WorldWideScience

Sample records for direct injection method

  1. Ducted combustion chamber for direct injection engines and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles

    2015-03-03

    An internal combustion engine includes an engine block having a cylinder bore and a cylinder head having a flame deck surface disposed at one end of the cylinder bore. A piston connected to a rotatable crankshaft and configured to reciprocate within the cylinder bore has a piston crown portion facing the flame deck surface such that a combustion chamber is defined within the cylinder bore and between the piston crown and the flame deck surface. A fuel injector having a nozzle tip disposed in fluid communication with the combustion chamber has at least one nozzle opening configured to inject a fuel jet into the combustion chamber along a fuel jet centerline. At least one duct defined in the combustion chamber between the piston crown and the flame deck surface has a generally rectangular cross section and extends in a radial direction relative to the cylinder bore substantially along the fuel jet centerline.

  2. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  3. Exploring a direct injection method for microfluidic generation of polymer microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihe; Tumarkin, Ethan; Velasco, Diego; Abolhasani, Milad; Lau, Willie; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2013-07-07

    Microfluidics (MFs) offers a promising method for the preparation of polymer microgels with exquisite control over their dimensions, shapes and morphologies. A challenging task in this process is the generation of droplets (precursors for microgels) from highly viscous polymer solutions. Spatial separation of MF emulsification and gelation of the precursor droplets on chip can address this challenge. In the present work, we explored the application of the "direct injection" method for the preparation of microgels by adding a highly concentrated polymer solution or a gelling agent directly into the precursor droplets. In the first system, primary droplets were generated from a dilute aqueous solution of agarose, followed by the injection of the concentrated agarose solution directly in the primary droplets. The secondary droplets served as precursors for microgels. In the second system, primary droplets were generated from the low-viscous solution of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene glycol) end-terminated with octadecyl hydrophobic groups. Addition of surfactant directly into the primary droplets led to the binding of methyl-β-cyclodextrin to the surfactant, thereby releasing hydrophobized poly(ethylene glycol) to form polymer microgels. Our results show that, when optimized, the direct injection method can be used for microgel preparation from highly viscous liquids and thus this method expands the range of polymers used for MF generation of microgels.

  4. About methods to reduce emissions of turbo charged engine gasoline direct injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, D.; Ivan, F.; Niculae, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyse and explain new methods applied on gasoline direct injection to reduce gas emissions and greenhouse effect. There are analysed the composition of emission inside the engine and which are the most harmful emission for the environment. Will be analysed the methods and systems which have a contribution to decrease emissions produced by the mixture of air and fuel. The paper contains details about after treatment systems which are designed to decrease gas emissions without any other negative consequence on the environment.

  5. Direct injection HPLC method for the determination of selected benzodiazepines in plasma using a Hisep column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistos, C; Stewart, James T

    2003-12-04

    A direct plasma injection HPLC method has been developed for the determination of selected benzodiazepines (nitrazepam, clobazam, oxazepam, lorazepam). The method uses an analytical hydrophobic shielded phase (Hisep) column equipped with a Hisep guard column, are easy to perform and requires 20 ul of a filtered plasma sample. The chromatographic run time is less than 15 min using a mobile phase of 15:85 v/v acetonitrile-0.18 M ammonium acetate pH 2.5. The method is good for 175 injections before replacement of the guard column. The method was linear in the range 0.5-18 ug ml(-1) (r>0.99, n=6) for the analytes with R.S.D. less than 10.82%. Interday and intraday variability were found to be less than 14%. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.16 (s/n>3) and 0.5 ug ml(-1) (s/n>10), respectively, for each of the four benzodiazepines.

  6. Push-through direct injection NMR: an optimized automation method applied to metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a pressing need to increase the throughput of NMR analysis in fields such as metabolomics and drug discovery. Direct injection (DI) NMR automation is recognized to have the potential to meet this need due to its suitability for integration with the 96-well plate format. ...

  7. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  8. Direct injection method for HPLC/MS/MS analysis of acrylamide in aqueous solutions: application to adsorption experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Ines; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides are polymers used in many fields and represent the main source of release of the highly toxic acrylamide in the environment. In this work, a simple, rapid, and sensitive analytical method was developed with HPLC/MS/MS and direct injection for acrylamide analysis in water and adsorption samples. AFNOR standards NF T90-210 and NF T90-220 were used for the analytical method validation and uncertainty estimation. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for acrylamide was 1 μg/L, and accuracy was checked at three acrylamide levels (1, 6, and 10 μg/L). Uncertainties were estimated at 34.2, 22, and 12.4 % for acrylamide concentrations at LOQ, 6 μg/L, and 10 μg/L, respectively. Acrylamide adsorption on clays (kaolinite, illite) and sludge was then studied as a function of pH, time, and acrylamide concentrations. Acrylamide adsorption on kaolinite, illite, and sludge was found to be very weak since adsorption percentages were inferior to 10 %, whatever the pH value and the initial acrylamide concentration. The low affinity of acrylamide for clays and sludge is likely due to its hydrophilic property, small size, and charge neutrality.

  9. The gas chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater samples: evaluation of experimental biases in direct injection method against thermal desorption method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Md Ahsan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Cho, Jinwoo

    2014-04-11

    The production of short-chained volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by the anaerobic bacterial digestion of sewage (wastewater) affords an excellent opportunity to alternative greener viable bio-energy fuels (i.e., microbial fuel cell). VFAs in wastewater (sewage) samples are commonly quantified through direct injection (DI) into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this study, the reliability of VFA analysis by the DI-GC method has been examined against a thermal desorption (TD-GC) method. The results indicate that the VFA concentrations determined from an aliquot from each wastewater sample by the DI-GC method were generally underestimated, e.g., reductions of 7% (acetic acid) to 93.4% (hexanoic acid) relative to the TD-GC method. The observed differences between the two methods suggest the possibly important role of the matrix effect to give rise to the negative biases in DI-GC analysis. To further explore this possibility, an ancillary experiment was performed to examine bias patterns of three DI-GC approaches. For instance, the results of the standard addition (SA) method confirm the definite role of matrix effect when analyzing wastewater samples by DI-GC. More importantly, their biases tend to increase systematically with increasing molecular weight and decreasing VFA concentrations. As such, the use of DI-GC method, if applied for the analysis of samples with a complicated matrix, needs a thorough validation to improve the reliability in data acquisition.

  10. Mathematical study of methods to reduce emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate from a compression ignited, direct injection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming

    2001-11-01

    A phenomenological model based on the multizone concept and a three-dimensional CFD model were used to predict the effect of engine modification on particulated and NOx emission from a compression ignited direct injection (CIDI) engine. The phenomenological model consisted of a spray model, an evaporation model, a heat release model, NOx formation, soot formation, and oxidation model, and can be used to predict the combustion process and pollutant emission in a CIDI diesel engine. The advantage of the multizone model over the 3-D CFD model is the small CPU and memory it requires for a simulation. In this study, the phenomenological model was used to investigate (1) the effect of increasing the intake-air O2 content on soot and NO x emission as a function of power level and wall temperature; and (2) the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and split fuel injection on pollutant emission, and compare their soot penalty at a given NOx emission. The results indicate that EGR with a relatively low temperature can reduce NOx emission with a minimum penalty of soot particle emission. The use of EGR is promising for significantly reducing NOx emission with small or no penalty of soot particle emission. The effect of auxiliary gas injection (AGI) on diesel engine combustion and emission was studied using KIVA 3V, a multidimensional computation fluid dynamics code. AGI enhances the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce the emission of pollutants. The simulation of a high-speed gas jet model with a relatively coarse computational grids was described. The choice of turbulent length scale for optimum simulation suitability is dependent of local mesh grid. The results demonstrate that AGI creates a second-way flow in the cylinder, which improves the mixing of charge in the cylinder. The effect of AGI on combustion and flow movement is significant. The use of exhaust gas on the AGI can reduce soot emission, while NOx emission also can be decreased to some degree. To reduce

  11. An improved method for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in Shenfu injection by direct analysis in real time-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Liu, Charles C; Wang, Rui; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source provides the great possibility for rapid analysis of hazardous substance in drugs. DART mass spectrometry (DART-MS) enabled the conducting of a fast and non-contact analysis of various samples, including solid or liquid ones, without complex sample preparation or chromatographic separation. In this study, a modified DART-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART-QTOF-MS) method was developed for identification and determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in Shenfu (SF) injection. The quantitative transfer of sample solution was introduced to the glass tips of DIP-it sampler at a fixed volume, which significantly increases the repeatability and accuracy of analytical results. The protonated ion of dibutyl phthalate in the atmosphere was used as the reference mass for TOF-MS recalibration during the data acquisition for constant high accuracy mass measurements. Finally, the developed DART-MS method was used to determine 5-HMF in seven batches of SF injection, and the contents of 5-HMF were not higher than 100 µg/mL. The results obtained were further confirmed by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QQQ-MS). The overall results demonstrated that the DART-QTOF-MS method could be applied as an alternative technique for rapid monitoring 5-HMF in herbal medicine injection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Immunity of FPGA chips by direct injection

    OpenAIRE

    Aurand, Tobias; Dawson, J.F.; Robinson, Martin Paul; Marvin, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Immunity measurements of Xilinix XC3S200TQ144 and Altera EP3C10E144C7N FPGAs by direct injection are presented and the immunity of individual pins is shown to depend greatly on the load seen by nearby pins. The implications of this on in circuit immunity prediction are discussed.

  13. [Effects of teaching method using standardized patients on nursing competence in subcutaneous injection, self-directed learning readiness, and problem solving ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Mi-Ran; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Seong, Kayeon

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of teaching method using Standardized Patients (SPs) on nursing competence, self-directed learning readiness, and problem solving ability-focusing on subcutaneous insulin injection. This research was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized post-test design. The subjects consisted of 62 junior nursing students at E University. Scenarios to train SPs and checklists to evaluate the students' competence were developed by our research team. The experimental group (n=31) participated in the teaching class using SPs. The control group (n=31) received traditional practice education. The collected data were analyzed with descriptive analysis, X(2)/Fisher's exact test, t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Cronbach's alpha using SPSS WIN 14.0 Program. The mean scores of competence, self-directed learning readiness, and problem solving were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group. As confirmed by this research findings, the teaching method using SPs was more effective than the traditional method to improve junior nursing students' competence, self-directed learning readiness, and problem solving. Therefore, It is necessary to develop a various of scenarios and to testify their effectiveness.

  14. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  15. GC/MS method for determining carbon isotope enrichment and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids by direct aqueous solution injection of biogas digester samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Feilberg, Anders

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic digestion of organic matter, several metabolic pathways are involved during the simultaneous production and consumption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in general and acetate in particular. Understanding the role of each pathway requires both the determination of the concentration and isotope enrichment of intermediates in conjunction with isotope labeled substrates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid and simple GC/MS method for determining the isotope enrichment of acetate and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in biogas digester samples by direct liquid injection of acidified aqueous samples. Sample preparation involves only acidification, centrifugation and filtration of the aqueous solution followed by direct injection of the aqueous supernatant solution onto a polar column. With the sample preparation and GC/MS conditions employed, well-resolved and sharp peaks of underivatized SCFA were obtained in a reasonably short time. Good recovery (96.6-102.3%) as well as low detection (4-7 µmol/L) and quantification limits (14-22 µmol/L) were obtained for all the 6 SCFA studied. Good linearity was achieved for both concentration and isotope enrichment measurement with regression coefficients higher than 0.9978 and 0.9996, respectively. The method has a good intra- and inter-day precision with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 6% for determining the tracer-to-tracee ratio (TTR) of both [2-(13)C]acetate and [U-(13)C]acetate. It has also a good intra- and inter-day precision with a RSD below 6% and 5% for determining the concentration of standard solution and biogas digester samples, respectively. Acidification of biogas digester samples with oxalic acid provided the low pH required for the protonation of SCFA and thus, allows the extraction of SCFA from the complex sample matrix. Moreover, oxalic acid was the source of formic acid which was produced in the injector set at high temperature. The produced

  16. An Eco-Friendly Direct Injection HPLC Method for Methyldopa Determination in Serum by Mixed-Mode Chromatography Using a Single Protein-Coated Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Samy; Masujima, Tsutomu; Zarad, Walaa; Kamal, Maha; Fouad, Marwa; El-Bagary, Ramzia

    2015-09-01

    A simple, rapid and environment-friendly direct injection HPLC method for the determination of methyldopa (MTD) in human serum has been developed and validated. The method was based on cleanup and separation of MTD from serum by mixed-mode liquid chromatography using a single protein-coated TSK gel ODS-80 TM analytical column (50 × 4.0 mm i.d., 5 µm). The protein-coated column exhibited excellent resolution, selectivity and functioned in two chromatographic modes: size-exclusion chromatography [i.e., solid-phase extraction (SPE) for serum proteins] and reversed-phase chromatography for the final separation of MTD. SPE and HPLC separation were carried out simultaneously with a green mobile phase consisting of acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 2.4) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and at room temperature (23 ± 1°C). The eluent was monitored at emission and excitation wavelengths of 320 and 270 nm, respectively. A calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-30 µg/mL with a detection limit of 0.027 µg/mL. This online SPE method was successfully applied to real samples obtained from patients receiving MTD therapy.

  17. Improvement of emissions and performance by using of air jet, exhaust gas re-circulation and insulation methods in a direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarmadara S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the improvement of operation characteristics and emissions reduction by means of creating an air-cell inside the piston body, exhaust gases recirculating and insulating combustion chamber in a direct injection diesel engine simultaneously. The engine considered is a caterpillar 3401 which was modeled with an air-cell included as part of the piston geometry. This air-cell demonstrates that air injection in late combustion period can be effective in a significant reduction of Soot emission while cold EGR can be effective in reduction of NOx emission. Also for increasing of performance parameters, combustion chamber with air-cell is insulated. The analyses are carried out at part (75% of full load and full load conditions at the same engine speed 1600 rpm. The obtained results indicate that creating the air-cell has a slight effect on improvement of performance parameters and it has significantly effect on Soot reduction. The air-cell decreases the Soot pollutant as a factor of two at both part and full load conditions. Also, the adding 5% of cold EGR in inlet air decreases NOx by about half and insulating the engine increases the power and IMEP by about 7.7% and 8.5% and decreases the ISFC by about 7.5% at part load and increases power and IMEP by 8.5%, 8.5% and decreases ISFC by 8% at full load condition, respectively. Using this method, it was possible to control emissions formation and increase performance parameters simultaneously. The predicted results for mean in-cylinder pressure and emissions are compared to the corresponding experimental results and show good agreements.

  18. A review on development of analytical methods to determine monitorable drugs in serum and urine by micellar liquid chromatography using direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Romero, Josep; Albiol-Chiva, Jaume; Peris-Vicente, Juan

    2016-07-05

    Therapeutic drug monitoring is a common practice in clinical studies. It requires the quantification of drugs in biological fluids. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC), a well-established branch of Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC), has been proven by many researchers as a useful tool for the analysis of these matrices. This review presents several analytical methods, taken from the literature, devoted to the determination of several monitorable drugs in serum and urine by micellar liquid chromatography. The studied groups are: anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, analgesics and bronchodilators. We detail the optimization strategy of the sample preparation and the main chromatographic conditions, such as the type of column, mobile phase composition (surfactant, organic solvent and pH), and detection. The finally selected experimental parameters, the validation, and some applications have also been described. In addition, their performances and advantages have been discussed. The main ones were the possibility of direct injection, and the efficient chromatographic elution, in spite of the complexity of the biological fluids. For each substance, the measured concentrations were accurate and precise at their respective therapeutic range. It was found that the MLC-procedures are fast, simple, inexpensive, ecofriendly, safe, selective, enough sensitive and reliable. Therefore, they represent an excellent alternative for the determination of drugs in serum and urine for monitoring purposes.

  19. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  20. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Moir, Ralph W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS2. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of +/- 0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  1. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2016-12-13

    A method of recovering a liquid hydrocarbon using an injectate includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon through primary extraction. Physico-chemical data representative of electrostatic interactions between the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock are measured. At least one additive of the injectate is selected based on the physico-chemical data. The method includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon from the reservoir rock through secondary extraction using the injectate.

  2. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  3. CMOS Direct-Injection Divide-by-3 Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia-Wei; Chang; Jhin-Fang; Huang; Sheng-Lyang; Jang; Ying-Hsiang; Liao; Miin-Horng; Juang

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper proposes CMOS LC-tank divide-by-3 injection locked frequency dividers(ILFDs)fabricated in 0.18μn and 90nm CMOS process and describes the circuit design,operation principle and measurement results of the ILFDs.The ILFDs use two injection series-MOSFETs across the LC resonator and a differential injection signal is applied to the gates of injection MOSFETs.The direct-injection divide-by-3 ILFDs are potential for radio-frequency application and can have wide locking range.

  4. Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection, ME-LDI, Combustion concept with the following innovative features: 1. Independent, mini burning zones...

  5. Scaling of the direct ECC bypass during LBLOCA reflood phase with direct vessel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, B.J.; Kwon, T.S.; Song, C.H.; Jeong, J.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.K.; Park, G.C. [Seoul National Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    As one of the advanced design features of the Korea next generation reactor, direct vessel injection (DVI) system is being considered instead of conventional cold leg injection (CLI) system. It is known that the DVI system greatly enhances the reliability of the emergency core cooling (ECC) system. However, there is still a dispute on its performance in terms of water delivery to the reactor core during the reflood period of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Thus, experimental validation is under progress. In this paper, a new scaling method, using time and velocity reduced linear scaling law, is suggested for the design of a scaled-down experimental facility to investigate the direct ECC bypass phenomena in PWR downcomer. (authors)

  6. Improved direct torque control of induction motor with dither injection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Behera; S P Das

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a three-level inverter-fed induction motor drive operating under Direct Torque Control (DTC) is presented. A triangular wave is used as dither signal of minute amplitude (for torque hysteresis band and flux hysteresis band respectively) in the error block. This method minimizes flux and torque ripple in a three-level inverter fed induction motor drive while the dynamic performance is not affected. The optimal value of dither frequency and magnitude is found out under free running condition. The proposed technique reduces torque ripple by 60% (peak to peak) compared to the case without dither injection, results in low acoustic noise and increases the switching frequency of the inverter. A laboratory prototype of the drive system has been developed and the simulation and experimental results are reported.

  7. Mixture distribution measurement using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shudo, Toshio [Applied Energy System Group, Division of Energy and Environmental Systems, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ward, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Oba, Shuji [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Reduction in cooling loss due to the heat transfer from burning gas to the combustion chamber wall is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen engines. The previous research has shown that the direct injection stratified charge can be a technique to reduce the cooling loss and improve thermal efficiency in hydrogen combustion. For effective reductions in cooling loss by the stratified charge, it is very important to know the relation between the fuel injection conditions and mixture distribution. The current research employs the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as a method to measure the hydrogen concentration distribution in the direct injection stratified charge. Measurement of instantaneous local equivalence ratio by the method clears the characteristics of mixture formation in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge. This research also tries to actively control the mixture distribution using a split fuel injection. (author)

  8. UV-visible digital imaging of split injection in a Gasoline Direct Injection engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever tighter limits on pollutant emissions and the need to improve energy conversion efficiency have made the application of gasoline direct injection (GDI feasible for a much wider scale of spark ignition engines. Changing the way fuel is delivered to the engine has thus provided increased flexibility but also challenges, such as higher particulate emissions. Therefore, alternative injection control strategies need to be investigated in order to obtain optimum performance and reduced environmental impact. In this study, experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder GDI optical engine fuelled with commercial gasoline in lean-burn conditions. The single-cylinder was equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged engine with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio and wall guided fuel injection. Optical accessibility was ensured through a conventional elongated hollow Bowditch piston and an optical crown, accommodating a fused-silica window. Experimental tests were performed at fixed engine speed and injection pressure, whereas the injection timing and the number of injections were adjusted to investigate their influence on combustion and emissions. UV-visible digital imaging was applied in order to follow the combustion process, from ignition to the late combustion phase. All the optical data were correlated with thermodynamic analysis and measurements of exhaust emissions. Split injection strategies (i.e. two injections per cycle with respect to single injection increased combustion efficiency and stability thanks to an improvement of fuel air mixing. As a consequence, significant reduction in soot formation and exhaust emission with acceptable penalty in terms of HC and NOx were measured.

  9. An automatic chemiluminescence method based on the multi-pumping flow system coupled with the fluidized reactor and direct-injection detector: Determination of uric acid in saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakh, Christina; Koronkiewicz, Stanislawa; Kalinowski, Slawomir; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2017-05-15

    A novel approach for the automatic chemiluminescence (CL) analysis of the complex samples is proposed. A multi-pumping flow system was successfully combined with fluidized reactor and direct-injection CL detector. The possibility of the approach was demonstrated on the determination of uric acid in saliva samples. Uric acid is clinically important analyte and its determination in biological fluids is related to human organism dysfunctions, such as gout. For the first time, the fast luminol - N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) reaction in an alkaline medium was used for the CL determination of uric acid in saliva samples. The CL intensity is greatly quenched in the presence of the analyte. The method includes on-line separation of uric acid from the saliva samples based on fluidized beds strategy using anion-exchange resin Dowex(®) 2×8 followed by the elution and CL determination using a direct-injection CL detector. The stroke pulsations of the solenoid micro-pumps provided the floating of the anion exchange resin in a sample phase and uric acid separation from the sample matrix into a sample pre-treatment block of flow system. To obtain efficient elution of analyte an eluent circulation was applied. Under the optimal conditions, the detector response for uric acid was linear in the logarithmic concentration ranges from 6·10(-6) to 1·10(-3)molL(-1). The limit of detection, calculated from a blank test based on 3σ, was 2·10(-6)molL(-1). Fluidized bed strategy allows us to exclude saliva matrices influence on the luminol-NBS CL reaction, which results in improved selectivity. The applicability of the method developed is demonstrated with the help of real sample analysis. The obtained results are confirmed by reference HPLC-UV method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 8661 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...-14-07, Amendment 39-15602 (73 FR 39574), for certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured... Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured...

  11. The lean burn direct injection jet ignition gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Alberto A.; Watson, Harry C. [School of Science and Engineering, University of Ballarat, PO Box 663, Ballarat, Victoria 3353 (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents a new in-cylinder mixture preparation and ignition system for various fuels including hydrogen, methane and propane. The system comprises a centrally located direct injection (DI) injector and a jet ignition (JI) device for combustion of the main chamber (MC) mixture. The fuel is injected in the MC with a new generation, fast actuating, high pressure, high flow rate DI injector capable of injection shaping and multiple events. This injector produces a bulk, lean stratified mixture. The JI system uses a second DI injector to inject a small amount of fuel in a small pre-chamber (PC). In the spark ignition (SI) version, a spark plug then ignites a slightly rich mixture. In the auto ignition version, a DI injector injects a small amount of higher pressure fuel in the small PC having a hot glow plug (GP) surface, and the fuel auto ignites in the hot air or when in contact with the hot surface. Either way the MC mixture is then bulk ignited through multiple jets of hot reacting gases. Bulk ignition of the lean, jet controlled, stratified MC mixture resulting from coupling DI with JI makes it possible to burn MC mixtures with fuel to air equivalence ratios reducing almost to zero for a throttle-less control of load diesel-like and high efficiencies over almost the full range of loads. (author)

  12. The Directed Case Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, William H.; Curtin, Leslie Nesbitt

    2000-01-01

    Provides an example of a directed case on human anatomy and physiology. Uses brief real life newspaper articles and clinical descriptions of medical reference texts to describe an actual, fictitious, or composite event. Includes interrelated human anatomy and physiology topics in the scenario. (YDS)

  13. New clinical guidelines for selective direct injection therapy of the parathyroid glands in chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Noritaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Akizawa, Tadao; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-08-01

    In 2000, the Japanese Society for Parathyroid Intervention issued the 'Guidelines for percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of the parathyroid glands in chronic dialysis patients'. Since then, the concept of 'selective PEIT' has been well accepted and the number of patients treated by this method in Japan has increased. Recently, it has been reported that the effect of PEIT differs depending on the degree of nodular hyperplasia. Several new drugs have become available since 2000, and active vitamin D and its analogue have also been used for direct injection into the parathyroids. We present the new 'Guidelines for selective direct injection therapy of the parathyroid glands in chronic dialysis patients', a revised version of the 2000 Guidelines. We believe that these new guidelines are useful for selecting direct injection therapy in patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  14. NOx reduction by ozone injection and direct plasma treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Salewski, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    NOx reduction by ozone injection and direct plasma treatment is investigated for different process parameters in a 6 m long serpentine reactor. Several aspects including the role of mixing scheme, water vapours, steep temperature gradient and time dependet NOx levels are taken into consideration....... The process chemistry is monitored by FTIR, chemiluminiscence and absorbtion spectroscopy. The kinetic mechanism is also investigated in 3D simulations....

  15. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  16. Direct subcutaneous injection of polyethylene particles over the murine calvaria results in dramatic osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Allison J; Zwingenberger, Stefan; Valladares, Roberto; Li, Chenguang; Lane Smith, Robert; Goodman, Stuart B; Nich, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    The murine calvarial model has been widely employed for the in vivo study of particle-induced osteolysis, the most frequent cause of aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. Classically, this model uses an open surgical technique in which polyethylene (PE) particles are directly spread over the calvarium for the induction of osteolysis. We evaluated a minimally invasive modification of the calvarial model by using a direct subcutaneous injection of PE particles. Polyethylene (PE) particles were injected subcutaneously over the calvaria of C57BL6J ten-week-old mice ("injection" group) or were implanted after surgical exposure of the calvaria ("open" group) (n = 5/group). For each group, five additional mice received no particles and served as controls. Particle-induced osteolysis was evaluated two weeks after the procedure using high-definition microCT imaging. Polyethylene particle injection over the calvaria resulted in a 40% ± 1.8% decrease in the bone volume fraction (BVF), compared to controls. Using the "open surgical technique", the BVF decreased by 16% ± 3.8% as compared to controls (p subcutaneous injection of PE particles over the murine calvaria produced more profound resorption of bone. Polyethylene particle implantation by injection is less invasive and reliably induces osteolysis to a greater degree than the open technique. This subcutaneous injection method will prove useful for repetitive injections of particles, and the assessment of potential local or systemic therapies.

  17. Computer animation of the stratified mixture shape in gasoline direct injection engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendyka, B.; Pisarczyk, W.; Pajak, M. [Cracow University of Technology (Poland); Lindberg, W. [University of Wyoming (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The present method of direct fuel injection in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines (GDIE) creates a conical fuel stream, which is inefficient for GDIE. In this paper we analyzed how to achieve stratified conical shape of the rich fuel mixture. The kernel of the rich mixture should be located between the electrodes of the spark plug. This is achieved when the conical stream is bounced back from the surface of the bowl of the piston. The computer animation of the trajectory of the convergent fuel stream was based on equations of the parameters for fuel stream, injection pressure and angle of fuel injector. The presented animation allows us to determine the movement of the stream, from the beginning of injection to the electrodes of the spark plug, where the combustion process of the rich mixture kernel starts. (author)

  18. Direct in vivo injection of ~(131)I-GMS and its distribution and excretion in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the distribution and metabolism of 131 I-gelatin microspheres ( 131 I-GMSs) in rabbits after direct injection into rabbits’ livers.METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into seven groups,with four rabbits per group.Each rabbit’s hepatic lobes were directly injected with 41.336 ± 5.106 MBq 131 I-GMSs.Each day after 131 I-GMSs administration,4 rabbits were randomly selected,and 250 μL of serum was collected for γ count.Hepatic and thyroid functions were tested on days ...

  19. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  20. Production of horse foals via direct injection of roscovitine-treated donor cells and activation by injection of sperm extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, K; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Chung, Y G; Varner, D D

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of different donor cell treatments and activation methods on production of blastocysts after equine nuclear transfer. Nuclear transfer was performed by direct injection of donor cells, using a piezo drill, and standard activation was by injection of sperm factor followed by culture with 6-dimethylaminopurine. There was no difference in blastocyst development between embryos produced with roscovitine-treated or confluent donor cells (3.6% for either treatment). Addition of injection of roscovitine or culture with cycloheximide at the time of activation did not affect blastocyst development. Overall, transfer of eight blastocysts produced using roscovitine-treated donor cells and our standard activation protocol yielded three pregnancies, of which two (25% of transferred embryos) resulted in delivery of viable foals. Flow cytometric evaluation showed that roscovitine treatment significantly increased the proportion of cells classified as small, in comparison to growth to confluence or serum deprivation, but did not significantly affect the proportion of cells in G0/G1 (2N DNA content). Transfer of one blastocyst produced using roscovitine-treated donor cells, with addition of roscovitine injection at activation, yielded one pregnancy which was lost before 114 days' gestation. Transfer to recipients of two blastocysts produced using confluent donor cells with addition of cycloheximide at activation gave no resulting pregnancies. We conclude that roscovitine treatment of donor cells yields equivalent blastocyst production after nuclear transfer to that for confluent donor cells, and that direct injection of roscovitine-treated donor cells, followed by activation using sperm extract, is compatible with efficient production of viable cloned foals.

  1. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  2. Direct injection of superheated steam for continuous hydrolysis reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-09-01

    The primary intent for previous continuous hydrolysis studies was to minimize the reaction temperature and reaction time. In this work, hydrolysis is the first step of a proprietary chemical process to convert lipids to sustainable, drop-in replacements for petroleum based fuels. To improve the economics of the process, attention is now focused on optimizing the energy efficiency of the process, maximizing the reaction rate, and improving the recovery of the glycerol by-product. A laboratory-scale reactor system has been designed and built with this goal in mind.Sweet water (water with glycerol from the hydrolysis reaction) is routed to a distillation column and heated above the boiling point of water at the reaction pressure. The steam pressure allows the steam to return to the reactor without pumping. Direct injection of steam into the hydrolysis reactor is shown to provide favorable equilibrium conditions resulting in a high quality of FFA product and rapid reaction rate, even without preheating the inlet water and oil and with lower reactor temperatures and lower fresh water demand. The high enthalpy of the steam provides energy for the hydrolysis reaction. Steam injection offers enhanced conditions for continuous hydrolysis of triglycerides to high-purity streams of FFA and glycerol. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  4. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  5. Design of an RFQ for direct plasma injection scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhouli; R.A.Jameson; ZHAO Hongwei; XU Zhe; LIU Yong; ZHANG Shenghu; ZHANG Cong; SUN Liepeng; MEI Lirong; SHEN Xiaokang

    2009-01-01

    A high current radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP,CAS) for the direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS).Because of the strong space charge of beams from laser ion source,the beam dynamics design of the RFQ has been carried out with a new code,which can deal with space charge effectively.The design of the RFQ structure is performed with an electromagnetic simulation code and the determination of parameters of the structure has been done to maximize the shunt impedance when the frequency is kept fixed.The influences of dipole mode effect and flatness on beams were also discussed.

  6. High Bandwidth Zero Voltage Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Xie; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2014-01-01

    High frequency signal injection is widely used in PMSM sensorless control system for low speed operations. The conventional voltage injection method often needs filters to obtain particular harmonic component in order to estimate the rotor position; or it requires several voltage pulses to be inj...... in a fast current regulation performance. Injection of zero voltage also minimizes the inverter voltage error effects caused by the dead-time.......High frequency signal injection is widely used in PMSM sensorless control system for low speed operations. The conventional voltage injection method often needs filters to obtain particular harmonic component in order to estimate the rotor position; or it requires several voltage pulses...... to be injected before the position may be estimated. In this paper, a single pulse zero voltage injection method is proposed. The rotor position is directly estimated from the current ripple at half of the switching frequency. No machine parameters are needed and using of filters is avoided. This results...

  7. Turbulence-combustion interaction in direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencherif Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental measures of chemical species and turbulence intensity during the closed part of the engine combustion cycle are today unattainable exactly. This paper deals with numerical investigations of an experimental direct injection Diesel engine and a commercial turbocharged heavy duty direct injection one. Simulations are carried out with the kiva3v2 code using the RNG (k-ε model. A reduced mechanism for n-heptane was adopted for predicting auto-ignition and combustion processes. From the calibrated code based on experimental in-cylinder pressures, the study focuses on the turbulence parameters and combustion species evolution in the attempt to improve understanding of turbulence-chemistry interaction during the engine cycle. The turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate are taken as representative parameters of turbulence. The results indicate that chemistry reactions of fuel oxidation during the auto-ignition delay improve the turbulence levels. The peak position of turbulent kinetic energy coincides systematically with the auto-ignition timing. This position seems to be governed by the viscous effects generated by the high pressure level reached at the auto-ignition timing. The hot regime flame decreases rapidly the turbulence intensity successively by the viscous effects during the fast premixed combustion and heat transfer during other periods. It is showed that instable species such as CO are due to deficiency of local mixture preparation during the strong decrease of turbulence energy. Also, an attempt to build an innovative relationship between self-ignition and maximum turbulence level is proposed. This work justifies the suggestion to determine otherwise the self-ignition timing.

  8. Effect of fuel injection rate and timing on the physical, chemical, and biological character of particulate emissions from a direct injection diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.; Scholl, J.; Hibbler, F.; Bagley, S.; Leddy, D.; Abata, D.; Johnson, J.

    1981-01-01

    Formation of pollutants from diesel combustion and methods for their control have been reviewed. Of these methods, fuel injection rate and timing were selected for a parametric study relative to total particulate, soluble organic fraction (SOF), sulfates, solids and NO and NO/sub 2/ emissions from a heavy-duty, turbocharged, after-cooled, direct-injection (DI) diesel. Chemical analyses of the SOF were performed at selected engine conditions to determine the effects of injection rate and timing on each of the eight chemical subfractions comprising the SOF. Biological character of the SOF was determined using the Ames Salmonella/microsome bioassay. 54 refs.

  9. A fully automated and fast method using direct sample injection combined with fused-core column on-line SPE-HPLC for determination of ochratoxin A and citrinin in lager beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotská, Ivona; Šatínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-05-01

    A new fast and sensitive method based on on-line solid-phase extraction on a fused-core precolumn coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) determination in lager beer samples. Direct injection of 100 μL filtered beer samples into an on-line SPE-HPLC system enabled fast and effective sample extraction including separation in less than 6 min. Preconcentration of OTA and CIT from beer samples was performed on an Ascentis Express RP C18 guard column (5 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase of methanol/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). The flow switch from extraction column to analytical column in back-flush mode was set at 2.0 min and the separation was performed on the fused-core column Ascentis Express Phenyl-Hexyl (100 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase acetonitrile/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 in a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and temperature of 50 °C. Fluorescence excitation/emission detection wavelengths were set at 335/497 nm. The accuracy of the method, defined as the mean recoveries of OTA and CIT from light and dark beer samples, was in the range 98.3-102.1%. The method showed high sensitivity owing to on-line preconcentration; LOQ values were found to be 10 and 20 ng L(-1) for OTA and CIT, respectively. The found values of OTA and CIT in all tested light, dark and wheat beer samples were significantly below the maximum tolerable limits (3.0 μg kg(-1) for OTA and 2000 μg kg(-1) for CIT) set by the European Union.

  10. Direct Energy Exchange Enhancement in Distributed Injection Light Gas Launchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, T W; Finucane, R G; Hall, J P; Penetrante, B M; Uphaus, T M

    2000-04-06

    initially contained in the reservoir. This results deserves emphasis: whereas conventional guns apply a few percent of the reservoir pressure to a fast moving projectile, our design is paradoxically capable of applying nearly double the contained pressure. We later confirmed this experimental result analytically and related it to a type of direct energy exchange between unsteady fluid flows. This physical approach was the basis for the German V-1 ''buzz bomb'' of World War II; it has been applied to a limited number of commercial applications. (This work should not be confused with the German WWII distributed injection missile launchers.) Direct fluid-energy exchange has not previously been applied to any gas-launcher technology. As a result of these discoveries, we estimate that a practical, 15 km/s, high-velocity launcher could be built using our direct-energy-exchange, distributed-injection approach. However, the radical nature of the results, the lack of confirming or allied work being carried out anywhere else, and the fact that it would take extensive time and resources to demonstrate targeted performance precluded further development. We plan to submit the results to a refereed journal to ensure that the work will not be lost to the launcher community.

  11. Performance and combustion characteristics of a direct injection SI hydrogen engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali [Engine Technology, Powertrain, Toyota Motor Europe, Technical centre Hoge Wei 33 Zaventem 1930 (Belgium); Shioji, Masahiro; Nakai, Yasuyuki; Ishikura, Wataru [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi Sakyo-ku Kyoto 605-8501 (Japan); Tabo, Eizo [Environmental and Technical Affairs Department, Mitsubishi Motors Co., 5-33-8 Shiba Minatoku Tokyo 108-8401 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    Hydrogen with low spark-energy requirement, wide flammability range and high burning velocity is an important candidate for being used as fuel in spark-ignition engines. It also offers CO{sub 2} and HC free combustion and lean operation resulting in lower NO{sub x} emissions. However, well examined external mixing of hydrogen with intake air causes backfire and knock especially at higher engine loads. In addition, low heating value per unit of volume of hydrogen limits the maximum output power. In this study, attention was paid to full usage of hydrogen advantage employing internal mixing method. Hydrogen was directly injected into cylinder of a single-cylinder test engine using a high-pressure gas injector and effects of injection timing and spark timing on engine performance and NO{sub x} emission were investigated under wide engine loads. The results indicate that direct injection of hydrogen prevents backfire, and that high thermal efficiency and output power can be achieved by hydrogen injection during late compression stroke. Moreover, by further optimization of the injection timing for each engine load, NO{sub x} emission can be reduced under the high engine output conditions. (author)

  12. Modelling of the wall jet in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desantes, J.M.; Lapuerta, M.; Salavert, J.M. (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (ES). Dept. Maquinas y Motores Termicos)

    1992-01-01

    As a part of a phenomenological model, a method for simulating the wall/jet interaction in a direct injection diesel engine is proposed. The method is based on the application of the momentum conservation equation in the different directions in which the wall jet is spread, and takes into account both the interaction with the combustion chamber geometry and with swirl. It takes as initial conditions the results of calculating the free jet, which is divided into packages. The predictions provide good agreement with those by other researchers. (author).

  13. High-pressure liquid chromatography with direct injection of gas sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astanin, Anton I; Baram, Grigory I

    2017-06-09

    The conventional method of using liquid chromatography to determine the composition of a gaseous mixture entails dissolving vapors in a suitable solvent, then obtaining a chromatograph of the resulting solution. We studied the direct introduction of a gaseous sample into a C18 reversed-phase column, followed by separation of the components by HPLC with UV detection. Since the chromatography was performed at high pressure, vapors readily dissolved in the eluent and the substances separated in the column as effectively as in liquid samples. Samples were injected into the column in two ways: a) through the valve without a flow stop; b) after stopping the flow and relieving all pressure. We showed that an injectable gas volume could reach 70% of column dead volume. When an injected gaseous sample volume was less than 10% of the column dead volume, the resulting peaks were symmetrical and the column efficiency was high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spin Injection from Ferromagnetic Metal Directly into Non-Magnetic Semiconductor under Different Injection Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ning; TANG Jian-Shi; ZHANG Lei; ZHANG Shu-Chao; CHEN Pei-Yi

    2010-01-01

    @@ For ferromagnetic metal(FM)/semiconductor(SC)structure with ohmic contact,the effect of carrier polarization in the semiconductor combined with drift part of injection current on current polarization is investigated.Based on the general model we established here,spin injection efficiency under different injection current levels is calculated.Under a reasonable high injection current,current polarization in the semiconductor is actually much larger than that predicted by the conductivity mismatch model because the effect of carrier polarization is enhanced by the increasing drift current.An appreciable current polarization of 1% could be achieved for the FM/SC structure via ohmic contact,which means that efficient spin injection from FM into SC via ohmic contact is possible.The reported dependence of current polarization on temperature is verified quantitatively.To achieve even larger spin injection efficiency,a gradient doping semiconductor is suggested to enhance the drift current effect.

  15. Effective method for drug injection into subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Park, Hanwook; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-08-29

    Subcutaneous injection of drug solution is widely used for continuous and low dose drug treatment. Although the drug injections have been administered for a long time, challenges in the design of injection devices are still needed to minimize the variability, pain, or skin disorder by repeated drug injections. To avoid these adverse effects, systematic study on the effects of injection conditions should be conducted to improve the predictability of drug effect. Here, the effects of injection conditions on the drug permeation in tissues were investigated using X-ray imaging technique which provides real-time images of drug permeation with high spatial resolution. The shape and concentration distribution of the injected drug solution in the porcine subcutaneous and muscle tissues are visualized. Dynamic movements of the wetting front (WF) and temporal variations of water contents in the two tissues are quantitatively analyzed. Based on the quantitative analysis of the experimental data, the permeability of drug solution through the tissues are estimated according to permeation direction, injection speed, and tissue. The present results would be helpful for improving the performance of drug injection devices and for predicting the drug efficacy in tissues using biomedical simulation.

  16. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  17. A new injection method for soil nutrient analysis in capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, M.; Puchberger-Enengl, D.; Bipoun, M.; Fercher, G.; Klasa, A.; Krutzler, C.; Keplinger, F.; Vellekoop, M. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a new method for the direct injection of liquid sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE) device. Instead of a double-T injection mechanism, a single inlet provided with a membrane filter is used. From a reservoir on top of this inlet, the liquid directly enters the separation channel through the membrane. The driving force is a short electrical pulse. This avoids an additional sample channel, so that the chip needs only three microfluidic connects and no mechanical sample pumping is demanded. The high injection reproducibility and the comparatively simple setup open up the way for mobile application of soil analysis.

  18. Separate direct injection of diesel and ethanol: A numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnete Nicolae V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the theoretical possibility of using a pilot diesel injection for the auto-ignition of a main ethanol injection in a compression ignition engine. To this effect a predictive simulation model has been built based on experimental results for a diesel cycle (pilot and main injection at 1500 and 2500 min–1, respectively. For every engine speed, in addition to the diesel reference cycle, two more simulations were done: one with the same amount of fuel injected into the cylinder and one with the same amount of energy, which required an increase in the quantity of ethanol proportional to the ratio of its lower heating value and that of diesel. The simulations showed that in all cases the pilot diesel led to the auto-ignition of ethanol. The analysis of the in-cylinder traces at 1500 min–1 showed that combustion efficiency is improved, the peak temperature value decrease with approximately 240 K and, as a result, the NO emissions are 3.5-4 times lower. The CO and CO2 values depend on the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. At 2500 min–1 there are similar trends but with the following observations: the ignition delay increases, while the pressure and temperature are lower.

  19. Direct methods in protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, J

    1989-11-01

    It is pointed out that the 'direct methods' of phase determination for small-structure crystallography do not have immediate applicability to macromolecular structures. The term 'direct methods in macromolecular crystallography' is suggested to categorize a spectrum of approaches to macromolecular structure determination in which the analyses are characterized by the use of two-phase and higher-order-phase invariants. The evaluation of the invariants is generally obtained by the use of heavy-atom techniques. The results of a number of the more recent algebraic and probabilistic studies involving isomorphous replacement and anomalous dispersion thus become valid subjects for discussion here. These studies are described and suggestions are also presented concerning future applicability. Additional discussion concerns the special techniques of filtering, the use of non-crystallographic symmetry, some features of maximum entropy and attempts to apply phase-determining formulas to the refinement of macromolecular structure. It is noted that, in addition to the continuing remarkable progress in macromolecular crystallography based on the traditional applications of isomorphous replacement and anomalous dispersion, recent valuable advances have been made in the application of non-crystallographic symmetry, in particular, to virus structures and in applications of filtering. Good progress has also been reported in the application of exact linear algebra to multiple-wavelength anomalous-dispersion investigations of structures containing anomalous scatterers of only moderate scattering power.

  20. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  1. CFD MODEL OF THE CNG DIRECT INJECTION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Czyż

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents CFD analysis of fuel flow in the CNG injector. The issues such a pressure drop along an injector channel, mass flow through the key sections of the injector geometry, flow rates, the impact of the needle shape on the deflection of the sprayed gas cone and the impact of the wall head are analyzed in the article. The simulation was made in the transient states conditions for full injection process, including the opening and closing of the injector. An injection time of 6 ms, velocity of 0.33 mm/ms and a lift of 0.5 mm were selected for opening and closing of injector based on experimental test. The simulation shows that the volume inside the injector is a kind of fuel accumulator, and the opening process of the needle influence the flow parameters in an inlet cross-section after a certain time, depending on a channel cross section. The calculations allowed to select the ratio of an injector duct cross sectional area to the aperture area of the injection capable of the reducing pressure loss. The unusual location of the injector in the socket of a glow plug in the Andoria ADCR engine makes a stream be impaired by a part of the head. This research result would be useful in developing an injector construction which will be used for an investigation of CNG addition into diesel engine.

  2. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  3. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trajectory Analysis of Fuel Injection into Supersonic Cross Flow Based on Schlieren Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui; LI Feng; SUN Baigang

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory analysis of fuel injection into supersonic cross flow is studied in this paper.A directly-connected wind tunnel is constructed to provide stable supersonic freestream.Based on the test rig,the schlieren system is established to reveal the fuel injection process visually.Subsequently,the method of quantitative schlieren is adopted to obtain data of both fuel/air interface and bow shock with the aid of Photoshop and Origin.Finally,the mechanism based on two influential factors of fuel injection angle and fuel injection driven pressure,is researched by vector analysis.A dimensionless model is deduced and analyzed.The curve fitting result is achieved.The relationship between the data and the two influential factors is established.The results provide not only the quantitative characteristics of the fuel injection in supersonic cross flow but also the valuable reference for the future computational simulation.

  5. The Effect of Injection Timings on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural-Gas Direct Injection Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Aljamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental part investigates the effect of injection timing on performance and emissions of homogenous mixture compressed natural-gas direct injection. The engine of 1.6 L capacity, 4 cylinders, spark ignition, and compression ratio of 14 was used. Performance and emission were recorded under wide-open throttle using an engine control system (Rotronics and the portable exhaust gas analyser (Kane. The engine was tested at speed ranging from 1500 revolutions per minute (RPM to 4000 RPM with 500 RPM increments. The engine control unit (ECU was modified using Motec 800. The injection timings investigated were at the end of injection (EOI 120 bTDC, 180 bTDC, 300 bTDC, and 360 bTDC. Results show high brake power, torque, and BMEP with 120 as compared with the other injection timings. At 4000 RPM the power, torque, and BMEP with 120 were 5% compared to that with 180. Furthermore, it shows low BSFC and high fuel conversion efficiency with 120. With 360, the engine produced less CO and CO2 at higher speeds.

  6. Separation of inverse spin hall effect and spin rectification effect by inverting spin injection direction in NiFe/ta bilayers film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuru; Zhang, Wanli; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wenxu

    2016-11-01

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) has been detected and separated from spin rectification effect (SRE) by inverting spin injection direction in metallic system. This work is based on the relation between the two effects and the spin injection direction: the sign of VISHE changes because of the reversing direction of spin injection while the VSRE is independent on it. According to the different voltage signals before and after the spin injection inverted, the pure VISHE and VSRE are calculated by utilizing the method of addition and subtraction. The signals can be separated in a wide range of frequency and power.

  7. Uncooled EGR as a means of limiting wall-wetting under early direct injection conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Eguz, U.; Erp, D.D.T.M. van; Albrecht, A.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Collision of injected fuel spray against the cylinder liner (wall-wetting) is one of the main hurdles that must be overcome in order for early direct injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) combustion to become a viable alternative for conventional DI diesel combustion. Preferably,

  8. Release of biomarkers of myocardial damage after direct intramyocardial injection of genes and stem cells via the percutaneous transluminal route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldazzi, F.; Jørgensen, Erik; Ripa, R.S.;

    2008-01-01

    no patient in the group receiving 0.2 mL had a more than two-fold CKMB increase. No patient developed new ECG changes. There were no clinically ventricular arrhythmias and no death. CONCLUSION: NOGA mapping followed by direct intramyocardial injections of stem cells or genes lead to measurable release......AIMS: We aimed to quantify the release of biomarkers of myocardial damage in relation to direct intramyocardial injections of genes and stem cells in patients with severe coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 71 patients with 'no-option' coronary artery disease. Patients had, via...

  9. Direct drive target survival during injection in an inertial fusion energy power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, R. W.; Goodin, D. T.; Nikroo, A.; Stephens, E.; Siegel, N.; Alexander, N. B.; Raffray, A. R.; Mau, T. K.; Tillack, M.; Najmabadi, F.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Gallix, R.

