WorldWideScience

Sample records for direct heat program

  1. Geothermal direct heat applications program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The use of geothermal energy for direct heat purposes by the private sector within the US has been quite limited to date. However, there is a large potential market for thermal energy in such areas as industrial processing, agribusiness, and space/water heating of commercial and residential buildings. Technical and economic information is needed to assist in identifying prospective direct heat users and to match their energy needs to specific geothermal reservoirs. Technological uncertainties and associated economic risks can influence the user's perception of profitability to the point of limiting private investment in geothermal direct applications. To stimulate development in the direct heat area, the Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy, issued two Program Opportunity Notices (PON's). These solicitations are part of DOE's national geothermal energy program plan, which has as its goal the near-term commercialization by the private sector of hydrothermal resources. Encouragement is being given to the private sector by DOE cost-sharing a portion of the front-end financial risk in a limited number of demonstration projects. The twenty-two projects summarized herein are direct results of the PON solicitations.

  2. Geothermal direct heat applications program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-08-01

    In 1978, the Department of Energy Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies initiated a program to accelerate the direct use of geothermal energy, in which 23 projects were selected. The projects, all in the western part of the US, cover the use of geothermal energy for space conditioning (heating and cooling) and agriculture (aquaculture and greenhouses). Initially, two projects were slated for industrial processing; however, because of lack of geothermal resources, these projects were terminated. Of the 23 projects, seven were successfully completed, ten are scheduled for completion by the end of 1983, and six were terminated for lack of resources. Each of the projects is being documented from its inception through planning, drilling, and resource confirmation, design, construction, and one year of monitoring. The information is being collected, evaluated, and will be reported. Several reports will be produced, including detailed topical reports on economics, institutional and regulatory problems, engineering, and a summary final report. To monitor progress and provide a forum for exchange of information while the program is progressing, semiannual or annual review meetings have been held with all project directors and lead engineers for the past four years. This is the sixth meeting in that series. Several of the projects which have been terminated are not included this year. Overall, the program has been very successful. Valuable information has been gathered. problems have been encountered and resolved concerning technical, regulatory, and institutional constraints. Most projects have been proven to be economical with acceptable pay-back periods. Although some technical problems have emerged, they were resolved with existing off-the-shelf technologies and equipment. The risks involved in drilling for the resource, the regulatory constraints, the high cost of finance, and large front-end cost remain the key obstacles to the broad development of

  3. Geothermal Direct Heat Applications Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-25

    Because of the undefined risk in the development and use of geothermal energy as a thermal energy source, the Department of Energy Division of Geothermal Energy solicited competitive proposals for field experiments in the direct use of geothermal energy. Twenty-two proposals were selected for cost-shared funding with one additional project co-funded by the State of New Mexico. As expected, the critical parameter was developing a viable resource. So far, of the twenty resources drilled, fourteen have proved to be useful resources. These are: Boise, Idaho; Elko heating Company in Nevada; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Philip School, Philip, South Dakota; St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota; Utah Roses near Salt Lake City; Utah State Prison, Utah; Warm Springs State Hospital, Montana; T-H-S Hospital, Marlin, Texas; Aquafarms International in the Cochella Valley, California; Klamath County YMCA and Klamath Falls in Oregon; Susanville, California and Monroe, utah. Monroe's 164 F and 600 gpm peak flow was inadequate for the planned project, but is expected to be used in a private development. Three wells encountered a resource insufficient for an economical project. These were Madison County at Rexburg, Idaho; Ore-Ida Foods at Ontario, Oregon and Holly Sugar at Brawley, California. Three projects have yet to confirm their resource. The Navarro College well in Corsicana, Texas is being tested; the Reno, Moana, Nevada well is being drilled and the El Centro, California well is scheduled to be drilled in January 1982. The agribusiness project at Kelly Hot Springs was terminated because a significant archeological find was encountered at the proposed site. The Diamond Ring Ranch in South Dakota, and the additional project, Carrie Tingley Hospital in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico both used existing wells. The projects that encountered viable resources have proceeded to design, construct, and in the most advanced projects, to operate geothermal systems for

  4. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... living space. Products intended for use as a heater are often shipped with or designed to be easily.... Specifically, DOE is proposing to change to the definition of ``vented hearth heater,'' a type of direct heating equipment, to clarify the scope of the current exclusion for those vented hearth heaters that are...

  5. Monte Carlo direct view factor and generalized radiative heat transfer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Williams, J. L.; Scates, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    Computer programs find the direct view factor from one surface segment to another using the Monte carlo technique, and the radioactive-transfer coefficients between surface segments. An advantage of the programs is the great generality of problems treatable and rapidity of solution from problem conception to receipt of results.

  6. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... descriptors (i.e., thermal efficiency and pool heater heating seasonal efficiency), as well as seasonal energy... ``efficiency descriptor,'' EPCA specifies that for pool heaters, the efficiency descriptor shall be ``thermal efficiency.'' (42 U.S.C. 6291(22)(E)) Further, EPCA defines the ``thermal efficiency of pool heaters'' as...

  7. 76 FR 71835 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... included: (1) The proposed exclusion requirements for gas log sets; (2) the physical and performance... ambiance with a secondary function of warmth, and that gas log sets can be used as a source of emergency warmth in case of power outages, which disable electric heat pumps. (Rasmussen, Public Meeting...

  8. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1996--September 1996. Federal Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-96. It describes 152 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  9. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Federal assistance program. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-96. It describes 90 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, development of a webpage, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  10. Geothermal direct heat program: roundup technical conference proceedings. Volume II. Bibliography of publications. State-coupled geothermal resource assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscetta, C.A. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    Lists of publications are presented for the Geothermal Resource Assessment Program for the Utah Earth Science Laboratory and the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  11. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program quarterly project progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the third quarter of FY98 (April--June, 1998). It describes 231 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with included requests for general information including material for high school and university students, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, spacing heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, snow melting and electric power. Research activities include work on model construction specifications for line shaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, and a comprehensive aquaculture developers package. A brochure on Geothermal Energy in Klamath County was developed for state and local tourism use. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 19, No. 2) with articles on research at the Geo-Heat Center, sustainability of geothermal resources, injection well drilling in Boise, ID and a greenhouse project in the Azores. Other outreach activities include dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisitions and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  12. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  13. 气化工艺黑水闪蒸换热方案研究%Study on the Direct Heat Exchange of Gasification Blackwater Flash Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松; 郭伟; 徐才福; 赵涛; 王光友

    2014-01-01

    The heat recovery process is divided into indirect heat transfer process and direct heat exchange process. The flash process in traditional coal water slurry gasification process is indirect heat exchange process, the emergence of scaling phenomenon causes the heat transfer efficiency drop, which can seriously affect the long term operation of the plant, so the direct contact heat transfer process between ash water and flash gas has been paid much attention. Two schemes of direct heat exchange and indirect heat transfer were compared from the aspects of water consumption, equipment configuration and effect.%按照热量回收的流程划分,分为间接换热流程和直接换热流程。传统的水煤浆加压气化的闪蒸流程即为间接换热流程,由于出现结垢等现象导致换热效率下降,严重时会影响装置的长周期运行,因此采用灰水和闪蒸气直接接触换热的流程逐渐受到各方的重视。对直接换热和间接换热的两种方案,从水耗、设备配置和效果方面进行对比研究。

  14. Direct contact heat exchangers for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R. T.; Thayer, W. J.; Lo, V. C. H.; Sakins, K. M.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1985-06-01

    Direct contact heat exchanger concepts have been investigated for use in space, including droplet vortex heat exchangers, coflowing droplet heat exchangers, electrostatically driven heat exchangers, and belt and disk heat exchangers. These concepts are characterized by a low heat exchanger mass per unit of heat transferred, low pressure losses, high reliability, and compactness in design. Operation in zero-G poses unique problems for those direct contact heat exchangers which require separation of two fluid media after heat transfer is completed. Other problems include maintenance of good heat transfer coefficients in the absence of buoyant forces, exposure of heat transfer media to vacuum conditions for certain applications, and materials compatibility. A preliminary systems analysis indicates the potential for substantial weight reductions in turbine Brayton cycle space power systems for output powers above several MW(e). Based on the status of current technology and the results of this analysis, recommendations are made for the most attractive applications and the R&D required to ready a direct contact heat exchanger for use in space.

  15. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  16. Solving Direct and Inverse Heat Conduction Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Taler, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part

  17. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  18. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukrust, E.

    1993-01-01

    Pilot plant trials with the horizontal vessel were completed. Design of a third pressurized vessel and an offgas cleaning and tempering system was completed. Installation is now underway. A basic study and a pre-engineering design of a 350,000-metric ton/y demonstration plant were completed, and efforts are underway to develop such a demonstration plant at a host steel company. Foreign filings have been prepared for the two-zone countercurrent smelter (patent applied for). Work with a water model of two-zone smelter was completed. The horizontal smelter program was completed. Trials were conducted to determine how sulfur is partitioned among the hot metal, slag, and offgas. Design of offgas cleaning and tempering loop was completed.

  19. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  20. HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    INCREASED MOTIVATION, INCREASED INITIAL COMPREHENSION, AND INCREASED RETENTION ARE THE PRIME GOALS OF THE LENNOX HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EDUCATION PROGRAM. IT IS A COMPLETE PROGRAM WITH ALL THE TEACHING TOOLS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE A KNOWLEDGEABLE HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING INSTALLER OR SERVICE MAN. THIS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IS DESIGNED…

  1. Heat Transfer in Directional Water Transport Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Directional water transport fabrics can proactively transfer moisture from the body. They show great potential in making sportswear and summer clothing. While moisture transfer has been previously reported, heat transfer in directional water transport fabrics has been little reported in research literature. In this study, a directional water transport fabric was prepared using an electrospraying technique and its heat transfer properties under dry and wet states were evaluated, and compared with untreated control fabric and the one pre-treated with NaOH. All the fabric samples showed similar heat transfer features in the dry state, and the equilibrium temperature in the dry state was higher than for the wet state. Wetting considerably enhanced the thermal conductivity of the fabrics. Our studies indicate that directional water transport treatment assists in moving water toward one side of the fabric, but has little effect on thermal transfer performance. This study may be useful for development of “smart” textiles for various applications.

  2. Direct Heat Integration of Independent Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯霄; 文健; 叶鑫午

    2004-01-01

    The properties of matched streams, the simultaneous operation time, and the distance betweenintegrated processes, are the main factors which determine whether the direct integration is feasible ornot. According to whether such synthetic integration is economically better than the separate integrationof each process, a mathematical formulation is established. The retrofit of reforming and arene processesin a certain petrochemical factory, which are independent each other, is chosen as a case study. By onlyconsidering the simultaneous operation time, two retrofit designs are proposed: one is that each of thetwo processes is separately integrated by itself, and the other is that the two processes are integratedcomprehensively. Under different simultaneous operation hours, the energy-saving effects and theeconomic profits of the two designs are calculated, and furthermore, the critical simultaneous operationtime for direct heat integration of the two processes is obtained. When the actual simultaneous operationtime of the two processes is longer than the critical value, the direct heat integration of the two processesis better economically, and otherwise the separate heat integration for each process should be considered.

  3. Heat pipe testing program test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, W.B.

    1980-03-14

    A test plan is given which describes the tests to be conducted on several typical solar receiver heat pipes. The hardware to be used, test fixtures and rationale of the test program are discussed. The program objective is to perform life testing under simulated receiver conditions, and to conduct performance tests with selected heat pipes to further map their performance, particularly with regard to their transient behavior. Performance requirements are defined. Test fixtures designed for the program are described in detail, and their capabilities for simulating the receiver conditions and their limitations are discussed. The heat pipe design is given. (LEW)

  4. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The report summarizes geothermal activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-95. It describes 92 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research activities are summarized on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low temperature resource assessment and ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct heat Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  5. Hawaiian direct-heat grants encourage geothermal creativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A.G. (Dept. of Business and Economic Development, Hilo, HI (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The Hawaiian Community Geothermal Technology Program is unique. Under its auspices, heat and other by-products of Hawaii's high-temperature HGP-A geothermal well and power plant are not wasted. Instead, they form the backbone of a direct-heat grant program that reaches into the local community and encourages community members to develop creative uses for geothermal energy. A by-product of this approach is a broadened local base of support for geothermal energy development. With the experimental and precommercial work completed, most of the original grantees are looking for ways to continue their projects on a commercial scale by studying the economics of using geothermal heat in a full-scale business and researching potential markets. A geothermal mini-park may be built near the research center. In 1988, a second round of projects was funded under the program. The five new projects are: Geothermal Aquaculture Project - an experiment with low-cost propagation of catfish species in geothermally heated tanks with a biofilter; Media Steam Sterilization and Drying - an application of raw geothermal steam to shredded, locally-available materials such as coconut husks, which would be used as certified nursery growing media; Bottom-Heating System Using Geothermal Power for Propagation - a continuation of Leilani Foliage's project from the first round of grants, focusing on new species of ornamental palms; Silica Bronze - the use of geothermal silica as a refractory material in casting bronze artwork; and Electro-deposition of Minerals in Geothermal Brine - the nature and possible utility of minerals deposited from the hot fluid.

  6. Geothermal technology transfer for direct heat applications: Final report, 1983--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a geothermal technology transfer program, performed by Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, used to aid in the development of geothermal energy for direct heat applications. It provides a summary of 88 technical assistance projects performed in 10 states for space heating, district heating, green-houses, aquaculture, industrial processing, small scale binary electric power generation and heat pump applications. It describes an inventory compiled for over 100 direct heat projects that contains information on project site, resource and engineering data. An overview of information services is provided to users of the program which includes; advisory, referrals, literature distribution, geothermal technology library, quarterly Bulletin, training programs, presentations and tours, and reporting of activities for the USDOE Geothermal Progress Monitor.

  7. Direct contact heat recovery from molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technological deficiencies associated with efficient and economical retrieval of heat energy from molten salt systems are addressed. The large latent heat of fusion stored in molten salt hydrates and other candidate phase change materials (PCM) is removed by internal boiling of a volatile heat transfer fluid (HTF). This procedure eliminates the conventional use of submerged heat exchangers which are costly and, in crystallizing salts, ineffective. The thermochemical conditions and material properties that are critical for application of this concept in environments that yield significant energy savings are investigated and defined.

  8. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  9. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Geo-Heat Center provides technical assistance on geothermal direct heat applications to developers, consultants and the public which could include: data and information on low-temperature (< 1500 C) resources, space and district heating, geothermal heat pumps, greenhouses, aquaculture, industrial processes and other technologies. This assistance could include preliminary engineering feasibility studies, review of direct-use project plans, assistance in project material and equipment selection, analysis and solutions of project operating problems, and information on resources and utilization. The following are brief descriptions of technical assistance provided during the second quarter of the program.

  10. Multi-directional program efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Balezentis, Tomas; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2016-01-01

    approach is used to estimate efficiency. This enables a consideration of input-specific efficiencies. The study shows clear differences between the efficiency scores on the different inputs as well as between the farm types of crop, livestock and mixed farms respectively. We furthermore find that crop...... farms have the highest program efficiency, but the lowest managerial efficiency and that the mixed farms have the lowest program efficiency (yet not the highest managerial efficiency)....

  11. Induction and direct resistance heating theory and numerical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Sergio; Aliferov, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    This book offers broad, detailed coverage of theoretical developments in induction and direct resistance heating and presents new material on the solution of problems in the application of such heating. The physical basis of induction and conduction heating processes is explained, and electromagnetic phenomena in direct resistance and induction heating of flat workpieces and cylindrical bodies are examined in depth. The calculation of electrical and energetic characteristics of induction and conduction heating systems is then thoroughly reviewed. The final two chapters consider analytical solutions and numerical modeling of problems in the application of induction and direct resistance heating, providing industrial engineers with the knowledge needed in order to use numerical tools in the modern design of installations. Other engineers, scientists, and technologists will find the book to be an invaluable reference that will assist in the efficient utilization of electrical energy.

  12. Directional heat transport through thermal reflection meta-device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Run; Zhou, Shuling; Shu, Weicheng; Xie, Bin; Ma, Yupu; Luo, Xiaobing

    2016-12-01

    Directional heat transfer may be hard to realize due to the fact that heat transfer is diffusive. In this paper, we try to take one step forward based on the transformation thermodynamics. A special structure and meta-device is proposed to "reflect" the heat flow directionally-just like the mirror to the light beam, in which the heat flow just one-time changes the direction rather than gradually changing the directions in isotropic materials. The benefits of such thermal reflection meta-device are discussed by comparing the corresponding thermal resistance with the same structures of isotropic materials. The proposed meta-device is verified to possess the low thermal resistance and high heat transfer ability with least energy loss, and can be made by nature-existing isotropic materials with specific structures.

  13. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  14. Direct contact droplet heat exchangers for thermal management in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Hertzberg, A.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid droplet heat exchanger for space applications is described which transfers heat between a gas and a liquid metal dispersed into droplets. The ability of the droplet heat exchanger to transfer heat between two media in direct contact over a wide temperature range circumvents many of the material limitations of conventional tube-type heat exchangers and does away with complicated plumbing systems and their tendency toward single point failure. Droplet heat exchangers offer large surface to volume ratios in a compact geometry, very low gas pressure drop, and high effectiveness. The application of the droplet heat exchanger in a high temperature Brayton cycle is discussed to illustrate its performance and operational characteristics.

  15. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  16. Investigation of direct expansion in ground source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, M. D.

    A fully instrumented subscale ground coupled heat pump system was developed, and built, and used to test and obtain data on three different earth heat exchanger configurations under heating conditions (ground cooling). Various refrigerant flow control and compressor protection devices were tested for their applicability to the direct expansion system. Undistributed Earth temperature data were acquired at various depths. The problem of oil return at low evaporator temperatures and low refrigerant velocities was addressed. An analysis was performed to theoretically determine what evaporator temperature can be expected with an isolated ground pipe configuration with given length, pipe size, soil conditions and constant heat load. Technical accomplishments to data are summarized.

  17. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  18. Absorption type water chiller fired directly by waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K. L.; Kalwar, K.

    1982-08-01

    The direct use of waste heat as heating element in a water chiller of the absorption type was studied. The chilled water is used as cooling element in the industrial process, producing the waste heat or for conditioning the workplace or further located places. The heat source is gaseous or liquid. The cooling capacity is in the range from 10 to 120 kW. After reviewing the different absorption systems, LiBr/H20 proved to be the most suitable. The process retained for experimenting was the manufacturing of synthetic materials polymer industry and was tested in two different factories. It is proved that the use of absorption type water chillers is practicable with an efficiency of 10% to 25% of the waste heat energy, but that the existing chillers need extensive conversion for obtaining economical operation when using a low temperature heating source.

  19. National solar heating and cooling programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, S; Allen, J [eds.

    1979-08-01

    This document is a compilation of status reports on the national solar heating and cooling programs of seventeen countries participating in the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society's Solar Energy Pilot Study. These reports were presented in two special sessions of the 25th Congress of the International Solar Energy Society held in May 1979, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This information exchange activity was part of the two-year follow up (1978-1980) of the Solar Energy Pilot Study, which ended in October 1978.

  20. Stability analysis of direct contact heat exchangers subject to system perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The work deals with the operational stability of a spray column type heat exchanger subject to disturbances typical of those which can occur for geothermal applications. A computer program was developed to solve the one dimensional transient two phase flow problem and it was applied to the design of a spray column. The operation and design of the East Mesa 500kW/sub e/ direct contactor was assessed. It is shown that the heat transfer is governed by the internal resistance of the dispersed phase. The performance is well represented by diffusion of heat within the drops.

  1. Geothermal direct-heat study: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    Potential applications of geothermal energy which would be compatible with the agricultural activities in the county were identified and a plan to attract potential users to the area was developed. The intent of the first effort was to identify general classifications of industries which could utilize geothermal heat in production processes. Two levels of analyses were utilized for this effort. Initially, activities relying on previously developed engineering and industrial concepts were investigated to determine capital costs, employment, and potential energy savings. Second, innovative concepts not yet fully developed were investigated to determine their potential applicability to the agricultural base of the county. These investigations indicated that the major potential applications of geothermal heat would involve industries related to food processing or other direct agriculture-related uses of raw materials produced or imported to the county. An implementation plan which can be utilized by the county to market direct heat applications was developed. A socioeconomics analysis examined the potential effects on the county from development of direct heat projects. The county's planning and permitting requirements for dirct heat projects were also examined.

  2. Direct electronic measurement of Peltier cooling and heating in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Marun, I. J.; van den Berg, J. J.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-05-01

    Thermoelectric effects allow the generation of electrical power from waste heat and the electrical control of cooling and heating. Remarkably, these effects are also highly sensitive to the asymmetry in the density of states around the Fermi energy and can therefore be exploited as probes of distortions in the electronic structure at the nanoscale. Here we consider two-dimensional graphene as an excellent nanoscale carbon material for exploring the interaction between electronic and thermal transport phenomena, by presenting a direct and quantitative measurement of the Peltier component to electronic cooling and heating in graphene. Thanks to an architecture including nanoscale thermometers, we detected Peltier component modulation of up to 15 mK for currents of 20 μA at room temperature and observed a full reversal between Peltier cooling and heating for electron and hole regimes. This fundamental thermodynamic property is a complementary tool for the study of nanoscale thermoelectric transport in two-dimensional materials.

  3. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  4. Research on Microwave Heating-Direct Steelmaking in Electric Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin; LIU Liu; ZENG Jia-qing; REN Rui-gang; LIU Jin-ying

    2005-01-01

    Self-fluxing iron ore concentrates containing coal have good microwave absorbability.With the voluminal heating property of microwave,the concentrates can be reduced uniformly and swiftly.The metallized semi-product can be directly charged into electric furnace for making clean steel.The total consumed energy of overall route is about 20.98 GJ.

  5. Cobalt-60 heat source demonstration program. Phase III. Fabrication. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-06-01

    Significant accomplishments completed during Phase III of the /sup 60/Co Heat Source Demonstration program include the following: encapsulation of 2 MCi of /sup 60/Co; fabrication of the heat source, including the ASME coded pressure vessel/core assembly, and biological shielding; endurance testing of a prototype heat pipe for a period of 28 months; fabrication and qualification of the heat pipe emergency cooling subsystem; issue of the safety evaluation report, reference 3, and the operations manual, reference 4; and heat source assembly. The planned demonstration test program was modified to include testing of a total power system. Based on an evaluation of available power conversion systems, which included the closed-cycle Brayton and organic Rankine systems, the closed-cycle Brayton system was selected for use. Selection was based on advantages offered by the direct coupling of this conversion system with the gas-cooled heat source. In implementing the test program, the AiResearch BCD power conversion system was to be coupled to the heat source following initial heat source performance testing and part way through the endurance test. In accordance with the program redirection the following Phase IV checkout operations were completed to evaluate procedural and hardware acceptability: heat source dummy fueling; fueling cask sielding survey; and heat source shielding survey (single pin). Completion of these latter activities verified the acceptability of critical characteristics of the heat source and its supporting equipment.

  6. Evaluating Program about Performance of Circular Sodium Heat Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jae Sik; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The superior heat transfer capability, structural simplicity, relatively inexpensive, insensitivity to the gravitational field, silence and reliability are some of its outstanding features. We study about heat transfer equation of heat pipe and program predicting performance which is considering geometrical shape of heat pipe by the related heat transfer equation of heat pipe. The operating temperature is 450 .deg. C - 950 .deg. C, working fluid is sodium, material for container is stainless steel, and type of wick is sintered metal. As a result of evaluating program about performance of circular sodium heat pipe based on MATLAB code, express correlation between radius and LHR, correlation between heat transfer length and LHR, correlation between wick and LHR, correlation between operating temperature and LHR. Generally radius values of heat pipe are proportional to LHR because of increase of mass flow which is main factor of heat flow. Heat transfer length values of heat pipe are inversely proportional to LHR and slightly inversely proportional to heat rate. Pore size is proportional to LHR. Although increase of pore size decrease capillary pressure, decrease more pressure drop in liquid phase. As a result, mass flow and heat rate are increase. But we have to do additional consideration about pore size and voidage in the aspect of safety and production technique.

  7. Geothermal Direct-Heat Utilization Assistance - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. W. Lund

    1999-07-14

    The Geo-Heat Center provided (1) direct-use technical assistance, (2) research, and (3) information dissemination on geothermal energy over an 8 1/2 year period. The center published a quarterly bulletin, developed a web site and maintained a technical library. Staff members made 145 oral presentations, published 170 technical papers, completed 28 applied research projects, and gave 108 tours of local geothermal installations to 500 persons.

  8. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contract liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while there is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  9. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukrust, E.

    1994-08-01

    This final report deals with the results of a 5-yr project for developing a more energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, less costly process for producing hot metal than current coke ovens and blast furnaces. In the process, iron ore pellets are smelted in a foamy slag created by reaction of coal char with molten slag to produce CO. The CO further reacts with oxygen, which also reacts with coal volatile matter, to produce the heat necessary to sustain the endothermic reduction reaction. The uncombusted CO and H{sub 2} from the coal are used to preheat and prereduce hematite pellets for the most efficient use of the energy in the coal. Laboratory programs confirmed that the process steps worked. Pilot plant studies were successful. Economic analysis for a 1 million tpy plant is promising.

  10. 75 FR 17305 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, NARA. ACTION... Administration (NARA), has amended National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1. This amendment to...). The Executive Order established a National Industrial Security Program (NISP) to safeguard Federal...

  11. Brayton-cycle heat exchanger technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killackey, J. J.; Coombs, M. G.; Graves, R. F.; Morse, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    The following five tasks designed to advance this development of heat exchanger systems for close loop Brayton cycle power systems are presented: (1) heat transfer and pressure drop data for a finned tubular heat transfer matrix. The tubes are arranged in a triangular array with copper stainless steel laminate strips helically wound on the tubes to form a disk fin geometry; (2) the development of a modularized waste heat exchanger. Means to provide verified double containment are described; (3) the design, fabrication, and test of compact plate fin heat exchangers representative of full scale Brayton cycle recuperators; (4) the analysis and design of bellows suitable for operation at 1600 F and 200 psia for 1,000 cycles and 50,000 hours creep life; and (5) screening tests used to select a low cost braze alloy with the desirable attributes of a gold base alloy. A total of 22 different alloys were investigated; the final selection was Nicrobraz 30.

  12. Thermal performance of direct contact heat exchangers for mixed hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.; Coswami, D.Y.; Demuth, O.J.; Mines, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a physical and a mathematical model for evaluating the tray efficiencies for a direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX). The model is then used to determine the efficiencies for tests conducted on a 60kW sieve tray DCHX as heat is transferred from a geofluid (brine) to a working fluid (mixed hydrocarbons). It is assumed that there are three distinct regions in the column based on the state of the working fluid, as follows: Region I - Preheating with no vaporization; Region II - Preheating with moderate vaporization; and Region III - Major vaporization. The boundaries of these regions can be determined from the experimental data. In the model, mass balance and energy balance is written for a tray ''N'' in each of these regions. Finally, the ''tray efficiency'' or ''heat transfer'' effectiveness of the tray is calculated based on the definition that it is the ratio of the actual heat transfer to the maximum possible, thermodynamically.

  13. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.

    1991-12-01

    Today, new ideas and opportunities, fostering the advancement of technology, are occurring at an ever-increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of these new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and which develops new fundable'' R D projects and programs. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, with the overall mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals, and presentations at meetings and forums.

  14. The effect of heating direction on flow boiling heat transfer of R134a in micro-channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingchen; Jia, Li; Dang, Chao; Peng, Qi

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents effects of heating directions on heat transfer performance of R134a flow boiling in micro- channel heat sink. The heat sink has 30 parallel rectangular channels with cross-sectional dimensions of 500μm width 500μm depth and 30mm length. The experimental operation condition ranges of the heat flux and the mass flux were 13.48 to 82.25 W/cm2 and 373.3 to 1244.4 kg/m2s respectively. The vapor quality ranged from 0.07 to 0.93. The heat transfer coefficients of top heating and bottom heating both were up to 25 kW/m2 K. Two dominate transfer mechanisms of nucleate boiling and convection boiling were observed according to boiling curves. The experimental results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient of bottom heating was 13.9% higher than top heating in low heat flux, while in high heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient of bottom heating was 9.9%.higher than the top heating, because bubbles were harder to divorce the heating wall. And a modified correlation was provided to predict heat transfer of top heating.

  15. Role of anthropogenic direct heat emissions in global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Li, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are widely realized as the predominant drivers of global warming, but the huge and increasing anthropogenic direct heat emissions (AHE) has not gained enough attention in terms of its role in the warming of the climate system. Based on two reasonable assumptions of (1) AHE eventually transfers to the Earth energy system and (2) the net warming is only driven by the net radioactive forcing (RF) from either GHG or other causes, we analyzed the role of AHE in global warming. The mean annual total AHE of the four main sources including energy consumption, residual heat of electricity generation, biomass decomposition by land use and cover change (LUCC) and food consumption was estimated to be 4.41*10^20 J in 1970-2010, accounting for 6.23% of the net annual heat increase of the Earth reported by IPCC AR5 for the period. The mean annual radioactive forcing (RF) by AHE was up to 29.94 mW m^(-2) globally in 1981-2010, less than the annual net increase of total GH...

  16. PMAA`s national certification program for oil heat technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.B. Jr. [E.T. Lawson and Son, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In response to an initiative by Roger McDonald to bring the benefits of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) research and development to the oil heated homes of America PMAA in conjunction with its member associations has created a voluntary national certification for oil heat technicians. The text which support these programs are the Petroleum Marketers Association of America`s (PMAA`s) Oil Heat Technician`s Manual, and the PMAA`s Advanced Oil Heat - A Guide to Improved Efficiency.

  17. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  18. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  19. 75 FR 15756 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION RIN 3244-AF61 Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive AGENCY: U.S. Small... announces a final amendment to the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program Policy Directive (PD... the Policy Directive; Small Business Innovation Research Program To: The Directors, Small...

  20. 77 FR 76414 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... ID ED-2008-OPE-0009] William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program AGENCY: Department of Education... (FFEL) Program; and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program, including the Public... for Postsecondary Education. Accordingly, 34 CFR part 685 is corrected as follows: PART 685--WILLIAM...

  1. 48 CFR 719.271 - Agency program direction and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency program direction and operation. 719.271 Section 719.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271 Agency program direction...

  2. Heat Flux and Wall Temperature Estimates for the NASA Langley HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent, Jr.; Hass, Neal E.

    2010-01-01

    An objective of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program Flight 2 is to provide validation data for high enthalpy scramjet prediction tools through a single flight test and accompanying ground tests of the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR) tested in the NASA LaRC Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF). The HDCR is a full-scale, copper heat sink structure designed to simulate the isolator entrance conditions and isolator, pilot, and combustor section of the HIFiRE flight test experiment flowpath and is fully instrumented to assess combustion performance over a range of operating conditions simulating flight from Mach 5.5 to 8.5 and for various fueling schemes. As part of the instrumentation package, temperature and heat flux sensors were provided along the flowpath surface and also imbedded in the structure. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the surface heat flux and wall temperature of the Zirconia coated copper wall can be obtained with a water-cooled heat flux gage and a sub-surface temperature measurement. An algorithm was developed which used these two measurements to reconstruct the surface conditions along the flowpath. Determinations of the surface conditions of the Zirconia coating were conducted for a variety of conditions.

  3. VHTR engineering design study: intermediate heat exchanger program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-11-01

    The work reported is the result of a follow-on program to earlier Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) studies. The primary use of the VHTR is to provide heat for various industrial processes, such as hydrocarbon reforming and coal gasification. For many processes the use of an intermediate heat transfer barrier between the reactor coolant and the process is desirable; for some processes it is mandatory. Various intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts for the VHTR were investigated with respect to safety, cost, and engineering design considerations. The reference processes chosen were steam-hydrocarbon reforming, with emphasis on the chemical heat pipe, and steam gasification of coal. The study investigates the critically important area of heat transfer between the reactor coolant, helium, and the various chemical processes.

  4. Persistent Directional Current at Equilibrium in Nonreciprocal Many-Body Near Field Electromagnetic Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-09-01

    We consider the consequence of nonreciprocity in near-field heat transfer by studying systems consisting of magneto-optical nanoparticles. We demonstrate that, in thermal equilibrium, a nonreciprocal many-body system in heat transfer can support a persistent directional heat current, without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Such a persistent directional heat current cannot occur in reciprocal systems, and can only arise in many-body systems in heat transfer. The use of nonreciprocity therefore points to a new regime of near-field heat transfer for the control of heat flow in the nanoscale.

  5. Solar heating and cooling commercialization research program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.L.; Tragert, W.; Weir, S.

    1979-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Cooling Commercialization Research Program has addressed a recognized need to accelerate the commercialization of solar products. The development of communication techniques and materials for a target group of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) wholesalers and distributors has been the primary effort. A summary of the program, the approach to the development of the techniques and materials, the conclusions derived from seminar feedback, the development of additional research activities and reports and the recommendations for follow-on activities are presented. The appendices offer detailed information on specific elements of the research effort.

  6. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  7. 77 FR 72960 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 685 RIN 1840-AD05 William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary... of William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) program regulations that establish a new...

  8. A Simple Tubesheet Layout Program for Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tubesheet layout program for shell and tube heat exchangers is presented in this study. Program is written in AutoLISP language, which provides standard tubesheet layout drawing as per standard codes and non standard tubsheet in AutoCAD Environment. The program computes the optimal number of tube count and lays out drawing with respecting constraints, including the shell ID, number of passes, center to center distance of tubes and tube outer diameter. Tubesheet layout drawing can be used as template for actual tubesheet. Furthermore the program is validated with open literature and shown good agreement with it. Besides the tubesheet for Heat exchangers this method can be extended to the tube counts of sheave plates and perforated plates of distillation column and Cooling Towers.

  9. Temperature measurement methods during direct heat arterial tissue fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezo, James D; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth D; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Fusion of biological tissues through direct and indirect heating is a growing area of medical research, yet there are still major gaps in understanding this procedure. Several companies have developed devices which fuse blood vessels, but little is known about the tissue's response to the stimuli. The need for accurate measurements of tissue behavior during tissue fusion is essential for the continued development and improvement of energy delivery devices. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperatures experienced during tissue fusion and the resulting burst pressure of the fused arteries. An array of thermocouples was placed in the lumen of a porcine splenic artery segment and sealed using a ConMed Altrus thermal fusion device. The temperatures within the tissue, in the device, and at the tissue-device interface were recorded. These measurements were then analyzed to calculate the temperature profile in the lumen of the artery. The temperature in the artery at the site of tissue fusion was measured to range from 142 to 163 °C using the ConMed Altrus. The corresponding burst pressure for arteries fused at this temperature was measured as 416 ± 79 mmHg. This study represents the first known experimental measurement of temperature at the site of vessel sealing found in the literature.

  10. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning...

  11. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  12. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  13. A Direct Heuristic Algorithm for Linear Programming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Sen; A Ramful

    2000-02-01

    An (3) mathematically non-iterative heuristic procedure that needs no artificial variable is presented for solving linear programming problems. An optimality test is included. Numerical experiments depict the utility/scope of such a procedure.

  14. Direct electronic measurement of Peltier cooling and heating in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Marun, I. J.; van den Berg, J. J.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects allow the generation of electrical power from waste heat and the electrical control of cooling and heating. Remarkably, these effects are also highly sensitive to the asymmetry in the density of states around the Fermi energy and can therefore be exploited as probes of distort

  15. Effects of Fluid Directions on Heat Exchange in Thermoelectric Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Yuto; Fujisaka, Takeyuki

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluids can transport heat to the large surface of a thermoelectric (TE) panel from hot and/or cold sources. The TE power thus obtainable was precisely evaluated using numerical calculations based on fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The commercial software FLUENT was coupled with a TE model...

  16. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated surface. It occurs during boiling of liquids for excess temperature ranging from 5 to 30 °C in various processes related to high vaporization of liquid for specific purposes like sugarcane juice heating for jaggery making, milk heating for khoa making, steam generation, cooling of electronic equipments, refrigeration and etcetera. In this review paper, pool boiling method during heating of liquids for specific purpose is depicted. It is inferred that enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer is a challenging and complex task. Also, recent research and use of various correlations for natural convection pool boiling is reviewed.

  17. 75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office 32 CFR Part 2004 RIN 3095-AB34 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, NARA. ACTION... Federal Register of November 30, 2009, regarding the National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1...

  18. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1995-12-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-95. It describes 80 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal energy cost evaluation and marketing strategy for geothermal district heating. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  19. Nanoscale heat transfer in direct nanopatterning into gold films by a nanosecond laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanhai; Zhai, Tianrui; Zhang, Xinping

    2014-04-01

    We investigate nanoscale heat transfer and heat-flux overlapping effects in nanopatterning through interactions between interferogram produced by 5-ns laser pulses at 355 nm and gold films. These mechanisms played different roles in direct writing of gold nanolines with different periods. Continuous gold nanolines were produced for large periods, where heat-flux overlapping is too small to effect the laser-metal interactions. Thus, the heat-transfer distance and direct laser-ablation determined the width of resultant gold nanolines. However, gold nanolines consisting of isolated gold nanoparticles were produced for small periods, where the overlapped heat-flux exceeds the threshold for removing or melting gold films.

  20. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D, and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center. It describes 95 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with goethermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics, and resources. Research activities are summarized on geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, goethermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  1. Program Direction FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Program Direction enables EERE to maintain and support a world-class federal workforce to accomplish its mission of creating and sustaining American leadership in the sustainable transportation, renewable power, and energy efficiency sectors. The FY 2017 Program Direction budget request provides resources for program and project management, administrative support, contract administration, human capital management, headquarters and field site non-laboratory facilities and infrastructure, and contractor support.

