laser Source for Chirped-Pulse-Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ran

    Chirped-pulse-amplification (CPA) technology is widely used to produce ultra-short optical pulses (sub picosecond to femtoseconds) with high pulse energy. A chirped pulse laser source with flexible dispersion control is highly desirable as a CPA seed. This thesis presents an all-fiber, directly chirped laser source (DCLS) that produces nanosecond, linearly-chirped laser pulses at 1053 nm for seeding high energy CPA systems. DCLS produces a frequency chirp on an optical pulse through direct temporal phase modulation. DCLS provides programmable control for the temporal phase of the pulse, high pulse energy and diffraction-limited beam performance, which are beneficial for CPA systems. The DCLS concept is first described. Its key enabling technologies are identified and their experimental demonstration is presented. These include high-precision temporal phase control using an arbitrary waveform generator, multi-pass phase modulation to achieve high modulation depth, regenerative amplification in a fiber ring cavity and a negative feedback system that controls the amplifier cavity dynamics. A few technical challenges that arise from the multi-pass architecture are described and their solutions are presented, such as polarization management and gain-spectrum engineering in the DCLS fiber cavity. A DCLS has been built and its integration into a high energy OPCPA system is demonstrated. DCLS produces a 1-ns chirped pulse with a 3-nm bandwidth. The temporal phase and group delay dispersion on the DCLS output pulse is measured using temporal interferometry. The measured temporal phase has an ˜1000 rad amplitude and is close to a quadratic shape. The chirped pulse is amplified from 0.9 nJ to 76 mJ in an OPCPA system. The amplified pulse is compressed to close to its Fourier transform limit, producing an intensity autocorrelation trace with a 1.5-ps width. Direct compressed-pulse duration control by adjusting the phase modulation drive amplitude is demonstrated. Limitation

  10. Direct measurements of neutral density depletion by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanesland, A.; Liard, L.; Leray, G.; Jolly, J.; Chabert, P.

    2007-01-01

    The ground state density of xenon atoms has been measured by spatially resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation in the diffusion chamber of a magnetized Helicon plasma. This technique allows the authors to directly measure the relative variations of the xenon atom density without any assumptions. A significant neutral gas density depletion was measured in the core of the magnetized plasma, in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental works. It was also found that the neutral gas density was depleted near the radial walls

  11. kW-class direct diode laser for sheet metal cutting based on commercial pump modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, U.; Schneider, F.; Holly, C.; Di Meo, A.; Rubel, D.; Boergmann, F.; Traub, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Drovs, S.; Brand, T.; Unger, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present a direct diode laser with an optical output power of more than 800 W ex 100 μm with an NA of 0.17. The system is based on 6 commercial pump modules that are wavelength stabilized by use of VBGs. Dielectric filters are used for coarse and dense wavelength multiplexing. Metal sheet cutting tests were performed in order to prove system performance and reliability. Based on a detailed analysis of loss mechanisms, we show that the design can be easily scaled to output powers in the range of 2 kW and to an optical efficiency of 80%.

  12. Reconfigurable WDM-PON empowered by a low-cost 8-channel directly modulated laser module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Zhi-ke; Zhao, Ze-ping; Tian, Ye; Zhu, Ning-hua

    2017-11-01

    A 10 Gbit/s 16-km-long reconfigurable wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) is presented empowered by a low-cost multi-channel directly modulated laser (DML) module. Compared with the case using discrete devices in conventional scheme, the proposed DML module provides a cost-effective solution with reduced complexity. The clear eye diagram and the bit error rate ( BER) of less than 2×10-7 with a sensitivity of -7 dBm are obtained. Due to the special packaging design, the crosstalk between channels under condition of simultaneous operation can be negligible.