    2002-12-01

    In inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs, the fuel is a spherical layer of frozen DT contained in a target that is injected at high velocity into the reaction chamber. For direct drive, typically laser beams converge at the centre of the chamber (CC) to compress and heat the target to fusion conditions. To obtain the maximum energy yield from the fusion reaction, the frozen DT layer must be at about 18.5 K and the target must maintain a high degree of spherical symmetry and surface smoothness when it reaches the CC. During its transit in the chamber the cryogenic target is heated by radiation from the hot chamber wall. The target is also heated by convection as it passes through the rarefied fill-gas used to control chamber wall damage by x-rays and debris from the target explosion. This article addresses the temperature limits at the target surface beyond which target uniformity may be damaged. It concentrates on direct drive targets because fuel warm up during injection is not currently thought to be an issue for present indirect drive designs and chamber concepts. Detailed results of parametric radiative and convective heating calculations are presented for direct-drive targets during injection into a dry-wall reaction chamber. The baseline approach to target survival utilizes highly reflective targets along with a substantially lower chamber wall temperature and fill-gas pressure than previously assumed. Recently developed high-Z material coatings with high heat reflectivity are discussed and characterized. The article also presents alternate target protection methods that could be developed if targets with inherent survival features cannot be obtained within a reasonable time span.

  10. Manufacture of liposomes by isopropanol injection: characterization of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, Philippe; Bubel, Aurélie; Crucifix, Corinne; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Frisch, Benoît

    2012-03-01

    Unilamellar liposomes are conventionally prepared by rapid injection of an ethanolic solution of lipids into an aqueous medium. The aim of the present study was to control, more efficiently, vesicle diameter by using an alternative solvent. The results show that isopropanol injection is a good alternative to ethanol injection for the manufacture of liposomes. Particle size can be controlled by the variation of process parameters, such as stirring speed of the aqueous phase and injection flow rate of lipid-isopropanol solution. Diameter of vesicles obtained by this method is less affected by the nature of phospholipid, as well as lipid concentration, than in the ethanol-injection process. In addition, the vesicles are generally smaller (approximately 40-210 nm). Accurate characterization of the particles, by fluorescence, (31)P-NMR, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, showed that particles are formed of a single lipid bilayer around an aqueous cavity. We thus provide the scientific community with a fully characterized alternative method to produce unilamellar vesicles.

  11. Comparison of Two Anesthetic Methods for Intravitreal Ozurdex Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Levent Karabaş

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether subconjunctival lidocaine injection maintains additional anesthetic effect during intravitreal Ozurdex injection. Methods. 63 patients who were diagnosed as central or branch retinal vein occlusion and planned to receive Ozurdex injection for macular edema were prospectively included in the study. The patients were randomized into one of the two anesthetic groups. The first group received topical proparacaine drop and lidocaine applied pledget. The second group received subconjunctival lidocaine injection in addition to the anesthetics in group 1. Results. Mean pain score was 1.90±2.39 in group 1 and 1.71 ± 2.09 in group 2 (p=0.746. Mean subconjunctival hemorrhage grade was 1.67±0.17 in group 1 and 0.90±0.14 in group 2 (p=0.001. There was no relationship between the amount of subconjunctival hemorrhage and pain score of the patients. Conclusions. There was no difference in pain scores between the two anesthetic methods. The addition of subconjunctival lidocaine injection offered no advantage in pain relief compared to lidocaine-applied pledgets.

  12. Research on the Equivalence Between Double Differential-mode Current Injection and Radiation Test Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xiaodong; WEI Guanghui; FAN Lisi; LU Xinfu; YANG Zhe

    2013-01-01

    There are the application scope limits for single differential-mode current injection test method,so in order to carry out injection susceptibility test for two-pieces equipment interconnected with both ends of a cable simultaneously,a double differential-mode current injection test method (DDMCI) is proposed.The method adopted the equivalence source wave theorem and Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT)equation as its theory foundation.The equivalent corresponding relation between injection voltage and radiation electric field intensity is derived,and the phase relation between the two injection voltage sources is confirrned.The results indicate that the amplitude and phase of the equivalent injection voltage source is closely related to the S parameter of directional coupling device,the transmission line length,and the source vector in BLT equation,but has nothing to do with the reflection coefficient between the two equipment pieces.Therefore,by choosing the right amplitude and phase of the double injection voltage sources,the DDMCI test is equivalent to the radiation test for two interconnected equipment of a system.

  13. Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Single Element Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate the feasibility in a single element of a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection, ME-LDI, Combustion concept. The concept will have the...

  14. An Injectable Method for Posterior Lateral Spine Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    West, and E. A. Olmsted-Davis, “An injectable method for noninvasive spine fusion,” Spine J. 11(6), 545–556 (2011). 15. R. Y. Tsien , “Constructing...Lev-Ram, P. A. Steinbach, and R. Y. Tsien , “Mammalian expression of infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome,” Science

  15. A harmonic injection SPWM method for the high-responsive PMSM control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wang; Shuanghui, Hao; Minghui, Hao; Baoyu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system, usually, the phase voltage instruction is limited independently to prevent a three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) wave from overflowing. This method decreases the efficiency of the bus voltage and causes voltage vector direction errors. To solve these problems, we propose a harmonic injection sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM). This method uses harmonic injected sinusoidal PWM to improve the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage, and consequently improve system performance. In this paper, we analyse the problem in terms of potential difference. The simulation results show that the proposed method can increase the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage up to 15.4%, and the voltage vector mode obtained with the proposed algorithm is larger than that obtained with the conventional one. The method with harmonic injection consequently improves current response, without affecting voltage vector accuracy. The experiment results validate the proposed method.

  16. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIRAM V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

  17. Cellular changes following direct vitamin D injection into the uraemia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Hatamura, Ikuji; Negi, Shigeo; Nakazawa, Eiko; Tozawa, Ryoko; Izawa, Sayoko; Akizawa, Tadao; Kusano, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    Background. Hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland (PTG) is associated not only with excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but also with changes in the parathyroid cell (PTC) characteristics (i.e. hyperproliferative activity and low contents of vitamin D and calcium-sensing receptors). The control of PTG hyperplasia is most important in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), because the advanced stage of hyperplasia is considered irreversible. For the better control of the PTH level in dialysis patients with such advanced SHPT, percutaneous vitamin D injection therapy (PDIT) under ultrasonographic guidance was developed and various cellular changes caused by this treatment were also investigated using an animal model. Methods. The PTGs of Sprague–Dawley rats, which had been 5/6-nephrectomized and fed a high-phosphate diet, were treated with the direct injections of vitamin D agents, and cellular effects focusing the above-mentioned characters were investigated. Results. An adequacy of the direct injection technique into the rats’ PTGs and the successful effects of this treatment in various biochemical parameters were confirmed. Such characteristics of advanced SHPT were simultaneously improved; in particular, it was confirmed that this treatment may be effective in controlling PTG hyperplasia by, at least in part, apoptosis-induced cell death. Conclusions. A locally high level of vitamin D strongly may suppress PTH secretion and regress hyperplasia, which is involved in the induction of apoptosis in PTCs, based on the simultaneous improvements of cellular characters of advanced SHPT. The PTH control introduced by this treatment successfully ameliorated osteitis fibrosa (high bone turnover rate). PMID:25983973

  18. Cellular changes following direct vitamin D injection into the uraemia-induced hyperplastic parathyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Hatamura, Ikuji; Negi, Shigeo; Nakazawa, Eiko; Tozawa, Ryoko; Izawa, Sayoko; Akizawa, Tadao; Kusano, Eiji

    2008-08-01

    Background. Hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland (PTG) is associated not only with excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but also with changes in the parathyroid cell (PTC) characteristics (i.e. hyperproliferative activity and low contents of vitamin D and calcium-sensing receptors). The control of PTG hyperplasia is most important in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), because the advanced stage of hyperplasia is considered irreversible. For the better control of the PTH level in dialysis patients with such advanced SHPT, percutaneous vitamin D injection therapy (PDIT) under ultrasonographic guidance was developed and various cellular changes caused by this treatment were also investigated using an animal model. Methods. The PTGs of Sprague-Dawley rats, which had been 5/6-nephrectomized and fed a high-phosphate diet, were treated with the direct injections of vitamin D agents, and cellular effects focusing the above-mentioned characters were investigated. Results. An adequacy of the direct injection technique into the rats' PTGs and the successful effects of this treatment in various biochemical parameters were confirmed. Such characteristics of advanced SHPT were simultaneously improved; in particular, it was confirmed that this treatment may be effective in controlling PTG hyperplasia by, at least in part, apoptosis-induced cell death. Conclusions. A locally high level of vitamin D strongly may suppress PTH secretion and regress hyperplasia, which is involved in the induction of apoptosis in PTCs, based on the simultaneous improvements of cellular characters of advanced SHPT. The PTH control introduced by this treatment successfully ameliorated osteitis fibrosa (high bone turnover rate).

  19. A simple method of injecting tumescent fluid for liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection of tumescent fluid is essential to obtain a painless and relatively bloodless liposuction. There are many methods of injecting the tumescent fluid like power pumps, syringes and pressure cuffs. Our method consists of applying air pressure within the plastic transfusion fluid bottle by pricking with a wide bore needle and connecting it to a sphygmomanometer balloon pump. By inflation of the balloon pump and thus increasing pressure inside the plastic bottle, the rate and volume of infusion can be controlled. By applying the cuff outside the bottle the visibility inside is impaired and the bottle gets collapsed preventing a continued pressure and thereby impairing both the quantity as well as the rate of infusion. Power pumps are expensive. This method is inexpensive, infused volume of fluid being visible and the rate of infusion controllable.

  20. Numerical modeling of a Jet Ignition Direct Injection (JIDI) LPG engine

    OpenAIRE

    albert boretti

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents indirectly validated simulations of the operation of a LPG engine fitted with Direct Injection (DI) and Jet Ignition (JI). It is demonstrated that the engine may have diesel like efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected.  As the liquid propane quickly evaporates after injection in the main chamber, the main chamber mixture may be much closer to stoichiometry than a diesel for a better specific power at low engine speeds. This design also works at the high ...

  1. Analysis of mixture formation of direct injection gasoline engine; Tonai funsha gasoline engine no kongoki keisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, M.; Saito, K.; Basaki, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Gono, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    On direct injection gasoline engine, in order to achieve good stratified combustion, the extremely advanced control of air-fuel mixture is required. For this purpose, the method of diagnosing the quality of the state of mixture formation in combustion chambers becomes necessary. In this research, the state of air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber of a TOYOTA D-4 was analyzed in space and time by visualization, A/F multi-point measurement and A/F high response measurement, thus the effects that injection timing, swirl and fuel pressure exerted to mixture formation were elucidated. 3 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Numerical investigation of natural gas direct injection properties and mixture formation in a spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollahi Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a numerical model has been developed in AVL FIRE software to perform investigation of Direct Natural Gas Injection into the cylinder of Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines. In this regard two main parts have been taken into consideration, aiming to convert an MPFI gasoline engine to direct injection NG engine. In the first part of study multi-dimensional numerical simulation of transient injection process, mixing and flow field have been performed via three different validation cases in order to assure the numerical model validity of results. Adaption of such a modeling was found to be a challenging task because of required computational effort and numerical instabilities. In all cases present results were found to have excellent agreement with experimental and numerical results from literature. In the second part, using the moving mesh capability the validated model has been applied to methane Injection into the cylinder of a Direct Injection engine. Five different piston head shapes along with two injector types have been taken into consideration in investigations. A centrally mounted injector location has been adapted to all cases. The effects of injection parameters, combustion chamber geometry, injector type and engine RPM have been studied on mixing of air-fuel inside cylinder. Based on the results, suitable geometrical configuration for a NG DI Engine has been discussed.

  3. Analytical Method Development & Validation for Related Substances Method of Busulfan Injection by Ion Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewaria S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible Ion chromatography method has been developed forthe estimation of Methane sulfonic acid in Busulfan injectable dosage. The method which is developedis also validated in complete compliance with the current regulatory guidelines by using well developedanalytical method validation techniques and tools which comprises with the analytical method validationparameters like Linearity, LOD and LOQ determination, Accuracy, Method precision, Specificity,System suitability, Robustness, Ruggedness etc. by adopting the current method the linearity obtained isnear to 0.999 and thus this shows that the method is capable to give a good detector response, therecovery calculated was within the range of 85% to 115% of the specification limits.

  4. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  5. Direct fuel injection in spark ignition engines; Injecao direta de combustivel em motores de ignicao por centelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rodrigo Fernando Estella dos; Hildebrand Junior, Leonidas; Passarini, Luis Carlos; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos; Bezerra, Adriano Carlos Nogueira [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: santosrf@sc.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the state-of-art of the fuel direct electronic injection, specifically the Otto cycle, the present technology for feasibility of the utilization, the characteristics of the engine using this system, by comparison with systems using the indirect fuel injection, the obtained results with laboratory experiments performed in direct and indirect fuel injection and conclusions as well.

  6. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM........ In this work two different methods for quantitative characterization of random nano-patterned surfaces were compared and assessed. One method is based on the estimation of the roughness amplitude parameters Sa and Sz (ISO 25178). The second method is based on pore and particle analysis using the watershed......Assessment of nano-patterned surfaces requires measurements with nano-metric resolution. In order to enable the optimization of the moulding process it is necessary to develop a robust method for quantitative characterization of the replication quality of random nano-patterned surfaces...

  7. Direct Fuel Injection of LPG in Small Two-Stroke Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Heng Teoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used carburetted two-stroke engines in developing countries have high exhaust emission and poor fuel efficiency. To meet more rigid emissions requirements, two-stroke vehicles are typically phase out in favour of four-stroke engines. The problems of ubiquitous legacy two-stroke vehicles remain unsolved by these measures and they are likely to be a major source of transport for many years to come. A number of technologies are available for solving the problems associated with two-stroke engines such as catalytic after-treatment and direct fuel injection (DI. However, these solutions are relatively high cost and have shown only slow market acceptance for applications in developing countries. Research in recent years has demonstrated that direct fuel injection is a well developed and readily deployable solution to existing two-stroke engines. Gaseous fuels such as Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG are considered a promising energy source and in many countries provide fuel cost savings. LPG coupled with DI two-stroke technologies, is expected to be clean and cost effective retrofit solution for two-stroke engines. In this research project, direct injection (DI of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG is introduced and tested on a typical two-stroke engine. Results of in cylinder combustion pressure translated to fuel mass fraction burned, engine performance and exhaust emissions are taken and compared for various injection timings from premixed (early injection to fully direct injection mode (late injection. Results show that DI of LPG effectively reduces exhaust hydrocarbon and can substantially improve the fuel economy of two-stroke engines.

  8. Numerical modeling of a Jet Ignition Direct Injection (JIDI LPG engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    albert boretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents indirectly validated simulations of the operation of a LPG engine fitted with Direct Injection (DI and Jet Ignition (JI. It is demonstrated that the engine may have diesel like efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected.  As the liquid propane quickly evaporates after injection in the main chamber, the main chamber mixture may be much closer to stoichiometry than a diesel for a better specific power at low engine speeds. This design also works at the high engine speeds impossible for the diesel, as combustion within the main chamber is controlled by the turbulent mixing rather than the vaporization and diffusion processes of the injected fuel of the diesel. 

  9. Novel Random Mutagenesis Method for Directed Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful strategy for gene mutagenesis, and has been used for protein engineering both in scientific research and in the biotechnology industry. The routine method for directed evolution was developed by Stemmer in 1994 (Stemmer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 10747-10751, 1994; Stemmer, Nature 370, 389-391, 1994). Since then, various methods have been introduced, each of which has advantages and limitations depending upon the targeted genes and procedure. In this chapter, a novel alternative directed evolution method which combines mutagenesis PCR with dITP and fragmentation by endonuclease V is described. The kanamycin resistance gene is used as a reporter gene to verify the novel method for directed evolution. This method for directed evolution has been demonstrated to be efficient, reproducible, and easy to manipulate in practice.

  10. Revisiting ocean carbon sequestration by direct injection: a global carbon budget perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Fabian; Keller, David P.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    In this study we look beyond the previously studied effects of oceanic CO2 injections on atmospheric and oceanic reservoirs and also account for carbon cycle and climate feedbacks between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. Considering these additional feedbacks is important since backfluxes from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere in response to reducing atmospheric CO2 can further offset the targeted reduction. To quantify these dynamics we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to simulate direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean as a means of emissions mitigation during a high CO2 emission scenario. In three sets of experiments with different injection depths, we simulate a 100-year injection period of a total of 70 GtC and follow global carbon cycle dynamics over another 900 years. In additional parameter perturbation runs, we varied the default terrestrial photosynthesis CO2 fertilization parameterization by ±50 % in order to test the sensitivity of this uncertain carbon cycle feedback to the targeted atmospheric carbon reduction through direct CO2 injections. Simulated seawater chemistry changes and marine carbon storage effectiveness are similar to previous studies. As expected, by the end of the injection period avoided emissions fall short of the targeted 70 GtC by 16-30 % as a result of carbon cycle feedbacks and backfluxes in both land and ocean reservoirs. The target emissions reduction in the parameter perturbation simulations is about 0.2 and 2 % more at the end of the injection period and about 9 % less to 1 % more at the end of the simulations when compared to the unperturbed injection runs. An unexpected feature is the effect of the model's internal variability of deep-water formation in the Southern Ocean, which, in some model runs, causes additional oceanic carbon uptake after injection termination relative to a control run without injection and therefore with slightly different atmospheric CO2 and

  11. 78 FR 70240 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., Amendment 39-16894 (76 FR 79051, December 21, 2011), (``AD 2011-26-04''), for certain Lycoming Engines fuel...-16894 (76 FR 79051, December 21, 2011). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Lycoming Engines fuel... Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  12. Multi-Segment Direct Inject nano-ESI-LTQ-FT-ICR-MS/MS For Protein Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Canales, Lorena; Neal, Rachel E

    2011-07-07

    Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is commonly used for the identification of peptides from proteolytically cleaved proteins embedded in a polyacrylamide gel matrix as well as for metabolomics screening. HPLC separations are time consuming (30-60 min average), costly (columns and mobile phase reagents), and carry the risk of column carry over between samples. The use of a chip-based nano-ESI platform (Advion NanoMate) based on replaceable nano-tips for sample introduction eliminates sample cross-contamination, provides unchanging sample matrix, and enhances spray stability with attendant increases in reproducibility. Recent papers have established direct infusion nano-ESI-MS/MS utilizing the NanoMate for protein identification of gel spots based on full range MS scans with data dependent MS/MS. In a full range scan, discontinuous ion suppression due to sample matrix can impair identification of putative mass features of interest in both the proteomic and metabolomic workflows. In the current study, an extension of an established direct inject nano-ESI-MS/MS method is described that utilizes the mass filtering capability of an ion-trap for ion packet separation into four narrow mass ranges (50 amu overlap) with segment specific dynamic data dependent peak inclusion for MS/MS fragmentation (total acquisition time of 3 minutes). Comparison of this method with a more traditional nanoLC-MS/MS based protocol utilizing solvent/sample stream splitting to achieve nanoflow demonstrated comparable results for protein identification from polyacrylamide gel matrices. The advantages of this method include full automation, lack of cross-contamination, low cost, and high throughput.

  13. Multi-Segment Direct Inject nano-ESI-LTQ-FT-ICR-MS/MS For Protein Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Rachel E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC interfaced to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is commonly used for the identification of peptides from proteolytically cleaved proteins embedded in a polyacrylamide gel matrix as well as for metabolomics screening. HPLC separations are time consuming (30-60 min average, costly (columns and mobile phase reagents, and carry the risk of column carry over between samples. The use of a chip-based nano-ESI platform (Advion NanoMate based on replaceable nano-tips for sample introduction eliminates sample cross-contamination, provides unchanging sample matrix, and enhances spray stability with attendant increases in reproducibility. Recent papers have established direct infusion nano-ESI-MS/MS utilizing the NanoMate for protein identification of gel spots based on full range MS scans with data dependent MS/MS. In a full range scan, discontinuous ion suppression due to sample matrix can impair identification of putative mass features of interest in both the proteomic and metabolomic workflows. In the current study, an extension of an established direct inject nano-ESI-MS/MS method is described that utilizes the mass filtering capability of an ion-trap for ion packet separation into four narrow mass ranges (50 amu overlap with segment specific dynamic data dependent peak inclusion for MS/MS fragmentation (total acquisition time of 3 minutes. Comparison of this method with a more traditional nanoLC-MS/MS based protocol utilizing solvent/sample stream splitting to achieve nanoflow demonstrated comparable results for protein identification from polyacrylamide gel matrices. The advantages of this method include full automation, lack of cross-contamination, low cost, and high throughput.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DIVERSIFICATION OF FOOTWEAR SOLES FOR DIRECT SOLING INJECTION USING MOULDS WITH INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One solution for attaching soles on footwear is to inject them directly into the upper part using moulds with unique cavities. Injection moulds are manufactured for each sole design, for each foot, right and left, and for each size number. As a result of the market demand for a large number of soles designs, the execution costs of moulds for each of them are substantial. In the case of small manufacturers, injection moulds wear out morally long before they wear out physically. This paper will present some design solutions for moulds that have reusable parts that can be used from one sole design to another, without changing the entire mould. Using these moulds, soles design can be modified by interchanging some modules which are fitted into the main mould cavities. These solutions represent a cheaper and faster alternative for classic moulds, with unique single cavities.

  15. Onset of liquid droplet entrainment on a direct vessel injection system for APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-sol; Lee, Jae-Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Rok; Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this research, a series of visualization works was conducted to understand droplet entrainment of the flow pattern generated in direct vessel injection system(DVI) of Korea nuclear power plant, APR 1400. In the emergency situation of a nuclear power plant, reliability of DVI cooling can be an important issue. It is known that, the amount and the rate of entrainment during the DVI cooling process can significantly affect the total heat removal. To visualize the film Reynolds number closely related with onset of droplet entrainment induced by falling film flow and lateral air flow in a small gap, confocal chromatic sensing method for measuring accurately film thickness and depth averaging particle image velocimetry for film velocity were used. The results have been post processed 4G Insight software. By measuring two dimensional film Reynolds number, we can predict the onset of droplet entrainment and obtain visible breakup region intuitively. To visualize the droplet entrainment induced by falling film flow and lateral air flow in a small gap, shadowgraph method with CCD camera (2200fps, 1280 pixel X 800 pixel, ) on coated plate with super water-repellent agent was used. The results have been post processed using 4G Insight software. By measuring two dimensional film Reynolds number, we can predict the onset of droplet entrainment and obtain visible breakup region intuitively. By adopting both super hydrophobic coating method and shadowgraph method, entrainment in a narrow gap was successfully visualized that has rarely performed before and meaningful results for DVI system research fields have been made.

  16. Research on Continuous Injection Direct Rolling Process for PMMA Optical Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiXiong Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous injection direct rolling (CIDR combined intermittent injection and rolling process is a new technology for molding optical polymer plates with microstructured patterns; research on forming PMMA optical plates is an aspect of it in this paper. The equipment of CIDR process consists of plastic injection module, precision rolling module, and automatic coiling module. Based on the establishing mathematical CIDR models, numerical analysis was used to explode the distribution of velocity, temperature, and pressure in injection-rolling zone. The simulation results show that it is feasible to control the temperature, velocity, and injection-rolling force, so it can form polymer plate under certain process condition. CIDR experiment equipment has been designed and produced. PMMA optical plate was obtained by CIDR experiments, longitudinal thickness difference is 0.005 mm/200 mm, horizontal thickness difference is 0.02/200 mm, transmittance is 86.3%, Haze is 0.61%, and the difference is little compared with optical glasses. So it can be confirmed that CIDR process is practical to produce PMMA optical plates.

  17. Lean direct injection diffusion tip and related method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy S.; Lipinski, John; Kraemer, Gilbert O.; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin

    2012-08-14

    A nozzle for a gas turbine combustor includes a first radially outer tube defining a first passage having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet adapted to supply air to a reaction zone of the combustor. A center body is located within the first radially outer tube, the center body including a second radially intermediate tube for supplying fuel to the reaction zone and a third radially inner tube for supplying air to the reaction zone. The second intermediate tube has a first outlet end closed by a first end wall that is formed with a plurality of substantially parallel, axially-oriented air outlet passages for the additional air in the third radially inner tube, each air outlet passage having a respective plurality of associated fuel outlet passages in the first end wall for the fuel in the second radially intermediate tube. The respective plurality of associated fuel outlet passages have non-parallel center axes that intersect a center axis of the respective air outlet passage to locally mix fuel and air exiting said center body.

  18. The influence of thermal regime on gasoline direct injection engine performance and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahu, C. I.; Tarulescu, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental research regarding to the effects of a low thermal regime on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. During the experimental researches, the temperature of the coolant and oil used by the engine were modified 4 times (55, 65, 75 and 85 oC), monitoring the effects over the fuel consumption and emissions (CO2, CO and NOx). The variations in temperature of the coolant and oil have been achieved through AVL coolant and oil conditioning unit, integrated in the test bed. The obtained experimental results reveals the poor quality of exhaust gases and increases of fuel consumption for the gasoline direct injection engines that runs outside the optimal ranges for coolant and oil temperatures.

  19. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  20. Intradermal Alcian-Blue Injection Method to Trace Acupuncture Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeckkyoung Sung

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : In this article, we report on the intradermal Alcian blue staining method for tracing the meridians of acupuncture. Methods : 1% Alcian blue solution was injected into acupoints by using a 0.5mL insulin syringe with a 31-gauge needle, then the skin was incised and was observed under a stereoscopic microscope. The specimens were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results : A threadlike structure, which was visualized with Alcian blue, existed in dermis layer and proceeded to hypodermis. In this structure, characteristic alignments of rod- shaped nuclei and 1-2μm sized DNA granules were observed. Furthermore, abundant blood capillary plexuses, peripheral nerve endings, and a corpusclelike structure(about 300μm in diameter were visualized in the skin tissues of acupoints. Conclusion : It was concluded that the specific threadlike and corpuscle-like structures corresponded to superficial Bonghan duct and corpuscle, respectively.

  1. About the constructive and functional particularities of spark ignition engines with gasoline direct injection: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, M.; Ivan, F.; Neacsu, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyze and compare the environmental performances between a gasoline direct engine and a multi-point injection engine. There are analyzed the stages of emission formation during the New European Driving Cycle. The paper points out the dynamic, economic and environmental performances of spark ignition engines equipped with a GDI systems. Reason why, we believe the widespread implementation of this technology is today an immediate need.

  2. NOx reduction by ozone injection and direct plasma treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Stamate, Eugen; Salewski, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    NOx reduction by ozone injection and direct plasma treatment is investigated for different process parameters in a 6 m long serpentine reactor. Several aspects including the role of mixing scheme, water vapours, steep temperature gradient and time dependet NOx levels are taken into consideration. The process chemistry is monitored by FTIR, chemiluminiscence and absorbtion spectroscopy. The kinetic mechanism is also investigated in 3D simulations.

  3. Spontaneous pseudoaneurysm of the uterine artery during pregnancy treated by direct thrombin injection: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jung Hee; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Young Hwan [Dept. Radiology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Pseudoaneurysm of uterine artery during pregnancy is a very rare disease. It is mostly associated with uterine artery injury, usually occurring after proceeding conditions such as history of gynecologic operation and infection. However, the best treatment modality has not been established yet. Herein, we reported a case of spontaneous formation of uterine artery pseudoaneurysm during pregnancy treated by direct thrombin injection without any complication or recurrence.

  4. Feedback Direct Injection Current Readout For Infrared Charge-Coupled Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kazuya; Wakayama, Hiroyuki; Kajihara, Nobuyuki; Awamoto, Kenji; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    1990-01-01

    We are proposing current readout for infrared charge coupled devices (IRCCDs) which can operate at higher temperatures. Feedback direct injection (FDI) consists of a simple amplifier of gain, AFDI was used in a medium-wavelength IRCCD operating at a high temperature. We made a 64-element HgCdTe linear IRCCD using FDI. The device operates at 195 K with an NETD of 0.5 K.

  5. Direct microcomputer controlled determination of zinc in human serum by flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Nielsen, Bent; Jensen, Arne

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is described for the direct determination of zinc in human serum by fully automated, microcomputer controlled flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry (Fl-AAS). The Fl system is pumpless, using the negative pressure created by the nebuliser. It only consists of a three-way valve......, programmable from the microcomputer, to control the sample volume. No pre-treatment of the samples is necessary. The limit of detection is 0.14 mg l–1, and only small amounts of serum (

  6. Stem cell monitoring with a direct or indirect labeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The molecular imaging techniques allow monitoring of the transplanted cells in the same individuals over time, from early localization to the survival, migration, and differentiation. Generally, there are two methods of stem cell labeling: direct and indirect labeling methods. The direct labeling method introduces a labeling agent into the cell, which is stably incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. Direct labeling of cells with radionuclides is a simple method with relatively fewer adverse events related to genetic responses. However, it can only allow short-term distribution of transplanted cells because of the decreasing imaging signal with radiodecay, according to the physical half-lives, or the signal becomes more diffuse with cell division and dispersion. The indirect labeling method is based on the expression of a reporter gene transduced into the cell before transplantation, which is then visualized upon the injection of an appropriate probe or substrate. In this review, various imaging strategies to monitor the survival and behavior change of transplanted stem cells are covered. Taking these new approaches together, the direct and indirect labeling methods may provide new insights on the roles of in vivo stem cell monitoring, from bench to bedside.

  7. Research on the test method of using injection as an equivalent substitute for electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X. D.; Wei, G. H.; Lu, X. F.; Li, K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a method to carry out high intensity radiated field (HIRF) effect experiments by using injection as an equivalent substitute for electromagnetic radiation. In allusion to typical interconnected system, the equal response voltage on the equipment cable port is regarded as an equivalent basis of injection and radiation methods. The equivalent relation formula between injected voltage and radiated field is derived theoretically. The conditions needed for extrapolating injected voltage in HIRF are confirmed, and the extrapolation method is proposed. On the basis of the above research, the electromagnetic environment effect test new method combined injection with radiation for interconnected system is summarized. The typical nonlinear interconnected system is selected as equipment under test, and the single frequency continuous wave radiation and injection effect experiments are carried out separately. The test results indicate that the relation between radiated field and injected voltage is linear, and the equivalent injected voltage used to substitute HIRF can be obtained by linear extrapolation.

  8. An Alternative and Validated Injection Method for Accessing the Subretinal Space via a Transcleral Posterior Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sachin; Le, Andrew; Davenport, Julian; Gorin, Michael B; Nusinowitz, Steven; Matynia, Anna

    2016-12-07

    Subretinal injections have been successfully used in both humans and rodents to deliver therapeutic interventions of proteins, viral agents, and cells to the interphotoreceptor/subretinal compartment that has direct exposure to photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Subretinal injections of plasminogen as well as recent preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated safety and/or efficacy of delivering viral vectors and stem cells to individuals with advanced retinal disease. Mouse models of retinal disease, particularly hereditary retinal dystrophies, are essential for testing these therapies. The most common injection procedure in rodents is to use small transcorneal or transcleral incisions with an anterior approach to the retina. With this approach, the injection needle penetrates the neurosensory retina disrupting the underlying RPE and on insertion can easily nick the lens, causing lens opacification and impairment of noninvasive imaging. Accessing the subretinal space via a transcleral, posterior approach avoids these problems: the needle crosses the sclera approximately 0.5 mm from the optic nerve, without retinal penetration and avoids disrupting the vitreous. Collateral damage is limited to that associated with the focal sclerotomy and the effects of a transient, serous retinal detachment. The simplicity of the method minimizes ocular injury, ensures rapid retinal reattachment and recovery, and has a low failure rate. The minimal damage to the retina and RPE allows for clear assessment of the efficacy and direct effects of the therapeutic agents themselves. This manuscript describes a novel subretinal injection technique that can be used to target viral vectors, pharmacological agents, stem cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to the subretinal space in mice with high efficacy, minimal damage, and fast recovery.

  9. A prospective evaluation of complications of 10,000 fluoroscopically directed epidural injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Malla, Yogesh; Wargo, Bradley W; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Fellows, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Among the multiple modalities of treatments available in managing chronic spinal pain, including surgery and multiple interventional techniques, epidural injections by various routes, such as interlaminar epidural injections, caudal epidural injections, transforaminal epidural injections, and percutaneous adhesiolysis are common. Even though the complications of fluoroscopically directed epidural injections are fewer than blind epidural injections, and have better effectiveness, multiple complications have been reported in scattered case reports, with only minor complications in randomized or non-randomized studies and systematic reviews. Thus, prospective studies with large patient series are essential to determine the types and incidences of complications. A prospective, non-randomized study of patients undergoing interventional techniques from May 2008 to December 2009. A private interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center in the United States. To assess the complication rate of fluoroscopically directed epidural injections. This study was carried out over a period of 20 months and included over 10,000 procedures: 39% caudal epidurals, 23% cervical interlaminar epidurals, 14% lumbar interlaminar epidurals, 13% lumbar transforaminal epidurals, 8% percutaneous adhesiolysis, and 3% thoracic interlaminar epidural procedures. All of the interventions were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in an ambulatory surgery center by one of 3 physicians. The complications encountered during the procedure and postoperatively were prospectively evaluated. Measurable outcomes employed were intravascular entry of the needle, profuse bleeding, local hematoma, bruising, dural puncture and headache, nerve root or spinal cord irritation with resultant injury, infectious complications, vasovagal reactions, and facial flushing. Intravascular entry was higher for adhesiolysis (11.6%) and lumbar transforaminal (7.9%) procedures compared to other epidurals which

  10. TiO{sub 2} anatase films obtained by direct liquid injection atomic layer deposition at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avril, L., E-mail: ludovic.avril@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Reymond-Laruinaz, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Decams, J.M. [Annealsys, rue de la Vieille Poste, 34055 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France); Bruyère, S.; Potin, V.; Lucas, M.C. Marco de; Imhoff, L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    TiO{sub 2} thin films were grown by direct liquid injection atomic layer deposition (DLI-ALD) with infrared rapid thermal heating using titanium tetraisopropoxide and water as precursors. This titanium tetraisopropoxide/water process exhibited a growth rate of 0.018 nm/cycle in a self-limited ALD growth mode at 280 °C. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses have shown a smooth surface with a low roughness. XPS results demonstrated that the films were pure and close to the TiO{sub 2} stoichiometric composition in depth. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the films were crystallized to the anatase structure in the as-deposited state at low temperature without necessity of high temperature annealing. Results obtained demonstrate that the liquid injection ALD is an efficient method of elaborating titanium oxide films using titanium tetraisopropoxide as precursor.

  11. Weed control by direct injection of plant protection products according to specific situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krebs, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming in agriculture allows a site-specific management of the crop. The aim of plant protection is to apply plant protection products (PPP according to the site specific requirements on the field. Within the context of a research program to promote innovation, a sprayer with direct injection of plant protection products was developed. The direct injection offers site specific spraying of different individual PPP in a single pass. The sprayer prototype is equipped with a special spray boom combining three nozzle lines. In order to prevent delay times, the nozzle lines are preloaded before spraying. First results for weed control from test stand measurements and field trials showed that the injection pumps work with high accuracy. The prototype can be used without delay times site specific with up to three different herbicides. Field trials for site-specific weed control in winter wheat demonstrate the applicability of the system under practical conditions. By treatment of subareas herbicides and therefore costs could be saved. A reduction in yield compared with the conventionally treated field areas could not be ascertained. Also an efficacy reduction through washout of active ingredient from target surfaces due to simultaneous use of all three nozzle lines with up to 1050 l/ha application rate could not be detected. At high water spray rates, the efficacy effect occurs delayed. Overall, the newly developed direct injection system proved fieldabillity during the first tests. So weed control can be carried out situation-responsive, which can save herbicides and environmental impacts are reduced.

  12. Distributed Reconstruction via Alternating Direction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of compressive sensing theory, image reconstruction from few-view projections has received considerable research attentions in the field of computed tomography (CT. Total-variation- (TV- based CT image reconstruction has been shown to be experimentally capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In this study, a distributed reconstruction algorithm based on TV minimization has been developed. This algorithm is very simple as it uses the alternating direction method. The proposed method can accelerate the alternating direction total variation minimization (ADTVM algorithm without losing accuracy.

  13. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  14. Influence of narrow fuel spray angle and split injection strategies on combustion efficiency and engine performance in a common rail direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Mobasheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct injection diesel engines have been widely used in transportation and stationary power systems because of their inherent high thermal efficiency. On the other hand, emission regulations such as NOx and particulates have become more stringent from the standpoint of preserving the environment in recent years. In this study, previous results of multiple injection strategies have been further investigated to analyze the effects of narrow fuel spray angle on optimum multiple injection schemes in a heavy duty common rail direct injection diesel engine. An advanced computational fluid dynamics simulation has been carried out on a Caterpillar 3401 diesel engine for a conventional part load condition in 1600 r/min at two exhaust gas recirculation rates. A good agreement of calculated and measured in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and pollutant formation trends was obtained under various operating points. Three different included spray angles have been studied in comparison with the traditional spray injection angle. The results show that spray targeting is very effective for controlling the in-cylinder mixture distributions especially when it accompanied with various injection strategies. It was found that the optimum engine performance for simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions was achieved with 105° included spray angle along with an optimized split injection strategy. The results show, in this case, the fuel spray impinges at the edge of the piston bowl and a counterclockwise flow motion is generated that pushes mixture toward the center of the piston bowl.

  15. Development and evaluation of stavudine niosome by ether injection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Shreedevi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to encapsulate Stavudine in niosomes for achieving prolonged release & longer duration of action. Niosome are now widely studied as an alternative delivery system to liposome. An increasing number of non ionic surfactant has been found to form vesicles, capable of entrapping hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. stavudine drug has shorter half life, Negligible protein binding. This drawback was decreased by formulating it as niosomes. In our present study we incorporated Stavudine into niosome by using ether injection method. In evaluation study the effect of the varying composition of non ionic surfactant and cholesterol on the properties such as zeta potential, drug content, vesicle size and drug release were studied. The result of the physiochemical characterisation and in vitro permeation studies of the prepared vesicles by dialysis membrane to get the idea of drug release. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the developed niosome formulation of stavudine has shown great potential in the treatment of HIV by providing a prolonged release profile.

  16. Characterization of Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Designs for Aviation Gas-Turbine Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Injector geometry, physical mixing, chemical processes, and engine cycle conditions together govern performance, operability and emission characteristics of aviation gas-turbine combustion systems. The present investigation explores swirl-venturi lean direct injection combustor fundamentals, characterizing the influence of key geometric injector parameters on reacting flow physics and emission production trends. In this computational study, a design space exploration was performed using a parameterized swirl-venturi lean direct injector model. From the parametric geometry, 20 three-element lean direct injection combustor sectors were produced and simulated using steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes reacting computations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 18-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear ?-e model. Results demonstrate sensitivities of the geometric perturbations on axially averaged flow field responses. Output variables include axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, static temperature, fuel patternation and minor species mass fractions. Significant trends have been reduced to surrogate model approximations, intended to guide future injector design trade studies and advance aviation gas-turbine combustion research.

  17. Performance and efficiency evaluation and heat release study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Addy, H. E.; Bond, T. H.; Lee, C. M.; Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation which models engine performance of the Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engines was used to study the effect of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and efficiency of an Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) experimental rotary combustion engine. Engine pressure data were used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine data were compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the rotary engine using advanced heat engine concepts such as faster combustion, reduced leakage, and turbocharging is also presented.

  18. The Direct Method of Cash Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosserman, David C.; Fischer, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Explains to college/university business officers how to comply with Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statements Nos. 34, 35, and 9, which require the direct method of presenting cash flows from operating activities and reconciliation of operating cash flows to operating income by fiscal year 2001. Institutions are urged to begin immediately…

  19. The Direct Method of Cash Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosserman, David C.; Fischer, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Explains to college/university business officers how to comply with Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statements Nos. 34, 35, and 9, which require the direct method of presenting cash flows from operating activities and reconciliation of operating cash flows to operating income by fiscal year 2001. Institutions are urged to begin immediately…

  20. Evaluation of CT after combined injection method by intra and para-variceal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Ishihara, Manabu; Ozaki, Motonobu; Hachiya, Akihiko; Yamada, Shuuichi; Mutoh, Masue; Nakata, Masayuki; Ohtsuka, Sachio; Machida, Keiichi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the distribution of sclerosant injected into the paravariceal esophageal wall. CT scan of the chest was performed 30 minutes after combined injection sclerotherapy (EIS) using 1% Polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol: AS) in 23 patients with esophageal varices. CT findings included (1) ring-enhanced esophageal wall (2) ring-enhanced paraesophageal wall (3) locally enhanced esophageal wall (4) beltlike-enhanced parietal pleura. Types (1) (2) (4) were obtained in the 1st or the 2nd EIS, and type (3) was obtained in the 3rd EIS or more. These CT findings did not correlate with total volume of injected sclerosant. Seven of 8 patients with CT finding of Type (3) had esophageal ulcer. (We consider that esophageal ulcer is necessary to fibrosis of the lower eshophageal wall). When CT finding of type (3) was obtained, we put off the next procedure of EIS. Pleural effusion occured after 2 of 18 procedures with CT finding of type (1), 2 of 9 with type (2), 0 of 8 with type (3), and 1 of 14 with type (4). We speculated that most of patients with type (4) would have pleural effusion. But CT findings did not correlate with pleural effusion. Chest pain occurred after 1 of 18 procedures with CT finding of type (1), 1 of 9 with type (2), 2 of 8 with type (3), and 1 of 14 with type (4). Fever occurred after 0 of 18 procedures with CT findings of type (1), 0 of 9 with type (2), 2 of 8 with type (3), 0 of 14 with type (4). These results suggest that 1% AS injected into paravariceal esophageal wall have no reference to the minor complications. The sclerosants injected into the paravaries was thought to diffuse rapidly, but it is unlikely that this distribution of 1% AS is the main factor of pleural effusion, chest pain, and fever after EIS. (author).

  1. Redistribution of contaminants from pig slurry after direct injection into soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, T B; Forslund, A;

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of pig manure-borne contaminants after direct injection to soil was investigated in a field study. The spatial distribution of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B and other slurry components in and around the injection slit was measured on day 0.15, 1, 6......, 18, and 46/49 at Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), Denmark. Transport of the slurry components away from the slit was slower at Silstrup in comparison to Estrup, probably because of a higher slurry dry matter content and soil clay content. Slurry NH4-N dissipated and....../or was nitrified gradually at Silstrup and more rapidly at Estrup, but had disappeared completely at both sites within 49 days. The rate of disappearance of E. coli at Estrup was lower than at Silstrup. Survival of E. coli was high in the upper soil layer at both sites. The overall persistence of the bacteriophage...

  2. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Effects of Air Jet and Split Injection on Combustion and Emission of DirectInjection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mansury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems in reducing the emissions of diesel engines is to exchange between the oxides of nitrogen and soot emissions. Fuel multiple injection and air injection into combustion chamber are among the most powerful tools to concurrent reduction of these two emissions. In this research, the effect of multiple injection and air injection on combustion and emission parameters has been studied by AVL fire computational fluid dynamic software. Six states of base and modified combustion chamber have been studied in two different injection patterns including 90 (25 10 and 75 (25 25 mods. Results show that concurrent applying of both multiple injection and air injection methods has resulted in simultaneous reduction of oxide nitrogen and soot pollutants and a negligible loss is seen in the operational parameters of engine. Compression between six studied cases show that the 90 (25 10 mode of injection with modified combustion chamber is the optimum mode by decreasing of soot and oxides of nitrogen emissions about 29% and 20% respectively and 6% indicated power loss in compression to the base combustion chamber and single injection mode. The obtained results from the computational fluid dynamic code have been compared with the existing results in the technical literature and show acceptable behavior.

  3. 大体积直接进样离子色谱法测定饮用水中痕量溴酸盐的方法研究%Determination of trace bromate in drinking water by Large volume direct injection ion chromatography method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国栋

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish a large volume direct injection ion chromatography method for conductivity detection of bro-mate in drinking water. Methods; Dionex ICS -20Q0 ion chromatography, EGC II KOH eluent generator, Dionex Ionpac AS19 analytical column, DS6 thermal conductivity detector and ASRS300 anion suppressor were involved in this method. The 10 mmol/L~35 mmol/L KOH was used for gradient elution at the flow rate of 1. 00 ml/min, and the injection volume was 500 ul. Results:It was obtained from the experiment that the correlation coefficient was 0.9999, precision was RSD < 2% , average recoveries were between 95.0% ~ 107% and the minimum detection limit was 5 ug/L. Conclusion; The method has the advantages of simple operation, rapidness, high sensitivity, good reproducibility, which can be used for the analysis of trace bro-roate in drinking water.%目的:建立一种大体积直接进样,电导检测饮用水中痕量溴酸盐的离子色谱分析法.方法:采用Dionex ICS -2000型离子色谱仪,EGCⅡKOH淋洗液自动发生器,10 mmol/L~ 35 mmol/L KOH梯度淋洗,流速1.00 ml/min,Dionex Ionpac AS19型分析柱,DS6型热电导检测器,ASRS300阴离子抑制器,进样体积500μl等分析条件.结果:经实验得到相关系数r =0.9999,精密度RSD <2%,平均加标回收率在95.0%~107%之间,方法的最低检出限为5μg/L.结论:该方法具有操作简单、快速、灵敏度高、重现性好等优点,可应用于饮用水中痕量溴酸盐的分析测定.

  4. Method to Quantify Tail Vein Injection Technique in Small Animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groman, Ernest V; Reinhardt, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    .... In this report, we propose six criteria for a reagent designed to assess tail vein injection technique in small animals and suggest a reagent, colloidal gold labeled with the stable isotope 197Au...

  5. Successful endovascular treatment of a hemodialysis graft pseudoaneurysm by covered stent and direct percutaneous thrombin injection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2011-07-25

    Vascular access for hemodialysis remains a challenge for nephrologists, vascular surgeons, and interventional radiologists alike. Arteriovenous fistula and synthetic grafts remain the access of choice for long-term hemodialysis; however, they are subject to complications from infection and repeated needle cannulation. Pseudoaneurysms are an increasingly recognized adverse event. At present, there are many minimally invasive methods to repair these wall defects. We present a graft pseudoaneurysm, which required a combination of endovascular stent graft placement and percutaneous thrombin injection for successful occlusion.

  6. The Direct Method and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽葵

    2014-01-01

    The Direct Method and the Communicative Approach are two different kinds of methods in teaching foreign languages. There are obvious advantages in using the Direct Method. However,people found a number of shortcomings in this method. It is not easy to apply after the first stages of language learning when ideas and concepts become more abstract and complicated. This method assumes that adults can learn a second language the same way that children learn their first language. However,more attention should be paid to the differences between these two groups of people.Obviously,the Communicative Approach contributes a lot to the foreign language teaching. But it is certain that it’s not a perfect teaching system. There are quite a few questions needing resolutions.Developing a methodology involves the synthesis of theory and practice into a program that works. It generally means drawing from several methods and approaches in order to create an integrated curriculum that will meet the needs of the situation and students. Integrative and / or instrumental goals,the particular concepts being taught,learning and teaching preferences,cultural factors,and age and competency levels of students are all important considerations.

  7. Direct injection of functional single-domain antibodies from E. coli into human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Blanco-Toribio

    Full Text Available Intracellular proteins have a great potential as targets for therapeutic antibodies (Abs but the plasma membrane prevents access to these antigens. Ab fragments and IgGs are selected and engineered in E. coli and this microorganism may be also an ideal vector for their intracellular delivery. In this work we demonstrate that single-domain Ab (sdAbs can be engineered to be injected into human cells by E. coli bacteria carrying molecular syringes assembled by a type III protein secretion system (T3SS. The injected sdAbs accumulate in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells at levels ca. 10⁵-10⁶ molecules per cell and their functionality is shown by the isolation of sdAb-antigen complexes. Injection of sdAbs does not require bacterial invasion or the transfer of genetic material. These results are proof-of-principle for the capacity of E. coli bacteria to directly deliver intracellular sdAbs (intrabodies into human cells for analytical and therapeutic purposes.