  2. Thermal Efficiency in a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger of Gas and Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Co-generation systems have many practical applications for energy-saving, utilization of various energy resources and energy recovery of waste gas. However, it is pointed out that heat exchangers of co-generation system involve some problems which are corrosion of heat surface, decrease of heat transfer rate due to accumulation of soot and NOx in waste gas. Then. the heat exchange which contacts waste gas with liquid are studied to solve the above problems. The contacting state of gas and liquid has not been researched on the direct contact heat exchanger of gas and liquid. For it is considered that the contacting state has direct effects on a thermal efficiency and gas absorption. Then, we try to investigate the contacting state of gas and liquid by experiments of heating and image processing on the direct contact heat exchanger. From the results, the contacting state of gas and liquid can be evaluate by a gas-liquid contacting area.

  3. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat pipe topical, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    Work performed by Dynatherm Corporation for Teledyne Isotopes during a program entitled ''Heat Pipe Fabrication, Associated Technical Support and Reporting'' is reported. The program was initiated on November 29, 1972; the main objectives were accomplished with the delivery of the heat pipes for the HPG. Life testing of selected heat pipe specimens is continuing to and beyond the present date. The program consisted of the following tasks: Heat Pipe Development of Process Definition; Prototype Heat Pipes for Fin Segment Test; HPG Heat Pipe Fabrication and Testing; Controlled Heat Pipe Life Test; and Heat Pipe Film Coefficient Determination. (TFD)

  4. Numerical Analysis of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yumi; Takahashi, Minoru

    Direct contact boiling heat transfer of sub-cooled water with lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) was investigated for the evaluation of the performance of steam generation in direct contact of feed water with primary Pb-Bi coolant in upper plenum above the core in Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor. An analytical two-fluid model was developed to estimate the heat transfer numerically. Numerical results were compared with experimental ones for verification of the model. The overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient was calculated from heat exchange rate in the chimney. It was confirmed that the calculated results agreed well with the experimental result.

  5. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1994--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This paper is a third quarter 1994 report of activities of the Geo-Heat Center of Oregon Institute of Technology. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat applications. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources, and equipment. Research is also being conducted on failures of vertical lineshaft turbines in geothermal wells.

  6. Adult Participation in Self-Directed Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad Madi Bin; Koren, Sebastian Francis; Muniapan, Balakrishnan; Parasuraman, Balakrishnan; Rathakrishnan, Balan

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain the various concepts related to self-directed learning and also the various theories and models regarding adult participation and also non-participation in self-directed learning programs. Because of the extensive amount of previous literature and research findings dealing with self-directed learning, it is necessary…

  7. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  8. Direct PLUS Loan Basics: Parent Loans for Students. William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The Direct PLUS Loan is one of the low-interest loans provided by the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. The U.S. Department of Education delivers loan proceeds through the student's school, and parents are responsible for repaying the Department. This booklet answers parents' questions about the loan program, including: (1) Am I…

  9. Direct measurement of heat transfer rates and coefficients in freezing processes by the use of heat flux sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarante, A.; Lanoiselle, J.L.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-10-01

    Heat exchange is often complex to assess in freezing equipment. Either the extensive calculation procedures based on product time-temperature data, or the lack of accurate thermophysical properties, or even the non-uniform processing conditions in industrial equipment, results in increased difficulty in calculating accurate heat exchange parameters. The present study aims to solve this kind of problem by introducing the use of heat flux sensors (or fluxmeters) for an online measurement of heat exchange parameters during freezing processes. Since food products often have irregular, moist and greasy surfaces, bad attachment of the sensors can lead to low accuracy in heat flux measurement. First, a technique was improved in this particular and a numerical procedure based on matching the experimental and simulated temperature histories was used to calibrate the sensors attached to Tylose gels submitted to freezing and thawing cycles. Following this, the sensors were applied directly to a vegetable product undergoing freezing in a static freezer to measure the instantaneous product heat release rate and the local heat transfer coefficient. A fluxmeter-plastic transducer was also developed and used, coupled to an anemometer to map axially and transversally the local effective heat transfer coefficient and air speed profiles in a Super-Contact freezing tunnel. Results were compared with numerical simulations and showed good agreement. Irregular air speed distribution and low efficiency heat transfer zones were accurately detected, providing information for equipment optimization. (author)

  10. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. 75 FR 16142 - FY 2010 Special Diabetes Program for Indians Community-Directed Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... staff. Have a working knowledge of diabetes. B. Documentation of Support Tribal Organizations Existing... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service FY 2010 Special Diabetes Program for Indians Community-Directed... Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI) Community- Directed grant program. This competitive grant announcement...

  12. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  13. The direct application of geothermal energy to provide process heat in Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    One part of an energy and resource development program in Central America is a geothermal process heat project in Guatemala. The feasibility of the direct heat application depends upon the production characteristics and reliability of the geothermal source. Other factors are the distance from the heat source, quantity of use, and capacity factor of the use facilities. Favorable conditions would be distances of under 5 km, heat requirements approximately equal to the well capacity, and high capacity factors (say 60% or higher) in the industrial plants. Depending upon the values of these factors, energy costs of less than $1.00/million Btus to greater than $5.00/million Btus have been estimated. This can be compared to about $5.00/million Btus for petroleum-based fuels in Guatemala in mid 1987. A survey was made of existing industries in the Amatitlan and Zunil geothermal areas. In both Amatitlan and Zunil the existing industries are spread out over an area too large to be called an optimum. The most promising situation for an industrial park development is at Amatitlan, except that proven production wells are not yet available. At Zunil, production wells exist, but a diverse nearby industrial base does not. However, both of these two areas are sufficiently promising to merit further development. Consequently, a demonstration project is underway aimed at the ultimate establishment of an agricultural processing center at Zunil. This center would have the capability to process agricultural products by dehydration, freezing, and cold storage. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  15. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-97. It describes 174 contracts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  16. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  17. Responding to the Effects of Extreme Heat: Baltimore City's Code Red Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Heat response plans are becoming increasingly more common as US cities prepare for heat waves and other effects of climate change. Standard elements of heat response plans exist, but plans vary depending on geographic location and distribution of vulnerable populations. Because heat events vary over time and affect populations differently based on vulnerability, it is difficult to compare heat response plans and evaluate responses to heat events. This article provides an overview of the Baltimore City heat response plan, the Code Red program, and discusses the city's response to the 2012 Ohio Valley/Mid Atlantic Derecho, a complex heat event. Challenges with and strategies for evaluating the program are reviewed and shared.

  18. Status and Future Directions of the ENERGY STAR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard; Webber, Carrie; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-12-04

    In 1992 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Since then, the EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has expanded the program to cover nearly the entire buildings sector, spanning new homes, commercial buildings, residential heating and cooling equipment, major appliances, office equipment, commercial and residential lighting, and home electronics. This paper is based on our experience since 1993 in providing technical support to the ENERGY STAR program. We provide a snapshot of the ENERGY STAR program in the year 2000, including a general overview of the program, its accomplishments, and the possibilities for future development.

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, Terrence P [ORNL

    2007-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the US Departmental of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development' (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE's requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2006. The associated FY 2006 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2007/2) provides financial data about the FY 2006 projects and an internal evaluation of the program's management process.

  20. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Assessment for FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report fulfills that requirement.

  1. Overview of recent activities in the Heat Cycle Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. To meet this objective, the program has as one of its goals to improve the performance of geothermal binary cycles to levels approaching the practicable thermodynamic maximum. In pursuit of this goal, tests are being conducted at the Heat Cycle Research Facility located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility, East Mesa, California. The current testing involves the investigation of binary power cycle performance utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation of the working fluid. In addition to the present test program, preparations are being made to investigate the binary cycle performance improvements which can be achieved by allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine. These efforts are anticipated to verify that through the utilization of these advanced power cycle concepts and allowing the supersaturated turbine expansions, improvements of up to 28% in the net geofluid effectiveness (net watt hours plant output per pound of geofluid) over conventional binary power plants can be achieved. Results presented for the recent testing, including those tests examining the performance of the countercurrent condenser at different tube inclinations, support the assumptions used in projected performance improvements. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Transient Direct Expansion Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Rousseau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal heat pump technology is currently one of the most interesting technologies used to heat buildings. There are two designs used in the industry: geothermal heat pump using a secondary ground loop and Direct Expansion (DX ground source heat pump. The latter is less used, possibly because less research has been carried out for the design of this kind of heat pump. In this paper, a transient model using the Comsol Multiphysic of a DX ground heat pump is presented in heating mode with R22, and a comparison with experimental results is presented with a 24-hour test. It is shown that the model was adequately validated by our experiment with only a maximum difference of 15%. Following this validation, a parametric analysis was realised on the geometry of the borehole. This study concluded that to have the best heat extraction of the ground, the pipes shank spacing need to be important without increasing the borehole diameter. Keywords: Direct Expansion geothermal heat pump, Modeling, R22 Article History: Received January 16th 2017; Received in revised form May 28th 2017; Accepted June 6th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Rousseau, C., Fannou, J.L.C., Lamarche, L. and Kajl, S. (2017 Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Transient Direct Expansion Heat Pump. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(2, 145-155. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.145-155

  3. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar-heated and cooled buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The procedure used was to obtain experimental performance data from a solar system using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions, develop a simulation model for the system, validate the model using the data, apply the model in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year, and estimate the life-cycle cost of the system for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

  4. Application of Program Generation Technology in Solving Heat and Flow Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui Wan; Bangxian Wu; Ningning Chen

    2007-01-01

    Based on a new DIY concept for software development, an automatic program-generating technology attached on a software system called as Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG) provides a platform of developing programs, through which a scientific researcher can submit his special physico-mathematical problem to the system in a more direct and convenient way for solution. For solving flow and heat problems by using finite element method, the stabilization technologies and fraction-step methods are adopted to overcome the numerical difficulties caused mainly due to the dominated convection. A couple of benchmark problems are given in this paper as examples to illustrate the usage and the superiority of the automatic program generation technique, including the flow in a lid-driven cavity, the starting flow in a circular pipe, the natural convection in a square cavity, and the flow past a circular cylinder, etc. They are also shown as the verification of the algorithms.

  5. Economic assessment of geothermal direct heat technology: A review of five DOE demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hederman, William F. Jr.; Cohen, Laura A.

    1981-06-01

    In this report the cost of using low temperature geothermal energy resources for direct heating applications is compared to the costs associated with conventional heating fuels. The projects compared all involved replacing conventional fuels (e.g., natural gas and fuel oils) with geothermal energy in existing heating systems. The cost of using geothermal energy in existing systems was also compared with the cost of new coal-fired equipment.

  6. The Microwave Direct Heating of Zeolite FAU in an Open System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Zeolite FAU was heated directly by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz in an open system without special loading materials. It was discovered that zeolite X was heated to 1473 K about 90 seconds at power output of 400 W. HY type zeolite was also heated to 1373 K although it needed relative long time (about 11 minutes). Influences of exchangeable cations and adsorbed substances on zeolite1s ability to absorb microwaves were also discussed.

  7. The Microwave Direct Heating of Zeolite FAU in an Open System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinXiangDONG; FengWU; 等

    2002-01-01

    Zeolite FAU was heated directly by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz is in open system without special loading materials. It was discovered that zeolite X was heated to 1473K about 90 seconds at power output of 400W. HY type zeolite was also heated to 1373K although in needed relative long time (about 11 minutes). Influences of exchangeable cations and adsorbed substances on zeolite′s ability to absorb microwaves were also discussed.

  8. Mechanisms of direct detonation initiation via thermal explosion of radiatively heated gas-particles layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, V. P.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.

    Conceptual approach of detonation wave direct initiation by external radiative heating of microparticles locally suspended in flammable gaseous mixture is proposed. Combustion waves and detonation initiation mechanisms in the congestion regions of microparticles heated by radiation are studied numerically. Necessary criteria on geometrical scales of gas-particles layer and spatial uniformity of particles distribution for successful detonation initiation are formulated.

  9. Skin and muscle components of forearm blood flow in directly heated resting man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detry, J.-M. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Rowell, L. B.; Wyss, C.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in forearm muscle blood flow (FMBF) during direct whole-body heating were measured in 17 normal subjects using three different methods. We conclude that FMBF is not increased by direct whole-body heating. Since renal and splanchnic blood flow fall 30% under these conditions, maximal total skin blood flow in 12 previously studied subjects can be estimated from the rise in cardiac output to be 7.6 L/min (3.0-11.1 L/min).

  10. Direct Loans: A Better Way To Borrow. William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    The Web site http://www.ed.gov/DirectLoan/ provides information on the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program for both professionals and borrowers. For professionals, it provides information on conferences, promissory notes, regulations, laws, and relevant links, as well as technical assistance, and other publications and guides. For…

  11. Effectiveness of an indoor preparation program to increase thermal resilience in elderly for heat waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Herweijer, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Elderly indoors can be subject to considerable heat strain during heat waves. We investigated if a short indoor acclimation (HA) program leads to improved resilience to heat. Although full HA takes about ten days, the main changes occur in the first days, leading to reduced heat strain with similar

  12. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating...

  13. Analysis of a liquid/gas direct contact heat exchanger concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, R. O.; Mussulman, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    The performance of spray heat exchangers employing uniform drop generators is analyzed using a computer simulation of the air/water counterflow direct contact heat exchanger for the cases of heat transfer from water to air, and from air to water. The effect of air temperature and humidity on water cooling is demonstrated. For the case of air cooling, the dry bulb temperature reduction achieved in the chiller is insensitive to humidity. The effects of heat exchanger size and droplet size are also considered.

  14. A comparison of microwave versus direct solar heating for lunar brick production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar heating and microwave heating. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave heating was shown to be significantly faster than solar heating for rapid production of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.

  15. Laser-direct-drive program: Promise, challenge, and path forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Campbell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with laser-indirect (X-ray-drive and magnetic-drive target concepts, laser direct drive is a viable approach to achieving ignition and gain with inertial confinement fusion. In the United States, a national program has been established to demonstrate and understand the physics of laser direct drive. The program utilizes the Omega Laser Facility to conduct implosion and coupling physics at the nominally 30-kJ scale and laser–plasma interaction and coupling physics at the MJ scale at the National Ignition Facility. This article will discuss the motivation and challenges for laser direct drive and the broad-based program presently underway in the United States.

  16. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-97 (July--September 1997). It describes 213 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps, geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, acquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, and industrial applications. Research activities include the completion of a Comprehensive Greenhouse Developer Package. Work accomplished on the revision of the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 3), dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses, and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  17. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, January - March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-97. It describes 176 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on well pumping in commercial groundwater heat pump systems. A memorandum of understanding between the GHC and EIA is described. Work accomplishments on the Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  18. Indirect and Mixed Direct-Indirect Heat Integration of Batch Processes Based on Pinch Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Favrat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper introduces a methodology for the heat integration of industrial batch processes. Based on Pinch Analysis principles, this methodology resorts to intermediate heat storage to prevent adverse effects on the operating flexibility, which are often associated with direct heat exchange only. A systematic procedure, backed with a graphical representation, allows the determination of the minimum number of heat storage units assuming vertical heat transfer and their range of feasible operation as a function of the amount of heat recovery. Understanding the cause and the bottleneck effect of the socalled storage pinch, heuristic rules are proposed to screen major options corresponding to minimum cost solutions. For a given number of heat storage units, these rules could be automated to a large extent, making the procedure suitable for targeting purposes. The operating temperature of the heat storage units can be optimized with ease, while other continuous degrees of freedom are more difficult to address using the proposed methodology. Preliminary guidelines are proposed to extend the methodology to mixed direct-indirect heat integration.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS’00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000 and revised

  19. Experimental analysis of direct-expansion ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, V. C.; Baxter, V. D.

    1991-09-01

    Direct-expansion ground-coil-coupled (DXGC) heat pump systems have certain energy efficiency advantages over conventional ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems. Principal among these advantages are that the secondary heat transfer fluid heat exchanger and circulating pump are eliminated. While the DXGC concept can produce higher efficiencies, it also produces more system design and environmental problems (e.g., compressor starting, oil return, possible ground pollution, and more refrigerant charging). Furthermore, general design guidelines for DXGC systems are not well documented. A two-pronged approach was adopted for this study: (1) a literature survey, and (2) a laboratory study of a DXGC heat pump system with R-22 as the refrigerant, for both heating and cooling mode tests done in parallel and series tube connections. The results of each task are described in this paper. A set of general design guidelines was derived from the test results and is also presented.

  20. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T. [ed.; Chartock, M.

    1999-02-05

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Berkeley Lab) Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 1998 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the supported projects and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The LBNL LDRD program is a critical tool for directing the Laboratory's forefront scientific research capabilities toward vital, excellent, and emerging scientific challenges. The program provides the resources for LBNL scientists to make rapid and significant contributions to critical national science and technology problems. The LDRD program also advances LBNL's core competencies, foundations, and scientific capability, and permits exploration of exciting new opportunities. All projects are work in forefront areas of science and technology. Areas eligible for support include the following: Advanced study of hypotheses, concepts, or innovative approaches to scientific or technical problems; Experiments and analyses directed toward ''proof of principle'' or early determination of the utility of new scientific ideas, technical concepts, or devices; and Conception and preliminary technical analyses of experimental facilities or devices.

  1. Laboratory directed research and development program, FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 1996 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The Berkeley Lab LDRD program is a critical tool for directing the Laboratory`s forefront scientific research capabilities toward vital, excellent, and emerging scientific challenges. The program provides the resources for Berkeley Lab scientists to make rapid and significant contributions to critical national science and technology problems. The LDRD program also advances the Laboratory`s core competencies, foundations, and scientific capability, and permits exploration of exciting new opportunities. Areas eligible for support include: (1) Work in forefront areas of science and technology that enrich Laboratory research and development capability; (2) Advanced study of new hypotheses, new experiments, and innovative approaches to develop new concepts or knowledge; (3) Experiments directed toward proof of principle for initial hypothesis testing or verification; and (4) Conception and preliminary technical analysis to explore possible instrumentation, experimental facilities, or new devices.

  2. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program: FY 2015 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLAC,

    2016-04-04

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) encourage innovation, creativity, originality and quality to maintain the Laboratory’s research activities and staff at the forefront of science and technology. To further advance its scientific research capabilities, the Laboratory allocates a portion of its funds for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. With DOE guidance, the LDRD program enables SLAC scientists to make rapid and significant contributions that seed new strategies for solving important national science and technology problems. The LDRD program is conducted using existing research facilities.

  4. The direct cost of "Thriasio" school screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziotou Christina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is great diversity in the policies for scoliosis screening worldwide. The initial enthusiasm was succeeded by skepticism and the worth of screening programs has been challenged. The criticisms of school screening programs cite mainly the negative psychological impact on children and their families and the increased financial cost of visits and follow-up radiographs. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the direct cost of performing the school screening in a district hospital. Methods A cost analysis was performed for the estimation of the direct cost of the "Thriasio" school-screening program between January 2000 and May 2006. The analysis involved all the 6470 pupils aged 6–18 years old who were screened at schools for spinal deformities during this period. The factors which were taken into consideration in order to calculate the direct cost of the screening program were a the number of the examiners b the working hours, c the examiners' salary, d the cost of transportation and finally e the cost of examination per child. Results During the examined period 20 examiners were involved in the program and worked for 1949 working hours. The hourly salary for the trainee doctors was 6.80 euro, for the Health Visitors 6.70 euro and for the Physiotherapists 5.50 euro in current prices. The cost of transportation was 32 euro per year. The direct cost for the examination of each child for the above studied period was calculated to be 2.04 euro. Conclusion The cost of our school-screening program is low. The present study provides a strong evidence for the continuation of the program when looking from a financial point of view.

  5. Numerical simulation of boundary heat flow effects on directional solidification microstructure of a binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The boundary heat flow has important significance for the microstructures of directional solidified binary alloy. Interface evolution of the directional solidified microstructure with different boundary heat flow was discussed. In this study, only one interface was allowed to have heat flow, and Neumann boundary conditions were imposed at the other three interfaces. From the calculated results, it was found that different boundary heat flows will result in different microstructures. When the boundary heat flow equals to 20 W·cm-2, the growth of longitudinal side branches is accelerated and the growth of transverse side branches is restrained, and meanwhile, there is dendritic remelting in the calculation domain. When the boundary heat flow equals to 40 W·cm-2, the growths of the transverse and longitudinal side branches compete with each other, and when the boundary heat flow equals to 100-200 W·cm-2, the growth of transverse side branches dominates absolutely. The temperature field of dendritic growth was analyzed and the relation between boundary heat flow and temperature field was also investigated.

  6. Numerical simulation of boundary heat flow effects on directional solidification microstructure of a binary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xiang; Tang Jinjun

    2010-01-01

    The boundary heat flow has important significance for the microstructures of directional solidified binary alloy. Interface evolution of the directional solidified microstructure with different boundary heat flow was discussed. In this study, only one interface was allowed to have heat flow, and Neumann boundary conditions were imposed at the other three interfaces. From the calculated results, it was found that different boundary heat flows will result in different microstructures. When the boundary heat flow equals to 20 W-cm-2, the growth of longitudinal side branches is accelerated and the growth of transverse side branches is restrained, and meanwhile, there is dendritic remelting in the calculation domain. When the boundary heat flow equals to 40 W-cm-2, the growths of the transverse and longitudinal side branches compete with each other, and when the boundary heat flow equals to 100-200 W-cm-2, the growth of transverse side branches dominates absolutely. The temperature field of dendritic growth was analyzed and the relation between boundary heat flow and temperature field was also investigated.

  7. Comparison of Direct Solar Energy to Resistance Heating for Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gustafson, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of two methods of delivering thermal energy to regolith for the carbo thermal reduction process has been performed. The comparison concludes that electrical resistance heating is superior to direct solar energy via solar concentrators for the following reasons: (1) the resistance heating method can process approximately 12 times as much regolith using the same amount of thermal energy as the direct solar energy method because of superior thermal insulation; (2) the resistance heating method is more adaptable to nearer-term robotic exploration precursor missions because it does not require a solar concentrator system; (3) crucible-based methods are more easily adapted to separation of iron metal and glass by-products than direct solar energy because the melt can be poured directly after processing instead of being remelted; and (4) even with projected improvements in the mass of solar concentrators, projected photovoltaic system masses are expected to be even lower.

  8. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none

    2012-04-27

    Berkeley Lab's research and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program support DOE's Strategic Themes that are codified in DOE's 2006 Strategic Plan (DOE/CF-0010), with a primary focus on Scientific Discovery and Innovation. For that strategic theme, the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 LDRD projects support each one of the three goals through multiple strategies described in the plan. In addition, LDRD efforts support the four goals of Energy Security, the two goals of Environmental Responsibility, and Nuclear Security (unclassified fundamental research that supports stockpile safety and nonproliferation programs). Going forward in FY 2012, the LDRD program also supports the Goals codified in the new DOE Strategic Plan of May, 2011. The LDRD program also supports Office of Science strategic plans, including the 20-year Scientific Facilities Plan and the Office of Science Strategic Plan. The research also supports the strategic directions periodically under consideration and review by the Office of Science Program Offices, such as LDRD projects germane to new research facility concepts and new fundamental science directions. Brief summares of projects and accomplishments for the period for each division are included.

  9. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  10. Development of a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger, Phase 1 Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1978-01-01

    Electric power generation from geothermal brine requires, first, bringing the hot brine to the surface and then converting the heat to electric power. Binary conversion schemes were proposed, with the heat transfer between the brine and the working organic fluid taking place in a conventional tube and shell heat exchanger. If the brine is heavily laden with dissolved solids, however, solids buildup on the heat exchanger surfaces leads to a considerable degree of fouling and an accompanying drop in performance is experienced. A possible solution to this problem is the use of a direct contact exchanger with the secondary fluid power cycle. The proposed concept involves the formation of fluid sheets and bells as heat angles. Results of a study concerning the fluid mechanics of such surfaces are given.

  11. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Assessment for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, J P; Fox, K J

    2008-03-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary Laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal Year 2008 spending was $531.6 million. There are approximately 2,800 employees, and another 4,300 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development,' April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Development at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. To be a premier scientific Laboratory, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research and renew its research agenda. The competition for LDRD funds stimulates Laboratory scientists to think in new and creative ways, which becomes a major factor in achieving and maintaining research excellence and a means to address National needs within the overall mission of the DOE and BNL. By fostering high-risk, exploratory research, the LDRD program helps

  12. The direct heat measurement of mechanical energy storage metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julien; Beurroies, Isabelle; Loiseau, Thierry; Denoyel, Renaud; Llewellyn, Philip L

    2015-04-07

    In any process, the heat exchanged is an essential property required in its development. Whilst the work related to structural transitions of some flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been quantified and linked with potential applications such as molecular springs or shock absorbers, the heat related to such transitions has never been directly measured. This has now been carried out with MIL-53(Al) using specifically devised calorimetry experiments. We project the importance of these heats in devices such as molecular springs or dampers.

  13. Development of a Wind Directly Forced Heat Pump and Its Efficiency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Song Jwo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of providing electric energy through the wind-forced generator to the heat pump for water cooling and hot water heating grow significantly by now. This study proposes a new technique to directly adopt the wind force to drive heat pump systems, which can effectively reduce the energy conversion losses during the processes of wind force energy converting to electric energy and electric energy converting to kinetic energy. The operation of heat pump system transfers between chiller and heat that are controlled by a four-way valve. The theoretical efficiency of the traditional method, whose heat pump is directly forced by wind, is 42.19%. The experimental results indicated average value for cool water producing efficiency of 54.38% in the outdoor temperature of 35°C and the indoor temperature of 25°C and the hot water producing efficiency of 52.25% in the outdoor temperature and the indoor temperature both of 10°C. We proposed a method which can improve the efficiency over 10% in both cooling and heating.

  14. Heat Treated AZ61 Magnesium Alloy Obtained by Direct Extrusion and Continuous Rotary Extrusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigaj M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies carried out on the heat treated AZ61 magnesium alloy extruded by two methods, i.e. direct extrusion and continuous rotary extrusion, were presented. As part of the work, parameters of the T6 heat treatment were proposed and aging curves were plotted. The solution heat treatment process was accompanied by the grain growth. During artificial aging, due to the decomposition of solid solution, the β-Mg17Al12 phase was precipitated from the supersaturated α solution. It precipitated in a coagulated form at the grain boundaries and in the form of fine-dispersed plates arranged in a preferred direction relative to the grain orientation. Rods obtained by continuous rotary extrusion, unlike those made by the direct process, exhibited a low degree of texturing and lack of anisotropic properties.

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd C.

    2005-03-22

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Berkeley Lab's research and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program support DOE's Strategic Goals that are codified in DOE's September 2003 Strategic Plan, with a primary focus on Advancing Scientific Understanding. For that goal, the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 LDRD projects support every one of the eight strategies described in the plan. In addition, LDRD efforts support the goals of Investing in America's Energy Future (six of the fourteen strategies), Resolving the Environmental Legacy (four of the eight strategies), and Meeting National Security Challenges (unclassified fundamental research that supports stockpile safety and nonproliferation programs). The LDRD supports Office of Science strategic plans, including the 20 year Scientific Facilities Plan and the draft Office of Science Strategic Plan. The research also

  16. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR09 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing... category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule related to fluorinated heat transfer fluids. More... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs...

  17. LABORATORY DIRECTED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ASSESSMENT FOR FY 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOX,K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's total annual budget has averaged about $460 million. There are about 2,500 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, ''Laboratory Directed Research and Development,'' April 19,2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Development at the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13,2006. The goals and' objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new ''fundable'' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research ''which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions'' for the Laboratory. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new

  18. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Assessment for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman,L.; Fox, K.J.

    2007-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal Year 2007 spending was $515 million. There are approximately 2,600 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development', April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Development at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new science and technology ideas, which

  19. Direct heat resource assessment: Phase II, year 1. Final report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.E.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Mattice, M.D.

    1980-02-01

    During 1979 reconnaissance field surveys were conducted on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu with the objective of confirming groundwater chemical data and geophysical data compiled during the preliminary regional assessment of Phase I of the Direct Heat Resource Assessment Program. The exploration techniques applied include (1) groundwater chemistry, (2) mercury-radon surveys, (3) isotopic composition of groundwaters, (4) time domain electromagnetics, and (5) Schlumberger resistivity surveys. The results of these surveys can be classified as follows: (1) Hawaii: Kailua-Kona, strong geochemical anomalies; Kawaihae, strong geophysical anomalies, moderate to strong geochemical anomalies; Hualalai northwest rift, weak geochemical and moderate geophysical anomalies; South Point, moderate to weak geophysical anomalies; Hualalai southeast rift, weak geophysical anomalies; Keaau, weak geophysical and geochemical anomalies; (2) Maui: Haiku-Paia, strong geochemical anomalies; Olowalu-Ukamehame canyons, moderate to strong geochemical and geophysical anomalies; Lahaina, weak geochemical and geophysical anomalies; (3) Oahu: Lualualei, moderate to strong geochemical and geophysical anomalies; Waimanalo-Maunawili, insufficient data.

  20. MELCOR 1.8.2 Assessment: IET direct containment heating tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1993-10-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze several of the IET direct containment heating experiments done at 1:10 linear scale in the Surtsey test facility at Sandia and at 1:40 linear scale in the corium-water thermal interactions (CWTI) COREXIT test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. These MELCOR calculations were done as an open post-test study, with both the experimental data and CONTAIN results available to guide the selection of code input. Basecase MELCOR results are compared to test data in order to evaluate the new HPME DCH model recently added in MELCOR version 1.8.2. The effect of various user-input parameters in the HPME model, which define both the initial debris source and the subsequent debris interaction, were investigated in sensitivity studies. In addition, several other non-default input modelling changes involving other MELCOR code packages were required in our IET assessment analyses in order to reproduce the observed experiment behavior. Several calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in our DCH IET assessment analyses.

  1. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    editor, Todd C Hansen

    2009-02-23

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Berkeley Lab's research and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program support DOE's Strategic Themes that are codified in DOE's 2006 Strategic Plan (DOE/CF-0010), with a primary focus on Scientific Discovery and Innovation. For that strategic theme, the Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 LDRD projects support each one of the three goals through multiple strategies described in the plan. In addition, LDRD efforts support the four goals of Energy Security, the two goals of Environmental Responsibility, and Nuclear Security (unclassified fundamental research that supports stockpile safety and nonproliferation programs). The LDRD program supports Office of Science strategic plans, including the 20-year Scientific Facilities Plan and the Office of Science Strategic Plan. The research also supports the strategic directions periodically under

  2. Direct dark matter searches and the CDEX research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Henry T.; Yue, Qian; Kang, Kejun

    2016-07-01

    We sketch the landscape which gives rise to the missing energy density problem and highlight the direct experimental searches of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) dark matter. An overview of the China Jinping underground laboratory as well as the China dark matter experiment (CDEX) dark matter program based on germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities is presented. The achieved results, status as well as the R&D and technology acquisition efforts towards a ton-scale experiment are reported.

  3. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  4. Computer program grade for design and analysis of graded-porosity heat-pipe wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for numerical solution of differential equations that describe heat pipes with graded-porosity fibrous wicks is discussed. A mathematical problem is provided with a summary of the input and output steps used to solve it. The program is also applied to the analysis of a typical heat pipe.

  5. Hydride heat pump. Volume I. Users manual for HYCSOS system design program. [HYCSOS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, R.; Moritz, P.

    1978-05-01

    A method for the design and costing of a metal hydride heat pump for residential use and a computer program, HYCSOS, which automates that method are described. The system analyzed is one in which a metal hydride heat pump can provide space heating and space cooling powered by energy from solar collectors and electric power generated from solar energy. The principles and basic design of the system are presented, and the computer program is described giving detailed design and performance equations used in the program. The operation of the program is explained, and a sample run is presented. This computer program is part of an effort to design, cost, and evaluate a hydride heat pump for residential use. The computer program is written in standard Fortran IV and was run on a CDC Cyber 74 and Cyber 174 computer. A listing of the program is included as an appendix. This report is Volume 1 of a two-volume document.

  6. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-98 (October--December 1997). It describes 216 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps and material for high school debates, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, electric power and snow melting. Research activities include work on model construction specifications of lineshaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, a comprehensive aquaculture developer package and revisions to the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 4) which was devoted entirely to geothermal activities in South Dakota, dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  7. A direct heating model to overcome the edge effect in microplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chun Yat; Zahidi, Alifa Afiah Ahmad; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2015-01-01

    Array-based tests in a microplate format are complicated by the regional variation in results of the outer against the inner wells of the plate. Analysis of the evaporation mechanics of sessile drops showed that evaporation rate increase with temperature was due to changes in the heat of vaporization, density and diffusion coefficient. In simulations of direct bottom heating of standard microplates, considerable heat transfer via conduction from the side walls was found to be responsible for lower temperatures in the liquid in wells close to the edge. Applying a two temperature heating mode, 304 K at the side compared to 310 K at the bottom, allowed for a more uniform temperature distribution. Transparency microplates were found to inherently possess immunity to the edge effect problem due to the presence of air between the liquid and solid wall.

  8. An experimental study of a three-phase, direct-contact heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J.; Bonilla, O. [Unidad Energias No-Convencionales, Div. Energias Alternas e Informatica, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-05-01

    An experimental pilot scale three-phase, direct-contact heat exchanger was constructed and tested. Experiments were performed using normal pentane as the dispersed phase and water as the continuous phase. The inlet water temperatures ranged from 75 to 88degC, and the inlet pentane temperatures varied from 23 to 38degC. The volumetric heat transfer coefficient, hold-up and heat flow-rate are functions of pentane mass flow-rate. For high pentane/water volumetric flow ratios flooding was reached. Before reaching flooding conditions, accumulation of liquid pentane at the top of the active volume was found. The experimental volumetric heat transfer coefficient values are on average 30% greater than those estimated with the correlation previously proposed by Jacobs. (Author)

  9. Energy efficiency analysis of reactor for torrefaction of biomass with direct heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, J. S.; Director, L. B.; Shevchenko, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Paper presents energy analysis of reactor for torrefaction with direct heating of granulated biomass by exhaust gases. Various schemes of gas flow through the reactor zones are presented. Performed is a comparative evaluation of the specific energy consumption for the considered schemes. It has been shown that one of the most expensive processes of torrefaction technology is recycling of pyrolysis gases.

  10. Heat treatment of a direct composite resin: influence on flexural strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lumi Miyazaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of a direct composite, for indirect application, that received heat treatment, with or without investment. One indirect composite was used for comparison. For determination of the heat treatment temperature, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were performed, considering the initial weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature (Tg. Then, after photoactivation (600 mW/cm² - 40 s, the specimens (10 x 2 x 2 mm were heat-treated following these conditions: 170ºC for 5, 10 or 15 min, embedded or not embedded in investment. Flexural strength was assessed as a means to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment periods and investment embedding on mechanical properties. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. TGA showed an initial weight loss temperature of 180ºC and DSC showed a Tg value of 157°C. Heat treatment was conducted in an oven (Flli Manfredi, Italy, after 37°C storage for 48 h. Flexural strength was evaluated after 120 h at 37°C storage. The results showed that different periods and investment embedding presented similar statistical values. Nevertheless, the direct composite resin with treatments presented higher values (178.7 MPa compared to the indirect composite resin (146.0 MPa and the same direct composite submitted to photoactivation only (151.7 MPa. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the heat treatment increased the flexural strength of the direct composite studied, leading to higher mechanical strength compared to the indirect composite.

  11. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney,J.P.; Fox, K.

    2009-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that maintains a primary mission focus the physical sciences, energy sciences, and life sciences, with additional expertise in environmental sciences, energy technologies, and national security. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal year 2008 budget was $531.6 million. There are about 2,800 employees, and another 4,300 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development,' April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Developlnent at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. Accordingly, this is our Annual Report in which we describe the Purpose, Approach, Technical Progress and Results, and Specific Accomplishments of all LDRD projects that received funding during Fiscal Year 2008. BNL expended $12 million during Fiscal Year 2008 in support of 69 projects. The program has two categories, the annual Open Call LDRDs and Strategic LDRDs, which combine to meet the overall objectives of the LDRD Program. Proposals are solicited annually for review and approval concurrent with the next fiscal year, October 1. For the open call for proposals, an LDRD Selection Committee, comprised of the Associate Laboratory Directors (ALDs) for the Scientific Directorates, an equal number of scientists recommended by the Brookhaven Council, plus the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning, review the proposals submitted in response to the solicitation. The Open Can LDRD category emphasizes innovative research concepts

  12. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney,J.P.; Fox, K.

    2009-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that maintains a primary mission focus the physical sciences, energy sciences, and life sciences, with additional expertise in environmental sciences, energy technologies, and national security. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal year 2008 budget was $531.6 million. There are about 2,800 employees, and another 4,300 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development,' April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Developlnent at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. Accordingly, this is our Annual Report in which we describe the Purpose, Approach, Technical Progress and Results, and Specific Accomplishments of all LDRD projects that received funding during Fiscal Year 2008. BNL expended $12 million during Fiscal Year 2008 in support of 69 projects. The program has two categories, the annual Open Call LDRDs and Strategic LDRDs, which combine to meet the overall objectives of the LDRD Program. Proposals are solicited annually for review and approval concurrent with the next fiscal year, October 1. For the open call for proposals, an LDRD Selection Committee, comprised of the Associate Laboratory Directors (ALDs) for the Scientific Directorates, an equal number of scientists recommended by the Brookhaven Council, plus the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning, review the proposals submitted in response to the solicitation. The Open Can LDRD category emphasizes innovative research concepts

  13. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of heat flux measurements estimated using a one-dimensional, inverse heat-conduction program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas; Figueroa, Victor G.; Murphy, Jill E. (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA)

    2005-02-01

    The measurement of heat flux in hydrocarbon fuel fires (e.g., diesel or JP-8) is difficult due to high temperatures and the sooty environment. Un-cooled commercially available heat flux gages do not survive in long duration fires, and cooled gages often become covered with soot, thus changing the gage calibration. An alternate method that is rugged and relatively inexpensive is based on inverse heat conduction methods. Inverse heat-conduction methods estimate absorbed heat flux at specific material interfaces using temperature/time histories, boundary conditions, material properties, and usually an assumption of one-dimensional (1-D) heat flow. This method is commonly used at Sandia.s fire test facilities. In this report, an uncertainty analysis was performed for a specific example to quantify the effect of input parameter variations on the estimated heat flux when using the inverse heat conduction method. The approach used was to compare results from a number of cases using modified inputs to a base-case. The response of a 304 stainless-steel cylinder [about 30.5 cm (12-in.) in diameter and 0.32-cm-thick (1/8-in.)] filled with 2.5-cm-thick (1-in.) ceramic fiber insulation was examined. Input parameters of an inverse heat conduction program varied were steel-wall thickness, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity; insulation thickness, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity, temperature uncertainty, boundary conditions, temperature sampling period; and numerical inputs. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed in all cases. Results of the analysis show that, at the maximum heat flux, the most important parameters were temperature uncertainty, steel thickness and steel volumetric heat capacity. The use of a constant thermal properties rather than temperature dependent values also made a significant difference in the resultant heat flux; therefore, temperature-dependent values should be used. As an example, several parameters were varied to

  15. Laboratory directed research and development program FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2000-03-08

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. This is the annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program for FY99.