  13. Direct Creation of Highly Conductive Laser-Induced Graphene Nanocomposites from Polymer Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Alireza Zehtab; Navas, Ivonne Otero; Abouelmagd, Ahmed; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2017-09-01

    The current state-of-the-art mixing strategies of nanoparticles with insulating polymeric components have only partially utilized the unique electrical conductivity of graphene in nanocomposite systems. Herein, this paper reports a nonmixing method of direct creation of polymer/graphene nanocomposites from polymer blends via laser irradiation. Polycarbonate-laser-induced graphene (PC-LIG) nanocomposite is produced from a PC/polyetherimide (PC/PEI) blend after exposure to commercially available laser scribing with a power of ≈6 W and a speed of ≈2 cm s -1 . Extremely high electrical conductivities are obtained for the PC-LIG nanocomposites, ranging from 26 to 400 S m -1 , depending on the vol% of the starting PEI phase in the blend. To the authors' knowledge, these conductivity values are at least one order of magnitude higher than the values that are previously reported for conductive polymer/graphene nanocomposites prepared via mixing strategies. The comprehensive microscopy and spectroscopy characterizations reveal a complete graphitization of the PEI phase with columnar microstructure embedded in the PC phase. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Direct Laser Ablation and Ionization of Solids for Chemical Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Nelson, E J; Klunder, G L [Forensic Science Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    A laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer system is described for the direct chemical analysis of solids. An Nd:YAG laser is used for ablation and ionization of the sample in a quadrupole ion trap operated in an ion-storage (IS) mode that is coupled with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Single pulse experiments have demonstrated simultaneous detection of up to 14 elements present in glasses in the ppm range. However, detection of the components has produced non-stoichiometric results due to difference in ionization potentials and fractionation effects. Time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to spatially map elemental species on the surface and provide further evidence of fractionation effects. Resolution (m/{delta}m) of 1500 and detection limits of approximately 10 pg have been achieved with a single laser pulse. The system configuration and related operating principles for accurately measuring low concentrations of isotopes are described.

  15. Controlling the stainless steel surface wettability by nanosecond direct laser texturing at high fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorčič, P.; Šetina-Batič, B.; Hočevar, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work investigates the influence of the direct laser texturing at high fluences (DLT-HF) on surface morphology, chemistry, and wettability. We use a Nd:YAG laser ( λ = 1064 nm) with pulse duration of 95 ns to process stainless steel surface. The surface morphology and chemistry after the texturing is examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), while the surface wettability is evaluated by measuring the static contact angle. Immediately after the texturing, the surface is superhydrophilic in a saturated Wenzel regime. However, this state is not stable and the superhydrophilic-to-superhydrophobic transition happens if the sample is kept in atmospheric air for 30 days. After this period, the laser-textured stainless steel surface expresses lotus-leaf-like behavior. By using a high-speed camera at 10,000 fps, we measured that the water droplet completely rebound from this superhydrophobic surface after the contact time of 12 ms.

  16. Estimation of line dimensions in 3D direct laser writing lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guney, M G; Fedder, G K

    2016-01-01

    Two photon polymerization (TPP) based 3D direct laser writing (3D-DLW) finds application in a wide range of research areas ranging from photonic and mechanical metamaterials to micro-devices. Most common structures are either single lines or formed by a set of interconnected lines as in the case of crystals. In order to increase the fidelity of these structures and reach the ultimate resolution, the laser power and scan speed used in the writing process should be chosen carefully. However, the optimization of these writing parameters is an iterative and time consuming process in the absence of a model for the estimation of line dimensions. To this end, we report a semi-empirical analytic model through simulations and fitting, and demonstrate that it can be used for estimating the line dimensions mostly within one standard deviation of the average values over a wide range of laser power and scan speed combinations. The model delimits the trend in onset of micro-explosions in the photoresist due to over-exposure and of low degree of conversion due to under-exposure. The model guides setting of high-fidelity and robust writing parameters of a photonic crystal structure without iteration and in close agreement with the estimated line dimensions. The proposed methodology is generalizable by adapting the model coefficients to any 3D-DLW setup and corresponding photoresist as a means to estimate the line dimensions for tuning the writing parameters. (paper)