  8. Stroke from Delayed Embolization of Polymerized Glue Following Percutaneous Direct Injection of a Carotid Body Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, Thamburaj; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Rajan, Jayadevan E; Thomas, Bejoy [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, (India)

    2007-06-15

    Direct percutaneous embolization of hypervascular tumors results in more effective preoperative devascularization. Migration of glue is a well known complication of direct glue injection and it may lead to stroke or cranial nerve deficits. We report here on a case of carotid body tumor in a 52-year-old man; the tumor was mainly embolized by percutaneous injection of 50% glue and this was supported with balloon protection of the internal carotid artery. Thirteen hours later, he developed hemiparesis from delayed migration of glue. The possible mechanisms of this migration are discussed and preventive measures are suggested. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular tumors of the head and neck, including carotid body tumor, is often performed to decrease the amount of blood loss during surgery. Devascularization is mainly performed with particulate agents and by employing the transarterial route. More effective embolization may be achieved by performing percutaneous direct embolization of hypervascular tumors with liquid embolic agents. Even though there are few reports available on direct embolization, complications from glue migration have been reported, and this mainly happens during the procedure when the glue is in a liquid state. We report here on a case of delayed migration of polymerized glue (n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate [NBCA]), many hours after the procedure, into the intracranial circulation and the final result was stroke. A 52-year-old male with right carotid body tumor underwent direct percutaneous glue (n-butylcyanoacrylate [NBCA]) embolization. Several hours later, he developed left hemiparesis from embolization of the polymerized glue cast. Migration of glue during percutaneous tumor embolization is presumed to occur only in the liquid state, which may lead to stroke or cranial nerve deficits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of delayed glue embolization from a treated hypervascular tumor of the head and neck.

  9. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-11

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of 229 pesticides compounds (113 pesticides and 116 pesticide degradates) in filtered water samples from stream and groundwater sites. The pesticides represent a broad range of chemical classes and were selected based on criteria such as current-use intensity, probability of occurrence in streams and groundwater, and toxicity to humans or aquatic organisms. More than half of the analytes are pesticide degradates. The method involves direct injection of a 100-microliter (μL) sample onto the LC-MS/MS without any sample preparation other than filtration. Samples are analyzed with two injections, one in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode and one in ESI negative mode, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions, with two MRM transitions for each analyte. The LC-MS/MS instrument parameters were optimized for highest sensitivity for the most analytes. This report describes the analytical method and presents characteristics of the method validation including bias and variability, detection levels, and holding-time studies.

  10. An Injectable Method for Posterior Lateral Spine Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    types of spine fusion and is useful for the treatment of scoliosis , instability and painful degenerative conditions of the spine. We recently...taken 4 weeks after the initial injection of AdBMP2 transduced cells. INTRODUCTION: The treatment of many spinal problems involves stabilization of

  11. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS IN A DIRECT-INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH KEROSENE/DIESEL BLENDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K R Patil; S S Thipse

    2014-01-01

      An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effect of kerosene as an additive to diesel fuel on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct-injection...

  13. Dimensional accuracy of acrylic resin maxillary denture base polymerized by a new injection pressing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takahiro; Kita, Seiichi; Nokubi, Takashi

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the dimensional accuracy of a newly developed injection pressing method for resin polymerization by making use of the internal electric resistance of resin to determine the optimal timing for resin injection. A new injection pressing polymerization pot with a built-in system to measure the internal electric resistance of resin was used for resin polymerization. Fluid-type resin was injected into the mold of a maxillary complete denture base under nine different conditions: three different timings for resin injection according to the electric resistance of resin dough (early stage: 11 Mohms; intermediate stage: 16 Mohms; final stage: 21 Mohms) and three different motor powers for resin injection (2000 N, 4000 N, and 6000 N). In the best polymerization condition (injected during the early stage of resin dough under a motor power of 6000 N), the adaptation of the denture base showed a statistically significant improvement compared with the conventional pouring method.

  14. Non-contact method for directing electrotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Dinesh K.; Nasser, Mohd W.; Jones, Travis H.; Sequin, Emily K.; West, Joseph D.; Henthorne, Timothy L.; Javor, Joshua; Kaushik, Aniruddha M.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; Subramaniam, Vish V.

    2015-06-01

    We present a method to induce electric fields and drive electrotaxis (galvanotaxis) without the need for electrodes to be in contact with the media containing the cell cultures. We report experimental results using a modification of the transmembrane assay, demonstrating the hindrance of migration of breast cancer cells (SCP2) when an induced a.c. electric field is present in the appropriate direction (i.e. in the direction of migration). Of significance is that migration of these cells is hindered at electric field strengths many orders of magnitude (5 to 6) below those previously reported for d.c. electrotaxis, and even in the presence of a chemokine (SDF-1α) or a growth factor (EGF). Induced a.c. electric fields applied in the direction of migration are also shown to hinder motility of non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) in the presence of the growth factor EGF. In addition, we also show how our method can be applied to other cell migration assays (scratch assay), and by changing the coil design and holder, that it is also compatible with commercially available multi-well culture plates.

  15. Polymer-Derived In- Situ Metal Matrix Composites Created by Direct Injection of a Liquid Polymer into Molten Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan; Terauds, Kalvis; Anilchandra, A. R.; Raj, Rishi

    2014-02-01

    We show that a liquid organic precursor can be injected directly into molten magnesium to produce nanoscale ceramic dispersions within the melt. The castings made in this way possess good resistance to tensile deformation at 673 K (400 °C), confirming the non-coarsening nature of these dispersions. Direct liquid injection into molten metals is a significant step toward inserting different chemistries of liquid precursors to generate a variety of polymer-derived metal matrix composites.

  16. Direct anharmonic correction method by molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Li, Rui; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Qu, Nuo; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2017-04-01

    The quick calculation of accurate anharmonic effects of lattice vibrations is crucial to the calculations of thermodynamic properties, the construction of the multi-phase diagram and equation of states of materials, and the theoretical designs of new materials. In this paper, we proposed a direct free energy interpolation (DFEI) method based on the temperature dependent phonon density of states (TD-PDOS) reduced from molecular dynamics simulations. Using the DFEI method, after anharmonic free energy corrections we reproduced the thermal expansion coefficients, the specific heat, the thermal pressure, the isothermal bulk modulus, and the Hugoniot P- V- T relationships of Cu easily and accurately. The extensive tests on other materials including metal, alloy, semiconductor and insulator also manifest that the DFEI method can easily uncover the rest anharmonicity that the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) omits. It is thus evidenced that the DFEI method is indeed a very efficient method used to conduct anharmonic effect corrections beyond QHA. More importantly it is much more straightforward and easier compared to previous anharmonic methods.

  17. COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT ESPRIT METHOD FOR DIRECTION FINDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a low complexity ESPRIT algorithm based on power method and Orthogonal-triangular (QR) decomposition is presented for direction finding, which does not require a priori knowledge of source number and the predetermined threshold (separates the signal and noise eigen-values). Firstly, according to the estimation of noise subspace obtained by the power method, a novel source number detection method without eigen-decomposition is proposed based on QR decomposition. Furthermore, the eigenvectors of signal subspace can be determined according to Q matrix,and then the directions of signals could be computed by the ESPRIT algorithm. To determine the source number and subspace, the computation complexity of the proposed algorithm is approximated as (2log2 n+ 2.67)M3, where n is the power of covariance matrix and M is the number of array elements. Compared with the Single Vector Decomposition (SVD) based algorithm, it has a substantial computational saving with the approximation performance. The simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness and robustness.

  18. Direct volume rendering methods for cell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Martišek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The study of the complicated architecture of cell space structures is an important problem in biology and medical research. Optical cuts of cells produced by confocal microscopes enable two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of observed cells. This paper discuses new possibilities for direct volume rendering of these data. We often encounter 16 or more bit images in confocal microscopy of cells. Most of the information contained in these images is unsubstantial for the human vision. Therefore, it is necessary to use mathematical algorithms for visualization of such images. Present software tools as OpenGL or DirectX run quickly in graphic station with special graphic cards, run very unsatisfactory on PC without these cards and outputs are usually poor for real data. These tools are black boxes for a common user and make it impossible to correct and improve them. With the method proposed, more parameters of the environment can be set, making it possible to apply 3D filters to set the output image sharpness in relation to the noise. The quality of the output is incomparable to the earlier described methods and is worth increasing the computing time. We would like to offer mathematical methods of 3D scalar data visualization describing new algorithms that run on standard PCs very well.

  19. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Farneti

    2017-04-01

    pull of VOCs, for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids, and esters that can be used as putative biomarkers to rapidly evaluate the blueberry aroma variations related to ripening and/or senescence as well as to genetic background differences. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrated the complementarity between chromatographic and direct-injection mass spectrometric techniques to study the blueberry aroma.

  20. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    , and esters that can be used as putative biomarkers to rapidly evaluate the blueberry aroma variations related to ripening and/or senescence as well as to genetic background differences. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrated the complementarity between chromatographic and direct-injection mass spectrometric techniques to study the blueberry aroma.

  1. Combustion processes for a low pressure gasoline direct injection; Brennverfahrenskonzepte fuer eine Niederdruck-Direkteinspritzung bei Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Stephan; Trattner, Alexander; Eichlseder, Helmut; Kirchberger, Roland [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik

    2011-07-15

    The gasoline direct injection becomes more and more important for small engines used in passenger cars. Lowering injection pressure and thus costs could enable the introduction of this technology in the small engine segment offering an alternative to today's MPFI engines. The results of these investigations made at TU Graz show the potential of low pressure direct injection in terms of improvement over standard MPFI engines (fuel economy, emissions, and engine operation stability) and reduced costs compared to high pressure GDI systems. (orig.)

  2. Direct and comprehensive analysis of ginsenosides and diterpene alkaloids in Shenfu injection by combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Lei; Gao, Wen; Liu, Ke; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Shenfu injection (SFI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formulation for cardiac diseases prepared from red ginseng and processed aconite root. Clinical observations and pharmacological effects on SFI have been well investigated. Chemical analysis and quality control studies of this formulation, however, are relatively limited, especially regarding toxic aconite alkaloids. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in SFI. Highly sensitive MS allows direct analysis of injections without additional sample pretreatment required. Using diagnostic ions and fragmentation rules, we identified 23 trace diterpene alkaloids, nineteen ginseng saponins, one panaxytriol, and one 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in SFI. A LC-MS method with selected ion monitoring was then used to quantify 24 major alkaloids and ginsenosides. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Especially, the limits of quantification were low to 0.4-18ng/mL for diterpene alkaloids. The total concentrations of saponins and alkaloids were about 676-742μg/mL and 3-7μg/mL in five batches of SFI samples, respectively. Finally, cosine ratio and euclidean distance were introduced to evaluate the batch-to-batch reproducibility of SFI samples, and the results demonstrated high quality consistency. Global identification and quantification of complex constituents based on LC-MS promises wide applications in quality control and batch monitoring for herbal products.

  3. Rapid determination of piracetam in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sample direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsin-Hua; Yang, Yuan-Han; Ko, Ju-Yun; Chen, Su-Hwei

    2006-07-07

    A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with UV detection at 200 nm for analysis of piracetam in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by direct injection without any sample pretreatment is described. The separation of piracetam from biological matrix was performed at 25 degrees C using a background electrolyte consisting of Tris buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the electrolyte solution. Several parameters affecting the separation of the drug from biological matrix were studied, including the pH and concentrations of the Tris buffer and SDS. Under optimal MEKC condition, good separation with high efficiency and short analyses time is achieved. Using imidazole as an internal standard (IS), the linear ranges of the method for the determination of piracetam in plasma and in CSF were all between 5 and 500 microg/mL; the detection limit of the drug in plasma and in CSF (signal-to-noise ratio=3; injection 0.5 psi, 5s) was 1.0 microg/mL. The applicability of the proposed method for determination of piracetam in plasma and CSF collected after intravenous administration of 3g piracetam every 6h and oral administration 1.2g every 6h in encephalopathy patients with aphasia was demonstrated.

  4. Fuel injection nozzle and method of manufacturing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, James Christopher; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-02-21

    A fuel injection head for use in a fuel injection nozzle comprises a monolithic body portion comprising an upstream face, an opposite downstream face, and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes are integrally formed with and extend axially through the body portion. Each of the pre-mix tubes comprises an inlet adjacent the upstream face, an outlet adjacent the downstream face, and a channel extending between the inlet and the outlet. Each pre-mix tube also includes at least one fuel injector that at least partially extends outward from an exterior surface of the pre-mix tube, wherein the fuel injector is integrally formed with the pre-mix tube and is configured to facilitate fuel flow between the body portion and the channel.

  5. Computational Study of Combustion Dynamics in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    spray injection models , viz., Log Normal Distributed Drop Injection Model , Single Drop Injection Model and Hollow Cone Injection Model , have...not match experiment. The hollow cone injection model was able to predict the correct dominant acoustic mode (4L) but the pressure amplitude was...processes of pressure-swirl hollow - cone fuel sprays ," Atomization and Sprays , vol. 7, pp. 663-684, Nov-Dec 1997. 22 M. A. Patterson and R. D.

  6. Performance Analysis of AP1000 Passive Systems during Direct Vessel Injection (DVI Line Break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Ekariansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation II Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs have a design weakness as shown by the Fukushima accident. Therefore, Generation III+ NPPs are developed with focus on improvements of fuel technology and thermal efficiency, standardized design, and the use of passive safety system. One type of Generation III+ NPP is the AP1000 that is a pressurized water reactor (PWR type that has received the final design acceptance from US-NRC and is already under construction at several sites in China as of 2015. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior and performance of the passive safety system in the AP1000 and to verify the safety margin during the direct vessel injection (DVI line break as selected event. This event was simulated using RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4 as a best-estimate code developed for transient simulation of light water reactors during postulated accidents. This event is also described in the AP1000 design control document as one of several postulated accidents simulated using the NOTRUMP code. The results obtained from RELAP5 calculation was then compared with the results of simulations using the NOTRUMP code. The results show relatively good agreements in terms of time sequences and characteristics of some injected flow from the passive safety system. The simulation results show that the break of one of the two available DVI lines can be mitigated by the injected coolant flowing, which is operated effectively by gravity and density difference in the cooling system and does not lead to core uncovery. Despite the substantial effort to obtain an apropriate AP1000 model due to lack of detailed geometrical data, the present model can be used as a platform model for other initiating event considered in the AP1000 accident analysis.

  7. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  8. Assessing the Climate Trade-Offs of Gasoline Direct Injection Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wallace, James S; Evans, Greg J

    2016-08-01

    Compared to port fuel injection (PFI) engine exhaust, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine exhaust has higher emissions of black carbon (BC), a climate-warming pollutant. However, the relative increase in BC emissions and climate trade-offs of replacing PFI vehicles with more fuel efficient GDI vehicles remain uncertain. In this study, BC emissions from GDI and PFI vehicles were compiled and BC emissions scenarios were developed to evaluate the climate impact of GDI vehicles using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature potential (GTP) metrics. From a 20 year time horizon GWP analysis, average fuel economy improvements ranging from 0.14 to 14% with GDI vehicles are required to offset BC-induced warming. For all but the lowest BC scenario, installing a gasoline particulate filter with an 80% BC removal efficiency and engine operation, and fuel composition. More work is needed to understand BC formation mechanisms in GDI engines to ensure that the climate impacts of this engine technology are minimal.

  9. Numerical studies of spray breakup in a gasoline direct injection (GDI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarmadar Samad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate Spray Breakup process of sprays injected from single and two-hole nozzles for gasoline direct Injection (GDI engines by using three dimensional CFD code. Spray characteristics were examined for spray tip penetration and other characteristics including: the vapor phase concentration distribution and droplet spatial distribution, which were acquired using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. Results showed that as the hole-axis-angle (γ of the two-hole nozzle decreased, the droplet coalescence increased and vapor mass decreased. The spray with cone angle (θ0 5 deg for single hole nozzle has the longest spray tip penetration and the spray with the γ of 30 deg and spray cone angle θ0=30 deg for two hole nozzles had the shortest one. Also, when the spray cone angle (θ0 and hole-axis-angle (γ increased from 5 to 30 deg, the Sauter mean diameter (SMD decreased for both single-hole and two-hole nozzles used in this study. For a single-hole nozzle, when spray cone angle increased from 5 to 30 deg, the vaporization rate very much because of low level of coalescence. The result of model for tip penetration is good agreement with the corresponding experimental data in the literatures.

  10. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emissions of a Stratified Charge CNG Direct Injection Engine with Turbocharger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from 1.6 litre, 4 cylinders stratified charge compressed natural gas (CNG direct injection engine with boosting device. A turbocharger with compressor trim of 40 was used to increase engine output. The engine was tested at wide open throttle (WOT and speed ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Engine performance and emissions data were recorded under steady state condition. Results show turbocharged CNG engine produced an average of 26% increment in brake power and 24% additional maximum brake torque as compared with natural aspirated (NA CNG engine. Turbocharged CNG engine improved brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and yielded higher fuel conversion efficiency (FCE. Relatively turbocharged CNG engine showed lower emission of hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO throughout tested engine speed. Conversely, the carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrogen oxide (NOx emission produced were slightly higher compared with NA CNG engine.

  12. Role of Direct Laser Acceleration of Electrons in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator with Ionization Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J. L.; Lemos, N.; Amorim, L. D.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Marsh, K. A.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.

    2017-02-01

    We show the first experimental demonstration that electrons being accelerated in a laser wakefield accelerator operating in the forced or blowout regimes gain significant energy from both the direct laser acceleration (DLA) and the laser wakefield acceleration mechanisms. Supporting full-scale 3D particle-in-cell simulations elucidate the role of the DLA of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator when ionization injection of electrons is employed. An explanation is given for how electrons can maintain the DLA resonance condition in a laser wakefield accelerator despite the evolving properties of both the drive laser and the electrons. The produced electron beams exhibit characteristic features that are indicative of DLA as an additional acceleration mechanism.

  13. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak.

  14. An Idealized, Single Radial Swirler, Lean-Direct-Injection (LDI) Concept Meshing Script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Thompson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    To easily study combustor design parameters using computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD), a Gridgen Glyph-based macro (based on the Tcl scripting language) dubbed BladeMaker has been developed for the meshing of an idealized, single radial swirler, lean-direct-injection (LDI) combustor. BladeMaker is capable of taking in a number of parameters, such as blade width, blade tilt with respect to the perpendicular, swirler cup radius, and grid densities, and producing a three-dimensional meshed radial swirler with a can-annular (canned) combustor. This complex script produces a data format suitable for but not specific to the National Combustion Code (NCC), a state-of-the-art CFD code developed for reacting flow processes.

  15. Determination of urinary vanillylmandelic acid by direct injection and coupled-column chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Persson, B A; Wikström, M

    1990-04-27

    An automated column-switching system for determination of vanillylmandelic acid in urine is described. The liquid chromatographic system was composed of two separation columns with different selectivity properties, an octadecyl column coated with tributyl phosphate as stationary liquid phase and a silica-based anion exchanger. Urine samples were injected directly onto the first column, where vanillylmandelic acid was separated from the main part of the sample matrix. The internal standard isovanillylmandelic acid was co-eluting with vanillylmandelic acid, and a fraction of the eluate containing both substances was switched to the second column, where separation was performed. To assess peak purity, detection was performed with dual working electrodes in parallel mode. A relative standard deviation of 3.5% was obtained for determination of human urine samples containing 3 microM vanillylmandelic acid, and less than 0.1 microM could be detected.

  16. Comparing the Pain Severity Caused by Muscular Injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Najafi Doulatabad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Pain, rather than any other problems, would persuade people to pursue remedy and treatment. Muscular injections are among pain producing factors. This technique of prescription can be followed by some complications from which pain is the most prevalent one. This study was performed to compare the pain severity caused by muscular injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb methods. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trial study in which 90 women who referred to the emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Yasooj in 2006 were randomly selected. Data collection instrument was questionnaire. The pain severity was evaluated by visual scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical method, independent T and chi square test using SPSS software. Results: Mean of pain severity in bulb method was 2.84±1.242 and in Z method was 4.56±1.659. The independent T test indicated that the differences in pain severity in two injection methods were statistically significant (p=0.036. No significant differences were found between age, educational level, job, marriatal status, number of previous injections and BMI of samples between two groups. Conclusion: Bulb method injection induces less pain in comparison with Z method therefore it is an ideal method for muscular injections. As such, health care workers, especially nurses, can, through this method, minimize the patients’ pain, which is one of the most important injection complaints.

  17. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  18. Measurement of capillary permeability in canine heart determined by the tissue injection, residue detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Paaske, W P; Haunsø, S

    1991-01-01

    In previous studies the tissue injection, residue detection method failed to provide results of diffusional capillary permeability comparable to those of other methods. For this reason we reconsidered the kinetic theory and found that it is necessary to take into account the apparent (restricted...... detection method and the single injection, residue detection method. Blood flow was measured independently with local 133Xenon washout. D and D' were measured by a true transient diffusion method. We found that the tissue injection, residue detection method gave results for capillary extraction and Pd......S-product similar to those obtained with a number of other methods based on indicator diffusion, so the tissue injection, residue detection method in its new kinetically correct formulation could prove useful in clinical studies of capillary permeability since it is applicable to determination of relative changes...

  19. Tralokinumab pharmacokinetics and tolerability when administered by different subcutaneous injection methods and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meena; Doughty, Diane; Clawson, Corbin; Li, Xiaobai; White, Nicholas; Agoram, Balaji; van der Merwe, René

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Tralokinumab, administered as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections every 2 weeks, at the target dose 300 mg, has been shown to improve lung function in patients with asthma. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and tolerability profile of tralokinumab 300 mg when administered by different rates of subcutaneous injection, as part of a pilot investigation of new injection regimens. Methods: This phase I study randomized 60 healthy adults to receive 300 mg tralokinumab, as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections, each delivered over 10 seconds, or one 2-mL injection delivered over 10 seconds (12 mL/min), 1 minute (2 mL/min), or 12 minutes (0.167 mL/min). Results: No differences in the PK profile of tralokinumab were observed between cohorts. Immediately following injection, injection-site pain intensity (mean (SD)) was lowest following 0.167 mL/min injection (5.1 mm (8.0) via visual analog scale (VAS)) and greatest following 12 mL/min injection (41 mm (27.7) via VAS); with mean injection-site pruritus intensity low for all participants. Two types of local injection-site reactions were observed: erythema (58.3%) and hematoma/bleeding (18.3%). All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. Conclusions: Tralokinumab 300 mg is well tolerated, with comparable PK, when administered by a single 2-mL injection at different rates of subcutaneous injection vs. two 1-mL injections. PMID:28590244

  20. Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol by Direct Injection of Electrons into Immobilized Enzymes on a Modified Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Stefanie; Dumitru, Liviu Mihai; Haberbauer, Marianne; Fuchsbauer, Anita; Neugebauer, Helmut; Hiemetsberger, Daniela; Wagner, Annika; Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2016-03-21

    We present results for direct bio-electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 products using electrodes with immobilized enzymes. Enzymatic reduction reactions are well known from biological systems where CO2 is selectively reduced to formate, formaldehyde, or methanol at room temperature and ambient pressure. In the past, the use of such enzymatic reductions for CO2 was limited due to the necessity of a sacrificial co-enzyme, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), to supply electrons and the hydrogen equivalent. The method reported here in this paper operates without the co-enzyme NADH by directly injecting electrons from electrodes into immobilized enzymes. We demonstrate the immobilization of formate, formaldehyde, and alcohol dehydrogenases on one-and-the-same electrode for direct CO2 reduction. Carbon felt is used as working electrode material. An alginate-silicate hybrid gel matrix is used for the immobilization of the enzymes on the electrode. Generation of methanol is observed for the six-electron reduction with Faradaic efficiencies of around 10%. This method of immobilization of enzymes on electrodes offers the opportunity for electrochemical application of enzymatic electrodes to many reactions in which a substitution of the expensive sacrificial co-enzyme NADH is desired.

  1. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  2. Combustion strategies for a SI direct injection natural gas engine; Darstellung verschiedener Betriebsstrategien an einem Erdgasmotor mit innerer Gemischbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohatsch, S.; Hoffmann, B.; Ferrari, A.; Chiodi, M.; Berner, H.J.; Bargende, M.

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO{sub 2} and particulate matter. To demonstrate the potential of natural gas direct injection some experimental investigations were carried out using a single-cylinder engine with lateral injector position. For this different injection valve nozzles, piston crown geometries as well as operating strategies were investigated. First experimental results accompanied by additional CFD-simulation show that it is possible to control the burn rate by injection induced turbulence. Furthermore the results show that a short mixture preparation distance between injection nozzle and spark plug is necessary because of the poor fuel penetration during the injection process which is typical for gaseous fuels. (orig.)

  3. A Rare Suicidal Method:Succinylcholine Chloride Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdegul Karadas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Succinylcholine is a depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug which is used for intubating the patient in dosage of 1-1.5 mgr/kgr. Nowadays, it is also sold for rifles as an injector form to capture the stray dogs. The introduction of the field of veterinary medicine has increased the availability of succinilcolin. In this study, a case was introduced who injected to his left arm a 3 ml (60 mg pharmaceutical product whose active substance was succinylcholine and applied to the emergency service one hour later with non-specific complaints such as fatigue and abdominal pain. The significance of having knowledge of succinylcholine by emergency doctors owing to severe systemic effects, particularly respiratory depression is emphasized.

  4. Direct intramyocardial mesenchymal stromal cell injections in patients with severe refractory angina - one year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Friis, Tina; Mathiasen, Anders B;

    2013-01-01

    Aims: In patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and refractory angina we performed direct intra-myocardial injections of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and followed the safety and efficacy of the treatment for 12 months. Methods and Results: A total of 31 patients...... with stable CAD, moderate to severe angina, normal left ventricular ejection fraction and no further revascularization options, were included. Bone marrow MSCs were isolated and culture expanded for 6 - 8 weeks and then stimulated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for one week.The 12 months...... follow-up demonstrated, that it was safe to culture expand MSCs and use the cells for clinical treatment. The patients maximal metabolic equivalent (MET) during exercise increased from 4.23 MET at baseline to 4.72 MET at 12 months follow-up (p...

  5. New methodology for in-cylinder pressure analysis in direct injection diesel engines—application to combustion noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Tormos, B.; Marant, V.

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology for the analysis of in-cylinder pressure in direct injection (DI) diesel engines. Indeed, for some applications, the traditional study of total pressure is shown to be insufficient and the proposed technique is intended to be an alternative and more efficient tool, since it may provide a better understanding of the physical mechanisms. The main idea is to decompose the in-cylinder pressure evolution according to three phenomena taking place during diesel engine operation: pseudo-motored, combustion and resonance excitation. In order to validate this new method, it is applied to combustion noise analysis. Actually, the combustion process in DI diesel engines may be considered as an important source of noise, and the traditional approach is mainly based on the interpretation of objective overall spectral levels of both in-cylinder pressure and radiated noise, obtained from Fourier analysis. However, this approach has been shown unable to describe all the relevant aspects of the problem, whereas the results obtained from the proposed decomposition technique exhibit a fair qualitative correlation between in-cylinder pressure and combustion noise issues. Further development of this approach could provide a useful tool for the development of optimal injection strategies fulfilling not only performance considerations but also sound quality requirements for combustion noise in DI diesel engines.

  6. Correcting the Science Record: Direct Stratospheric Injection vs. Asian Monsoon and the Solar Escalator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, M. D.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Kablick, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Two entries in the literature in 2012 make provocative but unsupportable claims regarding pollutant pathways from the Earth to the stratosphere. One claims the 13 June 2011 Nabro volcano (Eritrea) emitted gases and particles into the troposphere, and these constituents reached the stratosphere in great abundance via the Asian Monsoon circulation [Bourassa et al., 2012]. The other claims that smoke from the Black Saturday fire storms (Australia) was emitted into the troposphere, and was lofted ~15 km into the stratosphere by solar-induced diabatic heating [de Laat et al., 2012]. In both cases the stratospheric plumes attributed to these events spread around the globe and lasted for months. We will show that in both cases the postulated pathways are incorrect; the correct pathway is a direct convective injection by volcanic eruption and pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb), respectively. We will present satellite data that will unambiguously reveal multiple, distinct stratospheric volcano-convection columns from Nabro connected to height-resolved volcanic SO2 and sulfate particles. In the case of Black Saturday we will characterize the pyroCb columns with ground-based radar and satellite imagery. The young pyroCb plume in the stratosphere will be characterized with a synergistic analysis of several NASA A-Train passive and active remote sensors. We will discuss the implications of our findings with respect to how satellite-based data are best used for tracking and characterizing point source injection plumes in the stratosphere. Bourassa et al. (2012), Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport, Science, 337, 78, DOI: 10:1126/Science.1219371 de Laat, et al. (2012), A solar escalator: Observational evidence of the self-lifting of smoke and aerosols by absorption of solar radiation in the February 2009 Australian Black Saturday plume, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D04204, doi:10.1029/2011JD017016.

  7. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method.

  8. Multidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography on Pinkerton ISRP and RP18 columns: direct serum injection to quantify creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlmann, A; Dülffer, T; Kobold, U

    1992-10-02

    A two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of creatinine with direct serum injection without sample pretreatment has been developed. The column-switching technique allowed a switch from columns packed with internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP) material to columns of almost any other material, even if the eluents necessary in a particular case do not appear to be directly compatible. A Pinkerton ISRP column, which stands out because of its very good stability when loaded with undiluted serum samples, was used as precolumn. The creatinine-containing fraction was switched to a reversed-phase Shandon RP18 column and was focused there by alteration of the eluent from pH 6.5 to phosphoric acid-ion-pair reagent. The separation occurs via a pH gradient, with ultraviolet detection at 234 nm. This method stands out particularly for its good long-term stability, simple sample handling without pretreatment, high selectivity, a broad linearity (0.3-30 mg/dl creatinine), good reproducibility (inter-assay coefficient of variation less than 3%) and high recovery (97-100%) relative to values obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  9. A New High Frequency Injection Method Based on Duty Cycle Shifting without Maximum Voltage Magnitude Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    The conventional high frequency signal injection method is to superimpose a high frequency voltage signal to the commanded stator voltage before space vector modulation. Therefore, the magnitude of the voltage used for machine torque production is limited. In this paper, a new high frequency...... injection method, in which high frequency signal is generated by shifting the duty cycle between two neighboring switching periods, is proposed. This method allows injecting a high frequency signal at half of the switching frequency without the necessity to sacrifice the machine fundamental voltage...... amplitude. This may be utilized to develop new position estimation algorithm without involving the inductance in the medium to high speed range. As an application example, a developed inductance independent position estimation algorithm using the proposed high frequency injection method is applied to drive...

  10. A System Call Randomization Based Method for Countering Code-Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Code-injection attacks pose serious threat to today’s Internet. The existing code-injection attack defense methods have some deficiencies on performance overhead and effectiveness. To this end, we propose a method that uses system called randomization to counter code injection attacks based on instruction set randomization idea. System calls must be used when an injected code would perform its actions. By creating randomized system calls of the target process, an attacker who does not know the key to the randomization algorithm will inject code that isn’t randomized like as the target process and is invalid for the corresponding de-randomized module. The injected code would fail to execute without calling system calls correctly. Moreover, with extended complier, our method creates source code randomization during its compiling and implements binary executable files randomization by feature matching. Our experiments on built prototype show that our method can effectively counter variety code injection attacks with low-overhead.

  11. Study of Injection Molding Warpage Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyi-Cheng Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process and Taguchi method to investigate into injection molding warpage. The warpage important factor will be elected by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, the AHP hierarchy analysis factor from documents collected and aggregate out data, then through the expert questionnaire delete low weight factor. Finally, we used Taguchi quality engineering method to decide injection molding optimized combination factors. Furthermore, the paper used injection pressure, holding pressure, holding time, mold temperature to analyze four factors, three levels Taguchi design data. Moreover, the paper discussed the reaction of each factor on the S / N ratio and analysis of variance to obtain the best combination of minimal warpage.

  12. Field Measurements of Gasoline Direct Injection Emission Factors: Spatial and Seasonal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Ramos, Manuel; Hilker, Nathan; Healy, Robert M; Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Wallace, James S; Evans, Greg J

    2016-02-16

    Four field campaigns were conducted between February 2014 and January 2015 to measure emissions from light-duty gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles (2013 Ford Focus) in an urban near-road environment in Toronto, Canada. Measurements of CO2, CO, NOx, black carbon (BC), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene-xylenes (BTEX), and size-resolved particle number (PN) were recorded 15 m from the roadway and converted to fuel-based emission factors (EFs). Other than for NOx and CO, the GDI engine had elevated emissions compared to the Toronto fleet, with BC EFs in the 73rd percentile, BTEX EFs in the 80-90th percentile, and PN EFs in the 75th percentile during wintertime measurements. Additionally, for three campaigns, a second platform for measuring PN and CO2 was placed 1.5-3 m from the roadway to quantify changes in PN with distance from point of emission. GDI vehicle PN EFs were found to increase by up to 240% with increasing distance from the roadway, predominantly due to an increasing fraction of sub-40 nm particles. PN and BC EFs from the same engine technology were also measured in the laboratory. BC EFs agreed within 20% between the laboratory and real-world measurements; however, laboratory PN EFs were an order of magnitude lower due to exhaust conditioning.

  13. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  14. Effects of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel on combustion and emissions of direct injection diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcheng HUANG; Shangxue WANG; Longbao ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine under different fuel delivery advance angles were investigated. The experi-mental results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits shorter ignition delay, lower peak values of premixed burning rate, lower combustion pressure and pressure rise rate, and higher peak value of diffusion burning rate than con-ventional diesel fuel when the engine remains unmodified. In addition, the unmodified engine with F-T diesel fuel has lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher effective thermal efficiency, and presents lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions than conventional diesel fuel. When fuel delivery advance angle is retarded by 3 crank angle degrees, the combustion duration is obviously shor-tened; the peak values of premixed burning rate, the com-bustion pressure and pressure rise rate are further reduced; and the peak value of diffusion burning rate is further increased for F-T diesel fuel operation, Moreover, the retardation of fuel delivery advance angle results in a further significant reduction in NOx emissions with no penalty on specific fuel consumption and with much less penalty on HC, CO and smoke emissions.

  15. National Combustion Code Validated Against Lean Direct Injection Flow Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Most combustion processes have, in some way or another, a recirculating flow field. This recirculation stabilizes the reaction zone, or flame, but an unnecessarily large recirculation zone can result in high nitrogen oxide (NOx) values for combustion systems. The size of this recirculation zone is crucial to the performance of state-of-the-art, low-emissions hardware. If this is a large-scale combustion process, the flow field will probably be turbulent and, therefore, three-dimensional. This research dealt primarily with flow fields resulting from lean direct injection (LDI) concepts, as described in Research & Technology 2001. LDI is a concept that depends heavily on the design of the swirler. The LDI concept has the potential to reduce NOx values from 50 to 70 percent of current values, with good flame stability characteristics. It is cost effective and (hopefully) beneficial to do most of the design work for an LDI swirler using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are CAE tools that can calculate three-dimensional flows in complex geometries. However, CFD codes are only beginning to correctly calculate the flow fields for complex devices, and the related combustion models usually remove a large portion of the flow physics.

  16. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Nur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices were mounted on the exhaust pipe. The test of fuel variations started from 100% diesel fuel (D100 to 2.5% (DE2.5, 5% (DE5, 7.5% (DE7.5, and 10% (DE10 ethanol additions. Performance test was conducted at 1500 rpm with load variations from 0 to 60 Nm by increasing the load on each level by 10 Nm. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel (DE5 increased the average pressure of combustion chamber indication to 48% as well as reduced the specific fuel consumption to 9.5%. There were better exhaust emission characteristics at this mixture ratio than diesel engine which used pure diesel fuel (D100, the reduction of CO to 37%, HC to 44% and opacity to 15.9%.

  17. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, K. M.; Hicks, Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of multiple 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. LDI is a fuel-lean combustor concept for aero gas turbine engines in which multiple small fuel-air mixers replace one traditionally-sized fuel-air mixer. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center (pilot) fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer (main) fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle, which varies with the configuration. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 600 to 800 F and equivalence ratios from 0.4 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section.

  18. Alternative method for measurement of albumin/creatinine ratio using spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siangproh, Weena; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao; Katoh, Shuji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2009-09-15

    A simple, automatic and practical system for successive determination of albumin and creatinine has been developed by combining sequential injection analysis (SIA) and highly sensitive dye-binding assays. Albumin detection was based on the increase in the absorbance due to complex formation between albumin and eosin Y in acidic media. The absorbance of the complex was monitored at 547 nm. For the creatinine assay, the concentration of creatinine was measured by reaction with alkaline picrate to form a colored product which absorbs at 500 nm. The influences of experimental variables such as effects of pH, reagent concentration, standard/sample volume and interferences were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the automated method showed linearity up to 20 mg L(-1) for albumin and 100 mg L(-1) for creatinine. The 3 sigma detection limits were 0.6 and 3.5 mg L(-1) for albumin and creatinine, respectively, and the relative standard deviations (n=10) were 2.49% for 20 mg L(-1) albumin, and 3.14% for 20 mg L(-1) creatinine. Application of the proposed method to the direct analysis of urinary samples yielded results which agreed with those obtained from the Bradford protein assay and a creatinine enzymatic assay according to a paired t-test. The results obtained should be a step towards developing a fully automated and reliable analytical system for clinical research, which requires direct determination of albumin and creatinine and/or its ratios.

  19. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Iriya, Y.; Naito, K.; Mitsumoto, H.; Iiyama, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Performance of an Otto cycle motor with natural gas direct injection; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto com injecao direta de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga

    1997-07-01

    A Otto cycle engine with natural gas direct injection, during the inlet stroke, was submitted to runs with full power in a Foucaut dynamometer. The results obtained show a increase in the volumetric efficiency of the engine with natural gas direct injection when compared with natural gas injection applied in the inlet manifold, upstream of the throttle butterfly. In the conversion to natural gas direct injection, the technical characteristics were not changed. A kit for natural gas direct injection, with electronic management was located on the cylinder head of the test engine. Maintaining the pressure constant in the natural gas fuel line, using a reduction valve, the mass of fuel injected into the cylinder was regulated, varying the opening time of the solenoid valve fuel injector. Engine performance data is compared, emphasizing the factors that contribute to this increase in relative volumetric efficiency. Modifications are made to maximize the power of the engine with natural gas direct injection. (author)

  1. Physical Fault Injection and Monitoring Methods for Programmable Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Vanat, Tomas; Ferencei, Jozef

    A method of detecting faults for evaluating the fault cross section of any field programmable gate array (FPGA) was developed and is described in the thesis. The incidence of single event effects in FPGAs was studied for different probe particles (proton, neutron, gamma) using this method. The existing accelerator infrastructure of the Nuclear Physics Institute in Rez was supplemented by more sensitive beam monitoring system to ensure that the tests are done under well defined beam conditions. The bit cross section of single event effects was measured for different types of configuration memories, clock signal phase and beam energies and intensities. The extended infrastructure served also for radiation testing of components which are planned to be used in the new Inner Tracking System (ITS) detector of the ALICE experiment and for selecting optimal fault mitigation techniques used for securing the design of the FPGA-based ITS readout unit against faults induced by ionizing radiation.

  2. Investigation of Reusable Crucibles on Uranium Casting by Injection Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Slurry applied coatings must be recoated after every batch. Thermal plasma-sprayed coatings of refractory materials can be applied to develop a re-usable crucible coating for metallic fuel. Plasma-sprayed coating can provide a crucible with a denser, more durable, coating layer, compared with the more friable coating layer formed by slurry-coating. Plasma-sprayed coatings are consolidated by mechanical interlocking of the molten particles impacting on the substrate and are dense from the heat applied by the plasma. Although the protective layer is more difficult in a dense coating than in a porous coating, the increased coating density is advantageous because it should not require frequent recoating or U-Zr melt penetration. In this study, we used a Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) method, which is suitable to prevent oxidization and has a number of advantages such as low defect density and excellent adhesion of the coating layer, to investigate permanent coatings for re-usable crucibles for melting and casting of metallic fuel. After coatings, interaction studies between molten U-Zr alloys and the plasma sprayed coatings were also carried out. We summarized the results of the coating methods. All coated samples maintained good coating integrity in a U-Zr melt, but most of the coating method samples did not maintain integrity in the U-Zr-RE melt because of the cracks or microcracks of the coating layer, presumably formed from the thermal expansion difference. Only the TaC(100)-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100) DL VPS coated rod survived the 2 cycles dipping test of U-Zr-RE melt. This is likely caused by good adhesion of the TaC coating onto the niobium rod and the chemical inertness of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating material in the U-Zr-RE melt. Based on the results from the interactions with U-10Zr and U-10Zr-5RE melt, TaC(100)-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100) plasma-sprayed coating methods have been applied to real graphite crucibles.

  3. Rapid determination of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yu-Dong; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young; Paeng, Ki-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 μL) mixed with 80 μL of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 μL) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, α-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and α-hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully

  4. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to predict the difficulty degree of water injection.

  5. PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST GAS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS OF DIRECT INJECTION CNG-DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANBIR SINGH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing diesel engines are under stringent emission regulation particularly of smoke and particulate matter in their exhaust. Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel dual fuel operation is regarded as one of the best ways to control emissions from diesel engines and simultaneously saving petroleum based diesel fuel. Dual fuel engineis a conventional diesel engine which burn either gaseous fuel or diesel or both at the same time. In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory single cylinder, four-stroke variable compression ratio, direct injection diesel engine converted to CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded for the compression ratio of 15 and 17.5 at CNG substitution rates of 30% and 60% and varying theload from idle to rated load of 3.5kW in steps of 1 up to 3kW and then to 3.5kW. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel engine is in the range of 30%-40% at the rated load of 3.5 kW which is 11%-13% higher than pure diesel engine for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates. This trend is observed irrespective of the compression ratio of the engine. Brake specific fuel consumption of dual fuel engine is found better than pure diesel engine at all engine loads and for both CNG substitution rates. It is found that there is drastic reduction in CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke emissions in the exhaust of dual fuel engine at all loads and for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates by employing some optimum operating conditions set forth for experimental investigations in this study.

  6. Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; DeBusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal. In addition, lean GDI engine exhaust temperatures are generally higher than diesel engines which results in more continuous regeneration of the GPF and less presence of the soot cake layer common to diesel particulate filters. Since the soot layer improves filtration efficiency, this distinction is important to consider. Research on the emission control of PM from a lean GDI engine with a GPF was conducted on an engine dynamometer. PM, after dilution, was characterized with membrane filters, organic vs. elemental carbon characterization, and size distribution techniques at various steady state engine speed and load points. The engine was operated in three primary combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean homogeneous, and lean stratified. In addition, rich combustion was utilized to simulate PM from engine operation during active regeneration of lean NOx control technologies. High (>95%) PM filtration efficiencies were observed over a wide range of conditions; however, some PM was observed to slip through the GPF at high speed and load conditions. The

  7. Minimum-Voltage Vector Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM for Low-Speed Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting...... may also be further developed to inject two opposite voltage vectors to reduce the effects of inverter voltage error on the position estimation accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other sensorless control method. Theoretical analysis and experimental...

  8. Optimising the Design Process of the Injection Camshaft by Critical Path Method (CPM)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga-Ioana Amariei; Codruţa Oana Hamat; Vadim Chistruga

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper a series of advantages of the CPM method are presented, focusing on the optimization of design duration of an injection camshaft, by cost criteria. The minimum duration of finalizing the design of the injection camshaft will be determined, as well as the total cost associated to this project, normally, and then under crash regime. At the end, two types of sensitivity analysis will be performed: Meeting the desire completation time and Meeting the desired...

  9. Optimising the Design Process of the Injection Camshaft by Critical Path Method (CPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga-Ioana Amariei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a series of advantages of the CPM method are presented, focusing on the optimization of design duration of an injection camshaft, by cost criteria. The minimum duration of finalizing the design of the injection camshaft will be determined, as well as the total cost associated to this project, normally, and then under crash regime. At the end, two types of sensitivity analysis will be performed: Meeting the desire completation time and Meeting the desired budget cost

  10. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to p...

  11. Flow injection method for sulphide determination using an organic mercury compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqoob, M.; Anwar, M.; Masood, A.S.; Masoom, M. (Univ. of Balochistan, Quetta (Pakistan))

    1991-04-01

    A simple flow injection analysis method is described for the determination of soluble sulfide, based on the complexation of sulfide with p-hydroxymercurbenzoic acid, in the presence of dithizone used as an indicator. The reaction is very rapid, with a sampling rate of 90/hr. and requires a very short length post injection reaction coil. The detection limit and precision are 0.01 mM and 0.7%, respectively.

  12. CO2 Leakage, Storage and Injection Monitoring by Using Experimental, Numerical and Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namdar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The maintaining environment is priority to any plan in human life. It is planned for monitoring CO2 injection, storage and leakage by using geophysical, numerical and analytical methods in seismic zone. In this regard the mineralogy, chemical composite, lithology, seismic wave propagation, small earthquake, accelerating natural earthquake, thermal stress-strain modeling, ground movement level and fault activation will be consider. It is expected to better understand CO2 leakage, storage and injection process and problems.

  13. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shum, S.

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization. Tabs, figs, refs.

  14. A multisyringe flow injection method for the automated determination of sulfide in waters using a miniaturised optical fiber spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Laura; de Armas, Graciela; Miró, Manuel; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2004-12-15

    In this paper, a fully software-controlled multisyringe flow injection (MSFIA) spectrophotometric system is proposed for the determination of sulfide in environmental and waste waters. The implementation of ancillary solenoid valves into the flow network allows a multitude of injection modalities to be explored, the selected modality being directly dependent on the aim of the assays. The multicommuted sandwich-type approach is introduced in this work as an efficient means to warrant high sensitivity for the particular assay with excellent repeatabilities and a considerable reagent saving. Moreover, a high injection frequency may be easily attained by carrying out a multiple injection modality during a single forward displacement of the piston driver bar. The interfacing of the robust and versatile multisyringe piston pump with an optical fiber plug-in spectrophotometer furnished with a light emitting diode enables the miniaturization of the flow analyzer, which is thus readily adaptable to in-situ and real-time monitoring schemes. The flow method is based on the coupling Fischer's reaction of sulfide with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidizing reagent in a 0.7M HCl medium. Careful selection of the physical and chemical variables enabled coefficients of variations better than 1.5% (n = 10) at the 1mgl(-1) level for both injection modalities. Dynamic working ranges of 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-5mgl(-1) sulfide for sandwich and multiple injection techniques, and detection limits of 0.09 and 0.15mgl(-1), respectively, were obtained. Furthermore, the sandwich modality featured an average slope of 0.43 +/- 0.02lmg(-1) calculated from 10 day-to-day calibration plots. This result reveals better sensitivity than other flowing stream methods described in the literature. The multiple injection technique allowed an improvement of the injection throughput up to 80h(-1), although a decrease of sensitivity was concomitantly observed (average slope of 0

  15. A Method to Overcome Space Charge at Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya. Derbenev

    2005-09-29

    The transverse space charge forces in a high current, low energy beam can be reduced by mean of a large increase of the beam's transverse sizes while maintaining the beam area in the 4D phase space. This can be achieved by transforming the beam area in phase space of each of two normal 2D transverse (either plane or circular) modes from a spot shape into a narrow ring of a large amplitude, but homogeneous in phase. Such a transformation results from the beam evolution in the island of a dipole resonance when the amplitude width of the island shrinks adiabatically. After stacking (by using stripping foils or cooling) the beam in such a state and accelerating to energies sufficiently high that the space charge becomes insignificant, the beam then can be returned back to a normal spot shape by applying the reverse transformation. An arrangement that can provide such beam gymnastics along a transport line after a linac and before a booster and/or in a ring with circulating beam will be described and numerical estimates will be presented. Other potential applications of the method will be briefly discussed.

  16. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  17. Direct current power delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  18. Direct methods of analyzing diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.; Cohen, J.B.

    1979-07-01

    Methods of analysis of diffuse scattering have now reached the stage where thee are well tested and documented standard procedures for a variety of materials, and software, for both x-rays and neutrons. These methods and their meaning Are briefly reviewed.

  19. Control of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion in a two-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine with negative valve overlap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi; WANG Jianxin; SHUAI Shijin; MA Qingjun; TIAN Guohong

    2007-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition(HCCI) has challenges in ignition timing control,combustion rate control,and operating range extension.In this paper,HCCI combustion was studied in a two-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine with negative valve overlap (NVO).A two-stage gasoline direct injection strategy combined with negative valve overlap was used to control mixture formation and combustion.The gasoline engine could be operated in HCCI combustion mode at a speed range of 800-2 200 r/min and load,indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) range of 0.1-0.53 MPa.The engine fuel consumption 4× 10-5 without soot emission.The effect of different injection strategies on HCCI combustion was studied.The experimental results indicated that the coefficient of variation of the engine cycle decreased by using NVO with two-stage direct injection;the ignition timing and combustion rate could be controlled;and the operational range of HCCI combustion could be extended.