  16. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2002-03-15

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. This is the annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program for FY01.

  17. Linear programming control of a group of heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    For a new district in the Dutch city Meppel, a hybrid energy concept is developed based on bio-gas co-generation. The generated electricity is used to power domestic heat pumps which supply thermal energy for domestic hot water and space heating demand of households. In this paper, we investigate di

  18. Influence of Different Vortex Generators on Heat Transfer in Direct Air-Cooled Condensers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guobing; YANG Laishun

    2012-01-01

    With the capacity of air cooling turbines increasing, the air-cooled steam condenser has been developed to the single fiat tube. Fig.1 shows the studied single-row wavy-finned flat tube. Vortex generators are more and more used in oil and chemical industry, power generation, and refrigeration industry in the heat exchanger. The analyses are performed to investigate the effect of vortex generators on pressure drop and heat transfer of single-row wavy-finned fiat tubes of direct air-cooled condensers.

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the 1992 fiscal year. It describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The Divisions that report include: Accelerator and Fusion Research, Chemical Sciences, Earth Sciences, Energy and Environment, Engineering, Environment and Safety and Health, Information and Computing Sciences, Life Sciences, Materials Sciences, Nuclear Science, Physics and Structural Biology.

  20. A consistent direct discretization scheme on Cartesian grids for convective and conjugate heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Norikazu; Takeuchi, Shintaro; Kajishima, Takeo; Inagaki, Masahide; Horinouchi, Nariaki

    2016-09-01

    A new discretization scheme on Cartesian grids, namely, a "consistent direct discretization scheme", is proposed for solving incompressible flows with convective and conjugate heat transfer around a solid object. The Navier-Stokes and the pressure Poisson equations are discretized directly even in the immediate vicinity of a solid boundary with the aid of the consistency between the face-velocity and the pressure gradient. From verifications in fundamental flow problems, the present method is found to significantly improve the accuracy of the velocity and the wall shear stress. It is also confirmed that the numerical results are less sensitive to the Courant number owing to the consistency between the velocity and pressure fields. The concept of the consistent direct discretization scheme is also explored for the thermal field; the energy equations for the fluid and solid phases are discretized directly while satisfying the thermal relations that should be valid at their interface. It takes different forms depending on the thermal boundary conditions: Dirichlet (isothermal) and Neumann (adiabatic/iso-heat-flux) boundary conditions for convective heat transfer and a fluid-solid thermal interaction for conjugate heat transfer. The validity of these discretizations is assessed by comparing the simulated results with analytical solutions for the respective thermal boundary conditions, and it is confirmed that the present schemes also show high accuracy for the thermal field. A significant improvement for the conjugate heat transfer problems is that the second-order spatial accuracy and numerical stability are maintained even under severe conditions of near-practical physical properties for the fluid and solid phases.

  1. National program for solar heating and cooling of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The results of a continuing assessment of program plans, additional program activities, and experience gained and achievements made since program inception are reflected here. The current status of program activities funded totally or partially by DOE is presented in this report which thus supersedes ERDA 76-6. (MHR)

  2. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman,L.

    2007-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal year 2007 budget was $515 million. There are about 2,600 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development', April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Development at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. In accordance this is our Annual Report in which we describe the Purpose, Approach, Technical Progress and Results, and Specific Accomplishments of all LDRD projects that received funding during Fiscal Year 2007. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. We explicitly indicate that research conducted under the LDRD Program should be highly innovative, and an element of high risk as to success is acceptable. In the solicitation for new proposals for Fiscal Year 2007 we especially requested innovative new projects in

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, Terrence P [ORNL

    2006-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2A, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development' (January 8, 2001), which establishes DOE's requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report describes all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2005 and includes final reports for completed projects and shorter progress reports for projects that were active, but not completed, during this period. The FY 2005 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2006/2) provides financial data about the FY 2005 projects and an internal evaluation of the program's management process. ORNL is a DOE multiprogram science, technology, and energy laboratory with distinctive capabilities in materials science and engineering, neutron science and technology, energy production and end-use technologies, biological and environmental science, and scientific computing. With these capabilities ORNL conducts basic and applied research and development (R&D) to support DOE's overarching national security mission, which encompasses science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national nuclear security. As a national resource, the Laboratory also applies its capabilities and skills to the specific needs of other federal agencies and customers through the DOE Work For Others (WFO) program. Information about the Laboratory and its programs is available on the Internet at . LDRD is a relatively small but vital DOE program that allows ORNL, as well as other multiprogram DOE laboratories, to select a limited number of R&D projects for the purpose of: (1) maintaining the scientific and technical vitality of the

  4. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, Terrence P [ORNL

    2005-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2A, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development' (January 8, 2001), which establishes DOE's requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report describes all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2004 and includes final reports for completed projects and shorter progress reports for projects that were active, but not completed, during this period. The FY 2004 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2005/2) provides financial data about the FY 2004 projects and an internal evaluation of the program's management process. ORNL is a DOE multiprogram science, technology, and energy laboratory with distinctive capabilities in materials science and engineering, neutron science and technology, energy production and end-use technologies, biological and environmental science, and scientific computing. With these capabilities ORNL conducts basic and applied research and development (R&D) to support DOE's overarching national security mission, which encompasses science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national nuclear security. As a national resource, the Laboratory also applies its capabilities and skills to the specific needs of other federal agencies and customers through the DOE Work For Others (WFO) program. Information about the Laboratory and its programs is available on the Internet at . LDRD is a relatively small but vital DOE program that allows ORNL, as well as other multiprogram DOE laboratories, to select a limited number of R&D projects for the purpose of: (1) maintaining the scientific and technical vitality of the

  5. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, Terrence P [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development' (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE's requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries for all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2007. The associated FY 2007 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2008/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program's management process. ORNL is a DOE multiprogram science, technology, and energy laboratory with distinctive capabilities in materials science and engineering, neutron science and technology, energy production and end-use technologies, biological and environmental science, and scientific computing. With these capabilities ORNL conducts basic and applied research and development (R&D) to support DOE's overarching mission to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States and promote scientific and technological innovation in support of that mission. As a national resource, the Laboratory also applies its capabilities and skills to specific needs of other federal agencies and customers through the DOE Work for Others (WFO) program. Information about the Laboratory and its programs is available on the Internet at http://www.ornl.gov/. LDRD is a relatively small but vital DOE program that allows ORNL, as well as other DOE laboratories, to select a limited number of R&D projects for the purpose of: (1) maintaining the scientific and technical vitality of the Laboratory; (2) enhancing the Laboratory's ability to address future DOE missions; (3) fostering creativity and stimulating

  6. LABORATORY DIRECTED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ACTIVITIES FOR FY2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOX,K.J.

    2002-12-31

    Brookhaven National (BNL) Laboratory is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy. BNL's total annual budget has averaged about $450 million. There are about 3,000 employees, and another 4,500 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 4 1 3.2A, ''Laboratory Directed Research and Development,'' January 8, 2001, and the LDRD Annual Report guidance, updated February 12, 1999. The LDRD Program obtains its funds through the Laboratory overhead pool and operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2A. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new ''fundable'' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research ''which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions'' for the Laboratory. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new science and technology

  7. Heat stress management program improving worker health and operational effectiveness: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Rosalyn G; Skelton, Scott B; Alvis, Kimberly L; Shane, Leigh A

    2013-03-01

    Heat stress monitoring is a vital component of an effective health and safety program when employees work in exceptionally warm environments. Workers at hazardous waste sites often wear personal protective equipment (PPE), which increases the body heat stress load. No specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations address heat stress; however, OSHA does provide several guidance documents to assist employers in addressing this serious workplace health hazard. This article describes a heat stress and surveillance plan implemented at a hazardous waste site as part of the overall health and safety program. The PPE requirement for work at this site, coupled with extreme environmental temperatures, made heat stress a significant concern. Occupational health nurses and industrial hygienists developed a monitoring program for heat stress designed to prevent the occurrence of significant heat-related illness in site workers. The program included worker education on the signs of heat-related illness and continuous physiologic monitoring to detect early signs of heat-related health problems. Biological monitoring data were collected before workers entered the exclusion zone and on exiting the zone following decontamination. Sixty-six site workers were monitored throughout site remediation. More than 1,700 biological monitoring data points were recorded. Outcomes included improved worker health and safety, and increased operational effectiveness.

  8. An analysis of JET fast-wave heating and current drive experiments directly related to ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, V.P.; Eriksson, L.; Gormezano, C.; Jacquinot, J.; Kaye, A.; Start, D.F.H. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    The ITER fast-wave system is required to serve a variety of purposes, in particular, plasma heating to ignition, current profile and burn control and eventually, in conjunction with other schemes, a central non-inductive current drive (CD) for the steady-state operation of ITER. The ICRF heating and current drive data that has been obtained in JET are analyzed in terms of dimensionless parameters, with a view to ascertaining its direct relevance to key ITER requirements. The analysis is then used to identify areas both in physics and technological aspects of ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and CD that require further experimentation in ITER-relevant devices such as JET to establish the required data base. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, J Ray [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713 130, West Bengal (India); Barik, D [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banik, S K [Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States)

    2007-12-07

    Based on the heat bath system approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation, we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise- and space-dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase-induced current as a consequence of state-dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise.

  10. Direct numerical simulation of a heat removal configuration for fusion blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakarantzas, S.C.; Grecos, A.P.; Vlachos, N.S. [University of Thessaly, Volos (Greece). Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Sarris, I.E.; Knaepen, B.; Carati, D. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Physique Statistique et Plasmas

    2007-11-15

    A series of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed to study the natural convection heat transfer between concentric cylinders at several Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. The buoyant flow is driven by the temperature difference between the inner and the outer walls, with the inner wall being at lower temperature, while an external transverse magnetic field is imposed. Both laminar and turbulent flows are observed depending on the magnitude of the Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. The resulting flow structures of the cases studied were both laminar and turbulent. The results show the 3D nature of turbulence and the tendency of the magnetic field to form narrow Hartmann layers, 3D jets and wakes at specific azimuthal angles. Some particular features of the turbulent regime as well as the heat transfer are also investigated. The magnetic field effect on the convective heat transfer is assessed via the Nusselt number showing that conduction dominates as the Hartmann number increases. (author)

  11. Experimental investigation of a direct driven radial compressor for domestic heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffmann, J. [Fischer Engineering Solutions AG, Birkenweg 3, CH-3360 Herzogenbuchsee (Switzerland); Favrat, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFL STI IGM LENI, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    The presence of oil in domestic heat pumps is an obstacle toward higher efficiency, particularly for enhanced surface evaporators and for advanced concepts based on two-stage cycles. Very compact direct driven radial compressors supported on oil-free bearings represent a promising alternative. This paper presents the derivation of the specifications, the choice for an appropriate refrigerant fluid and the design of a proof of concept prototype with the various tradeoffs between the impeller characteristics to follow the seasonal heat demand, the bearing and rotordynamics for a stable operation. Heat pump simulation results, the design of the impeller as well as the layout of the experimental facility and first experimental results are presented. An impeller with a tip diameter of 20 mm has been tested at rotational speeds of up to 210 krpm reaching pressure ratios in excess of 3.3 and efficiencies above 78%. The refrigerant chosen for this first experimental approach is HFC 134a. (author)

  12. Easy-to-use application programs for decay heat and delayed neutron calculations on personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Application programs for personal computers are developed to calculate the decay heat power and delayed neutron activity from fission products. The main programs can be used in any computers from personal computers to main frames because their sources are written in Fortran. These programs have user friendly interfaces to be used easily not only for research activities but also for educational purposes. (author)

  13. COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartling, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.

  14. Novel metallic alloys as phase change materials for heat storage in direct steam generation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Maestre, J.; Iparraguirre-Torres, I.; Velasco, Z. Amondarain; Kaltzakorta, I.; Zubieta, M. Merchan

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is one of the key electricity production renewable energy technologies with a clear distinguishing advantage: the possibility to store the heat generated during the sunny periods, turning it into a dispatchable technology. Current CSP Plants use an intermediate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), thermal oil or inorganic salt, to transfer heat from the Solar Field (SF) either to the heat exchanger (HX) unit to produce high pressure steam that can be leaded to a turbine for electricity production, or to the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. In recent years, a novel CSP technology is attracting great interest: Direct Steam Generation (DSG). The direct use of water/steam as HTF would lead to lower investment costs for CSP Plants by the suppression of the HX unit. Moreover, water is more environmentally friendly than thermal oils or salts, not flammable and compatible with container materials (pipes, tanks). However, this technology also has some important challenges, being one of the major the need for optimized TES systems. In DSG, from the exergy point of view, optimized TES systems based on two sensible heat TES systems (for preheating of water and superheating vapour) and a latent heat TES system for the evaporation of water (around the 70% of energy) is the preferred solution. This concept has been extensively tested [1, 2, 3] using mainly NaNO3 as latent heat storage medium. Its interesting melting temperature (Tm) of 306°C, considering a driving temperature difference of 10°C, means TES charging steam conditions of 107 bar at 316°C and discharging conditions of 81bar at 296°C. The average value for the heat of fusion (ΔHf) of NaNO3 from literature data is 178 J/g [4]. The main disadvantage of inorganic salts is their very low thermal conductivity (0.5 W/m.K) requiring sophisticated heat exchanging designs. The use of high thermal conductivity eutectic metal alloys has been recently proposed [5, 6, 7] as a feasible alternative. Tms

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.

    1991-12-01

    Today, new ideas and opportunities, fostering the advancement of technology, are occurring at an ever-increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of these new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and which develops new ``fundable`` R&D projects and programs. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, with the overall mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals, and presentations at meetings and forums.

  16. Solar Heating And Cooling (SHAC) simulation programs: Assessment and evaluation. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, R. L.

    1981-05-01

    Solar heating and cooling system simulation programs available to use by electric utilities was evaluated. A comprehensive reference manual describing the characteristics of computer programs and manual methods was developed. An analysis of the intended capabilities of 11 programs is carried out. The programs are described and ranked by application. Four programs (AXCESS, DEROB, EMPSS, TRNSYS) for three building types (residential, light commercial, and heavy commercial) and three heating and cooling system classes (conventional, active solar, passive solar are tested. The results are compared and related to the program analytical bases. The user experience encountered during the program testing is highlighted and the user related factors for the four programs are compared. The applicability of the 11 programs to utilities is explored. DOE

  17. Experimental analysis of heat and mass transfer phenomena in a direct contact evaporative cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemouari, M. [Department of Processes Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, University of Bejaia (Algeria); Boumaza, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering - King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Kaabi, A. [Department of Genie Climatique, Faculty of Engineering, University of Constantine, Constantine (Algeria)

    2009-06-15

    This paper deals with an experimental analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer phenomena between water and air by direct contact in a packed cooling tower. The tower is filled with a ''VGA.'' (Vertical Grid Apparatus) type packing. The packing is 0.42 m high and consists of four (04) galvanised sheets having a zigzag form, between which are disposed three (03) metallic vertical grids in parallel with a cross-sectional test area of 0.15 m x 0.148 m. This study investigates the effect of the air and water flow rates on the global heat and mass transfer coefficient as well as the evaporation rate of water into the air stream, for different inlet water temperatures. Two operating regimes were observed during the air/water contact inside the tower, a Pellicular Regime (PR) and a Bubble and Dispersion Regime (BDR). These two regimes can determine the best way to promote the heat and mass transfer phenomena in such device. The BDR regime seems to be more efficient than the Pellicular Regime, as it enables to achieve relatively higher values of the global heat and mass transfer coefficient and larger water evaporation rates. The comparison between the obtained results and some of those available in the literature for other types of packing indicates that this type possesses good heat and mass transfer characteristics. (author)

  18. Heat storage characteristics of latent microcapsules using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange; Onshitsu kihogun to sennetsu microcapsule tono chokusetsu sesshohku kokan ni yoru chikunetsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K.; Sugiura, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    2000-05-25

    This paper has dealt with the heat storage characteristics of fine microcapsules packed with latent heat storage material in the water layer. The heat storage operation to the latent microcapsules was carried out using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange. The microcapsule consists of n-paraffin as a core latent-heat storage material and melamine resin as a coating substance. The relation of the completion time of latent-heat storage to some parameters was examined experimentally. The non-dimensional correlation equations for the completion time of latent-heat storage process had were derived in terms of the ratio of water layer height to diameter of microcapsule, Reynolds number for air flow, Stefan number and modified Stefan number for absolute humidity of flowing air. (author)

  19. Laboratory directed research and development program FY 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd

    2004-03-27

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. In FY03, Berkeley Lab was authorized by DOE to establish a funding ceiling for the LDRD program of $15.0 M, which equates to about 3.2% of Berkeley Lab's FY03 projected operating and capital equipment budgets. This funding level was provided to develop new scientific ideas and opportunities and allow the Berkeley Lab Director an opportunity to initiate new directions. Budget constraints limited available resources, however, so only $10.1 M was expended for operating and $0.6 M for capital equipment (2.4% of actual Berkeley Lab FY03 costs). In FY03, scientists submitted 168 proposals, requesting over $24.2 M in operating funding. Eighty-two projects were funded, with awards ranging from $45 K to $500 K. These projects are summarized in Table 1.

  20. Direct initiation of gaseous detonation via radiative heating of microparticles volumetrically suspended in the gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, V. P.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new conceptual approach for direct detonation initiation in the gaseous mixtures seeded with micro particles via the radiative heating from the external energy source. The basic mechanisms of energy absorption, ignition and detonation formation are analyzed numerically on the example of hydrogen-oxygen mixture. Obtained data is very promising and allows us to formulate conditions for the source power to ignite detonation in certain system geometry.

  1. Evaluation of Enova's heating programs; Evaluering av Enovas varmeprogrammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Ingeborg; Grorud, Christian; Heldal, Nicolai; Trong, Maj Dang

    2006-07-01

    An evaluation of Enova's heating program is presented. The central point was to evaluate to which degree Enova's heating program had resulted in increased supply of renewable energy for heating purposes to the Norwegian energy system. Main results are presented in part 1, chapter 1 to 5, while the facts and analyses behind the evaluation are presented in part 2, chapter I to VII. The main conclusion is that the program seen as one has had triggering effect on the market. The program has thus provided results in the form of increased supply of heating energy. Because of the project limitations and the lack of systematically documented baselines in the procedures, there are insecurities connected to the exact data registered. This makes quantification of the results difficult (ml)

  2. 2016 Fermilab Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Fermilab is executing Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) as outlined by order DOE O 413.2B in order to enhance and realize the mission of the laboratory in a manner that also supports the laboratory’s strategic objectives and the mission of the Department of Energy. LDRD funds enable scientific creativity, allow for exploration of “high risk, high payoff” research, and allow for the demonstration of new ideas, technical concepts, and devices. LDRD also has an objective of maintaining and enhancing the scientific and technical vitality of Fermilab. LDRD is able to fund employee-initiated proposals that address the current strategic objectives and better position Fermilab for future mission needs. The request for such funds is made in consideration of the investment needs, affordability, and directives from DOE and Congress. Review procedures of the proposals will insure that those proposals which most address the strategic goals of the DOE and the Laboratory or which best position Fermilab for the future will be recommended to the Laboratory Director who has responsibility for approval. The execution of each approved project will be the responsibility of the Principal Investigator, PI, who will follow existing Laboratory guidelines to ensure compliance with safety, environmental, and quality assurance practices. A Laboratory Director-appointed LDRD Coordinator will work with Committees, Laboratory Management, other Fermilab Staff, and the PI’s to oversee the implementation of policies and procedures of LDRD and provide the management and execution of this Annual Program Plan. FY16 represents third fiscal year in which LDRD has existed at Fermilab. The number of preliminary proposals (117) submitted in response to the LDRD Call for Proposals indicates very strong interest of the program within the Fermilab community. The first two Calls have resulted in thirteen active LDRD projects – and it is expected that between five and seven new

  3. Recovery Act: Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative Ground Source Heat Pump Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Terry [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States); Slusher, Scott [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    The Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Hybrid-Water Source Heat Pump (HY-GSHP) Program sought to provide installation costs and operation costs for different Hybrid water source heat pump systems’ configurations so that other State of Tennessee School Districts will have a resource for comparison purposes if considering a geothermal system.

  4. The program for calculation of heat productivity of solar converters with flat collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, E.; Vrtanessyan, K.; Kazarian, G. [State Engineering University of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia)

    1997-12-31

    The program for calculation of heat productivity of Solar Converters with flat collectors allows to calculate the parameters of heliosystem taking into account the input data and monthly meteorological data of regions. For solar heat study and predesigning process it is expedient to use a program for flat collectors productivity calculation. That program allows to calculate the collector`s parameters and characteristics proceeding from meteorological input data. Depending on the season of the year that program takes into account the whole absorbed solar energy and determines the coefficient for additional energy for the provision of necessary temperature

  5. Parabolic solar cooker: Cooking with heat pipe vs direct spiral copper tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Omotoyosi O.; Dobson, Robert T.

    2016-05-01

    Cooking with solar energy has been seen by many researchers as a solution to the challenges of poverty and hunger in the world. This is no exception in Africa, as solar coking is viewed as an avenue to eliminate the problem of food insecurity, insufficient energy supply for household and industrial cooking. There are several types of solar cookers that have been manufactured and highlighted in literature. The parabolic types of solar cookers are known to reach higher temperatures and therefore cook faster. These cookers are currently being developed for indoor cooking. This technology has however suffered low cooking efficiency and thus leads to underutilization of the high heat energy captured from the sun in the cooking. This has made parabolic solar cookers unable to compete with other conventional types of cookers. Several methods to maximize heat from the sun for indirect cooking has been developed, and the need to improve on them of utmost urgency. This paper investigates how to optimize the heat collected from the concentrating types of cookers by proposing and comparing two types of cooking sections: the spiral hot plate copper tube and the heat pipe plate. The system uses the concentrating solar parabolic dish technology to focus the sun on a conical cavity of copper tubes and the heat is stored inside an insulated tank which acts both as storage and cooking plate. The use of heat pipes to transfer heat between the oil storage and the cooking pot was compared to the use of a direct natural syphon principle which is achieved using copper tubes in spiral form like electric stove. An accurate theoretical analysis for the heat pipe cooker was achieved by solving the boiling and vaporization in the evaporator side and then balancing it with the condensation and liquid-vapour interaction in the condenser part while correct heat transfer, pressure and height balancing was calculated in the second experiment. The results show and compare the cooking time, boiling

  6. Direct Measurements of Hydrothermal Heat Output at Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; di Iorio, D.; Genc, G.; Hurt, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.

    2009-12-01

    Heat output and fluid flow are key parameters for characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers. In particular, they are essential for examining partition of heat and geochemical fluxes between discrete and diffuse flow components. Hydrothermal heat output also constrains permeability of young oceanic crust and thickness of the conductive boundary layer separating hydrothermal circulation from the underlying magmatic heat source. Over the past several years, we have deployed a number of relatively simple devices to make direct measurements of focused and diffuse flow. Most recently, we have used cup anemometer and turbine flow meters to measure fluid flow and heat flux at individual high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites. The turbine flow meter (Figure 1) includes a titanium rotor assembly housed within a stainless steel tube and supported by sapphire bearings. The device can be used at different seafloor settings for measurements of both diffuse and focused flow. The spin of the rotor blades is videotaped to acquire the angular velocity, which is a function of the flow rate determined through calibration. We report data obtained during four cruises to the Main Endeavor and High Rise vent fields, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), between 2007 and 2009. Overall more than 50 successful measurements of heat flow have been made on a variety of high-, medium-, and low-temperature hydrothermal sites on the Endeavor, Mothra, and High Rise structures. For example, the velocity of diffuse flow at Endeavor ranged from ~1 to ~10 cm/sec. The flow velocity from black smokers varied from ~10 cm/sec to ~1 m/sec, which appears to be similar to EPR 9°N. Typical measurements of heat flux obtained at JdFR ranged from ~1 kW for diffuse flow to ~1 MW for black smokers. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the data and obtain the integrated heat output for a vent field on JdFR, the data are used to characterize the heat fluxes from individual vent

  7. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  8. Individual and Public-Program Adaptation: Coping with Heat Waves in Five Cities in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Alhassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals’ recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as “not at risk” and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions.

  9. THERM 2.0: a PC Program for Analyzing Two-Dimensional HeatTransfer through Building Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windows and Daylighting Group

    1997-12-08

    THERM is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows{trademark}-based computer program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for use by building component manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others interested in heat transfer. Using THERM, you can model two-dimensional heat-transfer effects in building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs, and doors; appliances; and other products where thermal bridges are of concern. THERM's heat-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a product's energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity. THERM's two-dimensional conduction heat-transfer analysis is based on the finite-element method, which can model the complicated geometries of building products. The program's graphic interface allows you to draw cross sections of products or components to be analyzed. To create the cross sections, you can trace imported files in DXF or bitmap format, or input the geometry from known dimensions. Each cross section is represented by a combination of polygons. You define the material properties for each polygon and introduce the environmental conditions to which the component is exposed by defining the boundary conditions surrounding the cross section. Once the model is created, the remaining analysis (mesher and heat transfer) is automatic. You can view results from THERM in several forms, including U-factors, isotherms, heat-flux vectors, and local temperatures. This version of THERM includes several new technical and user interface features; the most significant is a radiation view-factor algorithm. This feature increases the accuracy of calculations in situations where you are analyzing non-planar surfaces that have different temperatures and exchange energy through radiation heat transfer. This heat-transfer mechanism is important in greenhouse windows, hollow

  10. Heat release characteristics of middle temperature latent heat storage vessel by means of direct contact heat exchange method; Chokusetsu sesshoku netsu kokanho wo mochiita chuondo sennetsu chikunetsuso no honetsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, H.; Horibe, A.; Ozaki, K. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Emoto, K. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Kakiuchi, H. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-25

    Experiment has been performed of heat transfer characteristics of the middle temperature latent heat storage system of the direct-contact heat transfer by using m-E (meso-Erythritol, melting point of 119 degree C, latent heat of 375 kJ/kg) droplets as a latent heat storage material and silicone oil as a heat transfer medium. In the present study the liquid m-E was injected into the heat transfer medium through a circular nozzle. The m-E droplets changed from liquid to solid phase during falling in the heat transfer medium at low temperature. From the measuring results of m-E droplet diameter, falling velocity, and solidification rate, the nondimensional empirical equations of the arithmetic mean diameter of the droplets and falling velocity, the solidification rate and the overall heat transfer coefficient were derived as a function of the characteristic arithmetic mean diameter, the terminal velocity, temperature and physical properties. (author)

  11. Effects of Latent Heating on Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-02-01

    The growing number of observations of brown dwarfs (BDs) has provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these objects. Directly imaged planets share similar observations and can be viewed as low-gravity versions of BDs. Vigorous condensate cycles of chemical species in their atmospheres are inferred by observations and theoretical studies, and latent heating associated with condensation is expected to be important in shaping atmospheric circulation and influencing cloud patchiness. We present a qualitative description of the mechanisms by which condensational latent heating influences circulation, and then illustrate them using an idealized general circulation model that includes a condensation cycle of silicates with latent heating and molecular weight effect due to the rainout of the condensate. Simulations with conditions appropriate for typical T dwarfs exhibit the development of localized storms and east-west jets. The storms are spatially inhomogeneous, evolving on a timescale of hours to days and extending vertically from the condensation level to the tropopause. The fractional area of the BD covered by active storms is small. Based on a simple analytic model, we quantitatively explain the area fraction of moist plumes and show its dependence on the radiative timescale and convective available potential energy (CAPE). We predict that if latent heating dominates cloud formation processes, the fractional coverage area of clouds decreases as the spectral type goes through the L/T transition from high to lower effective temperature. This is a natural consequence of the variation of the radiative timescale and CAPE with the spectral type.

  12. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Coico, Patrick A.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2015-09-15

    A method is provided for fabricating a cooling apparatus for cooling an electronics rack, which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures, and a tube. The heat exchanger is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  13. Analysis of ice slurry production by direct contact heat transfer of air and water solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-jun ZHANG; Ke-qing ZHENG; Ling-shi WANG; Wei WANG; Min JIANG; Sheng-ying ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,a novel system using direct contact heat transfer between air and water solution was proposed to generate ice slurry.The heat transfer process and the system performance were studied;energy efficiency coefficients of 0.038,0.053,and 0.064 were obtained using different solutions.An empirical relationship between the volumetric heat transfer coefficient Uv and the main parameters was obtained by fitting the experimental data.The Uv calculated from the empirical formula agreed with the experimental Uv quite well with a relative error of less than 15%.Based on the empirical formula,a laboratory-scale direct contact ice slurry generator was then constructed,with practical application in mind.If the air flow rate is fixed at 200 m3/h,the ice production rate will be 0.091 kg/min.The experimental results also showed that the cold energy consumption of the air compressor accounted for more than half of the total amount.To improve the system energy efficiency coefficient,it is necessary to increase the air pipes insulation and the solution's thermal capacity,and also it is appropriate to utilize the free cold energy of liquefied natural gas(LNG).

  14. 34 CFR 685.100 - The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. 685...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Purpose and Scope § 685.100 The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. (a) Under the William D....

  15. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  16. Core conditions for alpha heating attained in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; Campbell, E. M.; Mangino, D.; Christopherson, A. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Nora, R.; Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Forrest, C. J.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Yu; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 025001 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.025001] extrapolated to a 1.9 MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions.

  17. Design of plate directional heat transmission structure based on layered thermal metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Invisibility cloaks based on transformation optics are often closed structures; however, such a structure limits the kinds of objects that can be placed in the cloak. In this work, we adopt a transformation thermodynamics approach to design an “open cloak”, called a plate directional heat transmission structure, which is capable of guiding heat fluxes to the flank region of the metamaterial device. The most fascinating and unique feature of the device is that the lower surface can remain at a lower temperature compared with the SiO2 aerogel thermal insulation material. Our results are expected to markedly enhance capabilities in thermal protection, thermal-energy utilization, and domains beyond. In addition to the theoretical analysis, the present design is demonstrated in numerical simulations based on finite element calculations.

  18. Core conditions for alpha heating attained in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, A; Woo, K M; Betti, R; Campbell, E M; Mangino, D; Christopherson, A R; McCrory, R L; Nora, R; Regan, S P; Goncharov, V N; Sangster, T C; Forrest, C J; Frenje, J; Gatu Johnson, M; Glebov, V Yu; Knauer, J P; Marshall, F J; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 025001 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.025001] extrapolated to a 1.9 MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions.

  19. Design of plate directional heat transmission structure based on layered thermal metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L. K.; Yu, Z. F.; Huang, J., E-mail: slk-0-1999@163.com [China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Invisibility cloaks based on transformation optics are often closed structures; however, such a structure limits the kinds of objects that can be placed in the cloak. In this work, we adopt a transformation thermodynamics approach to design an “open cloak”, called a plate directional heat transmission structure, which is capable of guiding heat fluxes to the flank region of the metamaterial device. The most fascinating and unique feature of the device is that the lower surface can remain at a lower temperature compared with the SiO{sub 2} aerogel thermal insulation material. Our results are expected to markedly enhance capabilities in thermal protection, thermal-energy utilization, and domains beyond. In addition to the theoretical analysis, the present design is demonstrated in numerical simulations based on finite element calculations.

  20. Simulation of Solar Heat Pump Dryer Directly Driven by Photovoltaic Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houhou, H.; Yuan, W.; Wang, G.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates a new type of solar heat pump dryer directly driven by photovoltaic panels. In order to design this system, a mathematical model has been established describing the whole drying process, including models of key components and phenomena of heat and mass transfer at the product layer and the air. The results of simulation at different drying air temperatures and velocities have been calculated and it indicate that the temperature of drying air is crucial external parameter compared to the velocity, with the increase of drying temperature from 45°C to 55°C, the product moisture content (Kg water/Kg dry product) decreased from 0.75 Kg/Kg to 0.3 Kg/Kg.

  1. Results of direct measurements of the plasma potential using a laser-heated emissive probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Sarma, A.; Amarandei, G.; Ionita, C. [Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. for Ion Physics; Klinger, T.; Grulke, O.; Vogelsang, A.; Windisch, T. [Max Planck Inst. for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Reliable diagnostics of the plasma potential is one of the most important challenges in context with the production, control and confinement of a plasma. Emissive probes are readily available as direct diagnostic tools for the plasma potential with a good temporal and spatial resolution in many plasmas, even up to middle-sized fusion experiments. We present the results of investigations on the heating of lanthanum hexaboride and graphite with an infrared diode laser and on the development of a laser-heated emissive probe. Such a probe has a higher electron emission, much longer life time and better time response than a conventional emissive wire probe. We have observed that from both materials electron emission current can be achieved sufficiently strongly even for dense laboratory and experimental fusion plasmas.

  2. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  3. Direct linear programming solver in C for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkilde, L.; Hoyer, O.; Krenk, S.

    1994-08-01

    An optimization problem can be characterized by an object-function, which is maximized, and restrictions, which limit the variation of the variables. A subclass of optimization is Linear Programming (LP), where both the object-function and the restrictions are linear functions of the variables. The traditional solution methods for LP problems are based on the simplex method, and it is customary to allow only non-negative variables. Compared to other optimization routines the LP solvers are more robust and the optimum is reached in a finite number of steps and is not sensitive to the starting point. For structural applications many optimization problems can be linearized and solved by LP routines. However, the structural variables are not always non-negative, and this requires a reformation, where a variable x is substituted by the difference of two non-negative variables, x(sup + ) and x(sup - ). The transformation causes a doubling of the number of variables, and in a computer implementation the memory allocation doubles and for a typical problem the execution time at least doubles. This paper describes a LP solver written in C, which can handle a combination of non-negative variables and unlimited variables. The LP solver also allows restart, and this may reduce the computational costs if the solution to a similar LP problem is known a priori. The algorithm is based on the simplex method, and differs only in the logical choices. Application of the new LP solver will at the same time give both a more direct problem formulation and a more efficient program.

  4. A refined computer program for the transient simulation of ground coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. W.; Metz, P. D.; Saunders, J. H.

    1983-04-01

    The use of the earth as a heat source/sink or storage medium for various heat pump based space conditioning systems were investigated. A computer program ground coupled system (GROCS) was developed to model the behavior of ground coupling devices. The GROCS was integrated with TRNSYS, the solar system simulation program, to permit the simulation of complete ground coupled heat pump systems. Experimental results were compared to GROCS simulation results for model validation. It is found that the model has considerable validity. A refined version of the GROCS-TRNSYS program developed to model vertical or horizontal earth coil systems, which considers system cycling is described. The design of the program and its interaction with TRNSYS are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J.; Bonilla, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  6. Contact printing for direct metallic pattern transfer based on pulsed infrared laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports a novel contact printing method which can transfer patterned metallic films directly from a mold to a substrate, based on applied contact pressure and infrared pulse laser heating. Experiments have been carried out using a 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Chromium (Cr) films of 70 nm thickness with both array-dot patterns and linear grating patterns of typically 500 nm feature sizes are successfully transferred. The transferred Cr patterns can serve as an etching mask for the subsequent etching on the substrate. The potential for applying this method to nano-patterning and nano-fabrication is addressed.

  7. Research of energy efficiency direct-heating systems with sequential connection of space heaters with different methods of heat consumption regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Maxim N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of the building heating system, consisting of energy source, a distributed automatic control system, elements of individual heating unit and heating system is designed. Application Simulink of mathematical package Matlab is selected as a platform for the model. There are the specialized application Simscape libraries in aggregate with a wide range of Matlab mathematical tools allow to apply the “acausal” modeling concept. The conducted research of single-pipe heating system configuration and automatic control system allowed comparing the integral parameters of the systems with local and individual regulation. The results of research of thermal condition premises, situated in the extreme movement direction of the coolant are given. The conclusions about the possibility of increasing the operational efficiency of single-pipe heating system configuration in the implementation of distributed control systems are presented.

  8. A Chebyshev Collocation Method for Moving Boundaries, Heat Transfer, and Convection During Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Alexander, J. I. D.; Ouazzani, J.

    1994-01-01

    Free and moving boundary problems require the simultaneous solution of unknown field variables and the boundaries of the domains on which these variables are defined. There are many technologically important processes that lead to moving boundary problems associated with fluid surfaces and solid-fluid boundaries. These include crystal growth, metal alloy and glass solidification, melting and name propagation. The directional solidification of semi-conductor crystals by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method is a typical example of such a complex process. A numerical model of this growth method must solve the appropriate heat, mass and momentum transfer equations and determine the location of the melt-solid interface. In this work, a Chebyshev pseudospectra collocation method is adapted to the problem of directional solidification. Implementation involves a solution algorithm that combines domain decomposition, finite-difference preconditioned conjugate minimum residual method and a Picard type iterative scheme.

  9. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kunz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.

  10. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2009-11-30

    Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.