  17. Multiscale 3D manufacturing: combining thermal extrusion printing with additive and subtractive direct laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Lukoševičius, Laurynas; MackevičiÅ«tÄ--, DovilÄ--; BalčiÅ«nas, Evaldas; RekštytÄ--, Sima; Paipulas, Domas

    2014-05-01

    A novel approach for efficient manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) microstructured scaffolds designed for cell studies and tissue engineering applications is presented. A thermal extrusion (fused filament fabrication) 3D printer is employed as a simple and low-cost tabletop device enabling rapid materialization of CAD models out of biocompatible and biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA). Here it was used to produce cm- scale microporous (pore size varying from 100 to 400 µm) scaffolds. The fabricated objects were further laser processed in a direct laser writing (DLW) subtractive (ablation) and additive (lithography) manners. The first approach enables precise surface modification by creating micro-craters, holes and grooves thus increasing the surface roughness. An alternative way is to immerse the 3D PLA scaffold in a monomer solution and use the same DLW setup to refine its inner structure by fabricating dots, lines or a fine mesh on top as well as inside the pores of previously produced scaffolds. The DLW technique is empowered by ultrafast lasers - it allows 3D structuring with high spatial resolution in a great variety of photosensitive materials. Structure geometry on macro- to micro- scales could be finely tuned by combining these two fabrication techniques. Such artificial 3D substrates could be used for cell growth or as biocompatible-biodegradable implants. This combination of distinct material processing techniques enables rapid fabrication of diverse functional micro- featured and integrated devices. Hopefully, the proposed approach will find numerous applications in the field of ms, microfluidics, microoptics and many others.

  18. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by direct laser melting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme; Akinlabi, Esther; Shukla, Mukul; Pityana, Sisa

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on bioinert metals such as Ti–6Al–4V are necessary for biomedical applications. Together, HAP and Ti–6Al–4V are biocompatible and bioactive. The challenges of depositing HAP on Ti–6Al–4V with traditional thermal spraying techniques are well founded. In this paper, HAP was coated on Ti–6Al–4V using direct laser melting (DLM) process. This process, unlike the traditional coating processes, is able to achieve coatings with good metallurgical bonding and little dilution. The microstructural and mechanical properties, chemical composition and bio-activities of the produced coatings were studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness machine, and by immersion test in Hanks' solution. The results showed that the choice of the laser power has much influence on the evolving microstructure, the mechanical properties and the retainment of HAP on the surface of the coating. Also, the choice of laser power of 750 W led to no dilution. The microhardness results inferred a strong intermetallic–ceramic interfacial bonding; which meant that the 750 W coating could survive long in service. Also, the coating was softer at the surface and stronger in the heat affected zones. Hence, this process parameter setting can be considered as an optimal setting. The soak tests revealed that the surface of the coating had unmelted crystals of HAP. The CaP ratio conducted on the soaked coating was 2.00 which corresponded to tetra calcium phosphate. This coating seems attractive for metallic implant applications. - Highlights: • Characteristics of HAP coatings produced on Ti-6Al-4V achieved with direct laser melting are reported. • Optimal process parameters necessary to achieve biocompatible coating are reported. • The SEM micrograph of the soaked HAP coating revealed partially melted crystals of HAP. • The HAP coating was retained at the surface of