  20. Direct Path Detection Method in Indoor Location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Hu; LI Zheng

    2006-01-01

    A search algorithm for the detection of a direct path signal in the presence of dense multipath in indoor environment using UWB is Proposed. This algorithm is based on signal correlation and differential coefficient. Statistical analysis of the algorithm is given out and computer simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the algorithm.The results based on the algorithm proposed are compared with those based on Maximum Likelihood Estimator(MLE)and Peak Tracking(PT)in the simulation which shows that this algorithm achieves the highest accuracy in most cases and gives out relatively stable results in different Signal Noise Ratio(SNR).

  1. RECENT METHODS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS –A RETROSPECTIVE AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Bharti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Injection molding has been a challenging process for many manufacturers and researchers to produce products meeting requirements at the lowest cost. Faced with global competition in injection molding industry, using the trialand- error approach to determine the process parameters for injection molding is no longer good enough. Factors that affect the quality of a molded part can be classified into four categories: part design, mold design, machineperformance and processing conditions. The part and mold design are assumed as established and fixed. During production, quality characteristics may deviate due to drifting or shifting of processing conditions caused by machine wear, environmental change or operator fatigue. Determining optimal process parameter settings critically influences productivity, quality, and cost of production in the plastic injection molding (PIM industry. Previously, production engineers used either trial-and-error method or Taguchi’s parameter design method to determine optimal process parameter settings for PIM. However, these methods are unsuitable in present PIM because of the increasing complexity of product design and the requirement of multi-response quality characteristics. This article aims to review the recent research in designing and determining process parameters of injection molding. A number of research works based on various approaches have been performed in the domain of the parameter setting for injection molding. These approaches, including mathematical models, Taguchi method, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN,Fuzzy logic, Case Based Reasoning (CBR, Genetic Algorithms (GA, Finite Element Method(FEM,Non Linear Modeling, Response Surface Methodology, Linear Regression Analysis ,Grey Rational Analysis and Principle Component Analysis (PCA are described in this article. The strength and theweakness of individual approaches are discussed. It is then followed by conclusions and discussions of the potential

  2. Numerical study of boundary layer injection as a scale control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiereisen, W.

    1975-09-26

    A boundary layer injection method of controlling scale-buildup in geothermal two-phase flow nozzles is studied. The object of this study is to set an upper limit on the ratio of the injected mass flow rate to the free stream mass flow rate that is necessary to isolate the scale carrying free stream flow from the nozzle wall. In order to develop a numerical model of the boundary layer flow, assumptions are made which reduce the results to order of magnitude approximations. Two configurations of nozzles with various injection flow rates are tried. It is found by numerical experiment that a nozzle with injection through a 1 mm thick ring near the inlet, is more efficient at isolating the free stream than a porous nozzle. A mass flow rate ratio of 0.173% was necessary to achieve this effect. It may be concluded that an upper limit on the mass flow rate ratio is about 2.0% with injection through a ring near the inlet, and that boundary layer injection is a reasonable method of controlling scale-buildup. A glossary of variables, program documentation and listings are presented for programs GMD15SR8, TRACK11, and TRACK12.

  3. The Direct Spelling Method%直接拼读法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏侯富生

    2002-01-01

    According to the difficulties in articulating words, phonetics and Lettters for the English beginners, the author made an experiment on the Direct Spelling method put forward by professor ZhangJianZhong. Through the experiment, it has been proved that the Direct Spelling method is a good method to train students English aspiration, so that students can form the good habits to spell English words directly and have English speech communication directly.

  4. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions. Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  5. Permanent Magnet Flux Online Estimation Based on Zero-Voltage Vector Injection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting the h...

  6. Numerical Simulation Characteristics of Logging Response in Water Injection Well by Reproducing Kernel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jing Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproducing kernel Hilbert space method (RKHSM is an effective method. This paper, for the first time, uses the traditional RKHSM for solving the temperature field in two phase flows of multilayer water injection well. According to 2D oil-water temperature field mathematical model of two phase flows in cylindrical coordinates, selecting the properly initial and boundary conditions, by the process of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, the analytical solution was given by reproducing kernel functions in a series expansion form, and the approximate solution was expressed by n-term summation. The satisfied numerical results were carried out by Mathematica 7.0, showing that the larger the difference between injected water temperature and initial borehole temperature or water injection conditions, the more obvious the indication of water accepting zones. The numerical examples evidence the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method of the two phase flows in engineering.

  7. INVESTIGATION STUDIES ON SUB-COOLING OF CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS USING HELIUM INJECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cryogenic propellants, the sub-cooling of cryogenic propellants contained in tanks is an important and effective method for bringing down the lift-off mass of launch vehicle and thus the performance of the rocket engine is greatly improved. This study presents the technical and experimental studies conducted on cryogenic liquids such as Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Hydrogen using helium injection method. The influence of cooled Helium on the degree of sub-cooling and the variation in flow rate of Helium gas admitted are discussed. The experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the sub-cooling technique using helium injection is a very simple method and can be very well adopted in propellant tanks used for ground and launch vehicle applications. The overall cooling effect for rocket application is also discussed. The critical values of the non-dimensional parameters and injected helium temperatures are also estimated.

  8. Direct injection into the IsoDAR Cyclotron using a RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, Spencer; IsoDAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, the use of Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs) has been pervasive in linear accelerators in order to accelerate, bunch, and separate ion species. Current research suggests this may be an ideal way to inject a low energy H2+ beam axially into a cyclotron. The IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment aims to implement this injection system in order to achieve higher Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) efficiencies and ultimately construct a novel compact neutrino factory to test the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos. This talk will focus on the research and development needed to implement a RFQ into the IsoDAR experiment.

  9. Ectopic porcine spermatogenesis in murine subcutis: tissue grafting versus cell-injection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeshi Watanabe; Hirofumi Hayashi; Kaoru Kita; Yoshinobu Kubota; Takehiko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Fragments of testis tissue from immature animals grow and develop spermatogenesis when grafted onto subcutaneous areas of immunodeficient mice. The same results are obtained when dissociated cells from immature testes of rodents are injected into the subcutis of nude mice. Those cells reconstitute seminiferous tubules and facilitate spermatogenesis. We compared these two methods, tissue grafting and cell-injection methods, in terms of the efficiency of spermatogenesis in the backs of three strains of immunodeficient mice, using neonatal porcine testicular tissues and cells as donor material. Nude, severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) and NOD/Shi-SCID, IL-2Rγcnull (NOG) mice were used as recipients. At 10 months after surgery, the transplants were examined histologically. Both grafting and cell-injection methods resulted in porcine spermatogenesis on the backs of recipient mice; the percentage of spermatids present in the transplants was 67% and 22%, respectively. Using the grafting method, all three strains of mice supported the same extent of spermatogenesis. As for the cell-injection method, although SCID mice were the best host for supporting reconstitution and spermatogenesis, any difference from the other strains was not significant. As NOG mice did not show any better results, the severity of immunodeficiency seemed to be irrelevant for supporting xeno-ectopic spermatogenesis. Our results confirmed that tubular reconstitution is applicable to porcine testicular cells. This method as well as the grafting method would be useful for studying spermatogenesis in different kinds of animals.

  10. Theoretical aspects for estimating anisotropic saturated hydraulic conductivity from in-well or direct-push probe injection tests in uniform media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Harald; Layton, Leif; Nemer, Bassel; Hatfield, Kirk; Mohseni, Ana

    2017-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy are fundamental aquifer properties for groundwater flow and transport modeling. Current in-well or direct-push field measurement techniques allow for relatively quick determination of general conductivity profiles with depth. However, capabilities for identifying local scale conductivities in the horizontal and vertical directions are very limited. Here, we develop the theoretical basis for estimating horizontal and vertical conductivities from different types of steady-state single-well/probe injection tests under saturated conditions and in the absence of a well skin. We explore existing solutions and a recent semi-analytical solution approach to the flow problem under the assumption that the aquifer is locally homogeneous. The methods are based on the collection of an additional piece of information in the form of a second injection (or recirculation) test at a same location, or in the form of an additional head or flow observation along the well/probe. Results are represented in dimensionless charts for partial validation against approximate solutions and for practical application to test interpretation. The charts further allow for optimization of a test configuration to maximize sensitivity to anisotropy ratio. The two methods most sensitive to anisotropy are found to be (1) subsequent injection from a lateral screen and from the bottom of an otherwise cased borehole, and (2) single injection from a lateral screen with an additional head observation along the casing. Results may also be relevant for attributing consistent divergences in conductivity measurements from different testing methods applied at a same site or location to the potential effects of anisotropy. Some practical aspects are discussed and references are made to existing methods, which appear easily compatible with the proposed procedures.

  11. Analyse de la sensibilité aux paramètres gazoles d'un moteur diesel d'automobile à injection directe Small Direct Injection Diesel Engine Sensitivity to the Diesel Fuel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagne X.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available L'étude présentée a été réalisée dans le cadre du GMCL (Groupement Moteur Carburant Lubrifiant, organisme qui réunit des constructeurs d'automobiles, des raffineurs et des additiveurs, avec l'objectif d'examiner la sensibilité d'un moteur Diesel à injection directe d'automobile aux paramètres du gazole. Les partenaires de cette étude sont Elf, IFP, Octel, PSA, Renault et Total. Parmi les solutions technologiques permettant de disposer de convertisseurs d'énergie assurant de faibles niveaux d'émissions de polluants et de consommation, le moteur Diesel se place naturellement en bonne position. Dans ce contexte, on enregistre aujourd'hui l'émergence du moteur Diesel à injection directe pour les véhicules légers en raison de ses performances, notamment en regard de la consommation. Toutefois, cette technologie nécessite une technique d'injection performante, associée à la gestion électronique, demande de l'EGR et un catalyseur d'oxydation afin de régler les problèmes d'émissions polluantes et sonores. Il est donc de première importance de cerner avec précision la sensibilité du moteur Diesel à injection directe aux paramètres carburants afin de tirer le meilleur profit de cette technologie. À partir d'un ensemble de gazoles formulés pour faire varier la composition chimique, l'indice de cétane et la densité, un moteur Audi à injection directe de type 1Z a été testé au banc, dans des conditions standard de réglage (avance à l'injection et taux de gaz recyclés. Cet ensemble de résultats a ainsi permis de démontrer que l'accroissement de l'indice de cétane, la réduction de la densité et de la teneur en polyaromatiques ont une influence positive sensible sur les émissions de CO, d'hydrocarbures imbrûlés, des VOF. En ce qui concerne les émissions de particules, l'indice de cétane semble avoir une influence négative sur la fraction sèche dans certaines conditions. De plus, il apparaît que les

  12. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  13. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik [Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4{+-}1.78: group 2, 2.8{+-}1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  14. Dimensional accuracy optimization of the micro-plastic injection molding process using the Taguchi design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chil-Chyuan KUO KUO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic injection molding is an important field in manufacturing industry because there are many plastic products that produced by injection molding. However, the time and cost required for producing a precision mold are the most troublesome problems that limit the application at the development stage of a new product in precision machinery industry. This study presents an approach of manufacturing a hard mold with microfeatures for micro-plastic injection molding. This study also focuses on Taguchi design method for investigating the effect of injection parameters on the dimensional accuracy of Fresnel lens during plastic injection molding. It was found that the dominant factor affecting the microgroove depth of Fresnel lens is packing pressure. The optimum processing parameters are packing pressure of 80 MPa, melt temperature of 240 °C, mold temperature of 90 °C and injection speed of 50 m/s. The dimensional accuracy of Fresnel lens can be controlled within ±3 µm using the optimum level of process parameters through the confirmation test. The research results of this study have industrial application values because electro-optical industries are able to significantly reduce a new optical element development cycle time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5864

  15. Directing Parthenogenetic Stem Cells Differentiate into Adipocytes for Engineering Injectable Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate seed cells is crucial for adipose tissue engineering. Here, we reported the stepwise induction of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs to differentiate into adipogenic cells and its application in engineering injectable adipose tissue with Pluronic F-127. pESCs had pluripotent differentiation capacity and could form teratomas that include the three primary germ layers. Cells that migrated from the embryoid bodies (EBs were selectively separated and expanded to obtain embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs. The eMSCs exhibited similar cell surface marker expression profiles with bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and had multipotent differentiation capacity. Under the induction of dexamethasone, indomethacin, and insulin, eMSCs could differentiate into adipogenic cells with increased expression of adipose-specific genes and oil droplet depositions within the cytoplasm. To evaluate their suitability as seed cells for adipose tissue engineering, the CM-Dil labelled adipogenic cells derived from eMSCs were seeded into Pluronic F-127 hydrogel and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Four weeks after injection, glistering and semitransparent constructs formed in the subcutaneous site. Histological observations demonstrated that new adipose tissue was successfully fabricated in the specimen by the labelled cells. The results of the current study indicated that pESCs have great potential in the fabrication of injectable adipose tissue.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION GC/FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (GC/FT-IR) is rapidly becoming an accepted analytical technique complementary to GC/mass spectroscopy for identifying organic compounds in mixtures at low to moderate concentrations. irect aqueous injection (DA...

  17. The influence of fuel injection and heat release on bulk flow structures in a direct-injection, swirl-supported diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterl, Andreas; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Hazeleger, Wilco; Burgers, Gerrit

    2007-08-01

    Particle image velocimetry is applied to measure the vertical (r z) plane flow structures in a light-duty direct-injection diesel engine with a realistic piston geometry. The measurements are corrected for optical distortions due to the curved piston bowl walls and the cylindrical liner. Mean flow fields are presented and contrasted for operation both with and without fuel injection and combustion. For operation with combustion, the two-dimensional divergence of the measured mean velocity fields is employed as a qualitative indicator of the locations of mean heat release. In agreement with numerical simulations, dual-vortex, vertical plane mean flow structures that may enhance mixing rates are formed approximately mid-way through the combustion event. Late in the cycle a toroidal vortex forms outside the bowl mouth. Imaging studies suggest that soot and partially oxidized fuel trapped within this vortex are slow to mix with surrounding fluid; moreover, the vortex impedes mixing of fluid exiting the bowl with air within the squish volume.

  18. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in directed graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Malene

    Directed graphical models present data possessing a complex dependence structure, and MCMC methods are computer-intensive simulation techniques to approximate high-dimensional intractable integrals, which emerge in such models with incomplete data. MCMC computations in directed graphical models...

  19. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions.  Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  20. The effect of injection pressure on spread of the jet, formation of the mixture and engine parameters of a direct injection Diesel engine. Einfluss des Einspritzdruckes auf Strahlausbreitung, Gemischbildung und Motorkennwerte eines direkt einspritzenden Dieselmotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, K.

    1992-07-31

    By increasing the injection pressure, the air/fuel ratio in the fuel jet is raised. The increased air supply in the injected jet, together with a drop spectrum displaced in the direction of smaller fuel drops leads to a quicker evaporation of the fuel. As the injection retardation is simultaneously reduced, one can achieve lower emission of nitrogen oxide without disadvantage in the fuel consumption. (orig./HW).

  1. CFD Studies of Combustion in Direct Injection Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Non-Premixed Combustion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gavudhama Karunanidhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the simulation process of non-premixed combustion in a direct injection single cylinder diesel engine has been described. Direct injection diesel engines are used both in heavy duty vehicles and light duty vehicles. The fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The fuel mixes with the high pressure air in the combustion chamber and combustion occurs. Due to the non-premixed nature of the combustion occurring in such engines, non-premixed combustion model of ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 can be used to simulate the combustion process. A 4-stroke diesel engine corresponds to one fuel injector hole without considering valves was modeled and combustion simulation process was studied. Here two types of combustion chambers were compared. Combustion studies of both chambers:- shallow depth and hemispherical combustion chambers were carried out. Emission characteristics of both combustion chambers had also been carried out. The obtained results are compared. It has been found that hemispherical combustion chamber is more efficient as it produces higher pressure and temperature compared to that of shallow depth combustion chamber. As the temperature increases the formation of NOx emissions and soot formation also get increased.

  2. Effects of thermoacoustic oscillations on spray combustion dynamics with implications for lean direct injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishty, Wajid Ali

    Thermoacoustic instabilities in modern high-performance, low-emission gas turbine engines are often observable as large amplitude pressure oscillations and can result in serious performance and structural degradations. These acoustic oscillations can cause oscillations in combustor through-flows and given the right phase conditions, can also drive unsteady heat release. To curb the potential harms caused by the existence of thermoacoustic instabilities, recent efforts have focused on the active suppression of these instabilities. Intuitively, development of effective active combustion control methodologies is strongly dependent on the knowledge of the onset and sustenance of thermoacoustic instabilities. Specially, non-premixed spray combustion environment pose additional challenges due to the inherent unstable dynamics of sprays. The understanding of the manner in which the combustor acoustics affect the spray characteristics, which in turn result in heat release oscillation, is therefore, of paramount importance. The experimental investigations and the modeling studies conducted towards achieving this knowledge have been presented in this dissertation. Experimental efforts comprise both reacting and non-reacting flow studies. Reacting flow experiments were conducted on a overall lean direct injection, swirl-stabilized combustor rig. The investigations spanned combustor characterization and stability mapping over the operating regime. The onset of thermoacoustic instability and the transition of the combustor to two unstable regimes were investigated via phase-locked chemiluminescence imaging and measurement and phase-locked acoustic characterization. It was found that the onset of the thermoacoustic instability is a function of the energy gain of the system, while the sustenance of instability is due to the in-phase relationship between combustor acoustics and unsteady heat release driven by acoustic oscillations. The presence of non-linearities in the system

  3. Experimental and theoretical study on spray behaviors of modified bio-ethanol fuel employing direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremani Amirreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key solutions to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines is direct injection of bio-fuels. A new modified bio-ethanol is produced to be substituted by fossil fuels in gasoline direct injection engines. The key advantages of modified bio-ethanol fuel as an alternative fuel are higher octane number and oxygen content, a long-chain hydro-carbon fuel, and lower emissions compared to fossil fuels. In the present study spray properties of a modified bio-ethanol and its atomization behaviors have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Based on atomization physics of droplets dimensional analysis has been performed to develop a new non-dimensional number namely atomization index. This number determines the atomization level of the spray. Applying quasi-steady jet theory, air entrainment and fuel-air mixing studies have been performed. The spray atomization behaviors such as atomization index number, Ohnesorge number, and Sauter mean diameter have been investigated employing atomization model. The influences of injection and ambient conditions on spray properties of different blends of modified bio-ethanol and gasoline fuels have been investigated performing high-speed visualization technique. Results indicate that decreasing the difference of injection and ambient pressures increases spray cone angle and projected area, and decreases spray tip penetration length. As expected, increasing injection pressure improves atomization behaviors of the spray. Increasing percentage of modified bio-ethanol in the blend, increases spray tip penetration and decreases the projected area as well.

  4. Aspiration Alone, Aspiration Plus Steroid Injection and Aspiration Plus Ethanol Injection for Treatment of Dorsal Wrist Ganglions: A Comparative Study among Three Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandoker Abdur Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are varieties of treatment modalities to treat dorsal wrist ganglion cysts. But none of these has been the standard. So, we designed this study to compare among different treatment modalities. Objective: To compare the effects of aspiration alone, aspiration plus methylprednisone injection and aspiration plus ethanol injection into the dorsal wrist ganglions. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed in Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka from March 2010 to May 2011. Sixty six patients with dorsal wrist ganglions were treated in three groups –– aspiration alone in 24 patients (Group A, aspiration plus methylprednisolone injection into the cyst in 20 patients (Group B and aspiration plus ethanol injection, then reaspiration of the ethanol from the cyst after 3–5 minutes, in 22 patients (Group C. Elastic compression bandage was applied in all patients and recommended for 3 weeks. Follow-up was done at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and conclusive assessment was done during final visit. Results: The success rate in Group A was seen in 9 patients (37.5%, in Group B in 11 (55% and in Group C in 14 (63.5% patients. The most frequent side-effect was pain during ethanol injection which was relieved by reaspiration of cyst. Conclusion: Injection of ethanol into the dorsal wrist ganglion was associated with higher success rate compared to aspiration and methylprednisolone injection. Further studies with larger sample size should be performed to assess the effect of ethanol injection in this disease.

  5. Accurate determination of sulfur in gasoline and related fuel samples using isotope dilution ICP-MS with direct sample injection and microwave-assisted digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Jens; Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G

    2004-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) with direct injection of isotope-diluted samples into the plasma, using a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN), was applied for accurate sulfur determinations in sulfur-free premium gasoline, gas oil, diesel fuel, and heating oil. For direct injection a micro-emulsion consisting of the corresponding organic sample and an aqueous 34S-enriched spike solution with additions of tetrahydronaphthalene and Triton X-100, was prepared. The ICP-MS parameters were optimized with respect to high sulfur ion intensities, low mass-bias values, and high precision of 32S/34S ratio measurements. For validation of the DIHEN-ICP-IDMS method two certified gas oil reference materials (BCR 107 and BCR 672) were analyzed. For comparison a wet-chemical ICP-IDMS method was applied with microwave-assisted digestion using decomposition of samples in a closed quartz vessel inserted into a normal microwave system. The results from both ICP-IDMS methods agree well with the certified values of the reference materials and also with each other for analyses of other samples. However, the standard deviation of DIHEN-ICP-IDMS was about a factor of two higher (5-6% RSD at concentration levels above 100 mircog g(-1)) compared with those of wet-chemical ICP-IDMS, mainly due to inhomogeneities of the micro-emulsion, which causes additional plasma instabilities. Detection limits of 4 and 18 microg g(-1) were obtained for ICP-IDMS in connection with microwave-assisted digestion and DIHEN-ICP-IDMS, respectively, with a sulfur background of the used Milli-Q water as the main limiting factor for both methods.

  6. Accurate determination of sulfur in gasoline and related fuel samples using isotope dilution ICP-MS with direct sample injection and microwave-assisted digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, Jens; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) with direct injection of isotope-diluted samples into the plasma, using a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN), was applied for accurate sulfur determinations in sulfur-free premium gasoline, gas oil, diesel fuel, and heating oil. For direct injection a micro-emulsion consisting of the corresponding organic sample and an aqueous {sup 34}S-enriched spike solution with additions of tetrahydronaphthalene and Triton X-100, was prepared. The ICP-MS parameters were optimized with respect to high sulfur ion intensities, low mass-bias values, and high precision of {sup 32}S/{sup 34}S ratio measurements. For validation of the DIHEN-ICP-IDMS method two certified gas oil reference materials (BCR 107 and BCR 672) were analyzed. For comparison a wet-chemical ICP-IDMS method was applied with microwave-assisted digestion using decomposition of samples in a closed quartz vessel inserted into a normal microwave system. The results from both ICP-IDMS methods agree well with the certified values of the reference materials and also with each other for analyses of other samples. However, the standard deviation of DIHEN-ICP-IDMS was about a factor of two higher (5-6% RSD at concentration levels above 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}) compared with those of wet-chemical ICP-IDMS, mainly due to inhomogeneities of the micro-emulsion, which causes additional plasma instabilities. Detection limits of 4 and 18 {mu}g g{sup -1} were obtained for ICP-IDMS in connection with microwave-assisted digestion and DIHEN-ICP-IDMS, respectively, with a sulfur background of the used Milli-Q water as the main limiting factor for both methods. (orig.)

  7. Optical chaos synchronization and encrypted communications of VCSEL by direct optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Naohito; Sasaki, Wakao

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we propose electro-optical nonlinear delayed feedback systems (NDFS) for optical secure communications using VCSEL for the first time. Its optical output can perform more sensitive chaotic dynamics by varying only a few mA of injection current range resulting in very significant charges of VCSEL's operation conditions from threshold to maximum rating. This enables us to vary chaotic output dynamically by a slight difference of initial values in NDFS. We have proposed a chaos synchronization system using two identical NDFS's of VCSEL, and realized chaos synchronization by optical injection. As a result of experiment the correlation coefficient up to about 0.88 was obtained. Moreover, by varying the delay time and feedback gain in the parameters of NDFSs, we have confirmed that the variations of these parameters may affect variations of correlation.

  8. Single Performance Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding for the Highest Green Strength by Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.I Ibrahim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro metal injection molding is drawing attention recently as one the most cost effective processes in powder metallurgy to produce small-scale intricate part and competitive cost for mass production of micro components where it is greatly influenced by injection parameter. Thus, this paper investigated the optimization of highest green strength which plays an important characteristic in determining the successful of micro MIM. Stainless steel SS 316L was used with composite binder, which consists of PEG and PMMA while SA works as a surfactant. Feedstock with 61.5% with several injection parameters were optimized which highly significant through screening experiment such as injection pressure(A, injection temperature(B, mold temperature(C, injection time(D and holding time(E. Besides that, interaction effects between injection pressure, injection temperature and mold temperature were also considered to optimize in the Taguchi’s orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N-larger is better for green strength was also presented in this paper. Result shows that interaction between injection temperature and mold temperature (BxC give highest significant factor followed by interaction between injection pressure and injection temperature (AxB. Single factor that also contributes to significant optimization are mold temperature(C, injection time (D and injection pressure (A. Overall, this study shows that Taguchi method would be among the best method to solve the problem with minimum number of trials.

  9. An Analysis of Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) soot morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized particle emissions produced by a 4-cylinder, 2.0 L DISI engine using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. Analyses of soot morphology provide insight to particle formation mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Particle emissions generated by two fueling strategies were investigated, early injection and injection modified for low particle number concentration emissions. A blend of 20% ethanol and 80% emissions certification gasoline was used for the study given the likelihood of increased ethanol content in widely available fuel. In total, about 200 particles and 3000 primary soot spherules were individually measured. For the fuel injection strategy which produced low particle number concentration emissions, we found a prevalence of single solid sub-25 nm particles and fractal-like aggregates. The modal diameter of single solid particles and aggregate primary particles was between 10 and 15 nm. Solid particles as small as 6 nm were present. Although nanoparticle aggregates had fractal-like morphology similar to diesel soot, the average primary particle diameter per aggregate had a much wider range that spanned from 7 to 60 nm. For the early fuel injection strategy, liquid droplets were prevalent, and the modal average primary particle diameter was between 20 and 25 nm. The presence of liquid droplets may have been the result of unburned fuel and/or lubricating oil originating from fuel impingement on the piston or cylinder wall; the larger modal aggregate primary particle diameter suggests greater fuel-rich zones in-cylinder than for the low particle number concentration point. However, both conditions produced aggregates with a wide range of primary particle diameters, which indicates heterogeneous fuel and air mixing.

  10. FITL: Extending LLVM for the Translation of Fault-Injection Directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of hardware errors in HPC systems continues to grow as system designs evolve toward exascale. Tolerating these errors efficiently and effectively will require software-based resilience solutions. With this requirement in mind, recent research has increasingly employed LLVM-based tools to simulate transient hardware faults in order to study the resilience characteristics of specific applications. However, such tools require researchers to configure their experiments at the level of the LLVM intermediate representation (LLVM IR) rather than at the source level of the applications under study. In this paper, we present FITL (Fault-Injection Toolkit for LLVM), a set of LLVM extensions to which it is straightforward to translate source-level pragmas that specify fault injection. While we have designed FITL not to be tied to any particular compiler front end or high-level language, we also describe how we have extended our OpenARC compiler to translate a novel set of fault-injection pragmas for C to FITL. Finally, we present several resilience studies we have conducted using FITL, including a comparison with a source-level fault injector we have built as part of OpenARC.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

    1976-10-01

    This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

  12. Investigations of soot formation in an optically accessible gasoline direct injection engine by means of laser-induced incandescence (LII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertler, D.; Stirn, R.; Arndt, S.; Grzeszik, R.; Dreizler, A.

    2011-08-01

    This study presents the results of laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements in an optically accessible gasoline direct injection engine. The focus was to evaluate LII as a particle measurement technique which is able to provide a deeper understanding of the underlying reaction and formation processes of soot in order to optimize the injection system to reduce exhaust gas emissions. A comparison of time-resolved LII, based on the model described by Michelsen, with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) was performed. In this context, the air-fuel ratio, the injection pressure and the injection timing have been varied while applying the measurement techniques in the exhaust system. In case of a variation of the air-fuel ratio, two-dimensional LII has been performed in the combustion chamber additionally. For each measurement, the Filter Smoke Number (FSN) was taken into account as well. Finally, a good agreement of the different techniques was achieved. Moreover, we found that by combining time-resolved LII and EEPS a differentiation of primary particles and agglomerates is possible. Consequently, a determination of the processes in the combustion chamber and agglomeration in the exhaust gas is feasible.

  13. Simulation of Kinematics Characteristics of a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at Direct Start%直接起动阶段直喷汽油机运动特性的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志成; 何邦全

    2015-01-01

    建立了直喷汽油机的三维数值模型和运动学模型,并进行了试验验证。模拟了直喷汽油机在直接起动过程中不同喷油策略和点火时刻下的燃烧特性、反转和正转过程的运动特性。结果表明:与单次喷油相比,采用两次喷油策略时,首个着火气缸内混合气燃烧后的最大气缸压力较大,而且其大小受到点火时刻的影响;首个着火气缸内混合气燃烧后的最大气缸压力较大,则直喷汽油机反转过程中转过的最大角度较大;在各种喷油条件下,第2个着火气缸在反转到其最大转角前2°左右点火,正转过程转速较高,有利于直喷汽油机的直接起动。%A three-dimensional model and a one-dimensional kinematics model for a direct injec-tion gasoline engine were established and validated through engine experiments.The combustion characteristics in the first firing cylinder and the kinematics characteristics of the engine under the conditions of forward and reverse rotation were simulated when different fuel injection methods and spark ignition timings were employed at direct start.The results show that the peak cylinder pressure in the first firing cylinder after combustion in the cases of split injection is higher than that at single injection.But its magnitude is affected by spark ignition timing.Higher peak cylinder pressure increa-ses the crank angles,which the engine can move in the reverse rotation direction.The engine speed in the forward rotation direction is the largest when the sequent cylinder is ignited at about 2°before the biggest reverse crank angles in both single injection and split injection,which is helpful to a successful direct start.

  14. The filter of choice: filtration method preference among injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijzer Lenneke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use syringe filters (IDUSF are designed to prevent several complications related to the injection of drugs. Due to their small pore size, their use can reduce the solution's insoluble particle content and thus diminish the prevalence of phlebitis, talcosis.... Their low drug retention discourages from filter reuse and sharing and can thus prevent viral and microbial infections. In France, drug users have access to sterile cotton filters for 15 years and to an IDUSF (the Sterifilt® for 5 years. This study was set up to explore the factors influencing filter preference amongst injecting drug users. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through 241 questionnaires and the participation of 23 people in focus groups. Results Factors found to significantly influence filter preference were duration and frequency of injecting drug use, the type of drugs injected and subculture. Furthermore, IDU's rationale for the preference of one type of filter over others was explored. It was found that filter preference depends on perceived health benefits (reduced harms, prevention of vein damage, protection of injection sites, drug retention (low retention: better high, protective mechanism against the reuse of filters; high retention: filter reuse as a protective mechanism against withdrawal, technical and practical issues (filter clogging, ease of use, time needed to prepare an injection and believes (the conviction that a clear solution contains less active compound. Conclusion It was concluded that the factors influencing filter preference are in favour of change; a shift towards the use of more efficient filters can be made through increased availability, information and demonstrations.

  15. A Method of Detecting Sql Injection Attack to Secure Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manesh T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are becoming an important part of our daily life. So attacks against them also increasesrapidly. Of these attacks, a major role is held by SQL injection attacks (SQLIA. This paper proposes anew method for preventing SQL injection attacks in JSP web applications. The basic idea is to checkbefore execution, the intended structure of the SQL query. For this we use semantic comparison. Ourfocus is on stored procedure attack in which query will be formed within the database itself and sodifficult to extract that query structure for validation. Also this attack is less considered in the literature.

  16. Initial position estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on improved pulse voltage injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage...... vectors. The relationship between the inductance variations and voltage vector positions was studied. The inductance variation effect on estimation accuracy was studied as well. An improved five-pulses injection method was proposed, to improve the estimation accuracy by choosing optimaized voltage vectors...

  17. Approximate Analysis of MHD Squeeze Flow between Two Parallel Disks with Suction or Injection by Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Domairry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis has been performed to study magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD squeeze flow between two parallel infinite disks where one disk is impermeable and the other is porous with either suction or injection of the fluid. We investigate the combined effect of inertia, electromagnetic forces, and suction or injection. With the introduction of a similarity transformation, the continuity and momentum equations governing the squeeze flow are reduced to a single, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation. An approximate solution of the equation subject to the appropriate boundary conditions is derived using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM and compared with the direct numerical solution (NS. Results showing the effect of squeeze Reynolds number, Hartmann number and the suction/injection parameter on the axial and radial velocity distributions are presented and discussed. The approximate solution is found to be highly accurate for the ranges of parameters investigated. Because of its simplicity, versatility and high accuracy, the method can be applied to study linear and nonlinear boundary value problems arising in other engineering applications.

  18. Experiments and numerical analysis of a control method for natural circulation through helium gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tetsuaki, E-mail: ttakeda@yamanashi.ac.jp; Hatori, Hirofumi; Funatani, Shumpei

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated a control method for natural circulation of air by helium gas injection. A depressurization accident is a design-basis accident of a very high temperature reactor. When a primary pipe rupture accident occurs, air is expected to enter the reactor pressure vessel from the breach. Thus, in-core graphite structures are oxidized. In order to predict and analyze the phenomena of air ingress during a depressurization accident, numerical analysis was carried out using a one-dimensional (1D) analysis code and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD). An experiment was carried out regarding natural circulation using a circular pipe consisting of a reverse U-shaped channel. The channel consisted of two vertical heated and cooled pipes. The temperature difference between the vertical pipes was maintained at 40–80 K, and a small amount of helium gas was injected into the channel. The injected volume of helium was about 3.1–12.5% of the total channel volume. After injecting helium gas, each component gas moved through molecular diffusion and very weak natural circulation. After approximately 1180 s, ordinary natural circulation of air was suddenly produced. The numerical results of the 3D CFD code were in good agreement with the experimental results. The numerical results also showed that the natural circulation of air can be controlled by helium gas injection.

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of internal flow characteristics in the injection nozzle tip of direct-injection diesel engines; Sanjigen suchi kaiseki ni yoru DI diesel kikan no nenryo funsha nozzle nai ryudo tokusei no kaimei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H.; Matsui, Y.; Kimura, S. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To reduce the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of direct-injection diesel engines, it is essential to optimize the fuel injection equipment closely related to combustion and emission characteristics. In this study, three-dimensional computation has been applied to investigate the effects of the injection nozzle specifications (e.g., sac volume, round shape at the inlet of the nozzle hole) and needle tip deviation on internal flow characteristics. The computational results revealed that the effects of the nozzle specifications and needle tip deviation with a smaller needle lift on internal flow characteristics and a general approach to optimize the injection nozzle specifications were obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Sessions

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia.

    One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and local atmospheric stability. This paper describes a case study of a 10 day period during the Spring phase of ARCTAS. It compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3–5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE. Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors.

    When FLAMBE provides input to the 1-D plume rise model, the resulting injection heights exhibit the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. The FLAMBE-derived heights are more realistic than those utilizing prep_chem_sources. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3–5 km a.g.l. layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less

  1. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Sessions

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia.

    One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and the local atmospheric stability. This study compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3–5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE. Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors.

    Results show that the FLAMBE pre-processor produces more realistic injection heights than does prep_chem_sources. The plume rise model using FLAMBE provides the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3–5 km AGL layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less agreement with observed plume heights. Results indicate that differences in injection heights

  2. A Novel Method for Improving Water Injectivity in Tight Sandstone Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yousef Alklih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of electrokinetic effect in improving water injectivity in tight sandstone is studied. DC potential and injection rate are varied for optimization and determination of their individual impact on clay discharge and movement. The liberated clays were characterized through size exclusion microfiltration and ICP-MS analysis. Real time temperature and pH monitoring were also informative. Results showed that severalfold (up to 152% apparent increase of core permeability could be achieved. Some of the experiments were more efficient in terms of dislodgement of clays and enhanced stimulation which is supported by produced brines analysis with higher concentration of clay element. The results also showed larger quantity of clays in the produced brine in the initial periods of water injection followed by stabilization of differential pressure and electrical current, implying that the stimulation effect stops when the higher voltage gradient and flow rates are no more able to dislodge remaining clays. Additionally, fluid temperature measurement showed an increasing trend with the injection time and direct proportionality with the applied voltage. The basic theory behind this stimulation effect is predicted to be the colloidal movement of pore lining clays that results in widening of pore throats and/or opening new flow paths.

  3. Initial position estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on improved pulse voltage injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage vec....... The experimental results show that the proposed method estimates the initial rotor position reliably and efficently. The method is also simple and can achieve satisfied estimation accuracy....

  4. Treatment of phantom pain with contralateral injection into tender points: a new method of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A El Aziz Labeeb

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion Contralateral injections of 1 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine in the myofascial hyperalgesic areas attenuated phantom limb pain and affected phantom limb sensation. Our study gives a basis of a new method of management of that kind of severe pain to improve the method of rehabilitation of amputee. However, further longitudinal studies with larger number of patients are needed to confirm our study.

  5. Studies of the Combustion Process with Simultaneous Formaldehyde and OH PLIF in a Direct-Injected HCCI Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Mattias; Collin, Robert; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hildingsson, Leif; Johansson, Bengt

    This paper presents simultaneous laser based measurements of formaldehyde and OH-radical distributions in a 0.5 liter optical HCCI engine with direct injection. Formaldehyde is formed as an intermediate species when combusting hydrocarbons. The formation occurs through low temperature reactions in an early phase of the combustion process. Later in the process formaldehyde is being consumed. Formaldehyde is, therefore, used as indicator of the first stage of combustion and a marker of zones with low-temperature reactions. The OH radical is formed as an intermediate during the high temperature reactions, and is used as a marker of zones where the combustion is ongoing. The purpose of the investigation was to study how the combustion process is affected by the change in homogeneity that arises from early and late injection, respectively. The measurement technique used was planar laser-induced fluorescence where formaldehyde was excited at 355nm and OH at 283nm.

  6. Estimation of operational parameters for a direct injection turbocharged spark ignition engine by using regression analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosun Erdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at estimating the variation of several engine control parameters within the rotational speed-load map, using regression analysis and artificial neural network techniques. Duration of injection, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas at turbine inlet, and within the catalytic converter brick were chosen as the output parameters for the models, while engine speed and brake mean effective pressure were selected as independent variables for prediction. Measurements were performed on a turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with gasoline. A three-layer feed-forward structure and back-propagation algorithm was used for training the artificial neural network. It was concluded that this technique is capable of predicting engine parameters with better accuracy than linear and non-linear regression techniques.

  7. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  8. Effect of ignition timing and hydrogen fraction on combustion and emission characteristics of natural gas direct-injection engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study on the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct-injection spark-ignited engine fueled with natural gas/hydrogen blends under various ignition timings was conducted.The results show that ignition timing has a significant influence on engine performance,combustion and emissions.The interval between the end of fuel injection and ignition timing is a very important parameter for direct-injection natural gas engines.The turbulent flow in the combustion chamber generated by the fuel jet remains high and relative strong mixture stratification is introduced when decreasing the angle interval between the end of fuel injection and ignition timing giving fast burning rates and high thermal efficiencies.The maximum cylinder gas pressure,maximum mean gas temperature,maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum heat release rate increase with the advancing of ignition timing.However,these parameters do not vary much with hydrogen addition under specific ignition timing indicating that a small hydrogen fraction addition of less than 20% in the present experiment has little influence on combustion parameters under specific ignition timing.The exhaust HC emission decreases while the exhaust CO2 concentration increases with the advancing of ignition timing.In the lean combustion condition,the exhaust CO does not vary much with ignition timing.At the same ignition timing,the exhaust HC decreases with hydrogen addition while the exhaust CO and CO2 do not vary much with hydrogen addition.The exhaust NOx increases with the advancing of' ignition timing and the behavior tends to be more obvious at large ignition advance angle.The brake mean effective pressure and the effective thermal efficiency of natural gas/hydrogen mixture combustion increase compared with those of natural gas combustion when the hydrogen fraction is over 10%.

  9. Combustion characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with Fischer-Tropsch diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yongcheng; ZHOU Longbao; PAN Keyu

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel is characterized by a high cetane number, a near-zero sulphur content and a very low aromatic level. On the basis of the recorded incylinder pressures and injector needle lifts, the combustion characteristics of an unmodified single-cylinder directinjection diesel engine operating on F-T diesel fuel are analyzed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel operation. The results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits a slightly longer injection delay and injection duration, an average of 18.7% shorter ignition delay, and a comparable total combustion duration when compared to those of conventional diesel fuel. Meanwhile, F-T diesel fuel displays an average of 26.8% lower peak value of premixed burning rate and a higher peak value of diffusive burning rate. In addition, the F-T diesel engine has a slightly lower peak combustion pressure, a far lower rate of pressure rise, and a lower mechanical load and combustion noise than the conventional diesel engine. The brake specific fuel consumption is lower and the effective thermal efficiency is higher for F-T diesel fuel operation.

  10. A finite difference method for predicting supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows with tangential slot injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. W.; Lewis, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    An implicit finite difference method has been applied to tangential slot injection into supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows. In addition, the effects induced by the interaction between the boundary layer displacement thickness and the external pressure field are considered. In the present method, three different eddy viscosity models have been used to specify the turbulent momentum exchange. One model depends on the species concentration profile and the species conservation equation has been included in the system of governing partial differential equations. Results are compared with experimental data at stream Mach numbers of 2.4 and 6.0 and with results of another finite difference method. Good agreement was generally obtained for the reduction of wall skin friction with slot injection and with experimental Mach number and pitot pressure profiles. Calculations with the effects of pressure interaction included showed these effects to be smaller than effects of changing eddy viscosity models.

  11. A robust, single-injection method for targeted, broad-spectrum plasma metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kefeng; Naviaux, Jane C; Bright, A Taylor; Wang, Lin; Naviaux, Robert K

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics is a powerful emerging technology for studying the systems biology and chemistry of health and disease. Current targeted methods are often limited by the number of analytes that can be measured, and/or require multiple injections. We developed a single-injection, targeted broad-spectrum plasma metabolomic method on a SCIEX Qtrap 5500 LC-ESI-MS/MS platform. Analytical validation was conducted for the reproducibility, linearity, carryover and blood collection tube effects. The method was also clinically validated for its potential utility in the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) using a cohort of 22 males CFS and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. Optimization of LC conditions and MS/MS parameters enabled the measurement of 610 key metabolites from 63 biochemical pathways and 95 stable isotope standards in a 45-minute HILIC method using a single injection without sacrificing sensitivity. The total imprecision (CVtotal) of peak area was 12% for both the control and CFS pools. The 8 metabolites selected in our previous study (PMID: 27573827) performed well in a clinical validation analysis even when the case and control samples were analyzed 1.5 years later on a different instrument by a different investigator, yielding a diagnostic accuracy of 95% (95% CI 85-100%) measured by the area under the ROC curve. A reliable and reproducible, broad-spectrum, targeted metabolomic method was developed, capable of measuring over 600 metabolites in plasma in a single injection. The method might be a useful tool in helping the diagnosis of CFS or other complex diseases.

  12. Correlations between direct and indirect strength test methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kallu Raj; Roghanchi Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties associated with performing direct compression strength tests on rocks lead to the devel-opment of indirect test methods for the rock strength assessment. Indirect test methods are simple, more economical, less time-consuming, and easily adaptable to the field. The main aim of this study was to derive correlations between direct and indirect test methods for basalt and rhyolite rock types from Carlin trend deposits in Nevada. In the destructive methods, point load index, block punch index, and splitting tensile strength tests are performed. In the non-destructive methods, Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests are performed. Correlations between the direct and indirect compression strength tests are developed using linear and nonlinear regression analysis methods. The results show that the splitting tensile strength has the best correlation with the uniaxial compression strength. Furthermore, the Poisson’s ratio has no correlation with any of the direct and indirect test results.

  13. Spray and combustion visualization of bio-diesel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the self-developed dynamic visualization photographic setup, this article investigated some major factors affecting the spray and combustion process of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. The experimental results show: With the increase of biodiesel percentage, fuel injection advances slightly, the ignition delay becomes shorter and the duration of combustion lengthens. Engine speed has little effect on the spray. However, the combustion rate is increased and the burning time becomes shorter with the increase of engine speed, although the duration of combustion in terms of crank angle increases. With the increase of needle opening pressure, both the spray cone angle and the spray penetration of biodiesel increases, the atomization of spray improves, the ignition delay and the duration of combustion becomes shorter, the peak pressure increases.

  14. Immune tolerance induction using fetal directed placental injection in rodent models: a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Induction of the immune response is a major problem in replacement therapies for inherited protein deficiencies. Tolerance created in utero can facilitate postnatal treatment. In this study, we aimed to induce immune tolerance towards a foreign protein with early gestational cell transplantation into the chorionic villi under ultrasound guidance in the murine model.Pregnant C57BL/6 (B6 mice on day 10 of gestation were anesthetized and imaged by high resolution ultrasound. Murine embryos and their placenta were positioned to get a clear view in B-mode with power mode of the labyrinth, which is the equivalent of chorionic villi in the human. Bone marrow cells (BMCs from B6-Green Fluorescence Protein (B6GFP transgenic mice were injected into the fetal side of the placenta which includes the labyrinth with glass microcapillary pipettes. Each fetal mouse received 2 x 105 viable GFP-BMCs. After birth, we evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response against GFP.Bone marrow transfer into fetal side of placenta efficiently distributed donor cells to the fetal mice. The survival rate of this procedure was 13.5%(5 out of 37. Successful engraftment of the B6-GFP donor skin grafts was observed in all recipient (5 out of 5 mice 6 weeks after birth. Induction of anti-GFP antibodies was completely inhibited. Cytotoxic immune reactivity of thymic cells against cells harboring GFP was suppressed by ELISPOT assay.In this study, we utilized early gestational placental injection targeting the murine fetus, to transfer donor cells carrying a foreign protein into the fetal circulation. This approach is sufficient to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance against the foreign protein.

  15. Combined Flux Observer With Signal Injection Enhancement for Wide Speed Range Sensorless Direct Torque Control of IPMSM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Andreescu, G.-D.; Pitic, C.I.;

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a motion-sensorless control system using direct torque control with space vector modulation for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives, for wide speed range operation, including standstill. A novel stator flux observer with variable structure uses a combined...... voltage-current model with PI compensator for low-speed operations. As speed increases, the observer switches gradually to a PI compensated closed-loop voltage model, which is solely used at high speeds. High-frequency rotating-voltage injection with a single D-module bandpass vector filter and a phase...

  16. Lube-oil dilution of gasoline direct-injection engines with ethanol fuels; Schmieroelverduennung von direkteinspritzenden Ottomotoren unter Kaltstartrandbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, Carsten; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA); Artmann, Chrsitina; Rabl, Hans-Peter [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Labor fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Abgasnachbehandlung

    2013-09-15

    Ethanol fuel mixtures account for the majority of biofuels used worldwide. However, their properties make these fuels more difficult to use in cold conditions and especially when starting a cold engine. As part of the FVV research project 'Lubricant Dilution with Ethanol Fuels under Cold Start Conditions', the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University and the Combustion Engines and Emission Control Laboratory at Regensburg University of Applied Sciences have investigated the influence of the ethanol content in fuels on the dilution of the lubricating oil in modern direct-injection gasoline engines. (orig.)

  17. EGR and fuel sulphur influences on particle size distributions from a heavy duty direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, J.D.; Wedekind, B.; Widdicombe, K.A. [Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd., Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Diesel exhaust particle emissions were determined from the EGR system of a heavy duty direct injection engine. Both mass and number weighted particle size distribution analyses were undertaken. Measurements were acquired from the inlet manifold at two levels of EGR with two levels of fuel sulphur. An increase in EGR level was found to increase particle numbers but had little influence on the mass weighted size distribution of the exhaust aerosol. Particle mass emissions were increased slightly. An increase in fuel sulphur influenced both the number and mass weighted size distributions measured. Particle mass emissions were minimally affected. (author)

  18. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, M.; Saito, A. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Analysis and Verification of Direct Vessel Injection Line Break event tree for AP1000 reactor with TRACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Montero-Mayorga, J.; Gonzalez-Cadelo, J.

    2013-07-01

    The AP1000 PRA thermal hydraulic simulations were performed with MAAP code, which allows simulating sequences with low computational efforts. On the other hand, the use of best estimate codes allows verifying PRA results as well as obtaining a greater knowledge of the phenomenology of such sequences. The initiating event with the greatest contribution to core damage is Direct Vessel Injection Line Break (DVILB). This paper presents a review of DVILB sequences of AP1000 with TRACE code for verifying sequences previously analyzed by Westinghouse with MAAP code. The sequences which configure the DVILB event tree during short term have been simulated. The results obtained confirm the ones obtained in AP1000 PRA.