  11. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Summary Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid. PMID:20300506

  12. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Annual technical report for year ending November 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukrust, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Direct Steelmaking Program has completed the third year of research and development since cost-share funding was provided by the Department of Energy. The physical chemistry programs conducted by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been completed. A pilot plant has been constructed and successfully operated at Universal, Pennsylvania, and construction of a new, two-zone vessel pilot plant has been completed and trial operation is underway. The success of the pilot plant operation coupled with the development of process models involving reaction rates, heat-transfer and fluid-flow rates, and mass and energy balances has led to a basic study of a 350,000 tonne per year demonstration plant that gives promise of being a low capital and operating cost alternative for ironmaking as compared to the coke oven, blast furnace process. It has the further advantages of ease of startup and shutdown, lower energy consumption, and modularity so that capacity can be adapted to need. The physical chemistry programs at CMU and MIT studied fundamental reactions among ore, coal, flux, slag, metal droplets, and the liquid metal bath. Work at CMU centered on slag foaming studies, coal devolatilization, dissolution of hematite and wustite pellets in bath smelting slags, reduction of FeO in slag by char, extent of reverse or depostcombustion reactions in postcombustion gases, and developing an overall smelting model.

  13. National Fire Plan - Hazardous Fuels Reduction Program - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays county level data for the fiscal-year-2004 National Fire Plan - Hazardous Fuels Reduction Program. The purpose of this program is to reduce...

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  15. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the

  16. Maintaining Program Understanding - Issues, Tools, and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    The understanding of a program is a key aspect of software development. The understanding is a prerequisite for the initial development efforts. This paper is concerned with the challenge of maintaining the program understanding with the purpose of supporting later phases in the program life time...

  17. Achievement of Core Conditions for Alpha Heating in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; Mangino, D.; Christopherson, A. R.; Theobald, W.; Campbell, E. M.; McCrory, R. L.; Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Stoeckl, C.; Nora, R.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Shvarts, D.

    2016-10-01

    It is shown for the first time that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion extrapolated to a 1.9-MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions. This conclusion is reached using an analytic scaling as well as direct numerical simulations of energy-scaled targets. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  18. DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER IN A WALL-NORMAL ROTATING CHANNEL FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Direct Nmerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent heat transfer in a wall-normal rotating channel flow has been carried out for the rotation number Nτ from 0 to 0.1, the Reynolds number 194 based on the friction velocity of non-rotating case and the half-height of the channel, and the Prandtl number 1. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of rotation on the characteristics of turbulent flow and heat transfer. Based on the present calculated results, two typical rotation regimes are identified. When 0<Nτ<0.06, turbulence and thermal statistics correlated with the spanwise velocity fluctuation are enhanced since the shear rate of spanwise mean flow induced by Coriolis force increases; however, the other statistics are suppressed. When Nτ>0.06, turbulence and thermal statistics are suppressed significantly because the Coriolis force effect plays as a dominated role in the rotating flow. Remarkable change of the direction of near-wall streak structures based on the velocity and temperature fluctuations is identified.

  19. Geothermal direct heat use: Market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, W. (Editor); Tang, K. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region 9). An analysis was made of each state to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Findings of the study include the following: (1) Potentially economical hydrothermal resources exist in all four states of the Region: however, the resource data base is largely incomplete, particularly for low to moderate temperature resources. (2) In terms of beneficial heat, the total hydrothermal resource identified so far for the four states is on the order of 43 Quads, including an estimated 34 Quads of high temperature resources which are suitable for direct as well as electrical applications. (3) In California, Hawaii, and Nevada, the industrial market sector has somewhat greater potential for penetration than the residential/commercial sector. In Arizona, however, the situation is reversed, due to the collocation of two major metropolitan areas (Phoenix and Tucson) with potential geothermal resources.

  20. Manual for the thermal and hdyraulic design of direct contract spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, H. R.

    1985-06-01

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for use in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEAT EXCHANGE IN DIRECT FLAT CHANNELS AND DIRECT ROUND PIPES WITH ROUGH WALLS UNDER THE SYMMETRIC HEAT SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I E. Lobanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of present work was to carry out mathematical modelling of heat transfer with symmetrical heating in flat channels and round pipes with rough walls.Methods. The calculation was carried out using the L'Hôpital-Bernoulli's method. The solution of the problem of intensified heat transfer in a round tube with rough walls was obtained using the Lyon's integral.Results. Different from existing theories, a methodology of theoretical computational heat transfer determination for flat rough channels and round pipes with rough walls is developed on the basis of the principle of full viscosity superposition in a turbulent boundary layer. The analysis of the calculated heat transfer and hydroresistivity values for flat rough channels and round rough pipes shows that the increase in heat transfer is always less than the corresponding increase in hydraulic resistance, which is a disadvantage as compared to channels with turbulators, with all else being equal. The results of calculating the heat transfer for channels with rough walls in an extended range of determinant parameters, which differ significantly from the corresponding data for the channels with turbulators, determine the level of heat exchange intensification.Conclusion. An increase in the calculated values of the relative average heat transfer Nu/NuGL for flat rough channels and rough pipes with very high values of the relative roughness is significantly contributed by both an increase in the relative roughness height and an increase in the Reynolds number Re. In comparison with empirical dependencies, the main advantage of solutions for averaged heat transfer in rough flat channels and round pipes under symmetrical thermal load obtained according to the developed theory is that they allow the calculation of heat exchange in rough pipes to be made in the case of large and very large relative heights of roughness protrusions, including large Reynolds numbers, typical for pipes

  2. The CAV program for numerical evaluation of laminar natural convection heat transfer in vertical rectangular cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Milos H.; Nowak, Edwin S.

    1993-12-01

    To analyze the laminar natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow distribution in vertical rectangular cavities with or without inner partitions, the personal computer finite difference program entitled CAV is used. The CAV program was tested successfully for slender cavities with aspect ratios as high as R = H/ L = 90 and for the Grashof numbers, based on the cavity height, up to GrH = 3 x10 9. To make the CAV program useful for a number of applications, various types of boundary conditions can also be imposed on the program calculations. Presented are program applications dealing with the 2-D numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer in very slender window cavities with and without small inner partitions and recommendations are made for window design.

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY2016 Annual Summary of Completed Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-30

    ORNL FY 2016 Annual Summary of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Completed Projects. The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at ORNL operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2C, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (October 22, 2015), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. The LDRD program funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. ORNL reports its status to DOE in March of each year.

  4. Solutions manual and computer programs for physical and computational aspects of convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1989-01-01

    This book is designed to accompany Physical and Computational Aspects of Convective Heat Transfer by T Cebeci and P Bradshaw and contains solutions to the exercises and computer programs for the numerical methods contained in that book Physical and Computational Aspects of Convective Heat Transfer begins with a thorough discussion of the physical aspects of convective heat transfer and presents in some detail the partial differential equations governing the transport of thermal energy in various types of flows The book is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students of aeronautical, chemical, civil and mechanical engineering It can also serve as a reference for the practitioner

  5. Persepsi Mahasiswa Program Pascasarjana Terhadap Database Science Direct Pada Perpustakaan Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Artita Wati Dorma

    2017-01-01

    120709051 Purba, Artita Wati Dorma. 2017. Persepsi Mahasiswa Program Pascasarjana terhadap Database Science Direct pada Perpustakaan Universitas Sumatera Utara. MEDAN: Program Studi Ilmu Perpustanaan, Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Sumatera Utara Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimanakah persepsi mahasiswa program Pascasarjana terhadap Database Science Direct pada Perpustakaan Universitas Sumatera Utara. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan kuan...

  6. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  7. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  8. 78 FR 28953 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... May 16, 2013 Part II Department of Education 34 CFR Part 685 William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan... Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 685 RIN 1840-AD13 William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary amends the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

  9. US Army Research Laboratory Directed Energy Internship Program 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    lubricating the Z-axis pulley and X-axis idler pulley . To clean the drive gear , the cooling fan, heat sink, and extruder head were removed and cleaned...print on high settings much more reliably. Every 50 printing hours, the printer requires maintenance, which involves cleaning the drive gear and

  10. Assessing the effect of wind speed/direction changes on urban heat island intensity of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perim Temizoz, Huriye; Unal, Yurdanur S.

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the effect of wind speed/direction changes on urban heat island intensity of Istanbul. Perim Temizöz, Deniz H. Diren, Cemre Yürük and Yurdanur S. Ünal Istanbul Technical University, Department of Meteorological Engineering, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey City or metropolitan areas are significantly warmer than the outlying rural areas since the urban fabrics and artificial surfaces which have different radiative, thermal and aerodynamic features alter the surface energy balance, interact with the regional circulation and introduce anthropogenic sensible heat and moisture into the atmosphere. The temperature contrast between urban and rural areas is most prominent during nighttime since heat is absorbed by day and emitted by night. The intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) vary considerably depending on the prevailent meteorological conditions and the characteristics of the region. Even though urban areas cover a small fraction of Earth, their climate has greater impact on the world's population. Over half of the world population lives in the cities and it is expected to rise within the coming decades. Today almost one fifth of the Turkey's population resides in Istanbul with the percentage expected to increase due to the greater job opportunities compared to the other cities. Its population has been increased from 2 millions to 14 millions since 1960s. Eventually, the city has been expanded tremendously within the last half century, shifting the landscape from vegetation to built up areas. The observations of the last fifty years over Istanbul show that the UHI is most pronounced during summer season. The seasonal temperature differences between urban and suburban sites reach up to 3 K and roughly haft degree increase in UHI intensity is observed after 2000. In this study, we explore the possible range of heat load and distribution over Istanbul for different prevailing wind conditions by using the non-hydrostatic MUKLIMO3 model developed by DWD

  11. Directions for national mastitis control programs: experiences from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, T.J.G.M.; Jansen, J.; Gent, R.J.M.; Veersen, J.C.L.; Keurentjes, J.M.; Werkman, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of mastitis control programs is to improve udder health on dairy farms. Over the last five years an intensive national mastitis program was executed in the Netherlands with the goal to improve udder health at a national level. Different groups of farmers have different motivations

  12. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  13. Future Directions for EHDI Programs: Recommendations from a Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, tremendous strides have been made in establishing and strengthening early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs in all 50 states and the U.S. territories. Although EHDI programs have become more robust, considerable work remains to ensure that all children who do not pass a hearing screening receive the…

  14. Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Energy Efficient Heat Engines Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Faber

    2004-10-31

    This program aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of the microstructural, mechanical, and chemical properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based coatings for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (AS800) substrates and optimize such coatings for environmental barriers. The program consisted of three tasks: processing of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings, phase and microstructural development, and life-limiting phenomena. Northwestern University formed a cross-functional team with Lehigh University, Honeywell Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major accomplishments are: (1) Conditions for the plasma spray of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and its alloys were optimized to provide maximum density and thickness. (2) Adherent small particle plasma spray coatings of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be routinely prepared. (3) Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be stabilized against its disruptive phase transformation to 1400 C by the addition of one or more oxides of Al, La, and/or Nb. (4) Residual stresses in the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings were measured using X-rays and changed with thermal exposure. (5) Properly doped coatings are more resistant against thermal cycling than undoped coatings, and can be cycled many thousand times without spallation. (6) Water vapor testing in the ORNL Keiser Rig of adherent coatings showed that undoped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is not an effective barrier at preventing chemical changes to the AS800. (7) Limited water vapor testing of doped and adherent coatings, which had successfully survived many thermal cycles, showed that in the water vapor environment, de-cohesion may occur.

  15. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  16. Heat transfer and pressure drop in a compact pin-fin heat exchanger with pin orientation at 18 deg to the flow direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a novel, compact heat exchanger in helium gas were measured at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 450 to 12,000. The pin-fin specimen consisted of pins, 0.51 mm high and spaced 2.03 mm on centers, spanning a channel through which the helium flows; the angle of the row of pins to the flow direction was 18 deg. The specimen was radiatively heated on the top side at heat fluxes up to 74 W/sq cm and insulated on the back side. Correlations were developed for the friction factor and Nusselt number. The Nusselt number compares favorably to those of past studies of staggered pin-fins, when the measured temperatures are extrapolated to the temperature of the wall-fluid interface.

  17. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while thare is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  18. Heat of supersaturation-limited amyloid burst directly monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenoue, Tatsuya; Lee, Young-Ho; Kardos, József; Yagi, Hisashi; Ikegami, Takahisa; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils form in supersaturated solutions via a nucleation and growth mechanism. Although the structural features of amyloid fibrils have become increasingly clearer, knowledge on the thermodynamics of fibrillation is limited. Furthermore, protein aggregation is not a target of calorimetry, one of the most powerful approaches used to study proteins. Here, with β2-microglobulin, a protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis, we show direct heat measurements of the formation of amyloid fibrils using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The spontaneous fibrillation after a lag phase was accompanied by exothermic heat. The thermodynamic parameters of fibrillation obtained under various protein concentrations and temperatures were consistent with the main-chain dominated structural model of fibrils, in which overall packing was less than that of the native structures. We also characterized the thermodynamics of amorphous aggregation, enabling the comparison of protein folding, amyloid fibrillation, and amorphous aggregation. These results indicate that ITC will become a promising approach for clarifying comprehensively the thermodynamics of protein folding and misfolding. PMID:24753579

  19. Direct numerical simulation of heat transfer in a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Luo, Kun; Fan, Jianren

    2016-10-01

    Direct numerical simulation has been performed to investigate heat transfer in a zero-pressure-gradient spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with realistic thermal inflow boundary conditions. The temperature is considered as a passive scalar and the molecular Prandtl number is set to be 0.71. The turbulence statistics for both the velocity and temperature fields show good agreement with previous numerical and experimental data in the literature. The present study provides a valuable database for the spatially developing turbulent thermal boundary layer over a wide range of Reynolds numbers from Reθ = 1100 to 1940. The simulation results indicate that both the peak value and peak location of the streamwise velocity fluctuation grow slightly with increasing Reynolds number, same as those of the temperature fluctuation. The relationship between the streamwise velocity and temperature fluctuations has been examined and a strong correlation is observed in the vicinity of the wall. With increasing distance from the wall, however, the degree of correlation significantly decreases. In addition, the difference between the turbulent velocity and temperature fields is also analysed by investigating the mechanisms of heat and momentum transport in boundary layer flow.

  20. Synthesis of Non-molecular Nitrogen Phases at Mbar Pressures by Direct Laser-heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, M J; Klepeis, J P; Baer, B J; Cynn, H; Evans, W J; Iota, V; Yoo, C

    2007-03-26

    Direct laser heating of molecular N2 to above 1400 K at 120-130 GPa results in the formation of a reddish amorphous phase and a transparent crystalline solid above 2000 K. Raman and x-ray data confirm that the transparent phase is cubic-gauche nitrogen (cg-N), while the reddish color of the amorphous phase might indicate the presence of N=N dish bonds. The quenched amorphous phase is stable down to at least 70GPa, analogous to cg-N, and could be a new non-molecular phase or an extension of the already known {eta}-phase. A chemo-physical phase diagram is presented which emphasizes the difference between pressure- and temperature-induced transitions from molecular to non-molecular solids, as found in other low Z systems.

  1. Overview of direct use R&D at the Geo-Heat Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    Geo-Heat Center research, during the past year, on geothermal district heating and greenhouse projects is intended to improve the design and cost effectiveness of these systems. The largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S., proposed at Reno, is describe and is one of 271 collocated sites in western states could benefit from the research. The geothermal district heating research investigated a variety of factors that could reduce development cost for residential areas. Many greenhouse operators prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. As facilities using these types of heating systems expand they could benefit from peaking with fossil fuels. It is possible to design a geothermal heating system for only 60% of the peak heat loss of a greenhouse and still meet over 90% of the annual heat energy needs of the structure. The design and cost effectiveness of this novel approach is summarized.

  2. Workshop on Direct Contact Heat Transfer at the Solar Energy Research Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, R

    1988-01-01

    to increase the use of direct contact processes, the National Science Foundation sup­ ported a workshop on direct contact heat transfer at the Solar Energy Research Insti­ tute in the summer of 1985. We served as organizers for this workshop, which em­ phasized an area of thermal engineering that, in our opinion, has great promise for the future, but has not yet reached the point of wide-spread commercial application. Hence, a summary of the state of knowledge at this point is timely. The workshop had a dual objective: 1. To summarize the current state of knowledge in such a form that industrial practi­ tioners can make use of the available information. 2. To indicate the research and development needed to advance the state-of-the-art, indicating not only what kind of research is needed, but also the industrial poten­ tial that could be realized if the information to be obtained through the proposed research activities were available.

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen (Ed.), Todd

    2007-03-08

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness.

  4. Globalizing Technical Communication Programs: Visions, Challenges, and Emerging Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia

    translation in Europe to create procedural documents in Danish, Dutch, English, French, German and/or Italian. They will provide guidelines for  how international partnerships of this kind can be established between technical communication programs and translation programs anywhere, even in the abscence...... help achieve common program objectives, particularly in regard to intercultural negotiation and mediation processes. In addition, they will describe how they met course-specific objectives. For the technical writing course, such objectives included broadening students' awareness of the needs of readers...... highly dependent on a text's understandability. For the translation course, such objectives included a sharpened awareness of the revision and editing processes, as well as a more stringent translation process, as set out in the new European standard for translation, EN 15038....

  5. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  6. Technical support to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, R.E.

    1976-09-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) in FY 1975 to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer (BWR-BDHT) program. The support provided by ANC is that of an independent assessor of the program to ensure that the data obtained are adequate for verification of analytical models used for predicting reactor response to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The support included reviews of program plans, objectives, measurements, and actual data. Additional activity included analysis of experimental system performance and evaluation of the RELAP4 computer code as applied to the experiments.

  7. Performance and efficiency evaluation and heat release study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Addy, H. E.; Bond, T. H.; Lee, C. M.; Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation which models engine performance of the Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engines was used to study the effect of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and efficiency of an Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) experimental rotary combustion engine. Engine pressure data were used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine data were compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the rotary engine using advanced heat engine concepts such as faster combustion, reduced leakage, and turbocharging is also presented.

  8. Globalizing Technical Communication Programs: Visions, Challenges, and Emerging Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia

    help achieve common program objectives, particularly in regard to intercultural negotiation and mediation processes. In addition, they will describe how they met course-specific objectives. For the technical writing course, such objectives included broadening students' awareness of the needs of readers...

  9. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Assessment for FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, Diane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Barkigia, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Giacalone, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the BNL LDRD program and a summary of the management processes, project peer review, a financial overview, and the relation of the portfolio of LDRD projects to BNL's mission, initiatives, and strategic plan. Also included are a summary of success indicators and a self-assessment.

  10. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This program provides the resources for Berkeley Lab scientists to make rapid and significant contributions to critical nation science and technology problems: accelerators and fusion, chemical sciences, earth sciences, energy and environment, engineering, life sciences, materials, nuclear science, physics, and structural biology (hyperthermophilic microorganisms).

  11. Future Directions for NCI’s Surveillance Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1970s, NCI’s SEER program has been an invaluable resource for statistics on cancer in the United States. For the past several years, SEER researchers have been working toward a much broader and comprehensive goal for providing cancer stati

  12. Overview of the Hemostasis Research Program: Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    advanced to treat such an injury in the field. The hypothesis was that a hemostatic material could be infused into a closed body cavity by a trocar ...Research Program of the US Army Medical Research and Material Command is to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries on the

  13. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  14. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yan, H.; Theofanous, T.G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is the first step in the resolution of the Direct Containment Heating (DCH) issue for the Zion Nuclear Power Plant using the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). This report includes the definition of a probabilistic framework that decomposes the DCH problem into three probability density functions that reflect the most uncertain initial conditions (UO{sub 2} mass, zirconium oxidation fraction, and steel mass). Uncertainties in the initial conditions are significant, but our quantification approach is based on establishing reasonable bounds that are not unnecessarily conservative. To this end, we also make use of the ROAAM ideas of enveloping scenarios and ``splintering.`` Two causal relations (CRs) are used in this framework: CR1 is a model that calculates the peak pressure in the containment as a function of the initial conditions, and CR2 is a model that returns the frequency of containment failure as a function of pressure within the containment. Uncertainty in CR1 is accounted for by the use of two independently developed phenomenological models, the Convection Limited Containment Heating (CLCH) model and the Two-Cell Equilibrium (TCE) model, and by probabilistically distributing the key parameter in both, which is the ratio of the melt entrainment time to the system blowdown time constant. The two phenomenological models have been compared with an extensive database including recent integral simulations at two different physical scales. The containment load distributions do not intersect the containment strength (fragility) curve in any significant way, resulting in containment failure probabilities less than 10{sup {minus}3} for all scenarios considered. Sensitivity analyses did not show any areas of large sensitivity.

  15. Isotherm Sensor Calibration Program for Mars Science Laboratory Heat Shield Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jose A.; Oishi, Tomo; Martinez, Ed R.

    2011-01-01

    Seven instrumented sensor plugs were installed on the Mars Science Laboratory heat shield in December 2008 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) project. These sensor plugs contain four in-depth thermocouples and one Hollow aErothermal Ablation and Temperature (HEAT) sensor. The HEAT sensor follows the time progression of a 700 C isotherm through the thickness of a thermal protection system (TPS) material. The data can be used to infer char depth and, when analyzed in conjunction with the thermocouple data, the thermal gradient through the TPS material can also be determined. However, the uncertainty on the isotherm value is not well defined. To address this uncertainty, a team at NASA Ames Research Center is carrying out a HEAT sensor calibration test program. The scope of this test program is described, and initial results from experiments conducted in the laboratory to study the isotherm temperature of the HEAT sensor are presented. Data from the laboratory tests indicate an isotherm temperature of 720 C 60 C. An overview of near term arc jet testing is also given, including preliminary data from 30.48cm 30.48cm PICA panels instrumented with two MEDLI sensor plugs and tested in the NASA Ames Panel Test Facility. Forward work includes analysis of the arc jet test data, including an evaluation of the isotherm value based on the instant in time when it reaches a thermocouple depth.

  16. Maintaining Program Understanding - Issues, Tools, and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    documentation tools are reviewed. The tools are selected on basis of relevance for the key documentation issues, and relative to the common attention and interest of the particular tool in the documentation communities. As a conclusion of the paper, and as a final contribution, a number of future directions...

  17. Repayment Book. William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is intended to help individuals who received William D. Ford Federal Direct Loans as students manage the repayment process. Following an introduction, explanations are offered for how the principal balance of the loan is determined and how interest rates are applied. The following sections explain the four different repayment plans,…

  18. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Division requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory to help design and conduct an up-to-date assessment of the Program. The evaluation includes five separate studies; the fuel oil study is the subject of this paper. The primary goal of the fuel-oil study was to provide a region-wide estimate of the space-heating fuel oil saved by the Program in the Northeast during the 1991 and 1992 program years. Other goals include assessing the cost effectiveness of the Program within the fuel-oil submarket, and identifying factors which caused fuel-oil savings to vary. This paper reports only the highlights from the fuel-oil study`s final report.

  19. A computer program for designing fin-and-tube heat exchanger for EGR cooler application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaiful, Marwan, M. A.; Tandian, N. P.; Bae, M.

    2016-03-01

    EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) cooler is a kind of heat exchanger that is used to cool exhaust gas recirculation prior to be mixed with fresh air in an intake manifold of vehicle in order to obtain good reduction of NOxemissions. A fin-and-tube heat exchanger is more preferred as an EGR cooler than a shell-and-tube heat exchanger in this study due to its compactness. Manually designing many configurations of fin-and-tube heat exchanger for EGR cooler application consumes a lot of time and is high cost. Therefore, a computer aided design process of EGR cooler is required to overcome this problem. The EGR cooler design process was started by arranging the sequences of calculation algorithm in a computer program. A cooling media for this EGR cooler is air. The design is based on the effectiveness-number transfer unit (NTU) method. The EGR cooler design gives the geometry, heat transfer surface area, heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of the EGR cooler. Comparison of the EGR cooler Nusselt number obtained in this study and that reported in literature shows less than 6.2% discrepancy.

  20. Manual for the thermal and hydraulic design of direct contact spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-06-01

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for us in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Program Evaluation of the Direct Instruction Reading Interventions: Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nita M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to evaluate the Direct Instruction programs, Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading, from SRA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, which were being used as a school-wide reading intervention. These programs were implemented at a small elementary school in the Piedmont area of North Carolina beginning in the…

  2. A Guide to the Self-Directed Career Program: A Practical and Inexpensive Vocational Guidance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; And Others

    This report presents the Self-Directed Career program, an inexpensive program designed to provide vocational guidance to all high school students, college students, and adults who desire it. The report discusses the need for such a program, the costs involved, the materials required, and how to use them. Appendix A provides some of the basic and…

  3. Using Precision Teaching with Direct Instruction in a Summer School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Commons, Michael Lamport; Heckard, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) reading program combined with Precision Teaching during a public school's summer program. Students received instruction from "Reading Mastery" programs for a six-week period. Students also practiced specific reading skills including letter-sound identification, sounding out…

  4. Laboratory directed research and development program FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report compiles the annual reports of Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects supported by the Berkeley Lab. Projects are arranged under the following topical sections: (1) Accelerator and fusion research division; (2) Chemical sciences division; (3) Computing Sciences; (4) Earth sciences division; (5) Environmental energy technologies division; (6) life sciences division; (7) Materials sciences division; (8) Nuclear science division; (9) Physics division; (10) Structural biology division; and (11) Cross-divisional. A total of 66 projects are summarized.

  5. Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Final report, March 1, 1979-September 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.

    1984-09-01

    This final report documents the Navarro College geothermal use project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE. The six-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessment; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analysis; and public awareness programs. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 130/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private sector economic incentives currently exist which encourage commercial development of this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, aquacultural and agricultural heating uses, and fruit and vegetable dehydration; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluids' scaling and corrosion characteristics can be avoided through proper analysis and design.

  6. Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Final report, March 1, 1979-September 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.

    1984-09-01

    This final report documents the Navarro College geothermal use project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE. The six-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessment; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analysis; and public awareness programs. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 130/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private sector economic incentives currently exist which encourage commercial development of this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, aquacultural and agricultural heating uses, and fruit and vegetable dehydration; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluids' scaling and corrosion characteristics can be avoided through proper analysis and design.

  7. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  8. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of fiscal year 1993. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. The program advances the Laboratory`s core competencies, foundations, scientific capability, and permits exploration of exciting new opportunities. Reports are given from the following divisions: Accelerator and Fusion Research, Chemical Sciences, Earth Sciences, Energy and Environment, Engineering, Environment -- Health and Safety, Information and Computing Sciences, Life Sciences, Materials Sciences, Nuclear Science, Physics, and Structural Biology. (GHH)

  9. Fossil fuel saving through a direct solar energy water heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, Ademar; Dias Mayer, Flavio; Gallon, Roger; Hoffmann, Ronaldo; Tiago Serafini, Seimur [Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria-RS (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    The global warming and energy crisis is motivating the search for sustainable power sources. The objective of this work is to analyze the economic return and quantify the reduction in the emission of pollutants, when low-cost solar collectors are used as a partial substitute for a boiler that uses fuel oil as the energy source, in order to heat water for the swimming pools of the Physical Education Center, Federal University of Santa Maria. The collectors are made from PVC and other easily acquired materials. The estimations for energy saving are based on a collecting area of 182 m{sup 2}. From knowledge of the collectors' efficiency, the mathematical demonstration shows a fuel oil saving of 13,174 kg, representing 24% of the total amount consumed per annum. The investment required for the construction and installation of the collectors is US$ 6,445 and the estimated useful live is five years. The internal rate of return is 30%. The emission of pollutants is reduced by a considerable amount of 41,213 kg CO{sub 2}equivalent/year. The use of direct sun energy as an alternative power source represents a significant economic interest as well as contributing to the mitigation of greenhouse gases. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand Market for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  11. Future directions of the AMS program at Lucas Heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The research program based on the ANTARES AMS spectrometer involves applications of the long-lived radionuclides {sup 14}C, {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I in earth sciences and archaeology. Examples of environmental applications of AMS at Lucas Heights include: use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to determine the age and age-spread of air trapped in Antarctic ice bubbles, key parameters to study the variability of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases in the past; analyses of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse curves in tree rings from tropical regions and the southern hemisphere to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and air-sea interactions, important processes for the global climate; analyses of {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl produced in-situ in polished glacial bedrock and moraine boulders from Tasmania, New Zealand and Antarctica, as part of a major national project to unravel the timing of glacial cycles in the southern hemisphere. A recent archaeological application has been the radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the rock shelter at Jinmium in the Northern Territory demonstrating that this site was occupied by Aboriginal people only during the late Holocene. In environmental monitoring, the analysis of {sup 129}I, {sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl in water specimens from Mururoa and Fangatauga contributed to an IAEA study regarding residual radioactivity in the Pacific after the French nuclear program Extended abstract. 5 refs.

  12. Future directions of the AMS program at Lucas Heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The research program based on the ANTARES AMS spectrometer involves applications of the long-lived radionuclides {sup 14}C, {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I in earth sciences and archaeology. Examples of environmental applications of AMS at Lucas Heights include: use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to determine the age and age-spread of air trapped in Antarctic ice bubbles, key parameters to study the variability of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases in the past; analyses of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse curves in tree rings from tropical regions and the southern hemisphere to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and air-sea interactions, important processes for the global climate; analyses of {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl produced in-situ in polished glacial bedrock and moraine boulders from Tasmania, New Zealand and Antarctica, as part of a major national project to unravel the timing of glacial cycles in the southern hemisphere. A recent archaeological application has been the radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the rock shelter at Jinmium in the Northern Territory demonstrating that this site was occupied by Aboriginal people only during the late Holocene. In environmental monitoring, the analysis of {sup 129}I, {sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl in water specimens from Mururoa and Fangatauga contributed to an IAEA study regarding residual radioactivity in the Pacific after the French nuclear program Extended abstract. 5 refs.

  13. The cryogenic cooling program in high-heat-load optics at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes some of the aspects of the cryogenic optics program at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). A liquid-nitrogen-cooled, high-vacuum, double crystal monochromator is being fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A pumping system capable of delivering a variable flow rate of up to 10 gallons per minute of pressurized liquid nitrogen and removing 5 kilowatts of x-ray power is also being constructed. This specialized pumping system and monochromator will be used to test the viability of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load synchrotron optics. It has been determined that heat transfer enhancement will be required for optics used with APS insertion devices. An analysis of a porous-matrix-enhanced monochromator crystal is presented. For the particular case investigated, a heat transfer enhancement factor of 5 to 6 was calculated.

  14. 2014 Fermilab Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, W., editor

    2016-05-26

    Fermilab is executing Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) as outlined by order DOE O 413.2B in order to enhance and realize the mission of the laboratory in a manner that also supports the laboratory’s strategic objectives and the mission of the Department of Energy. LDRD funds enable scientific creativity, allow for exploration of “high risk, high payoff” research, and allow for the demonstration of new ideas, technical concepts, and devices. LDRD also has an objective of maintaining and enhancing the scientific and technical vitality of Fermilab.

  15. 2015 Fermilab Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, W., editor

    2015-05-26

    Fermilab is executing Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) as outlined by order DOE O 413.2B in order to enhance and realize the mission of the laboratory in a manner that also supports the laboratory’s strategic objectives and the mission of the Department of Energy. LDRD funds enable scientific creativity, allow for exploration of “high risk, high payoff” research, and allow for the demonstration of new ideas, technical concepts, and devices. LDRD also has an objective of maintaining and enhancing the scientific and technical vitality of Fermilab.

  16. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...... CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small single family house, an office building and an industrial building in three different geographical locations: Stockholm, Brussels, and Venice. The additional heat losses from heating systems can be 10...

  17. Radiation heat transfer model for complex superalloy turbine blade in directional solidification process based on finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-ming Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the sake of a more accurate shell boundary and calculation of radiation heat transfer in the Directional Solidification (DS process, a radiation heat transfer model based on the Finite Element Method (FEM is developed in this study. Key technologies, such as distinguishing boundaries automatically, local matrix and lumped heat capacity matrix, are also stated. In order to analyze the effect of withdrawing rate on DS process, the solidification processes of a complex superalloy turbine blade in the High Rate Solidification (HRS process with different withdrawing rates are simulated; and by comparing the simulation results, it is found that the most suitable withdrawing rate is determined to be 5.0 mm昺in-1. Finally, the accuracy and reliability of the radiation heat transfer model are verified, because of the accordance of simulation results with practical process.

  18. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs. Part III: Direct method of assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Malinowski, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    The data resulting from the thermal-hydraulic test of the ITER TF CICC are used to determine the flow partition and the overall effective heat transfer coefficient (hBC) between bundle and central channel in a direct way, i.e. by analysis of the heat transfer between both flow channels, based on the mass and energy balance equations and the readings of thermometers located inside the cable. In cases without a local heat source in the considered cable segment the obtained hBC values were consistent with those obtained in earlier studies by analysis of experimental data using indirect methods. It was also observed that the transverse heat transfer was strongly enhanced in a cable segment heated from outside. This phenomenon results from the mass transfer from the bundle region to the central channel. The experimental hBC data obtained for the case without a heat source in the considered segment were also compared with those calculated using various heat transfer correlations.

  19. Borehole Radar Evaluation Program: Antenna designs for optimal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, J. G.; Morris, H. E.

    1991-05-01

    The thrust of this progress report deals with the significant advances we have made in the past few months toward optimal radiating efficiency and optimal directionality from antenna arrays that fit inside a 5.5 in.-OD tool. The reasons spawning this development effort on antennas are the many uses for underground radar systems that can be built around such high-performance antennas. Targets of interest include large man-made voids, natural voids in strata, fractures zones in hard rock, edges and internal faults in salts domes and glaciers, etc. Recent progress includes observation of the radiation patterns of several dipole arrays which we designed to fit within a 5.5-inch OD borehole tool and to radiate efficiently at wavelengths in the band from 0.4 meter to 2 meters with optimal directionality. Front-to-back ratios of 15 dB are consistently observed in the horizontal plane of these arrays. These antennas are observed to radiate with high efficiencies, less than 1 dB loss, into air at 1.3 meter wavelength.

  20. Borehole Radar Evaluation Program: Antenna designs for optimal directionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, J.G.; Morris, H.E.

    1991-05-01

    The thrust of this progress report deals with the significant advances we have made in the past few months toward optimal radiating efficiency and optimal directionality from antenna arrays that fit inside a 5.5 in.-OD tool. The reasons spawning this development effort on antennas are the many uses for underground radar systems that can be built around such high-performance antennas. Targets of interest include large man-made voids, natural voids in strata, fractures zones in hard rock, edges and internal faults in salts domes and glaciers, etc. Recent progress includes observation of the radiation patterns of several dipole arrays which we designed to fit within a 5.5-inch OD borehole tool and to radiate efficiently at wavelengths in the band from 0.4 meter to 2 meters with optimal directionality. Front-to-back ratios of 15 dB are consistently observed in the horizontal plane of these arrays. These antennas are observed to radiate with high efficiencies, less than 1 dB loss, into air at 1.3 meter wavelength. 18 figs.

  1. Research program: The investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, M. S.; Philbin, J. S.; Foushee, F. C.

    1986-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multiyear joint research program being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) with support from Sandia National Laboratories and GA Technologies. This research focuses on heat removal and fluid dynamics in flow regimes characterized by low pressure and low Reynolds number. The program was motivated by a desire to characterize and analyze cooling in a broad class of TRIGA-type reactors under: (1) typical operating conditions, (2) anticipated, new operating regimes, and (3) postulated accident conditions. It has also provided experimental verification of analytical tools used in design analysis. The paper includes descriptions of the UNM thermal-hydraulics test facility and the experimental test sections. During the first two years experiments were conducted using single, electrically heated rod in water and air annuli. This configuration provides an observable and serviceable simulation of a fuel rod and its coolant channel.

  2. Separate effects tests on hydrogen combustion during direct containment heating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Albrecht, G.; Kirstahler, M.; Schwall, M.; Wachter, E.

    2008-01-15

    In the frame of severe accident research for light water reactors Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK/IKET) operates the facilities DISCO-C and DISCO-H since 1998, conceived to investigate the direct containment heating (DCH) issue. Previous DCH experiments have investigated the corium dispersion and containment pressurization during DCH in different European reactor geometries using an iron-alumina melt and steam as model fluids. The analysis of these experiments showed that the containment was pressurized by the debris-to-gas heat transfer but also to a large part by hydrogen combustion. The need was identified to better characterize the hydrogen combustion during DCH. To address this issue separate effect tests in the DISCO-H facility were conducted. These tests reproduced phenomena occurring during DCH (injection of a hot steam-hydrogen mixture jet into the containment and ignition of the air-steam-hydrogen mixture) with the exception of corium dispersion. The effect of corium particles as igniters was simulated using sparkler systems. The data will be used to validate models in combustion codes and to extrapolate to prototypic scale. Tests have been conducted in the DISCO-H facility in two steps. First a small series of six tests was done in a simplified geometry to study fundamental parameters. Then, two tests were done with a containment geometry subdivided into a subcompartment and the containment dome. The test conditions were as follows: As initial condition in the containment an atmosphere was used either with air or with a homogeneous air-steam mixture containing hydrogen concentrations between 0 and 7 mol%, temperatures around 100 C and pressure at 2 bar (representative of the containment atmosphere conditions at vessel failure). Injection of a hot steam-hydrogen jet mixture into the reactor cavity pit at 20 bar, representative of the primary circuit blow down through the vessel and hydrogen produced during this phase. The most important variables

  3. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  4. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  5. An experimental approach to determine the heat transfer coefficient in directional solidification furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banan, Mohsen; Gray, Ross T.; Wilcox, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient between a molten charge and its surroundings in a Bridgman furnace was experimentally determined using in-situ temperature measurement. The ampoule containing an isothermal melt was suddenly moved from a higher temperature zone to a lower temperature zone. The temperature-time history was used in a lumped-capacity cooling model to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient between the charge and the furnace. The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient was of the same order of magnitude as the theoretical value estimated by standard heat transfer calculations.