  19. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by direct laser melting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme, E-mail: MTlotleng@csir.co.za [Laser Materials Processing Group, National Laser Center CSIR, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Akinlabi, Esther [Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Shukla, Mukul [Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering, MNNIT, Allahabad, UP 211004 (India); Pityana, Sisa [Laser Materials Processing Group, National Laser Center CSIR, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on bioinert metals such as Ti–6Al–4V are necessary for biomedical applications. Together, HAP and Ti–6Al–4V are biocompatible and bioactive. The challenges of depositing HAP on Ti–6Al–4V with traditional thermal spraying techniques are well founded. In this paper, HAP was coated on Ti–6Al–4V using direct laser melting (DLM) process. This process, unlike the traditional coating processes, is able to achieve coatings with good metallurgical bonding and little dilution. The microstructural and mechanical properties, chemical composition and bio-activities of the produced coatings were studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness machine, and by immersion test in Hanks' solution. The results showed that the choice of the laser power has much influence on the evolving microstructure, the mechanical properties and the retainment of HAP on the surface of the coating. Also, the choice of laser power of 750 W led to no dilution. The microhardness results inferred a strong intermetallic–ceramic interfacial bonding; which meant that the 750 W coating could survive long in service. Also, the coating was softer at the surface and stronger in the heat affected zones. Hence, this process parameter setting can be considered as an optimal setting. The soak tests revealed that the surface of the coating had unmelted crystals of HAP. The CaP ratio conducted on the soaked coating was 2.00 which corresponded to tetra calcium phosphate. This coating seems attractive for metallic implant applications. - Highlights: • Characteristics of HAP coatings produced on Ti-6Al-4V achieved with direct laser melting are reported. • Optimal process parameters necessary to achieve biocompatible coating are reported. • The SEM micrograph of the soaked HAP coating revealed partially melted crystals of HAP. • The HAP coating was retained at the surface of

  20. SIRIUS-P: An inertially confined direct drive laser fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Moses, G.A.; Bruggink, D.; Engelstad, R.L.; Khater, H.Y.; Larsen, E.M.; Lovell, E.G.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Mogahed, E.A.; Peterson, R.R.; Sawan, M.E.; Wang, P.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1993-03-01

    The SIRIUS-P conceptual design study is of a 1000 MWe laser driven inertial confinement fusion power reactor utilizing near symmetric illumination of direct drive targets. The reference driver is a KrF laser; however, any other laser capable of delivering short wavelength energy can be substituted. Sixty beams providing a total of 3.4 MJ of energy are used at a repetition rate of 6.7 Hz and a target gain of 118. The spherical chamber has an internal diameter of 6.5 m and consists of two independent components, a first wall assembly fabricated from a c/c composite and a blanket assembly made of SiC. First wall protection is provided by a xenon buffer gas at a pressure of 0.5 torr. The chamber is cooled by a flowing granular bed of solid ceramic material, TiO 2 for the first wall assembly and Li 2 O for the blanket assembly. The chamber is housed within a 42 m radius cylindrical reactor building which is 86 m high and which shares the same vacuum space as the chamber. All the laser beams are brought in at the bottom of the building, first onto a dielectrically coated final focusing mirror and finally onto a metallic grazing incidence mirror which reflects them into the chamber through beam ports open to the building. Neutron traps behind the grazing incidence mirrors are used to prolong the lifetimes of the final focusing optics. The nominal cost of electricity from this system is 65 mills/kwh assuming an 8% interest rate on capital

  1. Laser induced plasma methodology for ignition control in direct injection sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, José V.; García-Oliver, José M.; García, Antonio; Pinotti, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser Induced Plasma Ignition system is designed and applied to a Diesel Spray. • A method for quantification of the system effectiveness and reliability is proposed. • The ignition system is optimized in atmospheric and engine-like conditions. • Higher system effectiveness is reached with higher ambient density. • The system is able to stabilize Diesel combustion compared to auto-ignition cases. - Abstract: New combustion modes for internal combustion engines represent one of the main fields of investigation for emissions control in transportation Industry. However, the implementation of lean fuel mixture condition and low temperature combustion in real engines is limited by different unsolved practical issues. To achieve an appropriate combustion phasing and cycle-to-cycle control of the process, the laser plasma ignition system arises as a valid alternative to the traditional electrical spark ignition system. This paper proposes a methodology to set-up and optimize a laser induced plasma ignition system that allows ensuring reliability through the quantification of the system effectiveness in the plasma generation and positional stability, in order to reach optimal ignition performance. For this purpose, experimental tests have been carried out in an optical test rig. At first the system has been optimized in an atmospheric environment, based on the statistical analysis of the plasma records taken with a high speed camera to evaluate the induction effectiveness and consequently regulate and control the system settings. The same optimization method has then been applied under engine-like conditions, analyzing the effect of thermodynamic ambient conditions on the plasma induction success and repeatability, which have shown to depend mainly on ambient density. Once optimized for selected engine conditions, the laser plasma induction system has been used to ignite a direct injection Diesel spray, and to compare the evolution of combustion