  20. Collagenase treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture using a modified injection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenskjöld, Jesper; Lauritzson, Anna; Ahlgren, Eva; Waldau, Johanna; Waldén, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture (DC) with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) consists of injection followed by finger manipulation. We used a modified method, injecting a higher dose than recommended on the label into several parts of the cord, which allows treatment of multiple joint contractures in 1 session and may increase efficacy. We studied the occurrence of skin tears and short-term outcome with this procedure. Patients and methods We studied 164 consecutive hands with DC, palpable cord, and extension deficit of ≥ 20º in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and/or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (mean patient age 70 years, 82% men). A hand surgeon injected all the content of 1 CCH vial (approximately 0.80 mg) into multiple spots in the cord and performed finger extension under local anesthesia after 1 or 2 days. A nurse recorded skin tears on a diagram and conducted a standard telephone follow-up within 4 weeks. A hand therapist measured joint contracture before injection and at a median of 23 (IQR: 7–34) days after finger extension. Results A skin tear occurred in 66 hands (40%). The largest diameter of the tear was ≤ 5 mm in 30 hands and > 10 mm in 14 hands. Hands with skin tear had greater mean pretreatment MCP extension deficit than those without tear: 59º (SD 26) as opposed to 32º (SD 23). Skin tear occurred in 21 of 24 hands with MCP contracture of ≥ 75º. All tears healed with open-wound treatment. No infections occurred. Mean improvement in total (MCP + PIP) extension deficit was 55º (SD 28). Interpretation Skin tears occurred in 40% of hands treated with collagenase injections, but only a fifth of them were larger than 1 cm. Tears were more likely in hands with severe MCP joint contracture. All tears healed without complications. Short-term contracture reduction was good. PMID:25695745

  1. Numerical simulation method for weld line development in micro injection molding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Lei; ZIEGMANN Gerhard; JIANG Bing-yan

    2009-01-01

    In order to reduce the "trial-mold" risk and cost, numerical simulation method was applied to micro injection molding weld line development investigation. The micro tensile specimen which has the size of 0.1 mm (depth)×0.4 mm (width)× 12 mm(length) in test area was selected as the objective part, and polypropylene (PP) as the experimental material. Respectively with specific commercial software (Mold Flow~(R)) and general computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software (Comsol ~(R)Multiphysics), the simulation experiments for development of weld line in micro injection molding process were executed and the real comparison experiments were also carried out. The results show that during micro injection molding process, the specific commercial software for normal injection molding process is not valid to describe the micro flow process, the shape of flow front in micro cavity flowing which is important in weld line developing study and the contact angle clue to surface tension are not able to be simulated. In order to improve the simulation results for micro weld line development, the general CFD software, which is more flexible in user defining function, is applied. The results show better effects in describing micro fluid flow behavior. As a conclusion, as for weld line forming process, the numerical simulation method can give a characteristic analysis results for processing parameters optimizing in micro injection molding process; but for both kinds of softwares quantitative analysis cannot be obtained unless the boundary condition and micro fluid mathematic model are improved in the future.

  2. Numerical investigation of liver radioembolization via computational particle-hemodynamics: The role of the microcatheter distal direction and microsphere injection point and velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2016-11-07

    Liver radioembolization is a treatment option for patients with primary and secondary liver cancer. The procedure consists of injecting radiation-emitting microspheres via an intra-arterially placed microcatheter, enabling the deposition of the microspheres in the tumoral bed. The microcatheter location and the particle injection rate are determined during a pretreatment work-up. The purpose of this study was to numerically study the effects of the injection characteristics during the first stage of microsphere travel through the bloodstream in a patient-specific hepatic artery (i.e., the near-tip particle-hemodynamics and the segment-to-segment particle distribution). Specifically, the influence of the distal direction of an end-hole microcatheter and particle injection point and velocity were analyzed. Results showed that the procedure targeted the right lobe when injecting from two of the three injection points under study and the remaining injection point primarily targeted the left lobe. Changes in microcatheter direction and injection velocity resulted in an absolute difference in exiting particle percentage for a given liver segment of up to 20% and 30%, respectively. It can be concluded that even though microcatheter placement is presumably reproduced in the treatment session relative to the pretreatment angiography, the treatment may result in undesired segment-to-segment particle distribution and therefore undesired treatment outcomes due to modifications of any of the parameters studied, i.e., microcatheter direction and particle injection point and velocity.

  3. Study on control method of natural circulation by injection of helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tetsuaki, E-mail: ttakeda@yamanashi.ac.jp; Nomura, Masashi; Yanagawa, Naoto; Funatani, Shumpei

    2014-05-01

    This study is to investigate a control method of natural circulation of air by injection of helium gas. A depressurization accident is one of the design-basis accidents of a very high temperature reactor (VHTR). When the primary pipe rupture accident occurs in the VHTR, air is expected to enter into the reactor pressure vessel from the breach and oxidize in-core graphite structures. Finally, it seems to be probable that the natural circulation flow of air in the reactor pressure vessel produce continuously. In order to predict or analyze the air ingress phenomena during the depressurization accident of the VHTR, therefore, it is important to develop the method for prevention of air ingress during the accident. The experiment has been carried out regarding natural circulation using a circular tube consisting of a reverse U-shaped type. The vertical channel consists of the one side heated tube and the other side cooled tube. The experimental procedure is as follows. Firstly, the apparatus is filled with air and one vertical tube is heated. Then, natural circulation of air will be produced in the channel. After the steady state is established, a very small amount of helium gas injects from the top of the channel. The velocity, temperature of gas, and temperature of the tube wall are measured during the experiment. The analysis also has been carried out regarding natural circulation. The results were obtained as follows. The temperature difference between the vertical pipes was 50–130 K, and a small amount of helium gas injected to the channel. The volume of injected helium gas is about 3.5–10% of the total volume of the channel. When the temperature difference between the vertical tubes was kept at 52 K, the velocity of natural circulation flow became about 0.12 m/s. During a steady state, a small amount of helium gas injected into the channel. Then, the flow velocity of natural circulation suddenly decreased. The volume of injected helium gas is about 3% of the

  4. Method for 236U Determination in Seawater Using Flow Injection Extraction Chromatography and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a flow injection (FI) system was developed for rapid determination of 236U in 10 L seawater samples. 238U was used as a chemical yield tracer for the whole procedure, in which extraction chromatography (UTEVA) was exploited to purify uranium, after......, on the basis of studying the coprecipitation behavior of uranium with iron hydroxide. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is simple and robust, providing satisfactory chemical yields (80−100%) and high analysis speed (4 h/sample), which could be an appealing alternative to conventional...... manual methods for 236U determination in its tracer application....

  5. DETERMINATION OF TETRACYCLINE AND OXYTETRACYCLINE BY FLOW-INJECTION CHEMILUMINESCENCE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tetracycline and oxytetracycline are broad-spec-trumantibiotics.They are not only used in humanpathologies,but alsoin veterinary medicine,ani malnutrition and feed additives for cattle breeding.In the past few years,the deter mination meth-ods of tetracycline and oxytetracycline were repor-ted,which involved in difference spectrophotome-try[1],HPLC[2,3],spectrophotometry[4-7],HPLC-MS[8-9],spectrofluori metry[10],solid-phase extrac-tion[11]and kinetic methods.Recently,flow-injection CL method has beenpaid mo...

  6. Flow-injection-enhanced chemiluminescence method for the determination of three β-blockers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a rapid,simple and sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of three β-blockers (bisoprolol,atenolol and propranolol). Methods The chemiluminescence of cerium (Ⅳ)-sulfite system was obviously sensitized by adding anyone of three β-blockers in acid media. A new chemiluminescence method was set up by combining with flow-injection technique and used to determine the three β-blockers. Results Good linear ranges were obtained at the concentrations of 2.0×10-7g/mL-4.0×10-5g/mL...

  7. Flow injection colorimetric method using acidic ceric nitrate as reagent for determination of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Youngvises, Napaporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-05-15

    Ceric ammonium nitrate has been used for qualitative analysis of ethanol. It forms an intensely colored unstable complex with alcohol. In this work, a simple flow injection (FI) colorimetric method was developed for the determination of ethanol, based on the reaction of ethanol with ceric ion in acidic medium to produce a red colored product having maximum absorption at 415 nm. Absorbance of this complex could be precisely measured in the FI system. A standard or sample solution was injected into a deionized water donor stream and flowed to a gas diffusion unit, where the ethanol diffused through a gas permeable membrane made of plumbing PTFE tape into an acceptor stream to react with ceric ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. Color intensity of the reddish product was monitored by a laboratory made LED based colorimeter and the signal was recorded on a computer as a peak. Peak height obtained was linearly proportional to the concentration of ethanol originally presented in the injected solution in the range of 0.1-10.0% (v/v) (r(2)=0.9993), with detection limit of 0.03% (v/v). With the use of gas diffusion membrane, most of the interferences could be eliminated. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of ethanol in some alcoholic beverages, validating by gas chromatographic method.

  8. Application of the control method by visual path to the water injection projects of Petroleos Mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechir, Q.V.M.

    1972-04-01

    In the present work, the importance is pointed out of the physical and economical magnitude of secondary recovery of oil by injection of water. This is for the purpose of emphasizing the urgent necessity of attending to the problems of control and supervision which present themselves during the development of the projects. An example of such a project is cited (Tamaulipas-Constitucion) where the problems and failures gave many opportunities for delay in completion of some of the work. In some instances, there was overspending which might have been avoided in great part, if there had been controls and supervision suitable and adequate in importance to the magnitude and complexity of the project. Because of such situations, and for overcoming the initial deficiencies in control and supervision of these water-injection projects, it was decided to adopt the Visiflex method of control and the Visual Path method of work scheduling. A description of the parts is integrated into the method as well as the techniques of its application n the mentioned project, including a model of the Visual Path Program for the water- injection project in the Caliza San Andres (San Andres Limestone) formations of the Tamaulipas-Constitucion oil field.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for the determination of ephedrines in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with direct injection. Comparison with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshana, Usama; Göğer, Nilgün G; Ertaş, Nusret

    2012-08-01

    Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were compared for extraction of ephedrine, norephedrine, and pseudoephedrine from human urine samples prior to their determination by capillary electrophoresis. Formation of a microemulsion of the organic extract with an aqueous solution (at pH 3.2) containing 10% methanol facilitated the direct injection of the final extract into the capillary. Influential parameters affecting extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized. In order to enhance the sensitivity further, field-amplified sample injection was applied. Under optimum extraction and stacking conditions, enrichment factors of up to 140 and 1750 as compared to conventional capillary zone electrophoresis were obtained resulting in limits of detection of 12-33 μg/L and 1.0-2.8 μg/L with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction when combined with field-amplified sample injection. Calibration graphs showed good linearity for urine samples by both methods with coefficients of determination higher than 0.9973 and percent relative standard deviations of the analyses in the range of 3.4-8.2% for (n = 5). The results showed that the use of ultrasound to assist microextraction provided higher extraction efficiencies than disperser solvents, regarding the hydrophilic nature of the investigated analytes.

  10. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  11. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Becker, R. [Institut fur Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt/M (Germany); Hamm, R. W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Inc., 4725 Arlene Place, Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  12. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  13. Validation of an egg-injection method for embryotoxicity studies in a small, model songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, V; Elliott, J E; Letcher, R J; Williams, T D

    2013-01-01

    Female birds deposit or 'excrete' lipophilic contaminants to their eggs during egg formation. Concentrations of xenobiotics in bird eggs can therefore accurately indicate levels of contamination in the environment and sampling of bird eggs is commonly used as a bio-monitoring tool. It is widely assumed that maternally transferred contaminants cause adverse effects on embryos but there has been relatively little experimental work confirming direct developmental effects (cf. behaviorally-mediated effects). We validated the use of egg injection for studies of in ovo exposure to xenobiotics for a small songbird model species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), where egg weight averages only 1 g. We investigated a) the effect of puncturing eggs with or without vehicle (DMSO) injection on egg fate (embryo development), chick hatching success and subsequent growth to 90 days (sexual maturity), and b) effects of two vehicle solutions (DMSO and safflower oil) on embryo and chick growth. PBDE-99 and -47 were measured in in ovo PBDE-treated eggs, chicks and adults to investigate relationships between putative injection amounts and the time course of metabolism (debromination) of PBDE-99 during early development. We successfully injected a small volume (5 μL) of vehicle into eggs, at incubation day 0, with no effects on egg or embryo fate and with hatchability similar to that for non-manipulated eggs in our captive-breeding colony (43% vs. 48%). We did find some evidence for an inhibitory effect of DMSO vehicle on post-hatching chick growth, in male chicks only. This method can be used to treat eggs in a dose-dependent, and ecologically-relevant, manner with PBDE-99, based on chemical analysis of eggs, hatchling and adults.

  14. Solving Directly Two Point Non Linear Boundary Value Problems Using Direct Adams Moulton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanariah A. Majid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a direct method of Adams Moulton type was developed for solving non linear two point Boundary Value Problems (BVPs directly. Most of the existence researches involving BVPs will reduced the problem to a system of first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs. This approach is very well established but it obviously will enlarge the systems of first order equations. However, the direct method in this research will solved the second order BVPs directly without reducing it to first order ODEs. Approach: Lagrange interpolation polynomial was applied in the derivation of the proposed method. The method was implemented using constant step size via shooting technique in order to determine the approximated solutions. The shooting technique will employ the Newton’s method for checking the convergent of the guessing values for the next iteration. Results: Numerical results confirmed that the direct method gave better accuracy and converged faster compared to the existing method. Conclusion: The proposed direct method is suitable for solving two point non linear boundary value problems.

  15. A novel needleless liquid jet injection methodology for improving direct cardiac gene delivery: An optimization of parameters, AAV mediated therapy and investigation of host responses in ischemic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Anthony Samuel

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with 22 million new patients diagnosed annually. Essentially, all present therapies have significant cost burden to the healthcare system, yet fail to increase survival rates. One key employed strategy is the genetic reprogramming of cells to increase contractility via gene therapy, which has advanced to Phase IIb Clinical Trials for advanced heart failure patients. It has been argued that the most significant barrier preventing FDA approval are resolving problems with safe, efficient myocardial delivery, whereby direct injection in the infarct and remote tissue areas is not clinically feasible. Here, we aim to: (1) Improve direct cardiac gene delivery through the development of a novel liquid jet device approach (2) Compare the new method against traditional IM injection with two different vector constructions and evaluate outcome (3) Evaluate the host response resulting from both modes of direct cardiac injection, then advance a drug/gene combination with controlled release nanoparticle formulations.

  16. Bright hybrid white light-emitting quantum dot device with direct charge injection into quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wei, Xiang; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Chao-Ping; Wang, Zi-Xing; Jhun, Chulgyu

    2016-12-01

    A bright white quantum dot light-emitting device (white-QLED) with 4-[4-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl]-2- [3-(tri-phenylen-2-yl)phen-3-yl]quinazoline deposited on a thin film of mixed green/red-QDs as a bilayer emitter is fabricated. The optimized white-QLED exhibits a turn-on voltage of 3.2 V and a maximum brightness of 3660 cd/m2@8 V with the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity in the region of white light. The ultra-thin layer of QDs is proved to be critical for the white light generation in the devices. Excitation mechanism in the white-QLEDs is investigated by the detailed analyses of electroluminescence (EL) spectral and the fluorescence lifetime of QDs. The results show that charge injection is a dominant mechanism of excitation in the white-QLED. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21302122) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 13ZR1416600).

  17. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16894; AD 2011-26-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel... AD to prevent failure of the fuel injector fuel lines that would allow fuel to spray into the engine... response, any AD made applicable to TCM engines with externally mounted fuel injector lines, would have...

  18. Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min-Chi; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-06-30

    By up-shifting the relaxation oscillation peak and suppressing its relative intensity noise in a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) under intense injection-locking, the directly modulated transmission of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data-stream is demonstrated. The total bit rate of up to 20 Gbit/s within 5-GHz bandwidth is achieved by using the OFDM subcarrier pre-leveling technique. With increasing the injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm, the effective reduction on threshold current of the WRC-FPLD significantly shifts its relaxation oscillation frequency from 5 to 7.5 GHz. This concurrently induces an up-shift of the peak relative intensity noise (RIN) of the WRC-FPLD, and effectively suppresses the background RIN level to -104 dBc/Hz within the OFDM band between 3 and 6 GHz. The enhanced signal-to-noise ratio from 16 to 20 dB leads to a significant reduction of bit-error-rate (BER) of the back-to-back transmitted 16-QAM-OFDM data from 1.3 × 10(-3) to 5 × 10(-5), which slightly degrades to 1.1 × 10(-4) after 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. However, the enlarged injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm inevitably declines the modulation throughput and increases its negative throughput slope from -0.8 to -1.9 dBm/GHz. After pre-leveling the peak amplitude of the OFDM subcarriers to compensate the throughput degradation of the directly modulated WRC-FPLD, the BER under 25-km SMF transmission can be further improved to 3 × 10(-5) under a receiving power of -3 dBm.

  19. Direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil using a pH-based flow-injection analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mesa, José A; Mateos, Raquel

    2007-05-16

    Flavor and taste are sensorial attributes of virgin olive oil (VOO) highly appreciated by consumers. Among the organoleptic properties of VOO, bitterness is related to the natural phenolic compounds present in the oil. Sensorial analysis is the official method to evaluate VOO flavor and bitterness, which requires highly specialized experts. Alternatively, methods based on physicochemical determinations could be useful for the industry. The present work presents a flow-injection analysis system for the direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in VOO without prior isolation, based on the spectral shift undergone by phenolic compounds upon pH variation. This system enables a complete automation of the process, including dilution of the sample and its sequential injection into buffer solutions of acidic and alkaline pH. The variation of the absorbance at 274 nm showed a high correlation with bitterness and the total phenolic content of VOO, due to the close relationship between these two parameters. Thus, the proposed method determines the bitterness and phenolic compounds, with results similar to those from reference methods (relative errors ranging from 1% to 8% for bitterness and from 2% and 7% for phenolic compounds). The precision evaluated at two levels of both parameters ranged between 0.6% and 1.5% for bitterness and between 0.7% and 2.6% for phenolic compounds.

  20. Direct Linear Transformation Method for Three-Dimensional Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The ability of Direct Linear Transformation Method for three-dimensional cinematography to locate points in space was shown to meet the accuracy requirements associated with research on human movement. (JD)

  1. Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevik, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pamminger, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallner, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scarcelli, Riccardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boyer, Brad [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Wooldridge, Steven [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Hall, Carrie [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Miers, Scott [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location. The start of injection was varied under stoichiometric conditions in order to study the effects on the mixture formation process. In addition, exhaust gas recirculation was introduced at select conditions in order to investigate the dilution tolerance. Relevant combustion metrics were then analyzed for each scenario. Experimental results suggest that regardless of the injector location, varying the start of injection has a strong impact on the mixture formation process. Delaying the start of injection from 300 to 120°CA BTDC can reduce the early flame development process by nearly 15°CA. While injecting into the cylinder after the intake valves have closed has shown to produce the fastest combustion process, this does not necessarily lead to the highest efficiency, due to increases in pumping and wall heat losses. When comparing the two injection configurations, the side location shows the best

  2. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LBNL, in consultation with the EPA, expanded upon a previous study by injecting directly into a 3D representation of a hypothetical fault zone located in the geologic units between the shale-gas reservoir and the drinking water aquifer.

  3. Direct perturbation method for perturbed complex Burgers equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xue-Ping; Lin Ji; Yao Jian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    So far, Lou's direct perturbation method has been applied successfully to solve the nonlinear Schrōdinger equa-tion(NLSE) hierarchy, such as the NLSE, the coupled NLSE, the critical NLSE, and the derivative NLSE. But to our knowledge, this method for other types of perturbed nonlinear evolution equations has still been lacking. In this paper, Lou's direct perturbation method is applied to the study of perturbed complex Burgers equation. By this method, we calculate not only the zero-order adiabatic solution, but also the first order modification.

  4. Demountable direct injection high efficiency nebulizer for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar; Westphal, Craig S.; Kahen, Kaveh; Rutkowski, William F.; Acon, Billy W.

    2006-12-05

    A nebulizer adapted for adjusting a position of a capillary tube contained within the nebulizer is provided. The nebulizer includes an elongated tubular shell having a gas input port and a gas output port, a capillary adjustment adapter for displacing the capillary tube in a lateral direction via a rotational force, and a connector for connecting the elongated tubular shell, the capillary adjustment adapter and the capillary tube.

  5. Injection method of barrier bucket supported by misaligned electron cooling for CRing

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Guo-Dong; Xia, Jia-Wen; Mao, Li-Jun; Yin, Da-Yu; Chai, Wei-Ping; Shi, Jian; Sheng, Li-Na; Smirnov, A; Wu, Bo; Zhao, He

    2016-01-01

    A new accelerator complex HIAF (the High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility) is approved in China. It is designed to provide intense primary and radioactive ion beams for researches in high energy density physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics as well as other applications. In order to achieve a high intensity up to 5e11ppp 238U34+, CRing needs to stack more than 5 bunches transferred from BRing. However, the normal bucket to bucket injection scheme can only achieve an intensity gain of 2, so an injection method, fixed barrier bucket (BB) supported by electron cooling, is proposed. To suppress the severe space charge effect during the stacking process, misalignment is adopted in the cooler to control the transverse emittance. In this paper the simulation and optimization with BETACOOL program are presented.

  6. Injection method of barrier bucket supported by off-aligned electron cooling for CRing of HIAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guo-Dong; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Xia, Jia-Wen; Mao, Li-Jun; Yin, Da-Yu; Chai, Wei-Ping; Shi, Jian; Sheng, Li-Na; Smirnov, A.; Wu, Bo; Zhao, He

    2016-08-01

    A new accelerator complex, HIAF (the High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility), has been approved in China. It is designed to provide intense primary and radioactive ion beams for research in high energy density physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics as well as other applications. In order to achieve a high intensity of up to 5×1011 ppp 238U34+, the Compression Ring (CRing) needs to stack more than 5 bunches transferred from the Booster Ring (BRing). However, the normal bucket to bucket injection scheme can only achieve an intensity gain of 2, so an injection method, fixed barrier bucket (BB) supported by electron cooling, is proposed. To suppress the severe space charge effect during the stacking process, off-alignment is adopted in the cooler to control the transverse emittance. In this paper, simulation and optimization with the BETACOOL program are presented. Supported by New Interdisciplinary and Advanced Pilot Fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  7. Application of direct tracking method for measuring electrospun nanofiber diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ziabari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, direct tracking method as an image analysis based technique for measuring electrospun nanofiber diameter has been presented and compared with distance transform method. Samples with known characteristics generated using a simulation scheme known as µ-randomness were employed to evaluate the accuracy of the method. Electrospun webs of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were also used to verify the applicability of the method on real samples. Since direct tracking as well as distance transform require binary input images, micrographs of the electrospun webs obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were first converted to black and white using local thresholding. Direct tracking resulted in more accurate estimations of fiber diameter for simulated images as well as electrospun webs suggesting the usefulness of the method for electrospun nanofiber diameter measurement.

  8. HPLC method for simultaneous determination of oxytocin and clorobutanol in injectable solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paraschiv

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish and validate a HPLC method with UV detection for simultaneous determination of oxytocin and clorobutanol in veterinary injectable formulations. The method is based on European Pharmacopoeia monograph for oxytocin concentrated solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Syn Chropack RP100 C18 column (250 x 4,6mm, 5 μm with a mobile phase consisting of solutia A: sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer 0,13 M and solution B: acetonitrile-water (1:1, v/v with gradient elution (30 % B for 1 min, 30 % B to 60 % B in 30 min, return to initial concentration and echilibration for 15 min before the following injection, at a flowrate of 1 ml/min and detection at 220 nm. The retention times for oxytocin and clorobutanol were about 15 min and 26 min respectively. The degradation products of oxytocin eluted at retention times smaller than 14 min. The resolution between oxytocin and the nearest impurity fulfilled the USP monograph requirements of at least 1,5. The linearity of the method has been settled from 2,5 UI/ml to 20 UI/ml for oxytocin and 1,25 mg/ml to 10 mg/ml for clorobutanol. In these ranges the corelation coefficients were higher than 0,9950. The method allows the separation of oxytocin from degradation products and clorobutanol and could be applicable to quality control of injectable products containing oxytocin and clorobutanol. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy.

  9. Direct Timing Method for Longitudinal Coordinate Determination in Straws

    OpenAIRE

    Makhankin, A. M.; Myalkovsky, V. V.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Vasilyev, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    The considering different technics of measuring the longitudinal coordinates by the drift tubes. It is shown that the determination of the longitudinal coordinate by the direct time method provides the best longitudinal resolution. The realization of this method enables the development of coordinate detectors based on the straw with two-dimensional readout, which can be fast enough and not very complex.

  10. Intramyometrial Injection of Vasopressin: A Novel Method for Hemostasis at Laparoscopic Management of Cornual Ectopic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaiah, Ramesh; Kamath, Shwetha Sudhakar

    2017-04-18

    Although all ectopic pregnancies are associated with risk of hemorrhage, cornual pregnancies are feared for catastrophic hemorrhage and uncontrollable bleeding. The maternal mortality rate can be as high as 2.5%, which is 7 times higher than the mortality rate for ectopic pregnancies in general. Different techniques have been used to control hemostasis, including purse string suture, square suture, endo-loop, electrocoagulation, and devascularization. Injection of vasopressin into the uterus is a simple method that greatly reduces the blood loss at cornuostomy. A step by step demonstration of the surgical procedure (Canadian Task Force classification III). Hospital. A 32-year-old woman, G7P3L3A3 (Gravida 7, Para 3, Living 3, Abortion 3), with 4 months of amenorrhea, was diagnosed with a cornual ectopic pregnancy. She was treated with 200 mg mifepristone and 800 μg misoprostol. She had undergone dilatation and curettage twice and was referred for persisting cornual ectopic pregnancy. At laparoscopy, 20 U injection vasopressin in 100 mL .9% normal saline was injected into the myometrium of the uterus. Incision was made over the ectopic pregnancy with ultrasonic energy and the ectopic pregnancy enucleated using suction apparatus and ultrasonic energy. Hemostasis was ensured and the bed sutured with barbed suture. Surgery duration was 1 hour, and blood loss was 200 mL. Institutional review board and ethics committee approval was obtained. Injection of vasopressin into the uterus significantly reduces blood loss, operative time, and patient morbidity and mortality at laparoscopic cornuostomy. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulation of Jetting in Injection Molding Using a Finite Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaozhen Hua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the jetting and the subsequent buckling flow more accurately, a three dimensional melt flow model was established on a viscous, incompressible, and non-isothermal fluid, and a control volume-based finite volume method was employed to discretize the governing equations. A two-fold iterative method was proposed to decouple the dependence among pressure, velocity, and temperature so as to reduce the computation and improve the numerical stability. Based on the proposed theoretical model and numerical method, a program code was developed to simulate melt front progress and flow fields. The numerical simulations for different injection speeds, melt temperatures, and gate locations were carried out to explore the jetting mechanism. The results indicate the filling pattern depends on the competition between inertial and viscous forces. When inertial force exceeds the viscous force jetting occurs, then it changes to a buckling flow as the viscous force competes over the inertial force. Once the melt contacts with the mold wall, the melt filling switches to conventional sequential filling mode. Numerical results also indicate jetting length increases with injection speed but changes little with melt temperature. The reasonable agreements between simulated and experimental jetting length and buckling frequency imply the proposed method is valid for jetting simulation.

  12. Modern Cored Wire Injection 2PE-9 Method in the Production of Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guzik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of nodular graphite cast iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment/ transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using this method for possibility production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. In this case was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-450- 10 Grade according PN-EN 1563:2000. Microstructure of 28 trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical metallic matrix and graphite characteristic. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in one experiment. Because of further possibility treatment temperature reduction only the rough magnesium recovery and cost of this new method are given.

  13. New technique for preparing cartilage for intracordal injection: the freezing and grinding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Min; Lee, Won Yong; Lim, Yun-Sung; Lee, Jin-Choon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2014-07-01

    We developed a technique for preparing harvested cartilage that creates finer, more uniform pieces by freezing with liquid nitrogen and grinding with a mortar and pestle. Herein, we report the application of this new technique for intracordal cartilage injection. Experimental study. Human cartilage was obtained from surgical cases. In the standard method, harvested cartilage was prepared with scissors and a knife. In the experimental group, harvested cartilage was frozen with liquid nitrogen and ground with a mortar and pestle. It took an average of 60 minutes to manipulate cartilage using the standard technique, whereas it took an average of 10 minutes using the freezing and grinding method (P<0.001). The average size of cartilage flakes generated by the standard and new techniques were 727 and 48.6 μm, respectively. The cartilage flakes produced using scissors and a knife were able to pass through a 19-gauge needle, whereas those created using the freezing and grinding method were able to pass through a 24-gauge needle. Using the freezing and grinding method, cartilage was broken into fine, uniform pieces that could pass through a 24-gauge needle. This new technique will facilitate the production of commercial cartilage material for intracordal injection. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  14. A Successive Scans Method of Adjusting Scan-Time for Injection Electroluminescent Display Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Peng; YANG Gang; JIANG Quan; WANG Jun; HU Jian-Hua; WU Qi-Peng; LUO Kai-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ Aiming at the problem of luminance uniformity for injection electroluminescent display panels, we present a new scan method for display panels according to successive scans theory.First, on the basis of the number of pixels requiring light emitting in one frame period, we adjust the scan time for each row.Secondly, for ensuring image transmission synchronization, the frame period must to be a constant.We adopt a 64 × 32 LED display panel as an example to expound the new scan method and we obtain the good result that the reduce amplitude of luminance non-uniformity is 31.34% and the increase amplitude of the average luminance value is 7.8258%.%Aiming at the problem of luminance uniformity for injection electroluminescent display panels,we present a new scan method for display panets according to successive scans theory.First,on the basis of the number of pixels requiring light emitting in one frame period,we adjust the scan time for each row.Secondly,for ensuring image transmission synchronization,the frame period must to be a constant.We adopt a 64×32 LED display panel as an example to expound the new scan method and we odtain the good result that the reduce amplitude of luminance non-uniformity is 31.34% and the increase amplitude of the average luminance value is 7.8258%.

  15. [Evaluation of the variable-speed injection method for three-dimensional CT angiography of the trunk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroga, Koji; Hatcho, Atsushi; Terasawa, Kazuaki

    2005-01-20

    In three-dimensional CT angiography (3DCTA) studies, the CT values within blood vessels ideally should be uniform because the reproducibility and detectability of the morphological characteristics of blood vessels change depending on the threshold value selected. The time-density curve (TDC) therefore should be maintained at a certain level. However, conventional contrast medium injectors have a fixed injection speed, and the injection speed must therefore be changed in a stepwise manner. This means that it is not possible to maintain the TDC precisely. However, recent advances in the performance capabilities of contrast medium injectors allow the injection speed to be changed continuously with a user-selectable injection-speed ratio, permitting studies to be performed using the so-called "variable-speed injection method". We have conducted studies using this new method to determine the optimal injection speed ratio that permits the TDC to be maintained at the desired level. Our results showed that an injection-speed ratio of 0.5 permits the TDC to be maintained at the optimal level, improving the reproducibility and detectability of blood vessel morphology in 3DCTA studies. In addition, when contrast medium injection was terminated at a time point > or =50% of the preset contrast medium injection time, the mean CT value was not adversely affected (i.e., was not significantly reduced), making it possible to reduce the amount of contrast medium administered to the patient.

  16. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucza, Witold, E-mail: witek@agh.edu.pl

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Former random walk approach for FIA simulations has been improved. •Random walk and uniform dispersion models have been used for FIA simulations. •Diffusivities have been optimized by genetic and the Levenberg–Marquardt methods. •Both approaches have given similar results in agreement with experimental ones. -- Abstract: Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg–Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches.

  17. Direct injection HILIC-MS/MS analysis of darunavir in rat plasma applying supported liquid extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bokka Ramesh; Nemali Manjula; Sistla Ramakrishna; Potturi Sita Devi

    2015-01-01

    A novel bioanalytical method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of darunavir (DRV) in rat plasma by employing hydrophilic interaction chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC–MS/MS) with supported liquid extraction (SLE). Irbesartan (IRB) was used as an internal standard (IS). The analyte in rat plasma (200 mL) was isolated through SLE using ethyl acetate as the eluting solvent. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Luna-HILIC (250 mm4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1% of formic acid in water:acetonitrile (5: 95, v/v), at a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The MS/MS ion transitions for DRV (548.1-392.0) and IS (429.2-207.1) were monitored on an ion trap mass spectrometer, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.2 ng/mL and quantitation range was 0.2–5000 ng/mL. The method was validated for its selectivity, sensitivity, carryover, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study in rats.

  18. Fast online emission monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater and product streams (using stripping with direct steam injection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Alexander; Lissner, Bert

    2012-03-01

    Open-loop stripping analysis (also referred to as dynamic headspace) is a very flexible and robust technology for online monitoring of volatile organic compounds in wastewater or coolant. However, the quality and reliability of the analytical results depend strongly on the temperature during the stripping process. Hence, the careful and constant heating of the liquid phase inside the stripping column is a critical parameter. In addition, this stripping at high temperatures extends the spectrum of traceable organics to less volatile and more polar compounds with detection limits down to the ppm-level. This paper presents a novel and promising approach for fast, efficient, and constant heating by the direct injection of process steam into the strip medium. The performance of the system is demonstrated for temperatures up to 75 °C and traces of various hydrocarbons in water (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1-propanol, n-butanol, ethylbenzene).

  19. Integration of FTTH and GI-POF in-house networks based on injection locking and direct-detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsiao-Chun; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Heng-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Tai

    2011-03-28

    An integration of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF) in-house networks based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and direct-detection technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Sufficient low bit error rate (BER) values were obtained over a combination of 20-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 50-m GI-POF links. Signal qualities satisfy the worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) requirement with data signals of 20 Mbps/5.8 GHz and 70 Mbps/10 GHz, respectively. Since our proposed network does not use sophisticated and expensive RF devices in premises, it reveals a prominent one with simpler and more economic advantages. Our proposed architecture is suitable for the SMF-based primary and GI-POF-based in-house networks.

  20. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A., E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Li, Yuhang [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tomic, Bojan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Huang, Jiyuan [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burns, Branden [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Song, Jizhou [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Soft Matter Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, Yonggang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  1. Alternative method for direct measurement of tibial slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijak Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The tibial slope is one of the most frequently cited anatomical causes of anterior cruciate ligament trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of direct measuring of the tibial slope of the knee without prior soft tissue dissection in cadavers. Methods. Measurement was performed on the two groups of samples: osteological and cadaveric. The osteological group consisted of 102 matured tibiae and measurement was performed: indirectly by sagittal photographing of the tibia, and directly by a set of parallel bars. The cadaveric group consisted of 50 cadaveric knees and measurement was performed directly by a set of parallel bars. The difference and correlation between indirect and the direct measurements were observed, which included also measuring of the difference and correlation of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral condyles. Results. A statistically significant difference between the direct and indirect method of measuring (p 0.05. However, the slope on the medial condyle, as well as indirect measurement showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion. By the use of a set of parallel bars it is possible to measure the tibial slope directly without removal of the soft tissue. The results of indirect, photographic measurement did not statistically differ from the results of direct measurement of the tibial slope.

  2. Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically injected InGaN-based laser directly grown on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Zhou, Kun; Sun, Qian; Liu, Jianping; Feng, Meixin; Li, Zengcheng; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Liqun; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Shuming; Ikeda, Masao; Liu, Sheng; Yang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Silicon photonics would greatly benefit from efficient, visible on-chip light sources that are electrically driven at room temperature. To fully utilize the benefits of large-scale, low-cost manufacturing foundries, it is highly desirable to grow direct bandgap III-V semiconductor lasers directly on Si. Here, we report the demonstration of a blue-violet (413 nm) InGaN-based laser diode grown directly on Si that operates under continuous-wave current injection at room temperature, with a threshold current density of 4.7 kA cm-2. The heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on Si is confronted with a large mismatch in both the lattice constant and the coefficient of thermal expansion, often resulting in a high density of defects and even microcrack networks. By inserting an Al-composition step-graded AlN/AlGaN multilayer buffer between the Si and GaN, we have not only successfully eliminated crack formation, but also effectively reduced the dislocation density. The result is the realization of a blue-violet InGaN-based laser on Si.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis for Residual Stress on DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) Nozzle Welded Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Byeong Wook; Chung, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Oak Sug [DOOSAN Heavy Industries and Construction Co. LTD, Reactor Design Team, 555 Guygok-dong Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Generally, any welding process produces high compressive or tensile residual stresses in the heat affected zone depending on the method, shape and procedures of the weldment. In particular, the tensile residual stresses have a considerable effect on the material strength, fatigue strength and corrosion cracking. For this reason, it is important that some knowledge of the internal stress state be deduced either from measurements or from modeling predictions. In this study, the residual stresses after a multi-pass welding process for DVI nozzle welding joint were evaluated by a numerical simulation method. The welding joint considered three weld joint angles of 40 deg., 6 deg. and 2 deg. Computations were made using a 2-D finite element model based on the simulation of cooling from the heat treatment temperature to room temperature with two cooling conditions at the inside surface. In these results, it is shown that the residual stress increased at the inner surface, when water cooling was applied to the inner surface, and axial compressive residual stress increased at the inner surface when the joint angle was decreased. (authors)

  4. A conjugate gradient method with descent direction for unconstrained optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Lu, Xiwen; Wei, Zengxin

    2009-11-01

    A modified conjugate gradient method is presented for solving unconstrained optimization problems, which possesses the following properties: (i) The sufficient descent property is satisfied without any line search; (ii) The search direction will be in a trust region automatically; (iii) The Zoutendijk condition holds for the Wolfe-Powell line search technique; (iv) This method inherits an important property of the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) method: the tendency to turn towards the steepest descent direction if a small step is generated away from the solution, preventing a sequence of tiny steps from happening. The global convergence and the linearly convergent rate of the given method are established. Numerical results show that this method is interesting.

  5. A fully validated microbiological assay for daptomycin injection and comparison to HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Christ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract Daptomycin (DPT was the first lipopeptide antibiotic available for commercialization. It is active against gram-positive bacteria, including resistant strains. This work aimed to develop and validate a turbidimetric microbiologic assay to determine daptomycin in an injectable form. A 3x3 design was employed, at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4.0 µg/mL. The microorganism test used was Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p, and Antibiotic Medium 3 was used as the culture medium. Method validation demonstrated that the bioassay was linear (r=0.9995, precise (RSD=2.58%, accurate (recovery 100.48± 2.11%, and robust. Degradation kinetics was also performed in an alkaline medium, indicating that daptomycin degradation follows first order kinetics under these conditions. The analyses of degraded solutions showed that daptomycin degradation products do not possess bactericidal activity. The bioassay was compared to HPLC method that was previously developed and no significant difference was found between them (p>0.05. The method proved to be appropriate for daptomycin injection quality control.

  6. Direct Injection LC-MS-MS Analysis of Opiates, Methamphetamine, Buprenorphine, Methadone and Their Metabolites in Oral Fluid from Substitution Therapy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Lee, Hsi-Tzu; Hsu, Ya-Ching; Huang, Mei-Han; Liu, Ray H; Chen, Tai-Jui; Lin, Dong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed, validated and applied to simultaneous analysis of oral fluid samples for the following 10 analytes: methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. The oral fluid sample was briefly centrifuged and the supernatant was directly injected into the LC-MS-MS system operated under reverse-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization (ESI). Deuterated analogs of the analytes were adopted as the internal standards and found to be effective (except for buprenorphine) to compensate for potential matrix effects. Each analytical run took 0.99) established for buprenorphine and the other nine analytes were 5-100 and 1-100 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision (% CV) ranges for the 10 analytes were 0.87-12.2% and 1.27-12.8%, while the corresponding accuracy (%) ranges were 91.8-113% and 91.9-111%. Limits of detection and quantitation established for these 10 analytes were in the ranges of 0.1-1.0 and 0.25-1.0 ng/mL (5 ng/mL for buprenorphine). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 62 oral fluid specimens collected from patients participating in methadone and buprenorphine substitution therapy programs. Analytical results of methadone and buprenorphine were compared with data derived from GC-MS analysis and found to be compatible. Overall, the direct injection LC-MS-MS method performed well, permitting rapid analysis of oral fluid samples for simultaneous quantification of methadone, buprenorphine, opiate and amphetamine drug categories without extensive sample preparation steps.

  7. A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi

    2012-01-10

    In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when the measured data are only available for one or two incident directions. A mathematical derivation is provided for its validation. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented, which show that the method is accurate even with a few sets of scattered field data, computationally efficient, and very robust with respect to noises in the data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Experimental Studies of Diestrol-Micro Emulsion Fuel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine under Varying Injection Pressures and Timings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Gopal Radhakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    The research work on biodiesel becomes more attractive in the context of limited availability of petroleum fuels and rapid increase of harmful emissions from diesel engine using conventional fossil fuels. The present investigation has dealt with the influence of biodiesel-diesel-ethanol (diestrol) water micro emulsion fuel (B60D20E20M) on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine under different injection pressure and timing. The results revealed that the maximum brake thermal efficiency of 32.4% was observed at an injection pressure of 260 bar and injection timing of 25.5°bTDC. In comparison with diesel, micro emulsion fuel showed reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) by 40 and 24%, respectively. Further, micro emulsion fuel decreased nitric oxide (NO) emission and smoke emission by 7 and 20.7%, while the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is similar to that of diesel.

  9. Fast Vortex Method for the Simulation of Flows Inside Channels With and Without Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YvesGAGNON; HUANGWeiguang

    1993-01-01

    A fast vortex method is presented for the simulation of fluid flows inside two-dimensional channels,The first channel studied is formed by two parallel walls simulating the entrance length of a developing flow.The second channel is similar to the first one but with an injection of a secondary fluid through a slot on one of its walls,In both cases,results are presented for flows at low Reynolds numbers and for flows at a high Reynolds number The numerical method used is based on the Random Vortex Method and on the Vortex-In-Cell Algorithm.Physical analyses of the numerical results are also presented.mostly in application to film cooling.

  10. Determination of resveratrol in red wine by solid phase extraction-flow injection chemiluminescence method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the detection of resveratrol in red wine based on the fact that resveratrol can greatly enhance chemiluminescence reaction between KMnO4 and HCHO in sulfuric acid medium.Analytes were pre-concentrated on solid sorbents (C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges). Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method allows the measurement of resveratrol over the range of 1.32 × 10-s to 1.32 × 10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.30 × 10-9 mol/L, and the relative standard deviation for 1.32 × 10-5 mol/L resveratrol (n = 11 ) is 3.8%. This method has been successfully applied for the determination of the resveratrol in red wine. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  11. Direct injection liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric horse urine analysis for the quantification and confirmation of threshold substances for doping control. II. Determination of theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaparti, A; Lyris, E; Panderi, I; Koupparis, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-04-01

    In equine sport, theobromine is prohibited with a threshold level of 2 microg mL(-1) in urine, hence doping control laboratories have to establish quantitative and qualitative methods for its determination. Two simple liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods for the identification and quantification of theobromine were developed and validated using the same sample preparation procedure but different mass spectrometric systems: ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Particle-free diluted urine samples were directly injected into the LC/MS systems, avoiding the time-consuming extraction step. 3-Propylxanthine was used as the internal standard. The tested linear range was 0.75-15 microg mL(-1). Matrix effects were evaluated analyzing calibration curves in water and different fortified horse urine samples. A great variation in the signal of theobromine and the internal standard was observed in different matrices. To overcome matrix effects, a standard additions calibration method was applied. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day analysis were lower than 8.6 and 7.2%, respectively, for the LC/ITMS method and lower than 5.7 and 5.8%, respectively, for the LC/TOFMS method. The bias was less than 8.7% for both methods. The methods were applied to two case samples, demonstrating simplicity, accuracy and selectivity.

  12. Development of flow injection method for indirect copper determination with amperometric detection in drinking water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Mandić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-diffusion flow injection method with amperometric detection for indirect copper determination on a silver electrode is developed. The flow through system is equipped with two injection valves and a gas-diffusion unit. In the first step, a signal of cyanide solution was recorded. In the following step a signal of cyanide in the presence of copper was measured. Interferences (Cd(II, Co(II, Ag(I, Ni(II, Fe(III, Hg(II and Zn(II were investigated and successfully removed. The calibration graph is linear in the range 1-90 μmol dm-3 of copper, correlation coefficient is 0.993, the regression equation is I = (0.0455±0.0015c + (0.4611±0.0671, I is relative signal decrease in μA and c is concentration in μmol dm-3. Relative standard deviation for six consecutive injections of 30 μmol dm-3 copper(II was 1.47 % and for 1 μmol dm-3 copper(II was 3.40 %. The detection limit, calculated as 3 s/m (where s is a standard deviation of nine measurement of a reagent blank and m is the slope of the calibration curve, was 0.32 μmol dm-3, which corresponds to 2.44 ng of copper(II (loop volume was 0.12 cm3. The method enables 60 analyses per hour and it was successfully applied on determination of copper in drinking water samples. [Acknowledgements. The authors acknowledge the grant from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia, Project number 172051

  13. Modeling of Nitric Oxide Formation in Single Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Diesel-Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kannan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water injection into the combustion chamber of diesel engine found to be one of best method for in-cylinder control of NOx formation. Approach: The combustion of water-diesel emulsion in diesel engine was simulated using a computer program to estimate the heat release rate, cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and NO formation. Results: The numerical simulation was performed at different equivalence ratios, engine speeds and water percentages. The numerical simulation was preferred to study the combustion behavior and emission of diesel engine because the experimental investigations were time consuming and costly affair. Conclusion/Recommendations: Experiments also conducted to validate the predicted results of computer simulation. Though the zero dimensional simulation models predicted NO formation during combustion process, the first appearance of NO could not be identified using this method which can be solved by CFD technique.

  14. Determination of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in urine using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnich, Michael G.; Miller, Derek C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-03-01

    The application of the large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (LB-DIHEN) for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is described. The LB-DIHEN is compared with the standard method using a concentric pneumatic nebulizer and cyclonic spray chamber. In addition to the toxicological significance of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg, these elements represent a cross-section of analytical issues including spectral interferences (e.g., 40Ar 35Cl + on 75As + and 98Mo 16O + on 114Cd +) and memory effects (Hg). In this study, the low sample consumption of the LB-DIHEN is used to reduce the volume of urine needed for analysis, and to reduce the volume of final diluted sample required for analysis. Eliminating the spray chamber and reducing the dead volume of the nebulizer reduces memory effects, especially for analytes such as Hg. The Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) is used in this study to attenuate the background level of ArCl + in spite of the increase in the solvent load and, in turn, the urine matrix (chloride) delivered to the plasma by the LB-DIHEN. This is the first report on coupling the LB-DIHEN to a standard autosampler for unattended sample analysis. The robustness of direct injection nebulization for routine analysis and the issues associated with automation of the sample introduction process are discussed. Although the figures of merit (sensitivity, limit of detection, and precision) determined for both nebulizers are slightly poorer for the LB-DIHEN than for the concentric pneumatic nebulizer, there is not a clinically significant difference between the results for both sample introduction systems. The accuracy of results is assessed using archived urine materials that are circulated by several different proficiency testing (PT) programs and external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). Results obtained using the LB-DIHEN were within the acceptable range

  15. Application of capon method to direct position determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Tzafri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct position determination (DPD approach is a single-step method which uses the Maximum Likelihood estimator to localize sources emitting electromagnetic energy using combined data from all available sensors. The DPD is known to outperform the traditional 2-step methods under low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR conditions. We propose an improvement to the DPD approach, using the well known minimum-variance-distortionless-response (MVDR approach. Unlike Maximum Likelihood, the number of sources need not be known before applying the method. The combination of both the direct approach and MVDR yields unprecedented localization accuracy and resolution for weak sources. We demonstrate this approach on the problem of multistatic radar, but the method can easily be extended to general localization problems.

  16. Ionized Gaseous Nebulae Abundance Determination from the Direct Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Montero, Enrique

    2017-04-01

    This tutorial explains the procedure used to analyze an optical emission-line spectrum produced by a nebula ionized by massive star formation. Particularly, the methodology used to derive physical properties, such as electron density and temperature, and the ionic abundances of the most representative elements whose emission lines are present in the optical spectrum is described. The main focus is on the direct method, which is based on the measurement of the electron temperature to derive the abundances, given that the ionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionized gas is dominated by the metallicity. The ionization correction factors used to obtain total abundances from the abundances of some of their ions are also given. Finally, some strong-line methods to derive abundances are described. Such methods are used when no estimation of the temperature can be derived, but which can be consistent with the direct method if they are empirically calibrated.