  6. Practical examples of how knowledge management is addressed in Point Lepreau heat transport ageing management programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, J. [NB Power Nuclear, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)], E-mail: JSlade@NBPower.com; Gendron, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Greenlaw, G. [NB Power Nuclear, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In the mid-1990s, New Brunswick Power Nuclear implemented a Management System Process Model at the Point Lepreau Generating Station that provides the basic elements of a knowledge management program. As noted by the IAEA, the challenge facing the nuclear industry now is to make improvements in knowledge management in areas that are more difficult to implement. Two of these areas are: increasing the value of existing knowledge, and converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge (knowledge acquisition). This paper describes some practical examples of knowledge management improvements in the Point Lepreau heat transport system ageing management program. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the support schemes of The District Heating Program during the period 2008 to 2011; Evaluering av stoetteprogrammene for fjernvarme i perioden 2008 til 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindland, Odd Ivar; Johansen, Staale; Holstad, Jon; Vennes, Wenche; Kallset, Eirik

    2012-11-01

    The District Heating Program as they are designed today, are evaluated after four years of operation, to see if the program works as intended and meet the goals that were set up at the start of 2008. It is also seen in the evaluation of the development of district heating market in the period, to see if there are trends and changes in the regulatory framework that makes it appropriate to make changes to the programs. Users 'perception of the program and the programs' direct and indirect influence on the development of district heating market is also considered. The PricewaterhouseCoopers AS (PwC) has carried out the evaluation, commissioned by Enova. PwC has conducted Internet-based surveys and interviewed actors in various roles within the district. PwC concluded that the goals that were set at the input of the program period is reached. Energy results were higher than expected, while there is a trend that Enova have to pay more and more for the projects. The number of applications and projects has remained fairly stable, while projects have been smaller in size and extent. (eb)

  8. Analysis of Tube Bank Heat Transfer In Downward Directed Foam Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gylys

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Apparatus with the foam flow are suitable to use in different technologies like heat exchangers, food industry, chemical and oil processing industry. Statically stable liquid foam until now is used in technologic systems rather seldom. Although a usage of this type of foam as heat transfer agent in foam equipment has a number of advantages in comparison with one phase liquid equipment: small quantity of liquid is required, heat transfer rate is rather high, mass of equipment is much smaller, energy consumption for foam delivery into heat transfer zone is lower. The paper analyzes the peculiarities of heat transfer from distributed in staggered order and perpendicular to foam flow in channel of rectangular cross section tube bundle to the foam flow. It was estimated the dependence of mean gas velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam flow to heat transfer in downward foam flow. Significant difference of heat transfer intensity from front and back tubes of tube row in laminar foam flow was noticed. Dependence of heat transfer on flow velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam was confirmed and estimated by criterion equations.

  9. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental). Total average costs were $1819 per house ($1192 for

  10. Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. Melt dispersion and direct containment heating (DCH) experiments in the DISCO-H test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Albrecht, G.; Kirstahler, M.; Schwall, M.; Wachter, E.; Woerner, G.

    2004-05-01

    (closed pit). The pressure rise in the containment is highest with an open pit and hydrogen combustion. With a closed pit the gas and the debris have to flow first into the subcompartment and then through relatively small cross sections into the containment. Considerable less hydrogen was produced and burned in this case. In the test without steam, no hydrogen effect was present, but, with the direct path to the containment open, a large amount of debris was dispersed into the containment, and efficiently transferred heat to its atmosphere. (orig.)

  12. Heat Transfer Model of Directional Solidification by LMC Process for Superalloy Casting Based on Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liu; Liao, Dunming; Lu, Yuzhang; Chen, Tao

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of the aviation industry, the turbine blade, a critical component of the aeronautical engine, has come to be widely produced by liquid-metal cooling (LMC) process. A temperature- and time-dependent heat transfer coefficient was used to represent the heat convection between the shell and the cooling liquid, and an improved Monte Carlo ray-tracing approach was adopted to handle the boundary of radiation heat transfer. Unstructured mesh was used to fit the irregular shell boundary, and the heat transfer model of directional solidification by LMC process based on finite element method (FEM) was established. The concept of local matrix was here proposed to guarantee computational efficiency. The pouring experiments of directional solidification by LMC process were carried out, then simulation and experimental results were compared here. The accuracy of the heat transfer model was validated by the cooling curves and grain morphology, and the maximum relative error between simulation and experimental cooling curve was 2 pct. The withdrawal rate showed an important influence on the shape of solidification interface, and stray grain is liable to be generated on the bottom of platform at an excessive withdrawal rate.

  13. Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficients for Biomass Particles by Direct Numerical Simulation Using Microstructured Particle Models in the Laminar Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecha, M. Brennan; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Foust, Thomas D.; Ciesielski, Peter N.

    2017-01-03

    Direct numerical simulation of convective heat transfer from hot gas to isolated biomass particle models with realistic morphology and explicit microstructure was performed over a range of conditions with laminar flow of hot gas (500 degrees C). Steady-state results demonstrated that convective interfacial heat transfer is dependent on the wood species. The computed heat transfer coefficients were shown to vary between the pine and aspen models by nearly 20%. These differences are attributed to the species-specific variations in the exterior surface morphology of the biomass particles. We also quantify variations in heat transfer experienced by the particle when positioned in different orientations with respect to the direction of fluid flow. These results are compared to previously reported heat transfer coefficient correlations in the range of 0.1 < Pr < 1.5 and 10 < Re < 500. Comparison of these simulation results to correlations commonly used in the literature (Gunn, Ranz-Marshall, and Bird-Stewart-Lightfoot) shows that the Ranz-Marshall (sphere) correlation gave the closest h values to our steady-state simulations for both wood species, though no existing correlation was within 20% of both species at all conditions studied. In general, this work exemplifies the fact that all biomass feedstocks are not created equal, and that their species-specific characteristics must be appreciated in order to facilitate accurate simulations of conversion processes.

  14. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... 46,000 65 Table II.3--Current Federal Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters Thermal efficiency as of Product class January 1, 1990 Gas-Fired Pool Heater Thermal Efficiency = 78% ] 2. History of... Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No....

  15. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M. E. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Torino (Italy); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Turco, F. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ∼2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  16. The potential for heat pumps using industrial waste heat. Final report from a prestudy in the Energy Agency's program Effsys; Potentialen for vaermepumpar som utnyttjar industriell spillvaerme. Slutrapport fraan foerstudie i Energimyndighetens program Effsys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrieli, Cecilia [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The availability of industrial waste heat in Sweden is good, both at high temperatures (i.e. can be utilized through direct heat exchange) and low temperatures (i.e. heat pumps are needed to utilize the heat). The main sources are located within the pulp and paper industry and within the steel industry. Also other smaller sources, e.g. within food industry and chemical industry, are of interest, since they often are located closer to district heating networks. In Sweden, there are today about 60 cooperation agreements between industries and district heating companies, with an annual delivery of around 4.5 TWh heat to the district heating networks. In about 10 of these heat pumps are utilized delivering around 1 TWh annually. The cooperation agreements have usually been in power for many years and are working well. A rough estimate of the potential for increased use of heat pumps to utilize industrial waste heat is around 1 TWh, i.e. a doubling of today's delivery. Based on a questionnaire to district heating companies, two main competitors to waste heat utilizing heat pumps have been identified. They are bio-fuelled combined heat and power plants, who has received installation cost subsidies by the government, and the increased use of waste fuelled heat and power plants as a consequence of new legislation concerning waste deposits. This has already or is likely to decrease the number of working hours and even cause closing down of heat pump plants. There are, however, a number of other factors that influence the future competitiveness of heat pumps, e.g. changes in prices for bio-fuel and electric power, changes in government subsidies, changes in taxation of heat and power productions as well as of waste. The demand for district cooling is increasing, creating possibilities of dual use or combined usage of heat pump equipment. In Swedish industry, there are about 30 installations of compression-type heat pumps with a heat delivery capacity of more than 500 k

  17. Directly Generating the NC Machining Program from AutoCAD Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    One kind of auto-programming method directly gener at ing the NC machining program by AutoCAD graph is discussed in this article. Firs tly, the article discusses the open type graphic interface of AutoCAD. Then the graphic export among the AutoCAD, the adding of process information and the data storage, as well as technology of generating NC program has been introduced . Finally, a NC auto-programming system GAPS based on AutoCAD graph is develope d. The tendency of auto-programming is graphic auto-pro...

  18. Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

  19. 75 FR 19185 - Direct and Counter-Cyclical Program and Average Crop Revenue Election Program, Disaster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... assessed against a producer unless it is determined that a producer knowingly and willingly falsified an..., Conservation, Price support programs. 7 CFR Part 1412 Cotton, Feed grains, Oilseeds, Peanuts, Price support..., Feed grains, Grains, Loan programs--agriculture, Oats, Oilseeds, Peanuts, Price support...

  20. Ground test program for a full-size solar dynamic heat receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Kaufmann, K. J.; McLallin, K. L.; Kerslake, T. W.

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures were developed to conduct ground testing of a full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver in a partially simulated, low earth orbit environment. The heat receiver was designed to supply 102 kW of thermal energy to a helium and xenon gas mixture continuously over a 94 minute orbit, including up to 36 minutes of eclipse. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber using liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate. Special test equipment was designed to provide the required ranges in interface boundary conditions that typify those expected or required for operation as part of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. The support hardware includes an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones and a closed-Brayton cycle engine simulator to circulate and condition the helium-xenon gas mixture. The test article, test support hardware, facilities, and instrumentation developed to conduct the ground test program are all described.

  1. 77 FR 4688 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... the NSLP and/or School Breakfast Program to establish, by school year (SY) 2008-2009, a system to... agencies and FNS timelier access to data elements important for the direct certification rate calculation... breakfast and lunch programs. 7 CFR Part 272 Alaska, Civil rights, Claims, Food stamps, Grant...

  2. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Progress is reported on the following R&D activities: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Other activities are reported on technical assistance, technology transfer, and the geothermal progress monitor.

  3. The effect of direction for hydrophobic lines on subcooled flow boiling: Critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Man; Yu, Dong In; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A lot of time and effort were dedicated on study of BHT and CHF to understand and control boiling characteristics. To enhance boiling performance, structure and coating have been focused on recently. Coating can change wettability of the surface by controlling surface energy. Structure can affect nucleation cavity or wettability. These techniques make differences for boiling phenomena. From many reports, structures have received much attention due to facileness of manipulation for wetting, and so much data were collected about structures and boiling characteristics. In comparison to the structure, the study of coating technique is less active. Hydrophilic surface without structure is difficult to make for lasting during boiling condition, and hydrophobic surface impoverish CHF due to early dryout. For this reason, the study of coating effect is deficient relatively. However, hydrophobic pattern can be a brilliant method to enhance boiling performance. Betz et al. manufactured superbiphilic surfaces having juxtaposing hexagonal hydrophobic dots on the superhydrophilic surface. This surface improved HTC up to three times higher than on reported nanostructured surfaces. They reported that results were from increasing nucleation site due to hydrophobicity and constraining of bubble expansion on the surface to prevent formation of vapor blanket. In this study, hydrophobic patterns with stripe lines were achieved to study direction effect of hydrophobic pattern using Teflon solution, and further research is suggested. From the analysis of bubble dynamics with pattern effects, the following conclusions can be summarized. 1. Teflon coating can make many bubbles at early stage, so it showed the highest HTC, but lowest CHF due to early formation of vapor blanket. 2. Parallel patterns are advantageous higher CHF due to segregated vapor path in flow direction. 3. Cross patterns are unfavorable to delay CHF because merged vapor jets could cover hydrophilic line.

  4. Direct Numerical Simulation of Transitional and Turbulent Flow Over a Heated Flat Plate Using Finite-Difference Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    1995-01-01

    The work in this report was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center during the period from August 1993 to January 1995 deals with the direct numerical simulation of transitional and turbulent flow at low Mach numbers using high-order-accurate finite-difference techniques. A computation of transition to turbulence of the spatially-evolving boundary layer on a heated flat plate in the presence of relatively high freestream turbulence was performed. The geometry and flow conditions were chosen to match earlier experiments. The development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers was documented. Velocity and temperature profiles, as well as distributions of skin friction, surface heat transfer rate, Reynolds shear stress, and turbulent heat flux were shown to compare well with experiment. The numerical method used here can be applied to complex geometries in a straightforward manner.

  5. Effect of solar irradiation on forced convective heat transfer through a nanofluid based direct absorption solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Salma; Ahmed, Sajid; Chowdhury, Raju

    2017-06-01

    The present work investigates numerically the convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation of forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC). Four different fluids; Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-water nanofluid and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin's weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of solar irradiation (I). The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of I upto a certain range.

  6. Integration of Heat Treatment with Shot Peening of 17-4 Stainless Steel Fabricated by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMangour, Bandar; Yang, Jenn-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a promising powder-based additive manufacturing process for fabrication of near-net-shape parts. However, the typically poor fatigue performance of DMLS parts must be addressed for use in demanding industrial applications. Post-treatment can be applied to enhance the performance of such components. Earlier attempts at inducing grain refinement through severe plastic deformation of part surfaces using shot peening improved the physical and mechanical properties of metals without chemical alteration. However, heat treatment can modify the surface-hardening effects attained by shot peening. Hence, we examined the feasibility of applying shot peening combined with heat treatment to improve the performance of DMLS-fabricated 17-4 stainless steel parts through microstructural evolution studies and hardness measurements. Compared to a specimen treated only by shot peening, the sample exposed to additional heat treatment showed increased hardness due to aging of the dominant phase.

  7. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, Program Summary and References

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, G.; Rothstein, A.J.

    1962-06-28

    This is one of twenty-one volumes sumarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume discusses the background to the General Electric program, and summarizes the various direct-air-cycle nuclear test assemblies and power plants that were developed. Because of the requirements of high performance, low weight, and small size, vast improvements in existing technology were required to meet the flight objectives. The technological progress achieved during the program is also summarized. The last appendix contains a compilation of the abstracts, tables of contents, and reference lists of the other twenty volumes.

  8. Using Feasible Direction to Find All Alternative Extreme Optimal Points for Linear Programming Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Tantawy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a feasible direction method to find all optimal extreme points for the linear programming problem. Our method depends on the conjugate gradient projection method starting with an initial point we generate a sequence of feasible directions towards all alternative extremes.

  9. Computer program grade 2 for the design and analysis of heat-pipe wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Edwards, D. K.

    1976-01-01

    This user's manual describes the revised version of the computer program GRADE(1), which designs and analyzes heat pipes with graded porosity fibrous slab wicks. The revisions are: (1) automatic calculation of the minimum condenser-end stress that will not result in an excess-liquid puddle or a liquid slug in the vapor space; (2) numerical solution of the equations describing flow in the circumferential grooves to assess the burnout criterion; (3) calculation of the contribution of excess liquid in fillets and puddles to the heat-transport; (4) calculation of the effect of partial saturation on the wick performance; and (5) calculation of the effect of vapor flow, which includes viscousinertial interactions.

  10. Air-cooled heat exchanger design using successive quadratic programming (SQP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.T.; Petracci, N.C.; Urbicain, M.J.

    2001-05-01

    A nonlinear optimisation algorithm is applied to the design of air-cooled heat exchangers. In such equipment, the cold fluid (air) is impelled across banks of finned tubes by means of fans in forced or induced draft. The hot stream flows inside the tubes in one or more passes, and the process that takes place may be cooling of either a gas or a liquid, or condensation of either a pure vapor or a mixture. The objective function is the minimum cost of the unit (investment and operation), subject to certain geometric and thermohydraulic constraints. The optimisation algorithm used is that developed by Biegler and Cuthrell, and programmed by them in the OPT package. The problem posed in this case is made of 10 optimisation variables, subject to five constraints related to geometric and operational parameters of the heat exchanger. (Author)

  11. HTGR process heat program design and analysis. Semiannual progress report, October 1, 1979-March 28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of concept design studies implemented at General Atomic Company (GA) during the first half of FY-80. The studies relate to a plant design for an 842-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor utilizing an intermediate helium heat transfer loop to provide high temperature thermal energy for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas (H/sub 2/ + CO) by steam-reforming a light hydrocarbon. Basic carbon sources may be coal, residual oil, or oil shale. Work tasks conducted during this period included the 842-MW(t) plant concept design and cost estimate for an 850/sup 0/C reactor outlet temperature. An assessment of the main-loop cooling shutdown system is reported. Major component cost models were prepared and programmed into the Process Heat Reactor Evaluation and Design (PHRED) code.

  12. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW OSHA- ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  13. Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, June 1975--July 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratt, W.B.; Hart, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The object of the work reported herein was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of preheating and evaporating a secondary fluid via direct contact with hot geothermal brine. The work covered a period of 12 months and included the design, construction, and testing of a unit which heats and vaporizes 10 gpm of isobutane by direct contact with 325/sup 0/F brine. The analytical and experimental efforts explored design and economic characteristics, including anticipated problem areas such as working fluid loss in the brine, production of a stable dispersion of the working fluid in brine, fluids separation, axial mixing and carry-over of water vapor with the working fluid. Isobutane was selected as the working fluid for tests primarily because of the favorable amount of net work produced per pound of geothermal brine and the low amount and cost of working fluid lost in the heat exchange process. The Elgin Spray Tower concept was selected for the preheater and boiler. The test apparatus includes a separate boiler and a separate preheater, each 6'' diameter by 6' high. Brine enters the top of each vessel and leaves the bottom. Isobutane enters the bottom of the preheater through a distributor plate to produce 0.15 inch diameter drops. The experimental unit operated with no major problems and demonstrated its hydraulic and thermal capabilities. Volumetric heat transfer coefficients obtained ranged up to 4000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Boiling heat transfer coefficients of as high as 17,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/ were obtained with a design value of 10,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Amount of isobutane in a 21 percent NaCl solution leaving the preheater was less than 40 ppM. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for a direct contact heat exchange system sized for a 50 MW power plant.

  14. TamiR159 directed wheat TaGAMYB cleavage and its involvement in anther development and heat response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis and rice, miR159-regulated GAMYB-like family transcription factors function in flower development and gibberellin (GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells. In this study, the involvement of miR159 in the regulation of its putative target TaGAMYB and its relationship to wheat development were investigated. First, we demonstrated that cleavage of TaGAMYB1 and TaGAMYB2 was directed by miR159 using 5'-RACE and a transient expression system. Second, we overexpressed TamiR159, TaGAMYB1 and mTaGAMYB1 (impaired in the miR159 binding site in transgenic rice, revealing that the accumulation in rice of mature miR159 derived from the precursor of wheat resulted in delayed heading time and male sterility. In addition, the number of tillers and primary branches in rice overexpressing mTaGAMYB1 increased relative to the wild type. Our previous study reported that TamiR159 was downregulated after two hours of heat stress treatment in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Most notably, the TamiR159 overexpression rice lines were more sensitive to heat stress relative to the wild type, indicating that the downregulation of TamiR159 in wheat after heat stress might participate in a heat stress-related signaling pathway, in turn contributing to heat stress tolerance.

  15. Health and wellness programs for commercial motor-vehicle drivers: organizational assessment and new research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Michael; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2015-02-01

    The workplace is an invaluable venue for health protection and promotion interventions, particularly for truck drivers due to their overreliance on their work environments, a plethora of work-related stressors, and their morbidity rates. Extant efforts of trucking companies to address driver health through worksite health and wellness programs have been inadequate, producing unsustainable results. The Driver Health and Wellness Program Survey was designed for and disseminated to 46 trucking companies to assess the current state of health and wellness programs in the trucking industry, including program participation rates and longevity, program evaluation procedures, and program activities and resources. Findings indicate that programmatic efforts in trucking companies continue to fall short, and health and wellness programs are insufficient to improve health outcomes in a sustainably positive direction. A new integrated, systems-based paradigm is proposed as a conceptual and methodological framework with the potential to meaningfully advance interventions in blue-collar work settings.

  16. SEAWAT Version 4: A Computer Program for Simulation of Multi-Species Solute and Heat Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Thorne, Daniel T.; Dausman, Alyssa M.; Sukop, Michael C.; Guo, Weixing

    2008-01-01

    The SEAWAT program is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate three-dimensional, variable-density, saturated ground-water flow. Flexible equations were added to the program to allow fluid density to be calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species. Fluid density may also be calculated as a function of fluid pressure. The effect of fluid viscosity variations on ground-water flow was included as an option. Fluid viscosity can be calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species, and the program includes additional functions for representing the dependence on temperature. Although MT3DMS and SEAWAT are not explicitly designed to simulate heat transport, temperature can be simulated as one of the species by entering appropriate transport coefficients. For example, the process of heat conduction is mathematically analogous to Fickian diffusion. Heat conduction can be represented in SEAWAT by assigning a thermal diffusivity for the temperature species (instead of a molecular diffusion coefficient for a solute species). Heat exchange with the solid matrix can be treated in a similar manner by using the mathematically equivalent process of solute sorption. By combining flexible equations for fluid density and viscosity with multi-species transport, SEAWAT Version 4 represents variable-density ground-water flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. SEAWAT Version 4 is based on MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS and retains all of the functionality of SEAWAT-2000. SEAWAT Version 4 also supports new simulation options for coupling flow and transport, and for representing constant-head boundaries. In previous versions of SEAWAT, the flow equation was solved for every transport timestep, regardless of whether or not there was a large change in fluid density. A new option was implemented in SEAWAT Version 4 that allows users to control how often the flow field is updated. New options were also implemented for representing constant

  17. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1993-03-30

    CHC (Geo-Heated Center) staff provided assistance to 103 requests from 26 states, and from Canada, Egypt, Mexico, China, Poland and Greece. A breakdown of the requests according to application include: space and district heating (19), geothermal heat pumps (24), greenhouses (10), aquaculture (4), industrial (4), equipment (3), resources (27), electric power (2) and other (20). Progress is reported on: (1) evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, (2) pilot fruit drier and (3) geothermal district heating marketing tools and equipment investigation. Four presentations and two tours were conducted during the quarter, GHC Quarterly Bulletin Vol. 14, No. 4 was prepared, 14 volumes were added to the library and information was disseminated to 45 requests. Progress reports are on: (1) GHP Teleconference 93, (2) California Energy Buys Glass Mountain Prospect from Unocal and Makes Deal for Newberry Caldera, (3) New Power Plant Planned, (4) Vale to Get Power Plant, (5) BPA Approves Geothermal Project, (6) Update: San Bernardino Reservoir Study, (7) Twenty-nine Palms Geothermal Resources, (8) Geo-Ag Heat Center, Lake County, and (9) Update: Geothermal Wells at Alturas.

  18. Direct waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials - chosen issues of the thermodynamic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasiński, Piotr; Kolasińska, Ewa

    2016-02-01

    The effective waste heat recovery is one of the present-day challenges in the industry and power engineering. The energy systems dedicated for waste heat conversion into electricity are usually characterized by low efficiency and are complicated in the design. The possibility of waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials may be an interesting alternative to the currently used technologies. In particular, due to their material characteristics, conducting polymers may be competitive when compared with the power machinery and equipment. These materials can be used in a wide range of the geometries e.g. the bulk products, thin films, pristine form or composites and the others. In this article, the authors present selected issues related to the mathematical and thermodynamic description of the heat transfer processes in the thermoelectric materials dedicated for the waste heat recovery. The link of these models with electrical properties of the material and a material solution based on a conducting polymer have also been presented in this paper.

  19. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2010. The associated FY 2010 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2011/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  20. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2009 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2009. The associated FY 2009 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2010/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  1. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2013. The associated FY 2013 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2014/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  2. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2008. The associated FY 2008 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2008/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  3. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2011. The associated FY 2011 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2012/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  4. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2012. The associated FY 2012 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2012/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  5. Diagnosing Direct-Drive, Shock-Heated, and Compressed Plastic Planar Foils with Noncollective Spectrally Resolved X-Ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, H.; Regan, S.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Goncharov, V.N.; Boehly, T.R.; Epstein, R.; Sangster, T.C.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Yaakobi, B.; Gregori, G.; Glenzer, S.H.; Landen, O.L.

    2007-12-14

    The electron temperature (Te) and average ionization (Z) of nearly Fermi-degenerate, direct-drive, shock-heated, and compressed plastic planar foils were investigated using noncollective spectrally resolved x-ray scattering on the OMEGA Laser System. Plastic (CH) and Br-doped CH foils were driven with six beams, having an overlapped intensity of ~1 × 10^14 W/cm^2 and generating ~15-Mbar pressure in the foil.

  6. Programmatic environmental assessment of the DOE Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The program's potential environmental impacts are evaluated to ensure that environmental issues are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process. The existing environment is studied for the following: grain drying; crop drying; livestock shelter heating; food processing; textile products; lumber and wood products; paper products; chemicals; petroleum refining; stone, clay, and glass products; and primary metals industries. Environmental impacts of the proposed action on the following are studied: air quality, water quality, ecosystems, health and safety, land use, esthetics, and social and institutional impacts. (MHR)

  7. User's manual for CNVUFAC, the general dynamics heat-transfer radiation view factor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, R. L.

    1976-06-25

    CNVUFAC, the General Dynamics heat-transfer radiation veiw factor program, has been adapted for use on the LLL CDC 7600 computer system. The input and output have been modified, and a node incrementing logic was included to make the code compatible with the TRUMP thermal analyzer and related codes. The program performs the multiple integration necessary to evaluate the geometric black-body radiaton node to node view factors. Card image output that contains node number and view factor information is generated for input into the related program GRAY. Program GRAY is then used to include the effects of gray-body emissivities and multiple reflections, generating the effective gray-body view factors usable in TRUMP. CNVUFAC uses an elemental area summation scheme to evaluate the multiple integrals. The program permits shadowing and self-shadowing. The basic configuration shapes that can be considered are cylinders, cones, spheres, ellipsoids, flat plates, disks, toroids, and polynomials of revolution. Portions of these shapes can also be considered.

  8. Eddy heat fluxes from direct current measurements of the Antarctic Polar Front in Shag Rocks Passage

    OpenAIRE

    Walkden, GJ; Heywood, Kj; Stevens, DP

    2008-01-01

    Determining meridional heat flux in the Southern Ocean is critical to the accurate understanding and model simulation of the global ocean. Mesoscale eddies provide a significant but poorly-defined contribution to this transport. An eighteen-month deep-water current meter array deployment in Shag Rocks Passage (53°S, 48°W) between May 2003 and November 2004 provides estimates of the eddy flux of heat across the Polar Front. We calculate a statistically nonzero (99% level), vertically coherent ...

  9. Effect of HF Heating Array Directivity Pattern on the Frequency Response of Generated ELF/VLF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    hhEEE|hhEE 1H ; 11:j28 111125 . mm 11111 II ll1 111 .8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART I fJC ’RL_-SCI-475l I( .-cmon Numters: 1.5.1. 3.1.4, 3.2.1,.3.3...the high power HF heating facility at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The pattern was calculated using pattern multi- plication and method of...high power HF heating facility at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The pattern was calculated using pattern multiplication and method of

  10. Direct current heating in superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel devices for THz mixing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, P; Klapwijk, T.M; Kovtonyuk, S.; van de Stadt, H.

    1996-01-01

    DC heating effects in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions are studied by comparing junctions sandwiched between niobium or aluminum layers. With niobium a temperature rise of several Kelvin is observed, which is reduced by an order of magnitude by using aluminum. A simple

  11. Direct reduction of carburized pre-reduced pellets by microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兵; 黄柱成; 易凌云; 姜涛

    2014-01-01

    A new iron-making process using carburized pre-reduced iron ore pellets and microwave heating is investigated. The pre-reduced pellets, with a porous structure, and fine particles are carburized homogeneously at 400-650 °C in a CO atmosphere. The carburized carbon not only acts reaction as a reduction agent, but also absorbs microwave in the reduction process. Hence, the carburized pre-reduced pellets can be rapidly reduced by microwave heating. There are three procedures involved in the process, namely, gas-based pre-reduction, low-temperature carburization and deep reduction by microwave heating. Carburized pre-reduced iron ore pellets show a rapid temperature rise that is twice as fast as the results for pre-reduced pellets in the laboratory. This not only improves the efficiency of the microwave heating, but also accelerates the reduction of iron oxides. The temperature of the pre-reduced pellets rises to 1050 °C in 45 min when the carburization rate is 2.02%, and the metallization rate and compressive strength reach 94.24%and 1725 N/pellet, respectively.

  12. Direct impacts of climatic warming on heat stress in endothermic species: seabirds as bioindicators of changing thermoregulatory constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Stephen A; Arnold, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    There is now abundant evidence that contemporary climatic change has indirectly affected a wide-range of species by changing trophic interactions, competition, epidemiology and habitat. However, direct physiological impacts of changing climates are rarely reported for endothermic species, despite being commonly reported for ectotherms. We review the evidence for changing physiological constraints on endothermic vertebrates at high temperatures, integrating theoretical and empirical perspectives on the morphology, physiology and behavior of marine birds. Potential for increasing heat stress exposure depends on changes in multiple environmental variables, not just air temperature, as well as organism-specific morphology, physiology and behavior. Endotherms breeding at high latitudes are vulnerable to the forecast, extensive temperature changes because of the adaptations they possess to minimize heat loss. Low-latitude species will also be challenged as they currently live close to their thermal limits and will likely suffer future water shortages. Small, highly-active species, particularly aerial foragers, are acutely vulnerable as they are least able to dissipate heat at high temperatures. Overall, direct physiological impacts of climatic change appear underrepresented in the published literature, but available data suggest they have much potential to shape behavior, morphology and distribution of endothermic species. Coincidence between future heat stress events and other energetic constraints on endotherms remains largely unexplored but will be key in determining the physiological impacts of climatic change. Multi-scale, biophysical modeling, informed by experiments that quantify thermoregulatory responses of endotherms to heat stress, is an essential precursor to urgently-needed analyses at the population or species level. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  13. Thermal models of buildings. Determination of temperatures, heating and cooling loads. Theories, models and computer programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellblad, K.

    1998-05-01

    The need to estimate indoor temperatures, heating or cooling load and energy requirements for buildings arises in many stages of a buildings life cycle, e.g. at the early layout stage, during the design of a building and for energy retrofitting planning. Other purposes are to meet the authorities requirements given in building codes. All these situations require good calculation methods. The main purpose of this report is to present the authors work with problems related to thermal models and calculation methods for determination of temperatures and heating or cooling loads in buildings. Thus the major part of the report deals with treatment of solar radiation in glazing systems, shading of solar and sky radiation and the computer program JULOTTA used to simulate the thermal behavior of rooms and buildings. Other parts of thermal models of buildings are more briefly discussed and included in order to give an overview of existing problems and available solutions. A brief presentation of how thermal models can be built up is also given and it is a hope that the report can be useful as an introduction to this part of building physics as well as during development of calculation methods and computer programs. The report may also serve as a help for the users of energy related programs. Independent of which method or program a user choose to work with it is his or her own responsibility to understand the limits of the tool, else wrong conclusions may be drawn from the results 52 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  14. OpenARC: Extensible OpenACC Compiler Framework for Directive-Based Accelerator Programming Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Directive-based, accelerator programming models such as OpenACC have arisen as an alternative solution to program emerging Scalable Heterogeneous Computing (SHC) platforms. However, the increased complexity in the SHC systems incurs several challenges in terms of portability and productivity. This paper presents an open-sourced OpenACC compiler, called OpenARC, which serves as an extensible research framework to address those issues in the directive-based accelerator programming. This paper explains important design strategies and key compiler transformation techniques needed to implement the reference OpenACC compiler. Moreover, this paper demonstrates the efficacy of OpenARC as a research framework for directive-based programming study, by proposing and implementing OpenACC extensions in the OpenARC framework to 1) support hybrid programming of the unified memory and separate memory and 2) exploit architecture-specific features in an abstract manner. Porting thirteen standard OpenACC programs and three extended OpenACC programs to CUDA GPUs shows that OpenARC performs similarly to a commercial OpenACC compiler, while it serves as a high-level research framework.

  15. THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingber, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.

  16. Introduction of 'Green Heat Certification Program' for business- an innovative market scheme to increase the use of heat from renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izutsu, Kohei; Iida, Tetsunari; Yamashita, Noriaki (Inst. for Sustainable Energy Policies, 885 Yoshinaganaka Yoshinaga-cho, Bizen-city, Okayama (Japan)). E-mail: izutsu_kohei@isep.or.jp

    2008-10-15

    We have considered all angles of 'Green Heat Certification Program' which is system of incentive policy about Carbon-Offset. Big movements, which are 1) Government began to work about certification of renewable energy, 2) Technology of measure of calorie is advanced, and 3) 'Renewable Electricity Certification Program (RECP)' has rapidly been growing, make market of Carbon-Offset change. Furthermore, we studied an application of actual business. As results, this program is suitable for business and useful. But we have a few issues to use for real business

  17. Layered thermal metamaterials for the directing and harvesting of conductive heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Bandaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The utility of a metamaterial, assembled from two layers of nominally isotropic materials, for thermal energy re-orientation and harvesting is examined. A study of the underlying phenomena related to heat flux manipulation, exploiting the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity tensor, is a focus. The notion of the assembled metamaterial as an effective thermal medium forms the basis for many of these investigations and will be probed. An overarching aim is to implement in such thermal metamaterials, functionalities well known from light optics, such as reflection and refraction, which in turn may yield insights on efficient thermal lensing. Consequently, the harness and dissipation of heat, which are for example, of much importance in energy conservation and improving electrical device performance, may be accomplished. The possibilities of energy harvesting, through exploiting anisotropic thermopower in the metamaterials is also examined. The review concludes with a brief survey of the outstanding issues and insights needed for further progress.

  18. Demand Controlled Economizer Cycles: A Direct Digital Control Scheme for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    includes a heating coil and thermostatic control to maintain the air in this path at an elevated temperature, typically around 80 degrees Farenheit (80 F...1238 Aug 1 1236 1237 52 1074 1126 50 1033 1083 Sep 8 8 5W 862 7T 600 678 75 603 7r Oct 51 400 451 119 204 323 115 207 322 ov 64 123 287 187 71 258

  19. Direct Electricity from Heat: A Solution to Assist Aircraft Power Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    A thermionic device produces an electrical current with the application of a thermal gradient whereby the temperature at one electrode provides enough thermal energy to eject electrons. The system is totally predicated on the thermal gradient and the work function of the electrode collector relative to the emitter electrode. Combined with a standard thermoelectric device high efficiencies may result, capable of providing electrical energy from the waste heat of gas turbine engines.

  20. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1993-06-01

    Technical assistance was provided to 60 requests from 19 states. R&D progress is reported on: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Two presentations and one tour were conducted, and three technical papers were prepared. The Geothermal Progress Monitor reported: USGS Forum on Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy Tax Credits Not Working as Congress Intended, Geothermal Industry Tells House Panel, Newberry Pilot Project, and Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Nevada.

  1. Particle concentrating and sorting under a rotating electric field by direct optical-liquid heating in a microfluidics chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a functional rotating electrothermal technique for rapidly concentrating and sorting a large number of particles on a microchip by the combination of particle dielectrophoresis (DEP) and inward rotating electrothermal (RET) flows. Different kinds of particles can be attracted (positive DEP) to or repelled (negative DEP) from electrode edges, and then the n-DEP responsive particles are further concentrated in the heated region by RET flows. The RET flows arise from the spatial inhomogeneous electric properties of fluid caused by direct infrared laser (1470 nm) heating of solution in a rotating electric field. The direction of the RET flows is radially inward to the heated region with a co-field (the same as the rotating electric field) rotation. Moreover, the velocity of the RET flows is proportional to the laser power and the square of the electric field strength. The RET flows are significant over a frequency range from 200 kHz to 5 MHz. The RET flows are generated by the simultaneous application of the infrared laser and the rotating electric field. Therefore, the location of particle concentrating can be controlled within the rotating electric field depending on the position of the laser spot. This multi-field technique can be operated in salt solutions and at higher frequency without external flow pressure, and thus it can avoid electrokinetic phenomena at low frequency to improve the manipulation accuracy for lab-on-chip applications.

  2. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Xuewen Mu; Yaling Zhang

    2015-01-01

    An alternating direction method is proposed for convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints. In the algorithm, the primal problem is equivalent to a separate structure convex quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is ...

  3. COYOTE : a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I, theoretical background.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-03-01

    The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction

  4. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  5. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2016-03-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  6. LDRD 2014 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, Diane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2014, as required. In FY 2014, the BNL LDRD Program funded 40 projects, 8 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $9.6M.

  7. LDRD 2015 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2015, as required. In FY 2015, the BNL LDRD Program funded 43 projects, 12 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $9.5M.

  8. VORSTAB: A computer program for calculating lateral-directional stability derivatives with vortex flow effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C. Edward

    1985-01-01

    A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.

  9. Non-Newtonian unconfined flow and heat transfer over a heated cylinder using the direct-forcing immersed boundary-thermal lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Delouei, A; Nazari, M; Kayhani, M H; Succi, S

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the immersed boundary-thermal lattice Boltzmann method has been used to simulate non-Newtonian fluid flow over a heated circular cylinder. The direct-forcing algorithm has been employed to couple the off-lattice obstacles and on-lattice fluid nodes. To investigate the effect of boundary sharpness, two different diffuse interface schemes are considered to interpolate the velocity and temperature between the boundary and computational grid points. The lattice Boltzmann equation with split-forcing term is applied to consider the effects of the discrete lattice and the body force to the momentum flux, simultaneously. A method for calculating the Nusselt number based on diffuse interface schemes is developed. The rheological and thermal properties of non-Newtonian fluids are investigated under the different power-law indices and Reynolds numbers. The effect of numerical parameters on the accuracy of the proposed method has been investigated in detail. Results show that the rheological and thermal properties of non-Newtonian fluids in the presence of a heated immersed body can be suitably captured using the immersed boundary thermal lattice Boltzmann method.

  10. Further Investigation on Laminar Forced Convection of Nanofluid Flows in a Uniformly Heated Pipe Using Direct Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghofrane Sekrani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, laminar forced convection nanofluid flows in a uniformly heated horizontal tube were revisited by direct numerical simulations. Single and two-phase models were employed with constant and temperature-dependent properties. Comparisons with experimental data showed that the mixture model performs better than the single-phase model in the all cases studied. Temperature-dependent fluid properties also resulted in a better prediction of the thermal field. Particular attention was paid to the grid arrangement. The two-phase model was used then confidently to investigate the influence of the nanoparticle size on the heat and fluid flow with a particular emphasis on the sedimentation process. Four nanoparticle diameters were considered: 10, 42, 100 and 200 nm for both copper-water and alumina/water nanofluids. For the largest diameter d n p = 200 nm, the Cu nanoparticles were more sedimented by around 80%, while the A l 2 O 3 nanoparticles sedimented only by 2 . 5 %. Besides, it was found that increasing the Reynolds number improved the heat transfer rate, while it decreased the friction factor allowing the nanoparticles to stay more dispersed in the base fluid. The effect of nanoparticle type on the heat transfer coefficient was also investigated for six different water-based nanofluids. Results showed that the Cu-water nanofluid achieved the highest heat transfer coefficient, followed by C, A l 2 O 3 , C u O , T i O 2 , and S i O 2 , respectively. All results were presented and discussed for four different values of the concentration in nanoparticles, namely φ = 0 , 0 . 6 % , 1 % and 1 . 6 % . Empirical correlations for the friction coefficient and the average Nusselt number were also provided summarizing all the presented results.