  2. Powder neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  3. Analytical method development for powder characterization: Visualization of the critical drug loading affecting the processability of a formulation for direct compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirschberg, Cosima; Sun, Calvin Changquan; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of particulate systems (powders) is one of the remaining scientific challenges. Evaluation of powder behaviour is often empirical and the decision-making processes are experience-based. There is a need for development of analytical instrumentation enabling more fundamental...

  4. Method and device to produce pourable, directly pressable uranium dioxide powder. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Herstellung von rieselfaehigem, direkt verpressbarem Urandioxid-Pulver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, P.; Isensee, H.J.; Vietzke, H.

    1978-08-17

    The uranium dioxide powder is produced from uranium peroxide which is obtained by continuous precipitation of uranyl nitrate solutions. By varying the precipitation conditions, one can exactly adjust the desired properties of the UO/sub 2/ powder, there is no 'post sintering'. The individual process steps are shown in detail.

  5. Advancements in high-power high-brightness laser bars and single emitters for pumping and direct diode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haiyan; Jiang, Ching-Long J.; Xiong, Yihan; Zhang, Qiang; Inyang, Aloysius; Felder, Jason; Lewin, Alexander; Roff, Robert; Heinemann, Stefan; Schmidt, Berthold; Treusch, Georg

    2015-03-01

    We have continuously optimized high fill factor bar and packaging design to increase power and efficiency for thin disc laser system pump application. On the other hand, low fill factor bars packaged on the same direct copper bonded (DCB) cooling platform are used to build multi-kilowatt direct diode laser systems. We have also optimized the single emitter designs for fiber laser pump applications. In this paper, we will give an overview of our recent advances in high power high brightness laser bars and single emitters for pumping and direct diode application. We will present 300W bar development results for our next generation thin disk laser pump source. We will also show recent improvements on slow axis beam quality of low fill factor bar and its application on performance improvement of 4-5 kW TruDiode laser system with BPP of 30 mm*mrad from a 600 μm fiber. Performance and reliability results of single emitter for multiemitter fiber laser pump source will be presented as well.

  6. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the laboratory for laser energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Significant theoretical and experimental progress toward the validation of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been made at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Direct-drive ICF offers the potential for high-gain implosions and is a leading candidate for an inertial fusion energy power plant. LLE's base-line direct-drive ignition design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an 'all-DT' design that has a 1-D gain of ∼45 (∼30 when two-dimensional calculations are performed). The 'all-DT target' consists of a thin (∼3 μm) plastic shell enclosing a thick (∼330 μm) DT-ice layer. Recent calculations show that targets composed of foam shells, wicked with DT, can potentially achieve 1-D gains ∼100 at NIF energy levels (∼1.5 MJ). The addition of a 'picket' pulse to the beginning of the all-DT pulse shape reduces the target sensitivity to laser nonuniformities, increasing the potentially achievable gains. LLE experiments are conducted on the OMEGA 60-beam, 30-kJ, UV laser system. Beam smoothing includes 1-THz, 2-D SSD and polarization smoothing. Ignition-scaled cryogenic D 2 and plastic-shell spherical targets and a comprehensive suite of x-ray, nuclear, charged-particle, and optical diagnostics are used to understand the characteristics of the implosions. Recent cryogenic D 2 implosions with high adiabat (α ∼ 25) perform as predicted by one-dimensional (perfectly symmetric) simulations. Moderateconvergence- ratio (CR ∼ 15), high-adiabat (α ∼ 25), warm-capsule (surrogates for cryogenic capsules) implosions produce >30% of the 1-D predicted neutron yield and nearly 100% of the predicted fuel and shell areal densities. From a combination of x-ray, nuclear, and particle spectroscopy, a 'Lawson' fusion parameter (n i T i τi) of ∼7 x 10 20 m -3 keV was measured, the highest directly measured in inertial confinement fusion experiments to date. Estimates from cryogenic target performance give similar Lawson conditions. Future