  17. Mechanism of formation of metal sulfide ultrafine particles in reverse micelles using a gas injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Tsubaki, Yoritaka; Hirai, Takayuki; Komasawa, Isao [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of formation of ultrafine CdS, ZnS, and their composite particles by the injection of H{sub 2}S into reverse micelles was studied. The particle formation process was followed by the change in UV-visible absorption spectra. The kinetics of the whole process including dissolution of H{sub 2}S, nucleation, particle growth, and coagulation was analyzed from time-course changes of the size and number of formed particles. The dissolution of H{sub 2}S was the principal rate-determining step, and most of the dissolved H{sub 2}S was consumed for particle growth. The particles formed in the present gas injection method were larger in size than those in the previous solution-mixing method in most cases. A kinetic scheme based on the distribution of the species among the micelles was then proposed, and this successfully explained the particle growth. Composite particles of CdS and ZnS having mixed crystal or core-shell structures were also prepared, and the application of these particles as photocatalysts for the cleavage of water to generate H{sub 2} was then investigated.

  18. Study on direct measurement method of vorticity from particle images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xiaodong; FU Xin; YANG Huayong

    2007-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods for vorticity measurement,a new direct measurement of vorticity (DMV) method extracting vorticity from particle images was proposed.Based on the theory of fluid flow,two matched particle patterns were extracted from particle images in the DMV method.The pattern vorticity was determined from the average angular displacement of rotation between the two matched particle patterns.The method was applied on standard particle images,and was compared with the second and third order central finite difference methods.Results show that the accuracy of DMV method is independent of the spatial resolution of the sampling,and the uncertainty errors in the velocity measurement are not propagated into the vorticity.The method is applicable for measuring vorticity of a stronger rotational flow.The time interval of image sampling should be shortened to increase the measurement ranges for higher shearing distortion flows.

  19. Calibration method for direct conversion receiver front-ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology induced process tolerances in analog circuits cause device characteristics different from specification. For direct conversion receiver front-ends a system level calibration method is presented. The malfunctions of the devices are compensated by tuning dominant circuit parameters. Thereto optimization techniques are applied which use measurement values and special evaluation functions.

  20. Assessing Students' Writing Skills: A Comparison of Direct & Indirect Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Stephen L.

    This research examined the results from direct and indirect writing assessments to determine the most effective method of discrimination. The New Jersey State Department of Education developed a test for ninth-grade students which was designed to measure the ability to apply writing mechanics to written text and to communicate effectively in…

  1. Direct visualization of neo-vessel formation following peripheral injection of bone marrow derived CD34+ cells in experimental myocardial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulla, M M; Ferrero, S; Gianelli, U; Paliotti, R; Magrini, F; Braidotti, P

    2007-01-01

    The definitive fate of peripherally injected PKH26 labelled bone marrow mononuclear cells expressing the CD34+ antigen following experimental myocardial cryodamage in rats (n=10) has been examined by direct visualization on photoconverted light and electron microscopy images. One week after the injection in each rat of about 150,000 CD34+ cells early stage PKH26+ vascular structures were localized in the infarcted areas, suggesting that a potential benefit of this therapeutic approach consists in the regeneration of the vasculature.

  2. Cation-inverting-injection: a novel method for synthesis of aqueous ZnSe quantum dots with bright excitionic emission and suppressed trap emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2014-07-25

    In the conventional synthesis of aqueous ZnSe quantum dots (QDs), highly reactive Se monomers are rapidly injected into a Zn-thiol complexes solution at room temperature, resulting in a poor excitionic luminescence and a serious trap emission of as-prepared ZnSe QDs. In this paper, we develop a novel cation-inverting-injection method to prepare aqueous ZnSe QDs with a bright excitionic luminescence. In this method, highly reactive Se monomers are first diluted in the reaction solution, followed by low-reaction Zn-thiol complexes slowly dropped at a high reaction temperature (90 °C). The inverting monomer injection order, the suppressed monomer reactivity and the high nucleation temperature in the cation-inverting-injection method can contribute to low-concentration but high-quality ZnSe nuclei, thereby promoting the formation of ZnSe QDs with large-sized particles, a high excitionic emission and a weak trap emission. As-prepared ZnSe QDs exhibit an intense deep-blue excitionic emission, which is the first reported case of a visible excitionic emission instead of a trap emission resulting from ZnSe QDs that are directly synthesized in an aqueous media. Using three types of dyes, via two measuring methods, the accurate photoluminescence quantum yield of the as-prepared ZnSe QDs is measured as 15%, which is a new record for mercaptocarboxylic acid stabilized ZnSe QDs synthesized in an aqueous media.

  3. An Investigation on Injection Characteristics of Direct-Injected Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by Means of Multi-Zone Spray Modeling Étude sur les caractéristiques d’injection d’un moteur Diesel industriel à injection directe au moyen de la modélisation multi-zones de la pulvérisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadi Rad G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of injection parameters on a heavy duty diesel engine performance and emission characteristics. In order to analyze the injection and spray characteristics of diesel fuel with employing high-pressure common-rail injection system, the injection characteristics such as injection delay, injection duration, and injection rate and number of nozzle holes were investigated by using a quasi-dimensional model. In the present work, the variety of injection rate is performed at various injection parameters where as performance and emission of the engine will be simulated subsequently. Finally the best injection system for a high efficiency and low NOx emission heavy duty diesel engine was investigated. Le but de cette étude est d’étudier l’effet des paramètres d’injection sur les caractéristiques de performance et d’émissions d’un moteur Diesel industriel. Afin d’analyser les caractéristiques d’injection et de pulvérisation du gazole assurées par un système d’injection “common-rail” haute pression, les paramètres d’injection tels que le calage de l’injection, la durée de l’injection, le taux d’injection et le nombre de trous de l’injecteur ont été étudiés en utilisant un modèle quasi-dimensionnel. Dans l’étude présentée, les performances et les émissions du moteur sont simulées à différents taux d’injection en faisant varier des paramètres d’injection. Enfin, la meilleure définition du système d’injection a été recherchée pour obtenir un moteur Diesel industriel avec un haut rendement et de basses émissions de NOx.

  4. A gravimetric simplified method for nucleated marrow cell counting using an injection needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Toshiki; Fang, Liu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2005-08-01

    A simplified gravimetric marrow cell counting method for rats is proposed for a regular screening method. After fresh bone marrow was aspirated by an injection needle, the marrow cells were suspended in carbonate buffered saline. The nucleated marrow cell count (NMC) was measured by an automated multi-blood cell analyzer. When this gravimetric method was applied to rats, the NMC of the left and right femurs had essentially identical values due to careful handling. The NMC at 4 to 10 weeks of age in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats was 2.72 to 1.96 and 2.75 to 1.98 (x10(6) counts/mg), respectively. More useful information for evaluation could be obtained by using this gravimetric method in addition to myelogram examination. However, some difficulties with this method include low NMC due to blood contamination and variation of NMC due to handling. Therefore, the utility of this gravimetric method for screening will be clarified by the accumulation of the data on myelotoxicity studies with this method.

  5. Initial Results in Power System Identification from Injected Probing Signals Using a Subspace Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ning; Pierre, John W.; Hauer, John F.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the authors use the Numerical algorithm for Subspace State Space System IDentification (N4SID) to extract dynamic parameters from phasor measurements collected on the western North American Power Grid. The data were obtained during tests on June 7, 2000, and they represent wide area response to several kinds of probing signals including Low-Level Pseudo-Random Noise (LLPRN) and Single-Mode Square Wave (SMSW) injected at the Celilo terminal of the Pacific HVDC In-tertie (PDCI). An identified model is validated using a cross vali-dation method. Also, the obtained electromechanical modes are compared with the results from Prony analysis of a ringdown and with signal analysis of ambient data measured under similar op-erating conditions. The consistent results show that methods in this class can be highly effective even when the probing signal is small.

  6. Synthesis of large CZTSe nanoparticles through a two-step hot-injection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Li, Zhenggang; Lek, Jun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundaries in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1x)4 (CZTSSe) thin films act as a defect that reduces the mobility of the charges. Hence one way to improve the performance of these thin film solar cells is to increase the grain size in the films. Most of the synthesis methods published so far for CZTSSe colloidal...... nanoparticles that can easily be dispersed in non-polar solvents could be better. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanoparticles are synthesized using the hot-injection method with oleylamine, trioctylphosphine, and hexadecane as the solvents. Selenium (Se) is introduced in the liquid phase to encourage...... molecules, solvents and precursors, and by controlling the initial monomer concentration. Additionally, we show how our new synthesis route can be utilized to achieve targeted ratios of CZTS and CZTSe nanoparticles to be used for mixed-phase CZTSSe thin films....

  7. Determination of cyanide by a flow injection analysis-atomic absorption spectrometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, A V; Martínez Calatayud, J

    1998-10-01

    A new flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure is proposed for the indirect atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cyanide. The FIA manifold is based on the insertion of the sample into a distilled water carrier, then the sample flows through a solid-phase reactor filled with silver iodide entrapped in polymeric resin beads. The calibration graph is linear over the range 0.2-6.0 mg l-1 of cyanide (correlation coefficient 0.9974), the detection limit is 0.1 mg l-1, the sample throughput is 193 h-1 and the RSD is 0.8%. The method is simple, quick and more selective than other published FIA procedures. The reproducibility obtained by using different solid-phase reactors and solutions is in the range 2.2-3.1% (RSD). The method was applied to the determination of cyanide in commercial samples such as pharmaceutical formulations and industrial electrolytic baths.

  8. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  9. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  10. Empirical Studies on Methods of Crawling Directed Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online Social Network has attracted lots of academies and industries to look into its characteristics, models and applications. There are many methods for crawling or sampling in networks, especially for the undirected networks. We focus on sampling the directed networks and intend to compare the efficiency, the accuracy and the stability between them. We consider the sampled nodes and links as a whole and separated from the original one. We evaluate experiments by deploying the snow ball method, the random walk method, DMHRW and MUSDSG with different sampling ratios on the datasets. The snow ball method and random walk method both have bias towards low outdegree nodes while the snow ball method tends to sample more hub nodes. DMHRW and MUSDSG can sample the network parallel but more complex than the snow ball and the random walk under the same sampling ratio. DMHRW will be the best choice of all while the computation capability and time are sufficient.

  11. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman

    2012-06-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach to graph layout that treats the vertices V as repelling charged particles with the edges E connecting them acting as springs. Traditionally, the amount of work required in applying the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is O(|V|2 + |E|) using direct calculations and O(|V| log |V| + |E|) using truncation, filtering, and/or multi-level techniques. Correct application of the Fast Multipole Method allows us to maintain a lower complexity of O(|V| + |E|) while regaining most of the precision lost in other techniques. Solving layout problems for truly large graphs with millions of vertices still requires a scalable algorithm and implementation. We have been able to leverage the scalability and architectural adaptability of the ExaFMM library to create a Force-Directed Graph Layout implementation that runs efficiently on distributed multicore and multi-GPU architectures. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. A fast direct numerical simulation method for characterising hydraulic roughness

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel; MacDonald, Michael; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jimenez & Moin 1991). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct DNSs with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for character...

  13. Direct LSC method for measurements of biofuels in fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krištof, Romana; Logar, Jasmina Kožar

    2013-07-15

    Direct liquid scintillation counting (LSC) for quantification of biofuels content in fuels was implemented and validated on three liquid fossil fuel matrices-ethanol, gasoline and diesel. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), hydrogenated vegetable oils (HVO) and bio-ethanol were used as biofuels. The method is applicable in the range up to 100% for all tested combinations of bio components. The sensitivity and precision of the method are suitable for determination of bio component content in the blends which is appearing on the global market. The method does not require special equipment for sample preparation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct Perturbation Method for Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xue-Ping; LIN Ji; HAN Ping

    2008-01-01

    We extend Lou's direct perturbation method for solving the nonlinear SchrSdinger equation to the case of the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation (DNLSE). By applying this method, different types of perturbation solutions axe obtained. Based on these approximate solutions, the analytical forms of soliton parameters, such as the velocity, the width and the initial position, are carried out and the effects of perturbation on solitons are analyzed at the same time. A numerical simulation of perturbed DNLSE finally verifies the results of the perturbation method.

  15. Three-phase diode rectifiers with low harmonics current injection methods

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Presents results of numerous research papers in the area of current injection based rectifiers. This book discusses the principles of current injection, followed by an analysis of various magnetic current injection devices. It concludes with a chapter where the results are generalized to three-phase full-bridge thyristor rectifiers.

  16. Fast high-throughput screening of temoporfin-loaded liposomal formulations prepared by ethanol injection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Delaney, Joseph T; Schubert, Ulrich S; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-03-01

    A new strategy for fast, convenient high-throughput screening of liposomal formulations was developed, utilizing the automation of the so-called ethanol-injection method. This strategy was illustrated by the preparation and screening of the liposomal formulation library of a potent second-generation photosensitizer, temoporfin. Numerous liposomal formulations were efficiently prepared using a pipetting robot, followed by automated size characterization, using a dynamic light scattering plate reader. Incorporation efficiency of temoporfin and zeta potential were also detected in selected cases. To optimize the formulation, different parameters were investigated, including lipid types, lipid concentration in injected ethanol, ratio of ethanol to aqueous solution, ratio of drug to lipid, and the addition of functional phospholipid. Step-by-step small liposomes were prepared with high incorporation efficiency. At last, an optimized formulation was obtained for each lipid in the following condition: 36.4 mg·mL(-1) lipid, 13.1 mg·mL(-1) mPEG(2000)-DSPE, and 1:4 ethanol:buffer ratio. These liposomes were unilamellar spheres, with a diameter of approximately 50 nm, and were very stable for over 20 weeks. The results illustrate this approach to be promising for fast high-throughput screening of liposomal formulations.

  17. Coupling sequential injection on-line preconcentration using a PTFE beads packed column to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for trace metals by using a PTFE bead-packed microcolumn coupled to ICP-MS is described, and used for simultaneous analyses of cadmium and lead. In dilute nitric acid (0.5%, v/v), neutral complexes between the analytes and chela......An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for trace metals by using a PTFE bead-packed microcolumn coupled to ICP-MS is described, and used for simultaneous analyses of cadmium and lead. In dilute nitric acid (0.5%, v/v), neutral complexes between the analytes...... and chelating reagent, diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA), are formed and adsorbed onto the surface of the PTFE beads. The adsorbed complexes are afterwards eluted with 20% nitric acid and the leading part of the eluate (40 mul) is stored in a sample loop (SL), the contents of which are subsequently transported, via...

  18. Inhibition of Re Du Ning Injection on Enzyme Activities of Rat Liver Microsomes Using Cocktail Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-qian Xu; Ting Geng; She-bing Zhang; Dan-yu Kang; Yan-jing Li; Gang Ding; Wen-zhe Huang; Zhen-zhong Wang; Wei Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective Re Du Ning Injection(RDN), a Chinese materia medica injection, is made from the extracts of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Gardeniae Fructus, and Artemisiae Annuae Herba. Since last decade, RDN has been widely used in China for the treatment of viral infection, fever, and inflammation. To assess the potential interacting of RDN with co-administered drugs, the inhibitory effects of RDN on the enzyme activities(CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2D1, and CYP3A1/2) of rat liver microsomes were investigated by a cocktail method. Methods A sensitive and specific LC-MS method capable of simultaneous quantification of five metabolites in rat liver microsomes was developed and validated. Then RDN(0.625%–1.0%) was incubated with rat liver microsomes and specific substrates. The enzyme activities were expressed as the formation rate of the specific metabolites of the substrates(pmol·mg·protein-1·min-1). Results RDN competitively inhibited the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C11, with inhibition constant(Ki) values determined to be 0.18% and 0.63%, respectively. RDN exhibited the mixed inhibition on the activity of CYP2D1, with a Ki value of 0.15%. The activities of CYP1A1 and CYP3A1/2 were not markedly inhibited even by 1.0% RDN. Conclusion RDN could inhibit the rat enzyme activities of CYP1A2, 2C11, and 2D1 in vitro with different inhibition modes, which is worthy of promoting safety and efficacy of RDN.

  19. Multi-dimensional modelling of spray, in-cylinder air motion and fuel–air mixing in a direct-injection engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Abani; S Bakshi; R V Ravikrishna

    2007-10-01

    In this work, three-dimensional fuel–air mixing inside a conventional spark ignition engine cylinder is simulated under direct injection conditions. The motivation is to explore retrofitting of conventional engines for direct injection to take advantage of low emissions and high thermal efficiency of the direct injection concept. Fuel–air mixing is studied at different loads by developing and applying a model based on the Lagrangian-drop and Eulerian-fluid (LDEF) procedure for modelling the two-phase flow. The Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for modelling the hollow cone spray and appropriate models for droplet impingement, drag and evaporation are used. Moving boundary algorithm and two-way interaction between both phases are implemented. Fuel injection timing and quantity is varied with load. Results show that near-stoichiometric fuel–air ratio region is observed at different locations depending on the load. The model developed serves to predict the fuel–air mixing spatially and temporally, and hence is a useful tool in design and optimization of direct injection engines with regards to injector and spark plug locations. Simulations over a range of speed and load indicate the need for a novel ignition strategy involving dual spark plugs and also provide guidelines in deciding spark plug locations.

  20. Decoupled direct method for sensitivity analysis in combustion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    1987-01-01

    An efficient, decoupled direct method for calculating the first order sensitivity coefficients of homogeneous, batch combustion kinetic rate equations is presented. In this method the ordinary differential equations for the sensitivity coefficients are solved separately from , but sequentially with, those describing the combustion chemistry. The ordinary differential equations for the thermochemical variables are solved using an efficient, implicit method (LSODE) that automatically selects the steplength and order for each solution step. The solution procedure for the sensitivity coefficients maintains accuracy and stability by using exactly the same steplengths and numerical approximations. The method computes sensitivity coefficients with respect to any combination of the initial values of the thermochemical variables and the three rate constant parameters for the chemical reactions. The method is illustrated by application to several simple problems and, where possible, comparisons are made with exact solutions and those obtained by other techniques.

  1. Right to privacy and some methods of direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion constitutes part of the marketing mix which consists of advertising, sales support, public relations, personal sale and direct marketing. It may be stated that the law delimits boundaries to all these elements of the communication mix. In the following contribution I will only focus on some methods of direct marketing and I intend to investigate the “purposeful appeal to purchase and consumer behaviour of clients” as viewed by the present Czech law. These communications often disturb the privacy of individuals, harass in an inappropriate time, marketing companies often illegally collect and share customers’ personal information. My target is to list legal limits instituted in the sphere of direct marketing for the individual marketing practices by the Czech law.

  2. Numerical analysis of isothermal JET injection into a denser liquid pool using RD-MPS Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. S. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jeun, G. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In this study, the rigid body dynamics coupled moving particle semi-implicit (RD-MPS) method was used to simulate a plunging liquid jet penetrating into a denser liquid pool. The phenomenon is related to fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) during severe accidents in nuclear power plants when coolant water is forcedly injected into a melt pool. A numerical particle method like MPS enables to simulate the complex multiphase flow in that significant deformation of fluids occurs due to its inherent grid less algorithm. However, the MPS method alone cannot continue the calculation for a long time as shown in the Ikea's work due to the large deformation of fluid surfaces and the difference in both liquid densities. In the RD-MPS method, the rigid body dynamics was coupled with the moving particle semi-implicit method to increase the overall stability of calculations and to calculate the multi-phase behavior of fluids. We performed two and three dimensional calculations to simulate jet penetration behaviors in a denser liquid pool, and the result was in good agreement with that of experiment. The simulation results suggested that the coupled model be useful in simulating dynamic interactions of multi-phase incompressible fluids as well as that the 3-D simulation for the plunging jet in a confined geometry predicted better agreement with experimental results than the 2-D simulation did.

  3. Two-Step Injection Method for Collecting Digital Evidence in Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In digital forensic investigations, the investigators take digital evidence from computers, laptops or other electronic goods. There are many complications when a suspect or related person does not want to cooperate or has removed digital evidence. A lot of research has been done with the goal of retrieving data from flash memory or other digital storage media from which the content has been deleted. Unfortunately, such methods cannot guarantee that all data will be recovered. Most data can only be recovered partially and sometimes not perfectly, so that some or all files cannot be opened. This paper proposes the development of a new method for the retrieval of digital evidence called the Two-Step Injection method (TSI. It focuses on the prevention of the loss of digital evidence through the deletion of data by suspects or other parties. The advantage of this method is that the system works in secret and can be combined with other digital evidence applications that already exist, so that the accuracy and completeness of the resulting digital evidence can be improved. An experiment to test the effectiveness of the method was set up. The developed TSI system worked properly and had a 100% success rate.

  4. Tralokinumab pharmacokinetics and tolerability when administered by different subcutaneous injection methods and rates
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meena; Doughty, Diane; Clawson, Corbin; Li, Xiaobai; White, Nicholas; Agoram, Balaji; van der Merwe, René

    2017-07-01

    Tralokinumab, administered as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections every 2 weeks, at the target dose 300 mg, has been shown to improve lung function in patients with asthma. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and tolerability profile of tralokinumab 300 mg when administered by different rates of subcutaneous injection, as part of a pilot investigation of new injection regimens. This phase I study randomized 60 healthy adults to receive 300 mg tralokinumab, as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections, each delivered over 10 seconds, or one 2-mL injection delivered over 10 seconds (12 mL/min), 1 minute (2 mL/min), or 12 minutes (0.167 mL/min). No differences in the PK profile of tralokinumab were observed between cohorts. Immediately following injection, injection-site pain intensity (mean (SD)) was lowest following 0.167 mL/min injection (5.1 mm (8.0) via visual analog scale (VAS)) and greatest following 12 mL/min injection (41 mm (27.7) via VAS); with mean injection-site pruritus intensity low for all participants. Two types of local injection-site reactions were observed: erythema (58.3%) and hematoma/bleeding (18.3%). All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. Tralokinumab 300 mg is well tolerated, with comparable PK, when administered by a single 2-mL injection at different rates of subcutaneous injection vs. two 1-mL injections.
.

  5. A new fast direct solver for the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Liu, Y. J.

    2017-04-01

    A new fast direct linear equation solver for the boundary element method (BEM) is presented in this paper. The idea of the new fast direct solver stems from the concept of the hierarchical off-diagonal low-rank matrix. The hierarchical off-diagonal low-rank matrix can be decomposed into the multiplication of several diagonal block matrices. The inverse of the hierarchical off-diagonal low-rank matrix can be calculated efficiently with the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula. In this paper, a more general and efficient approach to approximate the coefficient matrix of the BEM with the hierarchical off-diagonal low-rank matrix is proposed. Compared to the current fast direct solver based on the hierarchical off-diagonal low-rank matrix, the proposed method is suitable for solving general 3-D boundary element models. Several numerical examples of 3-D potential problems with the total number of unknowns up to above 200,000 are presented. The results show that the new fast direct solver can be applied to solve large 3-D BEM models accurately and with better efficiency compared with the conventional BEM.

  6. A New Fingerprint Segmentation Method Based on the Directional Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXin; XIEMei; LIQingrong

    2004-01-01

    Fingerprint image segmentation heavily influences the performance of every automated fingerprint identification system. Most of the feature extraction algorithms extract a lot of false features when applied to the noisy background area. Therefore, the main goal of these gmentation algorithm is to discard the background and reduce the number of false features. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to fingerprint segmentation based on the directional information. In conjunction with the size of nonoverlapping blocks, the directional variance of pixel number chosen in each block is used to segment fingerprint images. First, the direction image is estimated with a new orientation estimation algorithm. Then, in each block,enough pixels are chosen and the direction variance of pixel number is calculated. Finally, an adaptive threshold will be applied to determine the blocks of interest. This threshold is related with both the size and the pixel number of each block. Experiments show that the proposed method and manual segmentation perform equally well in rejecting false fingerprint features from the noisy background.This method is tested on the FVC2000 database and the experimental results have proven its efficiency.

  7. Direct methods for limit states in structures and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Weichert, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the safety factor for limit states such as plastic collapse, low cycle fatigue or ratcheting is always a major design consideration for civil and mechanical engineering structures that are subjected to loads. Direct methods of limit or shakedown analysis that proceed to directly find the limit states offer a better alternative than exact time-stepping calculations as, on one hand, an exact loading history is scarcely known, and on the other they are much less time-consuming. This book presents the state of the art on various topics concerning these methods, such as theoretical advances in limit and shakedown analysis, the development of relevant algorithms and computational procedures, sophisticated modeling of inelastic material behavior like hardening, non-associated flow rules, material damage and fatigue, contact and friction, homogenization and composites.

  8. Application of Patterson-function direct methods to materials characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rius

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a general description of the so-called Patterson-function direct methods (PFDM, from their origin to their present state. It covers a 20-year period of methodological contributions to crystal structure solution, most of them published in Acta Crystallographica Section A. The common feature of these variants of direct methods is the introduction of the experimental intensities in the form of the Fourier coefficients of origin-free Patterson-type functions, which allows the active use of both strong and weak reflections. The different optimization algorithms are discussed and their performances compared. This review focuses not only on those PFDM applications related to powder diffraction data but also on some recent results obtained with electron diffraction tomography data.

  9. Application of Patterson-function direct methods to materials characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is a general description of the so-called Patterson-function direct methods (PFDM), from their origin to their present state. It covers a 20-year period of methodological contributions to crystal structure solution, most of them published in Acta Crystallographica Section A. The common feature of these variants of direct methods is the introduction of the experimental intensities in the form of the Fourier coefficients of origin-free Patterson-type functions, which allows the active use of both strong and weak reflections. The different optimization algorithms are discussed and their performances compared. This review focuses not only on those PFDM applications related to powder diffraction data but also on some recent results obtained with electron diffraction tomography data.

  10. Treatment of 38 Cases of Sudden Deafness by Acupuncture plus Acupoint-injecting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; HUANG Guo-qi

    2005-01-01

    采用针刺耳门、听宫、听会、翳风、中渚、三阴交和太溪等穴位,配合穴位注射隔日交替治疗的方法治疗突发性耳聋38例,并与常规西药治疗30例对照,结果两组总有效率分别为89.5%和66.6%.%In the treatment of 38 cases of sudden deafness by puncturing Ermen (TE 21),Tinggong (SI 19), Tinghui (GB 2), Yifeng (TE 17), Zhongzhu (TE 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Taixi (KI 3), in combination of acupoint-injecting method every second day in alternation,together in comparison with 30 cases in the treatment of routine western medications, the total effective rate was respectively 89.5% and 66.6% in the two groups.

  11. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  12. Fabrication of rare-earth bearing fuel slug by injection casting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Herein, U.10wt%Zr fuel slugs containing 0, 3, and 7 wt%RE were prepared by an injection casting method and their characteristics were evaluated. The as-cast fuel slugs were generally sound and fabricated to the full length of the mold. However, the increased amount of the charged RE noticeably deteriorated the quality of the casting components such as melting crucible. Chemical analysis of the U.10Zr and U.10Zr.3RE slugs showed that the target composition was matched to within 1.0 wt%. In contrast, the composition of the U.10Zr.7RE fuel slug differed by as much as 4.6 wt% from the target. Therefore, more protective casting variables should be considered, when casting high RE-bearing fuel slugs. KAERI seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal CZTS Nanocrystals by a Hot-Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Méndez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the synthesis of colloidal Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS nanocrystals (average size ~4–9 nm by a simple and low cost hot-injection method. These nanocrystals form larger particles with sizes around 40 nm. Oleylamine (OLA was used as both the solvent and the nanocrystal stabilizer. The effect of the synthesis time on the structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties was studied. As revealed by XRD, Raman, and TEM measurements all the prepared samples are comprised of both kesterite and wurtzite CZTS nanocrystals. The wurtzite phase contribution reduces as the reaction time is increased. The “bandgap” of the obtained nanoparticles tends to 1.52 eV for the larger synthesis times (24 h which is suitable for an absorber layer in thin films solar cells.

  14. Highly uniform platinum icosahedra made by hot injection-assisted GRAILS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wu, Jianbo; Yang, Hong

    2013-06-12

    Highly uniform Pt icosahedral nanocrystals with an edge length of 8.8 nm were synthesized in nonhydrolytic systems using the hot injection-assisted GRAILS (gas reducing agent in liquid solution) method. The results show the key factors for the shape control include fast nucleation, kinetically controlled growth, and protection from oxidation by air. The effect of oxygen molecules on the Pt morphology was experimentally confirmed based on the study of shape evolution of icosahedral crystals upon exposure to oxygen gas. The Pt icosahedral catalysts obtained had an area-specific activity of 0.83 mA/cm(2) Pt, four times that of 0.20 mA/cm(2) Pt for typical Pt/C catalysts, in an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

  15. ALTERNATING DIRECTION FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOME REACTION DIFFUSION MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江成顺; 刘蕴贤; 沈永明

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some nonlinear reaction - diffusion models. To solve this kind of models, the modified Laplace finite element scheme and the alternating direction finite element scheme are established for the system of patrical differential equations. Besides, the finite difference method is utilized for the ordinary differential equation in the models. Moreover, by the theory and technique of prior estimates for the differential equations, the convergence analyses and the optimal L2- norm error estimates are demonstrated.

  16. Discrete Direct Methods in the Fractional Calculus of Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Almeida, Ricardo; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Finite differences, as a subclass of direct methods in the calculus of variations, consist in discretizing the objective functional using appropriate approximations for derivatives that appear in the problem. This article generalizes the same idea for fractional variational problems. We consider a minimization problem with a Lagrangian that depends on the left Riemann– Liouville fractional derivative. Using the Gr¨unwald–Letnikov definition, we approximate the objective functional in...

  17. The Maximum Patch Method for Directional Dark Matter Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Shawn; Fisher, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Present and planned dark matter detection experiments search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoils in poorly known background conditions. In this environment, the maximum gap statistical method provides a way of setting more sensitive cross section upper limits by incorporating known signal information. We give a recipe for the numerical calculation of upper limits for planned directional dark matter detection experiments, that will measure both recoil energy and angle, based on the gaps between events in two-dimensional phase space.

  18. The present state and future directions of PDF methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.

  19. DIRECT INTEGRATION METHODS WITH INTEGRAL MODEL FOR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕和祥; 于洪洁; 裘春航

    2001-01-01

    A new approach which is a direct integration method with integral model ( DIM IM) to solve dynamic governing equations is presented. The governing equations are integrated into the integral equations. An algorithm with explicit and predict-correct and selfstarting and fourth-order accuracy to integrate the integral equations is given.Theoretical analysis and numerical examples show that DIM-IM discribed in this paper suitable for strong nonlinear and non-conservative system have higher accuracy than central difference, Houbolt , Newmark and Wilson- Theta methods.

  20. Nonlinear Direct Robust Adaptive Control Using Lyapunov Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Xiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available    The problem of robust adaptive stabilization of a class of multi-input nonlinear systems with arbitrary unknown parameters and unknown structure of bounded variation have been considered. By employing the direct adaptive and control Lyapunov function method, a robust adaptive controller is designed to complete the globally adaptive stability of the system states. By employing our result, a kind of nonlinear system is analyzed, the concrete form of the control law is given and the meaningful quadratic control Lyapunov function for the system is constructed. Simulation of parallel manipulator is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

    2012-07-01

    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively.

  2. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%.

  3. On Cyclic Variability in a Residual Effected HCCI Engine with Direct Gasoline Injection during Negative Valve Overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes towards describing the nature of cycle-by-cycle variability in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engines. Experimental measurements were performed using a single cylinder research engine operated in the negative valve overlap (NVO mode and fuelled with direct gasoline injection. Both stoichiometric and lean mixtures were applied in order to distinguish between different exhaust-fuel reactions during the NVO period and their propagation into the main event combustion. The experimental results show that the mode of cycle-by-cycle variability depends on the NVO phenomena. Under stoichiometric mixture conditions, neither variability in the main event indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP nor the combustion timing was affected by the NVO phenomena; however, long period oscillations in IMEP were observed. In contrast, for lean mixture, where fuel oxidation during the NVO period took place, distinctive correlations between NVO phenomena and the main event combustion parameters were observed. A wavelet analysis revealed the presence of both long-term and short-term oscillations in IMEP, in accordance with the extent of NVO phenomena. Characteristic patterns in IMEP were recognized using an in-house algorithm.

  4. Analysis of Ignition Behavior in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine Using Propane and Methane as Primary Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2013-05-24

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (© pilot ¼ 0.2-0.6 and © overall ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant © pilot (> 0.5), increasing © overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing © overall (at constant © pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  5. Silencing of focal adhesion kinase by tumor direct injection of small interfering RNA decreases in vivo tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Kae; Yamaura, Takeshi; Nakajima, Motowo; Honda, Toshiyuki; Kasaoka, Tatsuhiko

    2009-07-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is shown to be frequently correlated with malignancy of the tumor and poor prognosis of the diseases.Because FAK resides immediately downstream of the interaction of cell surface adhesion molecules and extracellular matricies, it is considered to be critical to regulate several cellular processes including growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility and apoptosis. However, the studies on the role of FAK related to cell proliferation have been limited even in vitro. Here, in order to validate the role of FAK in in vivo tumor formation and proliferation, we employed direct intratumoral injection of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting FAK with cationic liposome. Using shRNAs targeting FAK selected from the constructed shRNA library for FAK and by optimization of in vivo delivery conditions, we demonstrated different patterns of the association of FAK inhibition with in vivo tumor formation/proliferation inhibition in two models, PC3M heterotopic xenograft and 4T1 orthotopic syngraft models. These observations indicated that the roles of FAK in tumorigenesis are different among the tumor species. In addition, we showed that ERK is the critical MAP kinase in the signaling pathway down stream of FAK in in vivo proliferation of 4T1 tumor cells.

  6. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James D; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  7. Transient analysis of ”2 inch Direct Vessel Injection line break” in SPES-2 facility by using TRACE code

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, S.; Lombardo, C.; Moscato, I.; Polidori, M.; Vella, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the past few decades a lot of theoretical and experimental researches have been done to understand the physical phenomena characterizing nuclear accidents. In particular, after the Three Miles Island accident, several reactors have been designed to handle successfully LOCA events. This paper presents a comparison between experimental and numerical results obtained for the “2 inch Direct Vessel Injection line break” in SPES-2. This facility is an integral test facility built in Piacenza at the SIET laboratories and simulating the primary circuit, the relevant parts of the secondary circuits and the passive safety systems typical of the AP600 nuclear power plant. The numerical analysis here presented was performed by using TRACE and CATHARE thermal-hydraulic codes with the purpose of evaluating their prediction capability. The main results show that the TRACE model well predicts the overall behaviour of the plant during the transient, in particular it is able to simulate the principal thermal-hydraulic phenomena related to all passive safety systems. The performance of the presented CATHARE noding has suggested some possible improvements of the model.

  8. Effect of diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blend on combustion, performance, and emissions characteristics on a direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozik Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of co-combustion of diesel-biodiesel-ethanol fuel blend in direct injection Diesel engine. Test was performed at constant rotational speed at three commonly used loads of this engine: 100%, 85%, and 70% of load. During the test hydrated ethanol was used at a concentration of 89% of alcohol. In this study, the ethanol fuel was added to diesel-biodiesel fuel blend with concentrations up to 50% with the increment of 5%. The biodiesel was used as an additive to pre-vent the stratification of ethanol and diesel blends. Thermodynamic parameters of engine were analyzed, and combustion process and exhaust emission were characterized. It turned out that with the increase in engine load is possible to utilize larger ethanol fraction in blend. With the increase of ethanol fuel in blend the in-crease in ignition delay (38.5% for full load was observed, but burning duration decreased (49% for full load. The ethanol fuel share in blend generally causes the increase in NOx emission (42% for full load due to higher oxygen content and higher in-cylinder temperatures. It turned out that, at full load the unrepeatability of indicated mean effective pressure was near the same up to 50% of ethanol fuel in blend (about 2%. In case of partial load at higher ethanol fuel fraction the in-crease in indicated mean effective pressure un-repeatability was observed.

  9. Unambiguous identification and discovery of bacterial siderophores by direct injection 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lawrence R.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Shaw, Jared B.; Hess, Nancy J.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Koppenaal, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Under iron-limiting conditions, bacteria produce low molecular mass Fe(III) binding molecules known as siderophores to sequester the Fe(III), along with other elements, increasing their bioavailibility. Siderophores are thought to influence iron cycling and biogeochemistry in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and hence the need for rapid, confident characterization of these compounds has increased. In this study, the type of siderophores produced by two marine bacterial species, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53, were characterized using a newly developed 21T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR MS) with direct injection electrospray ionization. This technique allowed for the rapid detection of synechobactins from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 as well as amphibactins from Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53 based on high mass accuracy and resolution allowing for observation of specific Fe isotopic peaks and fine isotopic structure enables highly confident identification of these sideropohores. When combined with molecular network analysis two new amphibactins were discovered and verified by tandem MS. These results show that high-field FTICR MS is a powerful technique that will greatly improve the ability to rapidly identify and discover metal binding species in the environment.

  10. Scaling of social prestige by direct and indirect psychophysical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Faleiros-Sousa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The professional social prestige practiced by: Social Assistants, Biologists, Dentists, Nurses, Engineers, Pharmacists, Physicists, Physical Therapists, Phonoaudiologists, Physicians, Psychologists, Chemists, and Sociologists was scaled by psychophysical methods of pair comparisons (indirect and the magnitude estimations (direct. The results showed: 1 both of the methods yield substantially different scaling; 2 the pair comparisons scale (proportion or z is a logarithmic function of the magnitude estimations scale; 3 the pair of comparison scale (proportion or z is a linear function of the logarithms of the magnitude estimations scale; and 4 a high correlation (rho = .95 between the degrees of prestige attributed to the professions obtained by both methods. With these results we can conclude that: 1 the continuous of social prestige (not metric scaled by these two methods yield a relation similar to the obtained in the sensorial continuous (metric; and 2 the continuous of social prestige has the following characteristics: quantitative, prothetic and non-qualitative (metathetic.

  11. New Completeness Methods for Estimating Exoplanet Discoveries by Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    We report new methods for evaluating realistic observing programs that search stars for planets by direct imaging, where observations are selected from an optimized star list, and where stars can be observed multiple times. We show how these methods bring critical insight into the design of the mission & its instruments. These methods provide an estimate of the outcome of the observing program: the probability distribution of discoveries (detection and/or characterization), & an estimate of the occurrence rate of planets (eta). We show that these parameters can be accurately estimated from a single mission simulation, without the need for a complete Monte Carlo mission simulation, & we prove the accuracy of this new approach. Our methods provide the tools to define a mission for a particular science goal, for example defined by the expected number of discoveries and its confidence level. We detail how an optimized star list can be built & how successive observations can be selected. Our approa...

  12. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  13. Experimental study of enhanced gas recovery from gas hydrate bearing sediments by inhibitor and steam injection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Ohtake, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Haneda, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Methane Hydrate Research Laboratory; Komai, T. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technoloyg, Tsukuba (Japan). Inst. for Geo-Resource and Environment; Higuchi, S. [Nihon Axis Co. Ltd., Mito (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Inhibitor and steam injection methods for recovering methane hydrate-bearing sediments were investigated. New apparatus designs were used to inject steam into artificial methane hydrate-bearing sediments. Aqueous methanol was injected into a silica-based hydrate-bearing sediment in order to examine the dissociation behaviour of the methane hydrates. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of steam injection using pure water; an aqueous methyl alcohol (MeOh) solution at 10 wt per cent; and an aqueous sodium chloride (NaC1) solution at 3 wt per cent. Temperatures for the injected fluids were set at 40 degrees C. Total gas production behaviour was divided into 3 stages: (1) the replacement of the remaining gas with the injected solution in the pore space; (2) gas production by hydrate dissociation; and (3) steady state and gas release. Results showed that cumulative gas production using the inhibitor solutions of MeOH and NaC1 proceeded more rapidly than the pure water samples. Downstream temperatures were not maintained at initial temperatures but decreased following the initiation of hydrate dissociation. Temperature changes were attributed to the coupling effect of the dissociation temperature and changes in inhibitor concentrations at the methane hydrate's surface. The use of inhibitors resulted in higher levels of cumulative gas production and more rapid hydrate dissociation rates. It was concluded that depressurization and steam injection induced hydrate dissociation from both upstream and downstream to the center of the sediment sample. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Influence of injection pressures till to 1,000 bar on the carburetion in a spark ignition engine with direct injection; Einfluss von Einspritzdruecken bis 1000 bar auf die Gemischbildung in einem Ottomotor mit Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buri, Stefan; Schumann, Florian; Kubach, Heiko; Spicher, Ulrich [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (DE). Inst. fuer Kolbenmaschinen (IFKM); Kneifel, Alexander [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of optical investigations of the impact of injection pressures of up to 1000 bar on mixture formation in a spray-guided direct injection engine. The maximum load in stratified operation of an engine with such a spray-guided combustion system is limited by the achievable quality of the mixture. In particular, when using multi hole injectors, the limit of stratified operation is reached rather early, due to comparatively low flow rates and thus insufficient stratification. One measure to increase the flow rate is to increase the injection pressure. The goal of this measure is to generate a more compact stratification, leading to combustion at richer air fuel ratios. This enables reductions of burning duration, hydrocarbon- and particulate emissions. The fundamental impact of increasing the injection pressure from 200 up to 1000 bar on mixture formation was investigated by using LIF- and Mie-scattering in a pressure chamber. Following that, the mixture formation was investigated under real conditions in a single cylinder engine by visualizing the injection process using Mie-scattering. Finally the results of engine operation are compared with those from the pressure chamber. (orig.)

  15. Advanced optical diagnostics applied to a multi-cylinder engine with gasoline direct injection; Weiterentwicklung der Visualisierungsmethodik am Beispiel eines Mehrzylindermotors mit Benzindirekteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, M.; Eberle, F.; Schaffner, P.; Quarg, J. [Opel Powertrain GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The development of modern combustion processes requires a more intensive use of simulation and optical measuring methods. When the combustion method of an engine concept has been determined and subsequently applied to one or more engines, the following development steps usually do not include the optical access. But in this phase of multicylinder engine development, too, an optical evaluation of the combustion processes provides important information. Especially regarding problems of time, the optical data can help to adopt the right solution and check it for its effect more easily. In this way the videoscopy offers a significant tool to optimize today's engines. The techniques of visualizing the Otto engine related combustion are continuously advanced. The resolution of quickacting CCD cameras has been improved considerably while at the same time reducing the exposure time. Both the injection and the mixture preparation can be investigated in detail under realistic conditions. Variations in the mixture preparation from cycle to cycle can also be represented. Today's state-of-the-art cameras with amplifier can visualize the optimum sootfree combustion without the necessity of an additional light. High-speed photomultiplier cameras can record single combustion cycles with a high resolution and thus enable the analysis. The endoscopic consideration of the combustion processes is no longer restricted to the visible range of the wavelength, but constitutes a visualization of the combustion in the ultraviolet range. The example of a four-cylinder engine with gasoline direct injection demonstrates the good applicability of the videoscopy. This technique can be employed quite easily to improve the understanding of the engine processes during the development phase. (orig.)

  16. Method for (236)U Determination in Seawater Using Flow Injection Extraction Chromatography and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter; Nielsen, Sven; Golser, Robin

    2015-07-21

    An automated analytical method implemented in a flow injection (FI) system was developed for rapid determination of (236)U in 10 L seawater samples. (238)U was used as a chemical yield tracer for the whole procedure, in which extraction chromatography (UTEVA) was exploited to purify uranium, after an effective iron hydroxide coprecipitation. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for quantifying the (236)U/(238)U ratio, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used to determine the absolute concentration of (238)U; thus, the concentration of (236)U can be calculated. The key experimental parameters affecting the analytical effectiveness were investigated and optimized in order to achieve high chemical yields and simple and rapid analysis as well as low procedure background. Besides, the operational conditions for the target preparation prior to the AMS measurement were optimized, on the basis of studying the coprecipitation behavior of uranium with iron hydroxide. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is simple and robust, providing satisfactory chemical yields (80-100%) and high analysis speed (4 h/sample), which could be an appealing alternative to conventional manual methods for (236)U determination in its tracer application.

  17. Rapid 90Sr/90Y determination in water samples using a sequential injection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos; Gomez; Garcias; Casas; Cerda

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a semiautomatic procedure based on a sequential injection method for 90Sr/90Y determination that allows their radiochemical separation in about 30 min. The method has been tested using 90Sr/90Y solutions with activities lower than 12 Bq. The source is eluted in a pH = 6.5 medium through a MnO2-impregnated cotton filter, where 9OY is preconcentrated in preference by adsorption. 90Y is extracted from the column with hydroxylamine, some 90Sr in the leached solution has also been found. After the radiochemical separation, the total beta-activity of the leached solution has been determined using a low background alpha-beta proportional counter and, assuming the presence of 90Sr and 90Y at t = 0, the solution of the Bateman equations allows the initial concentration of both isotopes to be obtained. We have verified that the addition of some ions usually found in water samples (Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+) does not interfere with the yield of the radiochemical process, (90 +/- 10)%. The method has been applied to 90Sr/90Y determination in mineral waters, and even in thermal waters, where the salt concentration can be about 3500 mg/l, the radiochemical yield remains greater than 80%.

  18. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  19. Utilizing of inner porous structure in injection moulds for application of special cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, M.; Bobek, J.; Šafka, J.; Habr, J.; Nováková, I.; Běhálek, L.

    2016-04-01

    The article is focused on impact evaluation of controlled inner structure of production tools and new cooling method on regulation of thermal processes for injection moulding technology. The mould inserts with porous structure were cooled by means of liquid CO2 which is very progressive cooling method and enables very fast and intensive heat transfer among the plastic product, the production tool and cooling medium. The inserts were created using rapid prototype technology (DLSM) and they had a bi-component structure consisting of thin compact surface layer and defined porous inner structure of open cell character where liquid CO2 was flowing through. This analyse includes the evaluation of cooling efficiency for different inner structures and different time profiles for dosing of liquid CO2 into the porous structure. The thermal processes were monitored using thermocouples and IR thermal analyse of product surface and experimental device. Intensive heat removal influenced also the final structure and the shape and dimensional accuracy of the moulded parts that were made of semi-crystalline polymer. The range of final impacts of using intensive cooling method on the plastic parts was defined by DSC and dimensional analyses.

  20. Simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with direct injection: A green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Marina; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2015-10-30

    This work describes an on-line multi-residue method for simultaneous quantification of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in superficial and wastewater samples. For that, an octyl restricted-access media bovine serum albumin column (RAM-BSA C8) was used for sample clean-up, enrichment and analysis with quantitation carried out by tandem mass spectrometry. For water samples volumes of only 500μL the method provided good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with quantification limits in the order of 20-150ngL(-1). Out of the six fluoroquinolones only ciprofloxacin (195ngL(-1)) and norfloxacin (270ngL(-1)) were quantified in an influent sample of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of São Carlos (SP, Brazil). None were found in the superficial water samples analyzed. The capability of injecting native sample in an automated mode provides high productivity and represents a greener approach in environmental sample analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual and injection-related risks in Puerto Rican-born injection drug users living in New York City: A mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpí-Acosta Camila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These data were collected as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS study. NHBS is a cross-sectional study to investigate HIV behavioral risks among core risk groups in 21 U.S. cities with the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence. This analysis examines data from the NHBS data collection cycle with IDU conducted in New York City in 2009. We explored how the recency of migration from Puerto Rico (PR to New York City (NYC impacts both syringe sharing and unprotected sex among injection drug users (IDU currently living in NYC. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach to examine differences in risk between US-born IDU, PR IDU who migrated to NYC more than three years ago (non-recent migrants, and PR IDU who migrated in the last three years (recent migrants. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used to recruit the sample (n = 514. In addition, qualitative individual and group interviews with recent PR migrants (n = 12 and community experts (n = 2 allowed for an in-depth exploration of the IDU migration process and the material and cultural factors behind continued risk behaviors in NYC. Results In multiple logistic regression controlling for confounding factors, recent migrants were significantly more likely to report unprotected sexual intercourse with casual or exchange partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.37-5.76 and receptive syringe sharing (AOR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.20-4.97 in the past year, compared to US-born IDU. HIV and HCV seroprevalence were highest among non-recent migrants. Qualitative results showed that risky injection practices are partly based on cultural norms acquired while injecting drugs in Puerto Rico. These same results also illustrate how homelessness influences risky sexual practices. Conclusions Poor material conditions (especially homelessness may be key in triggering risky sexual practices. Cultural norms (ingrained while using drugs in PR around injection drug

  2. A direct potential fitting RKR method: Semiclassical vs. quantal comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2016-12-01

    Quantal and semiclassical (SC) eigenvalues are compared for three diatomic molecular potential curves: the X state of CO, the X state of Rb2, and the A state of I2. The comparisons show higher levels of agreement than generally recognized, when the SC calculations incorporate a quantum defect correction to the vibrational quantum number, in keeping with the Kaiser modification. One particular aspect of this is better agreement between quantal and SC estimates of the zero-point vibrational energy, supporting the need for the Y00 correction in this context. The pursuit of a direct-potential-fitting (DPF) RKR method is motivated by the notion that some of the limitations of RKR potentials may be innate, from their generation by an exact inversion of approximate quantities: the vibrational energy Gυ and rotational constant Bυ from least-squares analysis of spectroscopic data. In contrast, the DPF RKR method resembles the quantal DPF methods now increasingly used to analyze diatomic spectral data, but with the eigenvalues obtained from SC phase integrals. Application of this method to the analysis of 9500 assigned lines in the I2A ← X spectrum fails to alter the quantal-SC disparities found for the A-state RKR curve from a previous analysis. On the other hand, the SC method can be much faster than the quantal method in exploratory work with different potential functions, where it is convenient to use finite-difference methods to evaluate the partial derivatives required in nonlinear fitting.