  11. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations.

  12. The solution of singular optimal control problems using direct collocation and nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, James R.; Conway, Bruce A.

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes work on the determination of optimal rocket trajectories which may include singular arcs. In recent years direct collocation and nonlinear programming has proven to be a powerful method for solving optimal control problems. Difficulties in the application of this method can occur if the problem is singular. Techniques exist for solving singular problems indirectly using the associated adjoint formulation. Unfortunately, the adjoints are not a part of the direct formulation. It is shown how adjoint information can be obtained from the direct method to allow the solution of singular problems.

  13. Direct-drive Energetics of laser-Heated Foam Liners for Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alastair; Thomas, Cliff; Baker, Kevin; Morton, John; Baumann, Ted; Biener, Monika; Bhandarkar, Suhas; Hinkel, Denise; Jones, Oggie; Meezan, Nathan; Moody, John; Nikroo, Abbas; Rosen, Mordy; Hsing, Warren

    2016-10-01

    Lining the walls of a high-Z hohlraum cavity with a low-density foam is predicted to mitigate the challenge presented by hohlraum wall expansion. Once heated, wall material quickly fills the cavity and can impede laser beam propagation. To avoid this, ignition hohlraums are typically filled with a gas or irradiated with a short (laser pulse. A gas-fill has the disadvantage that it can cause laser plasma instabilities (LPI), while a short laser pulse limits the design space to reach low-adiabat implosions. Foam-liners offer a potential route to reduce wall motion in a low gas-fill hohlraum with little LPI. Results from quasi 1-D experiments performed at the NIF are presented These characterize the x-ray conversion efficiency, backscattered laser energy and heat propagation in a 250 μm thick Ta2O5 or ZnO foam-liners spanning a range of densities from underdense to overdense, when irradiated at up to 4.9 x 1014 W/cm2 is incident on a planar foam sample, backed by a Au foil and generates a radiation temperature of up to 240eV - conditions equivalent to a single outer cone beam-spot in an ignition hohlraum. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Rapid growth of ZnO hexagonal prism crystals by direct microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenqi; ZHOU Jian; LIU Guizhen; REN Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal prism crystals were synthesized from ZnO powders by microwave heating in a short time (within 20 min) without any metal catalyst or transport agent.Zinc oxide raw materials were made by evaporating from the high-temperature zone in an enclosure atmosphere and crystals were grown on the self-source substrate.The inherent asymmetry in microwave heating provides the temperature gradient for crystal growth.Substrate and temperature distribution in the oven show significant effects on the growth of the ZnO crystal.The morphologies demonstrate that these samples are pure hexagonal prism crystals with maximum 80 μm in diameter and 600 μm in length,which possess a well faceted end and side surface.X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that these samples are pure crystals.The photoluminescence (PL) exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature,indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices.

  15. HEAT TESTS OF POWER CABLES WITH XLPE INSULATION AT DIRECT VOLTAGES UP TO 110 KV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Antonets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, experiment for determining the temperature difference between the elements of cable and in the open air is considered. The formation of a three cables laid in a plane with different spacing between adjacent cables. Tests to heat of cables for XLPE-polyethylene are used as a solid dielectric insulation. The line to XLPE-cables in group running horizontally, provided that the cables are of equal diameter and emit equal losses. It is limited to the following: the air flow around the cables may be necessary restricted by proximity to next cables. When single-core cables are installed in parallel the load current may not share equally between the parallel cables. This is because a significant proportion of the impedance of large conductors is due to self reactance and mutual reactance. Hence the spacing and relative location of each cable will have an effect on the current sharing. Calculation for each cable configuration is necessary. Possibility of using for determining the thermal properties of XLPE-cables a sheath applied over the cable surface with coefficient convection heat transfer between cable surface and the air region about it of equal zero. The work is devoted to creation of a method for calculation of the current rating of high-voltage cables in conditions function.

  16. Method for Incorporation of Controllability in Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis by Integrating Mathematical Programming and Knowledge Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志红

    2002-01-01

    A method for incorporation of controlling the heat exchanger networks with or without splits is proposed by integrating mathematical programming and knowledge engineering.The simultaneous optimal mathematical model is established.This method can be practically used in the integration of large-scale heat exchanger networks,not only to synthesize automatically but also to satisfy the requirement of structural controllability with more nobjective human intervention.

  17. Enhance students’ motivation to learn programming by using direct visual feed-back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; Reng, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The technical subjects chosen are within programming. Using image-processing algorithms as means to provide direct visual feedback for learning basic C/C++. The pedagogical approach is within a PBL framework and is based on dialogue and collaborative learning. At the same time the intention...

  18. 5 CFR 330.504 - Special restrictions after appointment under Part-time Direct Hire Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special restrictions after appointment under Part-time Direct Hire Program. 330.504 Section 330.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... To Protect Competitive Principles § 330.504 Special restrictions after appointment under...

  19. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Test Program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-07-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source(GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the third test (DIT-3), a full GPHS module was impacted at 58 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The module impacted the target at an angle of 30/sup 0/ to the pole of the large faces. The four capsules used in DIT-3 survived impact with minimal deformation; no internal cracks other than in the regions indicated by Savannah River Plant (SRP) preimpact nondestructive testing were observed in any of the capsules. The 30/sup 0/ impact orientation used in DIT-3 was considerably less severe than the flat-on impact utilized in DIT-1 and DIT-2. The four capsules used in DIT-1 survived, while two of the capsules used in DIT-2 breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 ..mu..g) of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was released from the capsules breached in the DIT-2 impact. All of the capsules used in DIT-1 and DIT-2 were severely deformed and contained large internal cracks. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-3 test components are described, with emphasis on weld structure and the behavior of defects identified by SRP nondestructive testing.

  20. William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. Final Regulations. Federal Register, Department of Education, 34 CFR Part 685

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this regulatory action is to amend the regulations governing the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program (§ 685.200 of title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)). These regulations strengthen and improve administration of the Federal Direct PLUS Loan Program authorized under title IV of the Higher Education…

  1. Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program. Annual report to the Department of Energy, Revised December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.; Romano, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program is a discretionary research and development tool critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the laboratory. It is also a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor in achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, within the overall mission of the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report summarizes research which was funded by this program during fiscal year 1993. The research fell in a number of broad technical and scientific categories: new directions for energy technologies; global change; radiation therapies and imaging; genetic studies; new directions for the development and utilization of BNL facilities; miscellaneous projects. Two million dollars in funding supported 28 projects which were spread throughout all BNL scientific departments.

  2. MRI temperature map reconstruction directly from k-space with compensation for heating-induced geometric distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Pooja; Grissom, William A.

    2017-03-01

    Proton resonance frequency (PRF) change is used to measure tissue heating, but also distorts the image and causes geometric distortions in temperature estimates in the same manner as other chemical shift distortions if left uncompensated. We propose an algorithm that produces PRF temperature maps free of these distortions by fitting a signal model directly to acquired k-space data that accounts for PRF-induced phase both up to and during the readout. We also introduce a faster method compatible with Cartesian data that corrects distortions from image-domain temperature maps. Gel heating experiments show the proposed CS compensation algorithms correct magnitude image artifacts and hotspot distortions. Without CS compensation, thermal dose values are overestimated in spiral data, and are spatially offset in 2DFT and EPI data. Compensating for heat-induced CS distortions improves the accuracy of temperature change and thermal dose measurements, and can have a significant positive impact on clinical and research applications of PRF-shift thermometry.

  3. Heat and mass transfer effects in a direct methanol fuel cell: A 1D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, V.B.; Falcao, D.S.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, C.M. [INETI - Unidade de Electroquimica e Materiais, Paco do Lumiar, 22,1649-038 (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    Models are a fundamental tool for the design process of fuel cells and fuel cell systems. In this work, a steady-state, one-dimensional model accounting for coupled heat and mass transfer, along with the electrochemical reactions occurring in the DMFC, is presented. The model output is the temperature profile through the cell and the water balance and methanol crossover between the anode and the cathode. The model predicts the correct trends for the influence of current density and methanol feed concentration on both methanol and water crossover. The model estimates the net water transfer coefficient through the membrane, {alpha}, a very important parameter to describe water management in the DMFC. Suitable operating ranges can be set up for different MEA structures maintaining the crossover of methanol and water within acceptable levels. The model is rapidly implemented and is therefore suitable for inclusion in real-time system level DMFC calculations. (author)

  4. Direct electric field heating and acceleration of electrons in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Benka, Stephen G.

    1992-01-01

    We show that the observed properties of solar flare X-ray and microwave emission can be explained through the Joule heating and electric field acceleration of runaway electrons in current channels. The global properties of the flaring region required for this are presented. We have fit a hybrid thermal/nonthermal electron distribution, consisting of hot, isothermal electrons with a nonthermal tail of runaway electrons, to high-resolution hard X-ray and microwave spectra and have obtained excellent fits to both. The hybrid model relaxes the electron number and energy flux requirements for the hard X-ray emission over those of a purely nonthermal model. The model also provides explanations for several previously unexplained aspects of the high-resolution microwave spectra. The fit parameters can be related to physical properties (such as the electric field strength in the current channels) of the acceleration region.

  5. Organic thermoelectric materials: emerging green energy materials converting heat to electricity directly and efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Yimeng; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben

    2014-10-29

    The abundance of solar thermal energy and the widespread demands for waste heat recovery make thermoelectric generators (TEGs) very attractive in harvesting low-cost energy resources. Meanwhile, thermoelectric refrigeration is promising for local cooling and niche applications. In this context there is currently a growing interest in developing organic thermoelectric materials which are flexible, cost-effective, eco-friendly and potentially energy-efficient. In particular, the past several years have witnessed remarkable progress in organic thermoelectric materials and devices. In this review, thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers and small molecules are summarized, with recent progresses in materials, measurements and devices highlighted. Prospects and suggestions for future research efforts are also presented. The organic thermoelectric materials are emerging candidates for green energy conversion.

  6. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  7. LDRD 2016 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2C dated October 22, 2015. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2016, as required. In FY 2016, the BNL LDRD Program funded 48 projects, 21 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $11.5M. The investments that BNL makes in its LDRD program support the Laboratory’s strategic goals. BNL has identified four Critical Outcomes that define the Laboratory’s scientific future and that will enable it to realize its overall vision. Two operational Critical Outcomes address essential operational support for that future: renewal of the BNL campus; and safe, efficient laboratory operations.

  8. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  9. Heat treatment of whole milk by the direct joule effect--experimental and numerical approaches to fouling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillaudeau, L; Winterton, P; Leuliet, J C; Tissier, J P; Maury, V; Semet, F; Debreyne, P; Berthou, M; Chopard, F

    2006-12-01

    The development of alternative technologies such as the direct Joule effect to pasteurize and sterilize food products is of great scientific and industrial interest. Our objective was 1) to gain insight into the ability to ensure ultra-high-temperature treatment of milk and 2) to investigate the links among thermal, hydraulic, and electrical phenomena in relation to fouling in a direct Joule effect heater. The ohmic heater [OH; E perpendicular to v (where E is the electrical field and v is the velocity); P (power) = 15 kW] was composed of 5 flat rectangular cells [e (space between the plate and electrode) = 15 mm, w (wall) = 76 mm, and L (length of the plate in plate heat exchanger or electrode) = 246 mm]--3 active cells to ensure heating and 2 (at the extremities) for electrical insulation and the recovery of leakage currents. In the first step, the thermal performance of the OH was investigated vs. the flow regimen [50 Joule effect in the static deposit, the simulation showed how wall overheating would definitively cause fouling to spiral out of control.

  10. MR thermometry analysis program for laser- or high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced heating at a clinical MR scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ju; Jeong, Ki Young; Oh, Seung Jae; Park, Eun Hae; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hong [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry is a noninvasive method for monitoring local temperature change during thermal therapy. In this study, a MR temperature analysis program was established for a laser with gold nanorods (GNRs) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced heating MR thermometry. The MR temperature map was reconstructed using the water proton resonance frequency (PRF) method. The temperature-sensitive phase difference was acquired by using complex number subtraction instead of direct phase subtraction in order to avoid another phase unwrapping process. A temperature map-analyzing program was developed and implemented in IDL (Interactive Data Language) for effective temperature monitoring. This one program was applied to two different heating devices at a clinical MR scanner. All images were acquired with the fast spoiled gradient echo (fSPGR) pulse sequence on a 3.0 T GE Discovery MR750 scanner with an 8-channel knee array coil or with a home-built small surface coil. The analyzed temperature values were confirmed by using values simultaneously measured with an optical temperature probe (R{sup 2} = 0.996). The temperature change in small samples induced by a laser or by HIFU was analyzed by using a raw data, that consisted of complex numbers. This study shows that our MR thermometry analysis program can be used for thermal therapy study with a laser or HIFU at a clinical MR scanner. It can also be applied to temperature monitoring for any other thermal therapy based on the PRF method.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in combined heat and power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, F.; Dincer, I.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive steady state modelling and thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell integrated with Gas Turbine power cycle (DU-SOFC/GT). The use of urea as direct fuel mitigates public health and safety risks associated with the use of hydrogen and ammonia. The integration scheme in this study covers both oxygen ion-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-O) and hydrogen proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-H). Parametric case studies are carried out to investigate the effects of design and operating parameters on the overall performance of the system. The results reveal that the fuel cell exhibited the highest level of exergy destruction among other system components. Furthermore, the SOFC-O based system offers better overall performance than that with the SOFC-H option mainly due to the detrimental reverse water-gas shift reaction at the SOFC anode as well as the unique configuration of the system.

  12. Free Molecular Heat Transfer Programs for Setup and Dynamic Updating the Conductors in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    The programs, arrays and logic structure were developed to enable the dynamic update of conductors in thermal desktop. The MatLab program FMHTPRE.m processes the Thermal Desktop conductors and sets up the arrays. The user needs to manually copy portions of the output to different input regions in Thermal Desktop. Also, Fortran subroutines are provided that perform the actual updates to the conductors. The subroutines are setup for helium gas, but the equations can be modified for other gases. The maximum number of free molecular conductors allowed is 10,000 for a given radiation task. Additional radiation tasks for FMHT can be generated to account for more conductors. Modifications to the Fortran subroutines may be warranted, when the mode of heat transfer is in the mixed or continuum mode. The FMHT Thermal Desktop model should be activated by using the "Case Set Manager" once the model is setup. Careful setup of the model is needed to avoid excessive solve times.

  13. Direct numerical simulation of fluid-particle mass, momentum, and heat tranfers in reactive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouti, Abdelkader; Wachs, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    Many industrial processes like coal combustion, catalytic cracking, gas phase polymerization reactors and more recently biomass gasification and chemical looping involve two-phase reactive flows in which the continuous phase is a fluid and the dispersed phase consists of rigid particles. Improving both the design and the operating conditions of these processes represents a major scientific and industrial challenge in a context of markedly rising energy cost and sustainable development. Thus, it is above all important to better understand the coupling of hydrodynamic, chemical and thermal phenomena in those flows in order to be able to predict them reliably. The aim of our work is to build up a multi-scale modelling approach of reactive particulate flows and at first to focus on the development of a microscopic-scale including heat and mass transfers and chemical reactions for the prediction of particle-laden flows in dense and dilute regimes. A first step is the upgrading and the validation of our numerical tools via analytical solutions or empirical correlations when it is feasible. These couplings are implemented in a massively parallel numerical code that already enable to take a step towards the enhanced design of semi-industrial processes.

  14. WinSim: A simple simulation program for evaluating the influence of windows on heating demand and risk of overheating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1998-01-01

    A two-node model of a room has been implemented in a computer program, WinSim, devel-oped for evaluation of thermal performance of windows in new buildings and in case of retro-fitting. The program calculates the annual heating demand and the number of hours with in-door temperatures higher than...... a user defined limit. WinSim is characterised by the limited amount of required input data. Guide-lines for calculation of the effective thermal capacity of the room is given, and results obtained with WinSim have been compared to results from an advanced building simulation program. Good agreement has...... been found between the two programs with respect to calculated annual heating demand and energy savings due to win-dow exchange, and also the calculated number of hours with overtemperature is similar. Based on the limited examples used for the comparison it can be concluded that WinSim is well suited...

  15. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... section 3.3 tracer gas procedures as applied to vented heaters without thermal stack dampers. ] First, DOE... a thermal stack damper. In the calculation section 4.3 it is noted that all vented heaters may use... provisions of section 3.3 to accommodate vented heaters not employing thermal stack dampers. For example...

  16. Thermal energy storage and heat transfer support program. Task-5 heat pipe life test study. Facilities upgrading and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnappan, R.

    1991-03-01

    This report describes the recommissioning, upgrading, and maintaining of thirty low and five high temperature heat pipe life test rigs. This is an ongoing research effort, originally put together by NASA LeRC, continued by the Air Force. The 92 cm long 1.27 cm dia. spacecraft-type heat pipes have completed nearly 74,000 hours of life tests. They exhibit varying Delta Ts across the length and symptoms of gas accumulation. Life test status and temperature profile for each pipe are presented. The sodium and potassium pipes have undergone relatively less hours of testing (34,000 hours) only. These five pipes are exhibiting normal status. All the life tests will continue till failure and there will be updates of this report.

  17. Feedback control for distributed heat transfer mechanisms in direct-contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  18. Aerosol Climatology at Pune, Western India: Implications to Direct Radiative Forcing and Heating Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandithurai, G.; Pinker, R. T.; Devara, P. C.; Raj, P. E.; Jayarao, Y.; Dani, K. K.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Sonbawne, S. M.; Saha, S. K.; Bhawar, R.; Shinde, U. P.

    2005-12-01

    Extensive aerosol observations were carried out at Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, an urban site in the western part of the country, using a Prede (Model POM-01L) sun/sky radiometer and a bi-static Argon ion lidar since December 2000 and October 1986, respectively. The sun/sky radiometer was operated daily at every 15 minute interval during day-time to derive column aerosol optical parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter (ASY) while the lidar was operated weekly in the early-night period to derive vertical distributions of aerosol number density. The sun/sky radiance data collected during the above period have been analysed by using the radiative transfer model SkyRadPack version 3.0 (Nakajima et al. 1996) to retrieve AOD, SSA and ASY. AOD and SSA retrieved at 15-minutes interval were averaged to get monthly means. On every year from 2000 to 2005, monthly means of AOD show gradual increase of aerosol loading from December to April and Angstrom exponent decreases from March due to local as well as transported dust from African / Arabian regions through Arabian Sea. Monthly means of SSA show decrease from December to April and the wavelength dependence also indicate the abundance of dust from March to May. Lidar-derived vertical distributions yield minimum during the monsoon months, gradually builds up during the post-monsoon and winter months, and finally peaks during the pre-monsoon months in every year (Devara et al., 2002). The aerosol climatology of optical/radiative parameters and their vertical distribution are used for estimating aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and atmospheric heating rates by using a discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model (Ricchiazzi et al., 1998, Pandithurai et al. 2004). Details of the experimental methods, data, results of aerosol climatology and implications to radiative forcing and associated heating rates will be presented. References Devara, P

  19. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundell, J. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Magnuson, S. O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scherbinske, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Case, M. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  20. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C......The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Self-Directed Learning Readiness among College Students Participating in a Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnitzer, Karl David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between self-directed learning readiness and emotional intelligence in a leadership development program and if self-directed learning leads to greater self-directed learning capabilities. Prior research has examined self-directed learning and emotional intelligence but never have…

  2. Qualification Program of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB for ITER Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Park, Seoung Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The qualification tests were performed to evaluate the high heat flux test facility for the PFCs and fusion reactor materials. For the thermal fatigue test, two types of tungsten mock-ups were fabricated. The cooling performance was tested under the similar operation condition of ITER and fusion reactor. After the completion of the preliminary mockup test and facility qualification, the high heat flux test facility will assess the performance test for the various plasma facing components in fusion reactor materials. Preliminary thermo-hydraulic and performance tests were conducted using various test mockups for the plasma facing components in the high heat flux test facilities of the world. The previous heat flux tests were performed by using the graphite heater facilities in Korea. Several facilities which equipped with an electron beam as the uniform heat source were fabricated for the tokamak PFCs in the EU, Russia and US. These heat flux test facilities are utilized for a cyclic heat flux test of the PFCs. Each facility working for their own purpose in EU FZJ, US SNL, and Russia Efremov institute. For this purpose, KoHLTEB was constructed and this facility will be used for ITER TBM performance test with the small-scale and large-scale mockups, and prototype. Also, it has been used for other fusion application for developing plasma facing component (PFC) for ITER FW, tungsten divertor, and heat transfer experiment and so on under the domestic R and D program. Korea heat load test facility by using electron beam KoHLT-EB was constructed for the high heat flux test to verify the plasma facing components, including ITER TBM first wall.

  3. Development of a Program for Predicting Flow Instability in a Once-through Sodium- Heated Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, Dehee; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A SG selected for PGSFR is of a once-through integrated type. It is a vertical counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger with sodium on the shell side and water-steam in the tubes. The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability has been observed in many industrial domains such as boiling systems and steam generators. In this paper, a computer program developed for predicting two-phase flow instability in a steam generator under axial non-uniform heat flux is presented, and analysis results for verification are presented. A computer code was developed for investigating the two-phase flow stability under sodium-heated conditions in the shell-side of a SG. A solution algorithm for the sodium flow field and tube conduction has been developed for application to sodium-heated SG.

  4. Molecular programs induced by heat acclimation confer neuroprotection against TBI and hypoxic insults via cross-tolerance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eHorowitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection following prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures (heat acclimation HA develops via altered molecular programs such as cross-tolerance (Heat Acclimation -Neuroprotection Cross-Tolerance -HANCT. The mechanisms underlying cross-tolerance depend on enhanced on-demand protective pathways evolving during acclimation. The protection achieved is long lasting and limits the need for de novo recruitment of cytoprotective pathways upon exposure to novel stressors. Using mouse and rat acclimated phenotypes, we will focus on the impact of heat acclimation on Angiotensin II-AT2 receptors in neurogenesis and on HIF-1 as key mediators in spontaneous recovery and HANCT after traumatic brain injury (TBI. The neuroprotective consequences of heat acclimation on NMDA and AMPA receptors will be discussed using the global hypoxia model. A behavioral-molecular link will be crystallized. The differences between HANCT and consensus preconditioning will be reviewed.

  5. Direct Versus Indirect Supervision of Fellows Covering Football Events: A Survey of Fellows and Program Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, Charles A.; Stovak, Mark L.; Harvey, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) program requirements mandate “adequate supervision,” of residents, but there is little guidance for sports medicine fellowship directors regarding the transition from direct to indirect supervision of fellows covering football games. Objective We sought to gather evidence of current supervision practices in the context of injury outcomes. Methods Fellows and program directors of ACGME-accredited sports medicine fellowship programs were invited to complete an online survey regarding their experience and current supervision practice at football games. Criteria for transition to autonomy and desired changes in supervision practice were elicited. Player safety was quantified by noting the number of field-side emergencies, whether an attending was present, and whether better outcomes might have resulted from the presence of an attending. Results A total of 80 fellows and 50 program directors completed the online survey. Direct supervision was lacking in about 50% of high school games and 20% of college games. A resulting cost in terms of player safety was estimated to apply to 5% of serious injuries by fellows' report but less than 0.5% by directors' report. Written criteria for transitioning from direct supervision to autonomy were the exception rather than the rule. The majority of fellows and directors expressed satisfaction with the current level of supervision, but 20% of fellows would prefer more supervision through postgame review. Conclusions Football games covered by fellows are often not directly supervised. Absence of an attending affected the outcomes of 5% or less of serious injuries. Transition to autonomy does not usually require meeting written criteria. Fellows might benefit from additional off-site supervision. PMID:21976096

  6. Direct heuristic dynamic programming for nonlinear tracking control with filtered tracking error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Si, Jennie; Tsakalis, Konstantinos S; Rodriguez, Armando A

    2009-12-01

    This paper makes use of the direct heuristic dynamic programming design in a nonlinear tracking control setting with filtered tracking error. A Lyapunov stability approach is used for the stability analysis of the tracking system. It is shown that the closed-loop tracking error and the approximating neural network weight estimates retain the property of uniformly ultimate boundedness under the presence of neural network approximation error and bounded unknown disturbances under certain conditions.

  7. MINIVER: Miniature version of real/ideal gas aero-heating and ablation computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Computer code is used to determine heat transfer multiplication factors, special flow field simulation techniques, different heat transfer methods, different transition criteria, crossflow simulation, and more efficient thin skin thickness optimization procedure.

  8. Comparison of gold nanoparticle mediated photoporation: vapor nanobubbles outperform direct heating for delivering macromolecules in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ranhua; Raemdonck, Koen; Peynshaert, Karen; Lentacker, Ine; De Cock, Ine; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Skirtach, Andre G; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2014-06-24

    There is a great interest in delivering macromolecular agents into living cells for therapeutic purposes, such as siRNA for gene silencing. Although substantial effort has gone into designing nonviral nanocarriers for delivering macromolecules into cells, translocation of the therapeutic molecules from the endosomes after endocytosis into the cytoplasm remains a major bottleneck. Laser-induced photoporation, especially in combination with gold nanoparticles, is an alternative physical method that is receiving increasing attention for delivering macromolecules in cells. By allowing gold nanoparticles to bind to the cell membrane, nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapor nanobubbles (VNBs) that can emerge around the AuNPs. Macromolecules in the surrounding cell medium can then diffuse through the pores directly into the cytoplasm. Here we present a systematic evaluation of both photoporation mechanisms in terms of cytotoxicity, cell loading, and siRNA transfection efficiency. We find that the delivery of macromolecules under conditions of VNBs is much more efficient than direct photothermal disturbance of the plasma membrane without any noticeable cytotoxic effect. Interestingly, by tuning the laser energy, the pore size could be changed, allowing control of the amount and size of molecules that are delivered in the cytoplasm. As only a single nanosecond laser pulse is required, we conclude that VNBs are an interesting photoporation mechanism that may prove very useful for efficient high-throughput macromolecular delivery in live cells.

  9. Relationship between heat-induced fibrillogenicity and hemolytic activity of thermostable direct hemolysin and a related hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Kiyouhisa; Nakahira, Kumiko; Unzai, Satoru; Mayanagi, Kouta; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Shiraki, Kentaro; Honda, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2011-05-01

    The formation of nonspecific ion channels by small oligomeric amyloid intermediates is toxic to the host's cellular membranes. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are major virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We have previously reported the crystal structure of TDH tetramer with the central channel. We have also identified the molecular mechanism underlying the paradoxical responses to heat treatment of TDH, known as the Arrhenius effect, which is the reversible amyloidogenic property. In the present report, we describe the biophysical properties of TRH, which displays 67% amino acid similarity with TDH. Molecular modeling provided a good fit of the overall structure of TDH and TRH. Size-exclusion chromatography, ultracentrifugation, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that TRH formed tetramer in solution. These toxins showed similar hemolytic activity on red blood cells. However, TRH had less amyloid-like structure than TDH analyzed by thioflavin T-binding assay and far-UV circular dichroism spectra. These data indicated that amyloidogenicity upon heating is not essential for the membrane disruption of erythrocytes, but the maintenance of tetrameric structure is indispensable for the hemolytic activity of the TDH and TRH.

  10. Protection of mice from oral Candidiasis by heat-killed enterococcus faecalis, possibly through its direct binding to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Hayama, Kazumi; Ninomiya, Kentaro; Iwasa, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Abe, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    To develop a new therapy against oral candidiasis, a commensal microorganism, Enterococcus faecalis was tested for its ability to modulate Candida growth in vitro and its therapeutic activities against a murine model in vivo. Addition of heat-killed E. faecalis strain EF2001 (EF2001) isolated from healthy human feces to the culture of C. albicans strain TIMM1768 inhibited adherence of the latter to a microtiter plate in a dose dependent manner and Candida cells surrounded by EF2001 were increased. To examine the protective activities of EF2001 in vivo, heat-killed EF2001 was applied orally before and after inoculation of Candida to the tongue of mice previously immunosuppressed. Two days after inoculation this inoculation, both the symptom score and CFU from swabbed-tongue were significantly reduced in the EF2001-treated animals. Histological analysis indicated that EF2001 may potentiate the accumulation of polymorphnuclear cells near a Candida-infected region. These results suggest that oral administration of EF2001 has protective activity against oral candidiasis and that the in vivo activity may be reflected by direct interaction between EF2001 and Candida cells in vitro and the potentiation of an immunostimulatory effect of EF2001.

  11. Numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in coaxial laser cladding process for direct metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Huan; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy; Ki, Hyungson

    2006-07-01

    The coaxial laser cladding process is the heart of direct metal deposition (DMD). Rapid materials processing, such as DMD, is steadily becoming a tool for synthesis of materials, as well as rapid manufacturing. Mathematical models to develop the fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena associated with the coaxial laser cladding process are essential to further develop the science base. A three-dimensional transient model was developed for a coaxial powder injection laser cladding process. Physical phenomena including heat transfer, melting and solidification phase changes, mass addition, and fluid flow in the melt pool, were modeled in a self-consistent manner. Interactions between the laser beam and the coaxial powder flow, including the attenuation of beam intensity and temperature rise of powder particles before reaching the melt pool were modeled with a simple heat balance equation. The level-set method was implemented to track the free surface movement of the melt pool, in a continuous laser cladding process. The governing equations were discretized using the finite volume approach. Temperature and fluid velocity were solved for in a coupled manner. Simulation results such as the melt pool width and length, and the height of solidified cladding track were compared with experimental results and found to be reasonably matched.

  12. An analytical model of beam attenuation and powder heating during coaxial laser direct metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    In the laser direct metal deposition process, interaction between the laser beam and powder from a coaxial powder delivery nozzle alters the temperature of powder and the amount and spatial distribution of laser intensity reaching the deposition melt pool. These factors significantly affect the process and are also important input parameters for any finite element or analytical models of the melt pool and deposition tracks. The analytical model in this paper presents a method to calculate laser attenuation and powder temperatures at every point below such a nozzle. It is applicable to laser beams that are approximately parallel over the beam-powder interaction distance of any initial intensity distribution (Top Hat, Gaussian, TEM01ast or other). The volume below the nozzle is divided into the region above the powder consolidation plane, where the powder stream is annular, and below it, where it is a single Gaussian stream, and expressions derived for each region. Modelled and measured results are reasonably matched. Results indicate that attenuation is more severe once the annular powder stream has consolidated into a single stream but is not zero before that point. The temperature of powder reaching any point is not constant but the mean value is a maximum at the centre of the stream.

  13. SEAWAT: A Computer Program for Simulation of Variable-Density Groundwater Flow and Multi-Species Solute and Heat Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.

    2009-01-01

    SEAWAT is a MODFLOW-based computer program designed to simulate variable-density groundwater flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. The program has been used for a wide variety of groundwater studies including saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers, aquifer storage and recovery in brackish limestone aquifers, and brine migration within continental aquifers. SEAWAT is relatively easy to apply because it uses the familiar MODFLOW structure. Thus, most commonly used pre- and post-processors can be used to create datasets and visualize results. SEAWAT is a public domain computer program distributed free of charge by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  14. The updated algorithm of the Energy Consumption Program (ECP): A computer model simulating heating and cooling energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Strain, D. M.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1979-01-01

    The energy Comsumption Computer Program was developed to simulate building heating and cooling loads and compute thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. This article reports on the new additional algorithms and modifications made in an effort to widen the areas of application. The program structure was rewritten accordingly to refine and advance the building model and to further reduce the processing time and cost. The program is noted for its very low cost and ease of use compared to other available codes. The accuracy of computations is not sacrificed however, since the results are expected to lie within + or - 10% of actual energy meter readings.

  15. Scrap tyre recycling process with molten zinc as direct heat transfer and solids separation fluid: A new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Goode, Kieran; Sexton, Aidan; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Every year about 1.5 billion tyres are discarded worldwide representing a large amount of solid waste, but also a largely untapped source of raw materials. The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel scrap tyre recycling process which uses molten zinc as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this media to separate the solids products (i.e. steel and rCB) in a sink-float separation at an operating temperature of 450-470 °C. This methodology involved: •construction of the laboratory scale batch reactor,•separation of floating rCB from the zinc,•recovery of the steel from the bottom of the reactor following pyrolysis.

  16. Resolution of the direct containment heating issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry containments or subatmospheric containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Klamerus, E.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This report uses the methodology and scenarios described in NUREG/CR-6075 and NUREG/CR-6075, Supplement 1, to address the direct containment heating (DCH) issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry or subatmospheric containments. DCH is considered resolved if the conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) is less than 0.1. The methodology calls for an initial screening phase in which the CCFP for each plant is calculated based on loads versus strength evaluations using plant-specific information. The DCH issue is considered resolved for a plant if the CCFP calculated in the screening phase is less than 0.01. This value is more stringent than the overall success criterion of 0.1. The CCFPs for all of the Westinghouse plants with dry containments were less than 0.01 in the screening phase calculations, and thus, the DCH issue is resolved for these plants based on containment loads alone. No additional analyses are required.

  17. Self-Directed Learning in Physician Assistant Education: Learning Portfolios in Physician Assistant Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy H; Neal, Laura D M

    2016-12-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) portfolios are underused in the educational process and should be considered by physician assistant (PA) programs. Clinicians such as PAs are responsible for self-identifying their learning needs, competencies, and ongoing educational requirements. This article introduces an outline for SDL in the PA profession, for direct use by learners and indirect use by educators. Without a plan, many professionals may lack the insight, motivation, and knowledge needed to improve their skill set and establish goals for individual lifelong learning. This study conducted a review of the literature. Then, by incorporating SDL portfolios into PA educational methodologies, it constructed a concept map for individuals to monitor, self-direct, and actively participate in their own learning in academic settings and throughout their career.

  18. Transurethral ultrasound applicators with directional heating patterns for prostate thermal therapy: in vivo evaluation using magnetic resonance thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, C J; Stafford, R J; Nau, W H; Burdette, E C; Price, R E; Hazle, J D

    2004-02-01

    A catheter-based transurethral ultrasound applicator with angularly directional heating patterns has been designed for prostate thermal therapy and evaluated in canine prostate in vivo using MRI to monitor and assess performance. The ultrasound transducer array (3.5 mm diameter tubular transducers, 180 degrees active sectors, approximately 7.5 MHz) was integrated to a flexible delivery catheter (4 mm OD), and encapsulated within an expandable balloon (35 mm x 10 mm OD, 80 ml min(-1) ambient water) for coupling and cooling of the prostatic urethra. These devices were used to thermally coagulate targeted portions of the canine prostate (n = 2) while using MR thermal imaging (MRTI) to monitor the therapy. MRI was also used for target definition, positioning of the applicator, and evaluation of target viability post-therapy. MRTI was based upon the complex phase-difference mapping technique using an interleaved gradient echo-planar imaging sequence with lipid suppression. MRTI derived temperature distributions, thermal dose exposures, T1-contrast enhanced MR images, and histology of sectioned prostates were used to define destroyed tissue zones and characterize the three-dimensional heating patterns. The ultrasound applicators produced approximately 180 degrees directed zones of thermal coagulation within targeted tissue which extended 15-20 mm radially to the outer boundary of the prostate within 15 min. Transducer activation lengths of 17 mm and 24 mm produced contiguous zones of coagulation extending axially approximately 18 mm and approximately 25 mm from base to apex, respectively. Peak temperatures around 90 degrees C were measured, with approximately 50 degrees C-52 degrees C corresponding to outer boundary t43 = 240 min at approximately 15 min treatment time. These devices are MRI compatible, and when coupled with multiplanar MRTI provide a means for selectively controlling the length and sector angle of therapeutic thermal treatment in the prostate.