  7. Scaling model for high-aspect-ratio microballoon direct-drive implosions at short laser wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmann, D.; Juraszek, D.; Lane, S.M.; Campbell, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A scaling model for hot spherical ablative implosions in direct-drive mode is presented. The model results have been compared with experiments from LLE, ILE, and LLNL. Reduction of the neutron yield due to illumination nonuniformities is taken into account by the assumption that the neutron emission is cut off when the gas shock wave reflected off the center meets the incoming pusher, i.e., at a time when the probability of shell breakup is greatly enhanced. The main advantage of this semiempirical scaling model is that it elucidates the principal features of these simple implosions and permits one to estimate very quickly the performance of a high-aspect-ratio direct-drive target illuminated by short-wavelength laser light. (Author)

  8. Tailored silver grid as transparent electrodes directly written by femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Ren, Xue-Liang [Laboratory of Organic NanoPhotonics and Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interface Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Zheng, Mei-Ling, E-mail: zhengmeiling@mail.ipc.ac.cn, E-mail: xmduan@mail.ipc.ac.cn; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng [Laboratory of Organic NanoPhotonics and Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interface Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Duan, Xuan-Ming, E-mail: zhengmeiling@mail.ipc.ac.cn, E-mail: xmduan@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Laboratory of Organic NanoPhotonics and Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interface Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 266 Fangzheng Ave., Shuitu Technology Development Zone, Beibei District, Chongqing 400714 (China)

    2016-05-30

    We present the design and realization of silver grid transparent electrodes (SGTEs) easily fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of silver aqueous solution. The fabricated SGTEs with a sheet resistance down to 47 Ω/□ and optical transmittance up to 93% are demonstrated. These sheet resistance and transmittance values are comparable to commercially available indium tin oxide. High uniform morphology of the directly written SGTEs results in the ultra-stable tailored performance parameter at electronic and optical fields. The sheet resistance and transmittance can be tailored precisely by manipulating the filling fraction of the uniform SGTEs. This study provides an approach for creating SGTEs in a controllable fashion, and the SGTEs exhibit high transmittance and low sheet resistance, which could open up new avenues towards widespread application in electronics, photovoltaics, and optoelectronics.

  9. Deciphering inflation with gravitational waves: Cosmic microwave background polarization vs direct detection with laser interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tristan L.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Cooray, Asantha

    2006-01-01

    A detection of the primordial gravitational wave background is considered to be the 'smoking-gun' evidence for inflation. While superhorizon waves are probed with cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, the relic background will be studied with laser interferometers. The long lever arm spanned by the two techniques improves constraints on the inflationary potential and validation of consistency relations expected under inflation. If gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar amplitude ratio greater than 0.01 are detected by the CMB, then a direct-detection experiment with a sensitivity consistent with current concept studies should be pursued vigorously. If no primordial tensors are detected by the CMB, a direct-detection experiment to understand the simplest form of inflation must have a sensitivity improved by two to 3 orders of magnitude over current plans

  10. Direct-drive shock-ignition for the Laser MégaJoule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaud B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of direct-drive shock ignition studies done as an alternative for the Laser MégaJoule (LMJ. One and two dimensional systematic analyses of HiPER-like shock-ignited target designs are performed for the fuel assembly irradiation uniformity using the whole LMJ configuration or a part of the facility, and for the uniformity of the ignitor spike. High-gain shock-ignition is shown to be possible with intensity of each quad less than 1015 W/cm2 but low modes asymmetries displace the power required in the ignitor spike towards higher powers. Shock-ignition of Direct-Drive Double-Shell non-cryogenic targets is also addressed.