  3. On the effect of injection timing on the ignition of lean PRF/air/EGR mixtures under direct dual fuel stratification conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau

    2017-06-10

    The ignition characteristics of lean primary reference fuel (PRF)/air/exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixture under reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and direct duel fuel stratification (DDFS) conditions are investigated by 2-D direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 116-species reduced chemistry of the PRF oxidation. The 2-D DNSs of the DDFS combustion are performed by varying the injection timing of iso-octane (i-C8H18) with a pseudo-iso-octane (PC8H18) model together with a novel compression heating model to account for the compression heating and expansion cooling effects of the piston motion in an engine cylinder. The PC8H18 model is newly developed to mimic the timing, duration, and cooling effects of the direct injection of i-C8H18 onto a premixed background charge of PRF/air/EGR mixture with composition inhomogeneities. It is found that the RCCI combustion exhibits a very high peak heat release rate (HRR) with a short combustion duration due to the predominance of the spontaneous ignition mode of combustion. However, the DDFS combustion has much lower peak HRR and longer combustion duration regardless of the fuel injection timing compared to those of the RCCI combustion, which is primarily attributed to the sequential injection of i-C8H18. It is also found that the ignition delay of the DDFS combustion features a non-monotonic behavior with increasing fuel-injection timing due to the different effect of fuel evaporation on the low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature chemistry of the PRF oxidation. The budget and Damköhler number analyses verify that although a mixed combustion mode of deflagration and spontaneous ignition exists during the early phase of the DDFS combustion, the spontaneous ignition becomes predominant during the main combustion, and hence, the spread-out of heat release rate in the DDFS combustion is mainly governed by the direct injection process of i-C8H18. Finally, a misfire is observed for the DDFS combustion when

  4. COMPARISON OF TDOA LOCATION ALGORITHMS WITH DIRECT SOLUTION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chun; Liu Congfeng; Liao Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    For Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) location based on multi-ground stations scene,two direct solution methods are proposed to solve the target position in TDOA location.Therein,the solving methods are realized in the rectangular and polar coordinates.On the condition of rectangular coordinates,first of all,it solves the radial range between the target and reference station,then calculates the location of the target.In the case of polar coordinates,the azimuth between the target and reference station is solved first,then the radial range between the target and reference station is figured out,finally the location of the target is obtained.Simultaneously,the simulation and comparison analysis are given in detail,and show that the polar solving method has the better fuzzy performance than that of rectangular coordinate.

  5. Comparison of Rice Direct Seeding Methods (Mechanical and Manual with Transplanting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eyvani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main method of rice planting in Iran is transplanting. Due to poor mechanization of rice production, this method is laborious and costly. The other method is direct seeding in wet lands which is performed in the one third of rice cultivation area of the world. The most important problem in this method is high labor requirement of weed control. In order to compare the different rice planting methods (direct drilling, transplanting, and seed broadcasting a manually operated rice direct seeder (drum seeder was designed and fabricated. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three treatments and three replications. Required draft force, field efficiency, effective field capacity, yield, and yield components were measured and the treatments were compared economically. Results showed that there were significant differences among the treatments from the view point of rice yield at the confidence level of 95% i.e. the transplanting method had the maximum yield. A higher rice yield was obtained from the direct seeder compared to the manual broadcasting method but, the difference between these two methods for crop yield was not significant even at the confidence level of the 95%. The coefficient of variation of seed distribution with direct seeding was more than 20%. The labor and time requirements per hectare reduced to 7 and 20 times, respectively when comparing the newly designed direct seeder with the transplanting method. The direct seeding method had the highest benefit to cost ratio in spite of its lower yield. Therefore, this method could be recommended in the rice growing regions.

  6. A comparison of implantation methods for large PIT tags or injectable acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Katrina V.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Klett, Ryan S.; Li, Huidong; Seaburg, Adam; Eppard, M. B.

    2014-04-15

    The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters may allow greater flexibility in terms of the size and species of fish available to tag. New downsized injectable acoustic tags similar in shape to passive integrated transponder tags can be rapidly injected rather than surgically implanted through a sutured incision, as is current practice. Before wide-scale field use of these injectable transmitters, standard protocols to ensure the most effective and least damaging methods of implantation must be developed. Three implantation methods were tested in various sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Methods included a needle bevel-down injection, a needle bevel-up injection with a 90-degree rotation, and tag implantation through an unsutured incision. Tagged fish were compared to untagged control groups. Weight and wound area were measured at tagging and every week for 3 weeks; holding tanks were checked daily for mortalities and tag losses. No differences among treatments were found in growth, tag loss, or survival, but wound area was significantly reduced among incision-treated fish. The bevel-up injection had the worst results in terms of tag loss and wound area and also had high mortality. Implantation through an incision resulted in the lowest tag loss but the highest mortality. Fish from the bevel-down treatment group had the least mortality; wound areas also were smaller than the bevel-up treatment group. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the unsutured incision and bevel-down injection methods were the most effective; the drawbacks of both methods are described in detail. However, we further recommend larger and longer studies to find more robust thresholds for tagging size that include more sensitive measures.

  7. A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based on an analysis of electromagnetic scattering and the behavior of the fundamental solution. It is applicable to a few incident fields and needs only to compute inner products of the measured scattered field with the fundamental solutions located at sampling points. Hence, it is strictly direct, computationally very efficient and highly robust to the presence of data noise. Two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments indicate that it can provide reliable support estimates for multiple scatterers in the case of both exact and highly noisy data. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Power swings damping improvement by UPFC and SMES integration based on direct Lyapunov method control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidadfar, A.; Abedi, M.; Chu, C.C. [Tafresh Univ., Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; AmirKabir Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    An improved method of damping power swings in power systems was presented. In addition to integrating the unified power flow controller (UPFC) and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), the approach also applied the direct Lyapunov method concept to determine the control scheme based on nonlinear power system model. In transient state, SMES cooperates with the UPFC converters in active power exchange. The UPFC current injection model enables the control of UPFC converters using the Lyapunov direct method. Power oscillations among power system generators decrease as a result of the energy exchanging capability of the SMES. The steady state control method is obtained to fulfill the normal task of the UPFC in the presence of SMES. The decentralizing method is used to locally control the UPFC-SMES independent of state variables of synchronous generators which require wide area measurements. PSCAD/EMTDC simulation of a typical multi-area system revealed that in addition to an improvement in power swing damping, there was a pronounced decrease of the first swing.

  9. Direct optical injection locking of monolithically integrated In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As MODFET oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Brock, T.

    1993-05-01

    The authors have fabricated monolithically integrated In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As 0.25-micron gate MODFET oscillators. The results of direct optical subharmonic injection locking of these oscillator circuits at 10.159 and 19.033 GHz are presented.

  10. Comparison of direct injection nebulizer and desolvating microconcentric nebulizer for analysis of chlorine-, bromine- and iodine-containing compounds by reversed phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.P.; Gammelgaard, Bente; Hansen, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of finding ways to combine micro-bore reversed phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection for analysis of drug substances containing chlorine, bromine and iodine, the suitability of a direct injection nebulizer and an Aridus desolvating microconcentric nebulizer was compared. Using...

  11. A direct method for photoacoustic tomography with inhomogeneous sound speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhachmi, Zakaria; Glatz, Thomas; Scherzer, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    The standard approach for photoacoustic imaging with variable speed of sound is time reversal, which consists of solving a well-posed final-boundary value problem for the wave equation backwards in time. This paper investigates the iterative Landweber regularization algorithm, where convergence is guaranteed by standard regularization theory, notably also in cases of trapping sound speed or for short measurement times. We formulate and solve the direct and inverse problem on the whole Euclidean space, which is common in standard photoacoustic imaging, but not for time reversal algorithms, where the problems are considered on a domain enclosed by the measurement devices. We formulate both the direct and adjoint photoacoustic operator as the solution of an interior and an exterior differential equation which are coupled by transmission conditions. The former is solved numerically using a Galerkin scheme in space and finite difference discretization in time, while the latter consists of solving a boundary integral equation. We therefore use a boundary element method/finite element method approach for numerical solution of the forward operators. We analyze this method, prove convergence, and provide numerical tests. Moreover, we compare the approach to time reversal.

  12. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  13. Comparison of Two Different Injectable Contraceptive Methods: Depo-medroxy Progesterone Acetate (DMPA and Cyclofem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Veisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To compare side effects between users of two kinds of injectable contraceptives (Depo-medroxy progesterone acetate and Cyclofem.This cross-sectional descriptive study included 250 women, aged 18-40 years, using Depo-medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA or Cyclofem. The volunteers were examined six months after using contraceptive, and they were asked about following symptoms: weight changes, irregular bleeding, dysparounia, vaginal dryness, headache, breast pain, bone pain, and discontinuation reason. The data were analyzed by statistical methods.THE IMPORTANT SIDE EFFECTS OF DMPA WERE: irregular bleeding (93.60%, weight gain (48%, bone pain (24% and vaginal dryness (10.40%, while the side effects in the Cyclofem group were: irregular bleeding (65.60%, headache (14.4% and breast sensitivity (20%. Bleeding pattern changes were the most important problem leading to discontinuation of both contraceptive methods in our participants.The results of the study showed that the most important problem in both groups was change in bleeding pattern. Proper consulting by a trained expert reduces the high amount of discontinuation and their failure rates.

  14. Sequential injection 90Sr determination in environmental samples using a wetting-film extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Manuel; Gómez, Enrique; Estela, José Manuel; Casas, Montserrat; Cerdà, Victor

    2002-02-15

    A sequential injection procedure involving a flow-reversal wetting-film extraction method for the determination of the radionuclide 90Sr has been developed. The methodology is based on the coating of the inner walls of an open tubular reactor with a film prepared from a 0.14 M 4,4'(5')-bis(tert-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 (BCHC) solution in 1-octanol, which allows the selective isolation of strontium from the sample matrix. Selection of the optimum extractant diluent attending its physical properties, investigation of the extraction kinetics features, and choice of the proper elution procedure are discussed in detail in this paper. The noteworthy aspects of using a wetting-film phase instead of a solid-phase material described to date in the literature are the reduction of crown ether consumption and the simplification of both the operational sequence and the automation of the extractant-phase renewal between consecutive samples, which is of interest to avoid analyte carryover and reduction of the resin capacity factor caused by irreversible interferences. The proposed method has been successfully applied to different spiked environmental samples (water, milk, and soil), with 90Sr total activities ranging between 0.07 and 0.30 Bq, measured using a low-background proportional counter. The standard deviation of the automated analytical separation procedure is lower than 3% (n = 10), and the 90Sr isolation process under the studied conditions may be carried out with a yield up to 80%.

  15. A new sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of H(2)-receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Nan-Nan; Xiong, Xun-Yu; Xiong, Feng-Mei; Sun, Si-Juan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the chemiluminescence (CL) intensity generated from the potassium ferricyanide [K(3)Fe(CN)(6)]-rhodamine 6G system in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) medium, a new sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method has been developed, validated and applied for the determination of three kinds of H(2)-receptor antagonists: cimetidine (CIMT), ranitidine (RANT) hydrochloride and famotidine (FAMT). Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the determination was 1.0 x 10(-9)-7.0 x 10(-5) g/ml for CIMT, 1.0 x 10(-9)-5.0 x 10(-5) g/mL for RANT hydrochloride and 5.0 x 10(-9)-7.0 x 10(-5) g/mL for FAMT. During 11 repeated measurements of 1.0 x 10(-6) g/mL sample solutions, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were all <5%. The detection limit was 8.56 x 10(-10) g/mL for CIMT, 8.69 x 10(-10) g/mL for RANT hydrochloride and 2.35 x 10(-9) g/mL for FAMT (S:N = 3). This method has been successfully implemented for the analysis of H(2)-receptor antagonists in pharmaceuticals.

  16. Dynamic Solution Injection: a new method for preparing pptv–ppbv standard atmospheres of volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abrell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS and thermal desorption Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS allow for absolute quantification of a wide range of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs with concentrations in the ppbv to pptv range. Although often neglected, routine calibration is necessary for accurate quantification of VOCs by PTR-MS and GC-MS. Several gas calibration methods currently exist, including compressed gas cylinders, permeation tubes, diffusion tubes, and liquid injection. While each method has its advantages and limitations, no single technique has emerged that is capable of dynamically generating known concentrations of complex mixtures of VOCs over a large concentration range (ppbv to pptv and is technically simple, field portable, and affordable. We present the development of a new VOC calibration technique based on liquid injection with these features termed Dynamic Solution Injection (DSI. This method consists of injecting VOCs (0.1–0.5 mM dissolved in cyclohexane (PTR-MS or methanol (GC-MS into a 1.0 slpm flow of purified dilution gas in an unheated 25 ml glass vial. Upon changes in the injection flow rate (0.5–4.0 μl min−1, new VOC concentrations are reached within seconds to minutes, depending on the compound, with a liquid injection flow rate accuracy and precision of better than 7% and 4% respectively. We demonstrate the utility of the DSI technique by calibrating a PTR-MS to seven different cyclohexane solutions containing a total of 34 different biogenic compounds including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, fatty acid oxidation products, aromatics, and dimethyl sulfide. We conclude that because of its small size, low cost, and simplicity, the Dynamic Solution Injection method will be of great use to both laboratory and field VOC studies.

  17. Treatment of 30 Cases of Hiccup due to Cerebral Disorders by Acupoint-injecting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zu-qiang; SU Xuan; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Thirty cases of hiccup due to cerebral disorders were treated by injecting 2 ml of Angelica(another 30 cases were treated by muscular injection of 30 mg of metoclopramide as the control group.After the treatments for three days, the total effective rate was 100% in the former and 83.3% in the latter.

  18. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  19. Characterization methods of nano-patterned surfaces generated by induction heating assisted injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Ravn, Christian; Menotti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An induction heating-assisted injection molding (IHAIM) process developed by the authors is used to replicate surfaces containing random nano-patterns. The injection molding setup is developed so that an induction heating system rapidly heats the cavity wall at rates of up to 10◦C/s. In order to ...

  20. The Comparison of the Direct Method and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽葵

    2011-01-01

    一、 Major Characteristics of the Direct Method and the Communicative Approach The characteristics of the communicative Approach are as follows:(1) The teaching content takes language function as the key link,which is fixed up in accordance with the different demands of studying object.For example,the demands of the scientist and technologist,the translator,the foreign language teacher,the tourist adviser,the diplomatic personnel and the economic worker are different from each other,so the most necessary language materials for achieving certain communication are chosen which are usually the most common structure form.

  1. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection for couples with unexplained infertility after failed direct intraperitoneal insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, S; Minoura, H; Shibahara, T; Shen, X; Futamura, N; Toyoda, N

    2000-10-01

    The objective was to determine the optimal insemination technique in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) after failed direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI) and the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in such cases. In case-control studies, 53 couples with unexplained infertility who underwent IVF after four failed DIPI cycles were compared with 75 couples with tubal or endometriosis infertility as controls. Thirty couples with unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI and conventional IVF who underwent ICSI and 58 couples with male-factor infertility as controls also were compared. Fertilization cleavage, embryo quality, implantation, and pregnancy were compared after IVF and after ICSI. There was a significant difference in fertilization rates after IVF between cases of unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI (40.4%) and patients with tubal or endometriosis infertility (67.9%). There also was a significant difference in total fertilization failure rates between the two groups (30.4% and 3.9%, respectively). There was a slight but significant difference in numbers of fertilized oocytes after ICSI between patients with low fertilization rate undergoing IVF after failing to conceive DIPI (85.8%) and patients with male factor (90.4%). Total fertilization failure was not observed in these cases. Couples with unexplained infertility after failing to conceive with DIPI show a failed fertilization or a low fertilization rate after IVF. However, they demonstrated a good chance of becoming pregnant after subsequent ICSI, even with statistically significant difference in fertilization rate as compared with male-factor cases.

  2. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (pengine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (pengine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress.

  3. Fault injection as a test method for an FPGA in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Roed, K; Richter, M; Fehlker, D; Helstrup, H; Alme, J; Ullaland, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how fault injection has been implemented as a test method for an FPGA in an existing hardware configuration setup. As this FPGA is in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector, the reliability of this FPGA is of high importance. Due to the complexity of the readout electronics, irradiation testing is technically difficult at this stage of the system commissioning. The work presented in this paper is therefore motivated by introducing fault injection as an alternative method to characterize failures caused by SEUs. It is a method to study the effect that a configuration upset may have on the operation of the FPGA. The target platform consists of two independent modules for data acquisition and detector control functionality. Fault injection to test the response of the data acquisition module is made possible by implementing the solution as part of the detector control functionality. Correct implementation is validated by a simple shift register design. Our results demonstrate th...

  4. Evaluation of the foetal time to death in mice after application of direct and indirect euthanasia methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mediavilla, C; Cámara, J A; Salazar, S; Segui, B; Sanguino, D; Mulero, F; de la Cueva, E; Blanco, I

    2016-04-01

    Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that the killing of mammal foetuses during the last third of their gestational period should be accomplished through effective and humane methods. The fact that murine foetuses are resistant to hypoxia-mediated euthanasia renders the current euthanasia methods ineffective or humane for the foetuses when these methods are applied to pregnant female mice. We have assessed the time to death of foetuses after performing either indirect (dam euthanasia) or direct (via intraplacental injection--a new approach to euthanasia) euthanasia methods in order to determine a euthanasia method that is appropriate, ethical and efficient for the killing of mouse foetuses. The respective times to death of foetuses after performing the three most commonly used euthanasia methods (namely cervical dislocation, CO2inhalation and intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital administration) were recorded. Absence of foetal heartbeat was monitored via ultrasound. We consider that the most effective and humane method of foetal euthanasia was the one able to achieve foetal death within the shortest possible period of time. Among the indirect euthanasia methods assessed, the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose to pregnant female mice was found to be the fastest for foetuses, with an average post-treatment foetal death of approximately 29.8 min. As for the direct euthanasia method assessed, foetal time to death after intraplacental injection of sodium pentobarbital was approximately 14 min. Significant differences among the different mouse strains employed were found. Based on the results obtained in our study, we consider that the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose by intraplacental injection to be an effective euthanasia method for murine foetuses.

  5. Direct field method for root biomass quantification in agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, Ileana; Noellemeyer, Elke; Fernández, Romina; Quiroga, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes a field auger sampling method for row-crop root measurements. In agroecosystems where crops are planted in a specific design (row crops), sampling procedures for root biomass quantification need to consider the spatial variability of the root system. This article explains in detail how to sample and calculate root biomass considering the sampling position in the field and the differential weight of the root biomass in the inter-row compared to the crop row when expressing data per area unit. This method is highly reproducible in the field and requires no expensive equipment and/or special skills. It proposes to use a narrow auger thus reducing field labor with less destructive sampling, and decreases laboratory time because samples are smaller. The small sample size also facilitates the washing and root separation with tweezers. This method is suitable for either winter- or summer crop roots. •Description of a direct field method for row-crop root measurements.•Description of data calculation for total root-biomass estimation per unit area.•The proposed method is simple, less labor- and less time consuming.

  6. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Second quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Midway-Sunset Field (CA) is the largest Heavy Oil field in California and steam injection methods have been successfully used for more than 30 years to produce the Heavy Oil from many of its unconsolidated sand reservoirs. In partnership with another DOE/ERIP grantee, our Company has acquired an 80 ac. lease in the SE part of this field, in order to demonstrate our respective technologies in the Monarch sand, of Miocene Age, which is one of the reservoirs targeted by the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. This reservoir contains a 13 API oil, which has a much higher market value, as a Refinery Feedstock, than the 5 to 8 API Vaca Tar, used only as road paving material. This makes it easier to justify the required investment in a vertical well equipped with two horizontal drainholes. The economic viability of such a project is likely to be enhanced if Congress approves the export to Japan of a portion of the 27 API (1% Sulfur) AK North Slope oil, which currently is landed in California in preference to lighter and sweeter Far East imported crudes. This is a major cause of the depressed prices for California Heavy Oil in local refineries, which have reduced the economic viability of all EOR methods, including steam injection, in California. Two proposals, for a Near-Term (3 y.) and for a Mid-Term (6 y.) project respectively, were jointly submitted to the DOE for Field Demonstration of the Partners` new technologies under the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. The previous design of a special casing joint for the Oxnard field well was reviewed and adapted to the use of existing Downhole Hardware components from three suppliers, instead of one. The cost of drilling and completion of a well equipped with two horizontal drainholes was re-evaluated for the conditions prevailing in the Midway Sunset field, which are more favorable than in the Oxnard field, leading to considerable reductions in drilling rig time and cost.

  7. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  8. Method of Direct Texture Synthesis on Arbitrary Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Li Wu; Chun-Hui Mei; Jiao-Ying Shi

    2004-01-01

    A direct texture synthesis method on arbitrary surfaces is proposed in this paper. The idea is to recursively map triangles on surface to texture space until the surface is completely mapped. First, the surface is simplified and a tangential vector field is created over the simplified mesh. Then, mapping process searches for the most optimal texture coordinates in texture sample for each triangle, and the textures of neighboring triangles are blended on the mesh. All synthesized texture triangles are compressed to an atlas. Finally, the simplified mesh is subdivided to approach the initial surface. The algorithm has several advantages over former methods:it synthesizes texture on surface without local parameterization; it does not need partitioning surface to patches;and it does not need a particular texture sample. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm is applicable to a wide variety of texture samples and any triangulated surfaces.

  9. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour.

  10. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1999-01-01

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions. and the geometric properties of the contact medium.

  11. Fault Tolerant Matrix Pencil Method for Direction of Arrival Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Yerriswamy, T; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2306

    2011-01-01

    Continuing to estimate the Direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the signals impinging on the antenna array, even when a few elements of the underlying Uniform Linear Antenna Array (ULA) fail to work will be of practical interest in RADAR, SONAR and Wireless Radio Communication Systems. This paper proposes a new technique to estimate the DOAs when a few elements are malfunctioning. The technique combines Singular Value Thresholding (SVT) based Matrix Completion (MC) procedure with the Direct Data Domain (D^3) based Matrix Pencil (MP) Method. When the element failure is observed, first, the MC is performed to recover the missing data from failed elements, and then the MP method is used to estimate the DOAs. We also, propose a very simple technique to detect the location of elements failed, which is required to perform MC procedure. We provide simulation studies to demonstrate the performance and usefulness of the proposed technique. The results indicate a better performance, of the proposed DOA estimation scheme under...

  12. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs.

  13. Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-07-29

    A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice is cropped. Detection and quantification limits achieved were in the range from 0.4 to 80 ng L(-1) and from 2 to 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range 0.1-50 μg L(-1) were higher than 0.99 except for diazinon (0.1-25 μg L(-1)). Only 9 pesticides presented more than 20% of signal suppression/enhancement, no matrix effect was observed in the studied conditions for the rest of the target pesticides. The method developed was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 59 water samples collected in paddy fields located in Spain and Uruguay. The study shows the presence of bensulfuron methyl, tricyclazole, carbendazim, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and quinclorac in a concentration range from 0.08 to 7.20 μg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful management with glue injection of arterial rupture seen during embolization of an arteriovenous malformation using a flow-directed catheter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Won; Baik, Seung Kug; Shin, Mi Jung; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    We present a case in which an arterial rupture occurring during embolization of an arteriovenous malformation of the left occipital lobe with a flow-directed micro-catheter, was successfully sealed with a small amount of glue. We navigated a 1.8-Fr Magic catheter through the posterior cerebral artery, and during superselective test injection, extravasation was observed at the parieto-occipital branch. The catheter was not removed and the perforation site was successfully sealed with a small amount of glue injected through the same catheter. Prompt recognition and closure of the perforation site is essential for good prognosis. (author)

  15. Combination of direct-forcing fictitious domain method and sharp interface method for dielectrophoresis of particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shi; Zhaosheng Yu; Xueming Shao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we combine the direct-forcing fictitious domain(DF/FD)method and the sharp interface method to resolve the problem of particle dielectrophoresis in two dimensions,The flow field and the motion of particles are solved with the DF/FD method,the electric field is solved with the sharp interface method,and the electrostatic force on the particles is computed using the Maxwell stress tensor method.The proposed method is validated via three problems: effective conductivity of particle composite between two planar plates,cell trapping in a channel,and motion of particles due to both conventional and traveling wave dielectrophoretic forces.

  16. Methods of centers and methods of feasible directions for the solution of optimal control problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, E.; Mukai, H.; Pironneau, O.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration of the applicability of methods of centers and of methods of feasible directions to optimal control problems. Presented experimental results show that extensions of Frank-Wolfe (1956), Zoutendijk (1960), and Pironneau-Polak (1971) algorithms for nonlinear programming problems can be quite efficient in solving optimal control problems.

  17. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  18. Iron pyrite: Phase and shape control by facile hot injection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Thanh Kieu; Pham, Viet Thanh Hau; Truong, Nguyen Tam Nguyen; Kim, Chang Duk; Park, Chinho

    2017-03-01

    Pure phases of cubic and spherical FeS2 nanocrystals (NCs) with the mean size of 80 nm and 30 nm, respectively, were obtained using trioctylamine and oleylamine as the solvents to dissolve the sulfur source via a facile and efficient hot injection method. The pure phase formation and shape control were strongly dependent on the concentration of active sulfur source (H2S) that could be formed by the reaction between the elemental sulfur and a primary amine. The chemically active sulfur source could facilitate the formation of a pure FeS2 phase from a FeS phase via a Fe3S4 phase. In addition, the active sulfur concentration is believed to be the main factor to drive the orientation attachment to obtain different shapes of FeS2 NCs. The obtained FeS2 pyrite NCs with excellent phase purity and good optical properties are believed to have potential applications to various energy devices including low-cost photovoltaics.

  19. Synthesis of highly fluorescent hydrophobic carbon dots by hot injection method using Paraplast as precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Abou; Pandey, Sunil; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2015-03-01

    We have reported synthesis of bright blue colored hydrophobic carbon dots (hC-dots) using highly pure blend of polymers called Paraplast. We developed a hot injection method for making nearly monodispersed hC-dots with a diameter in a range: 5-30nm as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The involvement of various functional groups was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. These hC-dots were incubated with breast cancer stem cells in order to check the entry as well as biological imaging. The cells were analyzed using epifluorescent microscopy. hC-dots showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity (LD50: 50mg/ml) and could be used for bioimaging even at lower concentration (0.5mg/ml). hC-dots were found to be versatile agents for peeping inside the cells which could also be used for delivery of water insoluble chemotherapeutic agents to variety of solid tumors.

  20. Evaluating the physiological state of maize (Zea mays L.) plants by direct-injection electrospray mass spectrometry (DIESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Flores, Martín; Juárez-Colunga, Sheila; Montero-Vargas, Josaphat Miguel; López-Arciniega, Janet Ana Isabel; Chagolla, Alicia; Tiessen, Axel; Winkler, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Climatic change is an increasing challenge for agriculture that is driving the development of suitable crops in order to ensure supply for both human nutrition and animal feed. In this context, it is increasingly important to understand the biochemical responses of cells to environmental cues at the whole system level, an aim that is being brought closer by advances in high throughput, cost-efficient plant metabolomics. To support molecular breeding activities, we have assessed the economic, technical and statistical feasibility of using direct mass spectrometry methods to evaluate the physiological state of maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown under different stress conditions.

  1. Reducing the pain of microemulsion propofol injections: a double-blind, randomized study of three methods of tourniquet and lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungjong; Sung Kim, Young; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lim, Byung-Gun; Kim, Hee-Zoo; Kong, Myoung-Hoon; Kim, Nan-Suk; Lee, Il-Ok

    2013-11-01

    Although the new formulation of lipid-free microemulsion propofol (MP) has some advantages over the lipid emulsion, it reportedly produces more injection pain than lipid-based propofol. Intravenous lidocaine with application of a rubber tourniquet before administration of propofol is considered to be the best method for reducing injection pain; however, this technique is not perfect. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of tourniquet application and lidocaine administration on MP injection pain. This single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 140 patients aged 18 to 65 years. Patients were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 35 each). Group A received MP (2 mg/kg) after lidocaine (0.6 mg/kg) with a tourniquet with arm down (venous engorgement); group B received MP after lidocaine with a tourniquet with arm up (venous gravity drainage); group C received MP with a tourniquet with arm down; and group D (control group) received MP only (with no tourniquet). In groups A and C, the tourniquet was released after MP; in group B, the tourniquet was released before MP. Injection pain was evaluated by using a verbal pain score (VPS). The bispectral index, the time from the beginning of drug injection to the loss of eyelash reflex, and time to the lowest bispectral index value were recorded. Group A showed significantly less incidence of pain than the control group when MP was injected. The mean VPS was significantly lower in groups A, B, and C than in group D (the control group). The VPS of group A was significantly lower than that in group B. Other observed values were not significantly different. We concluded that intravenous retention of lidocaine with the application of a rubber tourniquet under venous engorgement of the arm reduces the incidence and intensity of MP injection pain. UMIN000010725. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 3D Discontinuous Galerkin elastic seismic wave modeling based upon a grid injection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiller, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a seismic imaging method that estimates thesub-surface physical properties with a spatial resolution of the order of thewavelength. FWI is generally recast as the iterative optimization of anobjective function that measures the distance between modeled and recordeddata. In the framework of local descent methods, FWI requires to perform atleast two seismic modelings per source and per FWI iteration.Due to the resulting computational burden, applications of elastic FWI have been usuallyrestricted to 2D geometries. Despite the continuous growth of high-performancecomputing facilities, application of 3D elastic FWI to real-scale problemsremain computationally too expensive. To perform elastic seismic modeling with a reasonable amount of time, weconsider a reduced computational domain embedded in a larger background modelin which seismic sources are located. Our aim is to compute repeatedly thefull wavefield in the targeted domain after model alteration, once theincident wavefield has been computed once for all in the background model. Toachieve this goal, we use a grid injection method referred to as the Total-Field/Scattered-Field (TF/SF) technique in theelectromagnetic community. We implemented the Total-Field/Scattered-Field approach in theDiscontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DG-FEM) that is used to performmodeling in the local domain. We show how to interface the DG-FEM with any modeling engine (analytical solution, finite difference or finite elements methods) that is suitable for the background simulation. One advantage of the Total-Field/Scattered-Field approach is related to thefact that the scattered wavefield instead of the full wavefield enter thePMLs, hence making more efficient the absorption of the outgoing waves at theouter edges of the computational domain. The domain reduction in which theDG-FEM is applied allows us to use modest computational resources opening theway for high-resolution imaging by full

  3. Consistency of self-reported drug use events in a mixed methods study of people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, Stephanie R; Kral, Alex H; Dominguez Gonzalez, Karina; Wenger, Lynn D; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the consistency of information provided by people who inject drugs (PWID) during quantitative and qualitative interviews in mixed methods studies. We illustrate the use of the intraclass correlation coefficient, descriptive statistics, and regression to assess the consistency of information provided during a mixed methods study of PWID living in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California, USA. Age of first use of heroin, methamphetamine, marijuana, powder cocaine, and crack cocaine and first injection of heroin, methamphetamine, and powder cocaine were collected during an interviewer administered computer-assisted personal interview followed by an in-depth qualitative interview (n = 102). Participants were 63% male, racially/ethnically diverse. 80.4% between the ages of 40 and 60 years old, 89% US-born, and 57% homeless. Consistency of self-reported data was adequate for most drug use events. Exact concordance between quantitative and qualitative measures of age of onset ranged from 18.2-50%. Event ordering was consistent across qualitative and quantitative results for 90.2% of participants. Analyses indicated that age of onset for heroin use, heroin injection, and injection of any drug was significantly lower when assessed by qualitative methods as compared to quantitative methods. While inconsistency will emerge during mixed method studies, confidence in the timing and ordering of major types of events such as drug initiation episodes appear to be warranted.

  4. The activity-integrated method for quality assessment of reduning injection by on-line DPPH-CE-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-xu; Liu, Jiao; Bai, Yang; Li, Jin; Liu, Er-wei; He, Jun; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE-DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection.

  5. The activity-integrated method for quality assessment of reduning injection by on-line DPPH-CE-DAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xu Chang

    Full Text Available A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE-DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection.

  6. Emerging flow injection mass spectrometry methods for high-throughput quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanita, Sergio C; Kaldon, Laura G

    2016-01-01

    Where does flow injection analysis mass spectrometry (FIA-MS) stand relative to ambient mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography-MS? Improvements in FIA-MS methods have resulted in fast-expanding uses of this technique. Key advantages of FIA-MS over chromatography-MS are fast analysis (typical run time quantitative screening of chemicals needs to be performed rapidly and reliably. The FIA-MS methods discussed herein have demonstrated quantitation of diverse analytes, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, environmental contaminants, and endogenous compounds, at levels ranging from parts-per-billion (ppb) to parts-per-million (ppm) in very complex matrices (such as blood, urine, and a variety of foods of plant and animal origin), allowing successful applications of the technique in clinical diagnostics, metabolomics, environmental sciences, toxicology, and detection of adulterated/counterfeited goods. The recent boom in applications of FIA-MS for high-throughput quantitative analysis has been driven in part by (1) the continuous improvements in sensitivity and selectivity of MS instrumentation, (2) the introduction of novel sample preparation procedures compatible with standalone mass spectrometric analysis such as salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) with volatile solutes and NH4(+) QuEChERS, and (3) the need to improve efficiency of laboratories to satisfy increasing analytical demand while lowering operational cost. The advantages and drawbacks of quantitative analysis by FIA-MS are discussed in comparison to chromatography-MS and ambient MS (e.g., DESI, LAESI, DART). Generally, FIA-MS sits 'in the middle' between ambient MS and chromatography-MS, offering a balance between analytical capability and sample analysis throughput suitable for broad applications in life sciences, agricultural chemistry, consumer safety, and beyond.

  7. Direct cardiac injection of G-CSF mobilized bone-marrow stem-cells improves ventricular function in old myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archundia, Abel; Aceves, José Luis; López-Hernández, Manuel; Alvarado, Martha; Rodriguez, Emma; Díaz Quiroz, Guillermo; Páez, Araceli; Rojas, Felipe Masso; Montaño, Luis Felipe

    2005-12-01

    Autologous transplant of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC), although extremely useful after acute myocardial events, has not been evaluated in patients with old (>one-year-old) myocardial infarction. Our aim was to determine if CD34(+)-enriched peripheral-blood cells, obtained by apheresis, injected directly into the severely damaged myocardium of five patients with old myocardial infarction could restore depressed myocardial function. We found that 28 weeks after revascularization and peri-infarction injection of the enriched CD34(+) peripheral mononuclear cells, ventricular hemodynamic parameters that included left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular diastolic volume, ventricular systolic volume and left ventricular diastolic diameter approximated normal values and there was no restenosis; two patients have been followed for >52 weeks and their parameters are within normal values. In conclusion, intramyocardial injection of easily obtained CD34(+) enriched peripheral blood cells represent an encouraging procedure for patients with severely scarred and dysfunctional myocardium.

  8. A method for direct measurement of protein stability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Zoya; Gierasch, Lila M

    2009-01-01

    The stability of proteins is tuned by evolution to enable them to perform their cellular functions for the success of an organism. Yet, most of the arsenal of biophysical techniques at our disposal to characterize the thermodynamic stability of proteins is limited to in vitro samples. We describe an approach that we have developed to observe a protein directly in a cell and to monitor a fluorescence signal that reports the unfolding transition of the protein, yielding quantitatively interpretable stability data in vivo. The method is based on incorporation of structurally nonperturbing, specific binding motifs for a bis-arsenical fluorescein derivative in sites that result in dye fluorescence differences between the folded and unfolded states of the protein under study. This fluorescence labeling approach makes possible the determination of thermodynamic stability by direct urea titration in Escherichia coli cells. The specific case study we describe was carried out on the predominantly beta-sheet intracellular lipid-binding protein, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP), expressed in E. coli.

  9. A copula method for modeling directional dependence of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Changyi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes interact with each other as basic building blocks of life, forming a complicated network. The relationship between groups of genes with different functions can be represented as gene networks. With the deposition of huge microarray data sets in public domains, study on gene networking is now possible. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the reconstruction of gene networks from gene expression data. Recent work includes linear models, Boolean network models, and Bayesian networks. Among them, Bayesian networks seem to be the most effective in constructing gene networks. A major problem with the Bayesian network approach is the excessive computational time. This problem is due to the interactive feature of the method that requires large search space. Since fitting a model by using the copulas does not require iterations, elicitation of the priors, and complicated calculations of posterior distributions, the need for reference to extensive search spaces can be eliminated leading to manageable computational affords. Bayesian network approach produces a discretely expression of conditional probabilities. Discreteness of the characteristics is not required in the copula approach which involves use of uniform representation of the continuous random variables. Our method is able to overcome the limitation of Bayesian network method for gene-gene interaction, i.e. information loss due to binary transformation. Results We analyzed the gene interactions for two gene data sets (one group is eight histone genes and the other group is 19 genes which include DNA polymerases, DNA helicase, type B cyclin genes, DNA primases, radiation sensitive genes, repaire related genes, replication protein A encoding gene, DNA replication initiation factor, securin gene, nucleosome assembly factor, and a subunit of the cohesin complex by adopting a measure of directional dependence based on a copula function. We have compared

  10. Limit State of Materials and Structures Direct Methods 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oueslati, Abdelbacet; Charkaluk, Eric; Tritsch, Jean-Bernard

    2013-01-01

    To determine the carrying capacity of a structure or a structural element susceptible to operate beyond the elastic limit is an important task in many situations of both mechanical and civil engineering. The so-called “direct methods” play an increasing role due to the fact that they allow rapid access to the request information in mathematically constructive manners. They embrace Limit Analysis, the most developed approach now widely used, and Shakedown Analysis, a powerful extension to the variable repeated loads potentially more economical than step-by-step inelastic analysis. This book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Sciences and Technology of Lille. The individual contributions stem from the areas of new numerical developments rendering these methods more attractive for industrial design, extension of the general methodology to new horizons, probabilistic approaches and concrete technological applications.

  11. Direct method for calculating temperature-dependent transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Yuan, Zhe; Wesselink, R. J. H.; Starikov, Anton A.; van Schilfgaarde, Mark; Kelly, Paul J.

    2015-06-01

    We show how temperature-induced disorder can be combined in a direct way with first-principles scattering theory to study diffusive transport in real materials. Excellent (good) agreement with experiment is found for the resistivity of Cu, Pd, Pt (and Fe) when lattice (and spin) disorder are calculated from first principles. For Fe, the agreement with experiment is limited by how well the magnetization (of itinerant ferromagnets) can be calculated as a function of temperature. By introducing a simple Debye-like model of spin disorder parameterized to reproduce the experimental magnetization, the temperature dependence of the average resistivity, the anisotropic magnetoresistance, and the spin polarization of a Ni80Fe20 alloy are calculated and found to be in good agreement with existing data. Extension of the method to complex, inhomogeneous materials as well as to the calculation of other finite-temperature physical properties within the adiabatic approximation is straightforward.

  12. Direct GPS P-Code Acquisition Method Based on FFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; LU Mingquan; FENG Zhenming

    2008-01-01

    Recently, direct acquisition of GPS P-code has received considerable attention to enhance the anti-jamming and anti-spoofing capabilities of GPS receivers. This paper describes a P-code acquisition method that uses block searches with large-scale FFT to search code phases and carrier frequency offsets in parallel. To limit memory use, especially when implemented in hardware, only the largest correlation result with its position information was preserved after searching a block of resolution cells in both the time and frequency domains. A second search was used to solve the code phase slip problem induced by the code frequency offset. Simulation results demonstrate that the probability of detection is above 0.99 for carrier-to-noise density ratios in excess of 40 dB- Hz when the predetection integration time is 0.8 ms and 6 non-coherent integrations are used in the analysis.

  13. Discrete Direct Methods in the Fractional Calculus of Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    Finite differences, as a subclass of direct methods in the calculus of variations, consist in discretizing the objective functional using appropriate approximations for derivatives that appear in the problem. This article generalizes the same idea for fractional variational problems. We consider a minimization problem with a Lagrangian that depends only on the left Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Using Grunwald-Letnikov definition, we approximate the objective functional in an equispaced grid as a multi-variable function of the values of the unknown function on mesh points. The problem is then transformed to an ordinary static optimization problem. The solution to the latter problem gives an approximation to the original fractional problem on mesh points.

  14. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti composition

  15. Future Directions of Electromagnetic Methods for Hydrocarbon Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrocarbon applications, seismic exploration is the workhorse of the industry. Only in the borehole, electromagnetic (EM) methods play a dominant role, as they are mostly used to determine oil reserves and to distinguish water from oil-bearing zones. Throughout the past 60 years, we had several periods with an increased interest in EM. This increased with the success of the marine EM industry and now electromagnetics in general is considered for many new applications. The classic electromagnetic methods are borehole, onshore and offshore, and airborne EM methods. Airborne is covered elsewhere (see Smith, this issue). Marine EM material is readily available from the service company Web sites, and here I will only mention some future technical directions that are visible. The marine EM success is being carried back to the onshore market, fueled by geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon applications. Oil companies are listening to pro-EM arguments, but still are hesitant to go through the learning exercises as early adopters. In particular, the huge business drivers of shale hydrocarbons and reservoir monitoring will bring markets many times bigger than the entire marine EM market. Additional applications include support for seismic operations, sub-salt, and sub-basalt, all areas where seismic exploration is costly and inefficient. Integration with EM will allow novel seismic methods to be applied. In the borehole, anisotropy measurements, now possible, form the missing link between surface measurements and ground truth. Three-dimensional (3D) induction measurements are readily available from several logging contractors. The trend to logging-while-drilling measurements will continue with many more EM technologies, and the effort of controlling the drill bit while drilling including look-ahead-and-around the drill bit is going on. Overall, the market for electromagnetics is increasing, and a demand for EM capable professionals will continue. The emphasis will

  16. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR), two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa L. from a single source were distinguished from ...

  17. Rapid detection of pesticides not amenable to multi-residue methods by flow injection-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Dam, van R.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Flow injection combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was investigated for the rapid detection of highly polar pesticides that are not amenable to multi-residue methods because they do not partition into organic solvents and require dedicated chromatographic conditions. The pesticides includ

  18. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 during tortilla production and identification of degradation by-products by direct-injection electrospray mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Moreno-Pedraza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effect of pH, and exposure time over the inactivation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 during the tortilla making process as well as the degradative molecules generated. Materials and methods. Inactivation of AFB1 in maize-dough with alkaline pH and in alkaline methanolic solutions was determined by HPLC. Kinetics of time exposure of AFB1 in methanolic solution and the degradative products were analyzed by direct injection electrospray mass spectometry (DIESI-MS. Results. The alkaline pH of the maize-dough after nixtamalización between 10.2, and 30-40 minutes of resting at room temperature allows the 100% reduction of AFB1. DIESI-MS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two degradation molecules from AFB1. Conclusion. The alkaline pH of maize-dough and resting time are the principal factors involved in diminishing AFB1 levels in tortillas. A procedure to the tortilla making process is proposed, which allows the reduction of remnant AFB1, avoiding the accumulative effect over consumers.

  19. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  20. Optimization and application of the gas-diffusion flow injection method for the determination of chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PREDRAG POLIC

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A selective and sensitive procedure for the fast and indirect determination of chloride by the gas-diffusion FIA method has been optimized and applied for the determination of chloride in water samples which contained different amounts of the analyte. The examined samples were: seawater, tap water and very pure water from the water-steam system of the power plant “Nikola Tesla B” in Obrenovac. Application of an amperometric detector (model LC-17A; BAS, West Lafayette, USA enables the detection limit to be decreased down to 0.05 mmol/dm3 of chloride, which corresponds to 35.5 pg, and adjustment of the acceptor flow rate and direction inside the gas-diffusion unit. In this way the optimized FIA system has excellent repeatability. For 5 mmol/dm3 it was found to be 1.11 % (n = 5. The throughput of this method is 60 samples per hour.

  1. A New Edge-directed Subpixel Edge Localization Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新瑞; 徐威; 王石刚; 李倩

    2004-01-01

    Localization of the inspected chip image is one of the key problems with machine vision aided surface mount devices (SMD) and other micro-electronic equipments. This paper presents a new edge-directed subpixel edge localization method. The image is divided into two regions, edge and non-edge, using edge detection to emphasize the edge feature. Since the edges of the chip image are straight, they have straight-line characteristics locally and globally. First,the line segments of the straight edge are located to subpixel precision, according to their local straight properties, in a 3 × 3 neighborhood of the edge region. Second, the subpixel midpoints of the line segments are computed. Finally, the straight edge is fitted using the midpoints and the least square method, according to its global straight property in the entire edge region. In this way, the edge is located to subpixel precision. While fitting the edge, the irregular points are eliminated by the angles of the line segments to improve the precision. We can also distinguish different edges and their intersections using the angles of the line segments and distances between the edge points, then give the vectorial result of the image edge with high precision.

  2. Dynamic Solution Injection: a new method for preparing pptv-ppbv standard atmospheres of volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Jardine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS and thermal desorption Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS allow for absolute quantification of a wide range of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs with concentrations in the ppbv to pptv range. Although often neglected, routine calibration is necessary for accurate quantification of VOCs by PTR-MS and GC-MS. Several gas calibration methods currently exist, including compressed gas cylinders, permeation tubes, diffusion tubes, and liquid injection. While each method has its advantages and limitations, no single technique has emerged that is capable of dynamically generating accurate concentrations of complex mixtures of VOCs over a large concentration range (ppbv to pptv, is technically simple and field portable, and affordable. We present the development of a new VOC calibration technique based on liquid injection with these features termed Dynamic Solution Injection (DSI. This method consists of injecting VOCs (0.1–0.5 mM dissolved in cyclohexane (PTR-MS or methanol (GC-MS into a 1.0 slpm flow of purified dilution gas in an unheated 25 mL glass vial. Upon changes in the injection flow rate (0.5–4.0 μL min−1, new VOC concentrations are reached within seconds to minutes, depending on the compound, with a liquid injection flow rate accuracy and precision of better than 7% and 4%, respectively. We demonstrate the utility of the DSI technique by calibrating a PTR-MS to seven different cyclohexane solutions containing a total of 34 different biogenic compounds including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, fatty acid oxidation products, aromatics, and dimethyl sulfide. In order to validate the new DSI method, a GC-MS and PTR-MS calibration intercomparison with VOC standards generated by dynamic dilution of NIST traceable permeation tubes (α-pinene, acetone, and ethanol and a compressed gas cylinder (acetaldehyde was made. The results revealed that while

  3. A new HPLC method for the direct analysis of triglycerides of dicarboxylic acids in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capristo, E; Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Addolorato, G; Greco, A V; Gasbarrini, G

    1999-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acids (DA) are alternate lipid substrates recently proposed in parenteral nutrition. Two new derivatives of DA, a triglyceride of sebacic (TGC10) and one of dodecanedioic (TGC12) acid have been synthesised in order to reduce the amount of sodium given with the unesterified forms. The present paper describes a rapid and direct high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) for the analysis of these substances in both plasma and urine. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were rapidly injected with 64 mg of TGC10 or 53 mg of TGC12. The triglycerides and their products of hydrolysis were measured in plasma samples taken at different times. For the dose of 500 ng the intra-assay variations ranged from 6. 80+/-0.35% for TGC10 to 18.6+/-3.20% for TGC12 and the inter-assay variations were from 4.44+/-2.21% for TGC10 to 15.0+/-6.72% for TGC12. The detection limit for both triglycerides was 5 ng. This rapid and direct HPLC method could have practical implications in monitoring the concentration of both triglycerides and free forms of DA in biological samples of patients who might benefit from the administration of these substances during parenteral nutrition regimens.