  19. Kinetic study of mesophase transformation of coal tar pitches by programmed heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, H.; Feng, Y.; Shen, B.; Gao, J. [East China Institute of Metallurgy, Maanshan (China)

    1999-12-01

    The kinetics of mesophase transformation of three coal tar pitches were studied in a thermal conversion unit by means of programmed heating technique. The kinetic parameters were calculated and a method of the first order kinetic model of subsection was put forward. The first stage occurring at temperature roughly below 470{degree}C is the main stage of formation and development of mesophase. Cracking and dehydrogenation, and condensation polymerization take place, the active energy is up to 245{approximately}280kJ/mol. The second stage takes place above 470{degree}C is the stage of coalescence and rearrangement of mesophase, the active energy decreased to about 6kJ/mol. There is a close relation between the mesophase transformation and the structure of pitches. It has higher reactivity and rate of mesophase transformation for the pitch with more alkyl side chain and results in a large amount of mosaic optical microstructure in the thermal conversion residue, because the mesophase sphere has not enough time to coalescence and rearrange. The naphthenic structure pitch can promote the development and coalescence of mesophase. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Shellside flow-induced tube vibration in typical heat exchanger configurations: overview of a research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, H.; Chenoweth, J.M.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive research program is being conducted to develop the necessary criteria to assist designers and operators of shell-and-tube heat exchangers to avoid detrimental flow-induced tube vibration. This paper presents an overview of the insights gained from shellside water-flow testing on a horizontal, industrial-sized test exchanger that can be configured in many ways using interchangeable tube bundles and replaceable nozzles. Nearly 50 different configurations have been tested representing various combinations of triangular, square, rotated-triangular, and rotated-square tubefield layouts; odd and even numbers of crosspasses; and both single- and double-segmental baffles with different cut sizes and orientations. The results are generally consistent with analytical relationships that predict tube vibration response by the combined reinforcing effect of the vibration mode shape and flow velocity distribution. An understanding of the vibration and instability performance is facilitated by recognizing that the excitation is induced by three separate, though sometimes interacting, flow conditions. These are the crossflows that generate ''classic'' fluidelastic instabilities in the interior of the tube bundle, the entrance and exit bundle flow from and into the shell nozzles, and the localized high velocity bypass and leakage stream flows. The implications to design and/or possible field remedies to avoid vibration problems are discussed. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Systems for heat and cold from the ground. Proposal for a development program; System foer vaerme och kyla ur mark - Foerslag till utvecklingsprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Bengt; Gabrielsson, Anna; Fallsvik, Jan; Nilsson, Gunnel [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Hellstroem, Goeran [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    2002-02-01

    Ground heat systems usually consist of a heat pump, with an evaporator connected to a heat carrier circuit of heat exchangers in the ground, and a condenser connected to the heat distribution system inside the building (radiators, fan convectors, floor heating etc). The heat pump's compressor is connected to the electricity grid. Similar systems without heat pumps are also used, where the excess heat from the building or process is exchanged with the cooler ground solely by circulation of the heat carrier fluid in the ground heat exchangers, so called 'Tree cooling'. The performance of ground heat systems depends on several factors. There is a continuous development of components and their interaction in heating/cooling systems, both in Sweden and abroad. Based on the current state of the art of ground heat systems and the national energy market it is possible to identify the development potential within many areas. In this report the development potentials for ground heat systems are presented in the following program areas: Combined heating/cooling systems with or without heat pumps and improvements of existing systems. Horizontal, compact and vertical ground heat exchangers, installation methods. Geological prerequisites and geotechnical impact of heating and/or cooling. Thermal capacity of all types of ground heat exchangers including moisture transport effects. Design specifications for different types of ground heat exchangers and ground conditions. Operation and maintenance. Environmental impact, e.g. of heat carrier fluids and local government environmental protection requirements. Economic optimization based on verified technical performance and cost figures.

  2. Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations and dynamic programming for power-optimization of radiative law multistage heat engine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Xia, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multistage endoreversible Carnot heat engine system operating with a finite thermal capacity high-temperature black photon fluid reservoir and the heat transfer law is investigated in this paper. Optimal control theory is applied to derive the continuous Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations, which determine the optimal fluid temperature configurations for maximum power output under the conditions of fixed initial time and fixed initial temperature of the driving fluid. Based on the general optimization results, the analytical solution for the case with pseudo-Newtonian heat transfer law is further obtained. Since there are no analytical solutions for the radiative heat transfer law, the continuous HJB equations are discretized and the dynamic programming (DP algorithm is adopted to obtain the complete numerical solutions, and the relationships among the maximum power output of the system, the process period and the fluid temperatures are discussed in detail. The optimization results obtained for the radiative heat transfer law are also compared with those obtained for pseudo-Newtonian heat transfer law and stage-by-stage optimization strategy. The obtained results can provide some theoretical guidelines for the optimal designs and operations of solar energy conversion and transfer systems.

  3. Social Control Disclosure and Accountability of Direct Money Program in Rio de Janeiro’s Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Oliveira Medeiros

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education in Brazil have expanded the debate concerning the quality offered, as well as being a constitutional guarantee, there are the State's efforts in the allocation of financial resources annually. In the case of Basic Education was created in 2007 the Direct Money in School Program (DMSP that the Union transfers financial assistance to state and local public schools, and encourage widespread participation in resource management. Thus, the study’s objective was to investigate how civil society involved in the management of public resources of TSA, in a descriptive research with a quantitative and qualitative approach. The data collection was a documentary research: 29 accounts rendered digitized Direct Money in School Program (DMSP from schools and day care centers located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro for the year 2012. Consolidating research, we sought to understand the perception of the Director of School / Day Care and President of the Community Council-School on the subject employing a questionnaire. In addition to the Audit Services scanned the TSA was checked for evidence of compliance with the principle of accountability and encouraging the social control in the electronic media. The results show the need to improve the participation of civil society, given that this study found that schools/nurseries do not provide the program information on official websites, minimizing transparency, and there is the existence of oversight failures in the assessment of benefits accounts and composition of the Councils.

  4. Outcomes assessment of a pharmacist-directed seamless care program in an ambulatory oncology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott J; Abbott, Rick; Edwards, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Michael; Dranitsaris, George; Donnan, Jennifer; Laing, Kara; Whelan, Maria A; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2014-02-01

    The primary goal of seamless care is improved patient outcomes and improved standards of care for patients with cancer. The pharmacy service of the Newfoundland Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation conducted a randomized control study that measured clinical and humanistic outcomes of a pharmacist-directed seamless care program in an ambulatory oncology clinic. This article focuses on the intervention group, particularly the identification of drug-related problems (DRPs) and utilization of health care services as well the satisfaction of 3 types of health professionals with the services provided by the pharmacist-directed seamless care program. Overall, the seamless care pharmacist (SCP) identified an average of 3.7 DRPs per intervention patient; the most common DRP reported was a patient not receiving or taking a drug therapy for which there is an indication. The SCP identified more DRPs in patients receiving adjuvant treatment compared to those receiving palliative treatment. On average, family physicians, oncology nurses, and hospital pharmacists were satisfied with the SCP intervention indicating that they agreed the information collected and distributed by the SCP was useful to them. Pharmacist-directed seamless care services in an ambulatory oncology clinic have a significant impact on clinical outcomes and processes of patient care. The presence of a SCP can help identify and resolve DRPs experienced by patients in an outpatient oncology clinic, ensuring that patients are receiving the highest standard of care.

  5. Program in geothermal well technology directed toward achieving DOE/DGE power-on-line goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polito, J.; Varnado, S.G.

    1978-10-01

    This document presents the material used in an oral presentation to the DOE/Division of Geothermal Energy, which was designed to illustrate the importance of well technology development in reducing geothermal well costs, and to achieve geothermal power-on-line goals. Examination of recent studies of the economics of geothermal energy leads to the conclusion that the overall sensitivity of geothermal power-on-line to well cost is in the range of one to two. Current data suggest that a vigorous R and D program in rotary drilling technology can reduce geothermal drilling costs by about 20%, but a reduction of 40 to 50% is needed to achieve DOE/DGE goals. Research in advanced drilling systems is needed to satisfy this more stringent requirement. Some critical technological deficiencies that occur when current rotary drilling techniques are used for geothermal drilling are discussed. A broadly based development program directed at correcting these deficiencies is defined.

  6. Improving workplace safety training using a self-directed CPR-AED learning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Mary E; Cazzell, Mary; Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Cason, Carolyn L

    2009-04-01

    Adequate training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) is an important component of a workplace safety training program. Barriers to traditional in-classroom CPR-AED training programs include time away from work to complete training, logistics, learner discomfort over being in a classroom setting, and instructors who include information irrelevant to CPR. This study evaluated differences in CPR skills performance between employees who learned CPR using a self-directed learning (SDL) kit and employees who attended a traditional instructor-led course. The results suggest that the SDL kit yields learning outcomes comparable to those obtained with traditional instructor-led courses and is a more time-efficient tool for CPR-AED training. Furthermore, the SDL kit overcomes many of the barriers that keep individuals from learning CPR and appears to contribute to bystanders' confidently attempting resuscitation.

  7. Nurse-initiated intervention programs: future directions for cessation and prevention of adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebb, Andrea L O

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use in adolescence remains at unacceptable levels. Increasing teen knowledge about the dangers of smoking appears to be insufficient in changing adolescent attitudes regarding the use of tobacco. To incite change and increase their effectiveness, adult smoking cessation programs need to be tailored to adolescents. Ultimately, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors that underlie tobacco use and smoking behaviors in adolescents must be identified. The nurse's role is both in identification of the adolescent smoker and assessment of the smoking behavior. Future directions in nursing practice, nursing education, and research surrounding tobacco use in youth are discussed.

  8. Containment loads due to direct containment heating and associated hydrogen behavior: Analysis and calculations with the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D C; Bergeron, K D; Carroll, D E; Gasser, R D; Tills, J L; Washington, K E

    1987-05-01

    One of the most important unresolved issues governing risk in many nuclear power plants involves the phenomenon called direct containment heating (DCH), in which it is postulated that molten corium ejected under high pressure from the reactor vessel is dispersed into the containment atmosphere, thereby causing sufficient heating and pressurization to threaten containment integrity. Models for the calculation of potential DCH loads have been developed and incorporated into the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis. Using CONTAIN, DCH scenarios in PWR plants having three different representative containment types have been analyzed: Surry (subatmospheric large dry containment), Sequoyah (ice condenser containment), and Bellefonte (atmospheric large dry containment). A large number of parameter variation and phenomenological uncertainty studies were performed. Response of DCH loads to these variations was found to be quite complex; often the results differ substantially from what has been previously assumed concerning DCH. Containment compartmentalization offers the potential of greatly mitigating DCH loads relative to what might be calculated using single-cell representations of containments, but the actual degree of mitigation to be expected is sensitive to many uncertainties. Dominant uncertainties include hydrogen combustion phenomena in the extreme environments produced by DCH scenarios, and factors which affect the rate of transport of DCH energy to the upper containment. In addition, DCH loads can be aggravated by rapid blowdown of the primary system, co-dispersal of moderate quantities of water with the debris, and quenching of de-entrained debris in water; these factors act by increasing steam flows which, in turn, accelerates energy transport. It may be noted that containment-threatening loads were calculated for a substantial portion of the scenarios treated for some of the plants considered.

  9. A dynamical programming approach for controlling the directed abelian Dhar-Ramaswamy model

    CERN Document Server

    Cajueiro, Daniel O

    2013-01-01

    A dynamical programming approach is used to deal with the problem of controlling the directed abelian Dhar-Ramaswamy model on two-dimensional square lattice. Two strategies are considered to obtain explicit results to this task. First, the optimal solution of the problem is characterized by the solution of the Bellman equation obtained by numerical algorithms. Second, the solution is used as a benchmark to value how far from the optimum other heuristics that can be applied to larger systems are. This approach is the first attempt on the direction of schemes for controlling self-organized criticality that are based on optimization principles that consider explicitly a tradeoff between the size of the avalanches and the cost of intervention.

  10. Argonne National Laboratory annual report of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities FY 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of the Director

    2010-04-09

    I am pleased to submit Argonne National Laboratory's Annual Report on its Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) activities for fiscal year 2009. Fiscal year 2009 saw a heightened focus by DOE and the nation on the need to develop new sources of energy. Argonne scientists are investigating many different sources of energy, including nuclear, solar, and biofuels, as well as ways to store, use, and transmit energy more safely, cleanly, and efficiently. DOE selected Argonne as the site for two new Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) - the Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations and the Center for Electrical Energy Storage - and funded two other EFRCs to which Argonne is a major partner. The award of at least two of the EFRCs can be directly linked to early LDRD-funded efforts. LDRD has historically seeded important programs and facilities at the lab. Two of these facilities, the Advanced Photon Source and the Center for Nanoscale Materials, are now vital contributors to today's LDRD Program. New and enhanced capabilities, many of which relied on LDRD in their early stages, now help the laboratory pursue its evolving strategic goals. LDRD has, since its inception, been an invaluable resource for positioning the Laboratory to anticipate, and thus be prepared to contribute to, the future science and technology needs of DOE and the nation. During times of change, LDRD becomes all the more vital for facilitating the necessary adjustments while maintaining and enhancing the capabilities of our staff and facilities. Although I am new to the role of Laboratory Director, my immediate prior service as Deputy Laboratory Director for Programs afforded me continuous involvement in the LDRD program and its management. Therefore, I can attest that Argonne's program adhered closely to the requirements of DOE Order 413.2b and associated guidelines governing LDRD. Our LDRD program management continually strives to be more efficient. In

  11. Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-09-01

    The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

  12. Simulation and economic analysis of a liquid-based solar system with a direct-contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger, in comparison to a system with a conventional heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, P.; Karaki, S.

    Using a solar computer simulation package called TRNSYS, simulations of the direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) solar system and a system with conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger were developed, based in part on performance measurements of the actual systems. The two systems were simulated over a full year on an hour-by-hour basis at five locations; Boston, Massachusetts, Charleston, South Carolina, Dodge City, Kansas, Madison, Wisconsin, and Phoenix, Arizona. Typically the direct-contact system supplies slightly more heat for domestic hot water and space heating in all locations and about 5 percentage points more cooling as compared to the conventional system. Using a common set of economic parameters and the appropriate federal and state income tax credits, as well as property tax legislation for solar systems in the corresponding states, the results of the study indicate for heating-only systems, the DCLLHE system has a slight life-cycle cost disadvantage compared to the conventional system. For combined solar heating and cooling systems, the DCLLHE has a slight life-cycle cost advantage which varies with location and amounts to one to three percent difference from the conventional system.

  13. Promoting self-directed learning skills in residency: a case study in program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagle, Melissa; Goldman, Roberta; Quirk, Mark; Reis, Shmuel

    2010-12-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are essential for the formation and ongoing competence of today's physicians who work in the context of expanding scientific knowledge and changing health care systems. In 2007-2008, the authors developed a program to promote SDL in the Brown University Family Medicine Residency. Through an iterative process, the project team juggled learning theories (i.e., Knowles' SDL model, Collins' cognitive apprenticeship model, and Quirk's expertise development model) with curricular goals, instructional options, and local constraints to design a practical and theoretically robust intervention.The intervention that emerged from this process features a faculty physician serving as a learning coach who meets individually each month with all second-year residents to assist them in generating learning goals, reflecting on their learning experiences, and practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills. An electronic portfolio serves as a documentation tool that supports reflection; residents record their goals and reflections in the portfolio, which also contains their formative assessments, procedure logs, and special projects. To address the hidden curriculum, the program designers took special care to avoid increasing faculty and resident workload and created a forum for discussion and group reflection. Program evaluation combines qualitative and quantitative methods, such as surveys of and interviews with residents and faculty, to assess changes in residents' SDL and EBM skills and in the program's educational culture. The authors use Kern and colleagues' six-step model for curriculum development to describe both the unfolding of this complex project and the choices that resulted in the current program design.

  14. A computer program for condensing heat exchanger performance in the presence of noncondensable gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendler, Boris

    1994-01-01

    A computer model has been developed which evaluates the performance of a heat exchanger. This model is general enough to be used to evaluate many heat exchanger geometries and a number of different operating conditions. The film approach is used to describe condensation in the presence of noncondensables. The model is also easily expanded to include other effects like fog formation or suction.

  15. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century, Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.

  16. Report on the regional and system type disaggregation of the single family dwelling space heat energy demand sector. [BESOM and dynamic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, T.J.; Wooders, M.H.; McLean, R.

    1976-08-01

    Two models are developed that can estimate derived fuel demands in single-family dwellings, given fixed final demand for space heat by states. One is an extension of a single-period linear programming model of the nation's energy system, the Brookhaven Energy System Optimization Model. In it the demand for single-family space heat is disaggregated by state and type of home-heating system. The other is a multiple-period dynamic programming model of single-family space heat demand, also disaggregated by state and type of system. Preliminary results for each model are presented and compared.

  17. Development of a nursing education program for improving Chinese undergraduates' self-directed learning: A mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Li, Liping; Xu, Qunyan; Jiang, Anli

    2015-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the establishment of an extra-curricular education program in Chinese context and evaluates its effectiveness on undergraduate nursing students' self-directed learning. Zimmerman's self-directed learning model was used as the theoretical framework for the development of an education program. Mixed-method was applied in this research study. 165 undergraduate students from a nursing college were divided into experimental group (n=32) and control group (n=133). Pre- and post-tests were implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of this education program using the self-directed learning scale of nursing undergraduates. Qualitative interview was undertaken within participants from the experimental group to obtain their insights into the influence of this program. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that the program contributed to nursing students' self-directed learning ability. In the experimental group, the post-test score showed an increase compared with pretest score (plearning activities and influence on learning environment. It can be found in the qualitative analysis that learners benefited from this program. The education program contributes to the improvement of nursing undergraduates' self-directed learning. Various pedagogic methods could be applied for self-directed learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct assessment as a measure of institutional effectiveness in a dental hygiene distance education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Jodi L

    2014-10-01

    This ten-year, longitudinal examination of a dental hygiene distance education (DE) program considered student performance on standard benchmark assessments as direct measures of institutional effectiveness. The aim of the study was to determine if students face-to-face in a classroom with an instructor performed differently from their counterparts in a DE program, taking courses through the alternative delivery system of synchronous interactive television (ITV). This study used students' grade point averages and National Board Dental Hygiene Examination scores to assess the impact of ITV on student learning, filling a crucial gap in current evidence. The study's research population consisted of 189 students who graduated from one dental hygiene program between 1997 and 2006. One hundred percent of the institution's data files for these students were used: 117 students were face-to-face with the instructor, and seventy-two received instruction through the ITV system. The results showed that, from a year-by-year perspective, no statistically significant performance differences were apparent between the two student groups when t-tests were used for data analysis. The DE system examined was considered effective for delivering education if similar performance outcomes were the evaluation criteria used for assessment.

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. Annual report to the Department of Energy, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.; Searing, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    New ideas and opportunities fostering the advancement of technology are occurring at an ever increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and develops new fundable R and D projects and programs if BNL is to carry out its primary mission and support the basic Department of Energy activities. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor in achieving and maintaining staff excellence and a means to address national needs within the overall mission of the DOE and BNL. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals and presentations at meetings and forums.

  20. Argonne National Laboratory: Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1993 program activities. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-12-23

    The purposes of Argonne`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory`s R&D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Projects are selected from proposals for creative and innovative R&D studies which are not yet eligible for timely support through normal programmatic channels. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering ``proof-of-principle`` assessment of design feasibility for prospective facilities; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these projects are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne`s Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne as indicated in the Laboratory LDRD Plan for FY 1993.

  1. Argonne National Laboratory Annual Report of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-02-25

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R and D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Projects are selected from proposals for creative and innovative R and D studies which are not yet eligible for timely support through normal programmatic channels. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle; assessment of design feasibility for prospective facilities; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these projects are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five-Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne as indicated in the Laboratory's LDRD Plan for FY 1994. Project summaries of research in the following areas are included: (1) Advanced Accelerator and Detector Technology; (2) X-ray Techniques for Research in Biological and Physical Science; (3) Nuclear Technology; (4) Materials Science and Technology; (5) Computational Science and Technology; (6) Biological Sciences; (7) Environmental Sciences: (8) Environmental Control and Waste Management Technology; and (9) Novel Concepts in Other Areas.

  2. Laboratory directed research and development. FY 1991 program activities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory`s R&D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering ``proof-of-principle``; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne`s Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program annual report to the Department of Energy, December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    New ideas and opportunities fostering the advancement of technology are occurring at an ever increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and develops new fundable R and D projects and programs if BNL is to carry out its primary mission and support the basic Department of Energy activities. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor in achieving and maintaining staff excellence and a means to address national needs within the overall mission of the DOE and BNL. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals and presentations at meetings and forums.

  4. NNSA Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 2008 Symposium--Focus on Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotta, P R; Sketchley, J A

    2008-08-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund leading-edge research and development central to the national laboratories core missions. LDRD anticipates and engages in projects on the forefront of science and engineering at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and has a long history of addressing pressing national security needs at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories. LDRD has been a scientific success story, where projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published and cited in peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media coverage, and patents granted. The LDRD Program is also a powerful means to attract and retain top researchers from around the world, to foster collaborations with other prominent scientific and technological institutions, and to leverage some of the world's most technologically advanced assets. This enables the LDRD Program to invest in high-risk and potentially high-payoff research that creates innovative technical solutions for some of our nation's most difficult challenges. Worldwide energy demand is growing at an alarming rate, as developing nations continue to expand their industrial and economic base on the back of limited global resources. The resulting international conflicts and environmental consequences pose serious challenges not only to this nation, but to the international community as well. The NNSA and its national security laboratories have been increasingly called upon to devote their scientific and technological capabilities to help address issues that are not limited solely to the historic nuclear weapons core mission, but are more expansive and encompass a spectrum of national security missions, including energy security. This year's symposium highlights some of the exciting areas of research in alternative fuels and technology, nuclear power, carbon

  5. Expansion cushions for directly buried district heating networks. Main object products of mineral wool; Expansionskuddar foer direktfoerlagda fjaerrvaermeledningar - med huvudinriktning paa mineralullsprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sture [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Heat and Power Engineering; Jensson, B. [Malmoe Energi Fjaerrvaerme (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    The initiation of this project is the question: How can we decrease the total costs for the construction of directly buried District Heating networks by a simplified routing of the piping and a more optimal use of the pipe material, taking into account the interaction between the piping and the soil and the material properties of the soil? How can long straight routings and bends with need for expansion work together, as the bends in the same time shall be secured against damages in a cost-effective way? When using modern computer based calculation programs, it can be shown that the PUR-insulation in the expansion zones, and particularly in the bends, may suffer a greater risk for being exposed to unacceptable high stresses than the metal service pipe. Therefore, in most cases, the calculated compression stresses in the PUR-foam will become decisive with respect to the routing as such but also with respect to the procedures prescribed when the system is taken into operation. In order to be able to connect long, straight routes of piping to expansion bends and in the same time make sure that the compression stresses of the PUR foam do not exceed permissible values, those bends may have to be supplied with some kind of expansion absorbing devices. One of the main goals of this project has been to look for expansion cushions with suitable material properties, especially with respect to compression. Such a material should remain soft and elastic in the horizontal direction and in the same time offer a support for vertical loads. A material that can swallow large movements of the pipe bend, gently supporting the bend without giving too high reaction forces. 5 refs, 7 figs, 3 appendices

  6. Optimal phasing of district heating network investments using multi-stage stochastic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Stephane Claude Lambert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most design optimisation studies for district heating systems have focused on the optimal sizing of network assets and on the location of production units. However, the strategic value of the flexibility in phasing of the inherently modular heat networks, which is an important aspect in many feasibility studies for district heating schemes in the UK, is almost always neglected in the scientific literature. This paper considers the sequential problem faced by a decision-maker in the phasing of long-term investments into district heating networks and their expansions. The problem is formulated as a multi-stage stochastic programme to determine the annual capital expenditure that maximises the expected net present value of the project. The optimisation approach is illustrated by applying it to the hypothetical case of the UK’s Marston Vale eco town. It was found that the approach is capable of simulating the optimal growth of a network, from both a single heat source or separate islands of growth, as well as the optimal marginal expansion of an existing district heating network. The proposed approach can be used by decision makers as a framework to determine both the optimal phasing and extension of district heating networks and can be adapted simply to various, more complex real-life situations by introducing additional constraints and parameters. The versatility of the base formulation also makes it a powerful approach regardless of the size of the network and also potentially applicable to cooling networks.

  7. On the Analysis and Evaluation of Direct Containement Heating with the Multidimensional Multiphase Flow Code MC3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Janin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a postulated severe accident in an NPP, Direct Containment Heating (DCH may occur after an eventual failure of the vessel. DCH is related to dynamical, thermal, and chemical phenomena involved by the eventual fine fragmentation and dispersal of the corium melt out of the vessel pit. It may threaten the integrity of the containment by pressurization of its atmosphere. Several simplified modellings have been proposed in the past but they require a very strong fitting which renders any extrapolation regarding geometry, material, and scales rather doubtful. With the development of multidimensional multiphase flow computer codes, it is now possible to investigate the phenomenon numerically with more details. We present an analysis of the potential of the MC3D code to support the analysis of this phenomenon, restricting our discussion to the dynamical processes. The analysis is applied to the case of French 1300 MWe PWR reactors for which we derive a correlation for the corium dispersal rate for application in a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA level 2 study.

  8. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.; Tang, K. (eds.)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  9. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

  10. Simultaneous on-line monitoring of propofol and sevoflurane in balanced anesthesia by direct resistive heating gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Zhang, Feng Jiang; Wang, Fu Yuan; Wang, Ying Ying; Guo, Jing; Kanhar, G M; Chen, Jing; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Chen; Yan, Min; Chen, Xing

    2017-07-14

    In balanced anesthesia, sevoflurane and propofol are often used in combination to achieve a better anesthetic effect. However, methods for on-line monitoring of concentrations of the two anesthetics in patients are still rare in clinical. This study proposed a non-invasive method utilizing a fast gas chromatograph combined with a surface acoustic wave sensor (Fast GC-SAW) to simultaneously on-line monitor sevoflurane and propofol in patients' exhaled gas. By using the direct resistive heating capillary column, the single detection time of Fast GC-SAW system was significantly shortened to 90s, as well as the size reduced to (40cm×30cm×20cm). Besides, in the calibration of sevoflurane, Fast GC-SAW system showed a good linear correlation (R(2)=0.9925, P<0.01) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), which ensured the reliability and accuracy of the Fast GC-SAW system. Finally, clinical experiments on patients under balanced anesthesia were conducted. The varied concentrations measured by Fast GC-SAW extraordinarily matched the clinical usages of these two anesthetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High temperature thermal conductivity measurements of UO/sub 2/ by Direct Electrical Heating. Final report. [MANTRA-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, B

    1980-10-01

    High temperature properties of reactor type UO/sub 2/ pellets were measured using a Direct Electrical Heating (DEH) Facility. Modifications to the experimental apparatus have been made so that successful and reproducible DEH runs may be carried out while protecting the pellets from oxidation at high temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements on the UO/sub 2/ pellets have been made before and after runs to assure that sample oxidation has not occurred. A computer code has been developed that will model the experiment using equations that describe physical properties of the material. This code allows these equations to be checked by comparing the model results to collected data. The thermal conductivity equation for UO/sub 2/ proposed by Weilbacher has been used for this analysis. By adjusting the empirical parameters in Weilbacher's equation, experimental data can be matched by the code. From the several runs analyzed, the resulting thermal conductivity equation is lambda = 1/4.79 + 0.0247T/ + 1.06 x 10/sup -3/ exp(-1.62/kT/) - 4410. exp(-3.71/kT/) where lambda is in w/cm K, k is the Boltzman constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

  12. Direct Radiative Effect and Heating Rate of black carbon aerosol: high time resolution measurements and source-identified forcing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Cogliati, Sergio; Comi, Alberto; Degni, Francesca; Di Mauro, Biagio; Colombo, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) absorbs sunlight in the atmosphere heating it. However, up to now, heating rate (HR) calculations from the divergence of the net radiative flux with altitude or from the modelling activity are too sparse. This work fills the aforementioned gap presenting a new methodology based on a full set of physical equations to experimentally determine both the radiative power density absorbed into a ground-based atmospheric layer (ADRE), and the consequent HR induced by the absorptive component of aerosol. In urban context, it is essentially related to the BC. The methodology is also applicable to natural components (i.e. dust) and is obtained solving the first derivative of the main radiative transfer equations. The ADRE and the consequent HR can be determined coupling spectral aerosol absorption measurements with the spectrally resolved measurements of the direct, diffuse downward radiation and the surface reflected radiance components. Moreover, the spectral absorption of BC aerosol allows its source apportionment (traffic and biomass burning (BB)) allowing the same apportionment on HR. This work reports one year of high-time resolution measurements (5 min) of sunlight absorption and HR induced by BC aerosol over Milan. A unique sampling site was set up from March 2015 with: 1) Aethalometer (AE-31, Magee Scientific, 7-λ), 2) the Multiplexer-Radiometer-Irradiometer which detects downward and reflected radiance (350-1000 nm in 3648 spectral bands) coupled with a rotating shadow-band to measure spectrally-resolved global and diffuse radiation (thus direct), 3) a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem) equipped with 3 pyranometers (global, diffuse and refrected radiation; 300-3000 nm), a thermohygrometer, a barometer, an anemometer, 4) condensation and optical particle counters (TSI 3775 and Grimm 1.107), 5) low volume sampler (FAI Hydra dual sampler, PM2.5 and PM10) for sample collection and chemistry determination. Results concerning the radiative power

  13. Performance analysis of a direct expansion air dehumidification system combined with membrane-based total heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Cai-Hang; Zhang, Li-Zhi; Pei, Li-Xia [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A direct expansion (DX) air dehumidification system is an efficient way to supply fresh and dry air to a built environment. It plays a key role in preventing the spread of respiratory disease like Swine flu (H1N1). To improve the efficiency of a conventional DX system in hot and humid regions, a new system of DX in combination with a membrane-based total heat exchanger is proposed. Air is supplied with dew points. A detailed mathematical modeling is performed. A cell-by-cell simulation technique is used to simulate its performances. A real prototype is built in our laboratory in South China University of Technology to validate the model. The effects of inlet air humidity and temperature, evaporator and condenser sizes on the system performance are investigated. The results indicate that the model can predict the system accurately. Compared to a conventional DX system, the air dehumidification rate (ADR) of the novel system is 0.5 times higher, and the coefficient of performance (COP) is 1 times higher. Furthermore, the system performs well even under harsh hot and humid weather conditions. (author)

  14. Programming voltage reduction in phase change memory cells with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Feng; Song, Zhitang; Gong, Yuefeng; Wu, Liangcai; Feng, Songlin; Chen, Bomy

    2008-11-05

    A phase change memory cell with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode is investigated. The crystalline tungsten trioxide heating layer promotes the temperature rise in the Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) layer which causes the reduction in the reset voltage compared to a conventional phase change memory cell. Theoretical thermal simulation and calculation for the reset process are applied to understand the thermal effect of the tungsten trioxide heating layer/electrode. The improvement in thermal efficiency of the PCM cell mainly originates from the low thermal conductivity of the crystalline tungsten trioxide material.

  15. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program test report. Heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, P. O.

    1971-01-01

    A heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions is presented. Three tests were authorized to investigate whether heat flux measurements may be used as effective hazards evaluation criteria to determine safe quantity distances for pyrotechnics. A passive sensor study was conducted simultaneously to investigate their usefulness in recording events and conditions. It was concluded that heat flux measurements can effectively be used to evaluate hazards criteria and that passive sensors are an inexpensive tool to record certain events in the vicinity of deflagrating pyrotechnic stacks.

  16. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science program report, Weapons Resarch and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L.

    1997-03-01

    This report is the annual progress report for the Chemistry Materials Science Program: Weapons Research and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development. Twenty-one projects are described separately by their principal investigators.

  17. Better Duct Systems for Home Heating and Cooling; Building Technologies Program (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    Duct systems used in forced-air space-conditioning systems are a vital element in home energy efficiency. How well a system works makes a big difference in the cost and the effectiveness of heating and cooling a home.

  18. Key Aspects of the Federal Direct Loan Program's Cost Estimates: Department of Education. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbom, Linda M.; Ashby, Cornelia M.

    Because of concerns about the Department of Education's reliance on estimates to project costs of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (FDLP) and a lack of historical information on which to base those estimates, Congress asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review how the department develops its cost estimates for the program,…

  19. Evaluating Locally-Developed Language Testing: A Predictive Study of "Direct Entry" Language Programs at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigates the predictive validity of language assessments by "Direct Entry" programs at an Australian University--programs developed on site for Non English Speaking Background international students, principally to provide (i) pre-entry academic and language preparation and (ii) language assessment for…

  20. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    and 47 °C when the tap is opened. Measurements were made for control strategies using internal and external by-pass and no by-pass. Our results show the importance of keeping the branch pipe warm if comfort requirements are to be fulfilled, but this involves higher user costs for heating. To increase...

  1. Direct evaluation of fault trees using object-oriented programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1989-01-01

    Object-oriented programming techniques are used in an algorithm for the direct evaluation of fault trees. The algorithm combines a simple bottom-up procedure for trees without repeated events with a top-down recursive procedure for trees with repeated events. The object-oriented approach results in a dynamic modularization of the tree at each step in the reduction process. The algorithm reduces the number of recursive calls required to solve trees with repeated events and calculates intermediate results as well as the solution of the top event. The intermediate results can be reused if part of the tree is modified. An example is presented in which the results of the algorithm implemented with conventional techniques are compared to those of the object-oriented approach.

  2. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  3. 25 CFR 900.5 - Effect of these regulations on Federal program guidelines, manual, or policy directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., manual, or policy directives. 900.5 Section 900.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... on Federal program guidelines, manual, or policy directives. Except as specifically provided in the Act, or as specified in subpart J, an Indian tribe or tribal organization is not required to abide by...

  4. Understanding Faculty and Non-Traditional Student Perceptions of Self-Directed Learning in a Practical Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and investigate nursing faculty and student perspectives of self-directed learning in a practical nursing program. It also explored the degree to which student's perceptions of self-directed learning exhibited factors consistent with that of critical thinking. This study is important because self-directed…

  5. Impact of Implementation of Direct Cash Transfer Program 2008/2009 on Household Consumption in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Hakim, A. R.; Hakim, I. M.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to see the impact of direct cash transfer program for 2008/2009 on household consumption of food, nonfood, education, and health in Central Java Province. The study is expected to provide important findings for the improvement of a similar program in the future. This study findings that (1) the increasing in food and non-food consumption for direct cash transfer recipients than non direct cash transfer recipients; (2) the impact of households expenditure on education for direct cash transfer recipients is higher than non direct cash transfer recipients; (3) the impact of households expenditure on health for direct cash transfer recipients is lower than non direct cash transfer recipients. This study recommended that (1) implementation of direct cash transfer program 2008/2009 must be managed to be better because this program can defend household welfare. It shows from several indicators of well-being such as consumption spending, education, and health; (2) data targets for poor households (very poor, poor, nearly poor) must be updated.

  6. Understanding Faculty and Non-Traditional Student Perceptions of Self-Directed Learning in a Practical Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and investigate nursing faculty and student perspectives of self-directed learning in a practical nursing program. It also explored the degree to which student's perceptions of self-directed learning exhibited factors consistent with that of critical thinking. This study is important because self-directed…

  7. Flow visualization and void fraction measurement in liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange by X-ray attenuation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    One concept being considered for steam generation in particular next generation nuclear reactor designs, involves water coming into direct contact with a circulating molten metal. To optimize the design of such direct contact heat exchange and vaporization systems, detailed knowledge is necessary of the various flow regimes, interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability. With the development of high performance digital detectors, radiography using X-rays or neutrons maybe a suitable technique to obtain information about that direct-contact interaction; i.e., void volume fractions, length scales and dynamic behavior. Under the basis of previous investigations, a complete methodology of the X-ray radiography for two-phase flow measurement has been developed from the facility and imaging analysis aspects. Through this developed methodology, a high energy X-ray imaging system is optimized for the direct-contact heat exchange experiment. Beside an on-line calibration procedure which practically quantifies the imaging system's performance, the extended linear system theory and Rose's model have also been used to evaluate the imaging system's performance, respectively. The bottleneck of the current imaging system and the future of system improvement direction have been pointed out. With our real-time, large-area high energy X-ray imaging system, the two-phase flow was visualized and stored digitally. An efficient image processing strategy has also been established by combining several optimal digital image processing algorithms. The approach has been implemented into a software computational tool written in MATLAB called T-XIP. Time-dependent heat transfer related variables, such as void fraction (void volume), local heat transfer coefficient, etc., were calculated using this software tool. Finally, an error analysis associated with the void fraction measurement has been given based on two procedures.

  8. Hilbert program of formalism as a working philosophical direction for consideration of the bases of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailova N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, philosophical and methodological analysis of the program of Hilbert's formalism as a really working direction for consideration of the bases of modern mathematics is presented. For the professional mathematicians methodological advantages of the program of formalism advanced by David Hilbert, consist primarily in the fact that the highest possible level of theoretical rigor of modern mathematical theories was practically represented there. To resolve the fundamental difficulties of the problem of bases of mathematics, according to Hilbert, the theory of mathematical proof is needed, but contrary to popular belief rigorous formalization of the proof is not a synonym of reliability and rigor of mathematical reasoning from the point of view of the philosophy of the foundations of mathematics. In fact, the consistency of the theories is "more important" than their logical consistency because not every statement, which does not contradict to the reasonable ones, can be attributed to a true statement. However, for working mathematicians, Hilbert is logical and consistent and the axiomatic method and formalism are an essential part of their rules of thinking.

  9. Argonne National Laboratory Annual Report of Laboratory Directed Research and Development program activities FY 2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (Office of The Director)

    2012-04-25

    As a national laboratory Argonne concentrates on scientific and technological challenges that can only be addressed through a sustained, interdisciplinary focus at a national scale. Argonne's eight major initiatives, as enumerated in its strategic plan, are Hard X-ray Sciences, Leadership Computing, Materials and Molecular Design and Discovery, Energy Storage, Alternative Energy and Efficiency, Nuclear Energy, Biological and Environmental Systems, and National Security. The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel technical concepts, enhance the Laboratory's research and development (R and D) capabilities, and pursue its strategic goals. projects are selected from proposals for creative and innovative R and D studies that require advance exploration before they are considered to be sufficiently developed to obtain support through normal programmatic channels. Among the aims of the projects supported by the LDRD Program are the following: establishment of engineering proof of principle, assessment of design feasibility for prospective facilities, development of instrumentation or computational methods or systems, and discoveries in fundamental science and exploratory development.

  10. Computerized progressive attentional training (CPAT) program: effective direct intervention for children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Lilach; Tsal, Yehoshua; Mevorach, Carmel

    2007-07-01

    We tested the efficacy of a pioneering intervention program grounded in a contemporary theoretical framework of attention and designed to directly improve the various attentional functions of children with ADHD. The computerized progressive attentional training (CPAT) program is composed of four sets of structured tasks that uniquely activate sustained attention, selective attention, orienting of attention, and executive attention. Performance was driven by tight schedules of feedback and participants automatically advanced in ordered levels of difficulty contingent upon performance. Twenty 6- to 13-year-old children with ADHD were assigned to the experimental group and received the CPAT sessions twice a week over an 8-week period. Sixteen age-matched control children with ADHD were assigned to the control group and participated in sessions of the same frequency, length, and format except that instead of performing the training tasks they played various computer games during the session. The experimental participants showed a significant improvement in nontrained measures of reading comprehension, and passage copying as well as a significant reduction of parents' reports of inattentiveness. No significant improvements were observed in the control group. We thus concluded that the above academic and attentional improvements were primarily due to the CPAT.