  11. Direct determination of uranium in soil, rock, ore and biological samples by laser-induced fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingzhen; Zhang Yanan

    1993-03-01

    A laser-induced fluorometric method with modified J-22 anti-interferent fluorescent reagent for directly determining the uranium in soil, rock, ore, geochemical, biological and other samples has been studied. The effects of external ions and dilution law of sample are examined in detail. A method for correcting inner effect is proposed. A mixed solution of 0.25% NaOH-10% J-22 is prepared which can be added to the sample cuvette for direct measurement without any pre-adjustment of acidity. Therefore, it is much simpler for operation and reduces the loss and contamination of uranium. By changing the laser fluorometer sensitivity (400 ∼ 200), up to 3000 ng uranium in the cuvette can be detected. Thus, both analytical accuracy and detectable range are improved. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and applicable to various uranium-bearing samples. The detection limit is better than 0.05 μgU/g. The relative standard deviation is ≤+-5% for the rock reference samples of 0.95, 84.8, 669 and 7240 μgU/g

  12. The Conductive Silver Nanowires Fabricated by Two-beam Laser Direct Writing on the Flexible Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Cang; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Flexible electrically conductive nanowires are now a key component in the fields of flexible devices. The achievement of metal nanowire with good flexibility, conductivity, compact and smooth morphology is recognized as one critical milestone for the flexible devices. In this study, a two-beam laser direct writing system is designed to fabricate AgNW on PET sheet. The minimum width of the AgNW fabricated by this method is 187 ± 34 nm with the height of 84 ± 4 nm. We have investigated the electrical resistance under different voltages and the applicable voltage per meter range is determined to be less than 7.5 × 103 V/m for the fabricated AgNW. The flexibility of the AgNW is very excellent, since the resistance only increases 6.63% even after the stretched bending of 2000 times at such a small bending radius of 1.0 mm. The proposed two-beam laser direct writing is an efficient method to fabricate AgNW on the flexible sheet, which could be applied in flexible micro/nano devices.

  13. Femtosecond laser direct generation of 3D-microfluidic channels inside bulk PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gian-Luca; Esen, Cemal; Hellmann, Ralf

    2017-07-24

    We report on laser direct generation of 3D-microchannels for microfluidic applications inside PMMA bulk material by focused femtosecond pulses. Inner lying channels with cross sectional areas from 100 µm 2 to 4400 µm 2 are directly created in the volume of a PMMA substrate. Using the presented process, the channel length is fundamentally unlimited. Here we demonstrate a channel length of 6 meters inside a substrate with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 1.1 mm. The formation of the micro channels is based on nonlinear absorption around the focal volume that triggers a material modification. The modified volume can be selectively opened to form the channel by a subsequent annealing process. The cross section of the channel is strongly influenced by the energy distribution and illumination around the focal volume determined by the optical setup and process design. The 3D channel layout can easily be realized by moving the specimen using 3D motorized stage, allowing freely chosen complex shaped channel architectures. Within a comprehensive parameter study, varying laser power, number of multi-passes, writing speed and writing depths, we identify an optimized process in terms of attainable channel height, width and aspect ratio, as well as process stability and reproducibility. The proof of concept for an application in three dimensional microfluidic systems is provided by florescence microscopy using a dye rhodamine B solution in isopropanol.

  14. Structural characterization of biomedical Co–Cr–Mo components produced by direct metal laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucca, G.; Santecchia, E.; Majni, G.; Girardin, E.; Bassoli, E.; Denti, L.; Gatto, A.; Iuliano, L.; Moskalewicz, T.; Mengucci, P.