  4. Developments in Spray Modeling in Diesel and Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines Progrès de la modélisation des sprays dans les moteurs Diesel et à essence

    OpenAIRE

    Kong S. C.; Senecal P. K.; Reitz R. D.

    2006-01-01

    In direct-injection engines, the fuel spray characteristics influence the combustion efficiency and exhaust emissions. The performance of available spray models for predicting liquid and vapor fuel distributions, and their influence on combustion is reviewed for both diesel and gasoline direct injection engines. A phenomenological nozzle flow model is described for simulating the effects of diesel injector nozzle internal geometry on the fuel injection and spray processes. The flow model prov...

  5. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  6. A simplified double-injection method to quantify cerebral blood flow and vascular reserve using iodine-123 IMP-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Ueno, Makoto; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-04-01

    We developed and evaluated a simplified double-injection method for iodine-123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) to quantify regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) twice in a single SPECT session. The method enabled rapid calculations of rCBF with five 10-minute SPECT scans, a fixed distribution volume (V{sub d}), and one-point arterial blood sampling to calibrate a standard input function (SIF). Sixty neurological patients were examined to measure rCBF twice in a single session of IMP-SPECT. Patients underwent frequent arterial blood sampling with two injections of IMP and acetazolamide challenge. We generated the SIF and determined the optimal V{sub d} and calibration time (t{sub cal}) for the SIF in 30 patients. Validities of the fixed t{sub cal} and V{sub d} were assessed in the remaining 30 patients. Simulation studies were also performed to evaluate the error sensitivity of the method. The optimal t{sub cal} and V{sub d} were 34 min and 30 ml/ml, respectively. The method was robust in rCBF calculation with noisy SPECT data and yielded rCBF with negligible bias and acceptable errors compared with those obtained by the double-injection method previously reported. The method can be applied to measure rCBF twice in a single SPECT session more easily and less invasively. (author)

  7. Determination of human-use pharmaceuticals in filtered water by direct aqueous injection: high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Edward T.; Noriega, Mary C.; Kanagy, Christopher J.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a method for the determination of 110 human-use pharmaceuticals using a 100-microliter aliquot of a filtered water sample directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode. The pharmaceuticals were separated by using a reversed-phase gradient of formic acid/ammonium formate-modified water and methanol. Multiple reaction monitoring of two fragmentations of the protonated molecular ion of each pharmaceutical to two unique product ions was used to identify each pharmaceutical qualitatively. The primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product ion transition was quantified for each pharmaceutical relative to the primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product transition of one of 19 isotope-dilution standard pharmaceuticals or the pesticide atrazine, using an exact stable isotope analogue where possible. Each isotope-dilution standard was selected, when possible, for its chemical similarity to the unlabeled pharmaceutical of interest, and added to the sample after filtration but prior to analysis. Method performance for each pharmaceutical was determined for reagent water, groundwater, treated drinking water, surface water, treated wastewater effluent, and wastewater influent sample matrixes that this method will likely be applied to. Each matrix was evaluated in order of increasing complexity to demonstrate (1) the sensitivity of the method in different water matrixes and (2) the effect of sample matrix, particularly matrix enhancement or suppression of the precursor ion signal, on the quantitative determination of pharmaceutical concentrations. Recovery of water samples spiked (fortified) with the suite of pharmaceuticals determined by this method typically was greater than 90 percent in reagent water, groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. Correction for ambient environmental

  8. Ionoacoustics: A new direct method for range verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Katia; Assmann, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The superior ballistic properties of ion beams may offer improved tumor-dose conformality and unprecedented sparing of organs at risk in comparison to other radiation modalities in external radiotherapy. However, these advantages come at the expense of increased sensitivity to uncertainties in the actual treatment delivery, resulting from inaccuracies of patient positioning, physiological motion and uncertainties in the knowledge of the ion range in living tissue. In particular, the dosimetric selectivity of ion beams depends on the longitudinal location of the Bragg peak, making in vivo knowledge of the actual beam range the greatest challenge to full clinical exploitation of ion therapy. Nowadays, in vivo range verification techniques, which are already, or close to, being investigated in the clinical practice, rely on the detection of the secondary annihilation photons or prompt gammas, resulting from nuclear interaction of the primary ion beam with the irradiated tissue. Despite the initial promising results, these methods utilize a not straightforward correlation between nuclear and electromagnetic processes, and typically require massive and costly instrumentation. On the contrary, the long-term known, yet only recently revisited process of "ionoacoustics", which is generated by local tissue heating especially at the Bragg peak, may offer a more direct approach to in vivo range verification, as reviewed here.

  9. Method for directly recovering fluorine from gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlett, Michael J.; Saraceno, Anthony J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is a process for the direct recovery of gaseous fluorine from waste-gas streams or the like. The process comprises passing the gas stream through a bed of anhydrous K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6 pellets to fluorinate the same to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.7 and subsequently desorbing the fluorine by heating the K.sub.3 NiF.sub.7 pellets to a temperature re-converting them to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6. The efficiency of the fluorine-absorption step is maximized by operating in a selected and conveniently low temperature. The desorbed fluorine is highly pure and is at a pressure of several atmospheres. Preferably, the K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6 pellets are prepared by a method including the steps of forming agglomerates of hydrated K.sub.3 NiF.sub.5, sintering the agglomerates to form K.sub.3 NiF.sub.5 pellets of enhanced reactivity with respect to fluorine, and fluorinating the sintered pellets to K.sub.3 NiF.sub.6.

  10. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  11. An image-based method for objectively assessing injection moulded plastic quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemose, Morten; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Zsíros, László

    2017-01-01

    In high volume productions based on casting processes, like high-pressure die casting (HPDC) or injection moulding, there is a wide range of variables that affect the end quality of produced parts. These variables include production parameters (temperature, pressure, mixture), and external factors...

  12. Natural gas in a D. I. diesel engine. A comparison of two different ways. [Direct injection diesel enginer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun-ming, Qu; Sorenson, S.C.; Kofoed, E.

    1987-01-01

    A D.I. diesel engine was modified for natural gas operation with pilot injection and with spark ignition so that a comparative analysis of these two different ways of using natural gas could be made. The results of the experiments indicate that for a diesel engine, it is possible that the operating characteristics of a straight natural gas engine are comparable with those of a diesel/gas engine at the same compression ratio and speed. For a dual fuel engine with pilot injection the best diesel/gas ratio by energy content is approximately 20/80 at full load operation. For straight natural gas engine with spark ignition, quality governed natural gas operation has good efficiency but poor NOx emissions. This problem could be improved through throttle controlled operation. These two different ways of using natural gas are best suited to stationary engines.

  13. Direct Injection of Seawater for the Analysis of Nitroaromatic Explosives and their Degradation Products by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    micellar electrokinetic chromatography Braden C. Giordanoa,∗, Dean S. Burgib, Greg E. Collinsa a Uanited States Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry...threats to our coastal regions. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been demonstrated to be a useful analytical tool in the anal- ysis of...injection of seawater for the analysis of nitroaromatic explosives and their degradation products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography 5a. CONTRACT

  14. Flexible design of fuel injection and ignition systems for gasoline direct injection engines; Flexibles Design der Einspritzduese und Effektivitaet von Zuendanlagen fuer Benzin-Direkt-Einspritzung-Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, H.; Yoshinaga, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sugiura, S. [DENSO Corp. (Japan); Saitoh, K.; Okabe, S. [NIPPON SOKEN, Inc. (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    First generation ''wall-guided'' DISI engines had stratified lean combustion with a wide spacing between the injector and spark plug. In these engines, however, the combustion timing tended to be too early, leading to the inability to achieve ideal efficiency from the thermodynamic process. One proposal to overcome the disadvantages of ''wall-guided'' DISI engines is second-generation ''spray-guided'' DISI engines. It has stratified lean combustion with a close spacing between the injector and spark plug. In ''spray-guided'' DISI engines, the air-fuel mixture formation is independent of gas flow and piston movement. This enables the most significant possibilities for decreasing fuel consumption. Nevertheless, stratified lean combustion has been criticized for the costs and complexity of the aftertreatment required to achieve particulate and NOx emissions compliance. As one response to this problem, there has been a shift toward DISI development specific to stoichiometric homogeneous combustion. In this report, we will describe DENSO's current status and the future of two critical technologies for DISI fuel spray and ignition. Specifically, we will describe a nozzle concept and a high-performance ignition concept. The first concerns a ''multi-hole nozzle with highly flexible spray formation,'' and the second concerns a ''multi-spark ignition system with a high degree of energy flexibility.'' In addition, we will describe advanced ignition methods involving a plasma and a laser ignition. (orig.)

  15. The Ram Relaxation Technique: A Painless Biopsy Method. A Shave Biopsy Approach Without Injectable Anesthesia or Needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Jacquiline R; Ghiam, Benjamin; Ram, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Shave skin biopsies are essential procedures wherein physicians diagnose dermatologic lesions. The protocol for skin biopsies entails a lidocaine/epinephrine injection. This study suggests an alternative, novel method of performing a shave biopsy that avoids pain, needles, and injectable anesthesia, termed the Ram Relaxation Technique (RRT). To present a new technique that physicians may chose to form when faced with dermatological biopsies that are painless and needle free. Randomly selected, patients were presented to the authors' offices with abnormal skin lesions that required a shave biopsy. The patients were offered the choice of having an anesthetic injection (1% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine) or the alternative method (RRT) before the biopsy. Twenty patients (n = 20, 10 men, 10 women) chose the alternative method (RRT) and were the focus of this study. These patients who chose RRT were asked to scale their pain on a scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 1-3 = mild, 4-6 = moderate, and 7-10 = severe pain). Fourteen of the 20 patients stated that they experienced no pain (0), 5 experienced mild pain, and 1 patient experienced moderate pain. This study demonstrates an alternative and nearly pain-free method for superficial shave biopsies of the skin for certain patients in the appropriate clinical setting with the appropriate, superficial papule lesions. Dermis lesions, melanocytic lesions, and macular lesions are not ideal candidates given the risk for misdiagnosis, and more pain, respectively.

  16. Making an Orthotopic Tumor Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma for ICR Mice by Direct Injection%直接注射法制作ICR小鼠肝癌原位移植瘤模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民; 施晓雷; 陶科; 潘军平; 吴亚夫

    2011-01-01

    目的:培养鼠肝癌H22细胞,直接注射法制作ICR小鼠肝癌原位移植瘤,为后续实验奠定基础.方法:鼠肝癌H22细胞体外培养,将调整好的对数生长期的肝癌细胞直接注射小鼠肝脏,2周后解剖观察,并进行组织HE染色.结果:所有实验小鼠均可见肿瘤生长,HE染色示肝细胞肝癌.结论:直接注射法制作ICR小鼠肝癌原位移植瘤模型简便易行,值得推广应用.%Objective: To cultivate H22 cell line and making an orthotopic tumor model of hepatocellular carcinoma on ICR mouse using direct injection method to lay the foundation for subsequent experiment. Methods: Cultivate H22 cell line in vitro and an orthotopic xenograft tumor model of hepatocellular carcinoma was created by injection of H22 cells in logarithmic growth phase directly into the liver parenchyma of ICR mice. Two weeks later, hepatocellular carcinoma specimens of animals were observed and stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Results: Tumor growth happened on all the experimental mice and was showed as hepatocellular carcinoma by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Conclusion: It is convenient of direct injection method on making an orthotopic tumor model of hepatocellular carcinoma and should be reported and used widely.

  17. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital baseb

  18. Double-injection method for sequentially measuring cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-({sup 123}I)p-iodoamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Inoue, Takeshi; Fujioka, Hiroyoshi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Ikezoe, Junpei

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the accuracy of a double-injection method for sequentially measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) with N-isopropyl-({sup 123}I)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in simulation studies based on patient data and in clinical studies. The unidirectional clearance of IMP from the blood to the brain (K{sub 1}; nearly equal to CBF) in the first and second sessions was calculated by means of a microsphere model. The K{sub 1} values in the first session (K{sub 1}{sup I}) were calculated from C{sub b}(5)/Int C{sub a}{sup I}, where C{sub b}(5) and Int C{sub a}{sup I} are values for brain radioactivity 5 min after the first injection and for arterial blood radioactivity obtained by 5-min continuous sampling. The K{sub 1} values in the second session (K{sub 1}{sup II}) were calculated by means of the following four methods. Method 1: [C{sub b}(t{sub z}+5)-C{sub b}(t{sub z})]/[Int C{sub a}{sup II}-C{sub a}(t{sub z}) x 5], where C{sub b}(t{sub z}+5) and C{sub b}(t{sub z}) are the brain radioactivity levels 5 min after the second injection and at the time the second session was started (t{sub z}), respectively. Int C{sub a}{sup II} and C{sub a}(t{sub z}) are the arterial blood radioactivity levels obtained by 5-min continuous sampling after the second injection and at t{sub z}, respectively. Method 2: [C{sub b}(t{sub z}+5)-C{sub b}(T{sub z})]/[Int C{sup I}{sub a} x R], where R is the injection dose ratio. Method 3: [C{sub b}(t{sub z}+5)-C{sub b}(t{sub z}) x exp (-K{sub 1}{sup I} x 5/{lambda})]/Int C{sub a}{sup II}, where {lambda} is the population averaged partition coefficient. Method 4: same as Method 3 except that K{sub 1}{sup I} was replaced by K{sub 1}{sup II} obtained by means of Method 2. Theoretically, Method 4 appeared to be the best of the four methods. The change in K{sub 1} during the second session obtained by Method 1 or 2, largely depending on R and t{sub z}, whereas Method 3 or 4 yielded a more reliable estimate than Method 1 or 2, without largely depending on R

  19. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zanetti, Marco [Hirslanden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hodler, Juerg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  20. A method of adjusting SUV for injection-acquisition time differences in {sup 18}F-FDG PET Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, Eric [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pessac (France); Clermont, Henri de [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Marthan, Roger [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France)

    2011-11-15

    A time normalisation method of tumour SUVs in {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is proposed that has been verified in lung cancer patients. A two-compartment model analysis showed that, when SUV is not corrected for {sup 18}F physical decay (SUV{sub uncorr}), its value is within 5% of its peak value (t = 79 min) between 55 and 110 min after injection, in each individual patient. In 10 patients, each with 1 or more malignant lesions (n = 15), two PET acquisitions were performed within this time delay, and the maximal SUV of each lesion, both corrected and uncorrected, was assessed. No significant difference was found between the two uncorrected SUVs, whereas there was a significant difference between the two corrected ones: mean differences were 0.04 {+-} 0.22 and 3.24 {+-} 0.75 g.ml{sup -1}, respectively (95% confidence intervals). Therefore, a simple normalisation of decay-corrected SUV for time differences after injection is proposed: SUV{sub N} = 1.66*SUV{sub uncorr}, where the factor 1.66 arises from decay correction at t = 79 min. When {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is performed within the range 55-110 min after injection, a simple SUV normalisation for time differences after injection has been verified in patients with lung cancer, with a {+-}2.5% relative measurement uncertainty. (orig.)

  1. Imaging the photoinduced charge injection in CdS/TiO2 nanoparticles by the sequential fluorescence mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederice, Rafael; Lencione, Diego; Gehlen, Marcelo H.

    2017-03-01

    The combination of a sensitizer and TiO2 nanoparticles forming a photocatalytic material is a central issue in many fields of applied photochemistry. The charge injection of emissive sensitizers into the conduction band of the semiconductor TiO2 may form a photoactive region that becomes dark, or it has a very low emission signal due to the generation of sensitizer radicals. However, by sequential coupling of a selected photoredox dye, such as resazurin, the dark region may become fluorescent at the interfaces where the charge injection has taken place due to the concomitant formation of fluorescent resorufin by cascade electron transfer. Using this strategy and a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) image, the charge injection in TiO2/CdS and SiO2/TiO2/CdS nanoparticles is investigated The method allows the charge injection efficiency of the excited CdS into TiO2 to be evaluated qualitatively, explaining the differences observed for these photocatalytic materials in H2 generation.

  2. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  3. DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winniford, Michael D

    2013-02-08

    Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of

  4. Lanreotide depot deep subcutaneous injection: a new method of delivery and its associated benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmichael JD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available John D CarmichaelDepartment of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary tumor. Treatment options include surgery, medical therapy, and in some cases, radiation therapy. Current medical therapy consists of treatment with somatostatin analog medications or a growth hormone receptor antagonist. There are two somatostatin analogs currently in use, octreotide and lanreotide. Both are supplied in long-acting formulations and are of comparable biochemical efficacy. Lanreotide is supplied in a prefilled syringe and is injected into deep subcutaneous tissue. Studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of self- or partner administration, and have demonstrated that injection of lanreotide can be accomplished reliably and safely outside a physician's office. For patients who have achieved biochemical control with lanreotide, the FDA has recently approved an extended dosing interval. Selected patients may be able to receive the medication less frequently with injections of 120 mg administered every 6 or 8 weeks. This review focuses on the use of lanreotide in the treatment of acromegaly, the safety and efficacy of the drug, and the benefits afforded to patients because of unique aspects of the delivery of lanreotide.Keywords: acromegaly, treatment, lanreotide, somatostatin analog, pituitary tumor

  5. Lanreotide depot deep subcutaneous injection: a new method of delivery and its associated benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, John D

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary tumor. Treatment options include surgery, medical therapy, and in some cases, radiation therapy. Current medical therapy consists of treatment with somatostatin analog medications or a growth hormone receptor antagonist. There are two somatostatin analogs currently in use, octreotide and lanreotide. Both are supplied in long-acting formulations and are of comparable biochemical efficacy. Lanreotide is supplied in a prefilled syringe and is injected into deep subcutaneous tissue. Studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of self- or partner administration, and have demonstrated that injection of lanreotide can be accomplished reliably and safely outside a physician's office. For patients who have achieved biochemical control with lanreotide, the FDA has recently approved an extended dosing interval. Selected patients may be able to receive the medication less frequently with injections of 120 mg administered every 6 or 8 weeks. This review focuses on the use of lanreotide in the treatment of acromegaly, the safety and efficacy of the drug, and the benefits afforded to patients because of unique aspects of the delivery of lanreotide.

  6. An isocratic ion exchange HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in a pharmaceutical formulation for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Hongwu; Sunderland, V Bruce

    2005-02-23

    An isocratic ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in pharmaceutical formulations for injections. The separation was made by a ZORBAX 300-SCX column using 0.025 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (adjusted to pH 2.6 with phosphoric acid)-acetonitrile (95:5) as mobile phase. The validation of the method was performed, and specificity, reproducibility, precision and accuracy were confirmed. The limits of quantification were approximately 0.2 microg/ml for each drug. Due to its simplicity and accuracy the method is particularly suitable for routine pharmaceutical quality control.

  7. Gadolinium contrast media are more nephrotoxic than iodine media. The importance of osmolality in direct renal artery injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmstaahl, Barbara; Leander, Peter; Almen, Torsten [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [Lasarettet Trelleborg, Department of Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Chai, Chun-Ming [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Experimental Research, Malmoe (Sweden); Golman, Klaes [Biosciences, GE Health, Malmoe (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [University Hospital, Lund University, Competence Center for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    A study was undertaken of the role of osmotoxicity in gadolinium (Gd) and iodine contrast media (CM) nephrotoxicity in ischemic porcine kidneys. Test solutions: mannitol iso-osmotic to 0.5 M gadopentetate (1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O), 0.5 M gadodiamide (0.78 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O) and 0.5 M iohexol (190 mg I/ml, 0.42 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O). Each solution was injected [3 ml/kg body weight (BW)] into the balloon-occluded (10 min) renal artery of eight left-sided nephrectomized pigs. The plasma half-life of a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) marker was used to compare their effects on GFR 1-3 h post-injection. The median half-lives of the GFR marker after injection of gadopentetate (1,730 min) and mannitol 1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (2,782 min) did not differ statistically (P=0.28), but were significantly longer than after all other solutions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P=0.06) between gadodiamide (218 min) and mannitol 0.82 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (169 min), while there was (P=0.03) between iohexol (181 min) and mannitol 0.43 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (148 min). The difference between gadodiamide and iohexol was significant (P=0.01). Reduction in GFR, as a marker of nephrotoxicity, induced by gadopentetate correlated with its high osmolality, while the effect of gadodiamide and iohexol may include chemotoxicity. Iohexol molecules were less nephrotoxic than the Gd-CM molecules and contain three-times the number of attenuating atoms per molecule. (orig.)

  8. Methods, systems and apparatus for optimization of third harmonic current injection in a multi-phase machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel

    2012-10-02

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for increasing voltage utilization in a five-phase vector controlled machine drive system that employs third harmonic current injection to increase torque and power output by a five-phase machine. To do so, a fundamental current angle of a fundamental current vector is optimized for each particular torque-speed of operating point of the five-phase machine.

  9. Optical 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmission at 4 Gbit/s by directly modulating a coherently injection-locked colorless laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Huai-Yung; Peng, Peng-Chun; Lu, Hai-Han; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2012-08-27

    Coherently injection-locked and directly modulated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode (WRC-FPLD) for back-to-back optical 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) and 52-subcarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission with maximum bit rate up to 4 Gbit/s at carrier frequency of 2.5 GHz is demonstrated. The WRC-FPLD transmitter source is a specific design with very weak-resonant longitudinal modes to preserve its broadband gain spectral characteristics for serving as a colorless WDM-PON transmitter. Under coherent injection-locking, the relative-intensity noise (RIN) of the injection-locked WRC-FPLD can be suppressed to ?105 dBc/Hz and the error vector magnitude of the received optical OFDM data is greatly reduced with the amplitude error suppressed down 5.5%. Such a coherently injection-locked single-mode WRC-FPLD can perform both the back-to-back and the 25-km-SMF 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmissions with a symbol rate of 20-MSa/s in each OFDM subcarrier. After coherent injection locking, the BER of the back-to-back transmitted 16-QAM-52-OFDM data is reduced to 2.5 × 10(-5) at receiving power of ?10 dBm. After propagating along a 25-km-long SMF, a receiving power sensitivity of ?7.5 dBm is required to obtain a lowest BER of 2.5 × 10(-5), and a power penalty of 2.7 dB is observed when comparing with the back-to-back transmission.

  10. Optimization Methods of Superheated Steam Injection Pipelines%过热注汽管线优化方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙运生; 胡筱波; 侯文刚; 王文; 潘海燕

    2016-01-01

    注蒸汽热采是稠油开发的主要技术手段,将注汽锅炉产生的高压蒸汽通过注汽管线注入到地下油层,以降低稠油黏度,便于开采。吞吐和汽驱要求井底蒸汽干度≥50%, SAGD要求井底蒸汽干度≥90%,随着采油新技术的应用,对注汽品质也提出了更高的要求,如何减少热量散失和压力损失、确保蒸汽高效注入地层,对超稠油开发尤为重要。在理论计算的基础上,通过多方案对比的方法,对过热注汽管线优化设计进行了系统的研究和分析,结合目前过热注汽管网现状,阐述了过热注汽管线的管材、保温和热补偿等方面的优化方式,大口径注汽管线材质选用Q345E,热补偿采用旋转补偿器更为合理,保温采用气凝胶隔热毡作为主体具有较好的节能效果。%Thermal steam injection recovery is the main technical means of heavy oil devel-opment. The high pressure steam produced by steam injection boiler can be injected into the underground oil layer through the steam injection pipeline to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil, which is convenient for mining. Huff and puff and steam drive requires steam quality is not less than 50%,SAGD requires steam quality is not less than 90%.As long as the applica-tion of new production technologies, the higher requirement for the quality of injection steam is put forward. It’ s important to ensure the injection efficiency and reduce the heat loss and pressure loss for super heavy oil development. Based on the theoretical calculation, through the method of multi-scheme comparison, overheat steam injection pipeline optimi-zation design were systematic research and analysis in this paper.Combining the current situ-ation of overheat steam injection pipe network, optimization methods of the overheat steam injection pipeline material, insulation, thermal compensation were put forward. Q345E is the applicable material of large diameter steam

  11. The efficiency of direct integration methods in elastic contact-impact problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim H. Guzelbey; Ahmet Erklig; Bahattin Kanber; Keren Wang

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of direct integration methods is made and their efficiency is investigated for impact problems. Newmark, Wilson-θ, Central Difference and Houbolt Methods are used as direct integration methods. Impact analysis includes that of elastic and large deformation based upon updated Lagrangian including buckling check. The results show that the direct integration methods give different results in different contact-impact cases.

  12. Unenhanced Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Fusion Imaging in Direct Percutaneous Sac Injection for Treatment of Type II Endoleak: Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@gmail.com; Ierardi, Anna Maria [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy); Radaelli, Alessandro [Philips Healthcare (Netherlands); Marchi, Giuseppe De; Floridi, Chiara [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy); Piffaretti, Gabriele [University of Insubria, Vascular Surgery Department (Italy); Federico, Fontana [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    AimTo evaluate safety, feasibility, technical success, and clinical success of direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) for the treatment of type II endoleaks (T2EL) using anatomical landmarks on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fusion imaging (FI).Materials and MethodsEight patients with T2EL were treated with DPSI using CBCT as imaging guidance. Anatomical landmarks on unenhanced CBCT were used for referencing T2EL location in the first five patients, while FI between unenhanced CBCT and pre-procedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) was used in the remaining three patients. Embolization was performed with thrombin, glue, and ethylene–vinyl alcohol copolymer. Technical and clinical success, iodinated contrast utilization, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and mean radiation dose were registered.ResultsDPSI was technically successful in all patients: the needle was correctly positioned at the first attempt in six patients, while in two of the first five patients the needle was repositioned once. Neither minor nor major complications were registered. Average procedural time was 45 min and the average administered iodinated contrast was 13 ml. Mean radiation dose of the procedure was 60.43 Gy cm{sup 2} and mean fluoroscopy time was 18 min. Clinical success was achieved in all patients (mean follow-up of 36 months): no sign of T2EL was reported in seven patients until last CT follow-up, while it persisted in one patient with stability of sac diameter.ConclusionsDPSI using unenhanced CBCT and FI is feasible and provides the interventional radiologist with an accurate and safe alternative to endovascular treatment with limited iodinated contrast utilization.

  13. Comparison of the G and V methods for ventrogluteal site identification: Muscle and subcutaneous fat thicknesses and considerations for successful intramuscular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Theresa A; Elgellaie, Asmahan; Ashcroft, Elfriede

    2017-07-28

    The ventrogluteal site is increasingly recommended for long-acting antipsychotic intramuscular injections; however, it remains infrequently utilized due to nurses' lack of confidence in site identification. The more recent G (geometric) method of ventrogluteal site identification is less subjective and likely more reliable than the V method for successful intramuscular injection outcomes. Knowledge of muscle and subcutaneous fat thicknesses, and the influence of sex and anthropometry on theoretical injection outcome, is necessary to support evidence-based use of the ventrogluteal site. In the presents study, we compared the V and G methods for injection site subcutaneous fat, muscle, and total tissue thicknesses, and theoretical injection outcome (bone injury, intramuscular or subcutaneous), and determined anthropometric predictors of injection outcome. Subcutaneous fat and muscle thicknesses were measured via ultrasound, bilaterally at V and G method sites (28 males, 32 females). Muscle and total tissue were significantly thicker, and successful intramuscular injection significantly more likely, using the G versus V method (75% versus 57%). Females had significantly thicker subcutaneous fat than males at both sites. Even using the G method, 92% of males but only 59% of females, would have a successful intramuscular injection, with remaining females at risk of bone injury (16%) or subcutaneous injection (25%). The G method site is more reliable for successful intramuscular injection, with less risk of bone injury than the V method site. Appropriate needle-length selection is essential for females with a body mass index (BMI) 30 kg m(-2) and hip >90 cm (to avoid subcutaneous injection). © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. 点燃式缸内直喷甲醇发动机甲醛和未燃甲醇排放特性%Formaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions from a spark-ignition direct-injection methanol engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫长明; 张自雷; 贾京龙; 崔峰云; 郑伟

    2012-01-01

    The effects of methanol injection timing, ignition timing and excess air ratio on formaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions from a spark-ignition direct-injection methanol engine under homogenous combustion mode were investigated experimentally by means of a measurement method in which the gas chromatography and the liquid chromatography were used to separate and measure formaldehyde and methanol. The results show that the methanol injection timing, ignition timing and excess air ratio affect significantly the formaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions from a spark- ignition directqnjection methanol engine. The variations in emitted formaldehyde and unburned methanol show opposite tendencies with the variations in the methanol injection timing, ignition timing and excess air ratio. Retarding methanol injection timing, advancing ignition timing and using lean mixture decrease formaldehyde emission.%基于气相色谱和液相色谱相结合的甲醛和甲醇测量方法,试验研究了点燃式缸内直喷甲醇发动机甲醇喷射正时、点火正时和过量空气系数在均质燃烧模式下对甲醛和未燃甲醇排放的影响。试验结果表明,甲醇喷射正时、点火正时和过量空气系数对该发动机甲醛和未燃甲醇排放有显著影响,并且甲醛和未燃甲醇排放随喷射正时、点火正时和过量空气系数的变化呈相反的变化趋势。推迟喷射甲醇、提前点火及采用稀混合气可以降低甲醛排放。

  15. Evaluation of combined direct-push methods used for aquifer model generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Ralf; Hornbruch, Götz; Leven, Carsten; Tischer, Lars; Grossmann, Jochen; Dietrich, Peter; Weiss, Holger; Dahmke, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Most established methods to characterize aquifer structure and hydraulic conductivities of hydrostratigraphical units are not capable of delivering sufficient information in the spatial resolution that is desired for sophisticated numerical contaminant transport modeling and adapted remediation design. With hydraulic investigation methods based on the direct-push (DP) technology such as DP slug tests, DP injection logging, and the hydraulic profiling tool, it is possible to rapidly delineate hydrogeological structures and estimate their hydraulic conductivity in shallow unconsolidated aquifers without the need for wells. A combined application of these tools was used for the investigation of a contaminated German refinery site and for the setup of hydraulic aquifer models. The quality of DP investigation and the models was evaluated by comparisons of tracer transport simulations using these models and measured breakthroughs of two natural gradient tracer tests. Model scenarios considering the information of all tools together showed good reproduction of the measured breakthroughs, indicating the suitability of the approach and a minor impact of potential technical limitations. Using the DP slug tests alone yielded significantly higher deviations for the determined hydraulic conductivities compared to considering two or three of the tools. Realistic aquifer models developed on basis of such combined DP investigation approaches can help optimize remediation concepts or identify flow regimes for aquifers with a complex structure.

  16. Analysis of transient flows in gasoline direct injection systems: effects on unsteady air entrainment by the spray; Analyse des ecoulements transitoires dans les systemes d'injection directe essence: effets sur l'entrainement d'air instationnaire du spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delay, G.

    2005-03-15

    The aim of this study is to determine instantaneous liquid flow rate oscillations effect on non stationary air entrainment of an injector conical spray (Gasoline Direct Injection). The tools we use are either experimental or numerical ones. An instantaneous flow rate determination method is used. It is based on pulsated flows physics and only requires the velocity at the centerline of a pipe mounted just before the injector. So, it is possible to 'rebuild' the instantaneous velocity distributions and then to get the instantaneous liquid flow rate (Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements). A mechanical and hydraulics modeling software (AMESim) is necessary to get injector outlet flow rate. Simulations are validated by both 'rebuilding' method results and common rail pressure measurements. Fluorescent Particle Image Velocimetry (FPIV), suited to dense two -phase flows, is used to measure air flow around and inside the conical spray. Velocity measurements close to the spray frontier are used to compute instantaneous air entrainment. Considering droplets momentum exchange with air and thanks to droplets diameters and liquid velocities measurements at the nozzle exit, a transient air entrainment model is proposed according to FPIV measurements. (author)

  17. Baryon interactions in lattice QCD: the direct method vs. the HAL QCD potential method

    CERN Document Server

    Iritani, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    We make a detailed comparison between the direct method and the HAL QCD potential method for the baryon-baryon interactions, taking the $\\Xi\\Xi$ system at $m_\\pi= 0.51$ GeV in 2+1 flavor QCD and using both smeared and wall quark sources. The energy shift $\\Delta E_\\mathrm{eff}(t)$ in the direct method shows the strong dependence on the choice of quark source operators, which means that the results with either (or both) source are false. The time-dependent HAL QCD method, on the other hand, gives the quark source independent $\\Xi\\Xi$ potential, thanks to the derivative expansion of the potential, which absorbs the source dependence to the next leading order correction. The HAL QCD potential predicts the absence of the bound state in the $\\Xi\\Xi$($^1$S$_0$) channel at $m_\\pi= 0.51$ GeV, which is also confirmed by the volume dependence of finite volume energy from the potential. We also demonstrate that the origin of the fake plateau in the effective energy shift $\\Delta E_\\mathrm{eff}(t)$ at $t \\sim 1$ fm can b...

  18. Methods and Variables Associated with the Risk of Septic Arthritis Following Intra-Articular Injections in Horses: A Survey of Veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Caroline C; Adams, Stephen B; Moore, George E

    2016-11-01

    To determine common methods for intra-articular injections and variables associated with the risk of septic arthritis following intra-articular injection in the horse. Cross-sectional survey. Equine veterinarians. A link to an online survey was distributed to equine practitioners in 2014. Responses for descriptive data were tabulated. Data on infection rates obtained from medical records were analyzed. Variables associated with the risk of septic arthritis were determined using χ(2) or Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression. Common current methods for intra-articular injections were determined from 241 surveys. Sixty-four of 241 surveys (26.6%) contained data with numbers of joints injected and number of infections obtained from review of medical records. Eight different injection methods were used by more than 2/3 of responding veterinarians. A total of 67 out of 319,760 injected joints reported became septic following injection, giving an incidence of 2.10 septic joints per 10,000 intra-articular injections. Based on multivariate analysis, infection rates were significantly lower when veterinarians prepared their own injection sites (OR=0.10) and had veterinarians. The low reported incidence of infection may be related to the large number of practitioners frequently using common methods. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Thermal Control Method for High-Current Wire Bundles by Injecting a Thermally Conductive Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan; Rowles, Russell; Greer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A procedure was developed to inject thermal filler material (a paste-like substance) inside the power wire bundle coming from solar arrays. This substance fills in voids between wires, which enhances the heat path and reduces wire temperature. This leads to a reduced amount of heat generated. This technique is especially helpful for current and future generation high-power spacecraft (1 kW or more), because the heat generated by the power wires is significant enough to cause unacceptable overheating to critical components that are in close contact with the bundle.

  20. Linearized electro-optic racetrack modulator based on double injection method in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Roei Aviram; Amrani, Ofer; Ruschin, Shlomo

    2015-02-09

    Racetrack-based modulator of increased linearity for optical links is presented and analyzed. The modulator is referred to as FLAME - Finer Linearity Amplitude Modulation Element. Linearity is improved via the introduction of a Double Injection approach. Large spurious-free-dynamic-range (SFDR) of 132dB·Hz(4/5) can thus be theoretically obtained. The FLAME is studied for silicon platform and requires small footprint size (100 × 50µm2) and low operation voltage, 2.5V. This makes the FLAME an appealing candidate for large scale integration in RF photonics.

  1. Direct intracranial injection of AAVrh8 encoding monkey β-N-acetylhexosaminidase causes neurotoxicity in primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebiowski, Diane; van der Bom, Imramsjah Martijn J; Kwon, Churl-Su; Miller, Andrew D; Petrosky, Keiko; Bradbury, Allison M; Maitland, Stacy; Kühn, Anna Luisa; Bishop, Nina; Curran, Elizabeth; Silva, Nilsa; GuhaSarkar, Dwijit; Westmoreland, Susan V; Martin, Douglas R; Gounis, Matthew J; Asaad, Wael F; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2017-01-28

    GM2 gangliosidoses, including Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) and Sandhoff disease (SD), are lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiencies in β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex). Patients are afflicted primarily with progressive central nervous system dysfunction (CNS). Studies in mice, cats, and sheep have indicated safety and widespread distribution of Hex in the CNS after intracranial vector infusion of AAVrh8 vectors encoding species-specific Hex α- or β-subunits at a 1:1 ratio. Here we conducted a safety study in cynomolgus macaques (cm) modeling our previous animal studies with bilateral infusion in the thalamus as well as in left lateral ventricle of AAVrh8 vectors encoding cm Hex α- and β-subunits. Three doses (3.2 x 1012 vg (n=3), 3.2 x 1011 vg (n=2), or 1.1 x 1011 vg (n=2)) were tested with controls infused with vehicle (n=1), or transgene empty AAVrh8 vector at the highest dose (n=2). Most monkeys receiving AAVrh8-cmHexα/β developed dyskinesias, ataxia, and loss of dexterity, with higher dose animals eventually becoming apathetic. Time to onset of symptoms was dose-dependent with the highest dose cohort producing symptoms within a month of infusion. One monkey in the lowest dose cohort was behaviorally asymptomatic but had MRI abnormalities in thalami. Histopathology was similar in all monkeys injected with AAVrh8-cmHexα/β showing severe white and gray matter necrosis along the injection track, reactive vasculature, and the presence of neurons with granular eosinophilic material. Lesions were minimal to absent in both control cohorts. Despite cellular loss, a dramatic increase in Hex activity was measured in the thalamus and none of the animals presented with antibody titers against Hex. The high overexpression of Hex protein is likely to blame for this negative outcome and this study demonstrates the variations in safety profiles of AAVrh8-Hex α/β intracranial injection among different species despite encoding for self-proteins.

  2. Cycle-by-cycle Variations in a Direct Injection Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Engine Employing EGR at Relative Air-Fuel Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Wasiu Saheed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the pressure development in a combustion chamber is uniquely related to the combustion process, substantial variations in the combustion process on a cycle-by-cycle basis are occurring. To this end, an experimental study of cycle-by-cycle variation in a direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends combined with exhaust gas recirculation at relative air-fuel ratios was conducted. The impacts of relative air-fuel ratios (i.e. λ = 1.0, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 which represent stoichiometric, moderately lean, lean and very lean mixtures respectively, hydrogen fractions and EGR rates were studied. The results showed that increasing the relative air-fuel ratio increases the COVIMEP. The behavior is more pronounced at the larger relative air-fuel ratios. More so, for a specified EGR rate; increasing the hydrogen fractions decreases the maximum COVIMEP value just as increasing in EGR rates increases the maximum COVIMEP value. (i.e. When percentage EGR rates is increased from 0% to 17% and 20% respectively. The maximum COVIMEP value increases from 6.25% to 6.56% and 8.30% respectively. Since the introduction of hydrogen gas reduces the cycle-by-cycle combustion variation in engine cylinder; thus it can be concluded that addition of hydrogen into direct injection compressed natural gas engine employing EGR at various relative air-fuel ratios is a viable approach to obtain an improved combustion quality which correspond to lower coefficient of variation in imep, (COVIMEP in a direct injection compressed natural gas engine employing EGR at relative air-fuel ratios.

  3. Research on High Pressure Gas Injection As a Method of Fueling, Disruption Mitigation and Plasma Termination for Future Tokamak Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure gas injection has proved to be an effective disruption mitigation technique in DⅢ-D tokamak experiments. If the method can be applied in future tokamak reactors not only for disruption mitigation but also for plasma termination and fueling, it will have an attractive advantage over the pellet and liquid injection from the viewpoint of economy and engineering design. In order to investigate the feasibility of this option, a study has been carried out with relevant parameters for conveying tubes of different geometrical sizes and for different gases.These parameters include pressure drop, lagger time after the valve's opening, gas diffusion in an ultra-high vacuum condition, and particle number contour.

  4. Technique for iliopsoas ultrasound-guided active electromyography-directed botulinum a toxin injection in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Michael J; Shilt, Jeffrey S; Smith, Beth Paterson; Estrada, Roquel L; Castle, Jason A; Koman, L Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Symptomatic hip flexion deformity secondary to iliopsoas spasticity may interfere with gait, impair sitting balance, or contribute to hip subluxation or dislocation. A nonsurgical, minimally invasive technique to ameliorate iliopsoas spasticity is presented. The technique uses intramuscular injections of botulinum A toxin to provide selective neuromuscular blockade of the iliacus or psoas muscles or both. Because of the anatomic location of the target muscles, this technique uses ultrasound guidance for needle placement. Active electromyographic stimulation is used to verify the needle position adjacent to active myoneural interfaces. The authors' experience to date includes the treatment of 28 patients (53 hips). Use of this technique has resulted in improved hip range of motion. No intraoperative or postoperative adverse events or complications have been observed.

  5. Direct method for calculating temperature-dependent transport properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Yuan, Z.; Wesselink, R.J.H.; Starikov, A.A.; Schilfgaarde, van M.; Kelly, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show how temperature-induced disorder can be combined in a direct way with first-principles scattering theory to study diffusive transport in real materials. Excellent (good) agreement with experiment is found for the resistivity of Cu, Pd, Pt (and Fe) when lattice (and spin) disorder are calcula

  6. A Method for Increasing Elders' Use of Advance Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptak, Marilyn K.; Boult, Chad

    1994-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of intervention to help frail elders to record advance directives (ADs). In collaboration with physicians and lay volunteer, social worker provided information/counseling to elderly subjects, families, and proxies in series of visits to geriatric evaluation and management clinic. Seventy-one percent of subjects recorded ADs.…

  7. Sleep Can Eliminate List-Method Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests a link between sleep and memory consolidation, indicating that sleep in comparison to wakefulness stabilizes memories. However, relatively little is known about how sleep affects forgetting. Here we examined whether sleep influences directed forgetting, the finding that people can intentionally forget obsolete memories when…

  8. Sleep Can Eliminate List-Method Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests a link between sleep and memory consolidation, indicating that sleep in comparison to wakefulness stabilizes memories. However, relatively little is known about how sleep affects forgetting. Here we examined whether sleep influences directed forgetting, the finding that people can intentionally forget obsolete memories when…

  9. Method for the simultaneous determination of total polyphenol and anthocyan indexes in red wines using a flow injection approach

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A simultaneous and fast method for the determination of total polyphenol index (t.p.i.) and total anthocyan index (t.a.i.) has been developed by a flow injection approach and a diode array spectrophotometer for monitoring at 280 nm and 520 nm, respectively. Linear ranges were obtained from 20 to 70 index units and from 20 to 500 mg l-1 for t.p.i. and t.a.i., respectively. The results provided by the proposed method agree with those obtained using the polyphenol index at 280 nm and the Riberea...

  10. Time-domain measurement of terahertz frequency magnetoplasmon resonances in a two-dimensional electron system by the direct injection of picosecond pulsed currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingbo; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Wood, Christopher D.; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A.; Cunningham, John E., E-mail: j.e.cunningham@leeds.ac.uk [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Sydoruk, Oleksiy [Optical and Semiconductor Devices Group, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-29

    We have investigated terahertz (THz) frequency magnetoplasmon resonances in a two-dimensional electron system through the direct injection of picosecond duration current pulses. The evolution of the time-domain signals was measured as a function of magnetic field, and the results were found to be in agreement with calculations using a mode-matching approach for four modes observed in the frequency range above 0.1 THz. This introduces a generic technique suitable for sampling ultrafast carrier dynamics in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures at THz frequencies.

  11. Numerical Methods Application for Reinforced Concrete Elements-Theoretical Approach for Direct Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ciprian Catinas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed theoretical and practical investigation of the reinforced concrete elements is due to recent techniques and method that are implemented in the construction market. More over a theoretical study is a demand for a better and faster approach nowadays due to rapid development of the calculus technique. The paper above will present a study for implementing in a static calculus the direct stiffness matrix method in order capable to address phenomena related to different stages of loading, rapid change of cross section area and physical properties. The method is a demand due to the fact that in our days the FEM (Finite Element Method is the only alternative to such a calculus and FEM are considered as expensive methods from the time and calculus resources point of view. The main goal in such a method is to create the moment-curvature diagram in the cross section that is analyzed. The paper above will express some of the most important techniques and new ideas as well in order to create the moment curvature graphic in the cross sections considered.

  12. DIRECT ITERATIVE METHODS FOR RANK DEFICIENT GENERALIZED LEAST SQUARES PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yun Yuan; Xiao-qing Jin

    2000-01-01

    The generalized least squares (LS) problem appears in many application areas. Here W is an m × m symmetric positive definite matrix and A is an m × n matrix with m≥n. Since the problem has many solutions in rank deficient case, some special preconditioned techniques are adapted to obtain the minimum 2-norm solution. A block SOR method and the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method are proposed here. Convergence and optimal relaxation parameter for the block SOR method are studied. An error bound for the PCG method is given. The comparison of these methods is investigated. Some remarks on the implementation of the methods and the operation cost are given as well.

  13. On numerical methods for direct and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Zemanova, Viera

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of processes in the propagation of electromagnetic fields. We do not aim at one particular problem, actually very different kinds of topics are analyzed here. We deal with direct problems as well as with inverse ones, low frequency electromagnetism is discussed and consequently the wave propagation problem in high frequency domain is studied. Study of electromagnetic materials and their behavior is of a huge interest for the technological world. Its impo...

  14. Modification of the Clarkson-Kruskal Direct Method for a Coupled System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Su-Ping; TIAN Li-Xin

    2007-01-01

    A new idea is put forward to modify the Clarkson-Kruskal (CK) direct method. Using the usual CK direct method to a coupled KdV system, two types of usual similarity reductions can be obtained. However, the application of the modified CK direct method leads to three types of new similarity reductions different from the usual ones.

  15. Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eGeiger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.

  16. Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Richard; Zabel, Thomas; Sigg, Hans

    2015-07-01

    The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.

  17. Direct injection, simple and robust analysis of trace-level bromate and bromide in drinking water by IC with suppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Wasiu; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2010-08-01

    Bromide is ubiquitously found in drinking water. It is introduced into source water primarily by contact with bromide-containing soils or seawater having high bromide content. Bromide is converted into carcinogenic bromate during ozonation processes employed in some drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, monitoring of bromate in drinking water and its precursor bromide in source water is required. The purpose of this study was to survey bromide and bromate concentrations in randomly selected bottle waters of various brands and several tap water samples in the coastal Houston area using a direct-injection ion chromatography (IC) and a suppressed conductivity system. The method employs a simple isocratic IC with loop injection with calculated detection limit of 0.009 microg/L for bromate and 0.028 microg/L for bromide (250-microL sample volume). Allowing the detection of both species at the microg/L level in drinking water, this method does not require specialized instrumentation such as two-dimensional IC, expensive sample preparation, or post-column reactions. The results show that, whereas bromate remains undetected in all five tap water samples, there are significant high concentrations of bromide in the coastal Houston area (294.79 +/- 56.97 microg/L). Its link to potential seawater intrusion need to be further investigated. For bottle water samples randomly collected, 18.2% (2 out of 11) showed detectable amount of both bromide and bromate. The detection of bromate coincides with those bottle water samples that underwent ozonation treatment. Further sample campaign with exclusively ozonated bottle water samples (n = 19) showed 100% detection rate for both bromide and bromate. The 99% confidence intervals were 14.45-37.97 microg/L and 0.32-2.58 microg/L for bromide and bromate, respectively. The highest level of bromate among all ozonated bottle water samples was 7.57 microg/L, a concentration close to the U.S. EPA prescribed limit for

  18. Method of operating a direct dme fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of operating a fuel cell system comprising one or more fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane, wherein the membrane is composed of a polymeric material comprising acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI). The method comprises adjusting the operating...

  19. Direct trajectory optimization based on a mapped Chebyshev pseudospectral method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiao; Zhu Ming

    2013-01-01

    In view of generating optimal trajectories of Bolza problems,standard Chebyshev pseudospectral (PS) method makes the points' accumulation near the extremities and rarefaction of nodes close to the center of interval,which causes an ill-condition of differentiation matrix and an oscillation of the optimal solution.For improvement upon the difficulties,a mapped Chebyshev pseudospectral method is proposed.A conformal map is applied to Chebyshev points to move the points closer to equidistant nodes.Condition number and spectral radius of differentiation matrices from both methods are presented to show the improvement.Furthermore,the modification keeps the Chebyshev pseudospectral method's advantage,the spectral convergence rate.Based on three numerical examples,a comparison of the execution time,convergence and accuracy is presented among the standard Chebyshev pseudospectral method,other collocation methods and the proposed one.In one example,the error of results from mapped Chebyshev pseudospectral method is reduced to 5% of that from standard Chebyshev pseudospectral method.

  20. Method of operating a direct dme fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of operating a fuel cell system comprising one or more fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane, wherein the membrane is composed of a polymeric material comprising acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI). The method comprises adjusting the operating...