  11. Argonne National Laboratory Annual Report of Laboratory Directed Research and Development program activities FY 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (Office of The Director)

    2012-04-25

    As a national laboratory Argonne concentrates on scientific and technological challenges that can only be addressed through a sustained, interdisciplinary focus at a national scale. Argonne's eight major initiatives, as enumerated in its strategic plan, are Hard X-ray Sciences, Leadership Computing, Materials and Molecular Design and Discovery, Energy Storage, Alternative Energy and Efficiency, Nuclear Energy, Biological and Environmental Systems, and National Security. The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel technical concepts, enhance the Laboratory's research and development (R and D) capabilities, and pursue its strategic goals. projects are selected from proposals for creative and innovative R and D studies that require advance exploration before they are considered to be sufficiently developed to obtain support through normal programmatic channels. Among the aims of the projects supported by the LDRD Program are the following: establishment of engineering proof of principle, assessment of design feasibility for prospective facilities, development of instrumentation or computational methods or systems, and discoveries in fundamental science and exploratory development.

  12. Herceptin conjugates linked by EDC boost direct tumor cell death via programmed tumor cell necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemiao Hu

    Full Text Available Tumor-targeted antibody therapy is one of the safest biological therapeutics for cancer patients, but it is often ineffective at inducing direct tumor cell death and is ineffective against resistant tumor cells. Currently, the antitumor efficacy of antibody therapy is primarily achieved by inducing indirect tumor cell death, such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. Our study reveals that Herceptin conjugates, if generated via the crosslinker EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride, are capable of engendering human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2 positive tumor cells death. Using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system, three peaks with estimated molecular weights of antibody monomer, dimer, and trimer were isolated. Both Herceptin trimer and dimer separated by HPLC induced significant levels of necrotic tumor cell death, although the trimer was more effective than the dimer. Notably, the Herceptin trimer also induced Herceptin-resistant tumor cell death. Surprisingly different from the known cell death mechanism that often results from antibody treatment, the Herceptin trimer elicited effective and direct tumor cell death via a novel mechanism: programmed cell necrosis. In Her2-positive cells, inhibition of necrosis pathways significantly reversed Herceptin trimer-induced cell death. In summary, the Herceptin trimer reported herein harbors great potential for overcoming tumor cell resistance to Herceptin treatment.

  13. A dynamic regrouping based sequential dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the unit commitment (UC) in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning under the deregulated power market. In CHP plants (units), generation of heat and power follows joint characteristics, which implies that it is difficult to determine the relative cost...... efficiency of the plants. We introduce in this paper the DRDP-RSC algorithm, which is a dynamic regrouping based dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units, sequential commitment of units in small groups. Relaxed states of the plants are used to reduce...... the dimension of the UC problem and dynamic regrouping is used to improve the solution quality. Numerical results based on real-life data sets show that this algorithm is efficient and optimal or near-optimal solutions with very small optimality gap are obtained....

  14. Implementation and evaluation of Stanford Health Care direct-care teledermatology program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh S Pathipati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teledermatology has proven to be an effective means of providing dermatologic care. The existing research has primarily evaluated its usefulness in a consultative model. Few academic centers have evaluated a patient-initiated model, and direct-to-consumer services remain the subject of controversy. Stanford Health Care recently launched a direct-care, patient-initiated teledermatology pilot program. This article evaluates the viability and patient satisfaction with this service. Materials and Methods: During the pilot period, patients were able to seek remote dermatologic care using an eVisit tool in their MyHealth account. Patients initiated the consultation, answered questions regarding their complaint, and uploaded a picture if relevant. A Stanford dermatologist reviewed each eVisit and responded with an assessment and plan. The dermatologist noted whether they were able to make a diagnosis and their level of confidence in it. After the study, 10 patients participated in a focus group to provide feedback on the service. Results: In all, 38 patients sought care during the pilot period. A dermatologist was able to make a diagnosis in 36 of 38 (95% cases, with an average confidence level of 7.9 of 10. The average time to consultation was 0.8 days. Patients indicated high levels of satisfaction with the service although they had suggestions for improvement. Discussion: Patients provided clinically useful images and information in a direct-care teledermatology model. Such services allow dermatology providers to increase access while maintaining high-quality care in an academic medical center. Further research is needed on standalone services that cannot integrate encounters with the patient’s existing medical record.

  15. Chemical reactions in a solar furnace 2: Direct heating of a vertical reactor in an insulated receiver. Experiments and computer simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Meirovitch, E.; Segal, A.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel))

    1992-01-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO{sub 2}reforming of methane as the endothermic reaction. A directly heated vertical reactor, packed with a rhodium catalyst was used. The solar tests were carried out in the Schaeffer solar furnace of the Weizmann Institute of Science. The power absorbed was up to 6.3 KW, the maximal flow rates of the gases reached 11,000 1/h, and the methane conversions reached 85%. A computer model was developed to simulate the process. Agreement of the calculations with the experimental results was quite satisfactory.

  16. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    and cost-effectiveness. For new and existing buildings this requires a calculation of the energy performance of the building including heating, ventilation, cooling and lighting systems, based on primary energy. Each building must have an energy certificate and regular inspections of heating, cooling...... and ventilation systems must be performed. The present paper will present the method for calculating the energy performance for heating systems. The relevant CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small family house in different geographical locations: Stockholm...

  17. Impact of aerosol vertical distribution on aerosol direct radiative effect and heating rate in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Vasileios; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Matsoukas, Christos; Koras Carracca, Mario; Kinne, Stefan; Vardavas, Ilias

    2015-04-01

    been presented and its validity has been tested against satellite-based retrievals. A detailed spectral radiative transfer model (RTM), already used in a number of planetary and regional studies, has been used in the present study to calculate the vertically distributed aerosol direct radiative effects (DREs) and the associated aerosol heating/cooling profiles within the troposphere. Specific emphasis is given to assessment of the crucial issue of the differences between modeling the aerosol DREs using either columnar aerosol optical properties, as usually done, or vertically layered information on those properties, which is the state of the art and ideal practice. To address this problem, the following experiment has been performed: the same RTM has been used twice with the same meteorological conditions but in the first run (set1) columnar values for aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been used while using vertically distributed AOD in the second run (set2). In the second run vertically layered information for AOD is considered for 20 layers extending from the surface to 20 km a.m.s.l.. The vertical profile of AOD has been mainly based on ECHAM model. The aerosol DREs are computed at the Earth's surface, at TOA and at various levels in the atmosphere. Apart from AOD, the model also requires single-scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASY) in 18 different wavelengths, which are obtained by linear interpolation from the available wavelengths in HAC. The comparison between the obtained two sets of DRE (set1 and set2) reveal small, but notable differences which vary from one place to another. Within the atmosphere, the difference -averaged over the four seasons - ranges from -0.3 to 1.7 Wm-2 with a mean value of 0.32 Wm-2. Given the fact that the average column-integrated DREAtm values for the entire Mediterranean region based on columnar aerosol optical properties is 11.44 Wm-2, there is an average variance of 3.7 %, which locally could get to 14

  18. Epigenetic Changes are Associated with Programmed Cell Death Induced by Heat Stress in Seedling Leaves of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Zhao, Lin; Hou, Haoli; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yapei; Li, Hui; Gao, Fei; Yan, Shihan; Li, Lijia

    2015-05-01

    Histone modification plays a crucial role in regulation of chromatin architecture and function, responding to adverse external stimuli. However, little is known about a possible relationship between epigenetic modification and programmed cell death (PCD) in response to environmental stress. Here, we found that heat stress induced PCD in maize seedling leaves which was characterized by chromatin DNA laddering and DNA strand breaks detected by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) test. The activities of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were progressively increased over time in the heat-treated seedlings. However, the concentration of H2O2 remained at relatively lower levels, while the concentration of superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) was increased, accompanied by the occurrence of higher ion leakage rates after heat treatment. The total acetylation levels of histones H3K9, H4K5 and H3 were significantly increased, whereas the di-methylation level of histone H3K4 was unchanged and the di-methylation level of histone H3K9 was decreased in the seedling leaves exposed to heat stress compared with the control seedlings, accompanied by increased nucleolus size indicative of chromatin decondensation. Furthermore, treatment of seedlings with trichostatin A (TSA), which always results in genomic histone hyperacetylation, caused an increase in the [Formula: see text] level within the cells. The results suggested that heat stress persistently induced [Formula: see text], leading to PCD in association with histone modification changes in the maize leaves.

  19. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  20. FINAL Report on Analysis and direct numerical simulation of RF heating processes and advanced computational methods for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, John R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-23

    This completes the description of the work done under the above referenced grant. In brief, we have discovered many nonlinear effects, frequency doubling, nonlinear decays, that can prevent effective use of EBWs for plasma heating.

  1. Geothermal energy probes for direct heating: phase 1 - modelling and simulation; Erdwaermesonden fuer Direktheizung. Phase 1: Modellbildung und Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, A.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises work done on the development of vertical borehole heat exchangers that use the temperatures of 24 {sup o}C to 26 {sup o}C that are expected to be found at depths of over 400 metres in the Swiss Molasse Basin. The report discusses the main differences between shallow and deep boreholes and their thermal characteristics. Model used to simulate the different horizontal layers in the ground and the reversal of heat flow in the upper sections of deep probes are discussed. The authors conclude that 600-metre deep, coaxial probes could provide temperatures of 25 {sup o}C to 26 {sup o}C that could be used for heating well-insulated buildings with structural heating systems.

  2. Geothermal energy probes for direct heating: phase 1 - modelling and simulation; Erdwaermesonden fuer Direktheizung. Phase 1: Modellbildung und Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, A.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises work done on the development of vertical borehole heat exchangers that use the temperatures of 24 {sup o}C to 26 {sup o}C that are expected to be found at depths of over 400 metres in the Swiss Molasse Basin. The report discusses the main differences between shallow and deep boreholes and their thermal characteristics. Model used to simulate the different horizontal layers in the ground and the reversal of heat flow in the upper sections of deep probes are discussed. The authors conclude that 600-metre deep, coaxial probes could provide temperatures of 25 {sup o}C to 26 {sup o}C that could be used for heating well-insulated buildings with structural heating systems.

  3. Latent heat contribution to the direct magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys with coupled martensitic and magnetic transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Flores, R.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J. I.; Gómez-Polo, C.

    2016-05-01

    We report the direct magnetocaloric response of materials that present a second-order phase transition in the temperature range where a first-order structural transition also occurs. In particular, the influence of the latent heat on the field-induced adiabatic temperature change has been analyzed in a Ni-Mn-Ga alloy with coupled martensitic and magnetic transformations. It is found that discrepancies around 20% arise depending on whether the latent heat is taken into account or not. From the observed results, a general expression for the indirect determination of the adiabatic temperature change, that takes into account the contributions of both the martensitic and magnetic transformations, is proposed and experimentally confirmed. The observed key role of the latent heat allows us to understand why materials with first-order transformations do not present adiabatic temperature changes as higher as those which would correspond to materials undergoing second-order transformations with similar isothermal entropy change.

  4. An example of international drug politics--the development and distribution of substance prevention programs directed at adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, John; Giota, Joanna; Hamilton, David; Larsson, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Many substance use prevention programs directed at adolescents exist that have been developed by researchers in the United States and are intended to be used in school settings. Some of the problems associated with such programs are reviewed, including their accessibility, ease of use, copyright status, evaluation options, program scales, and ratings, together with an overall consideration of the factors and processes posited to be associated with substance use and non-use (posited "at-risk" and "protective" mechanisms). The authors contend that there is a great need to: (a) develop substance use prevention programs which are commercially available but are not protected by copyright, (b) assess empirically each component in a program separately, and (c) encourage funding bodies to be more active in supporting the production of manuals and evaluation instruments for substance use prevention programs directed at adolescents. We need more and better process evaluations that are also sensitive to both endogenous and exogenous forces in order to know the processes by which a successful prevention program achieves its effects, is prevented from doing so and which processes are irrelevant. A social competence framework might be used as both a goal and as a theoretical base to achieve a better understanding of the processes by which substance use prevention programs reach their effects.

  5. 直接空冷机组乏汽供热技术改造%Analysis of Heating Transformation with Exhaust Steam on Direct Dry Cooling Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦存生; 张杰英

    2014-01-01

    为增加供热面积和提高机组热效率,某化工生产企业自备电厂采用高背压真空加热器吸收机组乏汽余热,对热电联产直接空冷机组进行了供热技术改造。改造后,机组减少了冷源损失,提高了循环热效率,供暖循环水温度升高了15~20℃,厂用电率下降了1.5%~2%,经过整个供热周期的考验,机组及供热系统运行状况良好,达到了改造目的。并给出了机组继续进行热、电、冷三联产深度节能技术改造的建议。%In order to increase the heating area and improve the unit efficiency, the heating transformation with exhaust steam on direct air-cooling units was conducted in a power plant owned by chemical production enterprise, by using high back pressure vacuum heater absorption unit's waste heat of exhaust steam. After the reformation, reduced the heat loss of the cold end and improved the overall thermal efficiency, circulating water temperature was increased by 15~20℃, and power consumption rate dropped by 1.5%~2%. After the whole heating cycle test, the operation conditions of the unit and heating system were all good, attained the transform objective. And given the suggestions that the units continued to reform with heat, electricity and cooling three generation mode.

  6. Directed reflectivity, long life AMTEC condenser (DRC). Final report of Phase II SBIR program[Alkali Metal ThermoElectric Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Thomas K.

    2001-09-10

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a static energy conversion device that operates at high thermal to electric conversion efficiencies that are essentially independent of size, have reached 19% and are expected to reach 25% to 30% in 1997. AMTEC systems have been chosen by NASA and DOE for spacecraft applications and have considerable promise for a wide variety of terrestrial applications. Reduction of parasitic heat losses in AMTEC systems related to radiative heat transfer from the hot side to the condenser can make a substantial contribution to system efficiency. Through design, analysis and the fabrication and testing of cells and systems, the proposed program to develop a Directed Reflectivity Condenser (DRC) has investigated the feasibility of an improved AMTEC condenser component. Phase 1 work showed the potential for adding from 4% to 7% to overall system efficiency for identical operating conditions using the concept. A detailed thermal analysis of several DRC capped cell designs was carried out and some of the conditions under which a DRC, used as the condenser at an end cap of a cylindrical converter, can reduce thermal radiation related losses were determined. A model experimental converter was built and tested to compare DRC and planar condenser surfaces. The results of both analysis and experiment indicate that for moderate aspect ratios of a cylindrical, end condensed converter, the DRC can reduce overall thermal losses by up to 4%. The initial effort in Phase 2 extended the analysis to a novel 150 watt radial AMTEC cell design. This analysis indicated that for the effective aspect ratio of this new converter design, the system performance at the 100+ watt level was not significantly improved by use of a DRC type condenser surface. Further analyses however showed that for cylindrical, end-condensed converters, optimized for use with internal radiation shields, the use of DRC surfaces on the side walls of the converter could be

  7. MRI pulse sequence design with first-order gradient moment nulling in arbitrary directions by solving a polynomial program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Kurt; Heid, Oliver; Kluge, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    We suggest a polynomial program for the calculation of optimized gradient waveforms for magnetic resonance tomography pulse sequences. Such non-linear mathematical programs can describe gradient system capabilities, meet k-space trajectory specifications, and capture sequence timing conditions. Moreover they allow the incorporation of gradient moment nulling constraints in one or several arbitrary spatial directions, which can reduce flow motion artifacts in the images. We report first experiences in solving such automatic pulse sequence design programs with the interior point solver Ipopt.

  8. Development, Evaluation, and Future Directions of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) is a comprehensive, school-wide program that was designed in the mid-1980s to reduce bullying and achieve better peer relations among students in elementary, middle, and junior high school grades. Key program elements are described and a number of cultural adaptations to U.S. schools are noted. Several…

  9. Development, Evaluation, and Future Directions of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) is a comprehensive, school-wide program that was designed in the mid-1980s to reduce bullying and achieve better peer relations among students in elementary, middle, and junior high school grades. Key program elements are described and a number of cultural adaptations to U.S. schools are noted. Several…

  10. Program plan for reliability and maintainability in active solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This document presents a plan for the Department of Energy, Office of Solar Applications for Buildings program addressing reliability and maintainability (R and M) of active solar energy systems. The goal of the R and M program is to accelerate the removal of reliability and maintainability as major concerns impeding the widespread adoption of solar energy systems. Specific objectives that support that goal are as follows: (1) provide all groups that have solar R and M concerns with the information that is available to the program and that can assist in alleviating those concerns; (2) assist the solar energy industry in improving levels of R and M performance in state-of-the-art solar energy systems, components, and materials; (3) assist in the early development of a viable infrastructure for the design, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of reliable, maintainable, and durable solar energy systems; (4) assist in the development of appropriate standards, code provisions, and certification programs relating to the R and M performance of solar energy systems, components, and materials; and (5) develop the information required to support the other activities within the R and M program. These objectives correspond to five areas of action: regulations, research and development, technology transfer, solar industry infrastructure development, and data collection and analysis. (WHK)

  11. Documentation of an interactive program for projecting space heating energy demand (IPPSHED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Doreen

    1978-08-01

    The model presented here is designed to be a tool for analyzing the effects of conservation strategies in reducing building energy demands. The purpose of the model is to project residential space heating demands for defined structural types. The user obtains energy demand projections, interactively, for different geographic regions. These energy demands are derived by incorporating theoretical building energy loads, projected housing and fuel mixes, and the efficiencies of both the structures and the conversion devices. The User's Guide in Appendix A contains the necessary information for running the model. This section will be published as a separate report.

  12. Central Data Processing System (CDPS) users manual: solar heating and cooling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) provides the software and data base management system required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at multiple remote sites. The instrumentation data associated with these systems is collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. The CDPS consists of three major elements: communication interface computer, central data processing computer, and performance evaluation data base. The CDPS Users Manual identifies users of the performance data base, procedures for operation, and guidelines for software maintenance. The manual also defines the output capabilities of the CDPS in support of external users of the system.

  13. The direct, indirect, and intangible benefits of graduate medical education programs to their sponsoring institutions and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugno, Perry A; Gillanders, William Ross; Kozakowski, Stanley M

    2010-06-01

    Declining reimbursement for graduate medical education (GME) as well as increasing hospital competition has placed the cost of GME in the spotlight of institutional administrators. Traditional hospital-generated cost center profit and loss statements fail to accurately reflect the full economic impact of training programs on the institution as well as the larger community. A more complete analysis would take into consideration the direct, indirect, and "intangible" benefits of GME programs. The GME programs usually have a favorable impact on the trainees themselves, the sponsoring institution, the local community, university sponsors and affiliates, and the greater community, and all of these areas need to be considered in the economic analysis. Complete analyses of programs often demonstrate very positive benefits to their sponsoring institutions that would not be recognized on simple cost center profit and loss reports. Studies in the literature that quantify the net economic benefits of GME programs are consistent in their favorable findings.

  14. Reservoir characterisation of aquifers for direct heat production: Methodology and screening of the potental reservoirs for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Kramers, L.; Wees, J.-D., van; Kronimus, A.; Nelskamp, S.; Boxem, T.; Bonté, D.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal low enthalpy heat in non-magmatic areas can be produced by pumping hot water from aquifers at large depth (>1 km). Key parameters for aquifer performance are temperature, depth, thickness and permeability. Geothermal exploration in the Netherlands can benefit considerably from the wealth

  15. Reservoir characterisation of aquifers for direct heat production: Methodology and screening of the potental reservoirs for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Kramers, L.; Wees, J.-D., van; Kronimus, A.; Nelskamp, S.; Boxem, T.; Bonté, D.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal low enthalpy heat in non-magmatic areas can be produced by pumping hot water from aquifers at large depth (>1 km). Key parameters for aquifer performance are temperature, depth, thickness and permeability. Geothermal exploration in the Netherlands can benefit considerably from the wealth

  16. GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

  17. Reservoir characterisation of aquifers for direct heat production: Methodology and screening of the potental reservoirs for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Kramers, L.; Wees, J.-D., van; Kronimus, A.; Nelskamp, S.; Boxem, T.; Bonté, D.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal low enthalpy heat in non-magmatic areas can be produced by pumping hot water from aquifers at large depth (>1 km). Key parameters for aquifer performance are temperature, depth, thickness and permeability. Geothermal exploration in the Netherlands can benefit considerably from the

  18. 利用高炉冲渣水余热直接供暖的应用%Application of Direct Heating of Blast Furnace Waste Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小刚; 杨世辉

    2014-01-01

    A-direct-heat-transfer-with-blast-furnace-waste-for-heating-water-was-introduced,which-has-been-running-for-nearly-5-months-in-a-iron-and-steel-factory-in-China.The-operation-results-showed-that-the-new-single-channel-heat-exchanger-without-contact-point-could-avoid-corrosion-and-block-problems-caused-by-impurity-in-blast-furnace-waste-water.The-temperature-of-slag-flushing-water-through-the-heat-exchanger-can-be-reduced-to-less-than-55-℃-which-meets-the-requirement-of-flush-slag-process.The-heating-water-temperature-can-be-increased-from-50℃-to-67.7℃-which-meets-the-heating-requirements.The-economic-and-environmental-benefits-of-the-system-are-significant.%介绍某钢铁企业近5个月的高炉冲渣水直接换热供暖应用情况。结果显示:新型无触点的单通道换热器可以有效避免冲渣水杂质对换热器的堵塞和腐蚀。冲渣水经过换热后,温度能降低到55℃以下,满足冲渣工艺用水要求,而采暖水温度则能够从50℃提高到67.7℃,满足供暖要求。该系统经济效益和环境效益都十分突出。

  19. Direct Loan School Guide, 1998-1999. A Better Way To Borrow. The William D. Ford Federal Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, Washington DC. Student Financial Assistance Programs.

    This guide for postsecondary education institutions provides guidelines for administering the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. Chapter 1 describes general participation and origination criteria. Chapter 2 describes the electronic support the Department of Education provides, including information on Electronic Data Exchange (EDE),…

  20. Developmental programming: State-of-the-science and future directions-summary from a Pennington biomedical symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 8-9, 2014, the Pennington Biomedical Research Center convened a scientific symposium to review the state-of-the-science and future directions for the study of developmental programming of obesity and chronic disease. The objectives of the symposium were to discuss: (i) past and current s...

  1. Programming MOFs for water sorption: amino-functionalized MIL-125 and UiO-66 for heat transformation and heat storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremias, Felix; Lozan, Vasile; Henninger, Stefan K; Janiak, Christoph

    2013-12-07

    Sorption-based heat transformation and storage appliances are very promising for utilizing solar heat and waste heat in cooling or heating applications. The economic and ecological efficiency of sorption-based heat transformation depends on the availability of suitable hydrophilic and hydrothermally stable sorption materials. We investigated the feasibility of using the metal-organic frameworks UiO-66(Zr), UiO-67(Zr), H2N-UiO-66(Zr) and H2N-MIL-125(Ti) as sorption materials in heat transformations by means of volumetric water adsorption measurements, determination of the heat of adsorption and a 40-cycle ad/desorption stress test. The amino-modified compounds H2N-UiO-66 and H2N-MIL-125 feature high heat of adsorption (89.5 and 56.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively) and a very promising H2O adsorption isotherm due to their enhanced hydrophilicity. For H2N-MIL-125 the very steep rise of the H2O adsorption isotherm in the 0.1 heat pump application.

  2. Modelling of heat and moisture transfer in buildings - I. Model program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X. [Laboratory of Structural Engineering and Building Physics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Hut (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop an accurate model for predicting heat and moisture transfer in buildings including building envelopes and indoor air. The model is based on the fundamental thermodynamic relations. Darcy's law, Fick's law and Fourier's law are used in describing the transfer equations. The resultant nonlinear system of partial differential equations is discretized in space by the finite element method. The time marching scheme, Crank-Nicolson scheme, is used to advance the solution in time. The final numerical solution provides transient temperature and moisture distributions in building envelopes as well as temperature and moisture content for building's indoor air subject to outdoor weather conditions described as temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed. A series measurements were conducted in order to investigate the model performance. The simulated values were compared against the actual measured values. A good agreement was obtained. (author)

  3. XCHEM-1D: A Heat Transfer/Chemical Kinetics Computer Program for multilayered reactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.J.; Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.

    1993-10-01

    An eXplosive CHEMical kinetics code, XCHEM, has been developed to solve the reactive diffusion equations associated with thermal ignition of energetic materials. This method-of-lines code uses stiff numerical methods and adaptive meshing to resolve relevant combustion physics. Solution accuracy is maintained between multilayered materials consisting of blends of reactive components and/or inert materials. Phase change and variable properties are included in one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries. Temperature-dependent thermal properties have been incorporated and the modification of thermal conductivities to include decomposition effects are estimated using solid/gas volume fractions determined by species fractions. Gas transport properties, including high pressure corrections, have also been included. Time varying temperature, heat flux, convective and thermal radiation boundary conditions, and layer to layer contact resistances have also been implemented.

  4. Analysis of Self-Directed Learning upon Student of Mathematics Education Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleden, Maria Agustina

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have rendered self-directed learning disposition to be significant in the learning of mathematics, however several previous studies have pointed the level of self-directed learning disposition to be at a low point. This research is aimed to enhance self-directed learning through implementing a metacognitive strategy in learning…

  5. Histological and microarray analysis of the direct effect of water shortage alone or combined with heat on early grain development in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Attila; Jäger, Katalin; Jurca, Manuela E; Fábián, Attila; Bottka, Sándor; Zvara, Agnes; Barnabás, Beáta; Fehér, Attila

    2010-10-01

    Based on the in silico analysis of the representation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in wheat grain-related cDNA libraries, a specific 15k oligonucleotide microarray has been developed in order to monitor environmental stress-dependent gene expression changes in the wheat caryopses. Using this array, the effect of water withdrawal, with and without additional heat stress, has been investigated during the first five days of kernel development on two wheat cultivars differing in their drought sensitivity. Water shortage affected (more than twofold change) the expression of only 0.5% of the investigated genes. A parallel heat treatment increased the ratio of responding genes to 5-7% because of the temperature stress and/or the increased water deficit because of enhanced evaporation. It could be established that the two cultivars, differing in their long-term adaptation capabilities to drought, responded to the short and direct stress treatments on the same way. In response to the combined drought and heat treatment, the coordinately altered expression of genes coding for storage proteins, enzymes involved in sugar/starch metabolism, histone proteins, heat shock proteins, proteases, tonoplast aquaporins as well as several transcription factors has been observed. These gene expression changes were in agreement with histological data that demonstrated the accelerated development of the embryo as well as the endosperm. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  6. Feasibility evaluation: solar heated textile process water. Volume I. Program results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, J. C.; Beard, J. N.; Robinson, G. F.; Harnett, R. M.

    1977-02-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic constraints associated with the use of solar heating to produce process water for the textile industry. The study developed energy-use data based upon actual plant processes to (1) determine current water needs for the industry by temperature level, and (2) to assess the probable future impact of conservation schemes upon possible solar concepts. A realistic weather and solar-flux-environment definition was made based upon analysis of actual weather data for the southeast Piedmont region, where most of the textile-finishing plants are located. Collector-area requirements to meet textile water demands of varying amounts and temperatures were generated, using assembled test data for six collector types ranging from simple flat-plate areas to tracking-concentrator configurations. Energy-collection densities for various types of collectors operating in a representative Southeast environment and producing process water of varying temperatures were generated. Using the assembled test data and performance predictions for various collector types and for various textile-process water-temperature levels, an after-taxes, rate-of-return economic analysis was performed, envisioning possible future energy-price scenarios, to determine allowable installed-collector costs per square foot. These ROR calculations indicate the cost levels at which collector configurations would provide incentive to industry to heat by solar processes as opposed to fossil fuels. Additionally, studies were conducted to determine the effects of possible Federal inducements to solar conversion in the form of investment-tax-credit changes. Lastly, the effect upon economic viability of solar concepts due to the establishment of a leasing industry was evaluated.

  7. Boundary layer flow of three-dimensional viscoelastic nanofluid past a bi-directional stretching sheet with Newtonian heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramzan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with steady three dimensional boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscoelastic nanofluid flow in the presence of Newtonian heating. An appropriate transformation is employed to convert the highly non linear partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Homotopy Analysis method (HAM is used to find series solution of the obtained coupled highly non linear differential equations. The convergence of HAM solutions is discussed via h-curves. Graphical illustrations displaying the influence of emerging parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are given. It is observed that γ the conjugate parameter for Newtonian heating show increasing behavior on both temperature and concentration profiles. However, the temperature and concentration profiles are increasing and decreasing functions of Brownian motion parameter Nb respectively.

  8. Plancher solaire direct mixte \\`a double r\\'eseau en habitat bioclimatique - Conception et bilan thermique r\\'eel. Double direct solar floor heating in boclimatic habitation - Design and real energetical balance

    CERN Document Server

    De Larochelambert, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a new direct solar floor heating technique with double heating network wich allows simultaneous use of solar and supply energy. Its main purpose is to store and to diffuse the whole available solar energy while regulating supply energy by physical means without using computer controlled technology. This solar system has been tested in real user conditions inside a bioclimatic house to study the interaction of non-inertial and passive walls on the solar productivity. Daily, monthly and annual energy balances were drawn up over three years and completed by real-time measurements of several physical on-site parameters. As a result the expected properties of this technique were improved. The use of per-hour solar productivity, saved primary energy and corrected solar covering ratio is recommended to analyze the performances of this plant and to allow more refined comparisons with other solar systems

  9. Direct and Collateral Effects of the First Step to Success Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Jeffrey; Perkins, Kindle

    2009-01-01

    First Step to Success is a multicomponent behavioral program for at-risk children who show signs of antisocial behavior at the point of school entry. The program incorporates behavioral intervention techniques, including praise and feedback, positive reinforcement, social skills training, teacher and parent collaboration, and time-out/response…

  10. 77 FR 66959 - Request for Information on the Future Direction of the Rehabilitation Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... rehabilitation (VR) consumers and ensures that VR counselors are equipped with new and emerging skills. The goal...) Consumers. I. Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program The Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program... Individuals 10 1 0 10 3 with Mental Illnesses (H129H).. Rehabilitation Psychology 2 1 0 1 1 (H129J...

  11. An Alternating Direction Method for Convex Quadratic Second-Order Cone Programming with Bounded Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Mu

    2015-01-01

    quadratic programming over second-order cones and a bounded set. At each iteration, we only need to compute the metric projection onto the second-order cones and the projection onto the bound set. The result of convergence is given. Numerical results demonstrate that our method is efficient for the convex quadratic second-order cone programming problems with bounded constraints.

  12. Direct growth of doping-density-controlled hexagonal graphene on SiO2 substrate by rapid-heating plasma CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Toshiaki; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2012-10-23

    A transfer-free method for growing carrier-density-controlled graphene directly on a SiO(2) substrate has been realized for the first time by rapid-heating plasma chemical vapor deposition (RH-PCVD). Using this method, high-quality single-layer graphene sheets with a hexagonal domain can be selectively grown between a Ni film and a SiO(2) substrate. Systematic investigations reveal that the relatively thin Ni layer, rapid heating, and plasma CVD are critical to the success of this unique method of graphene growth. By applying this technique, an easy and scalable graphene-based field effect transistor (FET) fabrication is also demonstrated. The electrical transport type of the graphene-based FET can be precisely tuned by adjusting the NH(3) gas concentration during the RH-PCVD process.

  13. Multidisciplinary research program directed toward utilization of solar energy through bioconversion of renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Progress is reported in this multidisciplinary research program. Genetic selection of superior trees, physiological basis of vigor, tissue culture systems leading to cloning of diploid and haploid cell lines are discussed in the Program A report. The physiological basis of enhanced oleoresin formation in southern pines when treated with sublethal concentrations of the herbicide paraquat was investigated in Program B. In Program C, metabolic changes in the stems of slash pine, in vivo, after application with paraquat were determined. The use of phdoem and xylem tissue slices as a laboratory model for studying paraquat associated- and normal-terpene synthesis in pines is discussed. The biochemistry and physiology of methane formation from cellulose during anaerobic fermentation are discussed in the Program D report. (DMC)

  14. Direct Optical Ice Sensing and Closed-Loop Controller Design for Active De-icing of Wind Turbines Using Distributed Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajiee, Shervin

    Ice accumulation on wind turbines operating in cold regions reduces power generation by degrading aerodynamic efficiency and causes mass imbalance and fatigue loads on the blades. Due to blade rotation and variation of the pitch angle, different locations on the blade experience large variations of Reynolds number, Nusselt number, heat loss, and non-uniform ice distribution. Hence, applying different amounts of heat flux in different blade locations can provide more effective de-icing for the same total power consumption. This large variation of required heat flux motivates using distributed resistive heating, with the capability of locally adjusting thermal power as a function of location on the blade. The main contributions of this research are developing the experimental feasibility of direct ice sensing using an optical sensing technique as well as development of a computational framework for implementation of closed-loop localized active de-icing using distributed sensing. A script-base module was developed in a commercial finite-element software (ANSYS) which provides the capability of (i) Closed-loop de-icing simulations for a distributed network of sensors and actuators, (ii) investigating different closed-loop thermal control schemes and their de-icing efficiency (iii) optimizing thermal actuation for a distributed resistive heating, and (iv) analyzing different faulty scenarios for sensors and thermal actuators under known faults in the network. Different surrogate models were used to enhance the computational efficiency of this approach. The results showed that optimal value of control parameters in a distributed network of heaters depends on convective heat transfer characteristics, layout of heaters and type of closed-loop controller scheme used for thermal actuation. Furthermore, It was shown that closed-loop control provides much faster de-icing than the open-loop constant heat flux thermal actuation. It was observed both experimentally and

  15. A variant of the dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2008-01-01

    in the system, the number of periods over the planning horizon and the time for solving a single-period economic dispatch problem. We have compared the DP-RSC1 algorithm with realistic power plants against the unit decommitment algorithm and the traditional priority listing method. The results show that the DP...... introduce in this paper the DP-RSC1 algorithm, which is a variant of the dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units and sequential commitment of units one by one. The time complexity of DP-RSC1 is proportional to the number of generating units...

  16. Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This program includes six tasks. The tasks are as follows: (1) a project measuring the performance of unique solar system components; (2) a project to develop a methodology for determining annual performance ratings of solar domestic hot water systems; (3) a project that will identify, analyze, design, build, and experimentally evaluate SDHW systems incorporating advanced concepts and components; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform TRNSYS simulations to determine potential energy savings for desiccant cooling systems, especially in humid climates; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described.

  17. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  18. The Development and Trial Evaluation of Alternate Programs for Unit Training Managers and Trainers. Appendix D. Directed Practice Program for the TO and E Unit Training Manager Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    APPENDIX P. DIRECTED PRACTICE PROGRAM FOR THE; TO&E UNIT TRAINING MANAGER COURSE! William H. Welching Mark F. Brennani Jacklyn E...Controlling Otllct) rjJ William H./Melching, Mark F./Brennan, [^ Jacklyn E./Hungerla.id, Morris/Showel,! : ei John E.; Taylor RE,\\D...obstacle Barbed wire obst £.ole w/noiser.akers attached Rifle and helmet for each student 1 instructor 1/2 hour Put a telephone TA 312/PT into

  19. Development and experiments of direct resistance heating in hot forging%电阻直接加热锻造成形工艺方法及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门正兴; 周杰; 王梦寒; 邵长伟

    2011-01-01

    A new hot-forging method by means of direct resistance heating is investigated aiming at the long produce time and large energy consumption of traditional hot forging.The hot upsetting experiments with cylindrical billet of 42CrMo4 are performed.The influences of initial contact force,surface quality of the billet and current intensity on the heating temperature are researched.The results of the experiments show that the billet can be heated quickly to forming temperature by the approach.The relatively low initial contact force is useful to increase the heating temperature.The heating temperature is proportional to the square of the current intensity,and the heating temperature is seriously affected by the surface quality.During the forming process the billet cooling rate is effectively decreased and the forming time is extended in relation to the resistance heating.%针对传统锻造工艺流程长,能源消耗大的缺点,提出了一种采用电阻直接加热技术的新型热锻成形系统。采用该系统对42CrMo4棒料进行了热镦粗实验,研究了预接触压力、工件表面质量、电流对工件加热及成形过程的影响,为电阻直接加热模锻成形提供了指导。试验结果表明:1)采用该方法可以在短时间内将工件在模具中加热到成形温度;2)小的初始接触压力有助于提高工件的加热温度;3)在初始接触压力不变情况下,工件的加热温度与电流强度的平方成正比;4)模具与工件接触面质量对加热温度有重要的影响;5)在成形过程中采用恒定电流强度的电阻加热有效地降低了工件的冷却速度,使成形时间延长30%。

  20. Program Final Report - Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Meisner

    2011-08-31

    We conducted a vehicle analysis to assess the feasibility of thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery and conversion to useful electrical power and found that eliminating the 500 W of electrical power generated by the alternator corresponded to about a 7% increase in fuel economy (FE) for a small car and about 6% for a full size truck. Electric power targets of 300 W were established for city and highway driving cycles for this project. We obtained critical vehicle level information for these driving cycles that enabled a high-level design and performance analysis of radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems for several potential vehicle platforms, and we identified the location and geometric envelopes of the radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems. Based on this analysis, we selected the Chevrolet Suburban as the most suitable demonstration vehicle for this project. Our modeling and thermal analysis assessment of a radiator-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, revealed severe practical limitations. Specifically the small temperature difference of 100°C or less between the engine coolant and ambient air results in a low Carnot conversion efficiency, and thermal resistance associated with air convection would reduce this conversion efficiency even further. We therefore decided not to pursue a radiator-based waste heat recovery system and focused only on the exhaust gas. Our overall approach was to combine science and engineering: (1) existing and newly developed TE materials were carefully selected and characterized by the material researcher members of our team, and most of the material property results were validated by our research partners, and (2) system engineers worked closely with vehicle engineers to ensure that accurate vehicle-level information was used for developing subsystem models and designs, and the subsystem output was analyzed for potential fuel economy gains. We incorporated material, module, subsystem