    2015-01-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technique to manufacture complex functional mechanical parts from a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Usually, the mechanical components produced by this procedure show higher residual porosity and poorer mechanical properties than those obtained by conventional manufacturing techniques. In this work, a Co–Cr–Mo alloy produced by DMLS with a composition suitable for biomedical applications was submitted to hardness measurements and structural characterization. The alloy showed a hardness value remarkably higher than those commonly obtained for the same cast or wrought alloys. In order to clarify the origin of this unexpected result, the sample microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). For the first time, a homogeneous microstructure comprised of an intricate network of thin ε (hcp)-lamellae distributed inside a γ (fcc) phase was observed. The ε-lamellae grown on the {111} γ planes limit the dislocation slip inside the γ (fcc) phase, causing the measured hardness increase. The results suggest possible innovative applications of the DMLS technique to the production of mechanical parts in the medical and dental fields. - Highlights: • Samples of a Co–Cr–Mo biomedical alloy were produced by direct metal laser sintering. • Hardness values unexpectedly high were attributed to a peculiar microstructure. • Fine lamellae of the ε-phase alternated to the γ-phase were observed for the first time. • A nucleation and growth model for the observed microstructure is proposed

  15. Structural characterization of biomedical Co–Cr–Mo components produced by direct metal laser sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barucca, G., E-mail: g.barucca@univpm.it [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Santecchia, E.; Majni, G. [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Girardin, E. [DISCO, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Bassoli, E.; Denti, L.; Gatto, A. [DIMeC, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905/B, Modena 41125 (Italy); Iuliano, L. [DISPEA, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moskalewicz, T. [Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Mengucci, P. [SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technique to manufacture complex functional mechanical parts from a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Usually, the mechanical components produced by this procedure show higher residual porosity and poorer mechanical properties than those obtained by conventional manufacturing techniques. In this work, a Co–Cr–Mo alloy produced by DMLS with a composition suitable for biomedical applications was submitted to hardness measurements and structural characterization. The alloy showed a hardness value remarkably higher than those commonly obtained for the same cast or wrought alloys. In order to clarify the origin of this unexpected result, the sample microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). For the first time, a homogeneous microstructure comprised of an intricate network of thin ε (hcp)-lamellae distributed inside a γ (fcc) phase was observed. The ε-lamellae grown on the {111}{sub γ} planes limit the dislocation slip inside the γ (fcc) phase, causing the measured hardness increase. The results suggest possible innovative applications of the DMLS technique to the production of mechanical parts in the medical and dental fields. - Highlights: • Samples of a Co–Cr–Mo biomedical alloy were produced by direct metal laser sintering. • Hardness values unexpectedly high were attributed to a peculiar microstructure. • Fine lamellae of the ε-phase alternated to the γ-phase were observed for the first time. • A nucleation and growth model for the observed microstructure is proposed.

  16. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  17. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  18. Powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Wafer-scale laser pantography: Fabrication of n-metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and small-scale integrated circuits by direct-write laser-induced pyrolytic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, B.M.; Herman, I.P.; Mitlitsky, F.; Hyde, R.A.; Wood, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    A complete set of processes sufficient for manufacture of n-metal-oxide-semiconductor (n-MOS) transistors by a laser-induced direct-write process has been demonstrated separately, and integrated to yield functional transistors. Gates and interconnects were fabricated of various combinations of n-doped and intrinsic polysilicon, tungsten, and tungsten silicide compounds. Both 0.1-μm and 1-μm-thick gate oxides were micromachined with and without etchant gas, and the exposed p-Si [100] substrate was cleaned and, at times, etched. Diffusion regions were doped by laser-induced pyrolytic decomposition of phosphine followed by laser annealing. Along with the successful manufacture of working n-MOS transistors and a set of elementary digital logic gates, this letter reports the successful use of several laser-induced surface reactions that have not been reported previously

  20. Laser applications in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The seminar focused on laser annealing of semiconductors, laser processing of semiconductor devices and formation of coatings and powders, surface modification with lasers, and specialized laser processing methods. Papers were presented on the theoretical analysis of thermal and mass transport during laser annealing, applications of scanning continuous-wave and pulsed lasers in silicon technology, laser techniques in photovoltaic applications, and the synthesis of ceramic powders from laser-heated gas-phase reactants. Other papers included: reflectance changes of metals during laser irradiation, surface-alloying using high-power continuous lasers, laser growth of silicon ribbon, and commercial laser-shock processes